WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunset moonrise moonset

  1. Waiting for Moonrise: Fasting, Storytelling, and Marriage in Provincial Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Grodzins Gold

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two popular Hindu women’s rituals in Rajasthan, North India, involve fasting until visible moonrise: Bari Tij (“Grand Third” and Karva Chauth (“Pitcher Fourth”. Women vow to undertake these fasts in order to ensure their own auspicious married states by protecting their husbands’ longevity. On these occasions, groups of women, often neighbors, collectively perform rituals that include devotional storytelling. Drawing on 30 years of ethnographic fieldwork in different regions of Rajasthan, Grodzins Gold discusses ritual narratives and performative contexts comparatively, attending to rural/urban as well as generational and social differences. Tentative conclusions suggest that the appeal of fasts and accompanying rituals may lie, in part, in their ability to sustain an illusion of stability and continuity while incorporating processes of change.

  2. Young Campers in Love: Who Are the Grown-Ups in "Moonrise Kingdom?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture, especially movie culture, is the arena where the struggles of the diverse cultures belonging to age groups are carried out. "Moonrise Kingdom" is an unusual movie, different from the usual summer or coming of age movies. In such movies, different theories of youth are displayed, providing tools for constructing the…

  3. Young Campers in Love: Who Are the Grown-Ups in "Moonrise Kingdom?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture, especially movie culture, is the arena where the struggles of the diverse cultures belonging to age groups are carried out. "Moonrise Kingdom" is an unusual movie, different from the usual summer or coming of age movies. In such movies, different theories of youth are displayed, providing tools for constructing the…

  4. Alien Sunset (Artist Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Our solitary sunsets here on Earth might not be all that common in the grand scheme of things. New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed that mature planetary systems -- dusty disks of asteroids, comets and possibly planets -- are more frequent around close-knit twin, or binary, stars than single stars like our sun. That means sunsets like the one portrayed in this artist's photo concept, and more famously in the movie 'Star Wars,' might be quite commonplace in the universe. Binary and multiple-star systems are about twice as abundant as single-star systems in our galaxy, and, in theory, other galaxies. In a typical binary system, two stars of roughly similar masses twirl around each other like pair-figure skaters. In some systems, the two stars are very far apart and barely interact with each other. In other cases, the stellar twins are intricately linked, whipping around each other quickly due to the force of gravity. Astronomers have discovered dozens of planets that orbit around a single member of a very wide stellar duo. Sunsets from these worlds would look like our own, and the second sun would just look like a bright star in the night sky. But do planets exist in the tighter systems, where two suns would dip below a planet's horizon one by one? Unveiling planets in these systems is tricky, so astronomers used Spitzer to look for disks of swirling planetary debris instead. These disks are made of asteroids, comets and possibly planets. The rocky material in them bangs together and kicks up dust that Spitzer's infrared eyes can see. Our own solar system is swaddled in a similar type of disk. Surprisingly, Spitzer found more debris disks around the tightest binaries it studied (about 20 stars) than in a comparable sample of single stars. About 60 percent of the tight binaries had disks, while the single stars only had about 20 percent. These snug binary systems are as close or closer than just three times the distance between Earth and

  5. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  6. 14 CFR 255.8 - Sunset Date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sunset Date. 255.8 Section 255.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE COMPUTER RESERVATIONS SYSTEMS § 255.8 Sunset Date. Unless extended by a document published...

  7. 42 CFR 403.756 - Sunset provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sunset provision. 403.756 Section 403.756 Public... PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Religious Nonmedical Health Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.756 Sunset provision. (a) Effective date. Beginning with FFY...

  8. The last sunset on mainland Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Mira, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents the places in mainland Europe at which the sun sets latest, by Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), on any given day (distortion due to differences in local standard times is ignored). In contradiction to the na\\"ive assumption that the sun always sets latest at the westernmost point, the point of last sunset changes cyclically over the course of a year due to the changing orientation of the axis of the Earth with respect to the sun. Specifically, between the winter and summer solstices the last sunset shifts successively from Cabo de Sao Vicente (Portugal) to Cabo da Roca (Portugal) to Cabo Tourinan (Spain) to a site near Aglapsvik (Norway) to a location in the Norwegian municipality of Masoy south of Havoysund; and it shifts back again between the summer and winter solstices. There are two days in the year (April 24th and August 18th) on which the last sunset of mainland Europe (shared in those days effectively by Cabo Tourinan and the Aglapsvik area) coincides with the last sunset of main...

  9. 78 FR 56811 - National Organic Program-Sunset Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 National Organic Program--Sunset Process AGENCY: Agricultural... Secretary and the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) National Organic Program (NOP) will use to complete... marketing of organic products. How does this Sunset Process enhance public participation? Since the...

  10. Color Variations in the Sky at Sunset

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the martian sunset from Sol 24 shows much more color variation than had previously been seen. The blue color near the Sun is not caused by clouds of water ice, but by the martian dust itself. The dust in the atmosphere absorbs blue light, giving the sky its red color, but it also scatters some of the blue light into the area just around the Sun because of its size. The blue color only becomes apparent near sunrise and sunset, when the light has to pass through the largest amount of dust. This image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  11. Red rainbows at sunset/sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    The rainbow model deveeloped at CEPAL is based on the Airy theory. The outputs show that a pure red rainbow could only observed from a hill or a mountain when the sun is below the horizon. When the sun is on the horizon, there should be a juxtaposition of a red band on the outside and of a yellow band on the inside (upper figures). However, observers report pure red bows at sea level (lower left figure). In these rare cases, it is possible to still see the sun after it has set. As sunlight passes through more and more dense atmosphere at sunset the light slows and bends closer and closer toward the normal. When the eye traces the light ray it appears to be higher in the sky (lower right figure).

  12. Sunset science. III. Visual adaptation and green flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A T

    2000-12-01

    Photographs of green flashes do not preclude a role for physiological effects in these phenomena. While green flashes are certainly not after-images, there is compelling evidence that adaptation in the visual system strongly affects the perceived color of most sunset green flashes. Furthermore, the retinal image of the setting Sun is usually bright enough to bleach most of the red-sensitive photopigment in a few seconds, making the yellow stage of a sunset flash appear green. Even in air so hazy that no green light reaches the eye, a yellow flash may occur and appear green. Many, but not all, visual observations of sunset green flashes are of this yellow flash. The yellow portion of sunset green flashes helps explain their reported durations, which exceed those expected for the appearance of green light alone.

  13. Local mirror symmetry and the sunset Feynman integral

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Spencer; Vanhove, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We study the sunset Feynman integral defined as the scalar two-point self-energy at two-loop order in a two dimensional space-time. We firstly compute the Feynman integral, for arbitrary internal masses, in terms of the regulator of a class in the motivic cohomology of a 1-parameter family of open elliptic curves. Using an Hodge theoretic (B-model) approach, we show that the integral is given by a sum of elliptic dilogarithms evaluated at the divisors determined by the punctures. Secondly we associate to the sunset elliptic curve a local non-compact Calabi-Yau 3-fold, obtained as a limit of elliptically fibered compact Calabi-Yau 3-folds. By considering the limiting mixed Hodge structure of the Batyrev dual A-model, we arrive at an expression for the sunset Feynman integral in terms of the local Gromov-Witten prepotential of the del Pezzo surface of degree 6. This expression is obtained by proving a strong form of local mirror symmetry which identifies this prepotential with the second regulator period of the...

  14. Sunset Times, El Niño and Green Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liller, William

    2010-01-01

    On 637 occasions since 1988, precise times of sunset over the Pacific Ocean have been observed from a coastal site in central Chile (lat. 32.9º S.) at an elevation of approximately 120 meters. The original intent was to find if there was a connection between these times and the presence of the El Niño Oscillation event owing to the variation in atmospheric refraction that would be expected with a change in sea surface temperature. While no such effect was found, other phenomena were noted including the occurence of the green flash.

  15. 75 FR 52509 - Potassium Permanganate from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 23240 (May 3, 2010). On May 6, 2010, the Department received a notice of intent... International Trade Administration Potassium Permanganate from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... Department of Commerce (``Department'') initiated a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on...

  16. 76 FR 3614 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan: Final Results of Sunset... resin (``PTFE resin'') from Japan. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 67082..., the Department published an antidumping duty order on imports of PTFE resin from Japan....

  17. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  18. Sunset Policy dan Implikasinya terhadap Peningkatan Penerimaan Pajak Penghasilan di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahliana Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sunset policy is a policy which decreases the amount of administrative sanction in the form of interest. This policy is governed by Article 37A Act Number 28 of 2007. The target of sunset policy is the taxpayer who has good faith either to admit having insufficient payment of income tax or to have willed to register a tax file number (NPWP. However, the time of sunset policy is limited; it takes only 1 (one year to apply the policy from 1 January to 31 December 2008. The research found that first, in tax law side sunset policy has the same legal meaning as kwijtschelding. The same legal meaning refers to the same characteristics found both in sunset policy and in kwijtschelding. Second, the internal target was not achieved until November 2008 as a result there was less contribution to the increasing amount of income tax revenue in DIY.

  19. An analytic approach to sunset diagrams in chiral perturbation theory: Theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Ghosh, Shayan [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Karnataka (India); Bijnens, Johan [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Hebbar, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Karnataka (India); University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Newark, DE (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We demonstrate the use of several code implementations of the Mellin-Barnes method available in the public domain to derive analytic expressions for the sunset diagrams that arise in the two-loop contribution to the pion mass and decay constant in three-flavoured chiral perturbation theory. We also provide results for all possible two mass configurations of the sunset integral, and derive a new one-dimensional integral representation for the one mass sunset integral with arbitrary external momentum. Thoroughly annotated Mathematica notebooks are provided as ancillary files in the Electronic Supplementary Material to this paper, which may serve as pedagogical supplements to the methods described in this paper. (orig.)

  20. Field Plot Points for Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps field releve plot locations for the vegetation classification and descriptions of the vegetation map at Sunset...

  1. Identification of tartrazine and sunset yellow by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with radial basis function neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Guoqing Chen; Tuo Zhu; Shumei Gao; Bailin Wei; Linna Bi

    2009-01-01

    @@ The fluorescence spectra of synthetic food dyes of sunset yellow and tartrazine are analyzed.The fluorescence peak wavelengths of sunset yellow and tartrazine are 576 and 569 nm, respectively, while the fluorescence spectra widths are 480-750 and 500-750 nm induced by ultraviolet light between 310-400 nm.The fluorescence spectra of sunset yellow overlap heavily with those of tartrazine, so it is diffic ult to distinguish them.Based on the principle of radial basis function neural network, a neural network is obtained from the training of the 14 groups of experimental data.The results show that the species of sunset yellow and tartrazine could be recognized accurately.This method has potential applications in other synthetic food dyes detection and food safety inspection.

  2. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as...

