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Sample records for super pressure balloon

  1. Flight Qualification of the NASA's Super Pressure Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, Henry; Said, Magdi; Fairbrother, Debora

    Designs of new balloons to support space science require a number of actual flights under various flight conditions to qualify them to as standard balloon flight offerings to the science community. Development of the new Super Pressure Balloon for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Balloon Program Office has entailed employing new design, analysis, and production techniques to advance the state of the art. Some of these advances have been evolutionary steps and some have been revolutionary steps requiring a maturing understanding of the materials, designs, and manufacturing approaches. The NASA Super Pressure Balloon development end goal is to produce a flight vehicle that is qualified to carry a ton of science instrumentation, at an altitude greater than 33 km while maintaining a near constant pressure altitude for extended periods of up to 100 days, and at any latitude on the globe. The NASA’s Balloon Program Office has pursued this development in a carefully executed incremental approach by gradually increasing payload carrying capability and increasing balloon volume to reach these end goal. A very successful test flight of a ~200,700 m3 balloon was launch in late 2008 from Antarctica. This balloon flew for over 54 days at a constant altitude and circled the Antarctic continent almost three times. A larger balloon was flown from Antarctica in early 2011. This ~422,400 m3 flew at a constant altitude for 22 days making one circuit around Antarctica. Although the performance was nominal, the flight was terminated via command to recover high valued assets from the payload. The balloon designed to reach the program goals is a ~532,200 m3 pumpkin shaped Super Pressure Balloon. A test flight of this balloon was launched from the Swedish Space Corporation’s Esrange Balloon Launch Facilities near Kiruna, Sweden on 14 August, 2012. This flight was another success for this development program. Valuable information was gained from this short test

  2. Meshed-Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloon Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Yavrouian, Andre

    2003-01-01

    An improved, lightweight design has been proposed for super-pressure balloons used to carry scientific instruments at high altitudes in the atmosphere of Earth for times as long as 100 days. [A super-pressure balloon is one in which the pressure of the buoyant gas (typically, helium) is kept somewhat above ambient pressure in order to maintain approximately constant density and thereby regulate the altitude.] The proposed design, called "meshed pumpkin," incorporates the basic concept of the pumpkin design, which is so named because of its appearance. The pumpkin design entails less weight than does a spherical design, and the meshed-pumpkin design would reduce weight further. The basic idea of the meshed-pumpkin design is to reinforce the membrane of a pumpkin balloon by attaching a strong, lightweight fabric mesh to its outer surface. The reinforcement would make it possible to reduce the membrane mass to one-third or less of that of the basic pumpkin design while retaining sufficient strength to enable the balloon to remain at approximately constant altitude for months.

  3. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

  4. Development of a Super-Pressure Balloon with an Improved Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, Naoki; Akita, Daisuke; Fuke, Hideyuki; Iijima, Issei; Kato, Yoichi; Kawada, Jiro; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Mizuta, Eiichi; Nakada, Takashi; Nonaka, Naoki; Saito, Yoshitaka; Takada, Atsushi; Tamura, Keisuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    A zero-pressure balloon used for scientific observation in the stratosphere has an unmanageable limitation that its floating altitude decreases during a nighttime because of temperature drop of the lifting gas. Since a super-pressure balloon may not change its volume, the lifetime can extend very long. We had introduced so called the ‘lobed-pumpkin’ type of super-pressure balloon that can realize a full-scale long-duration balloon and it will be in practical use in the very near future. As for larger super-pressure balloons, however, we still have some potential difficulties to be resolved. We here propose a new design suitable for a larger super-pressure balloon, which is roughly ‘lobed pumpkin with lobed cylinder’ and can adapt a single design for balloons of a wide range of volumes. Indoor inflation tests were successfully carried out with balloons designed and made by the method. It has been shown that the limit of the resisting pressure differential for a new designed balloon is same as that of a normal lobed-pumpkin balloon.

  5. Design Evolution and Methodology for Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Rodger

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program has had many technical development issues discovered and solved along its road to success as a new vehicle. It has the promise of being a sub-satellite, a means to launch up to 2700 kg to 33.5 km altitude for 100 days from a comfortable mid-latitude launch point. Current high-lift long duration ballooning is accomplished out of Antarctica with zero-pressure balloons, which cannot cope with the rigors of diurnal cycles. The ULDB design is still evolving, the product of intense analytical effort, scaled testing, improved manufacturing, and engineering intuition. The past technical problems, in particular the s-cleft deformation, their solutions, future challenges, and the methodology of pumpkin balloon design will generally be described.

  6. Numerical and experimental simulation of the mechanical behavior of super-pressure balloon subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siguier, J.-M.; Guigue, P.; Karama, M.; Mistou, S.; Dalverny, O.; Granier, S.

    2004-01-01

    Long duration super-pressure balloons constitute a great challenge in scientific ballooning. For any type of balloons (spherical, pumpkin, …), it is necessary to have a good knowledge of the mechanical behavior of envelopes regarding the level and the lifetime of the flight. For this reason CNES, ONERA and ENIT are carrying out a research program of modelization and experimentation in order to predict the envelope shape of a balloon in different conditions of temperature and differential pressure. This study was conducted in two parts. During the first one, we defined, with parameters obtained from unidirectional tests, the mechanical laws (elasticity, plasticity and viscosity properties of polymers) of materials involved in the envelope. These laws are introduced in a finite element code, which predicts the stress and strain status of a complex envelope structure. During the second one, we developed an experimental set-up to measure the 3D strain on a balloon subsystem, which includes envelope, assemblies and apex parts, in real flight conditions. This facility, called NIRVANA, is a 1 m 3 vacuum chamber with cooled screens equipped with a stereoscopic CCD measurement system. A 1.5 m diameter sample can be tested under differential pressure, regulated temperature (from +20 to -120 °C) and a load (up to 6 tonnes) applied on tendons. This paper presents the first results obtained from the modelizations and measurements done on an envelope sample submitted to axisymmetrical stress due to the differential pressure. This sample consists of a 50 μm multilayer polymer film with an assembly, used in 10 m diameter STRATEOLE super-pressure balloons. The modelization gives results in good accordance with the experiments and will enable us to follow this work with cold conditions, time dependence (creeping) and more complex structures.

  7. Special considerations for qualifying thin films for super pressure pumpkin ultra long duration balloon missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Magdi A.

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of creep and dynamic response behaviors on materials intended for ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) applications is essential. The first provides needed information for design and fabrication. The second ensures that the film is sufficiently tough to survive the dynamic events during launch and ascent. Characterization and assessment of these two important parameters are discussed in this paper. Visco-elastic behavior of materials in a loaded structure, such as the ULDB film change their geometry significantly over time under load causing possible changes in the load path and the stress distribution. These changes must be held in check to satisfy the functional requirements of the structure over its service life. Typically, the balloon experiences during its service life various environmental conditions each with a different creep response. These are characterized by a simplified load temperature history for the purpose of lifetime response assessment. At mid-latitudes a significant portion of the service life is spent at night, i.e., at low temperature and low load; for the ULDB film this night-time contribution to creep is negligible. By contrast, flight exposure in an Antarctic summer is at an almost constant high temperature and corresponding high pressure. This paper presents the creep behavior of the ULDB film as a function of load, temperature, and time along with an overview of its implementation in the design. In addition, it presents a quantitative assessment on the toughness of the material under dynamic "Snatch" loading.

  8. How to perform combined cutting balloon and high pressure balloon valvuloplasty for dogs with subaortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleman, Mandi E; Estrada, Amara H; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Prošek, Robert; Pogue, Brandon; Shih, Andre; Paolillo, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is one of the most common congenital cardiac malformations in dogs. Unfortunately, the long term success rate and survival data following either open heart surgery or catheter based intervention has been disappointing in dogs with severe subaortic stenosis. Medical therapy is currently the only standard recommended treatment option. A cutting balloon dilation catheter has been used successfully for resistant coronary artery and peripheral pulmonary arterial stenoses in humans. This catheter is unique in that it has the ability to cut, or score, the stenotic region prior to balloon dilatation of the stenosis. The use of cutting balloon valvuloplasty combined with high pressure valvuloplasty for dogs with severe subaortic stenosis has recently been reported to be a safe and feasible alternative therapeutic option. The following report describes this technique, outlines the materials required, and provides some 'tips' for successful percutaneous subaortic balloon valvuloplasty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Zohara; Grewal, Prabhjot; Cen, Steven; DeBarge-Igoe, Frances; Yu, Jinhee; Arata, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This study is the first in a series investigating the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients. We screened patients for the combined presence of the narrowing of the internal jugular veins and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disorders, headache, thermal intolerance, bowel/bladder dysfunction) and determined systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses to balloon angioplasty. The criteria for eligibility for balloon angioplasty intervention included ≥ 50% narrowing in one or both internal jugular veins, as determined by the magnetic resonance venography, and ≥ 3 clinical symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and post-balloon angioplasty. Among patients who were screened, 91% were identified as having internal jugular veins narrowing (with obstructing lesions) combined with the presence of three or more symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Balloon angioplasty reduced the average systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, blood pressure categorization showed a biphasic response to balloon angioplasty. The procedure increased blood pressure in multiple sclerosis patients who presented with baseline blood pressure within lower limits of normal ranges (systolic ≤ 105 mmHg, diastolic ≤ 70 mmHg) but decreased blood pressure in patients with baseline blood pressure above normal ranges (systolic ≥ 130 mmHg, diastolic ≥ 80 mmHg). In addition, gender differences in baseline blood pressure subcategories were observed. The coexistence of internal jugular veins narrowing and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction suggests that the two phenomena may be related. Balloon angioplasty corrects blood pressure deviation in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing internal jugular vein dilation. Further studies should investigate the

  10. Intrarectal pressures and balloon expulsion related to evacuation proctography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, S; Thomas, J; Bartram, C

    1995-01-01

    Seventy four patients with constipation were examined by standard evacuation proctography and then attempted to expel a small, non-deformable rectal balloon, connected to a pressure transducer to measure intrarectal pressure. Simultaneous imaging related the intrarectal position of the balloon to rectal deformity. Inability to expel the balloon was associated proctographically with prolonged evacuation, incomplete evacuation, reduced anal canal diameter, and acute anorectal angulation during evacuation. The presence and size of rectocoele or intussusception was unrelated to voiding of paste or balloon. An independent linear combination of pelvic floor descent and evacuation time on proctography correctly predicted maximum intrarectal pressure in 74% of cases. No patient with both prolonged evacuation and reduced pelvic floor descent on proctography could void the balloon, as maximum intrarectal pressure was reduced in this group. A prolonged evacuation time on proctography, in combination with reduced pelvic floor descent, suggests defecatory disorder may be caused by inability to raise intrarectal pressure. A diagnosis of anismus should not be made on proctography solely on the basis of incomplete/prolonged evacuation, as this may simply reflect inadequate straining. PMID:7672656

  11. Radiation pressure in super star cluster formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Benny T.-H.; Milosavljević, Miloš

    2018-05-01

    The physics of star formation at its extreme, in the nuclei of the densest and the most massive star clusters in the universe—potential massive black hole nurseries—has for decades eluded scrutiny. Spectroscopy of these systems has been scarce, whereas theoretical arguments suggest that radiation pressure on dust grains somehow inhibits star formation. Here, we harness an accelerated Monte Carlo radiation transport scheme to report a radiation hydrodynamical simulation of super star cluster formation in turbulent clouds. We find that radiation pressure reduces the global star formation efficiency by 30-35%, and the star formation rate by 15-50%, both relative to a radiation-free control run. Overall, radiation pressure does not terminate the gas supply for star formation and the final stellar mass of the most massive cluster is ˜1.3 × 106 M⊙. The limited impact as compared to in idealized theoretical models is attributed to a radiation-matter anti-correlation in the supersonically turbulent, gravitationally collapsing medium. In isolated regions outside massive clusters, where the gas distribution is less disturbed, radiation pressure is more effective in limiting star formation. The resulting stellar density at the cluster core is ≥108 M⊙ pc-3, with stellar velocity dispersion ≳ 70 km s-1. We conclude that the super star cluster nucleus is propitious to the formation of very massive stars via dynamical core collapse and stellar merging. We speculate that the very massive star may avoid the claimed catastrophic mass loss by continuing to accrete dense gas condensing from a gravitationally-confined ionized phase.

  12. Special Considerations for Qualifying Thin Films for Supper Pressure Pumpkin Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, M.

    Pumpkin type super pressure balloons require much less stringent mechanical requirements on the envelope film material when compared to spherical super pressure type balloons. However, since suitable thin films are typically viscoelastic in nature, their creep characteristics must be fully characterized and must not exceed specific and predetermined design limits. Proper assessment of materials limits to meet these design limits requires creep-load-temperature data that characterizes the performance of the material over a time that exceeds the duration of the design service life by some specified margin. Contrary to the behavior of materials with purely elastic response, visco-elastic materials such as these considered for the ULDB design, change their geometry under sustained loading over time. This change is usually reflected by exhibiting a significant visco-elastic component over the service life of the mission. For that regime of large visco-elastic response, where the material is highly nonlinear, a certain load-temperature threshold can be reached where the creep is limited by an asymptote that depends on both the temperature and load level. Such creep is recoverable, although the recovery period may be much longer than the 100 day design service life of the ULDB structure plus the factor of safety required for the design. For a typical flight, the most significant creep occurs at the highest temperature, which also produces the highest internal pressure. At mid- latitudes a significant portion of the service life is spent at night, i.e. at low temperature and low load; for the ULDB film, this nighttime contribution to creep is insignificant in comparison to any daytime contribution. By contrast, flight exposure in an Antarctic summer is at an almost constant high temperature and corresponding high pressure. This response behavior must be sufficiently characterized to serve the needs of the structural design and performance predictions of the vehicle in

  13. Cleft formation in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank E.; Brakke, Kenneth A.; Schur, Willi W.

    NASA’s development of a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, centers on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. Under certain circumstances, it has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired state instead. Success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and developing of means for the quantitative assessment of design measures that prevent the occurrence of undesired equilibrium. In this paper, we will use the concept of stability to classify cyclically symmetric equilibrium states at full inflation and pressurization. Our mathematical model for a strained equilibrium balloon, when applied to a shape that mimics the Phase IV-A balloon of Flight 517, predicts instability at float. Launched in Spring 2003, this pumpkin balloon failed to deploy properly. Observations on pumpkin shape type super-pressure balloons that date back to the 1980s suggest that within a narrowly defined design class of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons where individual designs are fully described by the number of gores ng and by a single measure of the bulging gore shape, the designs tend to become more vulnerable with the growing number of gores and with the diminishing size of the bulge radius rB Weight efficiency considerations favor a small bulge radius, while robust deployment into the desired cyclically symmetrical configuration becomes more likely with an increased bulge radius. In an effort to quantify this dependency, we will explore the stability of a family of balloon shapes parametrized by (ng, rB) which includes a design that is very similar, but not identical, to the balloon of Flight 517. In addition, we carry out a number of simulations that demonstrate other aspects related to multiple equilibria of pumpkin balloons.

  14. Balloon-borne pressure sensor performance evaluation utilizing tracking radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, G. A.; Brooks, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The pressure sensors on balloon-borne sondes relate the sonde measurements to height above the Earth's surface through the hypsometric equation. It is crucial that sondes used to explore the vertical structure of the atmosphere do not contribute significant height errors to their measurements of atmospheric constituent concentrations and properties. A series of radiosonde flights was conducted. In most cases, each flight consisted of two sondes attached to a single balloon and each flight was tracked by a highly accurate C-band radar. For the first 19 radiosonde flights, the standard aneroid cell baroswitch assembly used was the pressure sensor. The last 26 radiosondes were equipped with a premium grade aneroid cell baroswitch assembly sensor and with a hypsometer. It is shown that both aneroid cell baroswitch sensors become increasingly inaccurate with altitude. The hypsometer radar differences are not strongly dependent upon altitude and it is found that the standard deviation of the differences at 35 km is 0.179 km.

  15. Ballooning of CANDU pressure tube in local thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, Maria; Ionescu, Viorel

    2008-01-01

    In certain LOCA scenarios for the CANDU fuel channel, the ballooning of the pressure tube and contact with the calandria tube can occur. After the contact moment, a radial heat transfer from cooling fluid to moderator takes place through the contact area. If the temperature of channel walls increases, the contact area is drying and the heat transfer becomes inefficiently. In INR-Pitesti the DELOCA code was developed to simulate the mechanical behaviour of pressure tube during pre-contact transition, and mechanical and thermal behaviour of pressure tube and calandria tube after occurrence of the contact between the two tubes. The code contains few models: thermal creep of Zr-2.5%Nb alloy, the heat transfer by conduction through the cylindrical walls, channel failure criteria and calculus of heat transfer at the calandria tube - moderator interface. This code evaluates the contact and channel failure moments. This paper gives a DELOCA code description and the fuel channel behaviour analysis, in transient temperature conditions of the pressure tube, using the materials properties, time and temperature dependencies of these properties as obtained in the different laboratories of the world and in the INR - Pitesti in the last years. DELOCA computer code simulated the fuel channel response to the constant heating rates of inside pressure tube surface. The paper presents contact temperature and time dependencies on the heating rate, and the appropriate fitting functions. (authors)

  16. Design of experiments and equipment to test the ballooning characteristics of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, C.F.; Stern, F.; Hart, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been planned and an apparatus has been designed to enable creep testing of end-of-life pressure tube specimens in a LOCA environment. Effects that could be studied include: annealing of irradiation damage during transient heating; effects of hydride blisters on pressure tube ballooning strains; and, effects of uniformly-distributed hydrogen content on pressure tube ballooning strains. The proposed experimental program will consist of separate effects creep tests on pressure tube sections under transient heating conditions

  17. Clefting in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, F.; Schur, W.

    NASA's effort to develop a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, focuses on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. It has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired stable state instead. Hoop stress considerations in the pumpkin design leads to choosing the lowest possible bulge radius, while robust deployment is favored by a large bulge radius. Some qualitative understanding of design aspects on undesired equilibria in pumpkin balloons has been obtained via small-scale balloon testing. Poorly deploying balloons have clefts, but most gores away from the cleft deploy uniformly. In this paper, we present models for pumpkin balloons with clefts. Long term success of the pumpkin balloon for NASA requires a thorough understanding of the phenomenon of multiple stable equilibria and means for quantitative assessment of measures that prevent their occurrence. This paper attempts to determine numerical thresholds of design parameters that distinguish between properly deploying designs and improperly deploying designs by analytically investigating designs in the vicinity of criticality. Design elements which may trigger the onset undesired equilibria and remedial measures that ensure deployment are discussed.

  18. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and ureteral strictures treated by simple high-pressure balloon dilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Geertsen, U; Nielsen, H V

    1998-01-01

    The long-term results of simple high-pressure balloon dilation in the treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and ureteral strictures were evaluated. A total of 77 consecutive patients were treated: 40 had UPJO and 37 ureteral strictures. The etiology of the obstruction included...... years, success was achieved in only 25% of cases. There were no major complications. It was concluded that simple high-pressure balloon dilation is a safe and reasonably effective technique for the management of most ureteral strictures and congenital UPJO with symptom debut in adult life. Balloon...

  19. Measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient revisited: Catheter wedge vs balloon wedge techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Timothy Chelliah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient by catheter wedge as compared to balloon wedge (the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients having a clinical diagnosis of intrahepatic portal hypertension were subjected to the two different types of pressure measurements (catheter wedge and balloon wedge during transjugular liver biopsy under fluoroscopic guidance. Statistical Analysis: Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plot for agreement, and single measure intraclass correlation were used for analysis of data. Results: There was a close correlation between the results obtained by both the techniques, with highly significant concordance (P < 0.0001. Hepatic venous pressure gradients as measured by the catheter wedge technique were either equal to or less than those obtained by the balloon wedge technique. Conclusions: The difference in hepatic venous pressure gradients measured by the two techniques is insignificant.

  20. Cutting balloon and high-pressure balloon dilation for palliative treatment of congenital double-chambered right ventricle and primary infundibular stenosis in a Golden retriever dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Karsten E; Rhinehart, Jaylyn; Kohnken, Rebecca; Bonagura, John D

    2017-12-01

    Combined cutting balloon and high-pressure balloon dilation was performed in a dog with a double-chambered right ventricle and severe infundibular stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract. The peak systolic pressure gradient across the stenosis decreased by 65% after dilation (from 187 mmHg before to 66 mmHg after) affirming the intervention as successful. However, early re-stenosis occurred within 3 months leading to exercise intolerance, exercise-induced syncope, and right-sided congestive heart failure. Cutting balloon followed by high-pressure balloon dilation provided temporary but not long-term relief of right ventricular obstruction in this dog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of pressure anisotropy on ballooning modes in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A.; Hole, M. J.; Qu, Z. S.; Hezaveh, H.

    2018-06-01

    Edge Localised Modes are thought to be caused by a spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, including the ballooning mode. While ballooning modes have been studied extensively both theoretically and experimentally, the focus of the vast majority of this research has been on isotropic plasmas. The prevalence of pressure anisotropy in modern tokamaks thus motivates further study of these modes. This paper presents a numerical analysis of ballooning modes in anisotropic equilibria. The investigation was conducted using the newly-developed codes HELENA+ATF and MISHKA-A, which adds anisotropic physics to equilibria and stability analysis. We have examined the impact of anisotropy on the stability of an n = 30 ballooning mode, confirming results conform to previous calculations in the isotropic limit. Growth rates of ballooning modes in equilibria with different levels of anisotropy were then calculated using the stability code MISHKA-A. The key finding was that the level of anisotropy had a significant impact on ballooning mode growth rates. For {T}\\perp > {T}| | , typical of ICRH heating, the growth rate increases, while for {T}\\perp < {T}| | , typical of neutral beam heating, the growth rate decreases.

  2. Pioneering Space Research with Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. V.

    NASA s Scientific Ballooning Planning Team has concluded that ballooning enables significant scientific discoveries while providing test beds for space instruments and training for young scientists Circumpolar flights around Antarctica have been spectacularly successful with fight durations up to 42 days Demand for participation in this Long-Duration Balloon LDB program a partnership with the U S National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs is greater than the current capacity of two flights per campaign Given appropriate international agreements LDB flights in the Northern Hemisphere would be competitive with Antarctic flights and super-pressure balloons would allow comparable flights at any latitude The Balloon Planning Team made several recommendations for LDB flights provide a reliable funding source for sophisticated payloads extend the Antarctic capability to three flights per year and develop a comparable capability in the Arctic provide aircraft for intact-payload recovery develop a modest trajectory modification capability to enable longer flights and enhance super-pressure balloons to carry 1-ton payloads to 38 km Implementation of these recommendations would facilitate frequent access to near-space for cutting-edge research and technology development for a wide range of investigations

  3. Influence of Pressure-gradient and Shear on Ballooning Stability in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Hegna, C.C.; Nakajima, N.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure-driven, ideal ballooning stability calculations are often used to predict the achievable plasma in stellarator configurations. In this paper, the sensitivity of ballooning stability to plasmas profile variations is addressed. A simple, semi-analytic method for expressing the ballooning growth rate, for each field line, as a polynomial function of the variation in the pressure gradient and the average magnetic shear from an original equilibrium has recently been introduced [Phys. Plasmas 11:9 (September 2004) L53]. This paper will apply the expression to various stellarator configurations and comment on the validity of various truncated forms of the polynomial expression. In particular, it is shown that in general it is insufficient to consider only the second order terms as previously assumed, and that higher order terms must be included to obtain accurate predictions of stability

  4. Theory of ballooning-mirror instabilities for anisotropic pressure plasmas in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Qian, Q.

    1993-09-01

    This paper deals with a kinetic-MHD eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities for anisotropic pressure plasmas in the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is a dominant transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy is large. The field-aligned eigenmode equations take into account the coupling of the transverse and compressional components of the perturbed magnetic field and describe the coupled ballooning-mirror mode. Because the energetic trapped ions precess very rapidly across the rvec B field, their motion becomes very rigid with respect to low frequency MHD perturbations with symmetric structure of parallel perturbed magnetic field δB parallel and electrostatic potential Φ along the north-south ambient magnetic field, and the symmetric ballooning-mirror mode is shown to be stable. On the other hand, the ballooning-mirror mode with antisymmetric δB parallel , and Φ structure along the north-south ambient magnetic field is only weakly influenced by energetic trapped particle kinetic effects due to rapid trapped particle bounce motion and has the lowest instability threshold determined by MHD theory. With large plasma beta (β parallel ≥ O(1)) and pressure anisotropy (P perpendicular /P parallel > 1) at equator the antisymmetric ballooning-mirror mode structures resemble the field-aligned wave structures of the multisatellite observations of a long lasting compressional Pc 5 wave event during November 14--15, 1979 [Takahashi et al.]. The study provides the theoretical basis for identifying the internal excitation mechanism of ULF (Pc 4-5) waves by comparing the plasma stability parameters computed from the satellite particle data with the theoretical values

  5. Technologies developed by CNES balloon team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc; Deramecourt, Arnaud

    CNES balloon team develops and operates all the components of this kind of vehicle: it means envelope and gondola. This abstract will point out only developments done for envelope. Nowadays CNES offers to scientists four types of envelops that cover a large range of mission demands. These envelops are: 1. Zero pressure balloons: Size going from 3,000m3 to 600,000m3, this kind of envelop is ideal for short duration flights (a few hours) but if we use an intelligent management of ballast consumption and if we chose the best launch site, it is possible to perform medium duration flights (10/20 days depending on the ballast on board). Flight train mass starts at 50kg for small balloons and reach 1000kg for larger ones. Zero pressure balloons are inflated with helium gas. 2. Super pressure balloons: Diameter going from 2.5m to 12m, this kind of envelop is ideal for long duration flights (1 to 6 months). Flight train is inside the envelop for small balloons, it means 2.5 diameter meters which is usually called BPCL (Super pressure balloon for Earth boundary layer) and it is about 3kg of mass. Larger ones could lift external flight trains about 50kg of mass. Super pressure balloons are inflated with helium gas. 3. MIR balloons: Size going from 36,000m3 to 46,000m3. Ceiling is reach with helium gas but after three days helium is no longer present inside and lift force is produced by difference of temperature between air inside and air of atmosphere. Flight trains must not be over 50kg. 4. Aero Clipper balloons: A concept to correlate measurements done in oceans and in nearest layers of atmosphere simultaneously. Flight train is made by a "fish" that drags inside water and an atmospheric gondola few meters above "fish", both pushed by a balloon which profits of the wind force. Materials used for construction and assembling depend on balloon type; they are usually made of polyester or polyethylene. Thickness varies from 12 micrometers to 120 micrometers. Balloon assembling

  6. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that “…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more” (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459–478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451–4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that “super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations.”(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182–193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper. PMID:26819912

  7. Super-selective Balloon Test Occlusion of the Posterior Communicating Artery in the Treatment of a Posterior Cerebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozaki, Makoto; Arai, Hiroshi; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-10-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old man with underlying hypertension who developed diplopia lasting 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography showed multi-lobular unruptured aneurysms in the P2 portion of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) migrating into the interpeduncular cistern of the midbrain. Because the shapes of the aneurysms were serpentine fusiform and the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) was the fetal type, we planned anastomosis of the occipital artery to the P4 portion of the PCA followed by endovascular obliteration of the parent artery including the aneurysms. Endovascular treatment was performed via a femoral approach one week after the anastomosis. Super-selective balloon test occlusion (BTO) of the PCoA was performed by using an occlusion balloon microcatheter before endovascular treatment. Occlusion of the proximal segment of the PCoA induced disturbance of consciousness of the patient. Occlusion of the distal segment other than the first point of the PCoA did not induce any neurological symptoms. The information from this super-selective BTO helped us to perform precise endovascular obliteration. The aneurysm was successfully obliterated, and the diplopia almost disappeared in a few months. Super-selective BTO of the PCoA might be a useful method for preventing ischemic complications due to occlusion of invisible perforators.

  8. Structure variations of pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, N.; Izutsu, N.; Honda, H.

    2004-01-01

    A lobed pumpkin balloon by 3-D gore design concept is recognized as a basic form for a super-pressure balloon. This paper deals with extensions of this design concept for other large pressurized membrane structures, such as a stratospheric airship and a balloon of which volume is controllable. The structural modifications are performed by means of additional ropes, belts or a strut. When the original pumpkin shape is modified by these systems, the superior characteristics of the 3-D gore design, incorporating large bulges with a small local radius and unidirectional film tension, should be maintained. Improved design methods which are adequate for the above subjects will be discussed in detail. Application for ground structures are also mentioned.

  9. Recent Developments in Scientific Research Ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W. Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program is committed to meeting the need for extended duration scientific investigations by providing advanced balloon vehicles and support systems. A sea change in ballooning capability occurred with the inauguration of 8 - 20 day flights around Antarctica in the early 1990's. The attainment of 28-31 day flights and a record-breaking 42-day flight in, respectively, two and three circumnavigations of the continent has greatly increased the expectations of the scientific users. A new super-pressure balloon is currently under development for future flights of 60-100 days at any latitude, which would bring another sea change in scientific research ballooning

  10. High-pressure balloon dilation in a dog with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkos, A; Stauthammer, C; Rittenberg, R; Barncord, K

    2017-02-01

    A 6-month-old female intact Goldendoodle was presented for diagnostic work up of a grade IV/VI left basilar systolic heart murmur. An echocardiogram was performed and revealed a ridge of tissue distal to the aortic valve leaflets at the sinotubular junction causing an instantaneous pressure gradient of 62 mmHg across the supravalvular aortic stenosis and moderate concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Intervention with a high-pressure balloon dilation catheter was pursued and significantly decreased the pressure gradient to 34 mmHg. No complications were encountered. The patient returned in 5 months for re-evaluation and static long-term reduction in the pressure gradient was noted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipes subject to combined axial tension, internal pressure and elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasebikan, B.A.; Akisanya, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The burst pressure of super duplex stainless steel pipe is measured under combined internal pressure, external axial tension and elevated temperature up to 160 °C. The experimental results are compared with existing burst pressure prediction models. Existing models are found to provide reasonable estimate of the burst pressure at room temperature but significantly over estimate the burst pressure at elevated temperature. Increasing externally applied axial stress and elevated temperature reduces the pressure capacity. - Highlights: • The burst pressure of super duplex steel is measured under combined loading. • Effect of elevated temperature on burst pressure is determined. • Burst pressure decreases with increasing temperature. • Existing models are reliable at room temperature. • Burst strength at elevated temperature is lower than predictions

  12. Transition from resistive ballooning to neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic pressure-gradient-driven instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Shaing, K.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Callen, J.D.; Garcia, L.

    1988-10-01

    The linearized neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic equations, including perturbed neoclassical flows and currents, have been solved for parameter regimes where the neoclassical pressure-gradient-driven instability becomes important. This instability is driven by the fluctuating bootstrap current term in Ohm's law. It begins to dominate the conventional resistive ballooning mode in the banana-plateau collisionality regime [μ/sub e//ν/sub e/ /approximately/ √ε/(1 + ν/sub *e/) > ε 2 ] and is characterized by a larger radial mode width and higher growth rate. The neoclassical instability persists in the absence of the usual magnetic field curvature drive and is not significantly affected by compressibility. Scalings with respect to β, n (toroidal mode number), and μ (neoclassical viscosity) are examined using a large-aspect-ratio, three-dimensional initial-value code that solves linearized equations for the magnetic flux, fluid vorticity, density, and parallel ion flow velocity in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. 13 refs., 10 figs

  13. Ballooning mode stability for self-consistent pressure and current profiles at the H-mode edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Osborne, T.H.; Taylor, T.S.

    1997-11-01

    The edge pressure gradient (H-mode pedestal) for computed equilibria in which the current density profile is consistent with the bootstrap current may not be limited by the first regime ballooning limit. The transition to second stability is easier for: higher elongation, intermediate triangularity, larger ratio, pedestal at larger radius, narrower pedestal width, higher q 95 , and lower collisionality

  14. Liquid- and air-filled catheters without balloon as an alternative to the air-filled balloon catheter for measurement of esophageal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beda, Alessandro; Güldner, Andreas; Carvalho, Alysson R; Zin, Walter Araujo; Carvalho, Nadja C; Huhle, Robert; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Koch, Thea; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-01-01

    Measuring esophageal pressure (Pes) using an air-filled balloon catheter (BC) is the common approach to estimate pleural pressure and related parameters. However, Pes is not routinely measured in mechanically ventilated patients, partly due to technical and practical limitations and difficulties. This study aimed at comparing the conventional BC with two alternative methods for Pes measurement, liquid-filled and air-filled catheters without balloon (LFC and AFC), during mechanical ventilation with and without spontaneous breathing activity. Seven female juvenile pigs (32-42 kg) were anesthetized, orotracheally intubated, and a bundle of an AFC, LFC, and BC was inserted in the esophagus. Controlled and assisted mechanical ventilation were applied with positive end-expiratory pressures of 5 and 15 cmH2O, and driving pressures of 10 and 20 cmH2O, in supine and lateral decubitus. Cardiogenic noise in BC tracings was much larger (up to 25% of total power of Pes signal) than in AFC and LFC (<3%). Lung and chest wall elastance, pressure-time product, inspiratory work of breathing, inspiratory change and end-expiratory value of transpulmonary pressure were estimated. The three catheters allowed detecting similar changes in these parameters between different ventilation settings. However, a non-negligible and significant bias between estimates from BC and those from AFC and LFC was observed in several instances. In anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs, the three catheters are equivalent when the aim is to detect changes in Pes and related parameters between different conditions, but possibly not when the absolute value of the estimated parameters is of paramount importance. Due to a better signal-to-noise ratio, and considering its practical advantages in terms of easier calibration and simpler acquisition setup, LFC may prove interesting for clinical use.

  15. Liquid- and air-filled catheters without balloon as an alternative to the air-filled balloon catheter for measurement of esophageal pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Beda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measuring esophageal pressure (Pes using an air-filled balloon catheter (BC is the common approach to estimate pleural pressure and related parameters. However, Pes is not routinely measured in mechanically ventilated patients, partly due to technical and practical limitations and difficulties. This study aimed at comparing the conventional BC with two alternative methods for Pes measurement, liquid-filled and air-filled catheters without balloon (LFC and AFC, during mechanical ventilation with and without spontaneous breathing activity. Seven female juvenile pigs (32-42 kg were anesthetized, orotracheally intubated, and a bundle of an AFC, LFC, and BC was inserted in the esophagus. Controlled and assisted mechanical ventilation were applied with positive end-expiratory pressures of 5 and 15 cmH2O, and driving pressures of 10 and 20 cmH2O, in supine and lateral decubitus. MAIN RESULTS: Cardiogenic noise in BC tracings was much larger (up to 25% of total power of Pes signal than in AFC and LFC (<3%. Lung and chest wall elastance, pressure-time product, inspiratory work of breathing, inspiratory change and end-expiratory value of transpulmonary pressure were estimated. The three catheters allowed detecting similar changes in these parameters between different ventilation settings. However, a non-negligible and significant bias between estimates from BC and those from AFC and LFC was observed in several instances. CONCLUSIONS: In anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs, the three catheters are equivalent when the aim is to detect changes in Pes and related parameters between different conditions, but possibly not when the absolute value of the estimated parameters is of paramount importance. Due to a better signal-to-noise ratio, and considering its practical advantages in terms of easier calibration and simpler acquisition setup, LFC may prove interesting for clinical use.

  16. Equilibrium and ballooning mode stability of an axisymmetric tensor pressure tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.A.; Bateman, G.; Nelson, D.B.; Kammash, T.

    1980-08-01

    A force balance relation, a representation for the poloidal beta (β/sub p/), and expressions for the current densities are derived from the MHD equilibrium relations for an axisymmetric tensor pressure tokamak. Perpendicular and parallel beam pressure components are evaluated from a distribution function that models high energy neutral particle injection. A double adiabatic energy principle is derived from that of Kruskal and Oberman, with correction terms added. The energy principle is then applied to an arbitrary cross-section axisymmetric tokamak to examine ballooning instabilities of large toroidal mode number. The resulting Euler equation is remarkably similar to that of ideal MHD. Although the field-bending term is virtually unaltered, the driving term is modified because the pressures are no longer constant on a flux surface. Either a necessary or a sufficient marginal stability criterion for a guiding center plasma can be derived from this equation whenever an additional stabilizing element unique to the double adiabatic theory is either kept or neglected, respectively

  17. Randomized Trial of the SMART Stent versus Balloon Angioplasty in Long Superficial Femoral Artery Lesions: The SUPER Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, Nicholas; Walker, Paul T.; Belli, Anna-Maria; Thorpe, Anthony P.; Sidhu, Paul S.; Robinson, Graham; Ransbeeck, Mariella van; Fearn, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether primary stenting reduces the rate of restenosis compared with balloon angioplasty alone in the endovascular treatment of long superficial femoral artery lesions; and to assess the effect of treatment on quality of life. A total of 150 patients with superior femoral artery occlusion or severe stenosis of 5–22 cm length from 17 UK centers were randomized to either primary stenting with the SMART stent or balloon angioplasty (i.e., percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, PTA). Bailout stent placement was permitted in case of inadequate result from PTA. The primary end point was restenosis measured by duplex ultrasound at 1 year. Quality-of-life assessments were performed by the EuroQol (EQ)-5D questionnaire. Mean lesion length was 123.0 mm in the stent group and 116.8 mm in the PTA group. A total of 140 (93.3 %) of 150 had total occlusions. At 12 months’ follow-up, restenosis measured by Duplex ultrasound was not significantly different between the stent and PTA groups by intention-to-treat or as-treated analyses: 47.2 versus 43.5 % (p = 0.84) and 40.8 versus 46.7 % (p = 0.68), respectively. There were fewer target lesion revascularizations in patients randomized to stenting, but this did not reach statistical significance (12.5 vs. 20.8 %, p = 0.26). There was no difference in the rate of amputation. Patients in both groups reported improved quality of life. Primary stenting of long lesions in predominantly occluded superficial femoral arteries does not reduce the rate of binary restenosis compared with balloon angioplasty and bailout stenting. Both treatment strategies conferred a meaningful and sustained improvement to the quality of life of patients with severe superficial femoral artery disease.

  18. Super-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry and its application to ultrafast online protein digestion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2016-06-01

    Ion source pressure plays a significant role in the process of ionization and the subsequent ion transmission inside a mass spectrometer. Pressurizing the ion source to a gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a relatively new approach that aims to further improve the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization sources. For example, under a super-atmospheric pressure environment, a stable electrospray can be sustained for liquid with high surface tension such as pure water, because of the suppression of electric discharge. Even for nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI), which is known to work with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity can also be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source is pressurized. A brief review on the development of super-atmospheric pressure ion sources, including high-pressure electrospray, field desorption and superheated ESI, and the strategies to interface these ion sources to a mass spectrometer will be given. Using a recent ESI prototype with an operating temperature at 220 °C under 27 atm, we also demonstrate that it is possible to achieve an online Asp-specific protein digestion analysis in which the whole processes of digestion, ionization and MS acquisition could be completed on the order of a few seconds. This method is fast, and the reaction can even be monitored on a near-real-time basis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Residual lower esophageal sphincter pressure as a prognostic factor in the pneumatic balloon treatment of achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Ho; Lee, Yong Chan; Lee, Hyuk; Park, Hyojin; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Hyung Seok; Lee, Tae Hee; Hong, Kyoung Sup

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic balloon dilatation (PD) is a mainstay in achalasia treatment. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors for successful treatment. We retrospectively reviewed 76 patients with a diagnosis of achalasia who underwent PD from June 2010 to May 2013. Clinical symptoms were assessed using Eckardt score and manometry data were analyzed using resting and relaxation pressure (4sIRP) of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the distal contractile integral (DCI), which was calculated for 10 s from the start of deglutition between the upper margin of the LES and lower margin of upper esophageal contraction. Patients with achalasia were classified into three groups based on the Chicago classification. Among 76 patients, 52 patients received PD, and the treatment was unsuccessful in 9 patients (6 in class I and 3 in class III). When comparing prognostic factors between successful and unsuccessful treatment groups, the mean value for 4sIRP in the unsuccessful treatment group was significantly lower than that in the successful treatment group (P treatment of achalasia (odds ratio, 1.092; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.191) even after adjustment for a series of confounding factors. Lower 4sIRP may be a prognostic indicator for poor treatment outcome after PD. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Aortoseptal angle and pressure gradient reduction following balloon valvuloplasty in dogs with severe subaortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L; Estrada, A H; Côté, E; Powell, M A; Winter, B; Lamb, K

    2017-04-01

    To determine the relationship between aortoseptal angle (AoSA) and the short- and long-term systolic pressure gradient (PG) reduction following combined cutting and high-pressure balloon valvuloplasty (CB/HPBV) in dogs with severe subaortic stenosis. Retrospective study of 22 client-owned dogs of various breeds with severe subaortic stenosis (mean left ventricular to aortic PG = 143 mmHg; range = 80-322 mmHg) that underwent CB/HPBV. Initial angiographic and left apical and right-sided parasternal long-axis view echocardiographic video loops were used for measuring the angle between the plane of the interventricular septum and the longitudinal axis of the ascending aorta. The PG reduction ratio immediately after CB/HPBV and 6 and 12 months later were compared with AoSA. Weak correlations were observed for all instances of PG reduction ratio and AoSA type. Significantly greater mean differences of PG reduction ratio were observed for angles >160° than for angles 160° mean: 54.45, standard error [SE]: ±3.8; 160° mean: 57.73, SE: ±10.9; 160° mean: 76.11, SE: ±17.5; Dogs with AoSA >160° on right-sided parasternal long-axis view echocardiograms responded with a greater PG reduction following CB/HPBV than did dogs with AoSA dogs that are candidates for CB/HPBV. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TMBM: Tethered Micro-Balloons on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, M. H.; Greeley, R.; Cutts, J. A.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Murbach, M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of balloons/aerobots on Mars has been under consideration for many years. Concepts include deployment during entry into the atmosphere from a carrier spacecraft, deployment from a lander, use of super-pressurized systems for long duration flights, 'hot-air' systems, etc. Principal advantages include the ability to obtain high-resolution data of the surface because balloons provide a low-altitude platform which moves relatively slowly. Work conducted within the last few years has removed many of the technical difficulties encountered in deployment and operation of balloons/aerobots on Mars. The concept proposed here (a tethered balloon released from a lander) uses a relatively simple approach which would enable aspects of Martian balloons to be tested while providing useful and potentially unique science results. Tethered Micro-Balloons on Mars (TMBM) would be carried to Mars on board a future lander as a stand-alone experiment having a total mass of one to two kilograms. It would consist of a helium balloon of up to 50 cubic meters that is inflated after landing and initially tethered to the lander. Its primary instrumentation would be a camera that would be carried to an altitude of up to tens of meters above the surface. Imaging data would be transmitted to the lander for inclusion in the mission data stream. The tether would be released in stages allowing different resolutions and coverage. In addition during this staged release a lander camera system may observe the motion of the balloon at various heights above he lander. Under some scenarios upon completion of the primary phase of TMBM operations, the tether would be cut, allowing TMBM to drift away from the landing site, during which images would be taken along the ground.

  2. Viscoelastic behaviour of pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    2008-11-01

    The lobes of the NASA ULDB pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloons are made of a thin polymeric film that shows considerable time-dependent behaviour. A nonlinear viscoelastic model based on experimental measurements has been recently established for this film. This paper presents a simulation of the viscoelastic behaviour of ULDB balloons with the finite element software ABAQUS. First, the standard viscoelastic modelling capabilities available in ABAQUS are examined, but are found of limited accuracy even for the case of simple uniaxial creep tests on ULDB films. Then, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive model is implemented by means of a user-defined subroutine. This approach is verified by means of biaxial creep experiments on pressurized cylinders and is found to be accurate provided that the film anisotropy is also included in the model. A preliminary set of predictions for a single lobe of a ULDB is presented at the end of the paper. It indicates that time-dependent effects in a balloon structure can lead to significant stress redistribution and large increases in the transverse strains in the lobes.

  3. Analysis of the ballooning deformation of an internally pressurized thin-wall tube during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.I.H.

    1977-01-01

    A large-strain time-dependent thermoplastic analysis has been developed for the ballooning deformation of a thin-wall tube subjected to internal pressure, axial loading, and fast thermal transients. This deformation initiates with the onset of plastic instability in the material, the onset being determined by a plastic-instability criterion for strain-rate sensitive materials. The interaction among the local ballooning geometry, the state of stress, and the plastic flow process was considered, and integration of the flow equations yields the local curvature and the states of stress and strain in the vicinity of the maximum ballooning site. The effects of axial constraint and heating rate were also discussed. The analysis was applied to a LWR Zircaloy cladding subjected to a constant heating rate and a range of internal pressures. The results agree very well with experimental strain-time data obtained from tube-burst tests. In most cases, the time of rupture was accurately predicted despite the lack of complete material-property data

  4. Analysis of the ballooning deformation of an internally pressurized thin-wall tube during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.I.H.

    1977-01-01

    A large-strain, time-dependent thermoplastic analysis of ballooning deformation was developed. The true (or lagorithmic) strains, the Von Mises yield criterion and Prandtl-Reuss flow rules were used. The constitutive equation was expressed in terms of the temperature, effective stress, strain and strain rate. Material isotropy was assumed as a first approximation; note that at high temperatures even zircaloy tends to lose a substantial amount of its low-temperature anisotropy. The axisymmetry of ballooning was also assumed, which has actually been verified by numerous experiments to be accurate throughout the course of ballooning, except in the final stage when rupture is imminent. The thin-shell approximation was made, which proved to be adequate for the standard fuel claddings and which was advantageous in that the averaged state of stress was rendered determinate. The analysis led to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations, which was then integrated by a fifth-order Runge-Kutta routine. The general formulation allows for a direct interpretation of the experimentally-observed effects of the heating rate and cladding axial constraints on the ballooning behavior. Its implications on the flow-blockage and cladding-rupture evaluations were discussed. The analysis was applied to zircaloy claddings subjected to simulated thermal transient conditions. Most of the required material properties were taken from the existing uniaxial tensile test data. Analyses were performed at a uniform heating rate of 115 0 C/sec with internal pressures ranging from 100 to 1200 psi. Satisfactory agreement was obtained between the predictions and the diametral strain-time data available from tube-burst tests

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE-DEPENDENT VISCOSITY ON THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF SUPER-EARTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenković, Vlada; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    We study the thermal evolution of super-Earths with a one-dimensional (1D) parameterized convection model that has been adopted to account for a strong pressure dependence of the viscosity. A comparison with a 2D spherical convection model shows that the derived parameterization satisfactorily represents the main characteristics of the thermal evolution of massive rocky planets. We find that the pressure dependence of the viscosity strongly influences the thermal evolution of super-Earths—resulting in a highly sluggish convection regime in the lower mantles of those planets. Depending on the effective activation volume and for cooler initial conditions, we observe with growing planetary mass even the formation of a conductive lid above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a so-called CMB-lid. For initially molten planets our results suggest no CMB-lids but instead a hot lower mantle and core as well as sluggish lower mantle convection. This implies that the initial interior temperatures, especially in the lower mantle, become crucial for the thermal evolution—the thermostat effect suggested to regulate the interior temperatures in terrestrial planets does not work for massive planets if the viscosity is strongly pressure dependent. The sluggish convection and the potential formation of the CMB-lid reduce the convective vigor throughout the mantle, thereby affecting convective stresses, lithospheric thicknesses, and heat fluxes. The pressure dependence of the viscosity may therefore also strongly affect the propensity of plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the generation of a magnetic field of super-Earths.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE-DEPENDENT VISCOSITY ON THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF SUPER-EARTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, Vlada; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman [Institute of Planetology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Breuer, Doris, E-mail: Vlada.Stamenkovic@dlr.de, E-mail: Lena.Noack@dlr.de, E-mail: Doris.Breuer@dlr.de, E-mail: Tilman.Spohn@dlr.de [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center DLR, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-20

    We study the thermal evolution of super-Earths with a one-dimensional (1D) parameterized convection model that has been adopted to account for a strong pressure dependence of the viscosity. A comparison with a 2D spherical convection model shows that the derived parameterization satisfactorily represents the main characteristics of the thermal evolution of massive rocky planets. We find that the pressure dependence of the viscosity strongly influences the thermal evolution of super-Earths-resulting in a highly sluggish convection regime in the lower mantles of those planets. Depending on the effective activation volume and for cooler initial conditions, we observe with growing planetary mass even the formation of a conductive lid above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a so-called CMB-lid. For initially molten planets our results suggest no CMB-lids but instead a hot lower mantle and core as well as sluggish lower mantle convection. This implies that the initial interior temperatures, especially in the lower mantle, become crucial for the thermal evolution-the thermostat effect suggested to regulate the interior temperatures in terrestrial planets does not work for massive planets if the viscosity is strongly pressure dependent. The sluggish convection and the potential formation of the CMB-lid reduce the convective vigor throughout the mantle, thereby affecting convective stresses, lithospheric thicknesses, and heat fluxes. The pressure dependence of the viscosity may therefore also strongly affect the propensity of plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the generation of a magnetic field of super-Earths.

  7. A "Global Radiosonde and tracked-balloon Archive on Sixteen Pressure levels" (GRASP) going back to 1905 – Part 2: homogeneity adjustments for pilot balloon and radiosonde wind data

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ramella Pralungo; L. Haimberger

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the comprehensive homogenization of the "Global Radiosonde and tracked balloon Archive on Sixteen Pressure levels" (GRASP) wind records. Many of those records suffer from artificial shifts that need to be detected and adjusted before they are suitable for climate studies. Time series of departures between observations and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration 20th-century (NOAA-20CR) surface pressure only reanalysis have been calculated...