  3. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366 nm and 423 nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303 nm and 430 nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0 μmol L- 1, with a limit of detection (3 σ/k) of 79.6 nmol L- 1. Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Wind direction variability in Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Mahrt, Larry

    2014-05-01

    Understanding wind direction (WD) variability better is important for several reasons. Air pollution models need information about how variable wind direction is in different conditions (Davies and Thomson 1999). Accurate predictions of dispersion are important for human health and safety and allow for adaptation planning (Nagle et al. 2011). Other applications include horizontal diffusion, efficiency and fatigue of wind machines and air-sea interaction (Mahrt 2011). Most studies of wind direction variability have focused on nocturnal conditions because of greater variability in light winds. Modelling WD variability in transition periods when both mean wind speed and variance of the wind components are in a state of change can, however, also be very challenging and has not been the focus of earlier studies. The evening transitioning to the nocturnal boundary layer can play an important role in the diffusion process of pollutants and scalars emitted at surface and transported within the atmosphere. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign that took place in southern France in June and July 2011 focused on the decaying turbulence of the late afternoon boundary layer and related issues (Lothon et al. 2012). We analyse field measurements from BLLAST to investigate WD variability in the evening transition period. Standard deviations of horizontal wind direction fluctuations in the lowest 60 m of the boundary layer have been examined for dependence on mean wind speed, higher order moments and averaging time. Measurement results are interpreted using measured and idealized probability density functions of horizontal wind vectors. These are also used to develop analytical functions describing how WD variability depends on wind speed, variance and other controlling factors in the atmospheric boundary layer. References: Davies B.M., Thomson D.J., 1999. Comparison of some parameterizations of wind direction variability with observations

  5. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Phalaenopsis Nobby’s Pacific Sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is the most important economic crop in the Orchidaceae family. There are currently numerous beautiful and colorful Phalaenopsis flowers, but only a few species of Phalaenopsis have an aroma. This study reports the analysis volatile components present in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset by solid-phase microextraction (SPME coupled with gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results show that the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 31 compounds were identified, with the major compounds being geraniol, linalool and α-farnesene. P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 09:00 to 13:00 on the eighth day of storage. It was also found that in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset orchids the dorsal sepals and petals had the highest odor concentrations, whereas the column had the lowest.

  6. Reconsideration of the temporary ADI and refined exposure assessment for Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS Panel has previously provided a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110 as a food additive in the EU and establishing a temporary acceptable daily intake (ADI of 1 mg/kg bw/day (EFSA ANS Panel, 2009. Following a request by the European Commission, the ANS Panel was asked to assess newly submitted data from a study conducted as a result of the recommendations contained in the 2009 opinion. In addition, EFSA was requested to carry out the refined exposure assessment of Sunset Yellow FCF. The new information assessed comprised an evaluation of the 28-day study report, the data considered by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA in its latest evaluation from 2011, and any additional toxicological information that had become available since the completion of the previous evaluation by the ANS Panel. The ANS Panel has considered that the newly submitted data from the 28-day study and the overall available toxicological database on Sunset Yellow FCF provides a basis to revise the established temporary ADI and concluded that, based on the NOAEL of 375 mg/kg bw/day from the long-term feeding study in rats and an uncertainty factor of 100, a new ADI for Sunset Yellow FCF of 4 mg/kg bw/day can be established, in agreement with the latest evaluation by JECFA. Exposure estimates for Sunset Yellow FCF based both on the currently authorised MPLs and reported use levels provided are well below the new ADI of 4 mg/kg bw/day for all population groups. Overall, the Panel concluded that, using data provided by the food industry and Member States, the reported uses and use levels of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110 would not be of safety concern.

  7. Immunological studies on Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food colouring agents in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed M; Atta, Attia H; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Nada, Somaia A; Asaad, Gihan Farag

    2010-06-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial because they are only of essential role. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered a very vulnerable group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin for 4 weeks at doses of 47, 315 and 157.5 mg/kg b. wt. and after 2 weeks all animals were immunostimulated by intra peritoneal injection of sheep RBCs 10% (1 ml/rat). Body weight, relative body weight, total and differential leukocytes count, mononuclear cell count, delayed hypersensitivity, total protein and serum fractions were determined. Results revealed that oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin did not affect the body weight gain or the spleen weight. On the other hand Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the weight of thymus gland of the rats. Total leukocyte count were not affected while Amaranth and Curcumin-treated rats revealed a significant decrease in neutrophiles and monocytes and a compensatory increase in lymphocytes. Moreover, oral administration of Sunset Yellow revealed a significant decrease in monocyte percent. Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the delayed hyper sensitivity. Total serum protein, albumin, total globulin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were not affected by administration of the colouring agents. Oral administration of Amaranth increases the density of albumin band. On the other hand oral administration of Curcumin decreases the density of the albumin band. Oral administration of any of the tested colouring agents did not change the density of globulin region as compared to control group. In conclusion we found that both synthetic (Amaranth and Sunset Yellow) and natural (Curcumin) colouring agents used at doses up to 10 times the acceptable daily intake exerted a depressing effect on the cellular but not humoral immune response.

  8. 75 FR 57051 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the redevelopment of the Sunset Terrace public housing community and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area...; environmental justice; historic/cultural resources; housing; land use; noise; parks and recreation; plants...

  9. 77 FR 58524 - Honey From Argentina; Final Results of Sunset Reviews and Revocation of Antidumping Duty and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina; Final Results of Sunset Reviews and Revocation of...) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty and countervailing duty orders on honey from Argentina.\\1... deadline, the Department is revoking the antidumping duty and countervailing duty orders on honey...

  10. 77 FR 59896 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset... the second five-year (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on honey from the People's... Department finds that revocation of the antidumping duty order on honey from the PRC would be likely to...

  11. 76 FR 26242 - Paper Clips From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Paper Clips From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited...'') initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on paper clips from the People's Republic of... expedited (120-day) sunset review of the antidumping duty order on paper clips from the PRC, pursuant...

  12. 76 FR 19747 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Final Results of the...) initiated the third sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from the Russian Federation... the notice of initiation of the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on solid urea...

  13. Handing over the sunset. External factors influencing the establishment of water user associations in Uzbekistan: Evidence from Khorezm Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerich, K.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, large-scale surface-water or canal irrigation systems have been termed ‘a sunset industry’ (Rijsberman 2003). Handing over this sunset industry by means of irrigation management transfer (IMT) policies and the creation of water user associations (WUAs) has three main objectives: to increas

  14. Handing over the sunset. External factors influencing the establishment of water user associations in Uzbekistan: Evidence from Khorezm Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerich, K.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, large-scale surface-water or canal irrigation systems have been termed ‘a sunset industry’ (Rijsberman 2003). Handing over this sunset industry by means of irrigation management transfer (IMT) policies and the creation of water user associations (WUAs) has three main objectives: to

  15. 77 FR 10477 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the... (``the Department'') initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on silicon metal..., the Department conducted an expedited (120-day) sunset review of the antidumping duty order on...

  16. 76 FR 76147 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Countervailing Duty Order: Certain Lined Paper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ...: Certain Lined Paper Products From India AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... sunset review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain lined paper products (CLPP) from India... participate on behalf of the Association of American School Paper Suppliers (AASPS) and its individual members...

  17. 77 FR 38463 - Implementation of National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012) Amendments to Pectin on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...: The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA) (7 U.S.C. 6501-6522) authorizes the establishment of... / Thursday, June 28, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 Implementation of National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012)...

  18. 76 FR 78888 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 54430 (September 1, 2011). The Department received notices... From Russia AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... (Russia), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). The Department...

  19. DISTINCTION OF MECHANICALLY PROCESSED WOOD SURFACES WITH SIMILAR QUALITIES USING SUNSET LASER TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina de Almeida Andrade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ASTM D 1666-11 (2011 norm classifies the quality of wood surface pieces after its mechanical processing. Although this classification is difficult to achieve visually, the use of some tools, such as solid state laser, can facilitate this classification. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of sunset laser to qualify mechanically processed surfaces with similar visual qualities. We used a log from the base of a Khaya ivorensis tree and one from a K. senegalensis tree, both 11 years old. 22 specimens of dimensions 600x140x30 mm (CxLxE were made of each species. The specimens were flattened with speeds of 2400, 3600 and 4000 min-1 and advanced speeds were predetermined in 6 and 15 m.min-1. Then the samples were illuminated with sunset laser and photographed at high resolution, the images were transferred to the software Image J. To evaluate the sunset laser, areas of defects in wood that are classified as regular and bad by ASTM D 1666-11 (2011 were used. There was a difference in classification of wood defects between the two methods used, from the 31 specimens classified as regularly by visual analysis, 8 of them were classified as bad by the laser method. The use of solid-state laser in the sunset laser technique was more efficient in evaluating small differences in mechanically processed wood defects compared to visual evaluation.

  20. Hibiscus plant named `Sahara Sunset` U.S. Plant Patent 21,765

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Sahara Sunset' is a new and distinct cultivar of Hibiscus, botanically known as Hibiscus acetosella. The new Hibiscus was originated in Poplarville, Miss. and is a product of a mutation induction program. The parent of the present new cultivar is an unknown Hibiscus acetosella Wels. Ex Hiern seedli...

  1. 75 FR 51981 - Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... International Trade Administration Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and... review of the antidumping finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. Because the domestic interested... polychloroprene rubber from Japan. See Polychloroprene Rubber from Japan, 38 FR 33593 (December 6, 1973)....

  2. Equatorial F region neutral winds and shears near sunset measured with chemical release techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, A.; Larsen, M. F.; Kudeki, E.

    2015-10-01

    The period near sunset is a dynamic and critical time for the daily development of the equatorial nighttime ionosphere and the instabilities that occur there. It is during these hours that the preconditions necessary for the later development of Equatorial Spread F (ESF) plasma instabilities occur. The neutral dynamics of the sunset ionosphere are also of critical importance to the generation of currents and electric fields; however, the behavior of the neutrals is experimentally understood primarily through very limited single-altitude measurements or measurements that provide weighted altitude means of the winds as a function of time. To date, there have been very few vertically resolved neutral wind measurements in the F region at sunset. We present two sets of sounding rocket chemical release measurements, one from a launch in the Marshall Islands on Kwajalein atoll and one from Alcantara, Brazil. Analysis of the release motions has yielded vertically resolved neutral wind profiles that show both the mean horizontal winds and the vertical shears in the winds. In both experiments, we observe significant vertical gradients in the zonal wind that are unexpected by classical assumptions about the behavior of the neutral wind at these altitudes at sunset near the geomagnetic equator.

  3. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence 2011 field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Durand, P.; Couvreux, F.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Legain, D.; Pardyjak, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Moene, A.F.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) aims at better understanding the thermodynamical processes that occur during the late afternoon in the lower troposphere. In direct contact with the Earth surface, the atmospheric boundary layer is governed by buoyant and mechanical turbul

  4. 75 FR 54596 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Heavy Iron Construction Castings from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Heavy Iron Construction Castings... of the countervailing duty order (``CVD'') on heavy iron construction castings from Brazil pursuant... review of the CVD order on iron construction castings from Brazil pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  5. Use of retailer fidelity card schemes in the assessment of food additive intake: Sunset Yellow a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Bottex, B; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Howlett, J; Jasti, P R

    2010-11-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated using the Swiss retailer MIGROS's Cumulus Card and the example of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E 110). Information held within the card scheme was used to identify a sample of households purchasing foods containing Sunset Yellow over a 15 day period. A sample of 1204 households was selected for interview, of which 830 households were retained in the study following interview. Interviews were conducted to establish household structure, patterns of consumption by different individuals within the household, and the proportion of foods containing Sunset Yellow habitually purchased at the retailer and/or consumed outside the home. Information provided by the retailer on levels of Sunset Yellow in the foods was combined with the information obtained at interview to calculate the per-capita intake of Sunset Yellow by members of participating households. More than 99% of consumers (n = 1902) of foods containing Sunset Yellow were estimated to consume less than 1 mg Sunset Yellow kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The method proved to be a simple and resource-efficient approach to estimate food additive intake on the basis of actual consumer behaviour and thus reports results more closely related to the actual consumption of foods by individuals.

  6. 77 FR 73021 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset Review of the Suspended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ...'Alauro, Office of Policy, Bilateral Agreements Unit, Import Administration, International Trade... International Trade Administration Lemon Juice From Argentina: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  7. The effect of Urban Park Sunset Program on land value in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. R.; Yoon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Intense urbanization has increased land scarcity in cities in the world, and consequently, securing lands for public parks and open spaces has become more challenging. Korea is not an exception. With Urban Park Sunset Plan, a plan for cancelling the designation as urban parks, nearly 583㎢ of publicly appropriated private land for the purpose will be released and returned to private owners. If municipalities want to keep the easement on the land, first, they should prepare physical design for parks or open spaces by 2015, and second, they should complete construction of those by 2020. In this study, we investigate the effect of Urban Park Sunset Program on land value. Our two-fold analysis includes: First, trend analysis where we extract variations of land values in Korea for 20 years (1996 2015). Second, we use panel data modeling to estimate the impact size of milestone plan implementation on land value; in 2000, Urban Park Sunset Plan was announced publicly, in 2015, the reserved land without physical design plan were released and finally, in 2020 the rest of the reserved land that has not yet been developed as parks or open spaces will be released. Along this process, we assess the ripple effect induced from the policy. As a result, we expect to find out potential economic impact of Urban Park Sunset Plan on land value, which could be applied for the preparation of countermeasures and the political decision making happening in the near future. This work was supported by the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute (KEITI) under Grant (No. 2014-001-310007).

  8. Sunrise and Sunset Azimuths in the Planning of Ancient Chinese Towns

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In the planning of some Chinese towns we can see an evident orientation with the cardinal direction north-south. However, other features reveal a possible orientation with the directions of sunrise and sunset on solstices too, as in the case of Shangdu (Xanadu), the summer capital of Kublai Khan. Here we discuss some other examples of a possible solar orientation in the planning of ancient towns. We will analyse the plans of Xi'an, Khanbalik and Dali

  9. A possible role of sunrise/sunset azimuth in the planning of ancient Chinese towns

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In the planning of some Chinese towns we can see an evident orientation with the cardinal north-south direction. However, other features reveal a possible orientation with the sunrise/sunset azimuth on solstices too, as in the case of Shangdu (Xanadu), the summer capital of Kublai Khan. Here we discuss some other examples of a possible solar orientation in the planning of ancient towns. We will analyze the plans of Xi'an, Khanbalik and Dali.

  10. Structural determination of unknown subsidiary colors in food yellow no. 5 (Sunset yellow FCF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M; Nakamura, M; Yamada, T; Maitani, T; Goda, Y

    1996-08-01

    Major unknown subsidiary colors A (Sub A) and B (Sub B) in commercial Sunset Yellow FCF (Food Yellow No. 5 in Japan) have been isolated by preparative HPLC. Spectroscopic analyses of Sub A and Sub B revealed that their structures are trisodium salt of 6-hydroxy-7-(4-sulfophenyl)-5-(4-sulfophenylazo)-2-naphthale nesulfonic acid, and disodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4-(4-sulfophenylazo)-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, respectively.

  11. Observational Accuracy of Sunrise and Sunset Times in the Sixth Century China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Li

    2006-01-01

    The Daye Calendar was compiled in AD 597 in the Sui Dynasty. We investigate the records of sunrise and sunset times on the 24 solar-term days in the calendar. By converting the ancient Chinese time units, Chen, Ke and Fen to hour, minute and second, and carrying out a comparison between the ancient records and values computed with modern astronomical theory, we find that the accuracy of solar measurements in the Sui period is remarkably high:for sunrise times, the average absolute deviation is 3.63 min (this value can be further reduced to 3.03 min when erroneous data are excluded), and for sunset times it is 3.48 min. We also find that the observed sunrise and sunset times are strictly symmetrically distributed with respect to both the Winter Solstice and the Summer Solstice, with their deviations showing a similar symmetrical distribution as well. We give a discussion on the date of observation, the feature of the data, and possible reasons of the deviation.

  12. The Variation of Oncidium Rosy Sunset Flower Volatiles with Daily Rhythm, Flowering Period, and Flower Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tien Chiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium is an important ornamental crop worldwide, and in recent years, the characteristics of the flower aroma have become a concern for breeders. This study used headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the volatile compounds to study the aroma characteristics of Onc. Rosy Sunset. A total of 45 compounds were identified, with the major compound being linalool. Onc. Rosy Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 10:00 to 12:00 and lowest from 20:00 to 24:00. The inflorescence emitted the highest quantities of volatile compounds during stages 3–6, which then decreased with the aging of the flowers. In Onc. Rosy Sunset, the sepals and petals were the major parts for the floral fragrance emission, in which linalool content was the highest, whereas the lip and column had a different composition of major volatile compounds, of which benzaldehyde, β-myrcene, and β-caryophyllene dominated.

  13. NASA Science Engagement Through "Sky Art"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, K. L.; Damadeo, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sky Art is a NASA-funded online community where the public can share in the beauty of nature and the science behind it. At the center of Sky Art is a gallery of amateur sky photos submitted by users that are related to NASA Earth science mission research areas. Through their submissions, amateur photographers from around the world are engaged in the process of making observations, or taking pictures, of the sky just like many NASA science instruments. By submitting their pictures and engaging in the online community discussions and interactions with NASA scientists, users make the connection between the beauty of nature and atmospheric science. Sky Art is a gateway for interaction and information aimed at drawing excitement and interest in atmospheric phenomena including sunrises, sunsets, moonrises, moonsets, and aerosols, each of which correlates to a NASA science mission. Educating the public on atmospheric science topics in an informal way is a central goal of Sky Art. NASA science is included in the community through interaction from scientists, NASA images, and blog posts on science concepts derived from the images. Additionally, the website connects educators through the formal education pathway where science concepts are taught through activities and lessons that align with national learning standards. Sky Art was conceived as part of the Education and Public Outreach program of the SAGE III on ISS mission. There are currently three other NASA mission involved with Sky Art: CALIPSO, GPM, and CLARREO. This paper will discuss the process of developing the Sky Art online website, the challenges of growing a community of users, as well as the use of social media and mobile applications in science outreach and education.

  14. Decoloration of Azo Dye Sunset Yellow by a Coaxial Insulated-Rod-to-Cylinder Underwater Streamer Discharge System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温小琼; 王明; 丁振峰; 刘贵师

    2012-01-01

    A coaxial insulated-rod-to-cylinder underwater streamer discharge system capable of injecting plasma into a large volume of water was developed and employed to decolorize azo dye sunset yellow. The rod type anode was covered by an insulator tube with a wall thickness of 0.4 mm. A series of slits with a width of 20 μm to 80 μm and a length of about 4 mm were cut onto the wall of the insulator tube. Depending on the solution conductivity, a cylindrical discharge region with a length of 60 mm and a wall thickness of 5 mm to 11 mm forms in the reactor. The influence of the solution conductivity, pH and pulse frequency on the decoloration of sunset yellow was investigated. The results show that the solution conductivity has little effect, while the solution pH and the pulse frequency have significant influence on the decoloration rate of sunset yellow. The decoloration rate of sunset yellow is increased with the increase in pulse frequency. A lower pH in solution promotes the decoloration of sunset yellow while a higher pH inhibits it.

  15. Elasticity of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal Sunset Yellow probed by magnetic Frederiks transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Nastishin, Yu. A.; Omelchenko, M. M.; Tortora, L.; Nazarenko, V. G.; Boiko, O. P.; Ostapenko, T.; Sprunt, S. N.; Gleeson, J. T.; Lavrentovich, O. D.

    2012-02-01

    By using director reorientation in the magnetic field, we determine the concentration and temperature dependencies of the splay K1, twist K2, and bend K3 elastic constants (normalized by the anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility) for a nematic lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) Sunset Yellow. In a sharp contrast to thermotropic liquid crystals, the Frederiks effects in LCLC show a hysteresis, which is more pronounced at high concentration and low temperatures. We attribute the hysteresis to the changes in self-assembled structure of LCLC aggregates under the influence of field-imposed deformations.

  16. [Studies on rejected food yellow no. 5 (sunset yellow FCF) aluminum lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, S; Umino, Y; Nakamura, Y; Tonogai, Y

    2001-01-01

    One out of two sunset yellow FCF aluminum lakes (Y-5Als) did not comply with the specifications in JSFA-VII in the official inspection of tar colors in fiscal year 2000. A sub-spot was detected in the paper chromatography test. This rejected sample was analyzed by HPLC for the subsidiary color, raw materials and intermEdiates in Y-5. The sub-spot was identified as sulfanilic acid azo R salt color, and its content was estimated at 4.5% as the content of Y-5 in Y-5Al being 100.0%.

  17. [Analysis of tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake in foods by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiding; Chang, Cuilan; Guo, Qilei; Cao, Hong; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2014-04-01

    A novel analytical method for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was studied. The pigments contained in the color lakes were successfully separated from the aluminum matrix in the pre-treatment process, which included the following steps: dissolve the color lakes in 0.1 mol/L H2SO4, adjust the pH of the solution to 5.0, then mix it with the solution of EDTA x 2Na and heat it in a water bath, then use polyamide powder as the stationary phase of solid phase extraction to separate the pigments from the solution, and finally elute the pigments with 0.1 mol/L NaOH. The CZE conditions systematically optimized for tartrazine aluminum lake were: 48.50 cm of a fused silica capillary with 40.00 cm effective length and 50 microm i. d., the temperature controlled at 20.0 degrees C, 29.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.015 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 263 nm. The conditions for sunset yellow aluminum lake were: the same capillary and temperature, 25.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.025 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 240 nm. The limits of detection were 0.26 mg/L and 0.27 mg/L, and the linear ranges were 0.53-1.3 x 10(2) mg/L and 0.54-1.4 x 10(2) mg/L for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. The RSDs were 4.3% and 5.7% (run to run, n = 6), 5.6% and 6.0% (day to day, n = 6) for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. Further developments for this method could make it a routinely used method analyzing color lakes in foods.

  18. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue, colorant food additives, on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Esra; Eroglu, Halil Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic dyes over fifty are used in many areas including the food industry around the world. Sunset Yellow FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF are used as colorant food additives in many food products. The present study investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the food additives were evaluated in lymphocyte cell cultures using mitotic index, replication index and micronucleus assay. Mitotic index frequencies and replication index values were decreased and micronucleus frequency was increased with increasing concentrations of Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue. The changes in mitotic index and micronucleus are statistically significant (pBlue can have cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. It care must be taken when using these materials as a food additive.

  19. Online Ephemerides – the Equation of Time and True Solar Time, Sunrise and Sunset and the Corresponding Azimuths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Tomac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Croatian web page Online ephemerides with its applications for calculating and visualising the equation of time and the analemma, converting zone time (zone or civil time into true solar time (the time shown by sundials and calculating the time of sunrise and sunset and the corresponding azimuths. The calculated values for the equation of time, ephemeris transit and the true solar time of ±4 seconds, sunrise and sunset times of ±30 seconds and the azimuth of ±30” must meet the accuracy needed by both amateur and professional astronomers. The web applications described are also adapted for smart phones.

  20. Source term assessment with ASTEC and associated uncertainty analysis using SUNSET tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier-Jabet, K., E-mail: karine.chevalier-jabet@irsn.fr; Cousin, F.; Cantrel, L.; Séropian, C.

    2014-06-01

    Several accidental scenarios have been simulated using the ASTEC integral IRSN-GRS code for a French 1300 MWe PWR, including several break sizes or locations, highlighting the effect of safety systems and of iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system (RCS) and in the containment on iodine source term evaluations. Iodine chemistry in the RCS and in the containment is still subject to significant uncertainties and it is thus studied in on-going R and D programs. To assess the impact of uncertainties, ASTEC has been coupled to the IRSN uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis tool SUNSET. Focusing on a loss of feed-water of steam generator accident, ASTEC/SUNSET calculations have been performed to assess the effect of remaining uncertainties relative to iodine behaviour on the source term. Calculations show that the postulated lack of knowledge may impact the iodine source term in the environment by at least one decade, confirming the importance of the on-going R and D programs to improve the knowledge on iodine chemistry.