  8. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  9. Low-pressure balloon angioplasty with adjuvant pharmacological therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by intracranial arterial occlusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Raul G.; Schwamm, Lee H.; Buonanno, Ferdinando S.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Yoo, Albert J.; Rabinov, James D.; Pryor, Johnny C.; Hirsch, Joshua A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of coronary balloons in the cerebral vasculature is limited due to their poor trackability and increased risk of vessel injury. We report our experience using more compliant elastomer balloons for thrombus resistant to intraarterial (IA) pharmacological and mechanical thrombolysis in acute stroke. We retrospectively analyzed 12 consecutive patients with an occluded intracranial artery treated with angioplasty using a low-pressure elastomer balloon. Angiograms were graded according to the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) and Qureshi grading systems. Outcomes were categorized as independent (modified Rankin scale, mRS, score ≤2), dependent (mRS score 3-5), or dead (mRS score 6). Included in the study were 12 patients (mean age 66±17 years, range 31-88 years; mean baseline National Institutes of Health stroke scale score 17±3, range 12-23). The occlusion sites were: internal carotid artery (ICA) terminus (five patients, including two concomitant cervical ICA occlusions), M1 segment (two patients), and basilar artery (two patients). Pharmacological treatment included intravenous (IV) t-PA only (two patients), IA urokinase only (nine patients), both IV t-PA and IA urokinase (one patient), and IV and/or IA eptifibatide (eight patients). Mean time to treatment was 5.9±3.9 h (anterior circulation) and 11.0±7.2 h (posterior circulation). Overall recanalization rate (TICI grade 2/3) was 91.6%. Procedure-related morbidity occurred in one patient (distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery embolus). There were no symptomatic hemorrhages. Outcomes at 90 days were independent (five patients), dependent (three patients) and dead (four patients, all due to progression of stroke with withdrawal of care). Angioplasty of acutely occluded intracranial arteries with low-pressure elastomer balloons results in high recanalization rates with an acceptable degree of safety. Prior use of thrombolytics may increase the chances of recanalization, and glycoprotein IIb

  10. High-pressure balloon valvuloplasty for severe pulmonary valve stenosis: a prospective observational pilot study in 25 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Catherine; Gunther-Harrington, Catherine T; Nishimura, Satoko; Oldach, Maureen S; Fousse, Samantha L; Visser, Lance C; Stern, Joshua A

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate safety and efficacy of high-pressure balloon valvuloplasty (HPBVP) for treatment of canine severe pulmonary valve stenosis (PS). A secondary aim was to provide pre-procedure predictors of success. Twenty-five dogs. Prospective observational study. Dogs with severe PS (echocardiographically derived trans-pulmonary peak/maximum pressure gradient (EDPG) ≥80 mmHg) were recruited. All dogs underwent echocardiography before and 20-24hrs after HPBVP using a high-pressure balloon with rated burst pressures ranging from 12 to 18 ATM. Procedural success was defined as a post-HPBVP EDPG reduction of ≥50% or reduction into at least the moderate category of PS (50-79 mmHg). Optimal result was defined as a post-procedural EDPG ≤30 mmHg. Initial median (IQR) EDPG for all dogs was 96 (88, 127) mmHg with a post-operative median of 48 (36, 65) mmHg. The median EDPG reduction provided by HPBVP was 63% (39, 68); procedural success rate was 92% (23 dogs). Optimal results were achieved in 56% (14 dogs). There were no significant correlations between EDPG reduction and valve morphology (Type A and Type B) or severity of right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary valve annulus diameter was the only echocardiographic variable that was significantly correlated to EDPG reduction (p = 0.02; r = -0.46). No dog experienced any anesthetic or surgical complications, and all patients survived the procedure. In this cohort of 25 dogs with severe PS, HPBVP was safe and effective. The procedural success rate and high number of optimal results achieved with HPBVP suggest future randomized controlled trials comparing HPBVP to conventional valvuloplasty are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. GHOST balloons around Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    The GHOST balloon position as a function of time data shows that the atmospheric circulation around the Antarctic Continent at the 100 mb and 200 mb levels is complex. The GHOST balloons supposedly follow the horizontal trajectory of the air at the balloon level. The position of GHOST balloon 98Q for a three month period in 1968 is shown. The balloon moved to within 2 deg of the South Pole on 1 October 1968 and then by 9 December 1968 was 35 deg from the South Pole and close to its position on 1 September 1968. The balloon generally moved from west to east but on two occasions moved in the opposite direction for a few days. The latitude of GHOST balloons 98Q and 149Z which was at 200 mb is given. Both balloons tended to get closer to the South Pole in September and October. Other GHOST balloons at the same pressure and time period may not indicate similar behavior.

  12. Introduction (Special Issue on Scientific Balloon Capabilities and Instrumentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Smith, I. S.; Jones, W. V.

    2014-01-01

    In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers ushered in a new era of transportation and exploration when they used hot air to drive an un-tethered balloon to an altitude of 2 km. Made of sackcloth and held together with cords, this balloon challenged the way we thought about human travel, and it has since evolved into a robust platform for performing novel science and testing new technologies. Today, high-altitude balloons regularly reach altitudes of 40 km, and they can support payloads that weigh more than 3,000 kg. Long-duration balloons can currently support mission durations lasting 55 days, and developing balloon technologies (i.e. Super-Pressure Balloons) are expected to extend that duration to 100 days or longer; competing with satellite payloads. This relatively inexpensive platform supports a broad range of science payloads, spanning multiple disciplines (astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and earth science.) Applications extending beyond traditional science include testing new technologies for eventual space-based application and stratospheric airships for planetary applications.

  13. Antegrade deligation of iatrogenic distal ureteric obstruction utilising a high pressure balloon dilatation technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic trauma is the leading cause of ureteric injury with an incidence in abdominal and pelvic surgery varying between 0.4 and 2.5%. CASE: We report a case of ureteric obstruction caused by a haemostatic clip. There was associated rupture of the ureter proximal to the clip with intra-peritoneal leakage of urine. The patient was unfit for surgery and was managed by a novel procedure of endoluminal balloon deligation. CONCLUSION: Ureteric injuries are rare but potentially serious complications. They require prompt diagnosis and management depends on the patients\\' clinical condition, extent of injury and interval from injury to diagnosis. We have successfully demonstrated a new technique to treat ureteric obstruction caused by a haemostatic clip with associated ureteral rupture in a patient unfit for surgery.

  14. Experiments on ballooning in pressurized and transiently heated Zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, M.E.; Erbacher, F.J.

    1988-02-01

    Single-rod burst tests were performed with Atucha I Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes in the REBEKA burst equipment of KfK. The objective was to investigate the ballooning and burst behavior of argentine cladding tubes obtained from NRG, Germany and CONVAR, Argentina. The burst data were compared with those of cladding tubes used in german PWR's. It was found that the burst data e.g. burst temperature, circumferential burst strain and its response to azimuthal temperature differences are identical for the Argentine and German tubing quality. The burst data are in good agreement with those of German PWR-Zircaloy tubes. Thus, the fuel rod behavior codes developed for German PWR's can also be used for the Argentine reactor Atucha I. (orig.) [de

  15. Numerical research on the thermal performance of high altitude scientific balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Qiumin; Xing, Daoming; Fang, Xiande; Zhao, Yingjie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A model is presented to evaluate the IR radiation between translucent surfaces. • Comprehensive ascent and thermal models of balloons are established. • The effect of IR transmissivity on film temperature distribution is unneglectable. • Atmospheric IR radiation is the primary thermal factor of balloons at night. • Solar radiation is the primary thermal factor of balloons during the day. - Abstract: Internal infrared (IR) radiation is an important factor that affects the thermal performance of high altitude balloons. The internal IR radiation is commonly neglected or treated as the IR radiation between opaque gray bodies. In this paper, a mathematical model which considers the IR transmissivity of the film is proposed to estimate the internal IR radiation. Comprehensive ascent and thermal models for high altitude scientific balloons are established. Based on the models, thermal characteristics of a NASA super pressure balloon are simulated. The effects of film IR property on the thermal behaviors of the balloon are discussed in detail. The results are helpful for the design and operation of high altitude scientific balloons.

  16. Comparisons of temperature, pressure and humidity measurements by balloon-borne radiosondes and frost point hygrometers during MOHAVE-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Hurst

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We compare coincident, in situ, balloon-borne measurements of temperature (T and pressure (P by two radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, Intermet iMet-1-RSB and similar measurements of relative humidity (RH by RS92 sondes and frost point hygrometers. Data from a total of 28 balloon flights with at least one pair of radiosondes are analyzed in 1-km altitude bins to quantify measurement differences between the sonde sensors and how they vary with altitude. Each comparison (T, P, RH exposes several profiles of anomalously large measurement differences. Measurement difference statistics, calculated with and without the anomalous profiles, are compared to uncertainties quoted by the radiosonde manufacturers. Excluding seven anomalous profiles, T differences between 19 pairs of RS92 and iMet sondes exceed their measurement uncertainty limits (2 σ 31% of the time and reveal a statistically significant, altitude-independent bias of 0.5 ± 0.2 °C. Similarly, RS92-iMet P differences in 22 non-anomalous profiles exceed their uncertainty limits 23% of the time, with a disproportionate 83% of the excessive P differences at altitudes >16 km. The RS92-iMet pressure differences increase smoothly from −0.6 hPa near the surface to 0.8 hPa above 25 km. Temperature and P differences between all 14 pairs of RS92 sondes exceed manufacturer-quoted, reproducibility limits (σ 28% and 11% of the time, respectively. About 95% of the excessive T differences are eliminated when 5 anomalous RS92-RS92 profiles are excluded. Only 5% of RH measurement differences between 14 pairs of RS92 sondes exceed the manufacturer's measurement reproducibility limit (σ. RH measurements by RS92 sondes are also compared to RH values calculated from frost point hygrometer measurements and coincident T measurements by the radiosondes. The influences of RS92-iMet Tand P differences on RH values and water vapor mixing

  17. Use of CATHENA to model calandria-tube/moderator heat transfer after pressure-tube/calandria-tube ballooning contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, H.Z.; Bilanovic, Z.; Nitheanandan, T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the effect of the calandria-tube/moderator heat transfer after pressure-tube/calandria tube ballooning contact using CATHENA. Results of this study indicated that the analytical tool, CATHENA, can be applied for pool boiling heat transfer on the external surface of a large diameter tube, such as the calandria tube used in CANDU reactors. The methodology in such CANDU-generic study can be used to simulate the tube surface with multiple boiling regimes and to assess the benefits of closely coupling thermalhydraulics modelling and fuel/fuel channel behaviour modelling. CATHENA (Canadian Algorithm for THErmalhydraulic Network Analysis) is a one-dimensional, two-fluid thermalhydraulic simulation code designed by AECL to analyse two-phase flow and heat transfer in piping networks. The detailed heat transfer package in CATHENA allows a connection to be established from the multiple solid surfaces of tubes to the surrounding large amount of moderator water, which acts as a heat sink during a postulated loss of coolant event. The generalized heat transfer package within CATHENA allows the tube walls to be divided into several layers in the radial direction and several sectors in the circumferential direction, to account for heat transfer conditions in these two directions. The CATHENA code with the generalized heat transfer package is capable of capturing key pool-boiling phenomena such as nucleate, transition and film boiling heat transfer as well as an ability to model the rewet phenomenon to some extent. A CATHENA input model was generated and used in simulations of selected contact boiling experiment test cases. The transient wall temperatures have been calculated in different portions of the calandria tube. By using this model an adequate agreement was achieved between CATHENA calculation and experimental measurement The CATHENA code enables one to investigate the transient and local thermal-mechanical behaviour of the calandria tube

  18. Super-fine rice-flour production by enzymatic treatment with high hydrostatic pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Kaneto; Chino, Shuji; Nishiwaki, Toshikazu; Homma, Noriyuki; Hayashi, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Shigematsu, Toru

    2013-06-01

    In response to the recent expansion of rice-flour use, we established a new rice-flour manufacturing process through the application of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) to the enzyme-treated milling method. HP improved both the activity of pectinase, which is used in the enzyme-treated milling method and the water absorption capacity of rice grains. These results indicate improved damage to the tissue structures of rice grains. In contrast, HP suppressed the increase in glucose, which may have led to less starch damage. The manufacturing process was optimized to HP treatment at 200 MPa (40°C) for 1 h and subsequent wet-pulverization at 11,000 rpm. Using this process, rice flour with an exclusively fine mean particle size less than 20 μm and starch damage less than 5% was obtained from rice grains soaked in an enzyme solution and distilled water. This super-fine rice flour is suitable for bread, pasta, noodles and Western-style sweets.

  19. Balloon sinuplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zahoor

    2010-01-01

    Balloon sinuplasty is a technique in endoscopic sinus surgery that involves minimally invasive procedures to dilate the obstructed or stenosed anatomical sinus pathways. Procedure is derived from the well-recognized techinique of angioplasty. This article highlights the procedural methods with review of literature and my personal experience in balloon sinupalsty.

  20. Successful application of MPD (managed pressure drilling) for prevention, control, and detection of borehole ballooning in tight gas reservoir in Cuervito Field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, A.; Acevedo, O.; Nieto, L. [Petrobras (United States); Lambarria, J.E. [PEMEX Exploration and Production (Mexico); Perez, H. [Weatherford (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Cuervito field is an oil play located in the Burgos Basin in northeastern Mexico. In order to reach the highest yielding sands, wells in the Cuervito field are usually set up with 3 casings. However, the ballooning effect, an elastoplastic behavior of a well's walls, occurs during drilling operations, leading to loss of circulation. Two methods, based on geological and geopressure data, were found to minimize this effect: either putting in an extra casing, or using an unconventional drilling technique. As the managed pressure drilling (MPD) technique is less complex and more elegant, a pilot project was implemented using this method on a well. Results showed that MPD minimized lost time and enhanced drilling efficiency. This paper demonstrated that the use of MPD in the Cuervito field is a good solution for identifying and controlling the ballooning effect and this technique was successfully applied to the next 3 wells drilled subsequently.

  1. Axial gas transport and loss of pressure after ballooning rupture of high burn-up fuel rods subjected to LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenack, Wolfgang; Oberlaender, Barbara; Kekkonen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has implemented integral in-pile tests on issues related to fuel behaviour under LOCA conditions. In this test series, the interaction of bonded fuel and cladding, the behaviour of fragmented fuel around the ballooning area, and the axial gas communication in high burn-up rods as affected by gap closure and fuel-clad bonding are of major interest for the investigations. In the Halden reactor tests, the decay heat is simulated by a low level of nuclear heating, in contrast to the heating conditions implemented in hot laboratory set-ups, and the thermal expansion of fuel and cladding relative to each other is more similar to the real event. The paper deals with observations regarding the loss of rod pressure following the rupture of the cladding. In the majority of the tests conducted so far, the rod pressure dropped practically instantaneously as a consequence of ballooning rupture, while one test showed a remarkably slow pressure loss. The slow loss of pressure in this test was analysed, showing that the 'hydraulic diameter' of the rod over an un-distended upper part was about 30 - 35 μm which is typical of high burn-up fuel at hot-standby conditions. The 'plug' of fuel restricts the gas flow from the plenum through the fuel column and thus limits the availability of high pressure gas for driving the ballooning. This observation is relevant for the analysis of the behaviour of a full length fuel rod under LOCA conditions since restricted gas flow may influence bundle blockage and the number of failures. (authors)

  2. ELM phenomenon as an interaction between bootstrap-current driven peeling modes and pressure-driven ballooning modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarelma, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Guenter, S.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.

    2000-01-01

    An ELMy ASDEX Upgrade plasma equilibrium is reconstructed taking into account the bootstrap current. The peeling mode stability of the equilibrium is numerically analysed using the GATO [1] code, and it is found that the bootstrap current can drive the plasma peeling mode unstable. A high-n ballooning mode stability analysis of the equilibria revealed that, while destabilizing the peeling modes, the bootstrap current has a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A combination of these two instabilities is a possible explanation for the type I ELM phenomenon. A triangularity scan showed that increasing triangularity stabilizes the peeling modes and can produce ELM-free periods observed in the experiments. (author)

  3. Static and quasi-static analysis of lobed-pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi; Sasaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Saito, Yoshitaka; Izutsu, Naoki

    The present study is motivated by the need to improve design methodology for super pressure balloon with 3D gore design concept, currently being developed at the Scientific Balloon Center of ISAS/JAXA. The distinctive feature of the 3-D gore design is that the balloon film has excess materials not only in the circumferential direction but also in the meridional direction; the meridional excess is gained by attaching the film boundaries to the corresponding tendons of a shorter length with a controlled shortening rate. The resulting balloon shape is a pumpkin-like shape with large bulges formed between adjacent tendons. The balloon film, when fully inflated, develops wrinkles in the circumferential direction over its entire region, so that the stresses in the film are limited to a small amount of uniaxial tension in the circumferential direction while the high meridional loads are carried by re-enforced tendons. Naturally, the amount of wrinkling in the film is dominated by the shortening rate between the film boundaries and the tendon curve. In the 3-D gore design, as a consequence, the shortening rate becomes a fundamental design parameter along with the geometric parameters of the gore. In view of this, we have carried out a series of numerical study of the lobed-pumpkin balloon with varying gore geometry as well as with varying shortening rate. The numerical simula-tions were carried out with a nonlinear finite element code incorporating the wrinkling effect. Numerical results show that there is a threshold value for the shortening rate beyond which the stresses in the balloon film increases disproportionately. We have also carried out quasi-static simulations of the inflation process of the lobed-pumpkin balloon, and have obtained asymmetric deformations when the balloon films are in uniaxial tension state.

  4. Balloon-Borne Infrasound Detection of Energetic Bolide Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eliot F.; Ballard, Courtney; Klein, Viliam; Bowman, Daniel; Boslough, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Infrasound is usually defined as sound waves below 20 Hz, the nominal limit of human hearing. Infrasound waves propagate over vast distances through the Earth's atmosphere: the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization) has 48 installed infrasound-sensing stations around the world to detect nuclear detonations and other disturbances. In February 2013, several CTBTO infrasound stations detected infrasound signals from a large bolide that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia. Some stations recorded signals that had circumnavigated the Earth, over a day after the original event. The goal of this project is to improve upon the sensitivity of the CTBTO network by putting microphones on small, long-duration super-pressure balloons, with the overarching goal of studying the small end of the NEO population by using the Earth's atmosphere as a witness plate.A balloon-borne infrasound sensor is expected to have two advantages over ground-based stations: a lack of wind noise and a concentration of infrasound energy in the "stratospheric duct" between roughly 5 - 50 km altitude. To test these advantages, we have built a small balloon payload with five calibrated microphones. We plan to fly this payload on a NASA high-altitude balloon from Ft Sumner, NM in August 2016. We have arranged for three large explosions to take place in Socorro, NM while the balloon is aloft to assess the sensitivity of balloon-borne vs. ground-based infrasound sensors. We will report on the results from this test flight and the prospects for detecting/characterizing small bolides in the stratosphere.

  5. Accurate Determination of the Volume of an Irregular Helium Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Bradvica, Rafaela; Karl, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Zable described an experiment with a near-spherical balloon filled with impure helium. Measuring the temperature and the pressure inside and outside the balloon, the lift of the balloon, and the mass of the balloon materials, he described how to use the ideal gas laws and Archimedes' principal to compute the average molecular…

  6. National Report on the NASA Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberspeaker, Philip; Fairbrother, Debora

    2013-01-01

    The U. S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sounding Rockets and Balloon Programs conduct a total of 30 to 40 missions per year in support of the NASA scientific community and other users. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program supports the science community by integrating their experiments into the sounding rocket payloads, and providing both the rocket vehicle and launch operations services. Activities since 2011 have included two flights from Andoya Rocket Range, more than eight flights from White Sands Missile Range, approximately sixteen flights from Wallops Flight Facility, two flights from Poker Flat Research Range, and four flights from Kwajalein Atoll. Other activities included the final developmental flight of the Terrier-Improved Malemute launch vehicle, a test flight of the Talos-Terrier-Oriole launch vehicle, and a host of smaller activities to improve program support capabilities. Several operational missions have utilized the new Terrier-Malemute vehicle. The NASA Sounding Rockets Program is currently engaged in the development of a new sustainer motor known as the Peregrine. The Peregrine development effort will involve one static firing and three flight tests with a target completion data of August 2014. The NASA Balloon Program supported numerous scientific and developmental missions since its last report. The program conducted flights from the U.S., Sweden, Australia, and Antarctica utilizing standard and experimental vehicles. Of particular note are the successful test flights of the Wallops Arc Second Pointer (WASP), the successful demonstration of a medium-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB), and most recently, three simultaneous missions aloft over Antarctica. NASA continues its successful incremental design qualification program and will support a science mission aboard WASP in late 2013 and a science mission aboard the SPB in early 2015. NASA has also embarked on an intra-agency collaboration to launch a rocket from a balloon to

  7. Post-Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Inflation of Pressure-Controlled Endorectal Balloon-Impact on Postoperative Bleeding: A Preliminary Experimental Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohyelden, Khaled; Ibrahim, Hamdy; Abdel-Kader, Osman; Sherief, Mahmoud H; El-Nashar, Ahmed; Shaker, Hosam; Elkoushy, Mohamed A

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of rectal balloon (RB) inflation on post-transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) bleeding in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. After institutional review board approval, patients who were eligible for TURP were randomized into two equal groups, depending on whether they received postoperative endorectal balloon (RB) (GII) or not (GI). The tip of three-way Foley catheter was fixed to a balloon by a blaster strip to prepare air-tight RB. Postoperatively, the RB was inflated for 15 minutes by a pressure-controlled sphygmomanometer. Perioperative data were compared between both groups, including hemoglobin (Hb) deficit 24-hour postoperatively and at time of discharge. Functional outcomes, anorectal complaints, and adverse events were assessed perioperatively and after 1 and 3 months. Fifty patients were enrolled, including 13 (26%) patients who presented with indwelling urethral catheters. Baseline data and mean resected tissue weight were comparable between both groups, including preoperative Hb (p = 0.17). Immediate postoperative Hb deficit was, comparable between GI and GII patients (0.58 ± 0.18 vs 0.60 ± 0.2, p = 0.56) before RB inflation, respectively. However, compared to GI patients, mean Hb deficit significantly decreased in GII patients 24-hour postoperatively (0.2 ± 0.2 vs 0.7 ± 0.3 g, p = 0.002) and at time of discharge (0.8 ± 0.2 vs 1.3 ± 0.4 g, p = 0.003). GII patients needed significantly less postoperative irrigation (2.1 ± 1.6 vs 8.3 ± 1.8 L, p hematuria or clot retention in either group, while there were no anorectal complaints reported by GII patients. Post-TURP endorectal balloon inflation seems to be simple, safe, and an efficient procedure to reduce postoperative bleeding and irrigation volume. It is significantly associated with shorter catheterization time and hospital stay.

  8. Global assimilation of X Project Loon stratospheric balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, L.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Pawson, S.; Candido, S.; Carver, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Project Loon has an overall goal of providing worldwide internet coverage using a network of long-duration super-pressure balloons. Beginning in 2013, Loon has launched over 1600 balloons from multiple tropical and middle latitude locations. These GPS tracked balloon trajectories provide lower stratospheric wind information over the oceans and remote land areas where traditional radiosonde soundings are sparse, thus providing unique coverage of lower stratospheric winds. To fully investigate these Loon winds we: 1) compare the Loon winds to winds produced by a global data assimilation system (DAS: NASA GEOS) and 2) assimilate the Loon winds into the same comprehensive DAS. Results show that in middle latitudes the Loon winds and DAS winds agree well and assimilating the Loon winds have only a small impact on short-term forecasting of the Loon winds, however, in the tropics the loon winds and DAS winds often disagree substantially (8 m/s or more in magnitude) and in these cases assimilating the loon winds significantly improves the forecast of the loon winds. By highlighting cases where the Loon and DAS winds differ, these results can lead to improved understanding of stratospheric winds, especially in the tropics.

  9. Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH): application on meteorological balloons, long duration balloons and unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, Alexey; Khaykin, Sergey; Yushkov, Vladimir; Efremov, Denis; Formanyuk, Ivan; Astakhov, Valeriy

    The FLASH instrument is based on the fluorescent method, which uses H2O molecules photodissociation at a wavelength lambda=121.6 nm (Lalpha - hydrogen emission) followed by the measurement of the fluorescence of excited OH radicals. The source of Lyman-alpha radiation is a hydrogen discharge lamp while the detector of OH fluorescence at 308 -316 nm is a photomultiplier run in photon counting mode. The intensity of the fluorescent light as well as the instrument readings is directly proportional to the water vapor mixing ratio under stratospheric conditions with negligible oxygen absorption. Initially designed for rocket-borne application, FLASH has evolved into a light-weight balloon sonde (FLASH-B) for measurements in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on board meteorological and small plastic balloons. This configuration has been used in over 100 soundings at numerous tropical mid-latitude and polar locations within various international field campaigns. An airborne version of FLASH instrument is successfully utilized onboard stratospheric M55-Geophysica aircraft and tropospheric airborne laboratory YAK42-Roshydromet. The hygrometer was modified for application onboard stratospheric long-duration balloons (FLASH-LDB version). This version was successfully used onboard CNES super-pressure balloon launched from SSC Esrange in March 2007 and flown during 10 days. Special design for polar long duration balloon PoGOLite was created for testing work during polar day in June 2013. Installation and measurement peculiarities as well as observational results are presented. Observations of water vapour using FLASH-B instrument, being of high quality are rather costly as the payload recovery is often complicated and most of the time impossible. Following the goal to find a cost-efficient solution, FLASH was adapted for use onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). This solution was only possible thanks to compactness and light-weight (0.5 kg) of FLASH instrument. The

  10. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-09-01

    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  11. Energy from solar balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grena, Roberto [C. R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Solar balloons are hot air balloons in which the air is heated directly by the sun, by means of a black absorber. The lift force of a tethered solar balloon can be used to produce energy by activating a generator during the ascending motion of the balloon. The hot air is then discharged when the balloon reaches a predefined maximum height. A preliminary study is presented, along with an efficiency estimation and some considerations on possible realistic configurations. (author)

  12. Ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G.T.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; Smeulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, extremely large pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injections in the current rise phase followed by strong additional heating. In the second type, the total pressure of the discharge is approaching the Troyon limit. The stability of these discharges with respect to the ideal MHD ballooning modes has been studied with the stability code HBT. The equilibria are reconstructed with the IDENTC code using the external magnetic measurements and the experimental pressure profile. The results show that the evaluated high beta discharge is unstable in the central region of the plasma. This instability is related to the low shear and not to a large pressure gradient, as expected at the Troyon limit. In the pellet discharges the regions with the large pressure gradients are unstable to ballooning modes at the time of the beta decay, which ends the period of enhanced performance. The maximum pressure gradient in these discharges is limited by the boundary of the first region of stability. The observed phenomena at the beta decay are similar to those observed at the beta limit in DIII-D and TFTR. (author)

  13. The French balloon and sounding rocket space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutin/Faye, S.; Sadourny, I.

    1987-08-01

    Stratospheric and long duration flight balloon programs are outlined. Open stratospheric balloons up to 1 million cu m volume are used to carry astronomy, solar system, aeronomy, stratosphere, biology, space physics, and geophysics experiments. The long duration balloons can carry 50 kg payloads at 20 to 30 km altitude for 10 days to several weeks. Pressurized stratospheric balloons, and infrared hot air balloons are used. They are used to study the dynamics of stratospheric waves and atmospheric water vapor. Laboratories participating in sounding rocket programs are listed.

  14. Simulating clefts in pumpkin balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank; Brakke, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The geometry of a large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, such as a sphere, leads to very high film stresses. These stresses can be significantly reduced by using a tendon re-enforced lobed pumpkin-like shape. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin shape, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design, the constant bulge radius (CBR) design, CBA/CBR hybrids, and NASA’s recent constant stress (CS) design. Utilizing a hybrid CBA/CBR pumpkin design, Flight 555-NT in June 2006 formed an S-cleft and was unable to fully deploy. In order to better understand the S-cleft phenomenon, a series of inflation tests involving four 27-m diameter 200-gore pumpkin balloons were conducted in 2007. One of the test vehicles was a 1/3-scale mockup of the Flight 555-NT balloon. Using an inflation procedure intended to mimic ascent, the 1/3-scale mockup developed an S-cleft feature strikingly similar to the one observed in Flight 555-NT. Our analysis of the 1/3-scale mockup found it to be unstable. We compute asymmetric equilibrium configurations of this balloon, including shapes with an S-cleft feature.

  15. Planetary Balloon-Based Science Platform Evaluation and Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Landis, Rob

    2016-01-01

    gondola characteristics are assessed in this study and a concept is recommended, the Gondola for High-Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS). This first generation platform is designed around a 1 m or larger aperture, narrow-field telescope with pointing accuracies better than one arc-second. A classical Cassegrain, or variant like Ritchey-Chretien, telescope is recommended for the primary telescope. The gondola should be designed for multiple flights so it must be robust and readily processed at recovery. It must be light-weighted to the extent possible to allow for long-duration flights on super-pressure balloons. Demonstration Flights: Recent demonstration flights achieved several significant accomplishments that can feed forward to a GHAPS gondola project. Science results included the first ever Earth-based measurements for CO2 in a comet, first measurements for CO2 and H2O in an Oort cloud comet, and the first measurement of 1 Ceres at 2.73 m to refine the shape of the infrared water absorption feature. The performance of the Fine Steering Mirror (FSM) was also demonstrated. The BOPPS platform can continue to be leveraged on future flights even as GHAPS is being developed. The study affirms the planetary decadal recommendations, and shows that a number of Top Priority science questions can be achieved. A combination GHAPS and BOPPS would provide the best value for PSD for realizing that science.

  16. Root cause analysis of oxide scale forming and shedding in high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jiang; Hao, Weidong; Hu, Zhihong; Liu, Fuguo

    2015-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of over temperature tube-burst caused by oxide scale shedding and blocking tubes of high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure power plant boiler, this paper expounds the mechanism of scale forming and shedding, and analyzes the probable causes of the tube-burst failure. The results show that the root cause of scale forming is that greater steam extraction flow after reforming of the second extraction leads to less steam flow into reheater, which causes over temperature to some of the heated tubes; and the root cause of scale shedding is that long term operation in AGC-R mode brings about great fluctuations of unit load, steam temperature and pressure, accelerating scale shedding. In conclusion, preventive measures are drawn up considering the operation mode of the unit.

  17. Research and development of super light water reactors and super fast reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Morooka, S.; Yamakawa, M.; Ishiwatari, Y.; Ikejiri, S.; Katsumura, Y.; Muroya, Y.; Terai, T.; Sasaki, K.; Mori, H.; Hamamoto, Y.; Okumura, K.; Kugo, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Ezato, K.; Akasaka, N.; Hotta, A.

    2011-01-01

    Super Light Water Reactors (Super LWR) and Super Fast Reactors (Super FR) are the supercritical- pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWR) that are developed by the research group of University of Tokyo since 1989 and now jointly under development with the researchers of Waseda University, University of Tokyo and other organizations in Japan. The principle of the reactor concept development, the results of the past Super LWR and Super FR R&D as well as the R&D program of the Super FR second phase project are described. (author)

  18. Stability of the pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank

    A large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, e.g., a sphere, leads to high film stresses. These can be significantly reduced by using a lobed pumpkin-like shape re-enforced with tendons. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin-shape at full inflation, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design and the constant bulge radius (CBR) design. The authors and others have carried out stability studies of CBA and CBR designs and found instabilities under various conditions. While stability seems to be a good indicator of deployment problems for large balloons under normal ascent conditions, one cannot conclude that a stable design will deploy reliably. Nevertheless, stability analysis allows one to quantify certain deployment characteristics. Ongoing research by NASA's Balloon Program Office utilizes a new design approach developed by Rodger Farley, NASA/GSFC, that takes into account film and tendon strain. We refer to such a balloon as a constant stress (CS) pumpkin design. In June 2006, the Flight 555-NT balloon (based on a hybrid CBR/CBA design) developed an S-cleft and did not deploy. In order to understand the S-cleft phenomena and study a number of aspects related to the CS-design, a series of inflation tests were conducted at TCOM, Elizabeth City, NC in 2007. The test vehicles were 27 meter diameter pumpkins distinguished by their respective equatorial bulge angles (BA). For example, BA98 indicates an equatorial bulge angle of 98° . BA90, BA55, and BA00 are similarly defined. BA98 was essentially a one-third scale version of of the Flight 555 balloon (i.e., 12 micron film instead of 38.1 micron, mini-tendons, etc.). BA90 and BA55 were Farley CS-designs. BA00 was derived from the BA55 design so that a flat chord spanned adjacent tendons. In this paper, we will carry out stability studies of BA98, BA90, BA55, and BA00. We discuss the deployment problem of pumpkin balloons in light of 2007 inflation

  19. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  20. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158 GeV/u $In^{49+}$ ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, Edgar; Hansen, Jan; Page, Eric; Vincke, H

    2004-01-01

    During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 7/ molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the super proton synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV) graphite, and 316 LN (low carbon with nitrogen) stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158 GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental ...

  1. Melting in super-earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  2. Analysis of current diffusive ballooning mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.

    1993-04-01

    The current diffusive ballooning mode is analysed in the tokamak plasma. This mode is destabilized by the current diffusivity (i.e., the electron viscosity) and stabilized by the thermal conductivity and ion viscosity. By use of the ballooning transformation, the eigenmode equation is solved. Analytic solution is obtained by the strong ballooning limit. Numerical calculation is also performed to confirm the analytic theory. The growth rate of the mode and the mode structure are analysed. The stability boundary is derived in terms of the current diffusivity, thermal conductivity, ion viscosity and the pressure gradient for the given shear parameter. This result is applied to express the thermal conductivity in terms of the pressure gradient, magnetic configurational parameters (such as the safety factor, shear and aspect ratio) and the Prandtl numbers. (author)

  3. Super jackstraws and super waterwheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin-Ho

    2007-01-01

    We construct various new BPS states of D-branes preserving 8 supersymmetries. These include super Jackstraws (a bunch of scattered D- or (p, q)-strings preserving supersymmetries), and super waterwheels (a number of D2-branes intersecting at generic angles on parallel lines while preserving supersymmetries). Super D-Jackstraws are scattered in various dimensions but are dynamical with all their intersections following a common null direction. Meanwhile, super (p, q)-Jackstraws form a planar static configuration. We show that the SO(2) subgroup of SL(2, R), the group of classical S-duality transformations in IIB theory, can be used to generate this latter configuration of variously charged (p, q)-strings intersecting at various angles. The waterwheel configuration of D2-branes preserves 8 supersymmetries as long as the 'critical' Born-Infeld electric fields are along the common direction

  4. Super differential forms on super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konisi, Gaku; Takahasi, Wataru; Saito, Takesi.

    1994-01-01

    Line integral on the super Riemann surface is discussed. A 'super differential operator' which possesses both properties of differential and of differential operator is proposed. With this 'super differential operator' a new theory of differential form on the super Riemann surface is constructed. We call 'the new differentials on the super Riemann surface' 'the super differentials'. As the applications of our theory, the existency theorems of singular 'super differentials' such as 'super abelian differentials of the 3rd kind' and of a super projective connection are examined. (author)

  5. Two Tethered Balloon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngbluth, Otto; Owens, Thomas L.; Storey, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Systems take meteorological measurements for variety of research projects. Report describes work done by NASA Langley Research Center in atmospheric research using tethered balloon systems composed of commercially available equipment. Two separate tethered balloon systems described in report have payloads and configurations tailored to requirements of specific projects. Each system capable of measuring atmospheric parameter or species in situ and then telemetering this data in real time to ground station. Meteorological data and concentration of ozone typically measured. Indicates instrumented tethered balloon systems have distinct advantages over other systems for gathering data on troposphere.

  6. Stability and anisotropy of (FexNi1-x)2O under high pressure and implications in Earth's and super-Earths' core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengxuan; Wu, Xiang; Qin, Shan

    2018-01-10

    Oxygen is thought to be an important light element in Earth's core but the amount of oxygen in Earth's core remains elusive. In addition, iron-rich iron oxides are of great interest and significance in the field of geoscience and condensed matter physics. Here, static calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate that I4/mmm-Fe 2 O is dynamically and mechanically stable and becomes energetically favorable with respect to the assemblage of hcp-Fe and [Formula: see text]-FeO above 270 GPa, which indicates that I4/mmm-Fe 2 O can be a strong candidate phase for stable iron-rich iron oxides at high pressure, perhaps even at high temperature. The elasticity and anisotropy of I4/mmm-(Fe x Ni 1-x ) 2 O at high pressures are also determined. Based on these results, we have derived the upper limit of oxygen to be 4.3 wt% in Earth's lower outer core. On the other hand, I4/mmm-(Fe x Ni 1-x ) 2 O with high AV S is likely to exist in a super-Earth's or an ocean planet's solid core causing the locally seismic heterogeneity. Our results not only give some clues to explore and synthesize novel iron-rich iron oxides but also shed light on the fundamental information of oxygen in the planetary core.

  7. Quenching ilmenite with a high-temperature and high-pressure phase using super-high-energy ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashishin, Takeshi; Tan, Zhenquan; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Nan; Kim, Jungeum; Numako, Chiya; Naka, Takashi; Valmalette, Jean Christophe; Ohara, Satoshi

    2014-04-25

    The mass production of highly dense oxides with high-temperature and high-pressure phases allows us to discover functional properties that have never been developed. To date, the quenching of highly dense materials at the gramme-level at ambient atmosphere has never been achieved. Here, we provide evidence of the formation of orthorhombic Fe2TiO4 from trigonal FeTiO3 as a result of the high-temperature (>1250 K) and high-pressure (>23 GPa) condition induced by the high collision energy of 150 gravity generated between steel balls. Ilmenite was steeply quenched by the surrounding atmosphere, when iron-rich ilmenite (Fe2TiO4) with a high-temperature and high-pressure phase was formed by planetary collisions and was released from the collision points between the balls. Our finding allows us to infer that such intense planetary collisions induced by high-energy ball milling contribute to the mass production of a high-temperature and high-pressure phase.

  8. SMEX02 Balloon-borne Radiosonde Data, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes radiosonde measurements of upper air temperature and pressure, relative humidity, and wind direction and speed during the balloons' ascent to...

  9. Ballooning Interest in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hy

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students construct model hot air balloons to introduce the concepts of convection current, the principles of Charles' gas law, and three-dimensional geometric shapes. Provides construction and launching instructions. (MDH)

  10. Gondola development for CNES stratospheric balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Audoubert, J.; Cau, M.; Evrard, J.; Verdier, N.

    The CNES has been supporting scientific ballooning since its establishment in 1962. The two main parts of the balloon system or aerostat are the balloon itself and the flight train, comprising the house-keeping gondola, for the control of balloon flight (localization and operational telemetry & telecommand - TM/TC), and the scientific gondola with its dedicated telecommunication system. For zero pressure balloon, the development of new TM/TC system for the housekeeping and science data transmission are going on from 1999. The main concepts are : - for balloon house-keeping and low rate scientific telemetry, the ELITE system, which is based on single I2C bus standardizing communication between the different components of the system : trajectography, balloon control, power supply, scientific TM/TC, .... In this concept, Radio Frequency links are developed between the house keeping gondola and the components of the aerostat (balloon valve, ballast machine, balloon gas temperature measurements, ...). The main objectives are to simplify the flight train preparation in term of gondola testing before flight, and also by reducing the number of long electrical cables integrated in the balloon and the flight train; - for high rate scientific telemetry, the use of functional interconnection Internet Protocol (IP) in interface with the Radio Frequency link. The main idea is to use off-the-shelf IP hardware products (routers, industrial PC, ...) and IP software (Telnet, FTP, Web-HTTP, ...) to reduce the development costs; - for safety increase, the adding, in the flight train, of a totally independent house keeping gondola based on the satellite Inmarsat M and Iridium telecommunication systems, which permits to get real time communications between the on-board data mobile and the ground station, reduced to a PC computer with modem connected to the phone network. These GEO and LEO telecommunication systems give also the capability to operate balloon flights over longer distance

  11. Super families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study on phenomena in the super high energy region, Σ E j > 1000 TeV revealed events that present a big dark spot in central region with high concentration of energy and particles, called halo. Six super families with halo were analysed by Brazil-Japan Cooperation of Cosmic Rays. For each family the lateral distribution of energy density was constructed and R c Σ E (R c ) was estimated. For studying primary composition, the energy correlation with particles released separately in hadrons and gamma rays was analysed. (M.C.K.)

  12. Criteria for Second Stability for Ballooning Modes in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Hegna, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    An expression determining how variations in the pressure-gradient and average magnetic shear affect ballooning stability for a stellarator equilibrium is presented. The procedure for determining the marginal stability boundaries, for each field line, depends only on the equilibrium and a single ballooning eigenfunction calculation. This information is sufficient to determine if increasing pressure-gradient is stabilizing or destabilizing and to predict whether the configuration possess a second stable region

  13. Super, red palm and palm oleins improve the blood pressure, heart size, aortic media thickness and lipid profile in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Chee-Meng; Ng, Mei-Han; Choo, Yuen-May; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2013-01-01

    Oleic acid has been shown to lower high blood pressure and provide cardiovascular protection. Curiosity arises as to whether super olein (SO), red palm olein (RPO) and palm olein (PO), which have high oleic acid content, are able to prevent the development of hypertension. Four-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed 15% SO, RPO or PO supplemented diet for 15 weeks. After 15 weeks of treatment, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of SHR treated with SO, RPO and PO were 158.4±5.0 mmHg (prats were not different from those of WKY controls. The SO and PO significantly reduced the increased heart size and thoracic aortic media thickness observed in untreated SHR but RPO reduced only the latter. No such differences, however, were observed between the treated and untreated WKY rats. Oil Red O enface staining of thoracic-abdominal aorta did not show any lipid deposition in all treated rats. The SO and RPO significantly raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the SHR while body weight and renal biochemical indices were unaltered in both strains. Serum lipid profiles of treated SHR and WKY rats were unchanged, with the exception of a significant reduction in LDL-C level and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (atherogenic index) in SO and RPO treated SHR compared with untreated SHR. The SO, RPO and PO attenuate the rise in blood pressure in SHR, accompanied by bradycardia and heart size reduction with SO and PO, and aortic media thickness reduction with SO, RPO and PO. The SO and RPO are antiatherogenic in nature by improving blood lipid profiles in SHR.

  14. Development of an Interferometric Phased Array Trigger for Balloon-Borne Detection of the Highest Energy Cosmic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieregg, Abigail

    interferometric phased array trigger for these impulsive radio detectors, a new type of trigger that will improve sensitivity substantially and expedite the discovery of the highest energy particles in our universe. We have developed an 8- channel interferometric trigger board for ground-based applications that will be deployed in December 2017 with the ground-based Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) experiment at the South Pole. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the cosmogenic neutrino event rate will go up by a factor of 3 with the new trigger. The true power of the interferometric trigger is in scaling to large numbers of channels, and the discovery space that is only available from a balloon platform at the highest energies is extremely appealing. We will build on and extend the NASA investment in the ANITA Long Duration Balloon (LDB) mission and the many other complementary particle astrophysics LDB missions by developing the electronics required to bring a large-scale radio interferometric trigger to a balloon platform, extending the scientific reach of any future LDB or Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) mission for radio detection of the highest energy cosmic particles. We will develop an interferometric trigger system that is scalable to O(100) channels and suitable for use on a balloon platform. Under this proposal, we will: 1) Design and fabricate interferometric trigger hardware for balloon-borne cosmic particle detectors that is scalable to large numbers of channels O(100) by reducing the power consumption per channel, increasing the number of channels per board, and developing high-speed communication capability between boards. 2) Perform a trade study and inform design decisions for future balloon missions by further developing our Monte Carlo simulation and adapting it to balloon geometries.

  15. Percutaneous balloon dilation of pulmonary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Yangde; Huang Ming; Li Jinkang; Qian Jinqing; Chen Xiuyu; Yang Siyuan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Review our experience of balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis in 32 cases. Methods: Totally 32 cases of pulmonary stenosis admitted from 1995-2001 with age of 1.5-13 yrs mean 6.8. Diagnosis was made by clinical manifestations, EKG, ECHO and angiocardiography. Results: Before dilation, the mean systolic pressure of right ventricle was (93.5 ± 28.5) mmHg, after the procedure it reduced to (42 ± 9.0) mmHg. The pressure gradient between right ventricle and pulmonary artery before dilation was (76 ± 30) mmHg and become (24.5 ± 8.5) mmHg after dilation. The gradient pressure after dilation was less than 25 mmHg in 90.6% cases. A case of Noonan syndrome showed no response to balloon dilation and died during valvulectomy from accompanying left ventricular cardiomyopathy. Conclusions: Balloon dilation of valvular pulmonary stenosis is effective and safe. The selection of proper diameter of pulmonary valvular rings and sized of the balloon are the major factors

  16. Restoration of Failed Renal Graft Function After Successful Angioplasty of Pressure-Resistant Renal Artery Stenosis Using a Cutting Balloon: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregrin, J. H.; Buergelova, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study is the report of a 37-year-old male with a transplanted kidney from a 3.5-year-old donor: the graft had two arteries transplanted with an aortic patch to an external iliac artery. Four months after transplantation, the graft function deteriorated, together with the development of hypertension. Stenosis of both graft arteries was detected and the patient was referred for angioplasty. The angiographic result was suboptimal, nevertheless, the graft function improved and was more or less stable (serum creatinine, 160-200 μmol/l) for 4 years, along with persistently difficult-to-control hypertension. Five years after transplantation, the graft function deteriorated again and severe graft artery restenosis was detected. The restenosis did not respond to dilatation, graft function failed, hypertension decompensated, and left ventricular failure developed. The patient required dialysis. A cutting balloon angioplasty opened the artery, and kidney function was restored after a few days: the serum creatinine level dropped to 140-160 μmol/l, and the glomerular filtration rate (creatinine clearance) to 0.65 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . The graft function has now been stable for more than 2 years, however, the hypertension is still difficult to control.

  17. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  18. Super-insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerold, J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns super-insulation, which also acts as spacing between two pressurized surfaces, where the crossing bars in at least two layers are provided, with interposed foil. The super-insulation is designed so that it can take compression forces and limits thermal radiation and thermal conduction sufficiently, where the total density of heat flow is usually limited to a few watts per m 2 . The solution to the problem is characterized by the fact that the bars per layer are parallel and from layer to layer they are at an angle to each other and the crossover positions of the bars of different layers are at fixed places and so form contact columns. The basic idea is that bars crossing over each other to support compression forces are used so that contact columns are formed, which are compressed to a certain extent by the load. (orig./PW) [de

  19. Super, Red Palm and Palm Oleins Improve the Blood Pressure, Heart Size, Aortic Media Thickness and Lipid Profile in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Chee-Meng; Ng, Mei-Han; Choo, Yuen-May; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2013-01-01

    Background Oleic acid has been shown to lower high blood pressure and provide cardiovascular protection. Curiosity arises as to whether super olein (SO), red palm olein (RPO) and palm olein (PO), which have high oleic acid content, are able to prevent the development of hypertension. Methodology/Principal Findings Four-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed 15% SO, RPO or PO supplemented diet for 15 weeks. After 15 weeks of treatment, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of SHR treated with SO, RPO and PO were 158.4±5.0 mmHg (p<0.001), 178.9±2.7 mmHg (p<0.001) and 167.7±2.1 mmHg (p<0.001), respectively, compared with SHR controls (220.9±1.5 mmHg). Bradycardia was observed with SO and PO. In contrast, the SBP and heart rate of treated WKY rats were not different from those of WKY controls. The SO and PO significantly reduced the increased heart size and thoracic aortic media thickness observed in untreated SHR but RPO reduced only the latter. No such differences, however, were observed between the treated and untreated WKY rats. Oil Red O enface staining of thoracic-abdominal aorta did not show any lipid deposition in all treated rats. The SO and RPO significantly raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the SHR while body weight and renal biochemical indices were unaltered in both strains. Serum lipid profiles of treated SHR and WKY rats were unchanged, with the exception of a significant reduction in LDL-C level and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (atherogenic index) in SO and RPO treated SHR compared with untreated SHR. Conclusion The SO, RPO and PO attenuate the rise in blood pressure in SHR, accompanied by bradycardia and heart size reduction with SO and PO, and aortic media thickness reduction with SO, RPO and PO. The SO and RPO are antiatherogenic in nature by improving blood lipid profiles in SHR. PMID:23409085

  20. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, R.J.; Dake, S.; Oda, H.; Miyamura, O.; Fuki, M.; Jones, W.V.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Takahashi, U.; Tominaga, Y.; Wefel, J.P.; Fountain, W.; Derrickson, J.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, E.; Tabuki, T.; Watts, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs

  1. Analysis of Flight of Near-Space Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zech; Evans, Austin; Seyfert, James; Leadlove, Kyle; Gumina, Kaitlyn; Martell, Eric

    2015-04-01

    In December 2014, the Electronics class at Millikin University launched a balloon designed to travel into the near-space region of the atmosphere. The balloon was equipped with an instrumentation package including a camera, accelerometer, barometric pressure sensor, temperature probes, as well as a system for tracking using an Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS). The balloon was launched from Decatur, IL, and landed in Marysville, OH, nearly 320 miles away. The students then analyzed the data from the flight and compared results to expectations.

  2. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, Julia R; Jung, SeungWoo

    2017-03-30

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a case of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis diagnosed echocardiographically and angiographically in which a significant reduction in pressure gradient was achieved with balloon dilation alone is presented.