  1. Coloration using higher order optical interference in the wing pattern of the Madagascan sunset moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, S; Nakano, T; Nozue, Y; Kinoshita, S

    2008-04-06

    Colour patterns of animals' bodies are usually produced by the spatial distribution of pigments with different colours. However, some animals use the spatial variation of colour-producing microstructures. We have studied one distinctive example of such structurally produced colour patterns, the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth, to clarify the physical rules that underlie the colour variation. It is known that the iridescent wing scale of the sunset moth has the alternate air-cuticle multilayer structure that causes optical interference. The microscopic and optical investigations of various parts of the wing have confirmed that the thickness of the cuticle layers within the scale largely varies to produce the colour pattern. However, it varies in very different ways between the dorsal and ventral sides of the hind wing; the thickness gradually varies on the dorsal side from scale to scale, while the abrupt changes are found on the ventral side to form distinctive borders between differently coloured areas. It is also revealed that an unusual coloration mechanism is involved in the green part of the ventral hind wing: the colour is caused by higher order optical interference of the highly non-ideal multilayer structure. The physical mechanism of the colour pattern formation is briefly discussed with the several mathematical models proposed so far.

  2. Polarization-sensitive color mixing in the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2007-03-05

    It is well known that the wing scales of butterflies and moths have elaborated microstructures that cause various optical effects. Structural colors occur when the microstructures have a size comparable with the wavelength of light. On the other hand, the wing scales of some species are structurally modified at a size much larger size than the light wavelength. Here we show for the Madagascan sunset moth that not only the microstructures but also the large-size modifications can play an important role in scale coloration. The wing of the sunset moth shows a striking iridescence that is caused by the air-cuticle multilayer structure inside the wing scales. Further, the scale itself is highly curved from its root to distal end. Owing to this strong curvature, a deep groove structure is formed between adjacent two rows of the regularly arranged scales. We find that this groove structure together with multilayer optical interference produces an unusual optical effect through an inter-scale reflection mechanism; the wing color changes depending on light polarization. A model is proposed that quantitatively describes this color change.

  3. Based on magnetic graphene oxide highly sensitive and selective imprinted sensor for determination of sunset yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Yanhui; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-01-15

    A new imprinted material based on β-cyclodextrin/ionic liquid/gold nanoparticles functionalized magnetic graphene oxide has been successfully synthesized and modified to the glassy carbon electrode surface to constructed imprinted electrochemical sensor to detect sunset yellow. The sensitivity and electrochemical response of the electrode can be improved by nanomaterials. The surface morphology and crystal structure of the hybrid nanomaterial has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the hybrid nanomaterials based sensor were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed electrochemical sensor showed a fast rebinding dynamics, which was successfully applied to sunset yellow detection with a wide linear range from 5.0×10(-9) to 2.0×10(-6)mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 2.0×10(-9)mol L(-1). The electrochemical sensor has been successfully applied in the determination of SY in spiked water samples, mirinda drink and minute maid, and the recoveries for the standards added are 97-105%.

  4. 78 FR 69369 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... method either to an exterior ply of plastic film such as biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) or to an...'s Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order, 73 FR 45955 (August 7, 2008). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 78 FR 39256 (July 1, 2013). 19 CFR 351.218 (e)(1)(ii)(A) states...

  5. 75 FR 81966 - Top of the Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...'') Review, 75 FR 60731 (October 1, 2010) (Initiation Notice). Because no domestic interested party responded... stove top burners, except tea kettles and fish poachers. On January 24, 1997, and June 17, 1997... Department has determined that no domestic interested party intends to participate in the sunset reviews. On...

  6. 78 FR 47671 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Reviews of Antidumping Duty Orders: Light-Walled Rectangular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... May 1, 2013. \\6\\ See Letter from the Directorate of Exports, Ministry of Economy, Republic of Turkey..., Directorate General for Exports, Ministry of Economy, titled ``First Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty... and Countervailing Duty Centralized Electronic Service System (IA ACCESS). IA ACCESS is available to...

  7. 75 FR 69628 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset Review and... the antidumping duty order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China... apple juice concentrate from the PRC. See Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

  8. 78 FR 693 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Determination: Certain Pasta (``Pasta'') From Italy, 61 FR 38544 (July 24, 1996). On September 4, 2012, the... 1930, as amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 53867 (September...'') From Italy, 61 FR 38544 (July 24, 1996), remains dispositive. Analysis of Comments Received All...

  9. 78 FR 2368 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Reviews of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Pasta From Italy, 61 FR 38547 (July 24, 1996) (``Italian... Fair Value: Certain Pasta From Turkey, 61 FR 38545 (July 24, 1996) (``Turkish Order''). \\2\\ See Notice of Initiation of Five-Year (Sunset) Reviews, 71 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012). On October 4, 2012,...

  10. Precursor wave structure, prereversal vertical drift, and their relative roles in the development of post sunset equatorial spread-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Mangalathayil; Sobral, José; alam Kherani, Esfhan; Batista, Inez S.; Souza, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of large-scale wave structure in the equatorial bottomside F region that are present during daytime as precursor to post sunset development of the spread F/plasma bubble irregularities are investigated in this paper. Digisonde data from three equatorial sites in Brazil (Fortaleza, Sao Luis and Cachimbo) for a period of few months at low to medium/high solar activity phases are analyzed. Small amplitude oscillations in the F layer true heights, representing wave structure in polarization electric field, are identified as upward propagating gravity waves having zonal scale of a few hundred kilometers. Their amplitudes undergo amplification towards sunset, and depending on the amplitude of the prereversal vertical drift (PRE) they may lead to post sunset generation of ESF/plasma bubble irregularities. On days of their larger amplitudes they appear to occur in phase coherence on all days, and correspondingly the PRE vertical drift velocities are larger than on days of the smaller amplitudes of the wave structure that appear at random phase on the different days. The sustenance of these precursor waves structures is supported by the relatively large ratio (approaching unity) of the F region-to- total field line integrated Pedersen conductivities as calculated using the SUPIM simulation of the low latitude ionosphere. This study examines the role of the wave structure relative to that of the prereversal vertical drift in the post sunset spread F irregularity development.

  11. 75 FR 81967 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of Antidumping... of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware (POS cooking ware) from Taiwan... antidumping duty order is porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from Taiwan that does not have self-...

  12. 75 FR 78729 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... residential and commercial space and public amenities. The redevelopment would include a 1-to-1 unit..., senior center, and/or public library space; a new park/open space; retail shopping and commercial space... mixed uses in the Potential Sunset Terrace Redevelopment Subarea, targeted infrastructure and...

  13. 76 FR 18573 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... services. The Sunset Terrace public housing community units, facilities, and infrastructure are antiquated... properties with mixed-income, mixed-use residential and commercial space and public amenities. The... such as a community center, senior center, and/or public library space; a new park/open space;...

  14. Notice to Nurserymen of the Naming and Release for Propagation of Sahara Sunset, A New African Hibiscus Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus asetosella 'Sahara Sunset' is an African hibiscus released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service that was Developed by Dr. Cecil Pounders at the Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS. ‘Sahara Sunset’ is a tropical shrub (USD...

  15. 76 FR 57019 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results of Sunset Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results... parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR... France, Germany, and Italy. DATES: Effective Date: September 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  16. Solar PV Lighting and Studying after Sunset: Analysis of Micro-benefits in Off-grid Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Y. Obeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV light provides school children living in off-grid rural communities theopportunity to have clean and bright lighting to study after sunset. On the contrary, lightingprovided from poor sources can pollute and adversely affect human eyes during reading andwriting. Using indicator-based questionnaires in cross-sectional surveys, households with andwithout solar PV lighting were surveyed in off-grid rural communities in Ghana. The studyinvestigated lighting and children’s studies after sunset. The results indicated that whereassolar PV light of 5-20 watts dc lamps was sufficient for 5-6 children to study together, lightingfrom kerosene lantern could be sufficient for 1-3 children. All things being equal, the resultsshowed that children who use solar PV light to study upto 2 hours after sunset are likely toimprove on their examination results. The extent to which solar PV lighting significantlyimpacts on studying after sunset was established using some identified indicators. Knowledgeof the results provides understanding of the relative constraints in lighting services faced bychildren in rural communities without access to quality lighting. Such micro-level data willhelp to enhance policy and planning efforts to increase access to clean and renewable energybasedlighting devices to achieve efficient visual comfort in off-grid rural communities.

  17. Relationships between pre-sunset electrojet strength, pre-reversal enhancement and equatorial spread-F onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uemoto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual height of the bottom side F-region (h'F and equatorial spread-F (ESF onsets at Chumphon (10.7° N, 99.4° E; 3.3° N magnetic latitude were compared with the behaviour of equatorial electrojet (EEJ ground strength at Phuket (8.1° N, 98.3° E; 0.1° N magnetic latitude during the period from November 2007 to October 2008. Increase in the F-layer height and ESF onsets during the evening hours were well connected with the EEJ ground strength before sunset, namely, both the height increase and ESF onsets were suppressed when the integrated EEJ ground strength for the period from 1 to 2 h prior to sunset was negative. The finding suggests observationally that the pre-sunset E-region dynamo current and/or electric field are related to the F-region dynamics and ESF onsets around sunset.

  18. 77 FR 777 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited...) initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order fresh garlic from the People's Republic of... fresh garlic from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year...

  19. 76 FR 60001 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited...) initiated the second sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act....

  20. Determination of sunset yellow in multi-vitamin tablets by photoacoustic spectroscopy and a comparison with alternative methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Ajtony, Z.; Koehorst, R.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy in the visible wavelength region was shown to be suitable for a direct (no preparatory steps involved) quantification of sunset yellow (E110) colour in effervescent multi-vitamin tablets. Measurements on powdered tablets containing E110 were performed at 480?nm at whi

  1. Measurement of fine particulate matter nonvolatile and semi-volatile organic material with the Sunset Laboratory Carbon Aerosol Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Brett D; Kleinman, Michael; Eatough, Norman L; Eatough, Delbert J; Cary, Robert A; Hopke, Philip K; Wilson, William E

    2008-01-01

    Semi-volatile organic material (SVOM) in fine particles is not reliably measured with conventional semicontinuous carbon monitors because SVOM is lost from the collection media during sample collection. We have modified a Sunset Laboratory Carbon Aerosol Monitor to allow for the determination of SVOM. In a conventional Sunset monitor, gas-phase organic compounds are removed in the sampled airstream by a diffusion denuder employing charcoal-impregnated cellulose filter (CIF) surfaces. Subsequently, particles are collected on a quartz filter and the instrument then determines both the organic carbon and elemental carbon fractions of the aerosol using a thermal/optical method. However, some of the SVOM is lost from the filter during collection, and therefore is not determined. Because the interfering gas-phase organic compounds are removed before aerosol collection, the SVOM can be determined by filtering the particles at the instrument inlet and then replacing the quartz filter in the monitor with a charcoal-impregnated glass fiber filter (CIG), which retains the SVOM lost from particles collected on the inlet filter. The resulting collected SVOM is then determined in the analysis step by measurement of the carbonaceous material thermally evolved from the CIG filter. This concept was tested during field studies in February 2003 in Lindon, UT, and in July 2003 in Rubidoux, CA. The results obtained were validated by comparison with Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS) results. The sum of nonvolatile organic material determined with a conventional Sunset monitor and SVOM determined with the modified Sunset monitor agree with the PC-BOSS results. Linear regression analysis of total carbon concentrations determined by the PC-BOSS and the Sunset resulted in a zero-intercept slope of 0.99 +/- 0.02 (R2 = 0.92) and a precision of sigma = +/- 1.5 microg C/m3 (8%).

  2. Highly sensitive determination of sunset yellow FCF (E110) in food products based on Chitosan/Nanoparticles/MWCNTs with modified gold electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovina, K.; Siddiquee, S.; Shaarani, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Sunset Yellow belongs to the family of azo dyes, commonly used in food industry. High consumption of Sunset Yellow can cause health problem to human. Due to arising of the health issues, there are several analytical methods available for determination of Sunset Yellow. However, these methods are required skilled manpower, complicated procedures, time consuming and high cost. Herein, an electrochemical sensor was developed based on the combination of chitosan (CHIT), calcium oxide nanoparticles (CaONPs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) sensing film for detection of Sunset Yellow in food products. Electrochemical behavior of the modified gold electrode in the presence of Sunset Yellow was studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The morphological characteristics of CHIT/CaONPs/MWCNTs were observed under scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Under optimal conditions, the DPV was detected with different concentrations of Sunset Yellow in the range of 0.9 to 10 ppm, with detection limit of 0.8 ppm. The developed method has successfully applied for monitoring the presence of Sunset Yellow with different food products including candy, royal jelly, ice cream and soft drink with satisfactory results.

  3. Designing institutions for global democracy: flexibility through escape clauses and sunset provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Kuyper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How can advocates of global democracy grapple with the empirical conditions that constitute world politics? I argue that flexibility mechanisms—;commonly used to advance international cooperation—should be employed to make the institutional design project of global democracy more tractable. I highlight three specific reasons underpinning this claim. First, flexibility provisions make bargaining over different institutional designs more manageable. Second, heightened flexibility takes seriously potential concerns about path-dependent institutional development. Finally, deliberately shortening the time horizons of agents by employing flexibility provisions has cognitive benefits as it forces designers to focus specifically on issues of feasibility as well as desirability. I discuss a range of flexibility mechanisms and highlight the utility of sunset provisions and escape clauses. From this analysis, I build an argument for the usage of small-scale democratic experiments through which citizens (or their representatives have a say in global policy making.

  4. Phases and structures of sunset yellow and disodium cromoglycate mixtures in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory P.; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Zhu, Chenhui; Clark, Noel A.

    2016-01-01

    We study phases and structures of mixtures of two representative chromonic liquid crystal materials, sunset yellow FCF (SSY) and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), in water. A variety of combinations of isotropic, nematic (N ), and columnar (also called M ) phases are observed depending on their concentrations, and a phase diagram is made. We find a tendency for DSCG-rich regions to show higher-order phases while SSY-rich regions show lower-order ones. We observe uniform mesophases only when one of the materials is sparse in the N phases. Their miscibility in M phases is so low that essentially complete phase separation occurs. X-ray scattering and spectroscopy studies confirm that SSY and DSCG molecules do not mix when they form chromonic aggregates and neither do their aggregates when they form M phases.

  5. SiO2@Au nanoshells-based SERS method for detection of sunset yellow and chrysoidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunfei; Chen, Ting; Cheng, Yuliang; Wang, Heya; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2014-11-11

    A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate made up of SiO2@Au nanoshells has been developed for detecting sunset yellow and chrysoidine. It exhibits an excellent enrichment SERS effect on these two colorant molecules. In this work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out to determine the molecular structure and theoretical Raman spectra. This provided a good description of the characteristic peaks of the molecules. In addition, the appropriate thicknesses of the shell and environment pH have been derived to obtain improved SERS signals. The lowest concentration is 1 ppm and 0.5 ppm for sunset yellow and chrysoidine, respectively. Under optimal detection condition, it has proved possible to distinguish each colorant by its characteristic peaks in the SERS spectra of a mixture of the two colorants.

  6. Faraday polarization fluctuations and their dependence on post sunset secondary maximum and amplitude scintillations at Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Gupta

    Full Text Available VHF Faraday rotation (FR and amplitude scintillation data recorded simultaneously during May 1978–December 1980 at Delhi (28.63° N, 77.22° E; Dip 42.44° N is analyzed in order to study the Faraday polarization fluctuations (FPFs and their dependence on the occurrence of post sunset secondary maximum (PSSM and amplitude scintillations. It is noted that FPFs are observed only when both PSSM and scintillations also occur simultaneously. FPFs are observed only during winter and the equinoctial months of high sunspot years. FPFs events are associated with intense scintillation activity, which is characterized by sudden onsets and abrupt endings, and are observed one to three hours after the local sunset. When FPFs and scintillation data from Delhi is compared with the corresponding data from a still lower latitude station, Hyderabad (17.35° N, 78.45° E, it is found that the occurrence of FPFs and scintillations at Delhi is conditional to their prior occurrence at Hyderabad, which indicates their production by a plasma bubble and the as-sociated irregularities generated initially over the magnetic equator. In addition, FPFs and scintillation data for October 1979, when their occurrence was maximum, is also examined in relation to daytime (11:00 LT electrojet strength (EEj values and evening hour h’F from an equatorial location, Kodaikanal (10.3° N, 77.5° E. It is interesting to note that FPFs and scintillations are most likely observed when the EEj was 100 nT or more and h’F reaches around 500 km. These results show that EEj and evening hours h’F values over the magnetic equator are important parameters for predicting FPFs and scintillation activity at locations such as Delhi, where scintillation activity is much more intense as compared to the equatorial region due to the enhanced back-ground ionization due to the occurrence of PSSM.

    Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities – Radio science

  7. VHF radar observations of the dip equatorial E-region during sunset in the Brazilian sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Denardini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the RESCO 50 MHz backscatter radar (2.33° S, 44.2° W, DIP: –0.5, at São Luís, Brazil, we obtained Range Time Intensity (RTI maps covering the equatorial electrojet heights during daytime and evening. These maps revealed a scattering region at an altitude of about 108 km during the sunset period. The type of 3-m irregularity region we present here has not been reported before in the literature, to our knowledge. It was mainly observed around the Southern Hemisphere summer-solstice period, under quiet magnetic activity condition. The occurrence of this echo region coincides in local time with the maximum intensity of an evening pre-reversal eastward electric field of the ionospheric F-region. A tentative explanation is proposed here in terms of the theory of the divergence of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ current in the evening ionosphere presented by Haerendel and Eccles (1992, to explain the partial contribution of the divergence to the development of the pre-reversal electric field. The theory predicts an enhanced zonal electric field and hence a vertical electric field below 300 km as a consequence of the EEJ divergence in the evening. The experimental results of the enhanced echoes from the higher heights of the EEJ region seem to provide evidence that the divergence of the EEJ current can indeed be the driver of the observed scattering region.

  8. Negative ions in the auroral mesosphere during a PCA event around sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. del Pozo

    Full Text Available This is a study of the negative ion chemistry in the mesosphere above Tromsø using a number of EISCAT observations of high energy proton precipitation events during the last solar maximum, and in particular around sunset on 23 October, 1989. In these conditions it is possible to look at the relative importance of the various photodetachment and photodissociation processes controlling the concentration of negative ions. The data analysed are from several UHF GEN11 determinations of the ion-plasma ACF together with the pseudo zero-lag estimate of the `raw' electron density, at heights between 55 km and 85 km, at less than 1 km resolution. The power profiles from the UHF are combined with the 55-ion Sodankylä model to obtain consistent estimates of the electron density, the negative ion concentrations, and the average ion mass with height. The neutral concentrations and ion temperature are given by the MSIS90 model. These parameters are then used to compare the calculated widths of the ion-line with the GEN11 determinations. The ion-line spectrum gives information on the effects of negative ions below 70 km where they are dominant; the spectral width is almost a direct measure of the relative abundance of negative ions.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ion chemistry and composition; particle precipitation.

  9. Adsorption of sunset yellow FCF from aqueous solution by chitosan-modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Z; Li, J; Li, W J; Li, Y

    2015-01-01

    Sunset yellow (SY) FCF is a hazardous azo dye pollutant found in food processing effluent. This study investigates the use of diatomaceous earth with chitosan (DE@C) as a modified adsorbent for the removal of SY from wastewater. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicate the importance of functional groups during the adsorption of SY. The obtained N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm values accord well with IUPAC type II. Our calculations determined a surface area of 69.68 m2 g(-1) for DE@C and an average pore diameter of 4.85 nm. Using response surface methodology, optimized conditions of process variables for dye adsorption were achieved. For the adsorption of SY onto DE@C, this study establishes mathematical models for the optimization of pH, contact time and initial dye concentration. Contact time plays a greater role in the adsorption process than either pH or initial dye concentration. According to the adjusted correlation coefficient (adj-R2>0.97), the models used here are suitable for illustration of the adsorption process. Theoretical experimental conditions included a pH of 2.40, initial dye concentration of 113 mg L(-1) and 30.37 minutes of contact time. Experimental values for the adsorption rate (92.54%) were close to the values predicted by the models (95.29%).

  10. Highly sensitive electrochemical determination of Sunset Yellow based on gold nanoparticles/graphene electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Huiwen; Yang, Ping; Du, Yukou, E-mail: duyk@suda.edu.cn

    2015-09-17

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared using Au nanoparticles and reduced graphene successfully decorated on the glassy carbon electrode (Au/RGO/GCE) through an electrochemical method which was applied to detect Sunset Yellow (SY). The as-prepared electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical measurements. The results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) proved that Au/RGO/GCE had the highest catalytic activity for the oxidation of SY as compared with GCE, Au/GCE, and RGO/GCE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) showed that the linear calibration curves for SY on Au/RGO/GCE in the range of 0.002 μM–109.14 μM, and the detection limit was estimated to be 2 nM (S/N = 3). These results suggested that the obtained Au/RGO/GCE was applied to detect SY with high sensitivity, low detection limit and good stability, which provided a promising future for the development of portable sensor in food additives. - Highlights: • An Au/RGO composite was fabricated by electrochemical deposition method. • The oxidation current of SY on the composition is up to 10 μA. • The detection range of SY is 0.002–109.14 μM with a detection limit of 2 nM.

  11. A Zinc Oxide Nanoflower-Based Electrochemical Sensor for Trace Detection of Sunset Yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Yu; Jiang, Cuiwen; Li, Tao; Liao, Jie; Fan, Yegeng; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Feiyan; Xie, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoflower (ZnONF) was synthesized by a simple process and was used to construct a highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of sunset yellow (SY). Due to the large surface area and high accumulation efficiency of ZnONF, the ZnONF-modified carbon paste electrode (ZnONF/CPE) showed a strong enhancement effect on the electrochemical oxidation of SY. The electrochemical behaviors of SY were investigated using voltammetry with the ZnONF-based sensor. The optimized parameters included the amount of ZnONF, the accumulation time, and the pH value. Under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current was linearly proportional to SY concentration in the range of 0.50–10 μg/L and 10–70 μg/L, while the detection limit was 0.10 μg/L (signal-to-noise ratio = 3). The proposed method was used to determine the amount of SY in soft drinks with recoveries of 97.5%–103%, and the results were in good agreement with the results obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:28282900

  12. Multi-spectroscopic DNA interaction studies of sunset yellow food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Heidary Zeidali, Sahar; Omidfar, Kobra; Shahabadi, Nahid

    2012-12-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial due to their essential role. Synthetic color food additives occupy an important place in the food industry. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered the most vulnerable group. The purpose of this work is to present spectrophotometric methods to analyze the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with sunset yellow (SY) at physiological pH. Considerable hyperchromism and no red shift with an intrinsic binding constant of 7 × 10(4 )M(-1) were observed in UV absorption band of SY. Binding constants of DNA with complex were calculated at different temperatures. Slow increase in specific viscosity of DNA, induced circular dichroism spectral changes, and no significant changes in the fluorescence of neutral red-DNA solutions in the presence of SY suggest that this molecule interacts with CT-DNA via groove binding mode. Furthermore, the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between SY and CT-DNA showed that the reaction is exothermic and enthalpy favored (∆H = -58.19 kJ mol(-1); ΔS = -274.36 kJ mol(-1) ) which are other evidences to indicate that van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding are the main running forces in the binding of the mentioned molecule and mode of interaction with DNA.