  3. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  4. Ballooning stability analysis of JET H-mode discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, D.P.; Galvao, R.; Keilhacker, M.; Lazzaro, E.; Watkins, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of the stability of a large aspect ratio model equilibrium to ideal MHD ballooning modes have shown that across the bulk of the plasma there exist two marginally stable values of the pressure gradient parameter α. These define an unstable zone which separates the first (small α) stable region from the second (large α) stable region. Close to the separatrix, however, the first and second regions can coalesce when the surface averaged current density, Λ, exceeds a critical value. The plasma in this region is then stable to ballooning modes at all values of the pressure gradient. In this paper we extend these results to JET H-mode equilibria using a finite aspect ratio ballooning formalism, and assess the relevance of ideal ballooning stability in these discharges. In particular we analyse shot 15894 at time 56 sec. which is 1.3 s into the H-phase. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  5. Ballooning for Biologists: Mission Essentials for Flying Experiments on Large NASA Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.; Sowa, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Despite centuries of scientific balloon flights, only a handful of experiments have produced biologically-relevant results. Yet unlike orbital spaceflight, it is much faster and cheaper to conduct biology research with balloons, sending specimens to the near space environment of Earths stratosphere. Samples can be loaded the morning of a launch and sometimes returned to the laboratory within one day after flying. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) flies large, unmanned scientific balloons from all over the globe, with missions ranging from hours to weeks in duration. A payload in the middle portion of the stratosphere (approx. 35 km above sea level) will be exposed to an environment similar to the surface of Mars: temperatures generally around -36 C, atmospheric pressure at a thin 1 kPa, relative humidity levels <1%, and a harsh illumination of ultraviolet (UV) and cosmic radiation levels (about 100 W/sq m and 0.1 mGy/d, respectively) that can be obtained nowhere else on the surface of the Earth, including environmental chambers and particle accelerator facilities attempting to simulate space radiation effects. Considering the operational advantages of ballooning and the fidelity of space-like stressors in the stratosphere, researchers in aerobiology, astrobiology, and space biology can benefit from balloon flight experiments as an intermediary step on the extraterrestrial continuum (ground, low Earth orbit, and deep space studies). Our presentation targets biologists with no background or experience in scientific ballooning. We will provide an overview of large balloon operations, biology topics that can be uniquely addressed in the stratosphere, and a roadmap for developing payloads to fly with NASA.

  6. New concepts for interplanetary balloons and blimps, particularly for Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, J.

    This paper proposes novel approaches for balloons for planets Titan BALLUTE A balloon or blimp arriving at a planet or moon with an atmosphere might inflate falling under a parachute or after landing Neither is ideal In both cases the envelope must include qualities needed for inflation as well as those for flight A ballute BALLoon parachUTE could be used thus a ballute is like a hot air balloon with a large mouth Initially it fills by ram pressure descending through an atmosphere As proposed it would then be heated by solid propellant It would stop descending and float level with hot air lift It is now a perfect location for inflation without wind or movement through the atmosphere and away from the uncertainties of the surface A ballute could be used over several bodies in the solar system BALLOONS FOR LOW TEMPERATURES Flight in very low temperatures is also discussed Conditions are so different that it is useful to examine basic factors These apply for any planet with low temperature and weather calm enough for balloons or blimps First for terrestrial hot air balloons thermal radiation is usually the dominant way heat is lost But radiation rises with the 4th power of absolute temperature At Titan radiation will be one or two orders of magnitude smaller Also the dense atmosphere allows small balloons small temperature differences So convection is small It appears a hot air balloon can easily be heated by a radioactive source likely carried to make electricity Pinholes are not important in such a balloon

  7. MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Zaharia, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum

  8. Modified jailed balloon technique for bifurcation lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeru; Shishido, Koki; Moriyama, Noriaki; Ochiai, Tomoki; Mizuno, Shingo; Yamanaka, Futoshi; Sugitatsu, Kazuya; Tobita, Kazuki; Matsumi, Junya; Tanaka, Yutaka; Murakami, Masato

    2017-12-04

    We propose a new systematic approach in bifurcation lesions, modified jailed balloon technique (M-JBT), and report the first clinical experience. Side branch occlusion brings with a serious complication and occurs in more than 7.0% of cases during bifurcation stenting. A jailed balloon (JB) is introduced into the side branch (SB), while a stent is placed in the main branch (MB) as crossing SB. The size of the JB is half of the MB stent size. While the proximal end of JB attaching to MB stent, both stent and JB are simultaneously inflated with same pressure. JB is removed and then guidewires are recrossed. Kissing balloon dilatation (KBD) and/or T and protrusion (TAP) stenting are applied as needed. Between February 2015 and February 2016, 233 patients (254 bifurcation lesions including 54 left main trunk disease) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using this technique. Procedure success was achieved in all cases. KBD was performed for 183 lesions and TAP stenting was employed for 31 lesions. Occlusion of SV was not observed in any of the patients. Bench test confirmed less deformity of MB stent in M-JBT compared with conventional-JBT. This is the first report for clinical experiences by using modified jailed balloon technique. This novel M-JBT is safe and effective in the preservation of SB patency during bifurcation stenting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cutting-balloon angioplasty of resistant ureteral stenosis as bridge to stent insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iezzi, R., E-mail: iezzir@virgilio.it [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, ' A. Gemelli' Hospital - Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Di Stasi, C.; Simeone, A.; Bonomo, L. [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, ' A. Gemelli' Hospital - Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Ureteral stenting is a routine, minimally invasive procedure performed for relief of benign or malignant obstruction. In case of ureteral stenosis, to allow a correct insertion of the stent, a predilatation of the ureter stenosis with a conventional balloon catheter can be necessary. In exceptional cases, it can be difficult to advance an 7-8 Fr JJ-catheter over a tight resistant ureter stenosis following unsuccessful high-pressure balloon dilatation. In the present report, we describe two cases of resistant ureter stenosis successfully dilated by a cutting-balloon following the failure of high-pressure balloon dilatation, allowing a correct and uncomplicated antegrade stent insertion.

  10. Cutting-balloon angioplasty of resistant ureteral stenosis as bridge to stent insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iezzi, R.; Di Stasi, C.; Simeone, A.; Bonomo, L.

    2011-01-01

    Ureteral stenting is a routine, minimally invasive procedure performed for relief of benign or malignant obstruction. In case of ureteral stenosis, to allow a correct insertion of the stent, a predilatation of the ureter stenosis with a conventional balloon catheter can be necessary. In exceptional cases, it can be difficult to advance an 7-8 Fr JJ-catheter over a tight resistant ureter stenosis following unsuccessful high-pressure balloon dilatation. In the present report, we describe two cases of resistant ureter stenosis successfully dilated by a cutting-balloon following the failure of high-pressure balloon dilatation, allowing a correct and uncomplicated antegrade stent insertion.

  11. A super soliton connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurses, M.; Oguz, O.

    1985-07-01

    Integrable super non-linear classical partial differential equations are considered. A super s1(2,R) algebra valued connection 1-form is constructed. It is shown that curvature 2-form of this super connection vanishes by virtue of the integrable super equations of motion. A super extension of the AKNS scheme is presented and a class of super extension of the Lax hierarchy and super non-linear Schroedinger equation are found. O(N) extension and the Baecklund transformations of the above super equations are also considered. (author)

  12. Adjustable continence balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Line; Fode, Mikkel; Nørgaard, Nis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the results of the Danish experience with the ProACT urinary continence device inserted in men with stress urinary incontinence. Material and methods. The ProACT was inserted in 114 patients. Data were registered prospectively. The main endpoints...... in urinary leakage > 50% was seen in 72 patients (80%). Complications were seen in 23 patients. All of these were treated successfully by removal of the device in the outpatient setting followed by replacement of the device. Another eight patients had a third balloon inserted to improve continence further....... Fourteen patients (12%) ended up with an artificial sphincter or a urethral sling. Sixty patients (63%) experienced no discomfort and 58 (61%) reported being dry or markedly improved. Overall, 50 patients (53%) reported being very or predominantly satisfied. Conclusions. Adjustable continence balloons seem...

  13. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  14. An analysis of the deployment of a pumpkin balloon at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Phillips, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    The design of large superpressure balloons has received significant attention in recent years due to the successful demonstration of various enabling technologies and materials. Of particular note is the "pumpkin" shaped balloon concept, which allows the stress in the envelope to be limited by the surface geometry. Unlike a sphere, where the radius used to determine the stress is determined by the volume of the balloon, the pumpkin utilizes a system of meridional tendons to react the loading in one direction, and form a number of lobes, which limit the stress in the circumferential direction. A suitable superpressure balloon has been designed using this technology which will carry 2 kg in the atmosphere of Mars. The deployment of this balloon is assumed to occur while falling on a decelerator suitably designed for the Mars atmosphere. The inflation is accomplished by a 10 kg system suspended at the nadir of the balloon. As the system falls toward the surface of the planet, helium gas is transferred into the balloon, forming a partially inflated system very similar to an ascending zero pressure balloon. This analysis incorporates the flow of the planetary gas around the inflating balloon which alters the pressure distribution and shape. As a result, stresses are seen to increase beyond the design values which will require the balloon to be redesigned to accommodate this type of dynamic deployment.

  15. Ballooning-mirror instability and internally driven Pc 4--5 wave events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Qian, Q.; Takahashi, K.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1994-03-01

    A kinetic-MHD field-aligned eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities has been performed for anisotropic pressure plasma sin the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is mainly a transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy (P perpendicular /P parallel > 1) is large. From the AMPTE/CCE particle and magnetic field data observed during Pc 4--5 wave events the authors compute the ballooning-mirror instability parameters and perform a correlation study with the theoretical instability threshold. They find that compressional Pc 5 waves approximately satisfy the ballooning-mirror instability condition, and transverse Pc 4--5 waves are probably related to resonant ballooning instabilities with small pressure anisotropy

  16. Numerical analysis of energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qibing; Peng Qiyang; Qu Wenxiao

    1993-09-01

    The effect of energetic trapped particles on the stabilization of ballooning modes in finite-aspect-ratio tokamaks is numerically analyzed. The numerical solution of boundary value problem of an integro-differential equation is successfully obtained by RKF integral method with variable step size. The results show that the instability domain of ballooning modes becomes small along with the increase of energetic particles pressure. The energetic trapped particles can partially or completely suppress the instability of ballooning modes

  17. Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.L.; Hassam, A.B.; Waltz, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation is demonstrated using a shifted circle equilibrium model. A generalized ballooning mode representation is used to eliminate the fast Alfven wave, and an initial value code solves the resulting equations. The s-α diagram (magnetic shear versus pressure gradient) of ballooning mode theory is extended to include rotational shear. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq, where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is approximately one-quarter to one-half the Alfven frequency, ω A =V A /qR. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Atmospheric Pressure Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzsieder, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses observable phenomena related to air pressure. Describes a simple, unobtrusive, semiquantitative device to monitor the changes in air pressure that are associated with altitude, using a soft-drink bottle and a balloon. (JRH)

  19. Intra-aortic balloon shape change: effects on volume displacement during inflation and deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khir, Ashraf William; Bruti, Gianpaolo

    2013-07-01

    It has been observed that operating the intra-aortic balloon at an angle to the horizontal resulted in a reduction of the volume displaced toward the coronary arteries and compromised afterload reduction. Therefore, the aim of this work is to examine whether changing the current balloon shape, which has not been altered for 40 years, could compensate for the negative hemodynamic effects due to angulation. We tested two tapered balloons, increasing diameter (TID) and decreasing diameter (TDD), and compared the results with those obtained from a standard cylindrical balloon. The balloons were tested in vitro at 60 beats/min and a static pressure of 90 mm Hg. The balloons were operated at four angles (0°, 20°, 30°, 45°), and the pressure at three locations along the balloon (base, middle, and tip) was also measured. Flow rate upstream of the tip of the balloon was also measured to indicate the flow displaced toward the coronary circulation. The relative volume displaced toward (VUTVi) and suctioned away from (VUTVd) the simulated ascending aorta, during inflation and deflation, respectively, is reduced when a standard cylindrical balloon is operated at an angle to the horizontal. The TDD provided the greatest VUTVi and also produced the largest pulse pressure during deflation. Although the TID provided less VUTVi and VUTVd at smaller angles, it was not markedly affected by the change of angle. According to these results, different balloon shapes analyzed, with comparable volume to that of a cylindrical balloon, produced greater inflation and deflation benefits, at the horizontal and at a range of angles to the horizontal. Further investigations are required to optimize the shape of the tapered balloons to fit into the available physiological space. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  20. Material Properties Analysis of Structural Members in Pumpkin Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficient design, service-life qualification, and reliability predictions for lightweight aerospace structures require careful mechanical properties analysis of candidate structural materials. The demand for high-quality laboratory data is particularly acute when the candidate material or the structural design has little history. The pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloon presents both challenges. Its design utilizes load members (tendons) extending from apex to base around the gas envelope to achieve a lightweight structure. The candidate tendon material is highly weight-efficient braided HM cord. Previous mechanical properties studies of Zylon have focused on fiber and yarn, and industrial use of the material in tensile applications is limited. For high-performance polymers, a carefully plamed and executed properties analysis scheme is required to ensure the data are relevant to the desired application. Because no directly-applicable testing standard was available, a protocol was developed based on guidelines fiom professional and industry organizations. Due to the liquid-crystalline nature of the polymer, the cord is very stiff, creeps very little, and does not yield. Therefore, the key material property for this application is the breaking strength. The pretension load and gauge length were found to have negligible effect on the measured breaking strength over the ranges investigated. Strain rate was found to have no effect on breaking strength, within the range of rates suggested by the standards organizations. However, at the lower rate more similar to ULDB operations, the strength was reduced. The breaking strength increased when the experiment temperature was decreased from ambient to 183K which is the lowest temperature ULDB is expected to experience. The measured strength under all test conditions was well below that resulting from direct scale-up of fiber strength based on the manufacturers data. This expected result is due to the effects of the

  1. Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

  2. Identifying Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins With Super-TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNolfo, Georgia; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Sasaki, M.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z > or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.

  3. Upper gastrointestinal strictures: The results of balloon dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choo, In Wook; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyung Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    Balloon catheter dilatation of upper gastrointestinal strictures is an accepted mode of therapy. The authors report the balloon dilatation in 11 consecutive patients. The lesions treated included 10 benign strictures, and 1 esophageal cancer. Esophageal balloon were ranged from 2 mm in diameter, 4 cm in length, to 30 mm in diameter, 8 cm in length. Inflation was held for from 30 to 60 seconds and then repeated two or three times during each session. The balloons were inflated to pressure of from 2 to 12 atmospheres. There were from 1 to 13 dilatations. Two esophageal perforations were occurred in one esophagitis patient and other lye stricture patient. Two perforations were not required any surgical repair. All dilatation were performed without anesthesia. All strictures were responded immediately to dilatation. Prolonged course of treatment were needed with chronic severe esophagitis, lye stricture, gastrojejunostomy with chemotherapy, as a result, all patients, except esophageal cancer, could take regular diet after balloon catheter dilatation. Balloon catheter dilatation of upper gastrointestinal stenosis was effective and safe. It should be considered before other methods of treatment applicable.

  4. Usefulness of cutting balloon angioplasty for the treatment of congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusa, Jacek; Mazurak, Magdalena; Skierska, Agnieszka; Szydlowski, Leslaw; Czesniewicz, Pawel; Manka, Lukasz

    2018-01-01

    Patients with complex congenital heart defects may have different hemodynamic prob-lems which require a variety of interventional procedures including angioplasty which involves using high-pressure balloons. After failure of conventional balloon angioplasty, cutting balloon angioplasty is the next treatment option available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cutting balloon angioplasty in children with different types of congenital heart defects. Cutting balloon angioplasty was performed in 28 children with different congenital heart defects. The indication for cutting balloon angioplasty was: pulmonary artery stenosis in 17 patients, creating or dilatation of interatrial communication in 10 patients, and stenosis of left subclavian artery in 1 patient. In the pulmonary arteries group there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the proximal part of the artery from the average 74.33 ± 20.4 mm Hg to 55 ± 16.7 mm Hg (p cutting balloon angioplasty was performed after an unsuccessful classic Rashkind procedure. After cutting balloon angioplasty there was a significant widening of the interatrial communication. Cutting balloon angioplasty is a feasible and effective treatment option in different con-genital heart defects.

  5. High n ballooning modes in highly elongated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Bateman, G.

    1980-02-01

    An analytic study of stability against high n ballooning modes in highly elongated axisymmetric plasmas is presented and compared with computational results. From the equation for the marginal pressure gradient, it is found that the local shear plays an important role on the stability of elongated and shifted plasma, and that high elongation deteriorates the stability by decreasing the stabilizing effects of field line bending and local shear. The net contribution of the local shear to stability decreases with elongation and shift for strongly ballooning modes (eigenfunctions strongly localized near the outer edge of the toroidal flux surfaces) but increases for interchange modes (eigenfunctions more uniform along the flux surfaces). The computational study of high n ballooning modes in a highly elongated plasma reveals that lowering the aspect ratio and broadening the pressure profile enhance the marginal beta for β/sub p/ less than unity but severely reduce the marginal beta for β/sub p/ larger than unity

  6. Aerial Deployment and Inflation System for Mars Helium Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeler, Tim; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Hall, Jeffery, L.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Pauken, Michael T.; Walsh, Gerald J.; White, Christopher V.

    2009-01-01

    A method is examined for safely deploying and inflating helium balloons for missions at Mars. The key for making it possible to deploy balloons that are light enough to be buoyant in the thin, Martian atmosphere is to mitigate the transient forces on the balloon that might tear it. A fully inflated Mars balloon has a diameter of 10 m, so it must be folded up for the trip to Mars, unfolded upon arrival, and then inflated with helium gas in the atmosphere. Safe entry into the Martian atmosphere requires the use of an aeroshell vehicle, which protects against severe heating and pressure loads associated with the hypersonic entry flight. Drag decelerates the aeroshell to supersonic speeds, then two parachutes deploy to slow the vehicle down to the needed safe speed of 25 to 35 m/s for balloon deployment. The parachute system descent dynamic pressure must be approximately 5 Pa or lower at an altitude of 4 km or more above the surface.

  7. Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness meridional tendons This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent Upon inflation and pressurization the instantaneous i e linear-elastic strain and stress distributions in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction However over time and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the gore material the em hoop strains increase and the em meridional stresses decrease whereas the em remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature The results show good correlation with a numerical study using the ABAQUS finite-element package that includes a widely used model of

  8. A new approach to the diagnosis of esophageal rupture due to balloon dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Young; Han, Young Min; Lee, Sang Young; Kuh, Ja Hong; Lee, Dong Kun; Chae, Soo Wan

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of esophageal rupture in balloon dilatation is usually made from clinical symptom of sharp chest pain, plain chest radiographs and esophagograms after dilation. It has some problems; the pain is varied patients to patients and bacterial flora in the mouth or esophagus can be mixed with the contrast media to flow into the mediastinum during esophagography, to create mediastinitis. We could make the diagnosis of esophageal rupture without using contrast media by the observation of the pressure change in the balloon during dilatation. An infusion pump, transducer and esophageal balloon were connected through a multi-way connector, and the transducer of them was also connected to an amplifier which was connected to a pressure monitor to record the balloon pressure. As balloon(20mm/3cm) inserted in the mid-thoracic esophagus under the fluoroscopic control was inflated until the esophagus was ruptured. Balloon was distended by injecting air in 15 rabbits(A group), and by injecting diluted contrast medium in 15 rabbits(B group). The pressure decrease after esophageal rupture was ranged from 94 to 160 mmHg(mean; 103) in A group and 340 to 1040 mmHg(mean; 537) in B group. The pressure curve of A group was smooth, regular and so accurate to make the diagnosis of esophageal rupture, whereas that of B group was irregular and not so accurate. In conclusion, our new method to make the diagnosis of esophageal rupture during balloon dilatation may be useful in patients of esophageal stricture

  9. Rupture of the Renal Artery After Cutting Balloon Angioplasty in a Young Woman With Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri; Gulcan, Oner; Turkoz, Riza

    2005-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman with uncontrollable high blood pressure for 3 months had significant stenosis of the left renal artery caused by fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD). The lesion was resistant to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty at 18 atm with a semicompliant balloon. Angioplasy with a 6 x 10 mm cutting balloon (CB) caused rupture of the artery. Low-pressure balloon inflation decreased but did not stop the leak. An attempt to place a stent-graft (Jostent; Jomed, Rangendingen, Germany) failed, and a bare, 6-mm balloon-expandable stent (Express SD; Boston Scientific, MN) was deployed to seal the leak, which had decreased considerably after long-duration balloon inflation. The bleeding continued, and the patient underwent emergent surgical revascularization of the renal artery with successful placement of a 6-mm polytetrafluoroethylene bypass graft. CBs should be used very carefully in the treatment of renal artery stenosis, particularly in patients with FMD

  10. MHD simulation of high wavenumber ballooning-like modes in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, H.; Nakajima, N.

    2008-10-01

    Dynamical growths of high-wavenumber ballooning modes are studied through full-3D nonlinear MHD simulations of the Large Helical Device. The growths of the ballooning modes are identified by studying the growth rates and the radial profiles of the Fourier coefficients of fluctuation variables. The mechanisms to weaken the growth of instability, such as the local fattening of the pressure and the energy release to the parallel kinetic energy, are found being insufficient to suppress the high-wavenumber ballooning modes. Consequently, the mean pressure profile is totally modified when the evolutions of the ballooning modes are saturated. The numerical results reveal that we need some mechanisms which do not originate from an ideal MHD to achieve a mild, saturated behaviors beyond the growths of unstable high ballooning modes in the helical device. The parallel heat conductivity is proposed as one of possible non-ideal mechanisms. (author)

  11. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epistaxis balloon. 874.4100 Section 874.4100 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a) Identification. An epistaxis balloon is a device consisting of an inflatable balloon intended to control internal...

  12. Calculating Payload for a Tethered Balloon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles D. Tangren

    1980-01-01

    A graph method to calculate payload for a tethered balloon system, with the supporting helium lift and payload equations. is described. The balloon system is designed to collect emissions data during the convective-lift and no-convective-lift phases of a forest fire. A description of the balloon system and a list of factors affecting balloon selection are included....

  13. Retrograde transurethral balloon dilation of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Wasserman, N.F.; Lund, G.; Hulbert, J.; Hunter, D.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    A series of patients with documented benign prostatic hypertrophy evaluated by urodynamic studies, voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, and MR imaging underwent dilation performed using a retrograde transurethral approach with 25-mm balloon dilators inflated at a pressure of 3-4 atm for 10 minutes. Immediately after the procedure, retrograde and voiding cystourethrography as well as MR imaging were performed. A Foley catheter was left in place for 24 hours. Complete relief of symptoms has occurred in all of the patients during the follow-up period. No significant complications other than transient hematuria resulted from the procedure. Results of the comparison studies and of MR imaging are discussed

  14. Achilles tests finally nail PWR fuel clad ballooning fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, P.; McMinn, K.

    1992-01-01

    A conclusive series of experiments carried out by AEA Reactor Services at its Achilles rig in the UK has finally allayed fears that fuel clad ballooning is a major safety problem for Sizewell B, Britain's first Pressurized Water Reactor. The experiments are described in this article. (author)

  15. Polarimetric Analysis of the Long Duration Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 160530A With the Balloon Borne Compton Spectrometer and Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, A. W.; Boggs, S. E; Chiu, C. L.; Kierans, C. A.; Sleator, C.; Tomsick, J. A.; Zoglauer, A. C. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Chang, H.-K.; Tseng, C.-H.; Yang, C.-Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Jean, P.; Ballmoos, P. von [IRAP Toulouse (France); Lin, C.-H. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Amman, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2017-10-20

    A long duration gamma-ray burst, GRB 160530A, was detected by the Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) during the 2016 COSI Super Pressure Balloon campaign. As a Compton telescope, COSI is inherently sensitive to the polarization of gamma-ray sources in the energy range 0.2–5.0 MeV. We measured the polarization of GRB 160530A using (1) a standard method (SM) based on fitting the distribution of azimuthal scattering angles with a modulation curve and (2) an unbinned, maximum likelihood method (MLM). In both cases, the measured polarization level was below the 99% confidence minimum detectable polarization levels of 72.3% ± 0.8% (SM) and 57.5% ± 0.8% (MLM). Therefore, COSI did not detect polarized gamma-ray emission from this burst. Our most constraining 90% confidence upper limit on the polarization level was 46% (MLM).

  16. Design and evaluation of a continuum robot with extendable balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Yarbasi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and preliminary evaluation of a novel continuum robot actuated by two extendable balloons. Extendable balloons are utilized as the actuation mechanism of the robot, and they are attached to the tip from their slack sections. These balloons can extend very much in length without having a significant change in diameter. Employing two balloons in an axially extendable, radially rigid flexible shaft, radial strain becomes constricted, allowing high elongation. As inflated, the balloons apply a force on the wall of the tip, pushing it forward. This force enables the robot to move forward. The air is supplied to the balloons by an air compressor and its flow rate to each balloon can be independently controlled. Changing the air volumes differently in each balloon, when they are radially constricted, orients the robot, allowing navigation. Elongation and force generation capabilities and pressure data are measured for different balloons during inflation and deflation. Afterward, the robot is subjected to open field and maze-like environment navigation tests. The contribution of this study is the introduction of a novel actuation mechanism for soft robots to have extreme elongation (2000 % in order to be navigated in substantially long and narrow environments.

  17. Aviation investigation report : hard landing : fuel leak and fire[Sundance Balloons International Firefly 12B (hot air balloon) C-FNVM, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 15 nm NE, 11 August 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    This investigation report discussed an incident in Winnipeg in which a hot air balloon attempting to land during strong winds was dragged on its side for approximately 700 feet. The balloon's burners struck the ground as the balloon came to a stop, after which a propane leak occurred. An intense, uncontrolled fire ensued as balloon passengers were exiting from the partially-inverted basket. The pilot and 2 passengers suffered serious injuries, while another 4 passengers suffered minor injuries. The balloon's 2 propane tanks and a fire extinguisher canister exploded during the fire, which destroyed the balloon's basket. The rigging of the balloon was examined and no failures were discovered. Pressure tests showed that the balloon's hoses started leaking at the crimped sleeve fittings at 150 psi. While the pilot had been informed of potentially heavy winds and thunderstorms, changes in wind speed and direction occurred earlier than the forecasted time of 10:00. It was concluded that standards are needed to ensure balloon cabin safety. Balloon operators do not currently require the use of protective helmets or gloves in case of dragged landings. A review will be conducted to address the issue of proposed emergency fuel shut-offs for balloons carrying fare-paying passengers. 2 figs.

  18. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158  GeV/u In^{49+} ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mahner

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 10^{4} to 10^{7} molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the Super Proton Synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV graphite, and 316 LN (low carbon with nitrogen stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158  GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental setup, the results of the pressure rise measurements are presented, and the derived desorption yields are compared with data from other experiments.

  19. US Daily Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot Balloon observational forms for the United States. Taken by Weather Bureau and U.S. Army observers. Period of record 1918-1960. Records scanned from the NCDC...

  20. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  1. Anderson localization and ballooning eigenfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Cuthbert, P.

    1999-01-01

    In solving the ballooning eigenvalue for a low-aspect-ratio stellarator equilibrium it is found that the quasiperiodic behaviour of the equilibrium quantities along a typical magnetic field line can lead to localization of the ballooning eigenfunction (Anderson localization) even in the limit of zero shear. This localization leads to strong field-line dependence of the ballooning eigenvalue, with different branches attaining their maximum growth rates on different field lines. A method is presented of estimating the field-line dependence of various eigenvalue branches by using toroidal and poloidal symmetry operations on the shear-free ballooning equation to generate an approximate set of eigenfunctions. These zero-shear predictions are compared with accurate numerical solutions for the H-1 Heliac and are shown to give a qualitatively correct picture, but finite shear corrections will be needed to give quantitative predictions

  2. Solar research with stratospheric balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Manuel; Wittmann, Axel D.

    Balloons, driven by hot air or some gas lighter than air, were the first artificial machines able to lift payloads (including humans) from the ground. After some pioneering flights the study of the physical properties of the terrestrial atmosphere constituted the first scientific target. A bit later astronomers realized that the turbulence of the atmospheric layers above their ground-based telescopes deteriorated the image quality, and that balloons were an appropriate means to overcome, total or partially, this problem. Some of the most highly-resolved photographs and spectrograms of the sun during the 20th century were actually obtained by balloon-borne telescopes from the stratosphere. Some more recent projects of solar balloon astronomy will also be described.

  3. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program will soon make flights lasting up to 100 days. Some flights may generate high data rates and retrieving this data...

  4. Detection of Artificially Generated Seismic Signals Using Balloon-Borne Infrasound Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Siddharth; Komjathy, Attila; Pauken, Michael T.; Cutts, James A.; Garcia, Raphael F.; Mimoun, David; Cadu, Alexandre; Sournac, Anthony; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Lai, Voon Hui; Bowman, Daniel C.

    2018-04-01

    We conducted an experiment in Pahrump, Nevada, in June 2017, where artificial seismic signals were created using a seismic hammer, and the possibility of detecting them from their acoustic signature was examined. In this work, we analyze the pressure signals recorded by highly sensitive barometers deployed on the ground and on tethers suspended from balloons. Our signal processing results show that wind noise experienced by a barometer on a free-flying balloon is lower compared to one on a moored balloon. This has never been experimentally demonstrated in the lower troposphere. While seismoacoustic signals were not recorded on the hot air balloon platform owing to operational challenges, we demonstrate the detection of seismoacoustic signals on our moored balloon platform. Our results have important implications for performing seismology in harsh surface environments such as Venus through atmospheric remote sensing.

  5. Super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Alice

    1990-01-01

    A super Riemann surface is a particular kind of (1,1)-dimensional complex analytic supermanifold. From the point of view of super-manifold theory, super Riemann surfaces are interesting because they furnish the simplest examples of what have become known as non-split supermanifolds, that is, supermanifolds where the odd and even parts are genuinely intertwined, as opposed to split supermanifolds which are essentially the exterior bundles of a vector bundle over a conventional manifold. However undoubtedly the main motivation for the study of super Riemann surfaces has been their relevance to the Polyakov quantisation of the spinning string. Some of the papers on super Riemann surfaces are reviewed. Although recent work has shown all super Riemann surfaces are algebraic, some areas of difficulty remain. (author)

  6. Complex Coronary Interventions with the Novel Mozec™ CTO Balloon: The MOZART Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Alessandro; Rognoni, Andrea; Schaffer, Alon; Secco, Gioel G; Bongo, Angelo S

    2015-01-01

    Mozec™ CTO is a novel semicompliant rapid-exchange PTCA balloon catheter with specific features dedicated to treat complex coronary lesions like chronic total occlusions (CTOs). However, no data have been reported about the performance of this device in an all-comers population with complex coronary lesions. We evaluated the safety and success rate of Mozec™ CTO balloon in 41 consecutive patients with chronic stable angina and complex coronary lesions (15 severe calcified coronary stenoses, 15 bifurcation lesions with planned two-stent intervention, and 11 CTOs). Safety was assessed reporting the balloon burst rate after inflation exceeding the rated burst pressure (RBP) according to the manufacturer's reference table. Success was defined as the possibility to advance the device further the target lesion. The Mozec™ CTO balloon showed an excellent performance with a 93.3% success in crossing tight and severely calcified lesions (14/15 pts), a 93.3% success in engaging jailed side branches after stent deployment across bifurcations (14/15 pts), and a 90.9% success in crossing CTO lesions (10/11 pts). The burst rate at RBP of the Mozec™ CTO balloon was 6.7% (1/15 balloons) in the tight and severely calcified lesions, 6.7% (1/15 balloons) when dilating jailed vessels, and 9.1% (1/11 balloons) in CTOs. The novel Mozec™ CTO balloon dilatation catheter showed promising results when employed to treat complex lesions in an all-comers population. Further studies should clarify if this kind of balloon might reduce the need of more costly devices like over-the-wire balloons and microcatheters for complex lesions treatment.

  7. Supermanifolds and super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    The theory of super Riemann surfaces is rigorously developed using Rogers' theory of supermanifolds. The global structures of super Teichmueller space and super moduli space are determined. The super modular group is shown to be precisely the ordinary modular group. Super moduli space is shown to be the gauge-fixing slice for the fermionic string path integral

  8. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  9. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  10. Balloon pulmonary valvotomy – Not just a simple balloon dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhendu Mohanty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Balloon pulmonary valvotomy is the preferred mode of treatment in patients with isolated pulmonary valvar stenosis and has shown good long term results. It is generally considered a safe procedure with few complications. There have been however, case reports of potentially fatal acute severe pulmonary edema occurring after the procedure in some patients. The cause of this complication and its pathophysiology is still not clear. Its occurrence is also infrequent with less than 5 cases reported till now. We report a case of pulmonary valvar stenosis which developed acute severe refractory pulmonary edema immediately after balloon pulmonary valvotomy.

  11. Balloon dilatation of ureteric strictures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punekar S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Evaluation of dilatation as a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of ureteric strictures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated this technique in 16 patients with ureteric and secondary pelviureteric junction strictures from June 1998. Of these, 7 were men and 9 were women. The age range was from 14 to 40 years. RESULTS: Balloon dilatation was successful in 69% of patients. Strictures secondary to previous surgery had nearly 100% success. Of the 8 cases diagnosed as genitourinary tuberculosis, success rate was 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Factors affecting success of balloon dilatation are: a age of the stricture b length of the stricture and c etiology of the stricture. In a select group of patients with fresh post-operative or post-inflammatory strictures, balloon dilatation may be an attractive alternative to surgery.

  12. Mars Solar Balloon Lander, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Solar Balloon Lander (MSBL) is a novel concept which utilizes the capability of solar-heated hot air balloons to perform soft landings of scientific...

  13. Taking the Hot Air Out of Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinks, Virgil L.; Brinks, Robyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how a teacher can give their students the challenge of designing and building model balloons or blimps. The project helps students learn the basics of balloon flight and what it really means to be "lighter than air." (PR)

  14. Second-generation endometrial ablation technologies: the hot liquid balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilos, George A; Edris, Fawaz

    2007-12-01

    Hysteroscopic endometrial ablation (HEA) was introduced in the 1980s to treat menorrhagia. Its use required additional training, surgical expertise and specialized equipment to minimize emergent complications such as uterine perforations, thermal injuries and excessive fluid absorption. To overcome these difficulties and concerns, thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) was introduced in the 1990s. Four hot liquid balloons have been introduced into clinical practice. All systems consist of a catheter (4-10mm diameter), a silicone balloon and a control unit. Liquids used to inflate the balloons include internally heated dextrose in water (ThermaChoice, 87 degrees C), and externally heated glycine (Cavaterm, 78 degrees C), saline (Menotreat, 85 degrees ) and glycerine (Thermablate, 173 degrees C). All balloons require pressurization from 160 to 240 mmHg for treatment cycles of 2 to 10 minutes. Prior to TBEA, preoperative endometrial thinning, including suction curettage, is optional. Several RCTs and cohort studies indicate that the advantages of TBEA include portability, ease of use and short learning curve. In addition, small diameter catheters requiring minimal cervical dilatation (5-7 mm) and short duration of treatment cycles (2-8 min) allow treatment under minimal analgesia/anesthesia requirements in a clinic setting. Following TBEA serious adverse events, including thermal injuries to viscera have been experienced. To minimize such injuries some surgeons advocate the use of routine post-dilatation hysteroscopy and/or ultrasonography to confirm correct intrauterine placement of the balloon prior to initiating the treatment cycle. After 10 years of clinical practice, TBEA is thought to be the preferred first-line surgical treatment of menorrhagia in appropriately selected candidates. Economic modeling also suggested that TBEA may be more cost-effective than HEA.

  15. Complications of balloon packing in epistaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Derks, Wynia; Fokkens, Wytske; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2015-01-01

    Although balloon packing appears to be efficient to control epistaxis, severe local complications can occur. We describe four patients with local lesions after balloon packing. Prolonged balloon packing can cause damage to nasal mucosa, septum and alar skin (nasal mucosa, the cartilaginous skeleton

  16. Scientific Ballooning in India - Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, R. K.; Srinivasan, S.; Subbarao, J. V.

    Established in 1972, the National Balloon Facility operated by TIFR in Hyderabad, India is is a unique facility in the country, which provides a complete solution in scientific ballooning. It is also one of its kind in the world since it combines both, the in-house balloon production and a complete flight support for scientific ballooning. With a large team working through out the year to design, fabricate and launch scientific balloons, the Hyderabad Facility is a unique centre of expertise where the balloon design, Research and Development, the production and launch facilities are located under one roof. Our balloons are manufactured from 100% indigenous components. The mission specific balloon design, high reliability control and support instrumentation, in-house competence in tracking, telemetry, telecommand, data processing, system design and mechanics is a hallmark of the Hyderabad balloon facility. In the past few years we have executed a major programme of upgradation of different components of balloon production, telemetry and telecommand hardware and various support facilities. This paper focuses on our increased capability of balloon production of large sizes up to size of 780,000 M^3 using Antrix film, development of high strength balloon load tapes with the breaking strength of 182 kg, and the recent introduction of S-band telemetry and a commandable timer cut-off unit in the flight hardware. A summary of the various flights conducted in recent years will be presented along with the plans for new facilities.

  17. Percutaneous Transhepatic Cutting Balloon Papillotomy for Removal of Common Bile Duct Stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Ozkan, Ugur; Gumus, Burcak

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old female who presented with jaundice secondary to recurrent adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and several common bile duct stones. Percutaneous papillary dilatation was planned to remove the common bile duct stones. Papilla was dilated through the percutaneous approach with an 8-mm peripheral cutting balloon instead of a standard balloon. All the stones were pushed successfully into the duodenum with a saline flush. No complications were encountered. Use of a peripheral cutting balloon for dilatation of the papilla seems to be safe and effective because it has the advantage of controlled incision and dilatation of the target at low pressures.

  18. Isothermal pumping analysis for high-altitude tethered balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kirsty A; Hunt, Hugh E M

    2015-06-01

    High-altitude tethered balloons have potential applications in communications, surveillance, meteorological observations and climate engineering. To maintain balloon buoyancy, power fuel cells and perturb atmospheric conditions, fluids could be pumped from ground level to altitude using the tether as a hose. This paper examines the pumping requirements of such a delivery system. Cases considered include delivery of hydrogen, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and powders as fluid-based slurries. Isothermal analysis is used to determine the variation of pressures and velocities along the pipe length. Results show that transport of small quantities of hydrogen to power fuel cells and maintain balloon buoyancy can be achieved at pressures and temperatures that are tolerable in terms of both the pipe strength and the current state of pumping technologies. To avoid solidification, transport of SO2 would require elevated temperatures that cannot be tolerated by the strength fibres in the pipe. While the use of particle-based slurries rather than SO2 for climate engineering can reduce the pipe size significantly, the pumping pressures are close to the maximum bursting pressure of the pipe.

  19. Laser welding of balloon catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Aidan J.

    2003-03-01

    The balloon catheter is one of the principal instruments of non-invasive vascular surgery. It is used most commonly for angioplasty (and in recent years for delivering stents) at a multitude of different sites in the body from small arteries in the heart to the bilary duct. It is composed of a polymer balloon that is attached to a polymer shaft at two points called the distal and proximal bonds. The diverse utility of balloon catheters means a large range of component sizes and materials are used during production; this leads to a complexity of bonding methods and technology. The proximal and distal bonds have been conventionally made using cyanoacrylate or UV curing glue, however with performance requirements of bond strength, flexibility, profile, and manufacturing costs these bonds are increasingly being made by welding using laser, RF, and Hot Jaw methods. This paper describes laser welding of distal and proximal balloon bonds and details beam delivery, bonding mechanisms, bond shaping, laser types, and wavelength choice.

  20. Measurements of Intra‐Aortic Balloon Wall Movement During Inflation and Deflation: Effects of Angulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruti, Gianpaolo; Kolyva, Christina; Pepper, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The intra‐aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a ventricular assist device that is used with a broad range of pre‐, intra‐, and postoperative patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Although the clinical efficacy of the IABP is well documented, the question of reduced efficacy when patients are nursed in the semi‐recumbent position remains outstanding. The aim of the present work is therefore to investigate the underlying mechanics responsible for the loss of IABP performance when operated at an angle to the horizontal. Simultaneous recordings of balloon wall movement, providing an estimate of its diameter (D), and fluid pressure were taken at three sites along the intra‐aortic balloon (IAB) at 0 and 45°. Flow rate, used for the calculation of displaced volume, was also recorded distal to the tip of the balloon. An in vitro experimental setup was used, featuring physiological impedances on either side of the IAB ends. IAB inflation at an angle of 45° showed that D increases at the tip of the IAB first, presenting a resistance to the flow displaced away from the tip of the balloon. The duration of inflation decreased by 15.5%, the inflation pressure pulse decreased by 9.6%, and volume decreased by 2.5%. Similarly, changing the position of the balloon from 0 to 45°, the balloon deflation became slower by 35%, deflation pressure pulse decreased by 14.7%, and volume suctioned was decreased by 15.2%. IAB wall movement showed that operating at 45° results in slower deflation compared with 0°. Slow wall movement, and changes in inflation and deflation onsets, result in a decreased volume displacement and pressure pulse generation. Operating the balloon at an angle to the horizontal, which is the preferred nursing position in intensive care units, results in reduced IAB inflation and deflation performance, possibly compromising its clinical benefits. PMID:25959284

  1. Detection of Artificially Generated Seismic Signals using Balloon-borne Infrasound Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthy, Siddharth; Komjathy, Attila; Pauken, Michael T.; Cutts, James A.; Garcia, Raphael F.; Mimoun, David; Cadu, Alexandre; Sournac, Anthony; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Lai, Voon Hui; Bowman, Daniel C.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted an experiment in Pahrump, Nevada, in June 2017, where artificial seismic signals were created using a seismic hammer, and the possibility of detecting them from their acoustic signature was examined. In this work, we analyze the pressure signals recorded by highly sensitive barometers deployed on the ground and on tethers suspended from balloons. Our signal processing results show that wind noise experienced by a barometer on a free‐flying balloon is lower compared to one on a mo...

  2. Ballooning modes on open magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameiri, E.

    1999-01-01

    The ballooning instability on open magnetic field lines is given a thorough mathematical analysis. It is shown that resistive bounding ends (endplates) induce the same stability properties as insulating ends. When unstable, the maximal growth rate increases monotonically with boundary resistivity. An interchange instability may be present, and one necessary condition for its stability is that ∫dl/B be constant on pressure surfaces. (This is an equilibrium existence condition for systems with closed magnetic field lines.) Another necessary condition for interchange stability has the same form as in the closed line case. Precise necessary and sufficient stability criteria are given for various types of bounding ends, including insulating, resistive, and perfectly conducting. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  3. Balloon-tipped flow-directed catheters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, P.; Swan, H.J.C.; Ganz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic catheterization of the right side of the heart with semirigid cardiac catheters requires fluoroscopic guidance and substantial skill. Abnormal positions of the heart chambers and of the great vessels associated with cardiac dilatation or with congenital malformation present difficulties even to experienced laboratory cardiologists. These problems have been largely overcome by the introduction of balloon tipped flow directed catheters, which allow for rapid and relatively safe catheterization of the pulmonary artery without fluoroscopy. It was through the application of these catheters in the intensive care unit that the many pitfalls in the clinical assessment of hemodynamic disturbances became apparent. Although S3 gallop sounds may be useful in the clinical recognition of chronic ventricular failure, their presence or absence has limited predictive value in estimating left ventricular filling pressure in myocardial infarction. Information derived from right heart catheterization is often pivotal in the evaluation of hemodynamic disorders, in directing treatment, and in monitoring the results of therapy in critically ill patients

  4. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  5. Status of the NASA Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, H. C.; Nock, R. S.; Bawcom, D. W.

    1993-02-01

    In the early 1980's the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program was faced with a problem of catastrophic balloon failures. In 1986 a balloon recovery program was initiated. This program included qualification of new balloon films, and investigations into materials, processing, structures and performance of balloons. This recovery program has been very successful. To date, more than 100 balloons manufactured of newly developed films have been flown with unprecedented success. There has been much progress made across the spectrum of balloon related disciplines. A new design philosophy has been developed and is being used for all NASA balloons. An updated balloon reliability and quality assurance program is in effect. The long duration balloon development project has been initiated with the first flight test having been conducted in December 1989 from Antarctica. A comprehensive research and development (R&D) effort has been initiated and is progressing well. The progress, status and future plans for these and other aspects of the NASA program, along with a description of the comprehensive balloon R&D activity, will be presented.

  6. Scientific ballooning in India Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, R. K.

    Established in 1971, the National Balloon Facility operated by TIFR in Hyderabad, India, is a unique facility in the country, which provides a complete solution in scientific ballooning. It is also one of its kind in the world since it combines both, the in-house balloon production and a complete flight support for scientific ballooning. With a large team working through out the year to design, fabricate and launch scientific balloons, the Hyderabad Facility is a unique centre of expertise where the balloon design, research and development, the production and launch facilities are located under one roof. Our balloons are manufactured from 100% indigenous components. The mission specific balloon design, high reliability control and support instrumentation, in-house competence in tracking, telemetry, telecommand, data processing, system design and mechanics is its hallmark. In the past few years, we have executed a major programme of upgradation of different components of balloon production, telemetry and telecommand hardware and various support facilities. This paper focuses on our increased capability of balloon production of large sizes up to 780,000 m 3 using Antrix film, development of high strength balloon load tapes with the breaking strength of 182 kg, and the recent introduction of S-band telemetry and a commandable timer cut-off unit in the flight hardware. A summary of the various flights conducted in recent years will be presented along with the plans for new facilities.

  7. DC dynamic pull-in instability of a dielectric elastomer balloon: an energy-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Atul Kumar; Arora, Nitesh; Joglekar, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports an energy-based method for the dynamic pull-in instability analysis of a spherical dielectric elastomer (DE) balloon subjected to a quasi-statically applied inflation pressure and a Heaviside step voltage across the balloon wall. The proposed technique relies on establishing the energy balance at the point of maximum stretch in an oscillation cycle, followed by the imposition of an instability condition for extracting the threshold parameters. The material models of the Ogden family are employed for describing the hyperelasticity of the balloon. The accuracy of the critical dynamic pull-in parameters is established by examining the saddle-node bifurcation in the transient response of the balloon obtained by integrating numerically the equation of motion, derived using the Euler-Lagrange equation. The parametric study brings out the effect of inflation pressure on the onset of the pull-in instability in the DE balloon. A quantitative comparison between the static and dynamic pull-in parameters at four different levels of the inflation pressure is presented. The results indicate that the dynamic pull-in instability gets triggered at electric fields that are lower than those corresponding to the static instability. The results of the present investigation can find potential use in the design and development of the balloon actuators subjected to transient loading. The method developed is versatile and can be used in the dynamic instability analysis of other conservative systems of interest.

  8. Asymptotic stability boundaries of ballooning modes in circular tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Bondeson, A.; Chance, M.S.

    1987-06-01

    The model ballooning mode equation of Connor, Hastie, and Taylor for large-aspect-ratio circular tokamaks is analyzed in the limit of large pressure gradient, and corresponding expressions for stability boundaries are derived. In particular, it is found that for a fixed radial wave number, there exists an infinite sequence of unstable bands, and that minimizing over the radial wave numbers leads to asymptotic merging between the neighboring bands

  9. Incremental balloon deflation following complete resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta results in steep inflection of flow and rapid reperfusion in a large animal model of hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anders J; Russo, Rachel M; Ferencz, Sarah-Ashley E; Cannon, Jeremy W; Rasmussen, Todd E; Neff, Lucas P; Johnson, M Austin; Williams, Timothy K

    2017-07-01

    To avoid potential cardiovascular collapse after resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), current guidelines recommend methodically deflating the balloon for 5 minutes to gradually reperfuse distal tissue beds. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that this approach may still result in unpredictable aortic flow rates and hemodynamic instability. We sought to characterize aortic flow dynamics following REBOA as the balloon is deflated in accordance with current practice guidelines. Eight Yorkshire-cross swine were splenectomized, instrumented, and subjected to rapid 25% total blood volume hemorrhage. After 30 minutes of shock, animals received 60 minutes of Zone 1 REBOA with a low-profile REBOA catheter. During subsequent resuscitation with shed blood, the aortic occlusion balloon was gradually deflated in stepwise fashion at the rate of 0.5 mL every 30 seconds until completely deflated. Aortic flow rate and proximal mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured continuously over the period of balloon deflation. Graded balloon deflation resulted in variable initial return of aortic flow (median, 78 seconds; interquartile range [IQR], 68-105 seconds). A rapid increase in aortic flow during a single-balloon deflation step was observed in all animals (median, 819 mL/min; IQR, 664-1241 mL/min) and corresponded with an immediate decrease in proximal MAP (median, 30 mm Hg; IQR, 14.5-37 mm Hg). Total balloon volume and time to return of flow demonstrated no correlation (r = 0.016). This study is the first to characterize aortic flow during balloon deflation following REBOA. A steep inflection point occurs during balloon deflation that results in an abrupt increase in aortic flow and a concomitant decrease in MAP. Furthermore, the onset of distal aortic flow was inconsistent across study animals and did not correlate with initial balloon volume or relative deflation volume. Future studies to define the factors that affect aortic flow during balloon

  10. Recovery of the SuperTIGER Instrument and Preparations for the Flight of SuperTIGER-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, N. E.; Supertiger Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    On December 8, 2012, the SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument began its long-duration balloon flight from Williams Field, Antarctica. Flying for a record-breaking 55 days at a mean altitude of 125,000 feet, the instrument successfully measured the relative elemental abundances of Galactic cosmic ray nuclei having charge (Z) greater than Z=10, showing very well resolved individual element peaks up to Z=40. The instrument measures particle charge and energy through the combined use of two Cherenkov detectors and three scintillation detectors, and determines particle trajectory with a scintillating fiber hodoscope. After cutdown and two years on the ice, SuperTIGER was successfully recovered in January, 2015. Its detectors and hodoscopes are being tested and refurbished, and are expected to be used again for a second flight, SuperTIGER-2. The second flight is aimed at improving SuperTIGER's already excellent charge resolution as well as at accumulating more data to be combined with that of SuperTIGER for improved statistics. In November 2015, a test of the scintillator saturation effect was performed at CERN using a beam of interacted Pb nuclei to help create more accurate charge reconstruction models that will help resolve elements in the range Z=41 to Z=60. This research was supported by NASA under Grants NNX09AC17G, NNX14AB25G, the Peggy and Steve Fossett Foundation and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences at Washington University.

  11. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  12. NETL Super Computer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NETL Super Computer was designed for performing engineering calculations that apply to fossil energy research. It is one of the world’s larger supercomputers,...