  13. Phase behavior of chromonic liquid crystal mixtures of Sunset Yellow and Disodium Cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Clark, Noel

    2014-03-01

    Chromonic liquid crystals (CLCs) are formed when planar molecules dissolved in water stack into rod-like aggregates that can order as liquid crystals. Isotropic, nematic, and M-phases can be observed depending on the degree of molecular orientational and positional order by variation of the CLC concentration. We focused on mixtures of two well-known CLCs, Sunset Yellow, a food dye, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), an asthma medication. In order to study the phase behaviors of these mixtures, we observed their textures in glass cells and capillaries using polarized light microscopy. We report here a ternary phase diagram describing the complete phase behavior of the CLC mixtures. We observed a variety of phase behaviors depending on species ratio and concentration. In the isotropic phase, no clear phase separation of the two dyes was observed, while separation did occur in many nematic and M-phase combinations. We will also describe phase observations made using a light spectroscopy and bulk centrifugal partitioning. Grant support: NSF DMR 1207606 and NSF MRSEC DMR-0820579.

  14. Sunset decay of the convective turbulence with Large-Eddy Simulation under realistic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, U.; Miglietta, M. M.; Degrazia, G. A.; Acevedo, O. C.; Marques Filho, E. P.

    2013-10-01

    Large-Eddy Simulation is performed for a single day from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES-99) field program. This study investigates an observed case of evening transition boundary layer over land. Parameters of the ambient atmosphere in the LES-decay studies conducted so far were typically prescribed in an idealized form. To provide suitable data under the wide range of the PBL weather conditions, the LES should be able to adequately reproduce the PBL turbulence dynamics including-if possible-baroclinicity, radiation, large scale advection and not only be related to a decreasing surface heating. In addition LES-decay studies usually assume that the sensible heat flux decreases instantaneously or with a very short time scale. The main purpose of this investigation is to study the decay of boundary-layer average turbulent kinetic energy at sunset with Large-Eddy Simulation that is forced with realistic environment conditions. This allows investigating the Turbulent Kinetic Energy decay over the realistic time scale that is observed in the atmosphere. During the intermediate and last stage of decay of the boundary-layer average Turbulent Kinetic Energy the exponents of the decay power law t go from 2 to 6, as evidenced by experimental results and recent analytical modeling in the surface layer.

  15. Simultaneous determination of Sunset yellow and Tartrazine in soft drinks using gold nanoparticles carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Behpour, Mohsen; Golestaneh, Mahshid

    2012-05-01

    The monitoring of synthetic dyes in foods is very important due to their potential harmfulness to human beings. Herein, a carbon-paste electrode (CPE) that is chemically modified with gold nanoparticles (nAu) was fabricated and used for the determination of Sunset yellow (SY) and Tartrazine (Tz). Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV) results revealed two well-resolved anodic peaks for SY and Tz with remarkably increase in oxidation signals of these colourants. Based on this, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of SY and Tz. High sensitivity and selectivity, sub-micromolar detection limit, high reproducibility and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing make the nAu-CPE electrode very suitable for the determination of SY and Tz in commercially available soft drinks. The detection limits was 3.0×10(-8) and 2.0×10(-9)moll(-1) for SY and Tz, respectively, which are remarkably lower than those reported previously for SY and Tz using other modified electrodes.

  16. Odin/OSIRIS observations of stratospheric NO3 through sunrise and sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Haley

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The nitrate radical (NO3 has been detected in visible limb-scattered spectra measured by the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS on-board the Odin satellite when observing at large solar zenith angles (91–97°. Apparent slant column densities of NO3 at tangent heights between 10 and 45 km are derived via spectral fitting in the 610–680 nm window. Using observations from multiple scans spanning solar zenith angles of 91–97°, the rapid evolution of NO3 through sunrise and sunset can be traced. Slant column densities are found to be generally consistent with those simulated using a radiative transfer model with coupled photochemistry. In addition, a strong dependence of NO3 with temperature is observed. These results indicate that our current knowledge of NO3 photochemistry is generally consistent with OSIRIS observations to within the limitations of the radiative transfer modeling. Furthermore, they reveal that OSIRIS possesses signal-to-noise sufficient to make useful measurements of scattered sunlight out to solar zenith angles of 91–97° and suggest the possibility of retrieving profile information for NO3 and other species at large solar zenith angles.

  17. Odin/OSIRIS observations of stratospheric NO3 through sunrise and sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Haley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The nitrate radical (NO3 has been detected in visible limb-scattered spectra measured by the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS on-board the Odin satellite when observing at large solar zenith angles (91–97°. Apparent slant column densities of NO3 at tangent heights between 10 and 45 km are derived via spectral fitting in the 590–680 nm window. Using observations from multiple scans spanning solar zenith angles of 91–97°, the rapid evolution of NO3 through sunrise and sunset can be traced. Slant column densities are found to be consistent with those simulated using a radiative transfer model with coupled photochemistry. In addition, a strong dependence of NO3 with temperature is observed. These results indicate that OSIRIS possesses signal-to-noise sufficient to make useful measurements of scattered sunlight out to solar zenith angles of 96–97° and suggests the possibility of retrieving profile information for NO3 and other species at large solar zenith angles.

  18. Behavior of foF2 and hmF2 after sunset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. D.; Vanina-Dart, L. B.

    2010-12-01

    The time behavior of the foF2 and hmF2 values at the time moment T(ss + 2 h) 2 h after sunset is considered. It is assumed that at this moment, the horizontal winds in the thermosphere in the strongest way influence hmF2 and, therefore, foF2. It is found that a fairly well pronounced and statistically significant change (trend) is observed for the foF2(ss + 2)/ foF2(14) ratio, the sign of the change being different for different stations and even different seasons at the same station. A similar picture is obtained for the value of hmF2(ss + 2). It is shown that a positive correlation between the trends of these two values is observed. This confirms the initial concept of the paper that the foF2 and hmF2 trends are caused by long-term trends in the thermospheric dynamics.

  19. Self-Assembly of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow and Effects of Ionic Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heung-Shik; Kang, Shin-Woong; Tortora, Luana; Nastishin, Yuriy; Finotello, Daniele; Kumar, Satyendra; Lavrentovich, Oleg D. (NSF); (Institute of Physical Optics, Ukraine); (Kent)

    2008-12-22

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) are formed by molecules with ionic groups at the periphery that associate into stacks through noncovalent self-assembly while in water. The very existence of the nematic (N) phase in the typical LCLC, the dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) is a puzzle, as the correlation length associated with the stacking, as measured in the X-ray experiments, is too short to explain the orientational order by the Onsager model. We propose that the aggregates can be more complex than simple rods and contain 'stacking faults' such as junctions with a shift of neighboring molecules, 3-fold junctions, etc. We study how ionic additives, such as salts of different valency and pH-altering agents, alter the N phase of SSY purified by recrystallization. The additives induce two general trends: (a) stabilization of the N phase, caused by the mono and divalent salts (such as NaCl), and evidenced by the increase of the N-to-I transition temperature and the correlation length; (b) suppression of the N phase manifested in the decrease of the N-to-I transition temperature and in separation of the N phase into a more densely packed N phase or the columnar (C) phase, coexisting with a less condensed I phase. The scenario (b) can be triggered by simply increasing pH (adding NaOH). The effects produced by tetravalent spermine fall mostly into the category (b), but the detail depends on whether this additive is in its salt form or a free base form. The base form causes changes through changes in pH and possible excluded volume effects whereas the salt form might disrupt the structure of SSY aggregates.

  20. Global effects on Ionospheric Weather over the Indian subcontinent at Sunrise and Sunset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Tamal; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Pal, S.

    2010-10-01

    Study of Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave is very important for knowing the behavior of the Ionospheric layers due to Sunrise-Sunset, Earthquakes, Solar flares, Solar eclipses and other terrestrial and extra terrestrial radiations. We study the properties of the variation of the VLF signal strength theoretically all over Indian sub-continent. As an example, we concentrate on the VLF signal transmitted by Indian Naval Transmitter VTX at Vijayanarayanam (Latitude 08°23', Longitude 77°45') near the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. As has been noticed, several receiving stations placed during the VLF campaign in all over India, the VLF signal strength varies significantly with place and time. To understand the diurnal and seasonal variation of the received signal, a complete knowledge of physics of intensity distribution of the VLF signal is essential. The spatial variation of VLF signal plays an important role in selecting future VLF stations. In the wave-hop theoretical model presented here, horizontally stratified ionospheric layers have been considered. The VLF wave emitted by the transmitter has both the ground wave and the sky wave components. The ground wave attenuates during propagation. The sky wave component experiences reflections by the ionosphere on its way to the receiver and its attenuation depends on the degree of ionization. Intensity variation occurs at a given receiver location for interference among singly and multiply reflected waves. This has been simulated considering some simplified and justifiable assumptions. This spatial variation wave-hop theoretical model developed here has been compared with LWPC code generated results.

  1. DNA binding studies of Sunset Yellow FCF using spectroscopy, viscometry and electrochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaadi, Sara; Hajian, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Color is one of the important factors in food industry. All food companies use synthetic pigments to improve the aesthetic of products. Studies on the interaction between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and food dye molecules is important because DNA is responsible for some processes including replication and transcription of cells, mutations, genetic diseases, and some synthetic chemical nucleases. In this study, the molecular interaction between Sunset Yellow FCF (SY) as a common food coloring additive and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and viscometry techniques. The binding constant between ct-DNA and SY in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) was calculated as 2.09 × 103 L mol-1. The non-electrostatic bonding constant (K0t) was almost consistent and the ratio of K0t/Kb increased by increasing the ionic strength in the range of 0.01-0.1 mol L-1 of KCl. This observation shows that, the molecular bonding of SY to ct-DNA is a combination of electrostatic and intercalation interactions. In the electrochemical studies, an oxidation peak at 0.71 V and a reduction peak at about 0.63 V was observed with the peak potential difference (ΔEp) of 0.08 V, showing a reversible process. The oxidation and reduction peaks were significantly decreased in the presence of ct-DNA and the reduction peak current shifted to negative values. In spectrofluorometric study, the fluorescence intensity of SY increased dramatically after successive addition of DNA due to the increasing of molecular surface area and decreasing of impact frequency between solvent and SY-DNA adduct. Moreover, viscometric study shows that the increasing of viscosity for SY solution in the presence of DNA is due to the intercalation mechanism with double strand DNA (ds-DNA).

  2. Surface-enhanced oxidation and detection of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine using multi-walled carbon nanotubes film-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weikang; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Xiaojiang; Huang, Wensheng; Wan, Chidan

    2009-11-01

    The insoluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) was successfully dispersed into water in the presence of hydrophobic surfactant. After that, MWNT film-coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was achieved via dip-coating and evaporating water. Owing to huge surface area, high sorption capacity and subtle electronic properties, MWNT film exhibits highly efficient accumulation efficiency as well as considerable surface enhancement effects to Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine. As a result, the oxidation peak currents of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine remarkably increase at the MWNT film-modified GCE. Based on this, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine. The limits of detection are 10.0 ng mL(-1) (2.2 x 10(-8)mol L(-1)) and 0.1 microg mL(-1) (1.88 x 10(-7)mol L(-1)) for Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to detect Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in soft drinks.

  3. ANALISIS SIKAP DAN PERILAKU KONSUMEN TERHADAP PEMILIHAN RUMAH TINGGAL PADA KAWASAN SUNSET GARDEN DI KOTA DENPASAR, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I K. Ade Siswanta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is motivated by the more selective consumers in choosing a house which impact on changes in market conditions ongoing. Developers should anticipate factors that influence changes in market conditions, such as attitudes and behaviors of consumers in choosing a house. One excample of this condition is development of Sunset Garden area located at Jalan Pura Mertasari Sunset Road, Denpasar, Bali which is this properties are able to attract consumers to buy houses in this area although this price of the house is quite expensive. Therefore, the research was conducted to determine factors that are considered in the selection of residential, consumer attitudes and behavior on the selection of a house and the relationship of consumer characteristics and attributes of products offered in this area. This study used research instruments such as questionnaires to obtain information on the characteristics of respondents and the four components of the attitudes and behavior of the level of confidence, the level of evaluation, the level of normative beliefs and motivation levels. The data analysis technique used is a factor analysis to identify the factors considered in choosing a house, attitudes and behavior analysis with Fishbein method and contingency coefficient analysis to determine the magnitude of the relationship variable product attributes and consumer characteristics. The results of this study indicate the factors that affect the house is 5 (five factors, they are the location and the legality factors, supporting facilities factors, physical factors, factor values, and environmental factors. Attitudes and behavior are shown in choosing a house on Sunset Garden Zone fall into this category good enough. The results showed that there is a relationship between consumer characteristics and attributes of the product which the consumer's income level has the strongest ties to the variable price of the product.

  4. Response of a free-flying songbird to an experimental shift of the light polarization pattern around sunset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaljohann, Heiko; Rautenberg, Tobias; Muheim, Rachel; Naef-Daenzer, Beat; Bairlein, Franz

    2013-04-15

    The magnetic field, the sun, the stars and the polarization pattern of visible light during twilight are important cues for orientation in nocturnally migrating songbirds. As these cues change with time and location on Earth, the polarization pattern was put forward as a likely key reference system calibrating the other compass systems. Whether this applies generally to migratory birds is, however, controversially discussed. We used an experimental approach in free-flying birds to study the role of polarization for their departure direction in autumn. Experimental birds experienced a 90 deg shift of the band of maximum polarization during sunset, whereas control birds experienced the polarization pattern as under natural conditions. Full view of the sunset cues near the horizon was provided during the cue conflict exposure. Here we show that both the experimental and the control birds being released after nautical twilight departed consistently towards south-southeast. Radiotelemetry allowed tracking of the first 15 km of the birds' outward journey, thus the intrinsic migration direction as chosen by the birds was measured. We found no recalibration of the magnetic compass after pre-exposure to a cue conflict between the natural magnetic field and the artificially shifted polarization pattern at sunset. The lacking difference in the departure direction of both groups may suggest that birds did not recalibrate any of the compass systems during the experiment. As free-flying migrants can use all available orientation cues after release, it remains unknown whether our birds might have used the magnetic and/or star compass to determine their departure direction.

  5. Serological Changes Induced by Blend of Sunset Yellow, Metanil Yellow and Tartrazine in Swiss Albino Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as con...

  6. Integrated, multidisciplinary reservoir characterization, modeling and engineering leading to enhanced oil recovery from the Midway-Sunset field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, S.; Forster, C.; Deo, M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    The Pru Fee property is developed in a heavy oil, Class III (slope and basin clastic sand), reservoir of the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin Basin, California. Wells on the property were shut-in with an estimated 85% of the original oil remaining in place because the reservoir failed to respond to conventional cyclic steaming. Producibility problems are attributed to the close proximity of the property to the margin of the field. Specific problems include complex reservoir geometry, thinning pay, bottom water, and dipping beds. These problems are likely common at the margins of the Midway-Sunset and other Class III reservoirs. This project forms the first step in returning the property to production and explores strategies that might be applied elsewhere. Reservoir characterization, modeling, and engineering methods are integrated to design, simulate, and implement a pilot steam flood. A new drillhole provides good quality, core through the pay zone and a full suite of geophysical logs. Correlations between geological and petrophysical data are used to extrapolate reservoir conditions from older logs and yield a 3-dimensional petrophysical model. Numerical results illustrate how each producibility problem might influence production and provide a framework for designing the pilot steam flood. This first phase illustrates how a multidisciplinary team can use established technologies in developing the detailed petrophysical, geological, and numerical models needed to enhance oil recovery from marginal areas of Class III reservoirs.

  7. Integrated, multidisciplinary reservoir characterization, modeling and engineering leading to enhanced oil recovery from the Midway-Sunset field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, S.; Forster, C.; Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Pru Fee property is developed in a heavy oil, Class III (slope and basin clastic sand), reservoir of the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin Basin, California. Wells on the property were shut-in with an estimated 85% of the original oil remaining in place because the reservoir failed to respond to conventional cyclic steaming. Producibility problems are attributed to the close proximity of the property to the margin of the field. Specific problems include complex reservoir geometry, thinning pay, bottom water, and dipping beds. These problems are likely common at the margins of the Midway-Sunset and other Class III reservoirs. This project forms the first step in returning the property to production and explores strategies that might be applied elsewhere. Reservoir characterization, modeling, and engineering methods are integrated to design, simulate, and implement a pilot steam flood. A new drillhole provides good quality, core through the pay zone and a full suite of geophysical logs. Correlations between geological and petrophysical data are used to extrapolate reservoir conditions from older logs and yield a 3-dimensional petrophysical model. Numerical results illustrate how each producibility problem might influence production and provide a framework for designing the pilot steam flood. This first phase illustrates how a multidisciplinary team can use established technologies in developing the detailed petrophysical, geological, and numerical models needed to enhance oil recovery from marginal areas of Class III reservoirs.

  8. Sampling South Pole-Aitken Basin: The Moonrise Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Shearer, C. K.; Cohen, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) is the largest of the giant impact basins in the inner Solar System, and its location on Earth s Moon makes it the most accessible. Exploration of SPA through direct collection and analysis of representative materials addresses issues as fundamental as the characteristics of the chemical reservoir from which the Moon originated, early differentiation and production of crust and development of global asymmetry, relationships between magmatic activity and internal thermal evolution, and effects of giant impact events on the terrestrial planets. Owing to its great size and superposition relationships with other lunar impact basins, SPA is the oldest and as such anchors the lunar chronology. Moreover, numerous large impact craters and basins are contained within it such that materials (rocks) of the SPA basin contain a record of the early impact chronology, one less likely to have been affected by the large, late nearside basins (e.g., Imbrium). Understanding the early basin chronology is key to deciphering the sequence and effects of early giant impact bombardment of the inner Solar System. That record exists on the Moon, and materials of the SPA basin will allow us to read that record. Knowledge of the early bombardment history will test - and may reshape - a key paradigm relating to early Solar System evolution. Did the planets form with the alignment of today, or was there a major reorientation of the giant planets that led to destabilization of asteroid orbits, and a cataclysmic bombardment of the inner Solar System hundreds of millions of years after accretion of the planets? Implications include understanding environments for early life-supporting habitats on Earth and Mars, and relationships to new observations of extra-solar planetary systems.

  9. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT OF USE REVERSE OSMOSIS. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the point of use arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate t...

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT OF USE REVERSE OSMOSIS. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the point of use arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate t...

  11. Israel's Quadrant: Weeping, Laughing, and the Measures of the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locci, A. A.

    2011-06-01

    In the Jewish culture of the Middle Ages, the astral bodies were constantly given a special attention. They were deeply admired in religious poetry, and studied and observed in scientific and technical works. In an elegy of an anonymous poet of the 11th century, which is usually read in the celebrations of the 9th day of Ab, constellations and stars share the grief for the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem. Like the Israel Tribes, all constellations are said to weep; Pleiades and Orion are said to darken their face, the Scales turn asymmetrical, the pan of death overrides the pan of life; Scorpio is scared and trembles, Sagittarius turns his face back. Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon, born in Marseille in 1236, was physician, mathematician, and astronomer. He translated Euclides' Elements, the Treatise of the Armillar Sphere by Qusta ibn Luqa, the Treatise on the Astrolabe by abu al-Kasim Ahmad ibn al Saffar, and works of Ptolemy, Averroes, and Aristoteles. His most important work is the short treatise Rova' Israel ("Israel's Quadrant") which he later translated in Latin with the help of Armengaud from Blaise. In the first chapter, he discusses the Sun risings, the days of the month, the place of the Sun in the sky, and the lunar motion. In the second chapter, he discusses the relations between sunrise and sunset, between moonrise and moonset, and between solar year and lunar month. In the following chapters, he illustrates a technical device which he had developed and which he designates "Israel's Quadrant". This instrument could be used both for the sky and for the Earth, since it allowed to survey and measure the elevation of the stars, the elevation of terrestrial reliefs, and terrestrial horizontal distances. The quadrant is flat, and its area is that of a quarter of a circumference. This instrument was very versatile, it also allowed to calculate hours and time, and this favoured its exceptional diffusion. Thus, its name, "quadrant", was transferred to the

  12. Study of Lemon Yellow and Sunset Yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae%射干伪品中柠檬黄与日落黄的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥红; 谢培山

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To identify and assay of watersoluble dyestuff-lemon yellow and sunset yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae. Method; Use TLC for iddentification and HPLC-DAD for iddentification and assay lemon yellow and sunset yellow. Result; Both TLC and HPLC-DAD can identify lemon yellow and sunset yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae, and HPLC detection indicate the content of lemon yellow between 0. 11-0. 37 g·kg-1, and sunset yellow between 0. 04-0. 11 g·kg-1. Conclusion; Staining Iridis kectori khizoma or other adulterants with lemon yellow and sunset yellow as Rhizoma Belamcandae for sales is not only unnecessary, but also increase unsafe factors in clinic. It is necessary to pay attention to about this by relative medicine researcher and manufactory.%目的:鉴别并测定伪品射干中水溶性色素柠檬黄与日落黄.方法:采用薄层色谱法和高效液相色谱法二极管陈列检测鉴别并定量测定样品中的柠檬黄与日落黄.结果:伪品射干中可检出柠檬黄与日落黄,HPLC法测定柠檬黄含量为0.11 ~0.37 g·kg-1,日落黄含量为0.04 ~0.11 g·kg-1.结论:以川射干或其他伪品用柠檬黄与日落黄染色作为射干销售,即无必要,又曾加临床使用不安全因素,值得相关药品研究与生产单位注意.

  13. Determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine in food samples by combining ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ou; Zhu, Xiashi; Feng, Yanli; Ma, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a simple and effective method, by coupling ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), for the analysis of determining tartrazine and sunset yellow in food samples. Under the optimized conditions, IL-ATPSs generated an extraction efficiency of 99% for both analytes, which could then be directly analyzed by HPLC without further treatment. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.01-50.0 μg/mL for both Ta and SY. The limits of detection were 5.2 ng/mL for Ta and 6.9 ng/mL for SY. This method proves successful for the separation/analysis of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drink sample, candy sample, and instant powder drink and leads to consistent results as obtained from the Chinese national standard method.

  14. Determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in Food Samples by Combining Ionic Liquid-Based Aqueous Two-Phase System with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Sha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a simple and effective method, by coupling ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, for the analysis of determining tartrazine and sunset yellow in food samples. Under the optimized conditions, IL-ATPSs generated an extraction efficiency of 99% for both analytes, which could then be directly analyzed by HPLC without further treatment. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.01–50.0 μg/mL for both Ta and SY. The limits of detection were 5.2 ng/mL for Ta and 6.9 ng/mL for SY. This method proves successful for the separation/analysis of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drink sample, candy sample, and instant powder drink and leads to consistent results as obtained from the Chinese national standard method.

  15. Height-dependent sunrise and sunset: Effects and implications of the varying times of occurrence for local ionospheric processes and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; Stankov, Stanimir M.