  13. Investigation of hot air balloon fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, T S; Smialek, J E; Capron, R G

    1985-04-01

    The rising popularity of the sport of hot air ballooning has been accompanied by several recent incidents, both in this country and other parts of the world, where mechanical defects and the improper operation of balloons have resulted in several fatalities. A study was conducted to identify the location and frequency of hot air ballooning accidents. Furthermore, the study attempted to identify those accidents that were the result of improper handling on the part of the balloon operators and those that were related to specific defects in the construction of the balloon. This paper presents a background of the sport of hot air ballooning, together with an analysis of the construction of a typical hot air balloon, pointing out the specific areas where defects may occur that could result in a potential fatal balloon crash. Specific attention is given to the two recent balloon crashes that occurred in Albuquerque, N.M., hot air balloon capital of the world, and that resulted in multiple fatalities.

  14. PEBS - Positron Electron Balloon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    von Doetinchem, P.; Kirn, T.; Yearwood, G.Roper; Schael, S.

    2007-01-01

    The best measurement of the cosmic ray positron flux available today was performed by the HEAT balloon experiment more than 10 years ago. Given the limitations in weight and power consumption for balloon experiments, a novel approach was needed to design a detector which could increase the existing data by more than a factor of 100. Using silicon photomultipliers for the readout of a scintillating fiber tracker and of an imaging electromagnetic calorimeter, the PEBS detector features a large geometrical acceptance of 2500 cm^2 sr for positrons, a total weight of 1500 kg and a power consumption of 600 W. The experiment is intended to measure cosmic ray particle spectra for a period of up to 20 days at an altitude of 40 km circulating the North or South Pole. A full Geant 4 simulation of the detector concept has been developed and key elements have been verified in a testbeam in October 2006 at CERN.

  15. Basic development of a small balloon-mounted telemetry and its operation system by university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masa-yuki; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Kono, Hiroki

    ) method with a 3DCAD design software, we designed and manufactured a camera-platform type antenna rotator that automatically track the balloon direction based on the received GPS data as a balloon operation system on ground with automatic controlling software for the tracking system. In order to develop a future telemetry system onboard a small weather balloon, we have performed an onboard data logger system. In this presentation, system configuration of the automatic tracking system will be introduced more in detail. The telemetry system onboard the small balloon is currently under development. We have a plan to send the measured GPS coordinates, temperature, pressure, and humidity data detected by the onboard sensors to ground. A monitoring camera, a 3-axes accelerometer, geomagnetic azimuth measurement, and power monitoring were added to the developed data logger system. The acquired data will be stored in an SD card aboard as well as transmitted to the ground. Using a vacuum chamber with a pressure sensors and a constant-temperature reservoir in laboratory, environmental tests were operated. In this presentation, introducing the data obtained through the development of a prototype balloon system, our recent results and problems will be discussed.

  16. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  17. Synergistic effects from graphene and carbon nanotubes endow ordered hierarchical structure foams with a combination of compressibility, super-elasticity and stability and potential application as pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Liu, Luqi; Yang, Zhou; Jin, Ming; Zhang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured carbon material based three-dimensional porous architectures have been increasingly developed for various applications, e.g. sensors, elastomer conductors, and energy storage devices. Maintaining architectures with good mechanical performance, including elasticity, load-bearing capacity, fatigue resistance and mechanical stability, is prerequisite for realizing these functions. Though graphene and CNT offer opportunities as nanoscale building blocks, it still remains a great challenge to achieve good mechanical performance in their microarchitectures because of the need to precisely control the structure at different scales. Herein, we fabricate a hierarchical honeycomb-like structured hybrid foam based on both graphene and CNT. The resulting materials possess excellent properties of combined high specific strength, elasticity and mechanical stability, which cannot be achieved in neat CNT and graphene foams. The improved mechanical properties are attributed to the synergistic-effect-induced highly organized, multi-scaled hierarchical architectures. Moreover, with their excellent electrical conductivity, we demonstrated that the hybrid foams could be used as pressure sensors in the fields related to artificial skin.

  18. Detecting Seismic Infrasound Signals on Balloon Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, S.; Komjathy, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Garcia, R.; Mimoun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Kedar, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Hall, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of the interior structure of a planet requires detailed seismic investigations - a process that entails the detection and characterization of seismic waves due to geological activities (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.). For decades, this task has primarily been performed on Earth by an ever-expanding network of terrestrial seismic stations. However, on planets such as Venus, where the surface pressure and temperature can reach as high as 90 atmospheres and 450 degrees Celsius respectively, placing seismometers on the planet's surface poses a vexing technological challenge. However, the upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere are more benign and capable of hosting geophysical payloads for longer mission lifetimes. In order to achieve the aim of performing geophysical experiments from an atmospheric platform, JPL and its partners (ISAE-SUPAERO and California Institute of Technology) are in the process of developing technologies for detection of infrasonic waves generated by earthquakes from a balloon. The coupling of seismic energy into the atmosphere critically depends on the density differential between the surface of the planet and the atmosphere. Therefore, the successful demonstration of this technique on Earth would provide ample reason to expect success on Venus, where the atmospheric impedance is approximately 60 times that of Earth. In this presentation, we will share results from the first set of Earth-based balloon experiments performed in Pahrump, Nevada in June 2017. These tests involved the generation of artificial sources of known intensity using a seismic hammer and their detection using a complex network of sensors, including highly sensitive micro-barometers suspended from balloons, GPS receivers, geophones, microphones, and seismometers. This experiment was the first of its kind and was successful in detecting infrasonic waves from the earthquakes generated by the seismic hammer. We will present the first comprehensive analysis

  19. Abdominal cavity balloon for preventing a patient's bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Naber, E.E.H.; Rutten, H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Moes, C.C.M.; Buzink, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to an abdominal cavity balloon for preventing a haemorrhage in a patient's pelvic region, comprising an inflatable balloon, wherein the balloon is pro vided with a smooth surface and with a strip that is flex- urally stiff and formed to follow the balloon's shape for po sitioning the balloon.

  20. Strong 'Quantum' Chaos in the Global Ballooning Mode Spectrum of Three-dimensional Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R. L.; Cuthbert, P.; Ball, R.

    2000-01-01

    The spectrum of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure-driven (ballooning) modes in strongly nonaxisymmetric toroidal systems is difficult to analyze numerically owing to the singular nature of ideal MHD caused by lack of an inherent scale length. In this paper, ideal MHD is regularized by using a k-space cutoff, making the ray tracing for the WKB ballooning formalism a chaotic Hamiltonian billiard problem. The minimum width of the toroidal Fourier spectrum needed for resolving toroidally localized ballooning modes with a global eigenvalue code is estimated from the Weyl formula. This phase-space-volume estimation method is applied to ballooning-unstable plasma equilibria in the H-1NF helical axis stellarator and the Large Helical Device (LHD)

  1. Ideal ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; O'Rourke, J.; Smeulders, P.; Schmidt, G.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, discharges with β approaching the Troyon-Sykes-Wesson critical value β c for optimised pressure profiles have been produced at low toroidal fields (B T =1.5T). In the second type, extremely high pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injection in the current rise phase of the discharge followed by strong additional heating. The stability of these discharges has been studied with the stability code HBT coupled to the equilibrium identification code IDENTC. The equilibrium pressure and diamagnetic function profiles are determined in IDENTC by an optimisation procedure to fit the external magnetic measurements. The resulting pressure profile in the equatorial plane is then compared with the profile derived from 'direct' measurements, i.e. electron density and temperature profiles measured by the LIDAR diagnostic system, ion-temperature profile measured by the charge-exchange diagnostic system, and ion density profile calculated from the Z eff and electron density profiles. Furthermore, the value of the safety factor q on axis is compared with that determined from polarimetry. When good agreement is found, the output data from IDENTC is passed directly to HBT to carry out the stability analysis. When there is not a good agreement, as in the case of pellet discharges with highly peaked pressure profiles, the equilibrium is reevaluated using the 'experimental' profile and the data from polarimetry. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs

  2. Vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommereau, J. P.

    The use of vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry studies is illustrated by the use of a vertical piloted gas balloon for the search of NO2 diurnal variations. It is shown that the use of montgolfieres (hot air balloons) can enhance the vertical sounding technique. Particular attention is given to a sun-heated montgolfiere and to the more sophisticated infrared montgolfiere that is able to perform three to four vertical excursions per day and to remain aloft for weeks or months.

  3. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical...... blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high...... reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new...

  4. Emergency medical support for a manned stratospheric balloon test program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Rebecca S; Norton, Sean C; Law, Jennifer; Pattarini, James M; Antonsen, Erik L; Garbino, Alejandro; Clark, Jonathan B; Turney, Matthew W

    2014-10-01

    Red Bull Stratos was a commercial program that brought a test parachutist, protected by a full-pressure suit, in a stratospheric balloon with pressurized capsule to over 127,582 ft (38,969 m), from which he free fell and subsequently parachuted to the ground. Given that the major risks to the parachutist included ebullism, negative Gz (toe-to-head) acceleration exposure from an uncontrolled flat spin, and trauma, a comprehensive plan was developed to recover the parachutist under nominal conditions and to respond to any medical contingencies that might have arisen. In this report, the project medical team describes the experience of providing emergency medical support and crew recovery for the manned balloon flights of the program. The phases of flight, associated risks, and available resources were systematically evaluated. Six distinct phases of flight from an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) standpoint were identified. A Medical Support Plan was developed to address the risks associated with each phase, encompassing personnel, equipment, procedures, and communications. Despite geographical, communications, and resource limitations, the medical team was able to implement the Medical Support Plan, enabling multiple successful manned balloon flights to 71,615 ft (21,828 m), 97,221 ft (29,610 m), and 127,582 ft (38,969 m). The experience allowed refinement of the EMS and crew recovery procedures for each successive flight and could be applied to other high altitude or commercial space ventures.

  5. A New Type of Captive Balloon for Vertical Meteorological Observation in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Sakai, S.; Ono, K.

    2010-12-01

    Many meteorological observations in urban area have been made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. However, there are few data of cooling process in urban area. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. These methods are limited by urban area conditions. Among these methods, a captive balloon is mainly used to about a hundred meter from ground in a vertical meteorological observation. Small airships called kytoons or advertising balloons, for example. Conventional balloons are, however, influenced by the wind and difficult to keep the specified position. Moreover, it can be dangerous to conduct such observations in the highly build-up area. To overcome these difficulties, we are developing a new type of captive balloon. It has a wing form to gain lift and keep its position. It is also designed small to be kept in a carport. It is made of aluminum film and polyester cloth in order to attain lightweight solution. We have tried floating a balloon like NACA4424 for several years. It was difficult to keep a wing form floating up over 100 meters from ground because internal pressure was decreased by different temperature. The design is changed in this year. The balloon that has wing form NACA4415 is similar in composition to an airplane. It has a big gasbag with airship form and two wing form. It is able to keep form of a wing by high internal pressure. We will report a plan for the balloon and instances of some observations.

  6. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-04-01

    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  7. Titan Balloon Convection Model, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...

  8. NASA Langley Research Center tethered balloon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Thomas L.; Storey, Richard W.; Youngbluth, Otto

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center tethered balloon system operations are covered in this report for the period of 1979 through 1983. Meteorological data, ozone concentrations, and other data were obtained from in situ measurements. The large tethered balloon had a lifting capability of 30 kilograms to 2500 meters. The report includes descriptions of the various components of the balloon systems such as the balloons, the sensors, the electronics, and the hardware. Several photographs of the system are included as well as a list of projects including the types of data gathered.

  9. Ballooning instabilities in tokamaks with sheared toroidal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.; Chen, L.

    1990-11-01

    The stability of ballooning modes in the presence of sheared toroidal flows is investigated. The eigenmodes are shown to be related by a Fourier transformation to the non-exponentially growing Floquet solutions found by Cooper. It is further shown that the problem cannot be reduced further than to a two dimensional partial differential equation. Next, the generalized ballooning equation is solved analytically for a circular tokamak equilibrium with sonic flows, but with a small rotation shear compared to the sound speed. With this ordering, the centrifugal forces are comparable to the pressure gradient forces driving the instability, but coupling of the mode with the sound wave is avoided. A new stability criterion is derived which explicitly demonstrates that flow shear is stabilizing at constant centrifugal force gradient. 34 refs

  10. Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty in mitral stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Oh, Byung Hee; Park, Kyung Ju; Kim, Seung Hyup; Lee, Young Woo; Han, Man Chung

    1989-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty(PBV) was successfully performed in 8 mitral stenosis patients for recent 3 months. Five patients have aortic insufficiencies also and two patients have mitral regurgitations below grade II/IV. All patients showed sinus rhythm on EKG, and had no mitral valvular calcification on echocardiography and fluoroscopy. PBV resulted in an increase in mitral valve area from 1.22±0.22 to 2.57±0.86 cm 2 , a decrease in mean left atrial pressure from 23.4±9.6 to 7.5±3.4 mmHg and a decrease in mean mitral pressure gradient from 21.3±9.4 to 6.8±3.1 mmHg. There were no significant complications except 2 cases of newly appeared and mildly aggravated mitral regurgitation. We believe that PBV will become a treatment modality of choice replacing surgical commissurotomy or valve replacement in a group of mitral stenosis patients, because of its effectiveness and safety

  11. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase; Thomassen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new pressure device thus had acceptable validity and reproducibility for estimation of the skin perfusion pressure and can be used on bony and tendineous sites on the lower limb in regions where critical wound healing is frequent, e.g. ankle and forefoot

  12. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  13. The superTIGER instrument: Measurement of elemental abundances of ultra-heavy galactic cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, W. R.; Bose, R. G.; Braun, D. L.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Israel, M. H.; Moore, P.; Murphy, R. P.; Olevitch, M. A.; Rauch, B. F. [Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Brandt, T. J.; Daniels, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, S. P.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Mitchell, J. W.; Sakai, K. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Klemic, J.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A., E-mail: wrb@wustl.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2014-06-10

    The SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument was developed to measure the abundances of galactic cosmic-ray elements from {sub 10}Ne to {sub 40}Zr with individual element resolution and the high statistics needed to test models of cosmic-ray origins. SuperTIGER also makes exploratory measurements of the abundances of elements with 40 < Z ≤ 60 and measures the energy spectra of the more abundant elements for Z ≤ 30 from about 0.8 to 10 GeV/nucleon. This instrument is an enlarged and higher resolution version of the earlier TIGER instrument. It was designed to provide the largest geometric acceptance possible and to reach as high an altitude as possible, flying on a standard long-duration 1.11 million m{sup 3} balloon. SuperTIGER was launched from Williams Field, McMurdo Station, Antarctica, on 2012 December 8, and made about 2.7 revolutions around the South Pole in 55 days of flight, returning data on over 50 × 10{sup 6} cosmic-ray nuclei with Z ≥ 10, including ∼1300 with Z > 29 and ∼60 with Z > 49. Here, we describe the instrument, the methods of charge identification employed, the SuperTIGER balloon flight, and the instrument performance.

  14. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De

    1990-01-01

    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used

  15. Balloon dilatations of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Most benign esophageal strictures can be successfully dilated with conventional bougienage technique. But occasionally strictures are so tight, lengthy, or sometimes irregular that this technique fail, and surgical intervention is required. Since 1974 Gruentzig balloon catheter has succeed when used for strictures in the cardiac and peripheral vasculatures, the biliary and urinary tracts, the colon of neonates after inflammatory disease and also in the esophagus. Fluoroscopically guided balloon catheters were used to dilate 30 esophageal strictures in 30 patients over 3 years at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chonnam University, College of Medicine. The distribution of age was from 7 years to 71 days and the ratio of male to female was 15:15. The causes of benign stricture (23 cases) were post-operative strictures (13), chemical (4), achalasia (3), chronic inflammation (2), esophageal rupture (1) and those of malignant stricture (7 cases) were post-radiation stricture of primary esophageal cancer (6) and metastatic esophageal cancer (1). The success rate of procedure was 93% (28/30). The causes of failure were the failure of passage of stricture due to markedly dilated proximal segment of esophagus (1 case) and too long segment of stricture (1 case). Complication of procedure was the diverticular-formation of esophagus in 3 cases, but has no clinical significance in follow-up esophagography. In conclusion, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of esophageal stricture appears to be safe, effective treatment and may be have theoretical advantages over conventional bougienage and also should be considered before other methods of treatment are used.

  16. GRAINE balloon experiment in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokujo Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of cosmic gamma rays are important for studying high energy phenomena in the universe. Since 2008, the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi satellite has surveyed the whole gamma-ray sky in the sub-GeV/GeV energy region, and accumurated a large amount of data. However, observations at the low galactic latitude remains difficult because of a lack of angular resolution, increase of background flux originating from galactic diffuse gamma rays, etc. The Gamma-Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion (GRAINE is a gamma-ray observation project with a new balloon-borne emulsion gamma-ray telescope. Nuclear emulsion is a high-resolution 3D tracking device. It determines the incident angle with 0.1∘ resolution for 1 GeV gamma rays (1.0∘ for 100 MeV, and has linear polarization sensitivity. GRAINE aims at precise observation of gamma-ray sources, especially in the galactic plane, by repeating long-duration balloon flights with large-aperture-area (10 m2 high-resolution emulsion telescopes. In May 2015, we performed a balloon-borne experiment in Alice Springs, Australia, in order to demonstrate the imaging performance of our telescope. The emulsion telescope that has an aperture area of 0.4 m2 was employed in this experiment. It observed the Vela pulsar (the brightest gamma-ray source in the GeV sky at an altitude of 37 km for 6 hours out of the flight duration of 14 hours. In this presentation, we will report the latest results and the status of the GRAINE project.

  17. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  18. Marginal Stability Diagrams for Infinite-n Ballooning Modes in Quasi-symmetric Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Hegna, C.C.; Torasso, R.; Ware, A.

    2003-01-01

    By perturbing the pressure and rotational-transform profiles at a selected surface in a given equilibrium, and by inducing a coordinate variation such that the perturbed state is in equilibrium, a family of magnetohydrodynamic equilibria local to the surface and parameterized by the pressure gradient and shear is constructed for arbitrary stellarator geometry. The geometry of the surface is not changed. The perturbed equilibria are analyzed for infinite-n ballooning stability and marginal stability diagrams are constructed that are analogous to the (s; alpha) diagrams constructed for axi-symmetric configurations. The method describes how pressure and rotational-transform gradients influence the local shear, which in turn influences the ballooning stability. Stability diagrams for the quasi-axially-symmetric NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment), a quasi-poloidally-symmetric configuration and the quasi-helically-symmetric HSX (Helically Symmetric Experiment) are presented. Regions of second-stability are observed in both NCSX and the quasi-poloidal configuration, whereas no second stable region is observed for the quasi-helically symmetric device. To explain the different regions of stability, the curvature and local shear of the quasi-poloidal configuration are analyzed. The results are seemingly consistent with the simple explanation: ballooning instability results when the local shear is small in regions of bad curvature. Examples will be given that show that the structure, and stability, of the ballooning mode is determined by the structure of the potential function arising in the Schroedinger form of the ballooning equation

  19. The super-resolution debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In the quest for nanoscopy with super-resolution, consensus from the imaging community is that super-resolution is not always needed and that scientists should choose an imaging technique based on their specific application.

  20. Frames in super Hilbert modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define super Hilbert module and investigate frames in this space. Super Hilbert modules are  generalization of super Hilbert spaces in Hilbert C*-module setting. Also, we define frames in a super Hilbert module and characterize them by using of the concept of g-frames in a Hilbert C*-module. Finally, disjoint frames in Hilbert C*-modules are introduced and investigated.

  1. Balloon dilatation of iatrogenic urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acunas, B.; Acunas, G.; Gokmen, E.; Celik, L.

    1988-01-01

    Balloon dilatation of the urethra was performed in five patients with iatrogenic urethral strictures. The urethral strictures were successfully negotiated and dilated in all patients. Redilatation became necessary in a period ranging from 3 to 10 months. The authors believe that balloon dilatation of the urethra can be safely and successfully performed; the procedure produces minimal trauma and immediate relief of symptoms. (orig.)

  2. Paraplegia following intraaortic balloon circulatory assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benício Anderson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation is frequently used in patients experiencing severe ventricular dysfunction following maximal drug therapy. However, even with the improvement of percutaneous insertion techniques, the procedure has always been followed by vascular, infectious, and neurological complications. This article describes a case of paraplegia due to intraaortic balloon counterpulsation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

  3. Montgolfiere balloon missions from Mars and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    Montgolfieres, which are balloons that are filled with heated ambient atmospheric gas, appear promising for the exploration of Mars as well as of Saturn's moon, Titan. On Earth, Montgolfieres are also known as 'hot air balloons'. Commercial versions are typically heated by burning propane, although a number of radiant and solar-heated Montgolfieres have been flown on earth by CNES.

  4. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  5. Clinical application of Inoue-balloon in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for Budd-Chiari syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Jian; Qu Jian; Zhu Yaoqing; Wang Lei; Liu Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and effect of recanalization of inferior vena cava with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty(PTA)by Inoue-balloon. Methods: Eighty-nine patients with Budd-chiari syndrome (BCS )were treated with PTA by Inoue-balloon. Results: After PTA, the median (interquartile range)diameter of hepatic segment inferior vena cava increased from 0.00 (0.20-0.00) cm to 1.90 (2.00 1.47)cm; (P < 0.001), and the mean pressure of inferior vena cava reduced from (20.63 ± 7.22) mmHg to (12.13 ± 5.60) mmHg; (P < 0.001); with only less serious complications as rupture in two cases and without need of prior minor diameter balloon dilation in Inoue-balloon PTA. Conclusion: The advantages of Inoue- balloon PTA for BCS are more reliable and facile than those of polyethylene balloon, and may take the place in the foreseen future. (authors)

  6. Handbook of Super 8 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Ronnie, Ed.

    This handbook is designed for anyone interested in producing super 8 films at any level of complexity and cost. Separate chapters present detailed discussions of the following topics: super 8 production systems and super 8 shooting and editing systems; budgeting; cinematography and sound recording; preparing to edit; editing; mixing sound tracks;…

  7. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Michael, E-mail: michael.walter@desy.de

    2013-06-15

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster.

  8. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster.

  9. Early Cosmic Ray Research with Balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic rays by Victor Hess during a balloon flight in 1912 at an altitude of 5350 m would not have been possible without the more than one hundred years development of scientific ballooning. The discovery of hot air and hydrogen balloons and their first flights in Europe is shortly described. Scientific ballooning was mainly connected with activities of meteorologists. It was also the geologist and meteorologist Franz Linke, who probably observed first indications of a penetrating radiation whose intensity seemed to increase with the altitude. Karl Bergwitz and Albert Gockel were the first physicists studying the penetrating radiation during balloon flights. The main part of the article deals with the discovery of the extraterrestrial radiation by V. Hess and the confirmation by Werner Kolhörster

  10. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  11. Superconducting Super Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    The scientific need for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is outlined, along with the history of the development of the SSC concept. A brief technical description is given of each of the main points of the SSC conceptual design. The construction cost and construction schedule are discussed, followed by issues associated with the realization of the SSC. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Super Refractory Status Epilepticus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    et al did retrospective cohort study from 1 January st. 1994 to 31 March 1998 at Presbyterian Medical. Centre in Columbia, to determine the frequency, risk factors and impact on the outcome of RSE. They found out that 69% of seizures recurred after. Key Words: Super refractory status epilepticus, Zambia. Medical Journal of ...

  13. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    plate capacitor will reduce the net field to an unprecedented extent. This family of materials can form materials with dielectric values orders of... Capacitor -Increase Area (A)............8 b. Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor -Decrease Thickness (d) .......10 c. Super Dielectric Material-Increase...circuit modeling, from [44], and B) SDM capacitor charge and discharge ...................................................22 Figure 15. Dielectric

  14. SuperHILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemetz, R.; Selph, F.; Barnes, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of improvements, operations, and research programs at the SuperHILAC. Improvements were made in beam injection, ion sources, and computer control systems. The research efficiency ranged between 70 and 90 percent during most of the year

  15. Expediency of using pneumatic balloons at the junction of a working face and gate roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokolov, O V; Litvinov, Yu G; Ozerova, A S

    1983-02-01

    The paper discusses strata control at longwall faces in thin coal seams. Use of pneumatic balloons instead of timber cribbing at the junction of the face and ventilation road is evaluated. The seam is 0.68 m thick at a depth of 980 m and has gradients from 60 to 63 degrees. The face mined by the Poisk coal cutter is 126 m long. The ventilation road is protected by strips of stowing. Use of pneumatic balloons with an initial pressure of 150 kN instead of timber cribbing with an initial pressure of 30 kN reduces convergence of the roof and the floor at the working face by 39%. Damage to hydraulic props at the working face caused by roof subsidence decreases by 10 to 15%. Convergence rate (measured in mm/d) decreases by 41%. Use of pneumatic balloons for strata control at working faces in thin coal seams is recommended.

  16. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninnemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.)

  17. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninnemann, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.).

  18. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  19. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Won Woo; Kang, Sung Gwon; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia.

  20. Esophageal achalasia : results of balloon dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Won Woo; Kang, Sung Gwon; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Nam Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 21 balloon dilation procedures were performed in 14 patients with achalasia. A balloon with a diameter of 20 mm was used for the initial attempt.If the patient tolerated this well, the procedure was repeated with a 10-20 mm balloon, placed alongside at the same session. If, however the patient complained of severe chest pain and/or a postprocedural esophagogram showed an improvement,the additional balloon was not used. For patients whose results were unsatisfactory, the dilation procedure was repeated at sessions three to seven days apart. Succesful dilation was achieved in 13 of 14 patients(92.9%), who needed a total of 20 sessions of balloon dilation, ranging from one to three sessions per patient(mean, 1.54 sessions). Esophageal rupture occured in one of 14 patients(7.1%) ; of the 13 patients who underwent a successful dilation procedure, 12(92.3%) were free of recurrent symptoms during the follow-up period of 1-56(mean, 18.5) months. The remaning patient(7.7%) had a recurrence seven months after dilation. Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of esophageal achalasia

  1. Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llado-Gambin, Adriana

    A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the modeling based on typical thermal input from a balloon propane burner. The burner duty cycle to keep a constant altitude can vary from 10% to 28% depending on the atmospheric conditions, and the ambient temperature is the parameter that most affects the total thermal input needed. The simulation and analysis also predict that the gas temperature inside the balloon decreases at a rate of -0.25 K/s when there is no burner activity, and it increases at a rate of +1 K/s when the balloon pilot operates the burner. The results were compared to actual flight data and they show very good agreement indicating that the major physical processes responsible for balloon performance aloft are accurately captured in the simulation.

  2. Simulation of peeling-ballooning modes with pellet injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. Y. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, J.; Sun, T. T.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-11-15

    The influence of pellet ablation on the evolution of peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes is studied with BOUT++ code. The atoms coming from pellet ablation can significantly reshape the plasma pressure profile, so the behaviors of P-B modes and edge localized mode (ELM) are modified dramatically. This paper shows that the energy loss associated with an ELM increases substantially over that without the pellet, if the pellet is deposited at the top of the pedestal. On the contrary, for pellet deposition in the middle of the pedestal region the ELM energy loss can be less.

  3. EUROv Super Beam Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Neutrino Super Beams use conventional techniques to significantly increase the neutrino beam intensity compared to the present neutrino facilities. An essential part of these facilities is an intense proton driver producing a beam power higher than a MW. The protons hit a target able to accept the high proton beam intensity. The produced charged particles are focused by a system of magnetic horns towards the experiment detectors. The main challenge of these projects is to deal with the high beam intensity for many years. New high power neutrino facilities could be build at CERN profiting from an eventual construction of a high power proton driver. The European FP7 Design Study EUROv, among other neutrino beams, studies this Super Beam possibility. This paper will give the latest developments in this direction.

  4. SuperSegger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianidou, Stella; Brennan, Connor; Nissen, Silas B

    2016-01-01

    -colonies with many cells, facilitating the analysis of cell-cycle dynamics in bacteria as well as cell-contact mediated phenomena. This package has a range of built-in capabilities for characterizing bacterial cells, including the identification of cell division events, mother, daughter, and neighboring cells......Many quantitative cell biology questions require fast yet reliable automated image segmentation to identify and link cells from frame-to-frame, and characterize the cell morphology and fluorescence. We present SuperSegger, an automated MATLAB-based image processing package well......-suited to quantitative analysis of high-throughput live-cell fluorescence microscopy of bacterial cells. SuperSegger incorporates machine-learning algorithms to optimize cellular boundaries and automated error resolution to reliably link cells from frame-to-frame. Unlike existing packages, it can reliably segment micro...

  5. Super-Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyl, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the Einstein, Weyl, supergravity and superconformal theories are special cases of gauge transformations in SU(4vertical-barN). This group is shown to contain SU(2,2) x SU(N) x U(1) for its commuting or Bose part, and to contain 8N supersymmetry generators for its anticommuting or Fermi part. Using the electromagnetic Lagrangian as a model, a super-Lagrangian is constructed for vector potentials. Invariance is automatic in free space, but, in the presence of matter, restrictions on the supersymmetry transformations are necessary. The Weyl action and the Einstein cosmological field equations are obtained in the appropriate limits. Finally, a super-Lagrangian is constructed from nongeometric principles which includes the Dirac Lagrangian and except for a sum over symmetry indices resembles the electron-electromagnetic Lagrangian

  6. Looners: Inside the world of balloon fetishism

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Karen E

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 1997, Shaun had just broken up with a boyfriend, and his roommate had moved out. Living alone for the first time and relieved of the fear that someone might walk in the door, he was finally able to indulge his fantasy. The young man sat on his couch and started blowing up balloons. Shaun had loved playing with balloons since he was a child. When he hit puberty, he felt his first orgasm rubbing against a balloon. It was then that his relationship with the object took ...

  7. Heat Transfer Model for Hot Air Balloons

    OpenAIRE

    Lladó Gambín, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    A heat transfer model and analysis for hot air balloons is presented in this work, backed with a flow simulation using SolidWorks. The objective is to understand the major heat losses in the balloon and to identify the parameters that affect most its flight performance. Results show that more than 70% of the heat losses are due to the emitted radiation from the balloon envelope and that convection losses represent around 20% of the total. A simulated heating source is also included in the mod...

  8. Minimal Super Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antola, M.; Di Chiara, S.; Sannino, F.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce novel extensions of the Standard Model featuring a supersymmetric technicolor sector (supertechnicolor). As the first minimal conformal supertechnicolor model we consider N=4 Super Yang-Mills which breaks to N=1 via the electroweak interactions. This is a well defined, economical......, between unparticle physics and Minimal Walking Technicolor. We consider also other N =1 extensions of the Minimal Walking Technicolor model. The new models allow all the standard model matter fields to acquire a mass....

  9. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  10. Diffuse gamma ray measurement above 20 MeV with a balloon borne experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlier, B.; Forichon, M.; Montmerle, T.; Agrinier, B.; Palmeira, R.

    1975-01-01

    During two balloon flights of a spark chamber gamma ray telescope launched from Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil) in 1973, the growth of the secondary gamma rays in function of the atmospheric pressure has been monitored. The extrapolation to zero residual atmosphere giving evidence of an extraterrestrial flux is discussed [fr

  11. Transition to chaos for ballooning modes stabilized by finite Larmor radius effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, J; Wilhelmsson, H [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden). Institutionen foer Elektromagnetisk Faeltteori

    1983-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of interacting ballooning modes, stabilized by finite Larmor radius effects is analyzed in terms of a set of equations, which exhibit stochastic properties. These are explicitly shown to depend on the balance between shear and driving pressure force. The onset of bifurcations and chaotic behaviour are directly identified with certain values of parameters characterizing the physical system.

  12. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciosmak, Paweł [Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw,ul. Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Manabe, Masahide [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sułkowski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  13. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  14. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/ β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  15. Retained intraaortic balloon. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, A M; Martinelli, L; Graffigna, A; Viganò, M

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of intraaortic balloon entrapment in a 70-year-old man who underwent emergency triple coronary bypass. Intraaortic balloon rupture caused the formation of a clot inside the balloon that eventually was responsible for the balloon's entrapment at the aortic bifurcation. The patient had severe atherosclerosis of the aorta and iliac arteries. Balloon removal required aorto-iliac exposure and aorto-bifemoral bypass. After 16 months, he is symptom free and at home.

  16. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  17. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  18. Gigantic balloon type artificial lightning generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii; kenji

    1988-09-05

    This paper outlines a hot-air balloon type Van de Graaf 50-MV generator which can generate a 50,000,000 V, 0.2 to 0.3 coulomb artificial lightning comparable to natural lightning discharge and reports the results of investigation on discharging experiments conducted using this apparatus. The subjects covered are as follows: (1) Outline of the hot-air balloon type Van de Graaf 50-MV generator, (2) electric characteristics of the Van de Graaf 50-MV generator, (3) charge transfer with film and balloon charging, (4) the load of the balloon and buoyancy calculation, (5) leakage of charges, (6) study of charging experiments, and (7) evaluation of the apparatus and its method and problems to be solved. (4 figs, 4 tabs, 4 refs)

  19. The Titan Sky Simulator ™ - Testing Prototype Balloons in Conditions Approximating those in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Julian

    This paper will describe practical work flying prototype balloons in the "The Titan Sky Simulator TM " in conditions approximating those found in Titan's atmosphere. Saturn's moon, Titan, is attracting intense scientific interest. This has led to wide interest in exploring it with Aerobots, balloons or airships. Their function would be similar to the Rovers exploring Mars, but instead of moving laboriously across the rough terrain on wheels, they would float freely from location to location. To design any balloon or airship it is essential to know the temperature of the lifting gas as this influences the volume of the gas, which in turn influences the lift. To determine this temperature it is necessary to know how heat is transferred between the craft and its surroundings. Heat transfer for existing balloons is well understood. However, Titan conditions are utterly different from those in which balloons have ever been flown, so heat transfer rates cannot currently be calculated. In particular, thermal radiation accounts for most heat transfer for existing balloons but over Titan heat transfer will be dominated by convection. To be able to make these fundamental calculations, it is necessary to get fundamental experimental data. This is being obtained by flying balloons in a Simulator filled with nitrogen gas at very low temperature, about 95° K / minus 180° C, typical of Titan's temperatures. Because the gas in the Simulator is so cold, operating at atmospheric pressure the density is close to that of Titan's atmosphere. "The Titan Sky Simulator TM " has an open interior approximately 4.5 meter tall and 2.5 meters square. It has already been operated at 95° K/-180° C. By the time of the Conference it is fully expected to have data to present from actual balloons flying at this temperature. Perhaps the most important purpose of this testing is to validate numerical [computational fluid dynamics] models being developed by Tim Colonius of Caltech. These numerical

  20. High Altitude Balloons as a Platform for Space Radiation Belt Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, L.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Johnson, W.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB)

    2011-12-01

    Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA. The HASP platform was launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and to an altitude of about 36kilometers with flight durations of 15 to 20 hours using a small volume, low pressure balloon. The main objectives of the program, the challenges involved in developing it, and the major achievements and outcomes will be discussed. Future opportunities for the use of high altitude balloons for solar-terrestrial science, such as the diagnosis of radiation belt loss through the flight of alternative X-ray scintillator payloads, on short duration weather balloon flights will also be discussed. The UA-HAB project is undertaken with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  1. Measurements of Intra-Aortic Balloon Wall Movement During Inflation and Deflation: Effects of Angulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruti, Gianpaolo; Kolyva, Christina; Pepper, John R; Khir, Ashraf W

    2015-08-01

    The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a ventricular assist device that is used with a broad range of pre-, intra-, and postoperative patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Although the clinical efficacy of the IABP is well documented, the question of reduced efficacy when patients are nursed in the semi-recumbent position remains outstanding. The aim of the present work is therefore to investigate the underlying mechanics responsible for the loss of IABP performance when operated at an angle to the horizontal. Simultaneous recordings of balloon wall movement, providing an estimate of its diameter (D), and fluid pressure were taken at three sites along the intra-aortic balloon (IAB) at 0 and 45°. Flow rate, used for the calculation of displaced volume, was also recorded distal to the tip of the balloon. An in vitro experimental setup was used, featuring physiological impedances on either side of the IAB ends. IAB inflation at an angle of 45° showed that D increases at the tip of the IAB first, presenting a resistance to the flow displaced away from the tip of the balloon. The duration of inflation decreased by 15.5%, the inflation pressure pulse decreased by 9.6%, and volume decreased by 2.5%. Similarly, changing the position of the balloon from 0 to 45°, the balloon deflation became slower by 35%, deflation pressure pulse decreased by 14.7%, and volume suctioned was decreased by 15.2%. IAB wall movement showed that operating at 45° results in slower deflation compared with 0°. Slow wall movement, and changes in inflation and deflation onsets, result in a decreased volume displacement and pressure pulse generation. Operating the balloon at an angle to the horizontal, which is the preferred nursing position in intensive care units, results in reduced IAB inflation and deflation performance, possibly compromising its clinical benefits. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Artificial Organs published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Center for

  2. The UK sounding rocket and balloon programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delury, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The UK civil science balloon and rocket programmes for 1979/80/81 are summarised and the areas of scientific interest for the period 1981/85 mentioned. In the main the facilities available are 10 in number balloons up to 40 m cu ft launched from USA or Australia and up to 10 in number 7 1/2'' diameter Petrel rockets. This paper outlines the 1979 and 1980 programmes and explains the longer term plans covering the next 5 years. (Auth.)

  3. Test ventilation with smoke, bubbles, and balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, P.L.; Cucchiara, A.L.; McAtee, J.L.; Gonzales, M.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of smoke, bubbles, and helium-filled balloons was videotaped to demonstrate the mixing of air in the plutonium chemistry laboratories, a plutonium facility. The air-distribution patterns, as indicated by each method, were compared. Helium-filled balloons proved more useful than bubbles or smoke in the visualization of airflow patterns. The replay of various segments of the videotape proved useful in evaluating the different techniques and in identifying airflow trends responsible for air mixing. 6 refs

  4. Trace gas measurements from tethered balloon platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Bandy, Terese L.; Youngbluth, Otto; Owens, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    Instrumentation and chemical sampling and analysis procedures are described for making measurements of atmospheric carbon disulfide in the concentration range 1-1000 pptv from tethered balloon platforms. Results of a study on the CS2 composition of air downward of a saltwater marsh are reported. A method for obtaining the necessary data for solving the budget equations for surface fluxes, chemical formation rates and chemical destruction rates using data acquired from tethered balloon platforms is presented.

  5. Application of new balloon catheters in the treatment of congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Fiszer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Balloon angioplasty (BAP and aortic or pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty (BAV, BPV are well-established treatment options in congenital heart defects. Recently, significant technological progress has been made and new catheters have been implemented in clinical practice. Aim: To analyze the results of BAP, BAV and BPV with the new balloon catheter Valver and its second generation Valver II, which the company Balton (Poland launched and developed. These catheters have not been clinically evaluated yet. Material and methods: We performed 64 interventions with Valver I and Valver II. With Valver I the following procedures were performed: 17 BPV (including 9 in tetralogy of Fallot – TOF, 10 BAV and 27 BAP in coarctations of the aorta (CoA – including 9 native and 18 after surgery. With Valver II ten interventions were done – 3 BPV, 2 pulmonary supravalvular BAP (after switch operations, 2 BAP of recoarctations and 3 other BAP. Age of the patients ranged from a few days to 40 years. Results: All procedures were completed successfully, without rupture of any balloon catheters. The pressure gradient drop was statistically significant in all groups: BPV in isolated pulmonary valvular stenosis 28.1 mm Hg (mean, BPV in TOF 18.7 mm Hg, BAV 32.8 mm Hg, BAP in native CoA 15.4 mm Hg and in recoarctations 18.6 mm Hg. In 3 cases during rapid deflation of Valver I, wrinkles of the balloons made it impossible to insert the whole balloon into the vascular sheath (all were removed surgically from the groin. No such complication occured with Valver II. Conclusions : Valver balloon catheters are an effective treatment modality in different valvular and vascular stenoses.

  6. Physical design of JT-60 Super Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Kurita, G.; Ozeki, T.; Aoyagi, T.; Ushigusa, K.; Neyatani, Y.; Kubo, T.; Mori, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Kuriyama, M.; Nagami, M.

    1997-01-01

    The JT-60 Super Upgrade (JT-60SU) is an upgraded tokamak device of JT-60U for developing the steady-state reactor and advanced tokamak operation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The device is planned to utilize the JT-60 facilities fully and to minimize the needed modification. The major radius is 4.8 m and the maximum plasma current is 10 MA. Neutral beam injection with 750 keV beam energy is the primary heating method. The machine is capable of steady-state operation with high density up to 8.8 x 10 19 m -3 at 5 MA plasma current. The high operating density, over the Greenwald et al. limit, is critically important in order to achieve high bootstrap current fraction. Ballooning mode and low n ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode including the bootstrap current were analyzed for steady-state operation. The current profile must be optimized to obtain a normalized beta up to 3. The plasma configuration with high triangularity was adopted in order to get good MHD stability and high energy confinement. A compact divertor was designed in order to get the large plasma space. (orig.)

  7. Theory of super LIE groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, M.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of supergravity has attracted increasing attention in the recent years as a unified theory of elementary particle interactions. The superspace formulation of the theory is highly suggestive of an underlying geometrical structure of superspace. It also incorporates the beautifully geometrical general theory of relativity. It leads us to believe that a better understanding of its geometry would result in a better understanding of the theory itself, and furthermore, that the geometry of superspace would also have physical consequences. As a first step towards that goal, we develop here a theory of super Lie groups. These are groups that have the same relation to a super Lie algebra as Lie groups have to a Lie algebra. More precisely, a super Lie group is a super-manifold and a group such that the group operations are super-analytic. The super Lie algebra of a super Lie group is related to the local properties of the group near the identity. This work develops the algebraic and super-analytical tools necessary for our theory, including proofs of a set of existence and uniqueness theorems for a class of super-differential equations

  8. JAPAN: Super-Kamiokande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Excavation for the Japanese Super- KAMIOKANDE 50,000-ton water Cherenkov imaging detector was completed at the end of June. The goals include a search for nucleon decay up to a lifetime of 10 33-34 years, high-statistics studies of solar and atmospheric neutrinos, and detection of any nearby supernova explosions. The project was approved in 1991, with the official 'groundbreaking' in December of that year about 1,000 m underground in the Kamioka mine in Gifu Prefecture, about 250 km west of Tokyo

  9. The super collider revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors suggest a revised version of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) that employs the planned SSC first stage machine as an injector of 0.5 TeV protons into a power laser accelerator. The recently developed Non-linear Amplification of Inverse Bremsstrahlung Acceleration (NAIBA) concept dictates the scenario of the next stage of acceleration. Post Star Wars lasers, available at several laboratories, can be used for the purpose. The 40 TeV CM energy, a target of the SSC, can be obtained with a new machine which can be 20 times smaller than the planned SSC

  10. The super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, Michelangelo L

    2010-01-01

    We review here the prospects of a long-term upgrade programme for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN laboratory's new proton-proton collider. The super-LHC, which is currently under evaluation and design, is expected to deliver of the order of ten times the statistics of the LHC. In addition to a non-technical summary of the principal physics arguments for the upgrade, I present a pedagogical introduction to the technological challenges on the accelerator and experimental fronts, and a review of the current status of the planning.

  11. Super-heptazethrene

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2016-05-30

    The challenging synthesis of a laterally extended heptazethrene molecule, the super-heptazethrene derivative SHZ-CF3, is reported. This molecule was prepared using a strategy involving a multiple selective intramolecular Friedel–Crafts alkylation followed by oxidative dehydrogenation. Compound SHZ-CF3 exhibits an open-shell singlet diradical ground state with a much larger diradical character compared with the heptazethrene derivatives. An intermediate dibenzo-terrylene SHZ-2H was also obtained during the synthesis. This study provides a new synthetic method to access large-size quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons with unique physical properties.

  12. Use of monorail PTCA balloon catheter for local drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Vijay; Nair, Girish M; Gupta, Mohit D

    2007-01-01

    We report the use of monorail coronary balloon as an infusion catheter to give bailout abciximab selectively into the site of stent thrombosis as an adjunct to plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) in a patient of subacute stent thrombosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The balloon component (polyamide material) of the monorail balloon catheter was shaved off the catheter so that abciximab injected through the balloon port of the catheter exited out the shaft of the balloon catheter at the site from where the balloon material was shaved off. We believe that selective infusion with abciximab along with POBA established antegrade flow and relieved the patient's ischemia. In the absence of essential hardware to give intracoronary drugs in an emergency situation, one may employ our technique of infusion through a monorail balloon catheter after shaving the balloon component from the catheter.

  13. Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: advantages of tethered balloon systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter; Burgoyne, Chris; Hunt, Hugh; Causier, Matt

    2012-09-13

    The Royal Society report 'Geoengineering the Climate' identified solar radiation management using albedo-enhancing aerosols injected into the stratosphere as the most affordable and effective option for geoengineering, but did not consider in any detail the options for delivery. This paper provides outline engineering analyses of the options, both for batch-delivery processes, following up on previous work for artillery shells, missiles, aircraft and free-flying balloons, as well as a more lengthy analysis of continuous-delivery systems that require a pipe connected to the ground and supported at a height of 20 km, either by a tower or by a tethered balloon. Towers are shown not to be practical, but a tethered balloon delivery system, with high-pressure pumping, appears to have much lower operating and capital costs than all other delivery options. Instead of transporting sulphuric acid mist precursors, such a system could also be used to transport slurries of high refractive index particles such as coated titanium dioxide. The use of such particles would allow useful experiments on opacity, coagulation and atmospheric chemistry at modest rates so as not to perturb regional or global climatic conditions, thus reducing scale-up risks. Criteria for particle choice are discussed, including the need to minimize or prevent ozone destruction. The paper estimates the time scales and relatively modest costs required if a tethered balloon system were to be introduced in a measured way with testing and development work proceeding over three decades, rather than in an emergency. The manufacture of a tether capable of sustaining the high tensions and internal pressures needed, as well as strong winds, is a significant challenge, as is the development of the necessary pumping and dispersion technologies. The greatest challenge may be the manufacture and launch of very large balloons, but means have been identified to significantly reduce the size of such balloons or aerostats.

  14. Impressive Super Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olds, F.C.

    1979-01-01

    The 1200-MWe fast breeder reactor, Super Phenix at Creys-Malville, is scheduled for commercial operation in 1983. This is the world's first near-commercial-sized fast breeder. As a near-commercial-sized unit, it represents essentially the technology and hardware of the first fully commercial follow-on units. In its size, its components, its design, the technology it represents, and its project schedule, it is impressive. As of May 1979, the Super Phenix nuclear steam boiler in the Creys-Malville plant bore an estimated cost of $700 million, without fuel. The total cost of the Creys-Malville plant now is estimated at about $1.4 billion. This is about twice the cost of a comparable standardized PWR being built in France today. However, it should be borne in mind that Creys-Malville carries the high cost of a first-of-the-line prototype, and that France's PWRs are standardized, second-generation units. Electricity from Creys-Malville is estimated to cost a little more than electricity would cost from a coal-fired plant complete with flue gas scrubbing

  15. Effects of alpha populations on tokamak ballooning stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Sigmar, D.J.; Tsang, K.T.; Ramos, J.J.; Hastings, D.E.; Cooper, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion product alpha populations can significantly influence tokamak stability due to coupling between the trapped alpha precessional drift and the kinetic ballooning mode frequency. This effect is of particular importance in parameter regimes where the alpha pressure gradient begins to constitute a sizable fraction of the thermal plasma pressure gradient. Careful, quantitative evaluations of these effects are necessary in burning plasma devices such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the Joint European Torus, and we have continued systematic development of such a kinetic stability model. In this model we have considered a range of different forms for the alpha distribution function and the tokamak equilibrium. Both Maxwellian and slowing-down models have been used for the alpha energy dependence while deeply trapped and, more recently, isotropic pitch angle dependence have been examined

  16. Effects of compressibility on the resistive ballooning mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hender, T.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Diamond, P.H.; Similon, P.L.

    1983-09-01

    The linear stability of the resistive ballooning mode, as described by the resistive MHD model, is investigated both analytically and numerically. When the pressure evolution is approximated by fluid convection (reduced MHD model), an instability driven by geodesic curvature, with a growth rate γ approx. eta/sup 1/3/β/sub rho//sup 2/3/, is found. For conditions relevant to the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B), it is shown that for modest poloidal beta (β/sub rho/ approx. = 1), high current, and relatively high temperatures, compressibility has a significant stabilizing influence, relative to the pressure convection model, for low toroidal mode number modes. However, at high β/sub rho/ (greater than or equal to 2), low current, and lower temperatures, compressibility has much less effect

  17. Predicting the occurrence of super-storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Srivastava

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of five super-storms (Dst<-300 nT of the current solar cycle after the launch of SoHO, to identify solar and interplanetary variables that influence the magnitude of resulting geomagnetic storms, is described. Amongst solar variables, the initial speed of a CME is considered the most reliable predictor of the strength of the associated geomagnetic storm because fast mass ejections are responsible for building up the ram pressure at the Earth's magnetosphere. However, although most of the super-storms studied were associated with high speed CMEs, the Dst index of the resulting geomagnetic storms varied between -300 to -472 nT. The most intense storm of 20 November 2003, (Dst ~ -472 nT had its source in a comparatively smaller active region and was associated with a relatively weaker, M-class flare while all other super-storms had their origins in large active regions and were associated with strong X-class flares. However, this superstorm did not show any associated extraordinary solar and interplanetary characteristics. The study also reveals the challenge in the reliable prediction of the magnitude of a geomagnetic storm from solar and interplanetary variables.

  18. Predicting the occurrence of super-storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Srivastava

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of five super-storms (Dst<-300 nT of the current solar cycle after the launch of SoHO, to identify solar and interplanetary variables that influence the magnitude of resulting geomagnetic storms, is described. Amongst solar variables, the initial speed of a CME is considered the most reliable predictor of the strength of the associated geomagnetic storm because fast mass ejections are responsible for building up the ram pressure at the Earth's magnetosphere. However, although most of the super-storms studied were associated with high speed CMEs, the Dst index of the resulting geomagnetic storms varied between -300 to -472 nT. The most intense storm of 20 November 2003, (Dst ~ -472 nT had its source in a comparatively smaller active region and was associated with a relatively weaker, M-class flare while all other super-storms had their origins in large active regions and were associated with strong X-class flares. However, this superstorm did not show any associated extraordinary solar and interplanetary characteristics. The study also reveals the challenge in the reliable prediction of the magnitude of a geomagnetic storm from solar and interplanetary variables.

  19. In Vitro Comparison of Self-Expanding Versus Balloon-Expandable Stents in a Human Ex Vivo Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenacher, Lars; Rohde, Stefan; Gaenger, Ellen; Deutsch, Jochen; Kauffmann, Guenter W.; Richter, Goetz M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to compare the radial strength and expansile precision of self-expanding stents and balloon-expandable stents in a human cadaver bifurcation model. Seven different self-expanding (LUMINEXX, JOSTENT SelfX, JOSTENT SelfX hrf, Sinus-Repo, Sinus SuperFlex, Easy Wallstent, SMART) and four different balloon-expandable stent models (Palmaz, Sinus Stent, SAXX Medium, JOSTENT peripheral), each type 10 stents (total n = 110 stents) were implanted into the common iliac arteries of human cadaver corpses. The maximum stent diameter was 10 mm for all models. After stent implantation, the specimens were filled with silicone caoutchouc. After 24 h, the vascular walls including the stents were removed from the hardened casts. Diameters were taken and the weight of the cast cylinders was measured in air and in purified water to calculate the volume of the bodies (according to Archimedes Law) as a relative but precise degree for the radial strength of the implanted stents. The cylindrical casts of the self-expanding stents showed lower mean diameters (8.2 ± 1.0 mm) and mean volumes (0.60 ± 0.14 ml/cm) than in the balloon-expandable stent group (10.1 ± 0.3 mm and 0.71 ± 0.04 ml/cm, respectively; p < 0.01). The nominal maximum diameter of 10 mm was not achieved in any of the self-expanding stents, but this was achieved in more than 70% (29/40) of the balloon-expandable stent specimens (p < 0.05). The variation between achieved volumes was significantly larger in self-expanding (range: 0.23-0.78 ml/cm) than in balloon-expandable stents (range: 0.66-0.81 ml/cm; p < 0.05). Self-expanding stents presented considerably lower radial expansion force and lower degree of precision than balloon-expandable stents

  20. Balloon catheter dilatation for mitral stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Manhong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) for patients with mitral stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension, and to assess the changes in pulmonary systolic pressure during follow-up. Methods: Forty-two patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary systolic pressure > 75 mmHg) underwent PBMV using standard Inoue technique, and the changes in clinical functional status and echo Doppler pulmonary systolic pressure during follow-up were assessed. Results: PBMV was successful in 39 patients. Immediately after the procedure, mitral valve area increased from (0.83 +- 0.12) cm 2 to (1.75 +- 0.11) cm 2 , pulmonary systolic pressure decreased from (85 +- 7) mmHg to (61 +- 13) mmHg (all P < 0.001). Severe mitral regurgitation occurred in 3 patients, one of whom underwent mitral valve replacement. During follow-up (average 6 months), in 39 patients with successful PBMV, the clinical functional status was improved and pulmonary systolic pressure was further decreased despite unchanged mitral valve area. Conclusions: PBMV was safe and effective for patients with mitral stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension. Clinical functional status was improved and pulmonary systolic pressure was continuously decreased during the short-term follow-up

  1. Balloon cell nevus of the iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Mohib W; Odashiro, Alexandre; Bazin, Richard; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; O'Meara, Aisling; Burnier, Miguel N

    2014-12-01

    Balloon cell nevus is a rare histopathological lesion characterized by a predominance of large, vesicular and clear cells, called balloon cells. There is only 1 case of balloon cell nevus of the iris reported in the literature. A 55 year-old man presented a pigmented elevated lesion in the right iris since the age of 12 years old. The lesion had been growing for the past 2 years and excision was performed. Histopathological examination showed a balloon cell nevus composed of clear and vacuolated cells without atypia. A typical spindle cell nevus of the iris was also observed. The differential diagnosis included xanthomatous lesions, brown adipocyte or other adipocytic lesions, clear cell hidradenoma, metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and clear cell sarcoma. The tumor was positive for Melan A, S100 protein and HMB45. Balloon cell nevus of the iris is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions of the iris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Operator's Manual for SHEBA Powered Tether Balloon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappen, Cara-Lyn; Randall, David A.

    1998-01-01

    The Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) was an intensive field project which took place in the Arctic Ocean from October 1997 through October 1998. Its purpose was to measure as many facets of the Arctic environment as possible so that we would be able to better understand the interaction between the ice, atmosphere, and ocean and their interactions with global climate. One aspect of the atmospheric field component was launching tethered balloons to monitor the profiles of temperature, wind, pressure, and humidity, as well as examine the vertical structure of cloud droplet sizes and distributions. The tethered balloon that we used was one specially designed for use in freezing climates by SPEC Corporation in Boulder, Colorado. A special winch that was able to withstand Arctic temperature and weather became necessary when the testing of simple winch systems used in warmer climates failed under these extreme conditions. The purpose of this manual is to acquaint any new user to the powered tethered balloon system deployed at the The Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA ice camp. It includes a description of the preparations necessary to get ready for a launch, the mechanics of the actual launch, and an account of the proper procedure for taking down the equipment when finished. It will also include tips on how to minimize potential equipment failures, some trouble shooting, and some safety ideas. This manual is designed so that new operators can use the system with minimal previous training. At the end of this manual, the reader will find a quick checklist.

  3. Picking up the pieces of Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Multimedia

    Lee, T

    2002-01-01

    On Nov 12th as the tank of the SuperK detector was being refilled after routine maintenance, a shock wave calculated at 100 times greater than atmospheric pressure was triggered by the implosion of one weakened photomultiplier tube. In only five seconds the resulting chain reaction destroyed 6,665 PMTs, wrecking the detector and seriously delaying neutrino research.

  4. Scientific ballooning. Proceedings of the symposium on the scientific use of balloons and related technical problems, Innsbruck, Austria, May 29-June 10, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedler, W

    1979-01-01

    The book includes works on operational and technical aspects of balloon launching I and II, cooperative balloon campaigns, and new developments in scientific use of balloons. The specific topics discussed are coordinated balloon and rocket measurements of stratospheric wind shears and turbulence, ballooning in Japan and India, magnetospheric processes investigated with data taken from balloon flights, and remote sensing of middle atmosphere winds from balloon platforms.

  5. Superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider is to be a 20 TeV per beam proton-proton accelerator and collider. Physically the SCC will be 52 miles in circumference and slightly oval in shape. The use of superconducting magnets instead of conventional cuts the circumference from 180 miles to the 52 miles. The operating cost of the SCC per year is estimated to be about $200-250 million. A detailed cost estimate of the project is roughly $3 billion in 1986 dollars. For the big collider ring, the technical cost are dominated by the magnet system. That is why one must focus on the cost and design of the magnets. Presently, the process of site selection is underway. The major R and D efforts concern superconducting dipoles. The magnets use niobium-titanium as a conductor stabilized in a copper matrix. 10 figures

  6. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  7. Gravity wave spectra in the lower stratosphere diagnosed from project loon balloon trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Jensen, E.; Podglajen, A.; Coy, L.; Lodha, C.; Candido, S.; Carver, R.

    2017-08-01

    Project Loon has been launching superpressure balloons since January 2013 to provide worldwide Internet coverage. These balloons typically fly between 18 and 21 km and provide measurements of winds and pressure fluctuations in the lower stratosphere. We divide 1560 Loon flights into 3405 two-day segments for gravity wave analysis. We derive the kinetic energy spectrum from the horizontal balloon motion and estimate the temperature perturbation spectrum (proportional to the potential energy spectrum) from the pressure variations. We fit the temperature (and kinetic energy) data to the functional form T'2 = T'o2[ω/ωο)α, where ω is the wave frequency, ωο is daily frequency, T'o is the base temperature amplitude, and α is the spectral slope. Both the kinetic energy and temperature spectra show -1.9 ± 0.2 power-law dependence in the intrinsic frequency window 3-50 cycles/day. The temperature spectrum slope is weakly anticorrelated with the base temperature amplitude. We also find that the wave base temperature distribution is highly skewed. The tropical modal temperature is 0.77 K. The highest amplitude waves occur over the mountainous regions, the tropics, and the high southern latitudes. Temperature amplitudes show little height variation over our 18-21 km domain. Our results are consistent with other limited superpressure balloon analyses. The modal temperature is higher than the temperature currently used in high-frequency gravity wave parameterizations.

  8. Resistive ballooning modes in W7-AS and W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.

    1993-01-01

    'Critical' pressure gradients due to resistive ballooning modes and their growth rates were computed for the W7-AS stellarator and for a HELIAS configuration with W7-X parameters, and the two configurations were compared. The results are based on the evaluation of a fourth order magnetic differential equation along closed magnetic field lines. The numerical procedure applying a variational approach uses the 'Garching resistive ballooning code', GARBO, which was originally developed for the stability analysis of axisymmetric plasmas. Concerning purely growing modes, this analysis shows that the favourable stability properties of W7-X, already optimized with respect to ideal ballooning modes, persist in the resistive regime: the destabilizing effect of resistivity is largely compensated by the stabilizing contribution of plasma compression. As a consequence, the ideal β limit continues only moderately shifted in the resistive case and likewise ideal ballooning stable equilibria (up to β 0 ≅ 5%) do not become resistively unstable. The situation is different for W7-AS. Greater resistive effects (in comparison with W7-X) are found in a configuration that is already ideally much more unstable. A basic feature in resistive calculations is the occurrence of overstable modes. These modes no longer show a stability threshold and, for realistic values of pressure and resistivity, linear instability is obtained for W7-AS as well as for W7-X, with growth rates and oscillation frequencies in the kilo-Hertz range. (author). 29 refs, 13 figs

  9. Immediate and Short-term Follow-Up of Aortic Coarctation Balloon Angioplasty and Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mottaghi Moghadam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Aortic Coarcatation (CoA is one of the congenital heart diseases with the rate of 5-8% of Coronary heart diseases(CHDs. Balloon angioplasty is now one of the effective way of treatment for CoA, native or Re-coarctation (Re-CoA. We aimed to assess the immediate, and short term response to angioplasty and stenting, and also complications. Materials and Methods Balloon angioplasty with our without stenting was performed for 53 patients with native or Re-coarcatation angioplasty (39 balloon angioplasty alone, and 14 balloon and stenting. Pressure gradient across the CoA segment was measured initially by Echo and pre, and Post procedure. Echocardiography was also used for follow up assessment during 24 hours, one and 6 months afterward. Results Among 53 patients, 52.8% were male. There were 98.2% native and 3.8% Re-CoA. The mean age of patients was 8.65 ± 8.37 years, and the mean weight was 25.82±20.73 kg. The mean pressure gradient acrossthe CoA site before angioplasty was 24.88±12.32, and post procedure gradient was 4.77±6.42 (p

  10. The Super DREAM Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigmans, Richard [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Despite the fact that DOE provided only a fraction of the requested funds, the goals we defined in the proposal on which award ER41783 was based were essentially all met. This was partially due to the fact that other funding agencies, which supported our collaborators (especially from Italy and Korea) contributed as well, and partially due to the effective solutions that were developed to compensate for the fact that the detector we had proposed to build had to be scaled down. The performance of the SuperDREAM calorimeter is better than anything that has been built or proposed so far. This has of course not gone unnoticed in the scientific community. Scientists who are preparing experiments for the proposed new generation of particle accelerators (FCCee, CPEC,..) are all very seriously considering the technology developed in this project. Several new collaborations have formed which aim to adapt the dual-readout calorimeter principles to the demands of a 4 environment. Preliminary measurements using silicon photomultipliers as light sensors have already been carried out. This type of readout would make it possible to operate this detector in a magnetic field, and it would also allow for a longitudinal segmentation into electromagnetic and hadronic sections, if so desired. In addition, SiPM readout would eliminate the need for “forests” of fibers sticking out of the rear end of the calorimeter (Figure 1), and obtain an arbitrary fine lateral segmentation, which might be very important for recognizing electrons inside jets. The improvements in our understanding of the fundamental structure of matter and the forces that govern its behavior have always hinged on the availability of detectors that make it possible to explore the possibilities of new, more powerful particle accelerators to the fullest extent. We believe that the SuperDREAM project has created a quantum leap in detector technology, which may turn out to be crucially important for future discoveries in

  11. Super Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fromille

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 105 at low frequency (<10−2 Hz, herein called super dielectric materials (SDM, can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 108 in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 104. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc., filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution, herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to “short” the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass “supercapacitors” in volumetric energy density.

  12. Spectrum of ballooning instabilities in a stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Singleton, D B [Australian National Univ., ANU Supercomputing Facility, Canberra (Australia); Dewar, R L [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences

    1995-08-01

    The recent revival of interest in the application of the `ballooning formalism` to low-frequency plasma instabilities has prompted a comparison of the Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WKB) ballooning approximation with an (in principle) exact normal mode calculation for a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. Semiclassical quantization, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning eigenvalue to provide a local dispersion relation, is applied to a ten-field period stellarator test case. Excellent qualitative agreement, and good quantitative agreement is found with predictions from the TERPSICHORE code for toroidal mode numbers from 1 to 14 and radial mode numbers from 0 to 2. The continuum bands predicted from three-dimensional WKB theory are too narrow to resolve. (author) 3 figs., 24 refs.

  13. Spectrum of ballooning instabilities in a stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.A.; Singleton, D.B.; Dewar, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    The recent revival of interest in the application of the 'ballooning formalism' to low-frequency plasma instabilities has prompted a comparison of the Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WKB) ballooning approximation with an (in principle) exact normal mode calculation for a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. Semiclassical quantization, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning eigenvalue to provide a local dispersion relation, is applied to a ten-field period stellarator test case. Excellent qualitative agreement, and good quantitative agreement is found with predictions from the TERPSICHORE code for toroidal mode numbers from 1 to 14 and radial mode numbers from 0 to 2. The continuum bands predicted from three-dimensional WKB theory are too narrow to resolve. (author) 3 figs., 24 refs

  14. Balloon dilatation of the prostatic urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Cha, Kyung Soo; Hong, Ju Hee; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Cheol Soo

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the result of transurethral balloon dilatation in 11 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. The procedures were performed under intravenous sedation and local anesthesia with double lumen balloon catheter at 4 atmosphere for 10 minutes. After dilatation, the prostatism symptom scores improved in 10 out of 11 patients and the mean diameter of the prostatic urethra significantly increased form 4.3 mm to 10.2 mm (ρ < 0.005). The procedures were successful not only in lateral lobe hypertrophy but also in median lobe hypertrophy of the prostate. Postdilatation MRI of 1 patient showed an intact prostatic capsule and no periprostatic hematoma. Complications did not develop except in 1 patient with mild hematuria and incontinence. These preliminary results suggest that transurethral balloon dilatation can be an effective and safe treatment modality for benign prostatic hypertrophy

  15. Unconventional ballooning structures for toroidal drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hua-sheng; Xiao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    With strong gradients in the pedestal of high confinement mode (H-mode) fusion plasmas, gyrokinetic simulations are carried out for the trapped electron and ion temperature gradient modes. A broad class of unconventional mode structures is found to localize at arbitrary poloidal positions or with multiple peaks. It is found that these unconventional ballooning structures are associated with different eigen states for the most unstable mode. At weak gradient (low confinement mode or L-mode), the most unstable mode is usually in the ground eigen state, which corresponds to a conventional ballooning mode structure peaking in the outboard mid-plane of tokamaks. However, at strong gradient (H-mode), the most unstable mode is usually not the ground eigen state and the ballooning mode structure becomes unconventional. This result implies that the pedestal of H-mode could have better confinement than L-mode

  16. Innovations in Balloon Catheter Technology in Rhinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anza, Brian; Sindwani, Raj; Woodard, Troy D

    2017-06-01

    Since being introduced more than 10 years ago, balloon catheter technology (BCT) has undergone several generations of innovations. From construction to utilization, there has been a myriad of advancements in balloon technology. The ergonomics of the balloon dilation systems have improved with a focus on limiting the extra assembly. "Hybrid" BCT procedures have shown promise in mucosal preservation, including treating isolated complex frontal disease. Multiple randomized clinical trials report improved long-term outcomes in stand-alone BCT, including in-office use. The ever-expanding technological innovations ensure BCT will be a key component in the armamentarium of the modern sinus surgeon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wind-Driven Montgolfiere Balloons for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Lemieux, Aimee; Lachenmeier, Tim; Zubrin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Solar Montgolfiere balloons, or solar-heated hot air balloons have been evaluated by use on Mars for about 5 years. In the past, JPL has developed thermal models that have been confirmed, as well as developed altitude control systems to allow the balloons to float over the landscape or carry ground sampling instrumentation. Pioneer Astronautics has developed and tested a landing system for Montgolfieres. JPL, together with GSSL. have successfully deployed small Montgolfieres (<15-m diameter) in the earth's stratosphere, where conditions are similar to a Mars deployment. Two larger Montgolfieres failed, however, and a series of larger scale Montgolfieres is now planned using stronger, more uniform polyethylene bilaminate, combined with stress-reducing ripstitch and reduced parachute deceleration velocities. This program, which is presently under way, is a joint effort between JPL, WFF, and GSSL, and is planned for completion in three years.

  18. Robotic weather balloon launchers spread in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Julia

    2018-04-01

    Last week, things began stirring inside the truck-size box that sat among melting piles of snow at the airport in Fairbanks, Alaska. Before long, the roof of the box yawned open and a weather balloon took off into the sunny afternoon, instruments dangling. The entire launch was triggered with the touch of a button, 5 kilometers away at an office of the National Weather Service (NWS). The flight was smooth, just one of hundreds of twice-daily balloon launches around the world that radio back crucial data for weather forecasts. But most of those balloons are launched by people; the robotic launchers, which are rolling out across Alaska, are proving to be controversial. NWS says the autolaunchers will save money and free up staff to work on more pressing matters. But representatives of the employee union question their reliability, and say they will hasten the end of Alaska's remote weather offices, where forecasting duties and hours have already been slashed.

  19. Advanced Onboard Energy Storage Solution for Balloons, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Balloon Programs at NASA are looking for a potential 100 day missions at mid-altitudes. These balloons would be powered by solar panels to take advantage of...

  20. Under Pressure: Activities with a Vacuum Pump (and Some Marshmallows) Help Students Learn about Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration that illustrates the effects of pressure and gravity on humans using a marshmallow man and a vacuum pump. Demonstrates the same concept with shaving cream, balloons, and boiling water without raising temperature. (YDS)

  1. False coronary dissection with the new Monorail angioplasty balloon catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugas, E; Cequier, A R; Sabaté, X; Jara, F

    1990-01-01

    During percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, the appearance of persistent staining in the vessel by contrast media suggests coronary dissection. We report seven patients in whom a false image of severe coronary dissection was observed during angioplasty performed with the new Monorail balloon catheter. This image emerges at the moment of balloon inflation, is distally located to the balloon, and disappears with balloon catheter deflation. No complications were associated with the appearance of this image.

  2. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons

  3. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeung Sook; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Yook; Choi, Woo Suk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures.

  4. Balloon catheter dilatation of esophageal strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeung Sook; Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Yook; Choi, Woo Suk; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1990-01-01

    The authors performed 27 fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation in 12 patients of esophageal stricture during recent 3 years. The causes of esophageal stricture were corrosive esophagitis (N=2) and congenital narrowing (N=1), including postoperative narrowing in achalasia (N=3), esophageal varix (N=3), lye stricture (N=2) and esophageal cancer (N=1). Successful dilatation of the stricture was achieved during the procedure in 10 patients(83%). Major complication such as esophageal rupture was not found. The authors conclude that fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilatation is a safe and effective method for treatment of symptomatic esophageal strictures

  5. Exponential Growth of Nonlinear Ballooning Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory predicts that a perturbation evolving from a linear ballooning instability will continue to grow exponentially in the intermediate nonlinear phase at the same linear growth rate. This prediction is confirmed in ideal MHD simulations. When the Lagrangian compression, a measure of the ballooning nonlinearity, becomes of the order of unity, the intermediate nonlinear phase is entered, during which the maximum plasma displacement amplitude as well as the total kinetic energy continues to grow exponentially at the rate of the corresponding linear phase.

  6. Performance of the EUSO-Balloon electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillon, P.; Dagoret, S.; Miyamoto, H.; Moretto, C.; Bacholle, S.; Blaksley, C; Gorodetzky, P.; Jung, A.; Prévôt, G.; Prat, P.; Bayer, J.; Blin, S.; Taille, C. De La; Cafagna, F.; Fornaro, C.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Tanco, G. Medina; Osteria, G.; Perfetto, F.; Park, I.

    2016-01-01

    The 24th of August 2014, the EUSO-Balloon instrument went for a night flight for several hours, 40 km above Timmins (Canada) balloon launching site, concretizing the hard work of an important part of the JEM-EUSO collaboration started 3 years before. This instrument consists of a telescope made of two lenses and a complex electronic chain divided in two main sub-systems: the PDM (Photo Detector Module) and the DP (Data Processor). Each of them is made of several innovative elements developed and tested in a short time. This paper presents their performances before and during the flight

  7. [Mitral valvuloplasty with double balloon catheter. Analysis of 200 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, N L; Esteves, C A; Braga, S L; Ramos, A I; Meneghelo, Z M; Mattos, L A; Pontes Júnior, S C; Arnoni, A S; Fontes, V F; Sousa, J E

    1992-04-01

    To study the immediate clinical, echocardiographic and hemodynamic results of 200 patients who underwent percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy (PMV) with double balloon technique. Two hundred patients were submitted to PVM for treatment of congestive heart failure secondary to severe mitral stenosis, between August 1987 to July 1991. Their mean age was 35.2 years, and 86.5% were female patients: 81% of them was in functional class, New York Heart Association (NYHA) III or IV; 4% was in atrial fibrilation and 4% had previous surgical commissurotomy. PMV was successfully performed in 89% of the patients. The mitral valve area, by pressure half time method, increased from 0.91 +/- 0.27 to 2.10 +/- 0.47 cm2, p atrial septum could not be performed. Mitral regurgitation (MR) immediately after PMV appeared 1+ or more grade in 50 patients, increased in 8 patients and remained unchanged in 11 patients. Ten patients needed mitral valve replacement in the first 48h after PMV, for treatment of severe MR. PMV produces excellent immediate results and can be considered an alternative to surgery for the relief of mitral stenosis.

  8. QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALLOONING MODES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAO, LL; SNYDER, PB; LEONARD, AW; OSBORNE, TH; PETRIE, TW; FERRON, JR; GROEBNER, RJ; HORTON, LD; KAMADA, Y; MURAKAMI, M; OIKAWA, T; PEARLSTEIN, LD; SAARELMA, S; STJOHN, HE; THOMAS, DM; TURNBULL, AD; WILSON, HR

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 QUANTITATIVE TESTS OF ELMS AS INTERMEDIATE N PEELING-BALLOONING MODES. Two of the major issues crucial for the design of the next generation tokamak burning plasma devices are the predictability of the edge pedestal height and control of the divertor heat load in H-mode configurations. Both of these are strongly impacted by edge localized modes (ELMs) and their size. A working model for ELMs is that they are intermediate toroidal mode number, n ∼ 5-30, peeling-ballooning modes driven by the large edge pedestal pressure gradient P(prime) and the associated large edge bootstrap current density J BS . the interplay between P(prime) and J BS as a discharge evolves can excite peeling-ballooning modes over a wide spectrum of n. The pedestal current density plays a dual role by stabilizing the high n ballooning modes via opening access to second stability but providing free energy to drive the intermediate n peeling modes. This makes a systematic evaluation of this model particularly challenging. This paper describes recent quantitative tests of this model using experimental data from the DIII-D and the JT-60U tokamaks. These tests are made possible by recent improvements to the ELITE MHD stability code, which allow an efficient evaluation of the unstable peeling-ballooning modes, as well as by improvements to other diagnostic and analysis techniques. Some of the key testable features of this model are: (1) ELMs are triggered when the growth rates of intermediate n MHD modes become significantly large; (2) ELM sizes are related to the radial widths of the unstable modes; (3) the unstable modes have a strong ballooning character localized in the outboard bad curvature region; (4) at high collisionality, ELM size generally becomes smaller because J BS is reduced

  9. Grassmann, super-Kac-Moody and super-derivation algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappat, L.; Ragoucy, E.; Sorba, P.

    1989-05-01

    We study the cyclic cocycles of degree one on the Grassmann algebra and on the super-circle with N supersymmetries (i.e. the tensor product of the algebra of functions on the circle times a Grassmann algebra with N generators). They are related to central extensions of graded loop algebras (i.e. super-Kac-Moody algebras). The corresponding algebras of super-derivations have to be compatible with the cocycle characterizing the extension; we give a general method for determining these algebras and examine in particular the cases N = 1,2,3. We also discuss their relations with the Ademollo et al. algebras, and examine the possibility of defining new kinds of super-conformal algebras, which, for N > 1, generalize the N = 1 Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz algebra

  10. Electrically tuned super-capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Tazima S.; Grebel, Haim

    2015-01-01

    Fast charging and discharging of large amounts of electrical energy make super-capacitors ideal for short-term energy storage [1-5]. In its simplest form, the super-capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor made of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte. As for an ordinary capacitor, minimizing the charge separation distance and increasing the electrode area increase capacitance. In super-capacitors, charge separation is of nano-meter scale at each of the electrode interface (the Helm...

  11. The Super-Kamiokande detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Ishitsuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Namba, T.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Oketa, M.; Okumura, K.; Oyabu, T.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Toshito, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Desai, S.; Earl, M.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Masuzawa, M.; Messier, M.D.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Wang, W.; Scholberg, K.; Barszczak, T.; Casper, D.; Liu, D.W.; Gajewski, W.; Halverson, P.G.; Hsu, J.; Kropp, W.R.; Mine, S.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.W.; Vagins, M.R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Tasaka, S.; Flanagan, J.W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V.J.; Hayato, Y.; Ishii, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Maruyama, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Iwashita, T.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A.T.; Hasegawa, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, I.; Maesaka, H.; Nakaya, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Haines, T.J.; Kim, B.K.; Sanford, R.; Svoboda, R.; Blaufuss, E.; Chen, M.L.; Conner, Z.; Goodman, J.A.; Guillian, E.; Sullivan, G.W.; Turcan, D.; Habig, A.; Ackerman, M.; Goebel, F.; Hill, J.; Jung, C.K.; Kato, T.; Kerr, D.; Malek, M.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Viren, B.; Yanagisawa, C.; Doki, W.; Inaba, S.; Ito, K.; Kirisawa, M.; Kitaguchi, M.; Mitsuda, C.; Miyano, K.; Saji, C.; Takahata, M.; Takahashi, M.; Higuchi, K.; Kajiyama, Y.; Kusano, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Nitta, K.; Takita, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kim, H.I.; Kim, S.B.; Yoo, J.; Okazawa, H.; Etoh, M.; Fujita, K.; Gando, Y.; Hasegawa, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Iwamoto, T.; Koga, M.; Nishiyama, I.; Ogawa, H.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takayama, T.; Tsushima, F.; Koshiba, M.; Ichikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hatakeyama, Y.; Koike, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Nemoto, M.; Nishijima, K.; Takeda, H.; Fujiyasu, H.; Futagami, T.; Ishino, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Morii, M.; Nishihama, H.; Nishimura, H.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kielczewska, D.; Golebiewska, U.; Berns, H.G.; Boyd, S.B.; Doyle, R.A.; George, J.S.; Stachyra, A.L.; Wai, L.L.; Wilkes, R.J.; Young, K.K.; Kobayashi, H.

    2003-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I

  12. The accessory super-selective techniques in performing the transarterial embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenyuan; Liu Jianmin; Li Qiang; Fang Yibin; Xu Yi; Hong Bo; Huang Qinghai

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the assistant techniques in performing transarterial embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) when routine super-selective catheterization with microcatheter fails. Methods: Temporary balloon occlusion of the parent artery was adopted in 4 cases of anterior fossa DAVF and in one case of tentorial DAVF, and permanent occlusion of the distal main trunk with coils was carried out in one tentorial DAVF in order to help the super-selective catheterization. Results: The microcatheter was successfully advanced to, or near, the nidus with the help of these assistant techniques and all 6 cases were cured with single session. After the surgery no operation-related complications occurred. Conclusion: Our preliminary results indicate that the assistant techniques, including temporary balloon occlusion of the parent artery and permanent occlusion of the distal main trunk with coils, are a safe and effective method which can reliably help the successful performance of microcatheter catheterization, it can be safely used in complex cases when routine super-selective catheterization fails. (authors)

  13. Clinical experience with the Monorail balloon catheter for coronary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finci, L; Meier, B; Roy, P; Steffenino, G; Rutishauser, W

    1988-01-01

    The Monorail balloon catheter is distinctly different from other current balloon catheters: the guidewire passes through the balloon itself, exits the catheter proximal to the balloon, and runs alongside its small shaft (3 French) through the guiding catheter. Monorail coronary angioplasty was attempted in 61 patients on 73 lesions with balloons from 2.0 to 3.7 mm. Angiographic success was obtained in 66 lesions (90%). For 15 lesions, balloon exchanges were needed. In three lesions, the Monorail balloon failed to cross the lesion, while a standard balloon succeeded; two lesions could not be crossed with any balloon. Vessel occlusion occurred in four patients: two had emergency surgery without infarct (one died suddenly 4 days later and one had a stroke 1 day later), one was recanalized with a standard balloon, and one had a myocardial infarct. Continuous infusion of urokinase was used until patient 3 in whom problems with the delivery system led to cardiocerebral air embolization (with complete recovery). No thrombotic complications were observed in the subsequent 58 patients with only a bolus of 10,000 U of heparin. The Monorail balloon facilitates contrast injections and balloon exchanges but appears more difficult to pass through tight lesions. Omission of the previously recommended infusion with a thrombolytic agent proved safe.

  14. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity...

  15. Ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephilapilipes (Araneae: Nephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M.J. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballooning, a mode of aerial dispersal in spiders, is an innate behavior that requires appropriate physiological and meteorological conditions. Although only rarely reported in the golden orbweb spiders, family Nephilidae, the large geographic distributions of most nephilids—in particular of Nephila species—would imply that these spiders likely routinely disperse by ballooning in spite of giant female sizes. Here we study ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793. Specifically, we test for the propensity of spiderlings to deploy ballooning as a dispersal mechanism. We subjected a total of 59 first-instar spiderlings to a wind experiment at two wind speeds (2.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 and 3.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 under laboratory conditions. Under an average wind speed of 3.17 m s-1, none of the spiderlings exhibited pre-ballooning or ballooning behavior. However, at an average wind speed of 2.17 m s-1, 53 (89.8% spiderlings showed pre-ballooning behavior, and 17 (32.1% of the pre-ballooners ultimately ballooned. Our results concur with prior reports on spiderlings of other families that pre-ballooning behavior is a requirement for ballooning to occur. Furthermore, although we cannot rule out other dispersal mechanisms such as synanthropic spread, our findings suggest that the widespread N. pilipes uses ballooning to colonize remote oceanic islands.

  16. Thermal power blocks with ultra-super-critical steam parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aličić Merim M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New generation of thermal power plants are required to have increased utilization rates, in addition to reduced emissions of pollutants, in order to reach optimal solutions, from both technical and economic point of view. One way to achieve greater utilization efficiency is operation of the plant at super critical (SC or ultra super critical steam parameters (USC. However, achieving high parameters depends on use of new materials, which have better properties at high temperatures and pressures, use of new welding technologies and by solving the problem of corrosion. The paper gives an overview of some of the plants with these parameters.

  17. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauges, E.; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; Cheng, C.; Chivukula, A.; Doll, D.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; Thomas, M.; Zhu, R.; Tatishvili, G.; Andreassen, R.; Fabby, C.; Meadows, B.; Simpson, A.; Sokoloff, M.; Tomko, K.; Fella, A.; Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Gianoli, A.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Santoro, V.; Tomassetti, L.; Stoker, D.; Bezshyyko, O.; Dolinska, G.; Arnaud, N.; Beigbeder, C.; Bogard, F.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Charlet, D.; Maalmi, J.; Perez Perez, L.; Puill, V.; Stocchi, A.; Tocut, V.; Wallon, S.; Wormser, G.; Brown, D.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  18. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Bergamo U., Ingengneria Dept.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; /Bergen U.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  19. SuperB Progress Reports Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, Maria Enrica; Boscolo, M; Buonomo, B; Demma, T; Drago, A; Esposito, M; Guiducci, S; Mazzitelli, G; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Zobov, M; Bertsche, K; Brachman, A; Cai, Y; Chao, A; Chesnut, R; Donald, M.H; Field, C; Fisher, A; Kharakh, D; Krasnykh, A; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Pivi, M; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M.K; Weathersby, S; Weidemann, A; Weisend, J; Wienands, U; Wittmer, W; Woods, M; Yocky, G; Bogomiagkov, A; Koop, I; Levichev, E; Nikitin, S; Okunev, I; Piminov, P; Sinyatkin, S; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Bosi, F; Liuzzo, S; Paoloni, E; Bonis, J; Chehab, R; Le Meur, G; Lepercq, P; Letellier-Cohen, F; Mercier, B; Poirier, F; Prevost, C; Rimbault, C; Touze, F; Variola, A; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; De Conto, J M; Gomez, Y; Meot, F; Monseu, N; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C; Chanci, A; Napoly, O; Barber, D P; Bettoni, S; Quatraro, D

    2010-01-01

    This report details the present status of the Accelerator design for the SuperB Project. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  20. Fasting and meal-suppressed ghrelin levels before and after intragastric balloons and balloon-induced weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.; Eichenberger, R. I.

    2014-01-01

    Intragastric balloons may be an option for obese patients with weight loss failure. Its mode of action remains enigmatic. We hypothesised depressed fasting ghrelin concentrations and enhanced meal suppression of ghrelin secretion by the gastric fundus through balloon contact and balloon-induced

  1. There is a Text in 'The Balloon'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2009-01-01

    From the Introduction: Camelia Elias' "There is a Text in 'The Balloon': Donald Barthelme's Allegorical Flights" provides its reader with a much-need and useful distinction between fantasy and the fantastic: "whereas fantasy in critical discourse can be aligned with allegory, in which a supernatu...

  2. Viscoresistive g-modes and ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagazian, R.Y.; Paris, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The resistive G-mode and its particular form, the resistive ballooning mode, are treated as limits of a single simple model. MHD theory including parallel and perpendicular viscosity, finite shear, and finite beta is employed to study their linear stability

  3. Teacher's Guide for Balloons and Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Joe H.; And Others

    This guide was developed to provide children with an opportunity to prepare and collect several common gases and to discover and work with some of their properties. The guide is divided into five major sections: (1) introduction, (2) materials, (3) activities, (4) balloons aloft, and (5) an appendix. The introduction provides information…

  4. Teaching Earth Science Using Hot Air Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, James; Shaffer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Constructing model hot air balloons is an activity that captures the imaginations of students, enabling teachers to present required content to minds that are open to receive it. Additionally, there are few activities that lend themselves to integrating so much content across subject areas. In this article, the authors describe how they have…

  5. Balloon-borne radiometer profiler: Field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.J.; Whiteman, C.D.; Anderson, G.A.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Hubbe, J.M.; Scott, K.A.

    1995-03-01

    This project involves the development of the capability of making routine soundings of broadband radiative fluxes and radiative flux divergences to heights of 1500m AGL. Described in this document are radiometers carried on a stabilized platform in a harness inserted in the tetherline of a tethered balloon meteriological sounding system. Field test results are given

  6. Super boson-fermion correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kac, V.G.; Leur van de, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Skyrme, the boson-fermion correspondence has been playing an increasingly important role in 2-dimensional quantum field theory. More recently, it has become an important ingredient in the work of the Kyoto school on the KP hierarchy of soliton equations. In the present paper we establish a super boson-fermion correspondence, having in mind its applications to super KP hierarchies

  7. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  8. Super power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Johnson, D.L.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    PROTO II, a super power generator, is presently undergoing testing at Sandia Laboratories. It has operated with an 80 ns, 50 ns, 35 ns, and 20 ns positive output pulse high voltage mode and achieved total current rates of rise of 4 x 10 14 A/s. The two sided disk accelerator concept using two diodes has achieved voltages of 1.5 MV and currents of 4.5 MA providing a power exceeding 6 TW in the electron beam and 8 TW in the transmission lines. A new test bed named MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) was designed and is now being tested. The pulse forming lines are back to back short pulse Blumleins which use untriggered water switching. Output data showing a ten ns half width power pulse peaking above one terrawatt were obtained. MITE is a module being investigated for use in the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator and will be used to test the effects of short pulses propagating down vacuum transmission lines

  9. Super oil cracking update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulraney, D.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of residual fuel oil to usable middle distillates was discussed. The residue conversion processing paths are usually based on separation, carbon rejection, or hydrogen addition principles. Super Oil Cracking (SOC) uses a slurry catalyst system in a new, tubular reactor to achieve high levels of hydrothermal conversion. SOC can upgrade a variety of heavy, high metals residue feedstocks with high yields of middle distillates. The SOC products can also be further treated into feedstocks for FCC or hydrocracking. The SOC process can be incorporated easily into a refinery to obtain incremental residue conversion directly. It can also be integrated with other residue processes, acting as a demetallization and decarbonization step which results in enhanced overall conversion. The relative rate of coke formation and its handling are distinguishing characteristics between residue upgrading technologies. The SOC process operates at higher temperatures that other residue hydrocracking processes resulting in higher rates of thermal decomposition, thus preventing coke formation. SOC process can operate as a stand-alone upgrader or can be integrated with other bottoms processing steps to extend the refiner's range of options for increasing bottoms conversion.3 tabs., 14 figs

  10. Tackling the Issue of High Postoperative Pacemaker Implantation Rates in Sutureless Aortic Valve Replacement: Should Balloon Inflation be Removed from the Implantation Method of the Perceval Prosthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Blouin, Mathieu; Bouhout, Ismail; Demers, Philippe; Carrier, Michel; Perrault, Louis; Lamarche, Yoan; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Bouchard, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Sutureless aortic valve replacement (AVR) is an emerging alternative to standard AVR in elderly and high-risk patients. This procedure is associated with a high rate of postoperative permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI). The study aim was to assess the impact on the rate of PPI of implanting the Perceval prosthesis without using balloon inflation. A total of 159 patients who underwent sutureless AVR using the Perceval prosthesis was included. Balloon inflation was used in 132 patients (Balloon group) and not used in the remaining 27 (No-Balloon group). Clinical, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic outcomes were assessed. There was no significant difference in PPI rate between the two groups (26% for Balloon group versus 22% in No-Balloon group; p = 0.700). Balloon inflation had no significant impact on the incidence of paravalvular leaks (p = 0.839), or on the need to return to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) intraoperatively due to paravalvular leak or unsatisfactory deployment (p >0.999). Mean and peak transaortic pressure gradients were similar between the two groups (p = 0.417 and p = 0.522, respectively). Cross-clamp and CPB times were shorter in the No-Balloon group (49.6 ± 15.9 min versus 61.1 ± 25.6 min and 64.1 ± 26.3 min versus 79.6 ± 35.4 min, respectively; p = 0.027 and p = 0.012, respectively). The two groups had similar postoperative PPI rates. Implanting the Perceval prosthesis without balloon inflation is safe and had no impact on paravalvular leaks, intraoperative complications or hemodynamic results. Reductions in aortic cross-clamp time and CPB time were observed when the balloon was not used.

  11. High-mode-number ballooning modes in a heliotron/torsatron system. II. Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, N.

    1996-01-01

    In heliotron/torsatron systems that have a large Shafranov shift, the local magnetic shear is found to have no stabilizing effect on high-mode-number ballooning modes at the outer side of the torus, even in the region where the global shear is stellarator-like in nature. The disappearance of this stabilization, in combination with the compression of the flux surfaces at the outer side of the torus, leads at relatively low values of the plasma pressure to significant modifications of the stabilizing effect due to magnetic field-line bending on high-mode-number ballooning modes-specifically, that the field-line bending stabilization can be remarkably suppressed or enhanced. In an equilibrium that is slightly Mercier-unstable or completely Mercier-stable due to peaked pressure profiles, such as those used in standard stability calculations, high-mode-number ballooning modes are destabilized due to these modified stability effects, with their eigenfunctions highly localized along the field line. Highly localized mode structures such as these cause the ballooning mode eigenvalues ω 2 to have a strong field line dependence (i.e., α-variation) through the strong dependence of the local magnetic curvature, such that the level surfaces of ω 2 (ψ,θ k ,α) (≤0) become spheroids in (ψ,θ k ,α) space, where ψ labels flux surfaces and θ k is the radial wave number. Because the spheroidal level surfaces for unstable eigenvalues are surrounded by level surfaces for stable eigenvalues of high-mode-number toroidal Alfvacute en eigenmodes, those high-mode-number ballooning modes never lead to low-mode-number modes. In configuration space, these high-mode-number modes are localized in a single toroidal pitch of the helical coils, and hence they may experience substantial stabilization due to finite Larmor radius effects. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Australasian trends in intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation weaning: results of a postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Mullany, Daniel V; Courtney, Mary; Coyer, Fiona

    2006-12-01

    To generate baseline data describing Australasian intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) weaning practice. A five-part questionnaire was mailed in April 2005 to all 192 intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. 116 ICUs responded (response rate, 60%), and 54 reported using IABP. Most of the 54 were in hospitals which were public government-funded (65%), had between 100 and 500 beds (69%), and treated a minimum of 11 patients annually with IABP (60%). The most common method of withdrawing IABP support was ratio reduction alone (61%). ICUs most likely to undertake ratio weaning were higherend users of IABP (> 20 cases per annum) (P = 0.04). Other weaning practices involved a combination of ratio followed by volume reduction (17%), volume then ratio (11%), and volume only (4%). Approaching statistical significance, ratio reduction weaning less frequently required IABP reinsertion or inotropic increase after balloon removal (P = 0.07). ICUs with documented weaning policies were less likely to require IABP reinsertion or inotropic increase after balloon removal (P = 0.06). Criteria considered important before IABP weaning or removal were: blood pressure (92%); heart rate (76%); pulmonary artery wedge pressure (59%); noradrenaline dose (78%); adrenaline dose (57%); and dobutamine dose (57%). Ninety per cent of ICUs reported increasing inotropes after balloon removal only rarely (1:50 patients) or occasionally (1:10 patients), while 87% of ICUs reported never needing to reinsert the balloon or only rarely. The Australasian approach to IABP weaning is eclectic. While ratio reduction weaning appears the most successful manner of support withdrawal, it may be a consequence of a volume-outcome relationship, with high- end users achieving better results through IABP familiarity.

  13. CLOUDS IN SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarek, Rostom; Kempton, Eliza M.-R., E-mail: mbarekro@grinnell.edu, E-mail: kemptone@grinnell.edu [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Recent studies have unequivocally proven the existence of clouds in super-Earth atmospheres. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds by determining which condensates are likely to form under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We study super-Earth atmospheres of diverse bulk composition, which are assumed to form by outgassing from a solid core of chondritic material, following Schaefer and Fegley. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study arise from planetary cores made up of individual types of chondritic meteorites. They range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solar and super-solar, thereby spanning a range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of formation for over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350–3000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature–pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculation. We find that the composition of condensate clouds depends strongly on both the H:O and C:O ratios. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl and ZnS are the primary cloud-forming condensates at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and ZnO condensates are favored instead, and for carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds appear. For even hotter planets, clouds form from a wide variety of rock-forming and metallic species.

  14. Ballooning mode second stability region for sequences of tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, L.; Mark, J.W.K.

    A numerical study of several sequences of tokamak equilibria derived from two flux conserving sequences confirms the tendency of high n ideal MHD ballooning modes to stabilize for values of the plasma beta greater than a second critical beta, for sufficiently favorable equilibria. The major stabilizing effect of increasing the inverse rotational transform profile q(Psi) for equilibria with the same flux surface geometry is shown. The unstable region shifts toward larger shear d ln q/d ln γ and the width of the region measured in terms of the poloidal beta or a pressure gradient parameter, for fixed shear, decreases. The smaller aspect ratio sequences are more sensitive to changes in q and have less stringent limits on the attainable value of the plasma beta in the high beta stable region. Finally, the disconnected mode approximation is shown to provide a reasonable description of the second high beta stability boundary

  15. Pseudo-MHD ballooning modes in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    1996-08-01

    The MHD description of a plasma is extended to allow electrons to have both fluid-like and adiabatic-regime responses within an instability eigenmode. In the resultant open-quotes pseudo-MHDclose quotes model, magnetic field line bending is reduced in the adiabatic electron regime. This makes possible a new class of ballooning-type, long parallel extent, MHD-like instabilities in tokamak plasmas for α > s 2 (2 7/3 /9) (r p /R 0 ) or-d√Β/dr > (2 1/6 /3)(s/ R 0q ), which is well below the ideal-MHD stability boundary. The marginally stable pressure profile is similar in both magnitude and shape to that observed in ohmically heated tokamak plasmas

  16. NASA balloon design and flight - Philosophy and criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA philosophy and criteria for the design and flight of scientific balloons are set forth and discussed. The thickness of balloon films is standardized at 20.3 microns to isolate potential film problems, and design equations are given for specific balloon parameters. Expressions are given for: flight-stress index, total required thickness, cap length, load-tape rating, and venting-duct area. The balloon design criteria were used in the design of scientific balloons under NASA auspices since 1986, and the resulting designs are shown to be 95 percent effective. These results represent a significant increase in the effectiveness of the balloons and therefore indicate that the design criteria are valuable. The criteria are applicable to four balloon volume classes in combination with seven payload ranges.

  17. Overview of the NASA balloon R&D program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. Steve, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The catastrophic balloon failure during the first half of the 1980's identified the need for a comprehensive and continuing balloon research and development (R&D) commitment by NASA. Technical understanding was lacking in many of the disciplines and processes associated with scientific ballooning. A comprehensive balloon R&D plan was developed in 1986 and implemented in 1987. The objectives were to develop the understanding of balloon system performance, limitations, and failure mechanisms. The program consisted of five major technical areas: structures, performance and analysis, materials, chemistry and processing, and quality control. Research activitites have been conducted at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), other NASA centers and government facilities, universities, and the balloon manufacturers. Several new and increased capabilities and resources have resulted from this activity. The findings, capabilities, and plan of the balloon R&D program are presented.

  18. Response of Balloon-Expandable Endoprosthetic Metallic Stents Subjected to Over-Expansion In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, B. J.; Kakimoto, W. M.; Arepally, A.; Razavi, M.; Dake, M. D.; Hofmann, L. V.

    2004-01-01

    We attempted to evaluate the in vitro behavior and performance of balloon-expandable endoprosthetic metallic stents subjected to over-expansion (OE). Seventy-two balloon-expandable endoprosthetic stents, representing 22 models from six manufacturers, were over- expanded in vitro. Stents were initially expanded to their maximum manufacturer- recommended diameter and then over-expanded incrementally to their endpoints. Endpoints for OE were either stent disarticulation or an inability to undergo further expansion despite balloon insufflation to maximum burst pressure. Measurements of stent dimensions were recorded at each overexpanded diameter and comparisons were made to manufacturer's specifications. A total of 288 balloon-driven expansions were performed on 72 stents. Sixteen stents were expanded to large diameters (≥ 16 mm), 20 stents underwent OE of 50% or greater. One model tended to disarticulate after OE greater than 50%. There were five models that had a tendency to disarticulate after minimal OE. Five models were resistant to OE (25% or less OE) but did not disarticulate. Nearly all stents showed some degree of foreshortening with OE, while 36 stents underwent foreshortening of 30% or more. Models that are not recommended for OE include Intrastent, Intrastent DoubleStrut, NIR Royale and Omniflex. Good candidates for OE include Intrastent DoubleStrut LD, Palmaz large, Medtronic Extra Support Biliary Plus and Medtronic Flexible Biliary. Palmaz XL remains the only model available for expansion from 20 to 28 mm in diameter. For the remaining stents, OE is possible, however, caution should be used

  19. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Inflation Test of Latex Balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bustos

    Full Text Available Abstract Experiments and modeling aimed at assessing the mechanical response of latex balloons in the inflation test are presented. To this end, the hyperelastic Yeoh material model is firstly characterized via tensile test and, then, used to numerically simulate via finite elements the stress-strain evolution during the inflation test. The numerical pressure-displacement curves are validated with those obtained experimentally. Moreover, this analysis is extended to a biomedical problem of an eyeball under glaucoma conditions.

  20. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Inflation Test of Latex Balloons

    OpenAIRE

    Bustos, Claudio; Herrera, Claudio García; Celentano, Diego; Chen, Daming; Cruchaga, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experiments and modeling aimed at assessing the mechanical response of latex balloons in the inflation test are presented. To this end, the hyperelastic Yeoh material model is firstly characterized via tensile test and, then, used to numerically simulate via finite elements the stress-strain evolution during the inflation test. The numerical pressure-displacement curves are validated with those obtained experimentally. Moreover, this analysis is extended to a biomedical problem of an...

  1. The role of flow shear in the ballooning stability of tokamak transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.J.; Wilson, H.R.; Scaife, A.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    A tokamak's economic performance is strongly affected by the plasma pressure that it may sustain, which in turn is limited by the maximum pressure gradients that may be supported. Ballooning modes are typically driven unstable by increasing the pressure gradient, and because they can radially extend across many rational surfaces, they can seriously reduce a plasma's energy confinement. Here an eigenmode formulation is used to study the stability of ballooning modes in internal transport barriers ('ITBs'), in which very strong pressure gradients and flow shears may be found. This extends previous studies that used an 'eikonal' formulation, as it enables the study of: ballooning modes with a finite toroidal mode-number n (finite wavelength perpendicular to the magnetic field), to find new solution branches, to obtain the eigenmode structures, and to investigate the effects of a radially varying equilibrium. The structure of a finite n ballooning mode in flow shear is found to be significantly affected by a radially varying equilibrium, and at low flow shears the growth rates are increased above those of modes studied in the limit of n→∞. The different solution branches can couple as the flow shear is increased, leading to a pair of asymmetric mode structures with complex conjugate growth rates. These effects are shown to be a consequence of the mode trying to localize at the most unstable radial location, and its desire to rotate with the flow. In addition, closer to marginal stability a sufficiently strong flow-shear can (at least for some cases), destabilize a previously stable mode

  2. Balloon Eustachian Tuboplasty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtle, A; Hollfelder, D; Wollenberg, B; Bruchhage, K-L

    2017-06-01

    Endonasal ballon dilatation of the Eustachian tube (BET) is a promising treatment for Eustachian tube dysfunction with encouraging results over the last years in adults. In addition, in children, single studies demonstrated promising results, but revealed the necessity for broader and additional studies. Our retrospective analysis presents outcomes with BET in children with chronic obstructive dysfunction of the Eustachian tube, showing resistance to the conventional therapy after adenotomy with paracentesis or grommets (ventilation tubes). The data of 52 children, having undergone BET from April 2011 to April 2016, were retrospectively evaluated. Most children in our study presented middle ear effusion (47%), adhesive (21%), chronic otitis media (13%), or recurrent acute otitis media (11%). In 24 (37%) children, we combined BET with a paracentesis, in 5 (8%) patients with a tympanoplasty type I and in 3 (5%) patients with a type III. All children were assessed using an audiogram, tympanometry, and tubomanometry (50 mbar) before and after BET. In addition, we evaluated the results of the Lübecker questionnaire, which we performed before and after BET. The childrens' ear-related and quality of life-related symptoms, such as pressure equalization, ear pressure, hearing loss, pain and limitation in daily life, and satisfaction pre- and postoperatively, were analyzed. In the majority of patients, we could see an improvement in the ear pressure, hearing loss, limitation in daily life, and satisfaction with recurrent inflammations, underlined by better outcomes in the tubomanometry and the tympanogram. BET in children is a safe, efficient, and promising method to treat chronic tube dysfunction, especially as a second line treatment, when adenotomy, paracentesis, or grommets failed before.

  3. Super Dielectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromille, Samuel; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-12-22

    Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 10⁵ at low frequency (dielectric materials (SDM), can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 10⁸ in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 10⁴. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc. ), filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution), herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS) capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å) of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to "short" the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass "supercapacitors" in volumetric energy density.

  4. Scintillation Detector for the Measurement of Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Rays on the Super-TIGER Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jason

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the design and construction of the scintillation detectors for the Super-TIGER experiment. Super-TIGER is a large-area (5.4sq m) balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the abundances of cosmic-ray nuclei between Z= 10 and Z=56. It is based on the successful TIGER experiment that flew in Antarctica in 2001 and 2003. Super-TIGER has three layers of scintillation detectors, two Cherenkov detectors and a scintillating fiber hodoscope. The scintillation detector employs four wavelength shifter bars surrounding the edges of the scintillator to collect the light from particles traversing the detector. PMTs are optically coupled at both ends of the bars for light collection. We report on laboratory performance of the scintillation counters using muons. In addition we discuss the design challenges and detector response over this broad charge range including the effect of scintilator saturation.

  5. In vitro analysis of balloon cuffing phenomenon: inherent biophysical properties of catheter material or mechanics of catheter balloon deflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; So, Karina

    2012-06-01

    To investigates the different methods of balloon deflation, types of urinary catheters and exposure to urine media in catheter balloon cuffing. Bardex®, Bard-Lubri-Sil®, Argyle®, Releen® and Biocath® were tested in sterile and E.Coli inoculated urine at 0, 14 and 28 days. Catheter deflation was performed with active deflation; passive deflation; passive auto-deflation; and excision of the balloon inflow channel. Balloon cuffing was assessed objectively by running the deflated balloon over a plate of agar and subjectively by 3 independent observers. Bardex®, Argyle® and Biocath® showed greater degree of catheter balloon cuffing (p deflation was the worst method (p 0.05). Linear regression model analysis confirmed time as the most significant factor. The duration of catheters exposure, different deflation methods and types of catheters tested contributed significantly to catheter balloon cuffing (p < 0.01).

  6. Pulmonary venous flows reflect changes in left atrial hemodynamics during mitral balloon valvotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Fatih; El-Amrousy, Mahmoud; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Flachskampf, Frank; Tuzcu, Murat; Garcia, Mario G; Thomas, James D

    2002-01-01

    Patients with mitral stenosis have usually blunted pulmonary venous (PV) flow, because of decreased mitral valve area and diastolic dysfunction. The authors compared changes in Doppler PV velocities by using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) against hemodynamics parameters before and after mitral balloon valvotomy to observe relevance of PV velocities and endsystolic left atrial (LA) pressure-volume relationship. In 25 patients (aged 35 +/- 17 years) with mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm, changes in LA pressure and volumes were compared with PV velocities before and after valvotomy. Mitral valve area, mitral gradients, and deceleration time were obtained. Mitral valve area and mitral gradients changed from 1 +/- 0.2 cm2 and 14.6 +/- 5.4 mmHg to 1.9 +/- 0.3 cm2 and 6.3 +/- 1.7 mmHg, respectively (pLA pressure were correlated with changes in S/D (r=0.57, pLA pressure-volume relationship were also correlated with changes in S/D (r=0.52, pLA pressure-volume relationship decreased after mitral balloon valvotomy, as a result of a large decrease in pressure. PV systolic/diastolic (S/D) waves ratio reflects endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship and may be used as another indicator of successful valvotomy.

  7. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  8. Quantization of super Teichmueller spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaei, Nezhla

    2016-08-01

    The quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of Riemann surfaces has found important applications to conformal field theory and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. We construct a quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces, using coordinates associated to the ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. We construct a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations. Therefore, we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential. In the quantum Teichmueller theory, it was observed that the key object defining the Teichmueller theory has a close relation to the representation theory of the Borel half of U q (sl(2)). In our research we observed that the role of U q (sl(2)) is taken by quantum superalgebra U q (osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). A Borel half of U q (osp(1 vertical stroke 2)) is the super quantum plane. The canonical element of the Heisenberg double of the quantum super plane is evaluated in certain infinite dimensional representations on L 2 (R) x C 1 vertical stroke 1 and compared to the flip operator from the Teichmueller theory of super Riemann surfaces.

  9. Diagnostic examination of the urethra in the female and double-balloon urethrography as a diagnostic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeja, C.; Mutze, S.; Poetzschke, B.; Tunn, R.; Heinrich, G.; Hamm, B.

    1997-01-01

    The double-balloon urethrography can be recommended as an efficient diagnostic method for examination of the urethra in the female patient. Because of its improved controllability, retrograde application of the contrast agent is superior to other techniques. Complications can be avoided by maintaining constant pressure during contrast agent application. The few commercially available double-balloon instruments suffer from a number of deficiencies which are the reason for this technique having met with low acceptance, thus being only rarely applied. In addition, application of the instrument is not easy. Nevertheless, this diagnostic technique would deserve much more frequent application. (orig.) [de

  10. Intermediate heat exchanger project for Super Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumailhac, J.; Desir, D.

    1975-01-01

    The Super Phenix (1200 MWe) intermediate heat exchangers are derived directly from those of Phenix (250 MWe). The intermediate exchangers are housed in the reactor vessel annulus: as this annulus must be of the smallest volume possible, these IHX are required to work at a high specific rating. The exchange surface is calculated for nominal conditions. A range is then defined, consistent with the above requirements and throughout which the ratio between bundle thickness and bundle length remains acceptable. Experimental technics and calculations were used to determine the number of tube constraint systems required to keep the vibration amplitude within permissible limits. From a knowledge of this number, the pressure drop produced by the primary flow can be calculated. The bundle geometry is determined together with the design of the corresponding tube plates and the way in which these plates should be joined to the body of the IHX. The experience (technical and financial) acquired in the construction of Phenix is then used to optimize the design of the Super Phenix project. An approximate definition of the structure of the IHX is obtained by assuming a simplified load distribution in the calculations. More sophisticated calculations (e.g. finite element method) are then used to determine the behaviour of the different points of the IHX, under nominal and transient conditions

  11. Retrograde prostatic urethroplasty with balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Hulbert, J.; Letourneau, J.G.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed retrograde prostatic urethroplasty in 18 patients using a 25-mm urethroplasty balloon catheter. The procedure was performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia. Voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, rectal US, and MRE imaging were performed before and immediately after the procedure and at 2 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Long-term results at 18 months and possible clinical implications are discussed

  12. Siting the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.; Rooney, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering established the Super Collider Site Evaluation Committee to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites for the Superconducting Super Collider. Thirty-six proposals were examined by the committee. Using the set of criteria announced by DOE in its Invitation for Site Proposals, the committee identified eight sites that merited inclusion on a ''best qualified list.'' The list represents the best collective judgment of 21 individuals, carefully chosen for their expertise and impartiality, after a detailed assessment of the proposals using 19 technical subcriteria and DOE's life cycle cost estimates. The sites, in alphabetical order, are: Arizona/Maricopa; Colorado; Illinois; Michigan/Stockbridge; New York/Rochester; North Carolina; Tennessee; and Texas/Dallas-Fort Worth. The evaluation of these sites and the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this book

  13. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  14. Ballooning mode stabilization by moderate sheared rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameiri, E.

    1996-01-01

    Sheared toroidal plasma rotation has been known for some time to have a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A recent calculation showed that a large flow shear, with dΩ/dq of the order of the Alfven toroidal frequency, can stabilize the ballooning modes. This latest result is, in fact, not so optimistic. For observed flows with Mach number of order unity one gets dΩ/dq smaller by a factor O(√β) from the required level (if the flow shear length is of the same order as the magnetic shear length). Moreover, the calculation does not take into account a possibly large transient growth of the mode amplitude due to its Floquet structures We show here that, in fact, there is a general tendency of the ballooning mode to stabilize as soon as the flow shear dΩ/dq exceeds the (O√β smaller) open-quotes slowclose quotes magnetosonic wave frequency. Our analysis is perturbative, where the small parameter is related to the small coupling between the slow and Alfven waves-as is the case in a high aspect-ratio tokamak. (In the perturbation it is important to take the Hamiltonian nature of the governing equations into account.) Moreover, our results apply to the relevant transient growth of the mode amplitude

  15. Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, D.

    Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.

  16. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaei, Nezhla; Hamburg Univ.; Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Techner, Joerg

    2015-12-01

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  17. Intercomparison of meteorological analyses and trajectories in the Antarctic lower stratosphere with Concordiasi superpressure balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Hertzog, Albert; Rößler, Thomas; Stein, Olaf; Wu, Xue

    2017-07-01

    In this study we compared temperatures and horizontal winds of meteorological analyses in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, a region of the atmosphere that is of major interest regarding chemistry and dynamics of the polar vortex. The study covers the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis, the ERA-Interim reanalysis, the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version 1 and 2 (MERRA and MERRA-2), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis. The comparison was performed with respect to long-duration observations from 19 superpressure balloon flights during the Concordiasi field campaign in September 2010 to January 2011. Most of the balloon measurements were conducted at altitudes of 17-18.5 km and latitudes of 60-85° S. We found that large-scale state temperatures of the analyses have a mean precision of 0.5-1.4 K and a warm bias of 0.4-2.1 K with respect to the balloon data. Zonal and meridional winds have a mean precision of 0.9-2.3 m s-1 and a bias below ±0.5 m s-1. Standard deviations related to small-scale fluctuations due to gravity waves are reproduced at levels of 15-60 % for temperature and 30-60 % for the horizontal winds. Considering the fact that the balloon observations have been assimilated into all analyses, except for NCEP/NCAR, notable differences found here indicate that other observations, the forecast models, and the data assimilation procedures have a significant impact on the analyses as well. We also used the balloon observations to evaluate trajectory calculations with our new Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC), where vertical motions of simulated trajectories were nudged to pressure measurements of the balloons. We found relative horizontal transport deviations of 4-12 % and error growth rates of 60-170 km day-1 for 15-day trajectories. Dispersion

  18. Recent activities on the scientific ballooning in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisimura, J.; Hirosawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    Scientific ballooning is Japan has been organized by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, and about 15 balloons have been launched each year from Sanriku Balloon Center that belongs to this Institute. The balloon center is located in the northern part of Japan. The observations cover the field of X-ray, gamma-ray, infrared astronomy, cosmic rays, and atmospheric science. Systems of lon duration flights such as 'Boomerang Balloons', and fine attitude control systems were developed and widely applied to the scientific observations. International collaborative works were performed in Australia and Indonesia last year. Some details of these activities are reported and possible future collaborations with Braziian balloon group are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. The Super-TIGER Instrument to Probe Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.; Binns, W. R.; Bose, R, G.; Braun, D. L.; Christian, E. R.; Daniels, W. M; DeNolfo, G. A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is under construction for the first of two planned Antarctic long-duration balloon flights in December 2012. This new instrument will measure the abundances of ultra-heavy elements (30Zn and heavier), with individual element resolution, to provide sensitive tests of the emerging model of cosmic-ray origins in OB associations and models of the mechanism for selection of nuclei for acceleration. Super-TIGER builds on the techniques of TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements 31Ga, 32Ge, and 34Se. Plastic scintillators together with acrylic and silica-aerogel Cherenkov detectors measure particle charge. Scintillating-fiber hodoscopes track particle trajectories. Super-TIGER has an active area of 5.4 sq m, divided into two independent modules. With reduced material thickness to decrease interactions, its effective geometry factor is approx.6.4 times larger than TIGER, allowing it to measure elements up to 42Mo with high statistical precision, and make exploratory measurements up to 56Ba. Super-TIGER will also accurately determine the energy spectra of the more abundant elements from l0Ne to 28Ni between 0.8 and 10 GeV/nucleon to test the hypothesis that microquasars or other sources could superpose spectral features. We will discuss the implications of Super-TIGER measurements for the study of cosmic-ray origins and will present the measurement technique, design, status, and expected performance, including numbers of events and resolution. Details of the hodoscopes, scintillators, and Cherenkov detectors will be given in other presentations at this conference.

  20. A note on the super AKNS equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yishen; Zhang Lining.

    1986-10-01

    We find some relationships between the usual AKNS scheme with the super one, when its elements take value from the Grassmann algebra on a two-dimensional vector space. The solutions of these super AKNS equations are discussed. (author)

  1. Percutaneous treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones assisted by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Sung; Kim, Ji Hyung; Choi, Young Woo; Lee, Tae Hee; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keum Won [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    To describe the technical feasibility and usefulness of extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon pushing. Fifteen patients with extrahepatic bile duct stones were included in this study. Endoscopic stone removal was not successful in 13 patients, and two patients refused the procedure due to endoscopy phobia. At first, all patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). A few days later, through the PTBD route, balloon assisted dilatation for common bile duct (CBD) sphincter was performed, and then the stones were pushed into the duodenum using an 11.5 mm occlusion balloon. Success rate, reason for failure, and complications associated with the procedure were evaluated. Eight patients had one stone, five patients had two stones, and two patients had more than five stones. The procedure was successful in 13 patients (13/15). In 12 of the patients, all stones were removed in the first trial. In one patients, residual stones were discovered on follow-up cholangiography, and were subsequently removed in the second trial. Technical failure occurred in two patients. Both of these patients had severely dilated CBD and multiple stones with various sizes. Ten patients complained of pain in the right upper quadrant and epigastrium of the abdomen immediately following the procedure, but there were no significant procedure-related complications such as bleeding or pancreatitis. Percutaneous extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and subsequent stone pushing with occlusion balloon is an effective, safe, and technically feasible procedure which can be used as an alternative method in patients when endoscopic extrahepatic biliary stone removal was not successful.

  2. Percutaneous treatment of extrahepatic bile duct stones assisted by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Sung; Kim, Ji Hyung; Choi, Young Woo; Lee, Tae Hee; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keum Won

    2005-01-01

    To describe the technical feasibility and usefulness of extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and occlusion balloon pushing. Fifteen patients with extrahepatic bile duct stones were included in this study. Endoscopic stone removal was not successful in 13 patients, and two patients refused the procedure due to endoscopy phobia. At first, all patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). A few days later, through the PTBD route, balloon assisted dilatation for common bile duct (CBD) sphincter was performed, and then the stones were pushed into the duodenum using an 11.5 mm occlusion balloon. Success rate, reason for failure, and complications associated with the procedure were evaluated. Eight patients had one stone, five patients had two stones, and two patients had more than five stones. The procedure was successful in 13 patients (13/15). In 12 of the patients, all stones were removed in the first trial. In one patients, residual stones were discovered on follow-up cholangiography, and were subsequently removed in the second trial. Technical failure occurred in two patients. Both of these patients had severely dilated CBD and multiple stones with various sizes. Ten patients complained of pain in the right upper quadrant and epigastrium of the abdomen immediately following the procedure, but there were no significant procedure-related complications such as bleeding or pancreatitis. Percutaneous extrahepatic biliary stone removal by balloon sphincteroplasty and subsequent stone pushing with occlusion balloon is an effective, safe, and technically feasible procedure which can be used as an alternative method in patients when endoscopic extrahepatic biliary stone removal was not successful

  3. The super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy and its super-Hamiltonian structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si-Xing, Tao; Tie-Cheng, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Based on the constructed Lie superalgebra, the super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy is obtained. Then, its super-Hamiltonian structure is obtained by making use of super-trace identity. Furthermore, the super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy is also integrable in the sense of Liouville. (general)

  4. Hot air balloons fill gap in atmospheric and sensing platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Steven M.; Price, Russ

    Eric Edgerton was having a problem he could not solve: how to noninvasively collect in situ incinerator plume data. So he called in the Air Force and learned about its Atmospheric and Sensor Test Platform program; its platform is a manned hot air balloon. Many investigators are discovering the advantages of hot air balloons as stable, inexpensive platforms for performing in situ atmospheric measurements. Some are also using remote sensing capabilities on the balloon platforms.

  5. Location and data collection for long stratospheric balloon flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaterre, P.

    Stratospheric balloons capable of taking a 30 kg scientific payload to an altitude of 22 to 30 km for 1 month or more were developed. In-flight experiments were used to qualify the designs of a pumpkin shaped superpressure balloon and an infrared hot air balloon. Tracking of the flights (location and transmission of the parameters measured on board) was achieved using a telemetry gondola including an ARGOS beacon adapted for operation in the low temperatures encountered.

  6. Intraluminal Palmaz stent implantation. First clinical case report on a balloon-expandable vessel prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmaz, J C; Richter, G M; Noeldge, G; Kauffmann, G W; Wenz, W

    1987-12-01

    A 74-year-old patient suffering from severe iliac artery stenosis and claudication was chosen to be the first candidate in the world to receive the Palmaz stent, a balloon-expandable intraluminal stent. This procedure was done in the Department of Radiology, University of Freiburg, FRG. The intervention and postprocedural course were uneventful. His walking distance improved from less than 100 m to unlimited walking capacity. The intra-arterial pressure gradient and ankle-arm pressure ratio also returned to normal.

  7. Super critical water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.

    2005-01-01

    Water is used as a calori-porter and moderator in the most major nuclear centers which are actually in function. In the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR), water is maintained under critical point of water (21 bar, 374 Centigrade) which limits the efficiency of thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion (yield gain of about 33%) Crossing the critical point, one can then use s upercritical water , the obtained pressure and temperature allow a significant yield gains. In addition, the supercritical water offers important properties. Particularly there is no more possible coexistence between vapor and liquid. Therefore, we don't have more boiling problem, one of the phenomena which limits the specific power of PWR and BWR. Since 1950s, the reactor of supercritical water was the subject of studies more or less detailed but neglected. From the early 1990s, this type of conception benefits of some additional interests. Therefore, in the international term G eneration IV , the supercritical water reactors had been considered as one of the big options for study as Generation IV reactors. In the CEA, an active city has engaged from 1930 with the participation to a European program: The HPWR (High Performance Light Water Reactor). In this contest, the R and D studies are focused on the fields of neutrons, thermodynamic and materials. The CEA intends to pursue a limited effort of R and D in this field, in the framework of international cooperation, preferring the study of versions of rapid spectrum. (author)

  8. Supergrassmannians, super τ-functions and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgikh, S.N.; Schwarz, A.S.

    1989-03-01

    Recently, infinite-dimensional grassmannians and their supergeneralizations were used to study conformal two-dimensional fields and strings. In particular, the super Mumford form (holomorphic square root from the superstring measure on moduli space) was expressed through super analog of Sato τ-function. In this paper we present results of supergrassmannians and super τ-functions. 8 refs

  9. Postoperative Outcomes of Mitral Valve Repair for Mitral Restenosis after Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been a number of studies on mitral valve replacement and repeated percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy for mitral valve restenosis after percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy. However, studies on mitral valve repair for these patients are rare. In this study, we analyzed postoperative outcomes of mitral valve repair for mitral valve restenosis after percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy. Methods: In this study, we assessed 15 patients (mean age, 47.7±9.7 years; 11 female and 4 male who underwent mitral valve repair between August 2008 and March 2013 for symptomatic mitral valve restenosis after percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy. The mean interval between the initial percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy and the mitral valve repair was 13.5±7 years. The mean preoperative Wilkins score was 9.4±2.6. Results: The mean mitral valve area obtained using planimetry increased from 1.16±0.16 cm2 to 1.62±0.34 cm2 (p=0.0001. The mean pressure half time obtained using Doppler ultrasound decreased from 202.4±58.6 ms to 152±50.2 ms (p=0.0001. The mean pressure gradient obtained using Doppler ultrasound decreased from 9.4±4.0 mmHg to 5.8±1.5 mmHg (p=0.0021. There were no early or late deaths. Thromboembolic events or infective endocarditis did not occur. Reoperations such as mitral valve repair or mitral valve replacement were not performed during the follow-up period (39±16 months. The 5-year event-free survival was 56.16% (95% confidence interval, 47.467–64.866. Conclusion: On the basis of these results, we could not conclude that mitral valve repair could be an alternative for patients with mitral valve restenosis after percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy. However, some patients presented with results similar to those of mitral valve replacement. Further studies including more patients with long-term follow-up are necessary to determine the possibility of this application of mitral valve repair.

  10. The role of scientific ballooning for exploration of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.; Lazutin, L.L.; Riedler, W.

    1984-11-01

    The magnetosphere is explored in situ by satellites, but measurements near the low altitude magnetospheric boundary by rockets, balloons and groundbased instruments play a very significant role. The geomagnetic field provides a frame with anisotropic wave and particle propagation effects, enabling remote sensing of the distant magnetosphere by means of balloon-borne and groundbased instruments. Examples will be given of successful studies, with coordinated satellite and balloon observations, of substorm, pulsation and other phenomena propagating both along and across the geomagnetic field. Continued efforts with sophisticated balloon-borne instrumentations should contribute substantially to our understanding of magnetospheric physics. (Author)

  11. Deflation of gastric band balloon in pregnancy for improving outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, Amanda E; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Draycott, Tim; Akande, Valentine A; Fox, Robert

    2013-04-30

    In line with the rise in the prevalence of obesity, an increasing number of women of childbearing age are undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), resulting in an increasing number of pregnancies with a band in place. Currently, there is no consensus on optimal band management in pregnancy. Some clinicians advocate leaving the band balloon inflated to reduce gestational weight gain and associated adverse perinatal outcomes. However, there are concerns that maintaining balloon inflation during pregnancy might increase the risk of band complications and adversely affect fetal development and/or growth as a result of reduced nutritional intake. To compare maternal and perinatal outcomes for elective gastric band balloon deflation versus intention to maintain balloon inflation during pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2012) and the Web of Science database (1940 to September 2012). Randomised-controlled trials comparing elective deflation of the gastric band balloon with intention to maintain balloon inflation in pregnant women who have undergone LAGB. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. No studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. To date no randomised controlled trials exist that compare elective deflation of the gastric band balloon in pregnancy versus intention to maintain balloon inflation. Further research is needed to define the optimum management of the gastric band balloon in pregnancy.

  12. Hyperspectral Polarimeter for Monitoring Balloon Strain, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's latest generation of superpressure, ultra long duration balloons (ULDB) extend the flight time for stratospheric experiments to levels previously unattainable...

  13. An Overview of Current and Future Stratospheric Balloon Mission Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael

    The modern stratospheric balloon has been used for a variety of missions since the late 1940's. Capabilities of these vehicles to carry larger payloads, fly to higher altitudes, and fly for longer periods of time have increased dramatically over this time. In addition to these basic performance metrics, reliability statistics for balloons have reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Balloon technology developed in the United States in the last decade has the potential to open a new era in economical space science using balloons. As always, the advantage of the balloon platform is the fact that missions can be carried out at a fraction of the cost and schedule of orbital missions. A secondary advantage is the fact that instruments can be re-flown numerous times while upgrading sensor and data processing technologies from year to year. New mission capabilities now have the potential for enabling ground breaking observations using balloons as the primary platform as opposed to a stepping stone to eventual orbital observatories. The limit of very high altitude balloon missions will be explored with respect to the current state of the art of balloon materials and fabrication. The same technological enablers will also be applied to possibilities for long duration missions at mid latitudes with payloads of several tons. The balloon types and their corresponding mission profiles will be presented in a performance matrix that will be useful for potential scientific users in planning future research programs.

  14. [Balloon cell nevi of the conjunctiva (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, P E; Daicker, B

    1975-06-01

    The clinical and histological features of three cases of conjunctival balloon cell nevi are described. This peculiar form of nevus is very rare in the conjunctiva. The findings are compared with the descriptions in the literature of dermal balloon cell nevi. They demonstrate, that the conjunctival and dermal tumours are of idential histological structure. The proliferations of the conjunctival epithelium often found in conjunctival nevi do not modify the balloon cell nevi. These can not be diagnosed clinically. The problems of the pathogenesis of the balloon cell nevi are discussed.

  15. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian; Cotte, Yann; Toy, Fatih; Jourdain, Pascal; Boss, Daiel; Marquet, Pierre; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  16. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  17. Super Virasoro algebra and solvable supersymmetric quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Itaru; Sasaki, Ryu.

    1987-09-01

    Interesting and deep relationships between super Virasoro algebras and super soliton systems (super KdV, super mKdV and super sine-Gordon equations) are investigated at both classical and quantum levels. An infinite set of conserved quantities responsible for solvability is characterized by super Virasoro algebras only. Several members of the infinite set of conserved quantities are derived explicitly. (author)

  18. Data Retrieved by ARCADE-R2 Experiment On Board the BEXUS-17 Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbetta, M.; Branz, F.; Carron, A.; Olivieri, L.; Prendin, J.; Sansone, F.; Savioli, L.; Spinello, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2015-09-01

    The Autonomous Rendezvous, Control And Docking Experiment — Reflight 2 (ARCADE-R2) is a technology demonstrator aiming to prove automatic attitude determination and control, rendezvous and docking capabilities for small scale spacecraft and aircraft. The development of such capabilities could be fundamental to create, in the near future, fleets of cooperative, autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles for mapping, surveillance, inspection and remote observation of hazardous environments; small-class satellites could also benefit from the employment of docking systems to extend and reconfigure their mission profiles. ARCADE-R2 is designed to test these technologies on a stratospheric flight on board the BEXUS-17 balloon, allowing to demonstrate them in a harsh environment subjected to gusty winds and high pressure and temperature variations. In this paper, ARCADE-R2 architecture is introduced and the main results obtained from a stratospheric balloon flight are presented.

  19. Large deformation and mechanics of flexible isotropic membrane ballooning in three dimensions by differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, M.; Atai, A. A.; Mostafa, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient and accurate new methodology in the differential quadrature analysis of structural mechanics for flexible membranes ballooning in three dimensions under a negative air pressure differential. The differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the resulting equations in the axial direction as well as for the solution procedure. The weighting coefficients employed are not exclusive, and any accurate and efficient method such as the generalized differential quadrature method may be used to produce the methods weighting coefficients. A second-order paraboloid of revolution is assumed to describe the ballooning shape. This study asserts the accuracy, convergency, and efficiency of the methodology by solving some typical stability, straining analysis membrane problems, and comparing the results with those of the exact solutions and/or those of physical tests

  20. Large deformation and mechanics of flexible isotropic membrane ballooning in three dimensions by differential quadrature method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M.; Atai, A. A.; Mostafa, N. [Islamic Azad University, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents a computationally efficient and accurate new methodology in the differential quadrature analysis of structural mechanics for flexible membranes ballooning in three dimensions under a negative air pressure differential. The differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the resulting equations in the axial direction as well as for the solution procedure. The weighting coefficients employed are not exclusive, and any accurate and efficient method such as the generalized differential quadrature method may be used to produce the methods weighting coefficients. A second-order paraboloid of revolution is assumed to describe the ballooning shape. This study asserts the accuracy, convergency, and efficiency of the methodology by solving some typical stability, straining analysis membrane problems, and comparing the results with those of the exact solutions and/or those of physical tests

  1. The stability of ideal and resistive ballooning modes in the presence of equilibrium flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, A.K.; Sen, A.

    1989-01-01

    Ideal and resistive ballooning modes have been the topic of extensive study in view of their important role in constraining plasma β or in causing degradation in electron energy confinement time. Much of these works in the literature have been done for static equilibrium. Recently several experiments on ISX, PDX and currently on TFTR and JET have demonstrated the presence of toroidal and poloidal flows due to asymmetry in the neutral beam injection (NBI). Also equilibrium flows can arise through diffusive processes in tokamak plasmas. Such flows induced by external sources or dissipative processes affect the form and location of the magnetic surfaces and also modify the density and pressure profiles in the equilibrium. In this paper, we therefore examine the effect of mass flows on the evolution of high (m,n) ideal and resistive ballooning modes using the simplified MHD equations. (author) 2 refs

  2. Application of Electrocautery Needle Knife Combined with Balloon Dilatation versus Balloon Dilatation in the Treatment of Tracheal Fibrotic Scar Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Liyan; Li, Congcong; Chen, Min; Mu, Deguang; Jin, Faguang

    Electrocautery needle knives can largely reduce scar and granulation tissue hyperplasia and play an important role in treating patients with benign stricture. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electrocautery needle knife combined with balloon dilatation versus balloon dilatation alone in the treatment of tracheal stenosis caused by tracheal intubation or tracheotomy. We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of 43 patients with tracheal stenosis caused by tracheotomy or tracheal intubation in our department from January 2013 to January 2016. Among these 43 patients, 23 had simple web-like stenosis and 20 had complex steno sis. All patients were treated under general anaesthesia, and the treatment methods were (1) balloon dilatation alone, (2) needle knife excision of fibrotic tissue combined with balloon dilatation, and (3) needle knife radial incision of fibrotic tissue combined with balloon dilatation. After treatment the symptoms, such as shortness of breath, were markedly improved immediately in all cases. The stenosis degree of patients who were treated with the elec-trocautery needle knife combined with balloon dilatation had better improvement compared with that of those treated with balloon dilatation treatment alone after 3 months (0.45 ± 0.04 vs. 0.67 ± 0.05, p knife combined with balloon dilatation is an effective and safe treatment for tracheal fibrotic stenosis compared with balloon dilatation alone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Leak detection in Phenix and Super Phenix steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1978-10-01

    Water leak detection Phenix and Super Phenix steam generators is based on measurement of the hydrogen produced by the reaction of sodium with water. The hydrogen evolves in the sodium in which the steam generator tubes are completely immersed. Depending on service conditions, however (sodium temperature and flow velocity), the hydrogen may appear in the argon existing above the free levels. This is why, although the Phenix steam generators do not feature free levels, measurement systems were added to measure the hydrogen concentration in the argon in the expansion tanks. Super Phenix steam generators are fitted at their outlet with systems for measuring hydrogen in the sodium, and above their free level with a system for measuring hydrogen in the argon. The measurement systems have nickel tube probes connected to circuits kept under vacuum by an ion pump. The hydrogen partial pressure is measured by a mass spectrometer. Super Phenix measurement systems differ from Phenix systems essentially in the temperature regulation of the sodium reaching the nickel tube probes, and in the centralization of the supply and measurement systems of the ion pumps and mass spectrometers. This paper deals with description, calibration and operating conditions of the hydrogen detection systems in sodium and argon in Phenix and Super Phenix steam generators. (author)

  4. Collapse of the balloon-expandable stent in the common iliac artery due to minor external compression in a lean patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Eun; Choi, Ho Cheol; Choi, Dae Seob; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Jung Eun [Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Su Beom; Ahn, Jong Hwa [Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    A 60-year-old lean man with claudication due to severe stenosis of the right common iliac artery (CIA) underwent balloon-expandable stent deployment. Nineteen months later, claudication and lower limb ischemia in the patient recurred after minor external pressure and computed tomography indicated collapse of the right CIA stent. We performed balloon angioplasty again and self-expandable stent deployment was performed, and the patient's symptoms were relieved. We suggest that the CIA in a lean person could be susceptible to external pressure.

  5. Collapse of the balloon-expandable stent in the common iliac artery due to minor external compression in a lean patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Eun; Choi, Ho Cheol; Choi, Dae Seob; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Jung Eun; Cho, Su Beom; Ahn, Jong Hwa

    2017-01-01

    A 60-year-old lean man with claudication due to severe stenosis of the right common iliac artery (CIA) underwent balloon-expandable stent deployment. Nineteen months later, claudication and lower limb ischemia in the patient recurred after minor external pressure and computed tomography indicated collapse of the right CIA stent. We performed balloon angioplasty again and self-expandable stent deployment was performed, and the patient's symptoms were relieved. We suggest that the CIA in a lean person could be susceptible to external pressure

  6. Super gas saver secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, G.

    2001-02-01

    This book demonstrates how to save money by getting better fuel economy and increase automobile performance through hundreds of fuel saving tips and projects. The book gives practical advise to car drivers on how to reduce travel costs by more than 50 per cent. Conventional ways to save gas include adopting fuel saving habits such as shifting properly, accelerating smoothly, and going easy on the brakes. Some performance booster tips were also presented. These included tips such as turning off the alternator, using moth balls to boost the fuel octane rating, turning the air conditioner off and power boosting the power circuits. A total of 25 tips were provided. An entire section of the book was devoted to tips on making the carburetor more fuel efficient with air bleeds, gasoline preheaters, and fuel pressure regulators. Eagle Research's newly developed electrostatic gas saver was also presented. The final section of the book referred to the potential viability of using homemade fuels such as hydrogen, methane, alcohol and wood gas. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sheshagiri Rao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate?

  8. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate? Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ELMs and constraints on the H-mode pedestal: A model based on peeling-ballooning modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, P.B.; Ferron, J.R.; Wilson, H.R.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a model for Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and pedestal constraint based upon theoretical analysis of instabilities which can limit the pedestal height and drive ELMs. The sharp pressure gradients, and resulting bootstrap current, in the pedestal region provide free energy to drive peeling and ballooning modes. The interaction of peeling-ballooning coupling, ballooning mode second stability, and finite-Larmor-radius effects results in coupled peeling-ballooning modes of intermediate wavelength generally being the limiting instability. A highly efficient new MHD code, ELITE, is used to calculate quantitative stability constraints on the pedestal, including con straits on the pedestal height. Because of the impact of collisionality on the bootstrap current, these pedestal constraints are dependant on the density and temperature separately, rather than simply on the pressure. A model of various ELM types is developed, and quantitatively compared to data. A number of observations agree with predictions, including ELM onset times, ELM depth and variation in pedestal height with collisionality and discharge shape. Stability analysis of series of model equilibria are used both o predict and interpret pedestal trends in existing experiments and to project pedestal constraints for future burning plasma tokamak designs. (author)

  10. Pre-test prediction and post-test analysis of PWR fuel rod ballooning in the MT-3 in-pile LOCA simulation experiment in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.T.; Horwood, R.A.; Healey, T.

    1983-01-01

    The USNRC and the UKAEA have jointly funded a series of in-pile LOCA simulation experiments in the Canadian NRU reactor in order to secure further information on the thermal hydraulic and clad deformation response of PWR fuel rod bundles. Test MT-3 in the series was performed using reflood rate and rod internal pressure conditions specified by the UK nuclear industry. The parameters were selected to ensure the development of a near-isothermal clad temperature history during which zircaloy was required to balloon and rupture near the alpha-alpha/beta phase transition. Specification of the reflood rate conditions was assisted by the performance of a precursor test on an unpressurised rod bundle and by complementary application of appropriate thermal hydraulic analyses. Identification of the rod internal pressure needed to cause ballooning and rupture was achieved using a creep deformation model, BALLOON, in conjunction with the clad thermal history defined by the prior thermal hydraulic test. This paper presents the basis of the BALLOON analysis and describes its application in calculating the fill gas pressure for rods MT-3, their axial ballooning profile and the clad temperature at peak radial strain elevations. (author)

  11. Simultaneous stent expansion/balloon deflation technique to salvage failed balloon remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; He, Lucy; Davis, Brandon J; Froehler, Michael T; Mocco, J

    2016-04-01

    Herniation, with possible embolization, of coils into the parent vessel following aneurysm coiling remains a frequent challenge. For this reason, balloon or stent assisted embolization remains an important technique. Despite the use of balloon remodeling, there are occasions where, on deflation of the balloon, some coils, or even the entire coil mass, may migrate. We report the successful use of a simultaneous adjacent stent deployment bailout technique in order to salvage coil prolapse during balloon remodeling in three patients. Case No 1 was a wide neck left internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm, measuring 9 mm×7.9 mm×6 mm with a 5 mm neck. Case No 2 was a complex left superior hypophyseal artery aneurysm, measuring 5.3 mm×4 mm×5 mm with a 2.9 mm neck. Case No 3 was a ruptured right posterior communicating artery aneurysm, measuring 4 mm×4 mm×4.5 mm with a 4 mm neck. This technique successfully returned the prolapsed coil mass into the aneurysm sac in all cases without procedural complications. The closed cell design of the Enterprise VRD (Codman and Shurtleff Inc, Raynham, Massachusetts, USA) makes it ideal for this bailout technique, by allowing the use of an 0.021 inch delivery catheter (necessary for simultaneous access) and by avoiding the possibility of an open cell strut getting caught on the deflated balloon. We hope this technique will prove useful to readers who may find themselves in a similar predicament. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Radiosonde pressure sensor performance - Evaluation using tracking radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.; Norcross, G. A.; Brooks, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The standard balloon-borne radiosonde employed for synoptic meteorology provides vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, and humidity as a function of elapsed time. These parameters are used in the hypsometric equation to calculate the geopotential altitude at each sampling point during the balloon's flight. It is important that the vertical location information be accurate. The present investigation was conducted with the objective to evaluate the altitude determination accuracy of the standard radiosonde throughout the entire balloon profile. The tests included two other commercially available pressure sensors to see if they could provide improved accuracy in the stratosphere. The pressure-measuring performance of standard baroswitches, premium baroswitches, and hypsometers in balloon-borne sondes was correlated with tracking radars. It was found that the standard and premium baroswitches perform well up to about 25 km altitude, while hypsometers provide more reliable data above 25 km.

  13. External caps: An approach to stress reduction in balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, K. H.

    Recent findings of the catastrophic balloon failures investigation in the U.S.A. indicate that very large gross inflations, in balloons using present design philosophy, over-stress currently available materials. External caps are proposed as an economic approach to reducting those stresses to an acceptable level.

  14. Paraspinal arteriovenous malformation Onyx embolization via an Ascent balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Galdámez, Mario; Rodriguez-Arias, Carlos A; Utiel, Elena; Arreba, Emilio; Gonzalo, Miguel; Arenillas, Juan F

    2014-04-01

    Purely extradural lumbar spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions that have diverse presentations and imaging features. The treatment of a symptomatic high flow paraspinal AVM with multiple feeders remains a challenge. We report the first use of an Ascent balloon (dual lumen balloon catheter) to deliver Onyx with excellent penetration to a paraspinal AVM.

  15. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  16. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  17. The ballooning of fuel cladding tubes: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewfelt, R.S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Under some conditions, fuel clad ballooning can result in considerable strain before rupture. If ballooning were to occur during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), the resulting substantial blockage of the sub-channel would restrict emergency core cooling. However, circumferential temperature gradients that would occur during a LOCA may significantly limit the average strain at failure. Understandably, the factors that control ballooning and rupture of fuel clad are required for the analysis of a LOCA. Considerable international effort has been spent on studying the deformation of Zircaloy fuel cladding under conditions that would occur during a LOCA. This effort has established a reasonable understanding of the factors that control the ballooning, failure time, and average failure strain of fuel cladding. In this paper, both the experimental and theoretical studies of the fuel clad ballooning are reviewed. (author)

  18. Balloon catheter dilation of benign esophageal stenosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guoping; Yu Juming; Zhong Weixing; Zhu Ming; Wu Yeming; Shi Chengren

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the methods and effect of balloon catheter dilation of benign esophageal stenosis in children. Methods: 9 cases had an anastomotic stenosis after surgical correction of esophageal atresia; 11 cases of esophageal stenosis due to ingestion of caustics; one case had an lower esophageal stenosis after Nissen surgery and one case after gastro-esophagoplasty. Age ranged from 17 days to 7 years. Each case had a barium esophagram before balloon dilation. The balloon size varied from 3 to 10 mm in diameter. Results: 21 cases were successful after dilation of balloon catheter. There were no esophageal perforation and complications. The satisfactory results maintained from six months to thirty months. Conclusions: Balloon catheter dilation is a simple, safe and reliable method for the treatment of benign esophageal strictures in children as the first choice

  19. A Rare and Serious Unforeseen Complication of Cutting Balloon Angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vemula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA is one of the adept ways of treating “in-stent restenosis.” Various complications related to cutting balloon angioplasty have been reported including arterial rupture, delayed perforation and fracture of microsurgical blades. Here we report a very unusual and inadvertent extraction of a stent previously deployed in the ramus intermedius coronary branch by a cutting balloon catheter. This required repeat stenting of the same site for an underlying dissection. Even though stent extraction is a rare complication it can be serious due to dissection, perforation, and closure of the artery. Physicians performing coronary artery interventions would need to be aware of this rare and serious complication especially if any difficulty is encountered while withdrawing the cutting balloon. Therefore, after removal, cutting balloon should be examined thoroughly for possible stent dislodgment or extraction when used for “in-stent restenosis.”

  20. Balloon observation of gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Fujii, Masami; Yamagami, Takamasa; Oda, Minoru; Ogawara, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Cosmic gamma-ray burst is an interesting high energy astrophysical phenomenon, but the burst mechanism has not been well understood. Since 1975, long duration balloon flight has been conducted to search for gamma-ray bursts and to determine the source locations. A rotating cross-modulation collimator was employed to determine the locations of sources, and four NaI(Tl) scintillation counters were employed to detect hard X-ray with energy from 20 to 200 keV. The balloon light was performed at altitude of 8.3 mb from September 28, 1977, and the observation time of 79 hours was achieved. In this experiment, the monitor counter was not mounted. The count increase was observed at 16 h 22 m 31 s JST on October 1, 1977. The event disappeared after 1 sec. The total flux is estimated to be 1.6 x 10 -6 erg/cm 2 sec at the top of the atmosphere. When this event was observed, the solar-terrestrial environment was also quiet. Thus, this event was attributed to a small gamma-ray burst. Unfortunately, the duration of the burst was so short that the position of the burst source was not able to be determined. (Yoshimori, M.)

  1. Spectrum of the ballooning Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The ballooning Schroedinger equation (BSE) is a model equation for investigating global modes that can, when approximated by a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) ansatz, be described by a ballooning formalism locally to a field line. This second order differential equation with coefficients periodic in the independent variable θ k is assumed to apply even in cases where simple WKB quantization conditions break down, thus providing an alternative to semiclassical quantization. Also, it provides a test bed for developing more advanced WKB methods: e.g. the apparent discontinuity between quantization formulae for open-quotes trappedclose quotes and open-quotes passingclose quotes modes, whose ray paths have different topologies, is removed by extending the WKB method to include the phenomena of tunnelling and reflection. The BSE is applied to instabilities with shear in the real part of the local frequency, so that the dispersion relation is inherently complex. As the frequency shear is increased, it is found that trapped modes go over to passing modes, reducing the maximum growth rate by averaging over θ k

  2. swot: Super W Of Theta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Kilbinger, Martin; Medezinski, Elinor

    2017-07-01

    SWOT (Super W Of Theta) computes two-point statistics for very large data sets, based on “divide and conquer” algorithms, mainly, but not limited to data storage in binary trees, approximation at large scale, parellelization (open MPI), and bootstrap and jackknife resampling methods “on the fly”. It currently supports projected and 3D galaxy auto and cross correlations, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and weighted histograms.

  3. [Application of temporary balloon blocking technique in bone tumors surgery under the aid of CT angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Hu, Yongcheng; Huang, Hongchao; Xia, Qun; Chen, Xiaopeng; Yuan, Binbin; He, Xin; Wang, Peng

    2014-10-01

    To study the value of CT angiography (CTA) in the surgical treatment of bone tumors with the temporary balloon blocking technique. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 36 bone tumor patients between April 2008 and October 2013. There were 22 males and 14 females, aged from 25 to 83 years (mean, 46 years). The tumor located at the sacrococcygeal region in 17 cases, at the ilium in 12 cases, at the pubis in 5 cases, and at the proximal femur in 2 cases. Before surgery, CTA was performed to measure the external diameter of aortaventralis and arteria iliac communis, and the distance between the low renal artery and the abdominal aortic bifurcation as well as mark the anatomical relationship between the low renal artery, the abdominal aortic bifurcation and bony landmarks of vertebral body. According to these data, suitable balloon was chosen and the balloon positioning was guided in the surgery to completely excise tumor assisted by balloon blocking technique. The CTA results showed that the external diameter of aortaventralis and arteria iliaca communis was (1.545 ± 0.248) cm and (1.060 ± 0.205) cm respectively, and the distance between the low renal artery and the abdominal aortic bifurcation was (10.818 ± 1.165) cm. The three-dimensional reconstruction showed that the opening of the low renal artery was mainly located at L1 (16/36, 44.4%) and the abdominal aortic bifurcation mainly located at L4 (22/36, 61.1%). Effective block of abdomial aorta was performed; the blood pressure obviously increased in 3 cases after balloon inflation, and pulse of the left dorsal artery of the foot decreased in 1 case after removal of balloon, which were relieved after expectant treatment. The operation time was 118-311 minutes; the intraoperative blood loss was 200-1800 mL, 21 patients were given blood transfusion, and the amount of blood transfusion was 400-1200 mL; and the aortic clamping time was 40-136 minutes. All patients were followed up 5-44 months

  4. Outcome in 55 dogs with pulmonic stenosis that did not undergo balloon valvuloplasty or surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, A J; Johnson, M J S; Culshaw, G C; Corcoran, B M; Martin, M W S; French, A T

    2011-06-01

    To determine the outcome, independent predictors of cardiac death, and the Doppler-derived pressure gradient cut-off for predicting cardiac death in dogs with pulmonic stenosis, with or without tricuspid regurgitation, that do not undergo balloon valvuloplasty or valve surgery. Review of medical records of two UK referral centres between July 1997 and October 2008 for all cases of pulmonic stenosis that had no balloon valvuloplasty or valve surgery. Inclusion criteria included a diagnosis of pulmonic stenosis; spectral Doppler pulmonic velocity greater than 1·6 m/s; characteristic valve leaflet morphological abnormalities. Exclusion criteria included concurrent significant cardiac defects, including tricuspid dysplasia. Dogs with tricuspid regurgitation were included. Dogs were classified according to Doppler-derived pressure gradients into mild, moderate or severe pulmonic stenosis categories. Presence of tricuspid regurgitation and severe stenosis were independent predictors of cardiac death. A pulmonic pressure gradient of more than 60 mmHg was associated with 86% sensitivity, and 71% specificity of predicting cardiac death. There is an increased probability of cardiac death in those cases which have a pulmonary pressure gradient greater than 60 mmHg and tricuspid regurgitation, though the effect of severity of tricuspid regurgitation on outcome was not measurable because of small sample sizes. These animals might benefit from intervention. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. BEWARE OF...SUPER GLUES!!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    What happened? A number of accidents have occurred with the use of 'Super Glues'. Some individuals have suffered injuries - severe irritation, or skin bonded together - through getting glue on their face and in their eyes. What are the hazards associated with glues? 'Super Glues' (i.e. cyanoacrylates): Are harmful if swallowed and are chemical irritants to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. Present the risk of polymerization (hardening) leading to skin damage. Be careful ! 'Super Glues' can bond to skin and eyes in seconds. Note: Other glues, resins and hardeners are also chemicals and as such can cause serious damage to the skin, eyes, respiratory or digestive tract. (For example: some components can be toxic, harmful, corrosive, sensitizing agents, etc.). How to prevent accidents in the future? Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all of the glues you work with. Check the label on the container to find out which of the materials you work with are hazardous. Wear the right Per...

  6. Clinical, manometric, and ultrasonographic results of pneumatic balloon dilatation vs. lateral internal sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Adolfo; Izzo, Domenico; Di Sarno, Giandomenico; Talento, Pasquale; Torelli, Francesco; Izzo, Giuseppe; Di Martino, Natale

    2008-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled trial was designed to compare the clinical, functional, and morphologic results of pneumatic balloon dilatation with lateral internal sphincterotomy for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. All patients with symptomatic chronic anal fissure were randomly assigned to pneumatic balloon dilatation or lateral internal sphincterotomy and invited to complete a standardized questionnaire inquiring about their symptoms. Anal ultrasonography and anal manometry were performed before and six months after surgery. A proctologic examination was performed between the fifth and sixth postoperative weeks. Anal continence, scored by using a validated continence grading scale, was evaluated preoperatively at 1 and 6 weeks and at 12 and 24 months. Fifty-three patients, who satisfied selection criteria, were enrolled in the trial. Four patients (7.5 percent) were lost to follow-up. Twenty-four patients (11 males; mean age, 42 +/- 8.2 years) underwent pneumatic balloon dilatation and 25 patients (10 males; mean age, 44 +/- 7.3 years) underwent lateral internal sphincterotomy. Fissure-healing rates were 83.3 percent in the pneumatic balloon dilatation and 92 percent in the lateral internal sphincterotomy group. Recurrent anal fissure was observed in one patient (4 percent) after lateral internal sphincterotomy. At anal manometry, mean resting pressure decrements obtained after pneumatic balloon dilatation and lateral internal sphincterotomy were 30.5 and 34.3 percent, respectively. After pneumatic balloon dilatation, anal ultrasonography did not show any significant sphincter damage. At 24-month follow-up, the incidence of incontinence, irrespective of severity, was 0 percent in the pneumatic balloon dilatation group and 16 percent in the lateral internal sphincterotomy group (P < 0.0001). As lateral internal sphincterotomy, pneumatic balloon dilatation grants a high anal fissure-healing rate but with a statistically significant reduction in

  7. Are drug-coated balloons cost effective for femoropopliteal occlusive disease? A comparison of bare metal stents and uncoated balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Fisette, Jean-François

    2016-07-01

    To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis to help hospital decision-makers with regard to the use of drug-coated balloons compared with bare metal stents and uncoated balloons for femoropopliteal occlusive disease. Clinical outcomes were extracted from the results of meta-analyses already published, and cost units are those used in the Quebec healthcare network. The literature review was limited to the last four years to obtain the most recent data. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on a 2-year perspective, and risk factors of reintervention were considered. The cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that drug-coated balloons were generally more efficient than bare metal stents, particularly for patients with higher risk of reintervention (up to CAD$1686 per patient TASC II C or D). Compared with uncoated balloons, results indicated that drug-coated balloons were more efficient if the reintervention rate associated with uncoated balloons is very high and for patients with higher risk of reintervention (up to CAD$3301 per patient). The higher a patient's risk of reintervention, the higher the savings associated with the use of a drug-coated balloon will be. For patients at lower risk, the uncoated balloon strategy is still recommended as a first choice for endovascular intervention.

  8. Effect of intra-aortic balloon pump on coronary blood flow during different balloon cycles support: A computer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thin Pa Pa; Htet, Zwe Lin; Singhavilai, Thamvarit; Naiyanetr, Phornphop

    2015-01-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has been used in clinical treatment as a mechanical circulatory support device for patients with heart failure. A computer model is used to study the effect on coronary blood flow (CBF) with different balloon cycles under both normal and pathological conditions. The model of cardiovascular and IABP is developed by using MATLAB SIMULINK. The effect on coronary blood flow has been studied under both normal and pathological conditions using different balloon cycles (balloon off; 1:4; 1:2; 1:1). A pathological heart is implemented by reducing the left ventricular contractility. The result of this study shows that the rate of balloon cycles is related to the level of coronary blood flow.

  9. Predictive transport modelling of type I ELMy H-mode dynamics using a theory-motivated combined ballooning-peeling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, J-S; Parail, V; Dnestrovskij, A; Figarella, C; Garbet, X; Wilson, H

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses predictive transport simulations of the type I ELMy high confinement mode (H-mode) with a theory-motivated edge localized mode (ELM) model based on linear ballooning and peeling mode stability theory. In the model, a total mode amplitude is calculated as a sum of the individual mode amplitudes given by two separate linear differential equations for the ballooning and peeling mode amplitudes. The ballooning and peeling mode growth rates are represented by mutually analogous terms, which differ from zero upon the violation of a critical pressure gradient and an analytical peeling mode stability criterion, respectively. The damping of the modes due to non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects is controlled by a term driving the mode amplitude towards the level of background fluctuations. Coupled to simulations with the JETTO transport code, the model qualitatively reproduces the experimental dynamics of type I ELMy H-mode, including an ELM frequency that increases with the external heating power. The dynamics of individual ELM cycles is studied. Each ELM is usually triggered by a ballooning mode instability. The ballooning phase of the ELM reduces the pressure gradient enough to make the plasma peeling unstable, whereby the ELM continues driven by the peeling mode instability, until the edge current density has been depleted to a stable level. Simulations with current ramp-up and ramp-down are studied as examples of situations in which pure peeling and pure ballooning mode ELMs, respectively, can be obtained. The sensitivity with respect to the ballooning and peeling mode growth rates is investigated. Some consideration is also given to an alternative formulation of the model as well as to a pure peeling model

  10. Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph

    This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning (LDB) and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) offers the service of launching high altitude balloons (120k ft) which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems. A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems. One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past. The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required

  11. Numerical modeling of the 2017 active seismic infrasound balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Q.; Komjathy, A.; Garcia, R.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Mimoun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Lai, V. H.; Kedar, S.; Levillain, E.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a numerical tool to propagate acoustic and gravity waves in a coupled solid-fluid medium with topography. It is a hybrid method between a continuous Galerkin and a discontinuous Galerkin method that accounts for non-linear atmospheric waves, visco-elastic waves and topography. We apply this method to a recent experiment that took place in the Nevada desert to study acoustic waves from seismic events. This experiment, developed by JPL and its partners, wants to demonstrate the viability of a new approach to probe seismic-induced acoustic waves from a balloon platform. To the best of our knowledge, this could be the only way, for planetary missions, to perform tomography when one faces challenging surface conditions, with high pressure and temperature (e.g. Venus), and thus when it is impossible to use conventional electronics routinely employed on Earth. To fully demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique one should also be able to reconstruct the observed signals from numerical modeling. To model the seismic hammer experiment and the subsequent acoustic wave propagation, we rely on a subsurface seismic model constructed from the seismometers measurements during the 2017 Nevada experiment and an atmospheric model built from meteorological data. The source is considered as a Gaussian point source located at the surface. Comparison between the numerical modeling and the experimental data could help future mission designs and provide great insights into the planet's interior structure.

  12. Optimal super dense coding over memory channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zahra; Kampermann, Hermann; Macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

  13. Boston's balloon dilatation for treatment of cardiac achalasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jianguo; Song Jinwen; Yang Yan; Liu Xiaohong; Fu Zhiming; Zhang Yaqin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review and summarize effectiveness and method of the Boston's balloon dilation in cardiac achalasia. Methods: The intensified guide wire was inserted into stomach through mouth cavity under TV control. The Boston's balloon was inserted to the cardiac stricture through the guide wire and dilatated with 15% contrast medium with to a maximum diameter for five minutes and then the balloon was dilatated again for 3-5 minutes, all together for 3-4 times. The severe stricture must be pre-dilatated with 20-25 mm diameter balloon. Results: The balloon insertion was technically successful in all 26 patients. The once success of balloon dilation was achieved in 24 patients and twice in other 2. Follow-up time was from 2 weeks to 31 months (mean 10.6 months). Recurrent stenosis had not occurred in all patients. Remission rate of dysphagia was 100%. Esophageal reflux occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The Boston's balloon dilatation is simple and effective for treatment of cardiac achalasia. The method sometimes may replace surgical procedure

  14. Rectal Balloon for the Immobilization of the Prostate Internal Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Beak, Jong Geal; Kim, Joo Ho; Jeon, Byong Chul; Cho, Jeong Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Tae Soo; Cho, Jae Ho; Na, Soo Kyong

    2005-01-01

    The using of endo-rectal balloon has proposed as optimal method that minimized the motion of prostate and the dose of rectum wall volume for treated prostate cancer patients, so we make the customized rectal balloon device. In this study, we analyzed the efficiency of the Self-customized rectal balloon in the aspects of its reproducibility. In 5 patients, for treatment planning, each patient was acquired CT slice images in state of with and without rectal balloon. Also they had CT scanning same repeated third times in during radiation treatment (IMRT). In each case, we analyzed the deviation of rectal balloon position and verified the isodose distribution of rectum wall at closed prostate. Using the rectal balloon, we minimized the planning target volume (PTV) by decreased the internal motion of prostate and overcome the dose limit of radiation therapy in prostate cancer by increased the gap between the rectum wall and high dose region. The using of rectal balloon, although, was reluctant to treat by patients. View a point of immobilization of prostate internal motion and dose escalation of GTV (gross tumor volume), its using consider large efficient for treated prostate cancer patients.

  15. Ballooning modes or Fourier modes in a toroidal plasma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between two different descriptions of eigenmodes in a torus is investigated. In one the eigenmodes are similar to Fourier modes in a cylinder and are highly localized near a particular rational surface. In the other they are the so-called ballooning modes that extend over many rational surfaces. Using a model that represents both drift waves and resistive interchanges the transition from one of these structures to the other is investigated. In this simplified model the transition depends on a single parameter which embodies the competition between toroidal coupling of Fourier modes (which enhances ballooning) and variation in frequency of Fourier modes from one rational surface to another (which diminishes ballooning). As the coupling is increased each Fourier mode acquires a sideband on an adjacent rational surface and these sidebands then expand across the radius to form the extended mode described by the conventional ballooning mode approximation. This analysis shows that the ballooning approximation is appropriate for drift waves in a tokamak but not for resistive interchanges in a pinch. In the latter the conventional ballooning effect is negligible but they may nevertheless show a ballooning feature. This is localized near the same rational surface as the primary Fourier mode and so does not lead to a radially extended structure

  16. Passive safety system of a super fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutanto, E-mail: sutanto@fuji.waseda.jp [Cooperative Major in Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology—National Nuclear Energy Agency, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Oka, Yoshiaki [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Passive safety system of a Super FR is proposed. • Total loss of feedwater flow and large LOCA are analyzed. • The criteria of MCST and core pressure are satisfied. - Abstract: Passive safety systems of a Super Fast Reactor are studied. The passive safety systems consist of isolation condenser (IC), automatic depressurization system (ADS), core make-up tank (CMT), gravity driven cooling system (GDCS), and passive containment cooling system (PCCS). Two accidents of total loss of feedwater flow and 100% cold-leg break large LOCA are analyzed by using the passive systems and the criteria of maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) and maximum core pressure are satisfied. The isolation condenser can be used for mitigation of the accident of total loss of feedwater flow at both supercritical and subcritical pressures. The ADS is used for depressurization leading to a loss of coolant during line switching to operation of the isolation condenser at subcritical pressure. Use of CMT during line switching recovers the lost coolant. In case of large LOCA, GDCS can be used for core reflooding. Coolant vaporization in the core released to containment through the break is condensed by passive containment cooling system. The condensate flows to the GDCS pool by gravity force. The maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) of the accident satisfies the criterion.

  17. Ballooning instabilities in toroidally linked mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastie, R.J.; Watson, C.J.H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the stability against ballooning modes of plasma equilibria in toroidally linked mirror configurations consisting of a number of quadrupole minimum-B mirrors linked toroidally. On the basis of the Kruskal-Oberman energy principle, a class of displacements is identified which are potentially unstable, and a necessary criterion for stability is derived. The criterion is obtained from the eigenvalues of an ordinary differential equation, which determines the variation of the displacement along a field line. The coefficients in the equation are determined by the configuration, and by inserting various model configurations, estimates are obtained of the maximum value of β consistent with stability. In cases of interest, quite high β-values are obtained. (author)

  18. N-dependence of ballooning instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Manickam, J.; Grimm, R.C.; Chance, M.S.

    1980-05-01

    The critical β for stability against ideal hydromagnetic internal ballooning modes as a function of toroidal mode number, n, is calculated for two different equilibrium sequences by use of a finite element technique (n less than or equal to 20), and a WKB formalism (n greater than or equal to 5). The agreement between the two methods is good in the overlap region 5 approx.less than or equal to n approx. less than or equal to 20. The WKB formula reduces to the 1/n correction at very high n, but is much more accurate at moderate n. The critical β vs n curves exhibit oscillatory structure at low n, but in both sequences the lower bound on β/sub c/ approx. 5%. For reactor parameters, finite Larmor radius effects are not expected to have a large effect on this β-limitation

  19. Percutaneous balloon dilatation for transplant ureteral strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Taechun (Korea, Republic of); Banner, Marc P [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (United States)

    1993-09-15

    We report 10 kidney allografted patients treated for 11 ureteral strictures with standard endourlogic balloon catheter dilatation and internal stenting between August 1979 and December 1991. They have been followed until 2 to 140 months (mean 42). We compared and analyzed the 6 successful strictures (54%) and 5 unsuccessful strictures. There was no statistically significant difference of demographic, clinical and radiologic interventional techniques between two groups. But there was slightly higher success rate in abruptly narrowed shorter fibrotic strictures in ureteroneocystomy sites than smoothly taped longer ones in other sites of the ureter. Longterm stenting by the transplantation team with cystoscopic removal of internal ureteral stents by urologists resulted in 3 cases of stent occlusion, encrustation or fracture. Exact early diagnosis of ureteral stricture with continued close follow up and proper radiologic interventional procedure with optimal stenting period may increase the success rate and still provide an alternative to surgery.

  20. High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) Balloon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    This grant supported our work on the High Energy Antimatter Telescope(HEAT) balloon experiment. The HEAT payload is designed to perform a series of experiments focusing on the cosmic ray positron, electron, and antiprotons. Thus far two flights of the HEAT -e+/- configuration have taken place. During the period of this grant major accomplishments included the following: (1) Publication of the first results of the 1994 HEAT-e+/- flight in Physical Review Letters; (2) Successful reflight of the HEAT-e+/- payload from Lynn Lake in August 1995; (3) Repair and refurbishment of the elements of the HEAT payload damaged during the landing following the 1995 flight; and (4) Upgrade of the ground support equipment for future flights of the HEAT payload.

  1. SuperMAG: Present and Future Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S. W.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Barnes, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    SuperMAG is a global collaboration that provides ground magnetic field perturbations from a long list of stations in the same coordinate system, identical time resolution and with a common baseline removal approach. This unique high quality dataset provides a continuous and nearly global monitoring of the ground magnetic field perturbation. Currently, only archived data are available on the website and hence it targets basic research without any operational capabilities. The existing SuperMAG software can be easily adapted to ingest real-time or near real-time data and provide a now-casting capability. The SuperDARN program has a long history of providing near real-time maps of the northern hemisphere electrostatic potential and as both SuperMAG and SuperDARN share common software it is relatively easy to adapt these maps for global magnetic perturbations. Magnetometer measurements would be assimilated by the SuperMAG server using a variety of techniques, either by downloading data at regular intervals from remote servers or by real-time streaming connections. The existing SuperMAG analysis software would then process these measurements to provide the final calibrated data set using the SuperMAG coordinate system. The existing plotting software would then be used to produce regularly updated global plots. The talk will focus on current SuperMAG capabilities illustrating the potential for now-casting and eventually forecasting.

  2. Characterization of a NIMONIC TYPE super alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora Rangel, L.; Martinez Martinez, E.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical properties of strength and thermofluence of a NIMONIC type super alloy under thermal treatment was determined. The relationship between microstructure, phases and precipitates was also studied. (author)

  3. (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing)

    OpenAIRE

    Çakıcı, Cemal

    2006-01-01

    (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing) The aim of this study is to explain the super-variable costing method which is a new subject in cost and management accounting and to show it’s working practicly.Shortly, super-variable costing can be defined as a costing method which is use only direct material costs in calculate of product costs and treats all costs except these (direct labor and overhead) as periad costs or operating costs.By using super-variable costing method, product costs ar...

  4. Angiographic assessment of initial balloon angioplasty results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Geoffrey A; Sullivan, Kevin L; Halpern, Ethan J; Parker, Laurence; Beck, Margaret; Bonn, Joseph; Levin, David C

    2004-10-01

    To determine the influence of three factors involved in the angiographic assessment of balloon angioplasty-interobserver variability, operator bias, and the definition used to determine success-on the primary (technical) results of angioplasty in the peripheral arteries. Percent stenosis in 107 lesions in lower-extremity arteries was graded by three independent, experienced vascular radiologists ("observers") before and after balloon angioplasty and their estimates were compared with the initial interpretations reported by the physician performing the procedure ("operator") and an automated quantitative computer analysis. Observer variability was measured with use of intraclass correlation coefficients and SD. Differences among the operator, observers, and the computer were analyzed with use of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and analysis of variance. For each evaluator, the results in this series of lesions were interpreted with three different definitions of success. Estimation of residual stenosis varied by an average range of 22.76% with an average SD of 8.99. The intraclass correlation coefficients averaged 0.59 for residual stenosis after angioplasty for the three observers but decreased to 0.36 when the operator was included as the fourth evaluator. There was good to very good agreement among the three independent observers and the computer, but poor correlation with the operator (P definition of success was used. Significant differences among the operator, the three observers, and the computer were not present when the definition of success was based on less than 50% residual stenosis. Observer variability and bias in the subjective evaluation of peripheral angioplasty can have a significant influence on the reported initial success rates. This effect can be largely eliminated with the use of residual stenosis of less than 50% to define success. Otherwise, meaningful evaluation of angioplasty results will require independent panels of evaluators or

  5. Energy transport requirements for tokamak reactors in the second ballooning stability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potok, R.E.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of ignition confinement constraints on a tokamak reactor operating in the second regime of ballooning stability. This regime is characterized by flat plasma pressure profiles, with a sharp pressure gradient near a conducting first wall at the plasma edge. The energy confinement time is determined by transport processes across the pressure gradient region. The authors have found that the required transport needed for ignition in the edge region is very close to the value predicted by neoclassical ion conductivity scaling. Only by carefully tailoring the conductivity scaling across the flux coordinate were the authors able to match both the kink stability and ignition requirements. With optimistic assumptions, R/sub o/ ≅ 7 m appears to be the minimum major radius for an economical tokamak reactor in the second ballooning stability regime. This paper presents a base design case at R/sub o/ = 7 m, and shows how the reactor design varies with changes in major radius, ion transport scaling, and electron transport scaling

  6. Super rogue wave in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Pallabi; Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Bailung, Heremba

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of super rogue wave having amplitude ∼5 times the background wave has been observed in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions in a double plasma device. In normal electron-ion plasma the ion acoustic solitons are described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. At a critical concentration of negative ions, the ion acoustic modified KdV solitons are found to propagate. Multicomponent plasma also supports the propagation of a special kind of soliton namely 'Peregrine soliton' at critical concentration of negative ions. Peregrine soliton is a doubly localized solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) having amplitude 3 times the background carrier wave. In a double plasma device, ion-acoustic Peregrine soliton is excited by applying slowly varying amplitude modulated continuous sinusoidal signal to the source anode and described by the rational solution of NLSE. The ion acoustic wave is modulationally unstable in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions and an initial modulated wave perturbation is found to undergo self-modulation to form localized structures by balancing the nonlinearity with the dispersion. In presence of higher order nonlinearity, propagation of a high amplitude (∼5 times of background carrier wave) ion acoustic Peregrine soliton has been observed experimentally. The existence of such types of higher order wave has been reported in other dispersive media. These are considered to be the prototype of super rogue wave in deep water. In this work, experimental results on the evolution of super rogue wave in a double plasma device are presented and compared with the numerical solution of NLSE. (author)

  7. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Genoa (Italy); Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L. [IRCCS, Ist. Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  8. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.; Caly, A.

    2012-01-01

    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  9. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E.; Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  10. An investigation of electrostatically deposited radionuclides on latex balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T.; Caly, A., E-mail: Terry.Price@gmail.com [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Use of Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) education material for a community science education event to promote science awareness, science culture and literacy (Science Rendezvous 2011) lead to investigation of observed phenomena. Experiments are done on balloons that are electrostatically charged then left to collect particulate. Alpha spectroscopy was performed to identify alpha emitting radioisotopes present on the balloons. The time dependent behaviour of the activity was investigated. Additionally, the Alpha activity of the balloon was compared to Beta activity. The grounds for further investigations are proposed. (author)

  11. The super W∞ symmetry of the Manin-Radul super KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Sin, S.J.

    1991-11-01

    We show that the Manin-Radul super KP hierarchy is invariant under super W ∞ transformations. These transformations are characterized by time dependent flows which commute with the usual flows generated by the conserved quantities of the super KP hierarchy. (author). 16 refs

  12. The Super-Kamiokande experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment is a multi purpose experiment using a large imaging water Cherenkov detector with 50,000 tons of pure water. The detector is located 1000 m underground in the Kamioka mine in Japan, and it can detect particle interactions whose visible energies are between 5 MeV and 100 GeV, so that we can study many physics subjects as follows. Solar neutrino problem is one of the most important unsolved problems in astrophysics. Kamiokande experiment confirmed the deficit of neutrino flux compared to the standard Solar model prediction, which was first reported by R. Davis's pioneering work. Currently it is widely believed that the deficit is due to the neutrino oscillation. The Super-Kamiokande is a unique detector to measure the distortion of the energy spectrum of neutrinos, variation of the neutrino flux between day and night, and the seasonal variation of the flux. Those are related to the neutrino oscillation and independent of the Solar model uncertainty. Atmospheric neutrino anomaly was first announced by Kamiokande experiment, and the Super-Kamiokande recently provided clear evidence for neutrino oscillation as the solution to the anomaly. Observed ratio of muons to electrons is significantly smaller than what is expected. Moreover, zenith-angle distribution of observed muon neutrinos shows the strong up-down asymmetry. The zenith angle distribution of upward-going muons provides another information and the result also supports the oscillation hypothesis. We investigate not only the Solar neutrino problem and atmospheric neutrino anomaly, but also other astrophysical neutrino phenomena such as neutrino bursts from supernova explosions, high energy neutrino emission from point sources, neutrino events in correlation with Solar flares, and gamma-ray bursts. Search for nucleon decay is also one of the primary objectives of our experiment. However no evidence for nucleon decay has been observed yet, and we only set a lower limit on the partial

  13. Notes on super Killing tensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, P.S. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lindström, University [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University,SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-14

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the even Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed.

  14. Highlights from Super-Kamiokande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent results from Super-Kamiokande experiment are reviewed in this paper; Neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the lepton sector are investigated via ν_μ → ν_e oscillation of the atmospheric neutrinos. The event rate, correlation with solar activity, energy spectrum of the solar neutrinos are measured via electron elastic scattering interactions. Neutrino emission from the WIMP annihilation at the center of the Sun are searched in the GeV energy regions. New project, SK-Gd project, to enhance anti-neutrino identification capability, has been approved inside the collaboration group

  15. Development of a New Coaxial Balloon Catheter System for Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (B-RTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanoue, Shuichi; Kiyosue, Hiro; Matsumoto, Shunro; Hori, Yuzo; Okahara, Mika; Kashiwagi, Junji; Mori, Hiromu

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To develop a new coaxial balloon catheter system and evaluate its clinical feasibility for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Methods. A coaxial balloon catheter system was constructed with 9 Fr guiding balloon catheter and 5 Fr balloon catheter. A 5 Fr catheter has a high flexibility and can be coaxially inserted into the guiding catheter in advance. The catheter balloons are made of natural rubber and can be inflated to 2 cm (guiding) and 1 cm (5 Fr) maximum diameter. Between July 2003 and April 2005, 8 consecutive patients (6 men, 2 women; age range 33-72 years, mean age 55.5 years) underwent B-RTO using the balloon catheter system. Five percent ethanolamine oleate iopamidol (EOI) was used as sclerosing agent. The procedures, including maneuverability of the catheter, amount of injected sclerosing agent, necessity for coil embolization of collateral draining veins, and initial clinical results, were evaluated retrospectively. The occlusion rate was assessed by postcontrast CT within 2 weeks after B-RTO. Results. The balloon catheter could be advanced into the proximal potion of the gastrorenal shunt beyond the collateral draining vein in all cases. The amount of injected EOI ranged from 3 to 34 ml. Coil embolization of the collateral draining vein was required in 2 cases. Complete obliteration of gastric varices on initial follow-up CT was obtained in 7 cases. The remaining case required re-treatment that resulted in complete obstruction of the varices after the second B-RTO. No procedure-related complications were observed. Conclusion. B-RTO using the new coaxial balloon catheter is feasible. Gastric varices can be treated more simply by using this catheter system

  16. An Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) to Develop New Instrument Technology to Study the Auroral Ionosphere and Stratospheric Ozone Layer Using Ultralight Balloon Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowling, M.; Ahmad, H.; Gamblin, R.; Guala, D.; Hermosillo, D.; Pina, M.; Marrero, E.; Canales, D. R. J.; Cao, J.; Ehteshami, A.; Bering, E. A., III; Lefer, B. L.; Dunbar, B.; Bias, C.; Shahid, S.

    2015-12-01

    This project is currently engaging twelve undergraduate students in the process of developing new technology and instrumentation for use in balloon borne geospace investigations in the auroral zone. Motivation stems from advances in microelectronics and consumer electronic technology. Given the technological innovations over the past 20 years it now possible to develop new instrumentation to study the auroral ionosphere and stratospheric ozone layer using ultralight balloon payloads for less than 6lbs and $3K per payload. The University of Houston Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) team has built ten such payloads for launch using 1500 gm latex weather balloons deployed in Houston, TX, Fairbanks, AK, and as well as zero pressure balloons launched from northern Sweden. The latex balloon project will collect vertical profiles of wind velocity, temperature, electrical conductivity, ozone, and odd nitrogen. This instrument payload will also produce profiles of pressure, electric field, and air-earth electric current. The zero pressure balloons will obtain a suite of geophysical measurements including: DC electric field, electric field and magnetic flux, optical imaging, total electron content of ionosphere via dual-channel GPS, X-ray detection, and infrared/UV spectroscopy. Students flew payloads with different combinations of these instruments to determine which packages are successful. Data collected by these instruments will be useful in understanding the nature of electrodynamic coupling in the upper atmosphere and how the global earth system is changing. Twelve out of the launched fifteen payloads were successfully launched and recovered. Results and best practices learned from lab tests and initial Houston test flights will be discussed.

  17. Reduction of 4-dim self dual super Yang-Mills onto super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, A.; Restuccia, A.; Martin, I.

    1990-05-01

    Recently self dual super Yang-Mills over a super Riemann surface was obtained as the zero set of a moment map on the space of superconnections to the dual of the super Lie algebra of gauge transformations. We present a new formulation of 4-dim Euclidean self dual super Yang-Mills in terms of constraints on the supercurvature. By dimensional reduction we obtain the same set of superconformal field equations which define self dual connections on a super Riemann surface. (author). 10 refs

  18. A battery-operated pilot balloon time-signal generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph H. Moltzau

    1966-01-01

    Describes the design and construction of a 1-pound, battery-operated, time-signal transmitter, which is usable with portable radio or field telephone circuits for synchronizing multi-theodolite observation of pilot balloons.

  19. OCT evaluation of directional atherectomy compared to balloon angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos; Lendel, Vasili; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Directional atherectomy (DA) is one of the most commonly used modalities for the treatment of obstructive femoropopliteal peripheral arterial disease (PAD), especially in patients with large and calcified atherosclerotic plaques. The effect of directional atherectomy to the vascular wall compared to balloon angioplasty by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has not been previously described. We present the first case of OCT after directional atherectomy with SilverHawk followed by angiosculpt balloon angioplasty. - Highlights: • Directional atherectomy avoids the vascular mechanical damage caused by angioplasty balloons and the exposure of stent struts or the potential of stent fracture with stents. • OCT can accurately assess the effect of endovacular interventions to the vessel wall. • Although angiographic results after directional atherectomy are acceptable, OCT use demonstrated suboptimal improvement of the MLA requiring additional balloon angioplasty. • Longer studies are needed to define whether the improved OCT results with angioplasty compared to DA may offer better clinical outcomes.

  20. OCT evaluation of directional atherectomy compared to balloon angioplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos [Citizens Memorial Hospital Heart and Vascular Institute, Bolivar, MO (United States); Lendel, Vasili [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Peripheral Vascular Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Cilingiroglu, Mehmet, E-mail: mcilingiroglu@yahoo.com [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Peripheral Vascular Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Koc University, School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    Directional atherectomy (DA) is one of the most commonly used modalities for the treatment of obstructive femoropopliteal peripheral arterial disease (PAD), especially in patients with large and calcified atherosclerotic plaques. The effect of directional atherectomy to the vascular wall compared to balloon angioplasty by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has not been previously described. We present the first case of OCT after directional atherectomy with SilverHawk followed by angiosculpt balloon angioplasty. - Highlights: • Directional atherectomy avoids the vascular mechanical damage caused by angioplasty balloons and the exposure of stent struts or the potential of stent fracture with stents. • OCT can accurately assess the effect of endovacular interventions to the vessel wall. • Although angiographic results after directional atherectomy are acceptable, OCT use demonstrated suboptimal improvement of the MLA requiring additional balloon angioplasty. • Longer studies are needed to define whether the improved OCT results with angioplasty compared to DA may offer better clinical outcomes.

  1. Finite Larmor radius stabilization of ballooning modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.T.

    1980-07-01

    A ballooning mode equation that includes full finite Larmor radius effects has been derived from the Vlasov equation for a circular tokamak equilibrium. Numerical solution of this equation shows that finite Larmor radius effects are stabilizing

  2. Properties of ballooning modes in the Heliotron configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, N.; Hudson, S.R.; Hegna, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    The stability of ballooning modes is influenced by the local and global magnetic shear and local and global magnetic curvature so significantly that it is fairly difficult to get those general properties in the three dimensional configurations with strong flexibility due to the external coil system. In the case of the planar axis heliotron configurations allowing a large Shafranov shift, like LHD, properties of the high-mode-number ballooning modes have been intensively investigated. It has been analytically shown that the local magnetic shear comes to disappear in the stellarator-like global magnetic shear region, as the Shafranov shift becomes large. Based on this mechanism and the characteristics of the local and global magnetic curvature, it is numerically shown that the destabilized ballooning modes have strong three-dimensional properties (both poloidal and toroidal mode couplings) in the Mercier stable region, and that those are fairly similar to ballooning modes in the axisymmetric system in the Mercier unstable region. As is well known, however, no quantization condition is applicable to the ballooning modes in the three-dimensional system without symmetry, and so the results of the high-mode-number ballooning modes in the covering space had to be confirmed in the real space. Such a confirmation has been done in the Mercier stable region and also in the Mercier unstable region by using three dimensional linearized ideal MHD stability code cas3d. Confirming the relation between high-mode-number ballooning analyses by the global mode analyses, the method of the equilibrium profile variations has been developed in the tree dimensional system, giving dt/dψ - dP/dψ stability diagram corresponding to the s - α diagram in tokamaks. This method of profile variation are very powerful to investigate the second stability of high-mode-number ballooning modes and has been more developed. Recently it has been applied to the plasma in the inward-shifted LHD

  3. Wideroe pre-accelerator for the SuperHILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.; Alonso, J.; Behrsing, G.; Clark, D.; Grunder, H.; Olivier, M.; Spence, D.; Yourd, R.

    1976-09-01

    In 1971 the Bevatron successfully accelerated low-intensity heavy ion beams up to neon to energies of 2.1 GeV/amu. More recently, beams up to argon have been accelerated using the SuperHILAC as an injector to the Bevatron--the Bevalac concept. With increasing scientific interest in high-energy high-intensity beams of heavier ions, plans to upgrade both the Bevatron vacuum system and the SuperHILAC ion sources and injectors have been formulated. A proposed new pre-accelerator based on an air-insulated Cockcroft-Walton and a Wideroe linac is presented. The Wideroe linac uses the design concepts established at UNILAC, modified for frequency and energy requirements. U 7 + from the ion source is accelerated from 12 keV/amu to 113 keV/amu and stripped to a mean charge state acceptable to the first tank of the SuperHILAC. The expected intensity improvement over the present pressurized injector is a factor of 100 at the highest masses. The physical modeling of the Wideroe linac structure will be kept to a minimum. Computer models predicting the characteristics of the structure have improved to the point where the probability of satisfactory performance is high

  4. Exact solution of super Liouville model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanying; Zhao Liu; Zhen Yi

    2000-01-01

    Using Leznov-Saveliev algebraic analysis and Drinfeld-Sokolov construction, the authors obtained the explicit solutions to the super Liouville system in super covariant form and component form. The explicit solution in component form reduces naturally into the Egnchi-Hanson instanton solution of the usual Liouville equation if all the Grassmann odd components are set equal to zero

  5. OCT evaluation of directional atherectomy compared to balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos; Lendel, Vasili; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Directional atherectomy (DA) is one of the most commonly used modalities for the treatment of obstructive femoropopliteal peripheral arterial disease (PAD), especially in patients with large and calcified atherosclerotic plaques. The effect of directional atherectomy to the vascular wall compared to balloon angioplasty by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has not been previously described. We present the first case of OCT after directional atherectomy with SilverHawk followed by angiosculpt balloon angioplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of current diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, M.; Fukuyama, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.

    1999-12-01

    The effect of finite gyroradius on the current diffusive ballooning mode is examined. Starting from the reduced MHD equations including turbulent transports, coupling with drift motion and finite gyroradius effect of ions, we derive a ballooning mode equation with complex transport coefficients. The eigenfrequency, saturation level and thermal diffusivity are evaluated numerically from the marginal stability condition. Preliminary results of their parameter dependence is presented. (author)

  7. Balloon dilation of congenital supravalvular pulmonic stenosis in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Treseder, Julia R.; Jung, SeungWoo

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is considered the standard of care for treatment of valvular pulmonic stenosis, a common congenital defect in dogs. Supravalvular pulmonic stenosis is a rare form of pulmonic stenosis in dogs and standard treatment has not been established. Although, there have been reports of successful treatment of supravalvular pulmonic stenosis with surgical and stenting techniques, there have been no reports of balloon dilation to treat dogs with this condition. Here, a...

  8. Long duration balloon flights in the middle stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaterre, P.

    1993-02-01

    Research and development performed by the French Space Agency (CNES) over the past 10 years has given the scientific community the Infrared Montgolfiere, a balloon capable of lifting 50-kg payloads into the stratosphere for periods of several weeks. The Infrared Montgolfiere is a hot air balloon that captures infrared radiation using the earth as a heat source. Thirty flights have been launched so far, some lasting more than sixty days and circling the globe twice.

  9. PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: TOROIDAL ROTATION AND 3D NONLINEAR DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SNYDER, P.B.; WILSON, H.R.; XU, X.Q.; WEBSTER, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the physics of the H-Mode pedestal and edge localized modes (ELMs) is very important to next-step fusion devices for two primary reasons: (1) The pressure at the top of the edge barrier (''pedestal height'') strongly impacts global confinement and fusion performance, and (2) large ELMs lead to localized transient heat loads on material surfaces that may constrain component lifetimes. The development of the peeling-ballooning model has shed light on these issues by positing a mechanism for ELM onset and constraints on the pedestal height. The mechanism involves instability of ideal coupled ''peeling-ballooning'' modes driven by the sharp pressure gradient and consequent large bootstrap current in the H-mode edge. It was first investigated in the local, high-n limit [1], and later quantified for non-local, finite-n modes in general toroidal geometry [2,3]. Important aspects are that a range of wavelengths may potentially be unstable, with intermediate n's (n ∼ 3-30) generally limiting in high performance regimes, and that stability bounds are strongly sensitive to shape [Fig l(a)], and to collisionality (i.e. temperature and density) [4] through the bootstrap current. The development of efficient MHD stability codes such as ELITE [3,2] and MISHKA [5] has allowed detailed quantification of peeling-ballooning stability bounds (e.g. [6]) and extensive and largely successful comparisons with observation (e.g. [2,6-9]). These previous calculations are ideal, static, and linear. Here we extend this work to incorporate the impact of sheared toroidal rotation, and the non-ideal, nonlinear dynamics which must be studied to quantify ELM size and heat deposition on material surfaces

  10. SuperFormLab: showing SuperFormLab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    bachelor program, followed by two years of master studies. The courses are offered equally to students from other design disciplines, e.g. industrial design. Teaching is mainly in English as the program is attended by a relatively large group of non-Danish students, who seek exactly this combination......3D-printing in clay and ceramic objects shaped by your own sounds and movements! Digital form transferred via CNC-milling to ornamental ceramic wall-cladding. Brave New World… Students and their teacher at SuperFormLab, the new ceramic workshop of the School of Design at the Royal Danish Academy...... of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, will be showing results of their investigations into the potential of combining digital technologies with ceramic materials. It is now possible to shape the most complex mathematical, virtual 3D objects through the use of advanced software-programs. And more than that – you can...

  11. Architectural Engineering to Super-Light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas

    The increasing global urbanisation creates a great demand for new buildings. In the aim to honour this, a new structural system, offering flexibility and variation at no extra cost appears beneficial. Super-Light Structures constitute such a system. This PhD thesis examines Super-Light Structures...... with architectural engineering as a starting point. The thesis is based on a two stringed hypothesis: Architectural engineering gives rise to better architecture and Super-Light Structures support and enables a static, challenging architecture. The aim of the thesis is to clarify architectural engineering's impact...... on the work process between architects and engineers in the design development. Using architectural engineering, Super-Light Structures are examined in an architectural context, and it is explained how digital tools can support architectural engineering and design of Super-Light Structures. The experiences...

  12. Ballooning Stability of the Compact Quasiaxially Symmetric Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Canik, J.; Dewar, R.L.; Johnson, J.L.; Klasky, S.; Cooper, W.A.; Kerbichler, W.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning stability of a compact, quasiaxially symmetric stellarator (QAS), expected to achieve good stability and particle confinement is examined with a method that can lead to estimates of global stability. Making use of fully 3D, ideal-MHD stability codes, the QAS beta is predicted to be limited above 4% by ballooning and high-n kink modes. Here MHD stability is analyzed through the calculation and examination of the ballooning mode eigenvalue isosurfaces in the 3-space [s, alpha, theta(subscript ''k'')]; s is the edge normalized toroidal flux, alpha is the field line variable, and theta(subscript ''k'') is the perpendicular wave vector or ballooning parameter. Broken symmetry, i.e., deviations from axisymmetry, in the stellarator magnetic field geometry causes localization of the ballooning mode eigenfunction, with new types of nonsymmetric, eigenvalue isosurfaces in both the stable and unstable spectrum. The isosurfaces around the most unstable points i n parameter space (well above marginal) are topologically spherical. In such cases, attempts to use ray tracing to construct global ballooning modes lead to a k-space runaway. Introduction of a reflecting cutoff in k(perpendicular) to model numerical truncation or finite Larmor radius (FLR) yields chaotic ray paths ergodically filling the allowed phase space, indicating that the global spectrum must be described using the language of quantum chaos theory. However, the isosurface for marginal stability in the cases studied are found to have a more complex topology, making estimation of FLR stabilization more difficult

  13. Catching Comet's Particles in the Earth's Atmosphere by Using Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potashko, Oleksandr; Viso, Michel

    The project is intended to catch cometary particles in the atmosphere by using balloons. The investigation is based upon knowledge that the Earth crosses the comet’s tails during the year. One can catch these particles at different altitudes in the atmosphere. So, we will be able to gradually advance in the ability to launch balloons from low to high altitudes and try to catch particles from different comet tails. The maximum altitude that we have to reach is 40 km. Both methods - distance observation and cometary samples from mission Stardust testify to the presence of organic components in comet’s particles. It would be useful to know more details about this organic matter for astrobiology; besides, the factor poses danger to the Earth. Moreover, it is important to prove that it is possible to get fundamental scientific results at low cost. In the last 5 years launching balloons has become popular and this movement looks like hackers’ one - as most of them occur without launch permission to airspace. The popularity of ballooning is connected with low cost of balloon, GPS unit, video recording unit. If you use iPhone, you have a light solution with GPS, video, picture and control function in one unit. The price of balloon itself begins from $50; it depends on maximum altitude, payload weight and material. Many university teams realized balloon launching and reached even stratosphere at an altitude of 33 km. But most of them take only video and picture. Meanwhile, it is possible to carry out scientific experiments by ballooning, for example to collect comet particles. There is rich experience at the moment of the use of mineral, chemical and isotopic analysis techniques and data of the comet’s dust after successful landing of StarDust capsule with samples in 2006. Besides, we may use absolutely perfect material to catch particles in the atmosphere, which was used by cosmic missions such as Stardust and Japanese Hayabusa. As to balloon launches, we could use

  14. Students' Investigations in Temperature and Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James; Hansert, Bernhard; Frederick, Ron; Frerichs, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Why does a balloon deflate when it is left in a cold car; or why does one have to pump up his or her bike tires in the spring after leaving them in the garage all winter? To answer these questions, students must understand the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a gas. The purpose of the Predict, Share, Observe, and Explain…

  15. [Thermal balloon endometrial ablation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding: technical aspects and results. A prospective cohort study of 152 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kdous, Moez; Jacob, Denis; Gervaise, Amélie; Risk, Elie; Sauvanet, Eric

    2008-05-01

    Thermal balloon endometrial ablation is a new operative technique recently proposed in the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. To evaluate the efficacy of thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and to identify the possible predictive factors for a successful outcome. A prospective study was conducted including 152 patients with chronic abnormal uterine bleeding refractory to medical treatment. All patients were treated by thermal balloon endometrial ablation (Thermachoice, Gynecare) between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2003. patients were included if their uterine cavities sounded to less than 12 cm and had undergone hysteroscopy, pelvic ultrasound and endometrial biopsie showing no structural or (pre) malignant endometrial abnormalities. A balloon catheter was placed through the cervix and after inflation in the endometrial cavity with 5% dextrose in water, was heated to 87 +/- 5 degrees C. No one required cervical dilatation. Balloon pressures were 160 to 170 mm Hg. All patients underwent 8 minutes of therapy. The average patient was 47 years (range: 30-62 years) and was followed for a mean of 3 years and 7 months (range: 6 months - 8 years). 31.6% of women reported amennorhea, 16.5% hypomenorrhea and 21% eumenorrhea. Menorrhagea persisted in 11.2% of patients. No intraoperative complications and minor postoperative morbidity occured in 10.5% of patients. Three prgnancy complicated by spontaneous abortions were reported after the treatment. A total of 78% of women reported overall satisfaction with the endometrial ablation procedure and 18% were dissatisfied. 17.8% of patients underwent hysterectomy within 1 to 5 years of balloon endometrial ablation. Increasing age and menopause were significantly associated with increased odds of success (p < 0.05). Thermal balloon endometrial ablation is a simple, easy, effective, and minimally invasive procedure in menhorragic women with no desire for further

  16. [Early results with a monorail-stent-balloon device for endovascular treatment of renal artery stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hülsbeck, S; Jahnke, T; Grimm, J; Behm, C; Hilbert, C; Frahm, C; Biederer, J; Brossmann, J; Heller, M

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility of a new monorail-stent-balloon device for treatment of renal artery stenosis (RAS). During a study period of 18 months, 38 patients with proven RAS in 41 cases (hypertension n = 36, renal insufficiency n = 13) and indication for stenting (calicified ostial lesions n = 35, insufficient PTA n = 4, dissection n = 2) were enrolled into this prospective evaluation. Pre-mounted stents (Rx-Herculink(TM) 5 mm = 13, 6 mm = 34, 7 mm = 1) were implanted a transfemoral (n = 35) or transbrachial approach (n = 6). Mean grade and lengths of stenosis measured were 88 % plus minus 10 and 9 mm plus minus 5. Renal stent implantation was technically successful in all cases (100 %). In 7 cases a second stent had to be implanted to cover the entire lesion. The transstenotic pressure drop decreased from 88 mmHg plus minus 10 before to 1 mmHg plus minus 1.8 after the procedure. Remaining stenosis measured 0.7 % plus minus 4.2. Serum creatine levels decreased from 1.9 mm/dl to 1.5 mg/dl (n. s.), blood pressure decreased from 178/94 mmHg to 148/79 mmHg (p monorail-stend-balloon device a technically easy, secure and exact renal stent placement is guaranteed, patency rates are similar to those described in the current literature.

  17. Super resolution for astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Peng, Qingyu; Bhanu, Bir; Zhang, Qingfeng; He, Haifeng

    2018-05-01

    In order to obtain detailed information from multiple telescope observations a general blind super-resolution (SR) reconstruction approach for astronomical images is proposed in this paper. A pixel-reliability-based SR reconstruction algorithm is described and implemented, where the developed process incorporates flat field correction, automatic star searching and centering, iterative star matching, and sub-pixel image registration. Images captured by the 1-m telescope at Yunnan Observatory are used to test the proposed technique. The results of these experiments indicate that, following SR reconstruction, faint stars are more distinct, bright stars have sharper profiles, and the backgrounds have higher details; thus these results benefit from the high-precision star centering and image registration provided by the developed method. Application of the proposed approach not only provides more opportunities for new discoveries from astronomical image sequences, but will also contribute to enhancing the capabilities of most spatial or ground-based telescopes.

  18. Mechanism of prostatic urethroplasty with balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Maynar, M.; Hulbert, J.

    1988-01-01

    A series of 60 patients have undergone prostatic urethroplasty with balloon catheters at our institution. The follow-up of these patients has ranged from more than 3 years to not less than 6 months. The preliminary results have been excellent, with a success rate of 75% in patients with predominant lateral lobe hypertrophy. This success rate drops to 25% in patients with predominant middle lobe hypertrophy. In previous communications the authors have proposed that the mechanism of prostatic urethral relief of obstruction is due to stretching of the prostatic capsule, tissue compression, and possible subsequent atrophy, as suggested by findings of transrectal US, MR imaging, voiding and retrograde urethrography, and urinary flow studies. Recent clinical information that has led to further animal research has shown that in addition to the previously supposed mechanism of action, separation of the prostatic lobes occurs by splitting of the anterior and posterior commissures of the prostatic gland tissue. This separation of the prostatic lobes is therefore the goal of the procedure. As more experience is gained, the already high success rate can probably be improved

  19. Balloon catheter dilatation of benign urethral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, L.; Cavallo, A.; Perin, B.; Bighi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report their experience of benign urethral stricture dilatation by balloon catheter in 11 male patients. Ten posterior and 2 anterior urethral strictures were treated; in 1 patients several narrowings coexisted at various levels. Etiology was inflammatory in 4 cases, iatrogen in 3, post-traumatic in 2, and equivocal in 2. The patients were studied both before and soon after dilatation by means of retrograde and voiding cystourethrogram and uroflowgraphy; the follow-up (2-14 months) was performed by urodynamic alone. In all cases, dilatation was followed by the restoration of urethral gauge, together with prompt functional improvement of urodynamic parameters. The latter result subsisted in time in 9 patients. In 2 cases recurrences were observed demonstrated at once by clinics and urodynamics. Both lesions were successfully re-treated. Neither early not late complication occurred. In spite of the limited material, the valuable results obtained, together with the absence of complications, the peculiar morphology of recurrences, and the chance of repeating it make the procedure advisable as a valid alternative to conventional techniques for these pathologies

  20. Retrograde prostatic urethroplasty with a balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Hulbert, J.; Letourneau, J.G.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with prostatism and documented BPH who were candidates for transurethral resection of the prostate were dilated for 10 minutes with 25-mm urethroplasty balloons using a retrograde transurethral approach. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia using 2% viscous lidocaine on an outpatient basis. A mild discomfort was experienced by all patients with a moderate urgency sensation. Mild transient hematuria was present in all, which cleared in 4 to 6 hours. Dysuria usually lasted for 72 hours. Significant improvement has been seen in the relief of symptoms in patients without middle-lobe hypertrophy as documented by uroflow studies, voiding cystourethrograms, and retrograde urethrograms. In patients with middle-lobe hypertrophy, moderate improvement in uroflow studies was observed, which correlated well with symptomatic improvement. Rectal US and MR studies have shown no evidence of intraprostatic or periprostatic abnormalities. No complications have been encountered so far. The longest current follow-up is 20 months, with a mean of 10 months

  1. First results of balloon dacryoplasty in dacryostenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya L’vovna At’kova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Outpatient care is not widely spread in modern dacryology. At the same time, its necessity increases. There are no evidences of balloon dacryoplasty (BDP application in Russian periodical literature. Material and methods. 50 surgical procedures in 30 patients with partial nasolacrimal duct obliteration were performed, among them 30 BDP without lacrimal pathways intubation (group 1 and 20 with bicanalicular Ritleng intubation of lacrimal pathways (group 2. Lacrimal scintigraphy, single photon emission computed tomography, combined with X-ray computed tomography, subjective tearing estimation in points, and health depending quality of life evaluation wre performed in all cases. Same tests were repeated in 3 months after surgery. Results. A positive outcome rate was 90 % in both groups. There were no complications in group 1. A single case of stent dislocation was recorded in group 2. Conclusion. BDP is an effective procedure in dacryostenosis of the lacrimal pathways vertical part obliteration. This procedure helps to avoid complications associated with long stent retention. It is possible to get good functional results even at short term after BDP surgery, and there is a possibility for this procedure to be carried out in an outpatient setting.

  2. Alpha particle effects on MHD ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    During the period, as the first step towards the goal of detail understanding of the effects of alpha particle on MHD Ballooning Modes, a new numerical approach to investigate the stability of low-frequency fluctuations in high temperature tokamaks was developed by solving the gyrokinetic equations for the ion and electron directly as an initial value problem. The advantage of this approach is the inclusion of many important kinetic features of the problem without approximations and computationally more economical than particle-pushing simulation. The ion-temperature-gradient-mode was investigated to benchmark this new simulation technique. Previous results in literature were recovered. Both the adiabatic electron model and the full drift-kinetic electron model are studied. Numerical result shows that the full drift-kinetic electron model is more unstable. The development of subcycling technique to handle the fast electron bounce time is particularly significant to apply this new approach to the alpha particle problem since alpha particle bounce frequency is also significantly higher than the mode frequency. This new numerical technique will be the basis of future study of the microstability in high temperature tokamaks with alpha particles (or any energetic species). 15 refs., 13 figs

  3. An Undergraduate-Built Prototype Altitude Determination System (PADS) for High Altitude Research Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Abot, J.; Casarotto, V.; Dichoso, J.; Doody, E.; Esteves, F.; Morsch Filho, E.; Gonteski, D.; Lamos, M.; Leo, A.; Mulder, N.; Matubara, F.; Schramm, P.; Silva, R.; Quisberth, J.; Uritsky, G.; Kogut, A.; Lowe, L.; Mirel, P.; Lazear, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this project a multi-disciplinary undergraduate team from CUA, comprising majors in Physics, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Biology, design, build, test, fly, and analyze the data from a prototype attitude determination system (PADS). The goal of the experiment is to determine if an inexpensive attitude determination system could be built for high altitude research balloons using MEMS gyros. PADS is a NASA funded project, built by students with the cooperation of CUA faculty, Verner, Bruhweiler, and Abot, along with the contributed expertise of researchers and engineers at NASA/GSFC, Kogut, Lowe, Mirel, and Lazear. The project was initiated through a course taught in CUA's School of Engineering, which was followed by a devoted effort by students during the summer of 2014. The project is an experiment to use 18 MEMS gyros, similar to those used in many smartphones, to produce an averaged positional error signal that could be compared with the motion of the fixed optical system as recorded through a string of optical images of stellar fields to be stored on a hard drive flown with the experiment. The optical system, camera microprocessor, and hard drive are enclosed in a pressure vessel, which maintains approximately atmospheric pressure throughout the balloon flight. The experiment uses multiple microprocessors to control the camera exposures, record gyro data, and provide thermal control. CUA students also participated in NASA-led design reviews. Four students traveled to NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas to integrate PADS into a large balloon gondola containing other experiments, before being shipped, then launched in mid-August at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. The payload is to fly at a float altitude of 40-45,000 m, and the flight last approximately 15 hours. The payload is to return to earth by parachute and the retrieved data are to be analyzed by CUA undergraduates. A description of the instrument is presented

  4. A model for asymmetric ballooning and analyses of ballooning behaviour of single rods with probabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keusenhoff, J.G.; Schubert, J.D.; Chakraborty, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    Plastic deformation behaviour of Zircaloy cladding has been extensively examined in the past and can be described best by a model for asymmetric deformation. Slight displacement between the pellet and cladding will always exist and this will lead to the formation of azimuthal temperature differences. The ballooning process is strongly temperature dependent and, as a result of the built up temperature differences, differing deformation behaviours along the circumference of the cladding result. The calculated ballooning of cladding is mainly influenced by its temperature, the applied burst criterion and the parameters used in the deformation model. All these influencing parameters possess uncertainties. In order to quantify these uncertainties and to estimate distribution functions of important parameters such as temperature and deformation the response surface method was applied. For a hot rod the calculated standard deviation of cladding temperature amounts to 50 K. From this high value the large influence of the external cooling conditions on the deformation and burst behaviour of cladding can be estimated. In an additional statistical examination the parameters of deformation and burst models have been included and their influence on the deformation of the rod has been studied. (author)

  5. Balloon dacryocystoplasty: Incomplete versus complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Hoon; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul; Song, Ho Young

    1993-01-01

    Balloon dilatation of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus was attempted for the treatment of stenoses or obstructures of the nasolacrimal system in 49 eyes of 41 consecutive patients with complete obstructions and 16 eyes of 14 patients with incomplete obstructions. These two groups were compared with regards to the effectiveness of balloon dacryocystoplasty. All patients suffered from severe epiphora had already undergone multiple probings. A 0.018 inch hair or ball guide wire was introduced through the superior punctum into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity and pulled out through the nasal aperture using a hemostat under nasal endoscopy. A deflated angiography balloon catheter was then introduced in a retrograde direction and dilated under fluoroscopic control. No major complications occurred in any of the patients. At 7 days after balloon dilatation, 25 of 49 eyes with complete obstruction demonstrated improvement in epiphora (initial success rate: 51.0%) and among them 17 eyes showed complete resolution of symptoms. Reocclusion occurred in 12 of the 25 eyes with initial improvement at the 2 months follow up. For the 16 eyes with incomplete obstruction, and improvement of epiphora was attained in 11 eyes (initial success rate 68.8%): 5 of these eyes showed complete resolution of epiphora, and 3 was failed to maintain initial improvement at the 2 month follow up. Although this study demonstrate that results of balloon dacryocystoplasty are not encouraging because of the high failure and recurrence rate, balloon dacryocystoplasty is a simple and safe nonsurgical technique that can be used to treat for obstructions of the nasolacrimal system. In addition, balloon dacryocystoplasty shows better results in incomplete obstruction than in complete obstruction than complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system

  6. Gastric emptying and intragastric balloon in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzi, P; Petrelli, M D; Lorenzini, I; Peruzzi, E; Nicolai, A; Galeazzi, R

    2005-01-01

    Intragastric balloons have been proposed to induce weight loss in obese subjects. The consequences of the balloon on gastric physiology remain poorly studied. We studied the influence of an intragastric balloon on gastric emptying in obese patients. 12 patients were included in the study, with BMI (mean +/- SD) of 38.51 +/- 4.32 kg/m2. The balloon was inserted under light anaesthesia and endoscopic control, inflated with 700 ml saline, and removed 6 months later. Body weight and gastric emptying (T1/2 and T lag) using 13C-octanoic acid breath test were monitored before balloon placement, during its permanence and 2 months after removal. Mean weight loss was: 6.2 +/- 2.3 kg after one month; 12.4 +/- 5.8 kg after 3 months; 14.4 +/- 6.6 kg after 6 months and 10.1 +/- 4.3 kg two months after BIB removal. Gastric emptying rates were significantly decreased in the first periods with balloon in place, and returned to pre-implantation values after balloon removal. T1/2 was: 87 +/- 32 min before BIB positioning, 181 +/- 91 min after 1 month, 145 +/- 99 min after 3 months, 104 +/- 50 min after 6 months and 90 +/- 43 min 2 months after removal. T lag was 36 +/- 18 min before BIB positioning, 102 +/- 82 min after 1 month, 77 +/- 53 min after 3 months, 59 +/- 28 min after 6 months and 40 +/- 21 min. 2 months after removal. BIB in obese patients seems to be a good help in following the hypo caloric diet, especially during the first three months when the gastric emptying is slower and the sense of repletion is higher. After this period gastric emptying starts to return to normal and the stomach adapts to BIB loosing efficacy in weight loss.

  7. Scientific ballooning. Proceedings. PSB Meeting of the COSPAR Panel on Technical Problems Related to Scientific Ballooning which was held during the Thirtieth COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Hamburg (Germany), 11 - 21 Jul 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedler, W.; Torkar, K.

    1996-05-01

    This issue is grouped into sections on materials, design, performance and analysis of balloons, reviews of major national and international balloon programmes, novel instrumentation and systems for scientific ballooning, and selected recent scientific observations.

  8. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, B.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Pous, E.; /Barcelona U.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; /Bergen U.; Asgeirsson, D.; /British Columbia U.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; /Caltech; Heinemeyer, S.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; McElrath, B.; /CERN; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; /Cincinnati U.; Blanke, M.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Lesiak, T.; /Cracow, INP /DESY /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Glasgow U. /Indiana U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol. /KEK, Tsukuba /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Lisbon, IST /Ljubljana U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Maryland U. /MIT /INFN, Milan /McGill U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Notre Dame U. /PNL, Richland /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Orsay, LAL /Orsay, LPT /INFN, Pavia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Queen Mary, U. of London /Regensburg U. /Republica U., Montevideo /Frascati /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /Sassari U. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Southern Methodist U. /Tel Aviv U. /Tohoku U. /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Uppsala U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Wayne State U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-02-14

    SuperB is a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B{sub u,d,s}, D and {tau} decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the {Upsilon}(4S) and {phi}(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over

  9. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, B.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.

    2012-01-01

    SuperB is a high luminosity e + e - collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B u,d,s , D and τ decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin 2 θ W . In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the Υ(4S) and φ(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over-constraints of the unitarity triangle through

  10. Super-radiance in Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N

    2015-01-01

    The theory of the super-radiant mechanism as applied to various phenomena in nuclear physics is presented. The connection between super-radiance and the notion of doorway is presented. The statistics of resonance widths in a many-body Fermi system with open channels is discussed. Depending on the strength of the coupling to the continuum such systems show deviations from the standard Porter-Thomas distribution. The deviations result from the process of increasing interaction of the intrinsic states via the common decay channels. In the limit of very strong coupling this leads to super-radiance. (paper)

  11. Acute stent recoil and optimal balloon inflation strategy: an experimental study using real-time optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Hideki; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Yamada, Ryotaro; Otagiri, Kyuhachi; Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Kobayashi, Yuhei; Okada, Kozo; Kume, Teruyoshi; Nakagawa, Kaori; Teramoto, Tomohiko; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Yock, Paul G; Fitzgerald, Peter J; Honda, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-12

    Our aim was to evaluate stent expansion and acute recoil at deployment and post-dilatation, and the impact of post-dilatation strategies on final stent dimensions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed on eight bare metal platforms of drug-eluting stents (3.0 mm diameter, n=6 for each) during and after balloon inflation in a silicone mock vessel. After nominal-pressure deployment, a single long (30 sec) vs. multiple short (10 sec x3) post-dilatations were performed using a non-compliant balloon (3.25 mm, 20 atm). Stent areas during deployment with original delivery systems were smaller in stainless steel stents than in cobalt-chromium and platinum-chromium stents (pstrategies showed a significant impact on final stent expansion.

  12. Effect of ballooning modes on thermal transport and magnetic field diffusion in the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    Presently favored mechanisms of coronal heating: current sheet dissipation and Alfven wave resonant heating: deposit heat in thin layers. Classical thermal conduction cannot explain how heat is transported across the magnetic field. If heating occurs in thin layers, large pressure gradients can be created, which can give rise to ballooning modes. These instabilities are caused by the pressure gradient and the curvature of the magnetic field, and are stabilized by magnetic tension. The modes are broad band in wavelength and should produce turbulence. A mixing length expression for the turbulent heat transport shows that it is more than adequate to rapidly convect heat into much broader layers. Furthermore, the turbulent resistivity implies that heating occurs over most of the width of these broadened layers. The broadening also implies that much shorter time scales are required for heating. The β values in the corona suggest that 1--10 turbulent layers are formed in typical loop or arch structures. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  13. Simulations of peeling-ballooning modes with electron cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Tang, C. J.; Chen, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the deposited power and deposited position of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) on Peeling-Ballooning (P-B) modes are simulated using BOUT++ code in this paper. The simulation results show that as the deposited position moves from the top to the bottom of the pedestal, the edge localized mode (ELM) size decreases first and then increases, finally decreases again. For ECRH with different deposited power, the effects on P-B modes are similar if they have the same peak value of the power deposition profile. These results show that the effects of ECRH on P-B modes are primarily determined by the change in pressure profile caused by ECRH. As long as ECRH can lead to large enough change in pressure profile, ECRH can efficiently affect the dynamics of P-B modes.

  14. Simulations of peeling-ballooning modes with electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, S. Y., E-mail: sychen531@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The effects of the deposited power and deposited position of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) on Peeling-Ballooning (P-B) modes are simulated using BOUT++ code in this paper. The simulation results show that as the deposited position moves from the top to the bottom of the pedestal, the edge localized mode (ELM) size decreases first and then increases, finally decreases again. For ECRH with different deposited power, the effects on P-B modes are similar if they have the same peak value of the power deposition profile. These results show that the effects of ECRH on P-B modes are primarily determined by the change in pressure profile caused by ECRH. As long as ECRH can lead to large enough change in pressure profile, ECRH can efficiently affect the dynamics of P-B modes.

  15. Experimental study of ballooning and failure of WWER-1000 fuel cans during maximum design basis accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karetnikov, G.V.; Bogdanov, A.S.; Semishkin, V.P.; Bezrukov, Yu.A.; Trushin, A.M.; Frizen, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    The processes of ballooning and fracturing in tubular specimens of Eh635 and Eh110 alloy fuel cans are investigated with the use of cinematography. The investigations are carried out under steady-state conditions in the temperature range from 680 to 900 deg C and at pressure drops on the can from 2 to 12 MPa. Time dependences of circumferential strains are plotted for various temperatures of fuel cans at pressure of 2 MPa. It is shown that strain changes are of linear character at an initial portion of the curve and then an accelerated strain development takes place with transition to fracture. Using methods of nonlinear evaluation for time to fracture the approximation dependences are obtained for fuel cans. Experimental data are intended to form the equations of state for fuel can materials and to verify the program TVEL-3 [ru

  16. Failure maps for internally pressurized Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes with circumferential temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewfelt, R.S.W.

    1986-01-01

    During some postulated loss-of-coolant accidents, the pressure tube temperature may rise before the internal pressure drops, causing the pressure tube to balloon. The temperature around the pressure tube circumference would likely be nonuniform, producing localized deformation that could possibly cause failure. The computer program, GRAD, was used to determine the circumferential temperature distribution required to cause an internally pressurized Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tube to fail before coming into full contact with its calandria tube. These results were used to construct failure maps. 7 refs

  17. Super-Calogero-Moser-Sutherland systems and free super-oscillators: a mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Pijush K.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the supersymmetric rational Calogero-Moser-Sutherland (CMS) model of A N+1 -type is equivalent to a set of free super-oscillators, through a similarity transformation. We prescribe methods to construct the complete eigenspectrum and the associated eigenfunctions, both in supersymmetry-preserving as well as supersymmetry-breaking phases, from the free super-oscillator basis. Further we show that a wide class of super-Hamiltonians realizing dynamical OSp(2 vertical bar 2) supersymmetry, which also includes all types of rational super-CMS as a small subset, are equivalent to free super-oscillators. We study BC N+1 -type super-CMS model in some detail to understand the subtleties involved in this method

  18. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Ramon

    Full Text Available Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  19. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Dresler, Martin; Caldara, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  20. Super rigid nature of super-deformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Neha; Mittal, H.M.; Jain, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of high-spin super-deformation represents one of the most remarkable discoveries in nuclear physics. A large number of SD bands have been observed in A = 60, 80, 130, 150, 190 mass regions. The cascades of SD bands are known to be connected by electric quadruple E2 transitions. Because of absence of linking transitions between superdeformed (SD) and normal deformed (ND) levels, the spin assignments of most of these bands carry a minimum uncertainty ≈ 1-2ħ. It was found in an analysis of SD bands in the context of semi classical approach that moment of inertia comes close to the rigid body value in most of the cases. Lack of knowledge of spins has led to an emphasis on the study of dynamical moment of inertia of SD bands and systematic of kinematic moment of inertia has not been examined so far. In this paper, we extract the band moment of inertia J 0 and softness parameter (σ) of all the SD bands corresponding to axes ratio (x) = 1.5 and present their systematic

  1. A superparticle on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Yasui, Yukinora

    1988-01-01

    A non-relativistic superparticle moving freely on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane is investigated. The lagrangian is invariant under the super Moebius transformations SPL (2, R), so that it can be projected into the lagrangian on the super Riemann surface. The quantum hamiltonian becomes the 'super' Laplace-Beltrami operator in the curved superspace. (orig.)

  2. Superparticle on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, S; Yasui, Yukinora

    1988-03-17

    A non-relativistic superparticle moving freely on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane is investigated. The lagrangian is invariant under the super Moebius transformations SPL (2, R), so that it can be projected into the lagrangian on the super Riemann surface. The quantum hamiltonian becomes the 'super' Laplace-Beltrami operator in the curved superspace.

  3. In-situ observations of Eyjafjallajökull ash particles by hot-air balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, T.; Laakso, L.; Grönholm, T.; Launiainen, S.; Evele-Peltoniemi, I.; Virkkula, A.; Leskinen, A.; Backman, J.; Manninen, H. E.; Sipilä, M.; Haapanala, S.; Hämeri, K.; Vanhala, E.; Tuomi, T.; Paatero, J.; Aurela, M.; Hakola, H.; Makkonen, U.; Hellén, H.; Hillamo, R.; Vira, J.; Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Laaksonen, A.; lehtinen, K. E. J.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2012-03-01

    The volcanic ash cloud from Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption seriously distracted aviation in Europe. Due to the flight ban, there were only few in-situ measurements of the properties and dispersion of the ash cloud. In this study we show in-situ observations onboard a hot air balloon conducted in Central Finland together with regional dispersion modelling with SILAM-model during the eruption. The modeled and measured mass concentrations were in a qualitative agreement but the exact elevation of the layer was slightly distorted. Some of this discrepancy can be attributed to the uncertainty in the initial emission height and strength. The observed maximum mass concentration varied between 12 and 18 μg m -3 assuming a density of 2 g m -3, whereas the gravimetric analysis of the integrated column showed a maximum of 45 μg m -3 during the first two descents through the ash plume. Ion chromatography data indicated that a large fraction of the mass was insoluble to water, which is in qualitative agreement with single particle X-ray analysis. A majority of the super-micron particles contained Si, Al, Fe, K, Na, Ca, Ti, S, Zn and Cr, which are indicative for basalt-type rock material. The number concentration profiles indicated that there was secondary production of particles possibly from volcano-emitted sulfur dioxide oxidized to sulfuric acid during the transport.

  4. BOU: Development of a low-cost tethered balloon sensing system for monitoring the lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Rodrigo; Lopez-Grifol, Alvaro; Martinez-Villagrassa, Daniel; Simó, Gemma; Wenger, Burkhard; Dünnermann, Jens; Jiménez, Maria Antonia; Cuxart, Joan

    2016-04-01

    The study of the atmospheric boundary layer, the lowest part of the atmosphere, and the processes that occur therein often requires the observation of vertical profiles of the main meteorological variables, i.e. air temperature and humidity, wind vector and barometric pressure. In particular, when the interest is focused on the air-surface interactions, a high vertical resolution over the first 500 m is required for the observations to describe the physical processes that occur immediately above the surface. Typically, these needs are covered with the use of captive balloons, which are helium-filled balloons tethered to a winch on the ground and a sensor package suspended a short distance below the balloon. Since the commercial version of such instrumental platforms are scarce and expensive, a new low-cost device has been developed in the last years: BOU (tethered Balloon sonde OWL-UIB). In this paper, we focus on the sensor package and data acquisition system part, that is able to fulfill the low-cost requirements. The system uses a low-cost Arduino Mega board as the processor, and stores all the data in a SD card, though an RF connection is also possible but more unreliable. The system has been configured to sample temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind speed, having also a magnetometer and an accelerometer. Sampling time was 1 second, though it was possible to set it faster. It is worth mentioning that the system is easily reconfigurable, and more sensors can be added. The system is powered by a Polymer battery of 1800mA , allowing the system to run continously for more than 6 hours. The temperature is acquired using three different sensors (a HYT 271 calibrated sensor with an accuracy of ±0.2 °C, plus the internal temperature sensors of the wind and pressure sensors, with accuracies around ±0.5 °C). The humidity is also sensed using the calibrated HYT 271 sensor, which features an accuracy of ±1.8%. Air pressure is sensed using a BMP080 sensor, which

  5. Atmospheres of partially differentiated super-Earth exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Laura; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial exoplanets have been discovered in a range of sizes, densities and orbital locations that defy our expectations based upon the Solar System. Planets discovered to date with radii less than ~1.5-1.6 Earth radii all seem to fall on an iso-density curve with the Earth [1]. However, mass and radius determinations, which depend on the known properties of the host star, are not accurate enough to distinguish between a fully differentiated three-layer planet (core, mantle, ocean/atmosphere) and an incompletely differentiated planet [2]. Full differentiation of a planet will depend upon the conditions at the time of accretion, including the abundance of short-lived radioisotopes, which will vary from system to system, as well as the number of giant impacts the planet experiences. Furthermore, separation of metal and silicates at the much larger pressures found inside super-Earths will depend on how the chemistry of these materials change at high pressures. There are therefore hints emerging that not all super-Earths will be fully differentiated. Incomplete differentiation will result in a more reduced mantle oxidation state and may have implications for the composition of an outgassed atmosphere. Here we will present the first results from a chemical equilibrium model of the composition of such an outgassed atmosphere and discuss the possibility of distinguishing between fully and incompletely differentiated planets through atmospheric observations.[1] Rogers, L. 2015. ApJ, 801, 41. [2] Zeng, L. & Sasselov, D. 2013. PASP, 125, 227.

  6. Cryo-balloon catheter localization in fluoroscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzendorfer, Tanja; Brost, Alexander; Jakob, Carolin; Mewes, Philip W.; Bourier, Felix; Koch, Martin; Kurzidim, Klaus; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    Minimally invasive catheter ablation has become the preferred treatment option for atrial fibrillation. Although the standard ablation procedure involves ablation points set by radio-frequency catheters, cryo-balloon catheters have even been reported to be more advantageous in certain cases. As electro-anatomical mapping systems do not support cryo-balloon ablation procedures, X-ray guidance is needed. However, current methods to provide support for cryo-balloon catheters in fluoroscopically guided ablation procedures rely heavily on manual user interaction. To improve this, we propose a first method for automatic cryo-balloon catheter localization in fluoroscopic images based on a blob detection algorithm. Our method is evaluated on 24 clinical images from 17 patients. The method successfully detected the cryoballoon in 22 out of 24 images, yielding a success rate of 91.6 %. The successful localization achieved an accuracy of 1.00 mm +/- 0.44 mm. Even though our methods currently fails in 8.4 % of the images available, it still offers a significant improvement over manual methods. Furthermore, detecting a landmark point along the cryo-balloon catheter can be a very important step for additional post-processing operations.

  7. Low-cost Citizen Science Balloon Platform for Measuring Air Pollutants to Improve Satellite Retrieval Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potosnak, M. J.; Beck-Winchatz, B.; Ritter, P.

    2016-12-01

    High-altitude balloons (HABs) are an engaging platform for citizen science and formal and informal STEM education. However, the logistics of launching, chasing and recovering a payload on a 1200 g or 1500 g balloon can be daunting for many novice school groups and citizen scientists, and the cost can be prohibitive. In addition, there are many interesting scientific applications that do not require reaching the stratosphere, including measuring atmospheric pollutants in the planetary boundary layer. With a large number of citizen scientist flights, these data can be used to constrain satellite retrieval algorithms. In this poster presentation, we discuss a novel approach based on small (30 g) balloons that are cheap and easy to handle, and low-cost tracking devices (SPOT trackers for hikers) that do not require a radio license. Our scientific goal is to measure air quality in the lower troposphere. For example, particulate matter (PM) is an air pollutant that varies on small spatial scales and has sources in rural areas like biomass burning and farming practices such as tilling. Our HAB platform test flight incorporates an optical PM sensor, an integrated single board computer that records the PM sensor signal in addition to flight parameters (pressure, location and altitude), and a low-cost tracking system. Our goal is for the entire platform to cost less than $500. While the datasets generated by these flights are typically small, integrating a network of flight data from citizen scientists into a form usable for comparison to satellite data will require big data techniques.

  8. Tethered Balloon Operations at ARM AMF3 Site at Oliktok Point, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexheimer, D.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Ivey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Oliktok Point has been the home of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) third ARM Mobile Facility, or AMF3, since October 2013. The AMF3 is operated through Sandia National Laboratories and hosts instrumentation collecting continuous measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, energy, and other meteorological variables. The Arctic region is warming more quickly than any other region due to climate change and Arctic sea ice is declining to record lows. Sparsity of atmospheric data from the Arctic leads to uncertainty in process comprehension, and atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) are understood to underestimate low cloud presence in the Arctic. Increased vertical resolution of meteorological properties and cloud measurements will improve process understanding and help AGCMs better characterize Arctic clouds. SNL is developing a tethered balloon system capable of regular operation at AMF3 in order to provide increased vertical resolution atmospheric data. The tethered balloon can be operated within clouds at altitudes up to 7,000' AGL within DOE's R-2204 restricted area. Pressure, relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction are recorded at multiple altitudes along the tether. These data were validated against stationary met tower data in Albuquerque, NM. The altitudes of the sensors were determined by GPS and calculated using a line counter and clinometer and compared. Wireless wetness sensors and supercooled liquid water content sensors have also been deployed and their data has been compared with other sensors. This presentation will provide an overview of the balloons, sensors, and test flights flown, and will provide a preliminary look at data from sensor validation campaigns and test flights.

  9. Local Refinement of the Super Element Model of Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Mazo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for petroleum reservoir simulation. The method uses two models with different degrees of detailing to describe hydrodynamic processes of different space-time scales. At the first stage, the global dynamics of the energy state of the deposit and reserves is modeled (characteristic scale of such changes is km / year. The two-phase flow equations in the model of global dynamics operate with smooth averaged pressure and saturation fields, and they are solved numerically on a large computational grid of super-elements with a characteristic cell size of 200-500 m. The tensor coefficients of the super-element model are calculated using special procedures of upscaling of absolute and relative phase permeabilities. At the second stage, a local refinement of the super-element model is constructed for calculating small-scale processes (with a scale of m / day, which take place, for example, during various geological and technical measures aimed at increasing the oil recovery of a reservoir. Then we solve the two-phase flow problem in the selected area of the measure exposure on a detailed three-dimensional grid, which resolves the geological structure of the reservoir, and with a time step sufficient for describing fast-flowing processes. The initial and boundary conditions of the local problem are formulated on the basis of the super-element solution. This approach allows us to reduce the computational costs in order to solve the problems of designing and monitoring the oil reservoir. To demonstrate the proposed approach, we give an example of the two-stage modeling of the development of a layered reservoir with a local refinement of the model during the isolation of a water-saturated high-permeability interlayer. We show a good compliance between the locally refined solution of the super-element model in the area of measure exposure and the results of numerical modeling of the whole history of reservoir

  10. W∞ gravity and super-W∞ gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Shen, X.; Sezgin, E.; Romans, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the authors construct gauge theories of the W ∞ algebra and its super-extension, and discuss their relation to earlier results for the gauging of the classical contraction to the w ∞ algebra

  11. Time dependent start-up thermal analysis of a Super Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutanto,, E-mail: sutanto@fuji.waseda.jp; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Time dependent startup thermal analysis of a Super Fast Reactor is performed. • A recirculation system is used for pressurization and for generating supercritical steam. • MCST satisfies the criterion both during subcritical pressure and during power-raising. • MCST is not sensitive to the change of inlet temperature, gap volume and flow rate because of high flow to power ratio. • CHF is not limiting the MCST during subcritical pressure due to large margin of heat flux. -- Abstract: The startup system of a supercritical pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super FR) is studied by time dependent thermal-hydraulic analysis. The plant analysis code is developed based on an innovative upward flow pattern in all the assemblies of the Super FR. A recirculation system consisting of a steam drum, a circulation pump, and a heat exchanger is used for the startup. Detailed procedures are performed and the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) at rated power, 640 °C, is used as the criterion. Firstly a small constant nuclear power is used for rising the core feed water temperature to be 280 °C through the recirculation system. Secondly, pressurization is done in the recirculation system from atmospheric to operating pressure, 25 MPa, by raising the power. Thirdly, line-switching from recirculation mode to once-through direct-cycle is performed while turbines are started by supercritical steam at supercritical pressure. Finally the power is raised to be 100% of power followed by raising the flow rate. During pressurization the heat flux margin is large due to low power used for pressurization and the MCST is much lower than the criterion. The MCST is not sensitive to the inlet temperature, the flow rate, and the gap volume of the core because of high flow to power ratio. Smaller dimension of steam drum can be used for pressurization stably. The MCST satisfies the criterion both during subcritical pressure and during power-raising.

  12. Time dependent start-up thermal analysis of a Super Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutanto,; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Time dependent startup thermal analysis of a Super Fast Reactor is performed. • A recirculation system is used for pressurization and for generating supercritical steam. • MCST satisfies the criterion both during subcritical pressure and during power-raising. • MCST is not sensitive to the change of inlet temperature, gap volume and flow rate because of high flow to power ratio. • CHF is not limiting the MCST during subcritical pressure due to large margin of heat flux. -- Abstract: The startup system of a supercritical pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super FR) is studied by time dependent thermal-hydraulic analysis. The plant analysis code is developed based on an innovative upward flow pattern in all the assemblies of the Super FR. A recirculation system consisting of a steam drum, a circulation pump, and a heat exchanger is used for the startup. Detailed procedures are performed and the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) at rated power, 640 °C, is used as the criterion. Firstly a small constant nuclear power is used for rising the core feed water temperature to be 280 °C through the recirculation system. Secondly, pressurization is done in the recirculation system from atmospheric to operating pressure, 25 MPa, by raising the power. Thirdly, line-switching from recirculation mode to once-through direct-cycle is performed while turbines are started by supercritical steam at supercritical pressure. Finally the power is raised to be 100% of power followed by raising the flow rate. During pressurization the heat flux margin is large due to low power used for pressurization and the MCST is much lower than the criterion. The MCST is not sensitive to the inlet temperature, the flow rate, and the gap volume of the core because of high flow to power ratio. Smaller dimension of steam drum can be used for pressurization stably. The MCST satisfies the criterion both during subcritical pressure and during power-raising

  13. Charm Physics at SuperB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, Brian; Bevan, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The study of Charm Decays at SuperB provide unique opportunities to understand the Standard Model and constrain new physics, both at the Y(4S), and at charm threshold. We discuss the physics potential of such measurements from the proposed SuperB experiment with 75 ab -1 of data at the Y(4S) and a subsequent run dedicated to exploiting quantum correlations at the charm threshold. (author)

  14. Variations in pulmonary artery occlusion pressure to estimate changes in pleural pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemare, Patrick; Goldberg, Peter; Magder, Sheldon A

    2007-11-01

    A readily available assessment of changes in pleural pressure would be useful for ventilator and fluid management in critically ill patients. We examined whether changes in pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (Ppao) adequately reflect respiratory changes in pleural pressure as assessed by changes in intraesophageal balloon pressure (Peso). We studied patients who had a pulmonary catheter and esophageal balloon surrounding a nasogastric tube as part of their care (n=24). We compared changes in Ppao (dPpao) to changes in Peso (dPeso) by Bland-Altman and regression analysis. Adequacy of balloon placement was assessed by performing Mueller maneuvers and adjusting the position to achieve a ratio of dPeso to change in tracheal pressure (dPtr) of 0.85 or higher. This was achieved in only 14 of the 24 subjects. We also compared dCVP to dPeso. The dPpao during spontaneous breaths and positive pressure breaths gave a good estimate of Peso but generally underestimated dPeso (bias=2.2 +8.2 and -3.9 cmH2O for the whole group). The dCVP was not as good a predictor (bias=2.9 +10.3 and -4.6). In patients who have a pulmonary artery catheter in place dPpao gives a lower estimate of changes in pleural pressure and may be more reliable than dPeso. The dCVP is a less reliable predictor than changes in pleural pressure.

  15. SuperKEKB Vacuum System

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, K

    2013-01-01

    SuperKEKB, which is an upgrade of the KEKB Bfactory (KEKB), is a next-generation high-luminosity electron-positron collider. Its design luminosity is 8.0× 10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$, which is about 40 times than the KEKB’s record. To achieve this challenging goal, bunches of both beams are squeezed extremely to the nanometer scale and the beam currents are doubled. To realize this, many upgrades must be performed including the replacement of beam pipes mainly in the positron ring (LER). The beam pipes in the LER arc section are being replaced with new aluminium-alloy pipes with antechambers to cope with the electron cloud issue and heating problem. Additionally, several types of countermeasures will be adopted in the LER to deal with the electron cloud issues. In the wiggler section, electrons will be attracted by the clearing electrode, which is mounted on the inner surface of the beam pipe. On the other hand, in the bending magnet, the effective secondary electron yield (SEY) will be structurally reduced ...

  16. Studies of the Super VELO

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156302

    2016-01-01

    The Super VELO is the Run 5 upgrade of the VeloPix detector of the LHCb experiment. Its most challenging task is to cope with a luminosity increase of the factor 10. This study examines the potential physics performance of a detector based on the VeloPix design at high luminosity conditions. It is found that an unmodified VeloPix detector shows poor performance when exposed to 10x design luminosity, most gravely high ghost rates of 40 %. When applying basic assumptions about material changes such as cutting the silicon thickness by half and removing the RF foil, the ghost rate drops by 20 %. When using thin silicon and re-optimizing the tracking algorithm, the ghost rate can even be reduced by 60 %. Applying the additional modification of a pixel area size four times smaller, the ghost rate drops by 88 % and the IP resolution improves. Finally, in a dream scenario with thin silicon, smaller pixels and no RF foil, big gains in resolution and a ghost rate of less than 4 % can be achieved.

  17. The tristan super light facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Photon Factory and its user group have achieved excellent scientific results since its commissioning in 1982, ranging from material science to medical application, by using the synchrotron radiation at the 2.5 GeV PF storage ring, and since 1986, further at the 6.5 GeV Tristan accumulation ring which provides brilliant photons in high energy region. Efforts are exerted currently at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics for the extensive research and development works to study the feasibility of the Tristan e + e - collider main ring to be utilized as an extremely intense and highly advanced light source, which is called Tristan super light facility. What kinds of the application are expected for such highly brilliant source and their scientific significance should be clarified. This design report is an outcome by the joint work of in-house staffs and outside users, and it would serve as an excellent guide for the future studies on a next generation synchrotron radiation light source. The conversion plan of Tristan, the basic design of insertion devices, coherent X-ray sources, beam lines, instrumentation and others are reported. (K.I.)

  18. SuperKEKB Vacuum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, K

    2013-01-01

    SuperKEKB, which is an upgrade of the KEKB Bfactory (KEKB), is a next-generation high-luminosity electron-positron collider. Its design luminosity is 8.0 × 10 35 cm −2 s −1 , which is about 40 times than the KEKB’s record. To achieve this challenging goal, bunches of both beams are squeezed extremely to the nanometer scale and the beam currents are doubled. To realize this, many upgrades must be performed including the replacement of beam pipes mainly in the positron ring (LER). The beam pipes in the LER arc section are being replaced with new aluminium-alloy pipes with antechambers to cope with the electron cloud issue and heating problem. Additionally, several types of countermeasures will be adopted in the LER to deal with the electron cloud issues. In the wiggler section, electrons will be attracted by the clearing electrode, which is mounted on the inner surface of the beam pipe. On the other hand, in the bending magnet, the effective secondary electron yield (SEY) will be structurally reduced by the groove surface with a TiN coating. In the drift space, the electron cloud will be mitigated by the TiN coating and a conventional solenoid field. (author)

  19. A novel super-resolution camera model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Qiuhua; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Xiangli

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to realize super resolution(SR) to single image and video reconstruction, a super resolution camera model is proposed for the problem that the resolution of the images obtained by traditional cameras behave comparatively low. To achieve this function we put a certain driving device such as piezoelectric ceramics in the camera. By controlling the driving device, a set of continuous low resolution(LR) images can be obtained and stored instantaneity, which reflect the randomness of the displacements and the real-time performance of the storage very well. The low resolution image sequences have different redundant information and some particular priori information, thus it is possible to restore super resolution image factually and effectively. The sample method is used to derive the reconstruction principle of super resolution, which analyzes the possible improvement degree of the resolution in theory. The super resolution algorithm based on learning is used to reconstruct single image and the variational Bayesian algorithm is simulated to reconstruct the low resolution images with random displacements, which models the unknown high resolution image, motion parameters and unknown model parameters in one hierarchical Bayesian framework. Utilizing sub-pixel registration method, a super resolution image of the scene can be reconstructed. The results of 16 images reconstruction show that this camera model can increase the image resolution to 2 times, obtaining images with higher resolution in currently available hardware levels.

  20. Review of the British scientific sounding rocket and balloon programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delury, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    This review describes the UK scientific sounding rocket programmes which have utilised Skylarks for 21 years, Petrels for 10 years and Fulmars for 2 years. The SRC's ongoing programme is now based on the Petrel and Fulmar rockets, and approved proposals by 5 UK scientific groups covering 1978 and 1979 are outlined. The British scientific balloon programme, which serves 14 scientific groups within UK universities, involves a planned 10 flights per annum using balloons of 3 M cu ft to 31 M cu ft capacity and payloads up to 2 tons in weight. The review outlines the balloon programme of flights planned mainly from Palestine in Texas and Alice Springs/Mildura in Australia. (author)

  1. [Valvuloplasty with balloon catheter in biologic prosthesis. Reality or illusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma Velasco, M; Verdín Vázquez, R; Acosta Valdez, J L; Munayer Calderón, J; Salgado Escobar, J L; Arias Monroy, L; Flores Mendoza, J

    1989-01-01

    We performed catheter balloon valvuloplasty (CBV) on 8 stenotic operatively-excised bioprosthetic valves (2 Hancock and 6 Ionescu Shiley). Pathology of valves before CBV included degenerative changes: commissural fusion by mounds of calcific deposits (2 valves), fibrotic and focally calcified leaflets (7 valves) and stiff and thick valves (1 valve). Inflation of the balloon resulted in commissural splitting (2 valves), leaflet cracks and fractures (3 valves). Removal of the deflated balloon catheter was associated with debris dislodgement (3 valves). In one case the valve was unable to close with potential for acute regurgitation. Thus, CBV of bioprosthetic valves can split fused commissures by similar mechanisms as in native valves. CBV may fracture calcific deposits causing acute emboli. It can also disrupt the leaflets causing acute insufficiency. The findings suggest a limited role of CBV in the treatment of stenotic bioprosthetic valves in mitral and aortic position.

  2. Ileal Varices Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Akaike, Jun

    2009-04-01

    A 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus antigen-positive liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed blood retention in the entire colon, but no bleeding lesion was found. Computed tomography images showed that vessels in the ileum were connected to the right testicular vein, and we suspected ileal varices to be the most probable cause of bleeding. We immediately performed double balloon enteroscopy, but failed to find any site of bleeding owing to the difficulty of fiberscope insertion with sever adhesion. Using a balloon catheter during retrograde transvenous venography, we found ileal varices communicating with the right testicular vein (efferent vein) with the superior mesenteric vein branch as the afferent vein of these varices. We performed balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration by way of the efferent vein of the varices and have detected no further bleeding in this patient one year after treatment.

  3. JUBA (Joint UAS-Balloon Activities) Final Campaign Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexheimer, Darielle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Apple, Monty [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Callow, Diane Schafer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Longbottom, Casey Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Novick, David K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Christopher W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Using internal investment funds within Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Division 6000, JUBA was a collaborative exercise between SNL Orgs. 6533 & 6913 (later 8863) to demonstrate simultaneous flights of tethered balloons and UAS on the North Slope of Alaska. JUBA UAS and tethered balloon flights were conducted within the Restricted Airspace associated with the ARM AMF3 site at Oliktok Point, Alaska. The Restricted Airspace occupies a 2 nautical mile radius around Oliktok Point. JUBA was conducted at the Sandia Arctic Site, which is approximately 2 km east-southeast of the AMF3. JUBA activities occurred from 08/08/17 – 08/10/17. Atmospheric measurements from tethered balloons can occur for a long duration, but offer limited spatial variation. Measurements from UAS could offer increased spatial variability.

  4. Iridium: Global OTH data communications for high altitude scientific ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, A.

    While the scientific community is no stranger to embracing commercially available technologies, the growth and availability of truly affordable cutting edge technologies is opening the door to an entirely new means of global communications. For many years high altitude ballooning has provided science an alternative to costly satellite based experimental platforms. As with any project, evolution becomes an integral part of development. Specifically in the NSBF ballooning program, where flight durations have evolved from the earlier days of hours to several weeks and plans are underway to provide missions up to 100 days. Addressing increased flight durations, the harsh operational environment, along with cumbersome and outdated systems used on existing systems, such as the balloon vehicles Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) and ground-based systems, a new Over-The-Horizon (OTH) communications medium is sought. Current OTH equipment planning to be phased-out include: HF commanding systems, ARGOS PTT telemetry downlinks and INMARSAT data terminals. Other aspects up for review in addition to the SIP to utilize this communications medium include pathfinder balloon platforms - thereby, adding commanding abilities and increased data rates, plus providing a package for ultra-small experiments to ride aloft. Existing communication systems employed by the National Scientific Balloon Facility ballooning program have been limited not only by increased cost, slow data rates and "special government use only" services such as TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System), but have had to make special provisions to geographical flight location. Development of the Support Instrumentation Packages whether LDB (Long Duration Balloon), ULDB (Ultra Long Duration Balloon) or conventional ballooning have been plagued by non-standard systems configurations requiring additional support equipment for different regions and missions along with a myriad of backup for redundancy. Several

  5. Balloon dilatation for the treatment of stricture of gastrojejunostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon Hwa [Lee Rha Hospital, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Min; Chon, Su Bin; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Enteroenteric anastomotic strictures of UGI tract are common and require treatment if significant obstruction occurs. We performed fluoroscopic guided balloon dilatation in 6 patients who had symptomatic stricture of gastrojejunostomy. The stricture was successfully resolved in 4 patients with benign stricture. But 2 patients with malignant stricture had recurrence of obstructive symptoms 2 weeks later, and they required a stent. Asymptomatic balloon rupture was seen in one patients, but other procedural complications did not occur. We found that fluoroscopic guided balloon dilatation is an effective and safe method in the treatment of anastomotic stricture of gastrojejunostomy. We also found transient effect in malignant gastrojejunal anastomotic strictures, which required an interventional procedure, such as placement of a stent.

  6. Prognostic factors for the success of thermal balloon ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, M. Y.; Mol, B. W. J.; Brölmann, H. A. M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive factors that will ensure successful menorrhagia treatment using hot fluid balloon endometrial ablation. METHODS: This is a prospective study on patients referred for menorrhagia and treated with hot fluid thermal balloon ablation. Potential prognostic factors for

  7. A local network integrated into a balloon-borne apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imori, Masatosi; Ueda, Ikuo; Shimamura, Kotaro; Maeno, Tadashi; Murata, Takahiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Anraku, Kazuaki; Matsui, Nagataka; Yamagami, Takamasa

    A local network is incorporated into an apparatus for a balloon-borne experiment. A balloon-borne system implemented in the apparatus is composed of subsystems interconnected through a local network, which introduces modular architecture into the system. The network decomposes the balloon-borne system into subsystems, which are similarly structured from the point of view that the systems is kept under the control of a ground station. The subsystem is functionally self-contained and electrically independent. A computer is integrated into a subsystem, keeping the subsystem under the control. An independent group of batteries, being dedicated to a subsystem, supplies the whole electricity of the subsystem. The subsystem could be turned on and off independently of the other subsystems. So communication among the subsystems needs to be based on such a protocol that could guarantee the independence of the individual subsystems. An Omninet protocol is employed to network the subsystems. A ground station sends commands to the balloon-borne system. The command is received and executed at the system, then results of the execution are returned to the ground station. Various commands are available so that the system borne on a balloon could be controlled and monitored remotely from the ground station. A subsystem responds to a specific group of commands. A command is received by a transceiver subsystem and then transferred through the network to the subsystem to which the command is addressed. Then the subsystem executes the command and returns results to the transceiver subsystem, where the results are telemetered to the ground station. The network enhances independence of the individual subsystems, which enables programs of the individual subsystems to be coded independently. Independence facilitates development and debugging of programs, improving the quality of the system borne on a balloon.

  8. Severe Sunburn After a Hot Air Balloon Ride: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sinan; Karagoz, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Hot air balloon tours are very popular among travelers worldwide. Preventable burn injuries associated with hot air balloon rides have been reported during crashes into power lines, in propane burner explosions, and following contact with the propane burner tanks. We present a case of severe repeated sunburn, which poses another risk of preventable injury during hot air balloon rides, and briefly discuss the injury epidemiology of hot air balloon rides. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  9. The German scientific balloon and sounding rocket projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalh, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains information on the sounding rocket projects: experiment preparation for spacelab (astronomy), aeronomy, magnetosphere, and material science. Except for material science the scientific balloon projects are performed in the some scientific fields, but with a strong emphasis on astronomical research. It is tried to provide by means of tables a survey as complete as possible of the projects for the time since the last symposium in Elmau and of the plans for the future until 1981. The scientific balloon and sounding rocket projects form a small succesful part of the German space research programme. (author)

  10. Ballooning Representation Approach to Low-Frequency Instabilities in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Gardner, H.J.; Lewandowski, J.; Persson, M.

    1995-01-01

    Local ideal MHD ballooning eigenvalues have been calculated on many field lines for heliac and torsatron cases using a parallel implementation of a ballooning code on a Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5 Global eigenvalues have been estimated for the torsatron test case using the ray tracing method of Dewar and Glasser and also by using the TERPSI-CHORE global eigenvalue code, with good agreement. As a preliminary to detailed study of H-1, 3-D visualizations of stability-related quantities have been produced. 6 refs

  11. The German scientific balloon and sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains information on sounding rocket projects in the scientific field of astronomy, aeronomy, magnetosphere, and material science under microgravity. The scientific balloon projects are performed with emphasis on astronomical research. By means of tables it is attempted to give a survey, as complete as possible, of the projects the time since the last symposium in Ajaccio, Corsica, and of preparations and plans for the future until 1983. The scientific balloon and sounding rocket projects form a small successful part of the German space research programme. (Auth.)

  12. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  13. Testing in a stratospheric balloon of a semiconductor detector altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilly, L.; Jourdan, P.

    1968-01-01

    An altimeter containing a semiconductor detector has been operated on flight. We have used a stratospheric balloon launched from AIRE-SUR-ADOUR with the C.N.E.S. collaboration. During this assay two apparatus have been used. The first allowed to follow the balloon during its ascension and descent, the second to follow its evolution at its maximum altitude. Informations transmitted by radio and recorded on Magnetophon, have been studied after the flight. Results are identical with these given by the barometer used by the C.N.E.S. in this essay. (authors) [fr

  14. Tethered balloon-based measurements of meteorological variables and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, R. J.; Storey, R. W.; Chang, J. J. C.; Jacobsen, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tethered balloon based measurements of the vertical distributions of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and aerosol concentrations were taken over a 4-hour period beginning at sunrise on June 29, 1976, at Wallops Island, Virginia. Twelve consecutive profiles of each variable were obtained from ground to about 500 meters. These measurements were in conjuction with a noise propagation study on remotely arrayed acoustic range (ROMAAR) at Wallops Flight Center. An organized listing of these vertical soundings is presented. The tethered balloon system configuration utilized for these measurements is described.

  15. A tethered balloon system for observation of atmospheric temperature inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Kakuta, Michio

    1979-05-01

    In environmental assessment of near-shore nuclear plants, information is often required on the development of internal boundary layer (IBL) and associated fumigation condition. Single tower data is not sufficient to clarify the site-dependent IBL structure that affects the atmospheric diffusion in shoreline-stack-site boundary complex. A tethered balloon system has been developed, which comprises a fixed point kitoon and a car-borne small balloon. The system enables us to measure the detailed time-space distribution of temperature without much man-power. The system and example of field observations with it are described. (author)

  16. Unique Programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics using large rubber Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sarkar, Ritabrata; Bhowmick, Debashis; Chakraborty, Subhankar

    Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) has developed a unique capability to pursue space based studies at a very low cost. Here, large rubber balloons are sent to near space (~ 40km) with payloads of less than 4kg weight. These payloads can be cosmic ray detectors, X-ray detectors, muon detectors apart from communication device, GPS, and nine degrees of freedom measuring capabilities. With two balloons in orbiter-launcher configuration, ICSP has been able to conduct long duration flights upto 12 hours. ICSP has so far sent 56 Dignity missions to near space and obtained Cosmic Ray and muon variation on a regular basis, dynamical spectrum of solar flares and gamma ray burst apart from other usual parameters such as wind velocity components, temperature and pressure variations etc. Since all the payloads are retrieved by parachutes, the cost per mission remains very low, typically around USD1000.00. The preparation time is low. Furthermore, no special launching area is required. In principle, such experiments can be conducted on a daily basis, if need be. Presently, we are also incorporating studies relating to earth system science such as Ozone, aerosols, micro-meteorites etc.

  17. The Balloon-Based Manometry Evaluation of Swallowing in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Tomik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the disturbances of the oro-pharyngeal swallowing phase of dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients with the use of specific manometric measurements and to evaluate their plausible association with the duration of the disease. Seventeen patients with ALS were evaluated with manometric examinations of the oral and pharyngeal part of the gastrointestinal tract. Tests were carried out by using the oesophageal balloon-based method with four balloon transducers located 5 cm away from each other. The following manometric parameters were analysed: the base of tongue contraction (BTC and the upper oesophageal sphincter pressure (UESP, and the hypopharyngeal suction pump (HSP as well as the oro-pharyngeal, pharyngeal and hypopharyngeal transit time and average pharyngeal bolus velocity (oropharyngeal transit time (OTT, pharyngeal transit time (PTT, hypopharyngeal transit time (HTT and average pharyngeal bolus velocity (APBV, respectively. Manomatric examinations during swallowing in patients with ALS showed significant weakness of BTC, a decrease of HSP and a decrease of the velocity of bolus transit inside the pharynx which were particularly marked between the first and the third examination. Manometric examinations of the oro-pharyngeal part of the gastrointestinal tract are useful and supportive methods in the analysis of swallowing disturbances in ALS patients.

  18. The stabilizing effect of core pressure on the edge pedestal in MAST plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, I.T.; Simpson, J.; Saarelma, S.; Kirk, A.; O'Gorman, T.; Scannell, R.

    2015-01-01

    The pedestal pressure measured in Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak plasmas has been shown to increase as the global plasma pressure increases. By deliberately suppressing the transition into the high-confinement regime, the core plasma pressure was systematically altered at the time of the first edge localized mode. Stability analysis shows that the enhanced Shafranov shift at higher core pressure stabilizes the ballooning modes driven by the pedestal pressure gradient, consequently allowing the pedestal to reach higher pressures. (paper)

  19. Long-Term Follow-up After Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Detachable Silicone Balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette D

    2008-01-01

    ) with pulmonary angiography. Fifty-four percent of the balloons were deflated at latest radiographic chest film follow-up, but at pulmonary angiographic follow-up all embolized malformations were without flow irrespective of whether or not the balloons were visible. Detachable silicone balloons are not available...

  20. 78 FR 18533 - Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd Appliances AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME threaded hose connectors, part numbers HS6139 and HS6144, installed... follows: * * * * * (c) Applicability This AD applies to Lindstrand Hot Air Balloons Ltd female ACME...