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the sunrise and sunset periods are of particular importance to ionospheric research and modelling because of the rapid changes in the ionospheric plasma density, temperature, and dynamics. In particular, the sharp increase in the ionisation following sunrise results in a quick increase in the ionospheric peak density, NmF2 , and a decrease in the peak height, hmF2 . Changes in plasma temperature, scale height and transport processes add further complexity which makes it difficult to investigate and model the ionospheric behaviour during this transitional period from night to day. One of the aspects contributing to this difficulty is that not all ionospheric altitudes are exposed to the first sunlight of the day at the same time. During sunrise, the upper part of the ionosphere is illuminated prior to the lower part which is still in the dark. The boundary between sunlit and dark regions moves downwards until it reaches the surface of the Earth, which is commonly taken as the moment of sunrise at certain geographical coordinates. This means that the sunrise at surface level does not occur until after the entire ionosphere has been illuminated. During sunset, the same process happens in reverse order. This paper addresses the issue of these altitude-dependent times of sunrise and sunset and reports on our study of some of the effects on the diurnal variations in the ionospheric characteristics.

  16. Degradation of Sunset Yellow FCF using copper loaded bentonite and H2O2 as photo-Fenton like reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Chanderia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, photo-Fenton degradation of Sunset Yellow FCF under visible light was carried out by using copper loaded bentonite and hydrogen peroxide. The photocatalyst was prepared by loading copper ions on bentonite by wet impregnation method. The rate of photocatalytic degradation of dye was measured spectrophotometrically by measuring absorbance of the reaction mixture at regular time intervals. The effect of various parameters such as pH, concentration of dye, amount of photocatalyst, amount of H2O2 and light intensity on the reaction rate has also been studied. Characterization of photocatalyst has been done by IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the reaction mixture has been determined before and after treatment. A tentative mechanism involving ·≡OH radical as an oxidant for degradation of dye has also been proposed. Involvement of ·≡OH radicals as an active oxidizing agent has been confirmed by using isopropanol and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT as radical scavengers. It has been observed that the rate of reaction is drastically reduced in the presence of these scavengers. The rate of reaction is much retarded by using BHT as compared with isopropanol.

  17. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: abczwg15@163.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000 (China); Zhang, Gangsheng [College of Material Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2015-07-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures.

  18. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-01-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index.

  19. Sunset yellow FCF, a permitted food dye, alters functional responses of splenocytes at non-cytotoxic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2013-03-13

    Sunset yellow FCF (SY), a permitted food color, is extensively used in various food preparations and quite often exceeds the permissible levels (100-200 mg/kg). Several toxicity studies on SY are reported, however immunomodulatory properties have not been explored yet. To investigate the immunotoxic properties of SY, splenocytes were isolated, cultured and subjected to mitogen stimulated proliferation assay (lipopolysaccharide, LPS or concanavalin A, Con A), mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay, immunophenotypic analysis of cell surface receptor expression and assay for cytokines release in the culture supernatants were performed in the presence of SY. Since SY did not exhibit any cytotoxicity up to 250 μg/ml, this dose was used for further studies. It was observed that SY (250 μg/ml) significantly (p<0.05) suppressed the mitogen induced proliferation of splenocytes and MLR response. Further, immunophenotypic analysis revealed that SY alters the relative expression of CD3e/CD4/CD8 in T cells and CD19 in B-cells. Consistent with the suppression of T-cell and B-cell responses and altered surface receptor expression, SY also lowered the expression of IL2, IL4, IL6, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokines. These results suggest that non-cytotoxic dose of SY may have immunomodulatory effects.

  20. Tartrazine and sunset yellow are xenoestrogens in a new screening assay to identify modulators of human oestrogen receptor transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axon, Andrew; May, Felicity E B; Gaughan, Luke E; Williams, Faith M; Blain, Peter G; Wright, Matthew C

    2012-08-16

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that occurs most frequently in post-menopausal women. Since the female sex hormone oestrogen can be cholestatic, we hypothesised that PBC may be triggered in part by chronic exposure to xenoestrogens (which may be more active on a background of low endogenous oestrogen levels seen in post-menopausal women). A reporter gene construct employing a synthetic oestrogen response element predicted to specifically interact with oestrogen receptors (ER) was constructed. Co-transfection of this reporter into an ER null cell line with a variety of nuclear receptor expression constructs indicated that the reporter gene was trans-activated by ERα and ERβ, but not by the androgen, thyroid, progesterone, glucocorticoid or vitamin D receptors. Chemicals linked to PBC were then screened for xenoestrogen activity in the human ERα-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Using this assay, the coal-derived food and cosmetic colourings--sunset yellow and tartrazine--were identified as novel human ERα activators, activating the human ER with an EC(50%) concentration of 220 and 160 nM, respectively.

  1. Progressive effects of the interaction of Sodium nitrite and sunset yellow on different physiological parameters in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman. G.E. Helal

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been noticed that the Egyptian children usually eat and drink food containing both food preservative and food colourants at the same time . This has attracted the attention to study the interaction between one of food preservatives (sodium nitrite and a food coloring agent (sunset yellow. The mixture of the two agents at the limited dose of each was found to be a lethal dose. So, 1/10th of this dose was used daily for 30 days. Animals were devided into three groups. The first group served as a control, while the second group was orally administered a mixture of 10mg sod. nitrite (NaNO3/kg and 0.5 mg/ kg /day sun set yellow (S.S.Y/. The third group received selenium (5 mcg/kg in addition to the above mentioned mixture. After 30 days of treatment, half of the animals from each group were decapitated. The other half of animals was left for another 15 days without treatment for recovery. Ingestion of the mixture of (NaNO3 and S.S.Y significantly decreased rat body weight, R B C and WBC counts, Hb %. , Hct %. Serum inorganic phosphorus, serum protein and serum albumin. Significant increases were observed in serum glucose, T3, T4, calcium, GGT, LDH, Cpk, ALK.ph and cholesterol. Also cholesterol of brain, liver and heart were significantly elevated. No changes were recorded for organ/ body weight, respiratory rate, heart beats, rectal temperature, AST and ALT activities of serum and tissues, acid phosphatase activity, total lipids of serum and tissues, cholesterol of muscle and kidney and serum triglycerides A complete recovery from the abnormalities of most biochemical and haematological parameters was observed after 15 days recovery or when selenium was administered This draws attention to the dangers of interactions of such preservatives and colorants. The present study showed that even the permitted doses of colourants and food preservatives may be harmful.

  2. New liquid chromatographic-chemometric approach for the determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine in commercial preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Erdal; Aktaş, A Hakan; Ustündağ, Ozgür

    2005-01-01

    A new liquid chromatographic (LC)-chemometric approach was developed for the determination of sunset yellow (SUN) and tartrazine (TAR) in commercial preparations. This approach uses LC and chemometric calibration methods, i.e., classical least-squares (CLS), principal component regression (PCR), and partial-least squares (PLS), simultaneously. The combined LC-chemometric approaches, denoted as LC-CLS, LC-PCR, and LC-PLS, are based on photodiode array (PDA) detection at multiple wavelengths. Optimum chromatographic separation of SUN and TAR with allura red as the internal standard (IS) was obtained by using a Waters Symmetry C18 column, 5 microm, 4.6 x 250 mm, and 0.2 M acetate buffer (pH 5)-acetonitrile-methano-bidistilled water (55 + 20 + 15 + 10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.9 mL/min. The LC data sets consisting of the ratios of analyte peak areas to the IS peak area were obtained by using PDA detection at 5 wavelengths (465, 470, 475, 480, and 485 nm). LC-chemometric calibrations for SUN and TAR were separately constructed by using the relationship between the peak-area ratio and the training sets for each colorant. LC-chemometric approaches were tested for different synthetic mixtures containing SUN and TAR in the presence of the IS. These LC-chemometric calibrations were applied to a commercial preparation of the 2 colorants. The experimental results of the LC-chemometric approaches were compared with those obtained by a developed classical LC method using single-wavelength detection.

  3. Artificial neural network (ANN) method for modeling of sunset yellow dye adsorption using zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon: Kinetic and isotherm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, M; Ghaedi, M; Zinali, A; Ghaedi, A M; Habibi, M H

    2015-01-05

    In this research, ZnO nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NPs-AC) was synthesized simply by a low cost and nontoxic procedure. The characterization and identification have been completed by different techniques such as SEM and XRD analysis. A three layer artificial neural network (ANN) model is applicable for accurate prediction of dye removal percentage from aqueous solution by ZnO-NRs-AC following conduction of 270 experimental data. The network was trained using the obtained experimental data at optimum pH with different ZnO-NRs-AC amount (0.005-0.015 g) and 5-40 mg/L of sunset yellow dye over contact time of 0.5-30 min. The ANN model was applied for prediction of the removal percentage of present systems with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) in the hidden layer with 6 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0008 and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.998 were found for prediction and modeling of SY removal. The influence of parameters including adsorbent amount, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time on sunset yellow (SY) removal percentage were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Optimal conditions were set as follows: pH, 2.0; 10 min contact time; an adsorbent dose of 0.015 g. Equilibrium data fitted truly with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 142.85 mg/g for 0.005 g adsorbent. The adsorption of sunset yellow followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation.

  4. Estabilidade dos corantes Tartrazina e Amarelo Crepusculo em refrigerantes = The stability of synthetic food dyes tartrazine and yellow sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indianara Ostroski

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a estabilidade dos corantes alimentícios sintéticos tartrazina e amarelo crepúsculo em relação à intensidade de radiação na região do ultravioleta e do visível, bem como a influência do pH e de outros aditivos comumente presentes em produtos alimentícios. Foram realizadas leituras periódicas do espectro de absorção noscomprimentos de onda entre 700 e 190 nm para verificar alterações químicas nos corantes estudados. No caso de refrigerantes em embalagem de PET verificou-se a relação entre luz incidente e luz transmitida pela embalagem, estabelecendo a sua função como filtro adeterminadas radiações luminosas. Os dados obtidos com os corantes nas amostras de refrigerantes foram comparados com os dados obtidos com os corantes em solução. Constatou-se que em pH mais ácido há um aumento na velocidade de degradação dos corantes, do mesmo modo que na presença de citratos ou ascorbatos. A presença de benzoatos retarda o processo de degradação dos corantes.The stability of synthetic food dyes tartrazine and yellow sunset was studied in relation to the intensity of radiation in the ultraviolet and visible spectra, as well as the influence of the pH and others additives normally presents in some products. Periodic scanning of theabsorption spectrum was accomplished in the wavelengths between 700 nm and 190 nm to verify alterations in this dyes. In the case of soft drinks in PET packing, the relation was verified between incident light and light transmitted by the packing, establishing its function as filter to radiation. The data obtained with the dyes in the samples of soft drinks were compared with standard dyes solutions. In acid media, citrate and ascorbate presence, a major degradation process occurs. In benzoate presence, the dye degradation is lower.

  5. Second order advantage in the determination of amaranth, sunset yellow FCF and tartrazine by UV-vis and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Natalia Elizabeth; Garrido, Mariano; Di Nezio, María Susana; Fernández Band, Beatriz Susana

    2009-11-23

    A direct spectrophotometric method for the determination of three artificial colors--amaranth, sunset yellow FCF and tartrazine--in beverages samples is proposed. The spectra were recorded between 359 and 600 nm. The spectra of the samples (just filtrated), pure dyes (concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 1.8 mg L(-1) for amaranth, 0.08 and 4.4 mg L(-1) for sunset yellow and 0.04 and 1.8 mg L(-1) for tartrazine) and synthetic mixtures were disposed in a column-wise augmented data matrix. This kind of data structure, analyzed by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) makes it possible to exploit the so called 'second order advantage'. MCR-ALS algorithm was applied to the experimental data under the non-negativity and equality constraints. As a result, the concentration of each dye in the samples and their corresponding pure spectra were obtained. The results were validated using internal reference materials and no significant differences were found (alpha=5%) between the reference values and the ones obtained with the proposed method. The second order advantage made it possible to obtain unbiased results even in the presence of interferences.

  6. Lack of genotoxic effect of food dyes amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine and their metabolites in the gut micronucleus assay in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poul, Martine; Jarry, Gérard; Elhkim, Mostafa Ould; Poul, Jean-Michel

    2009-02-01

    The food dyes amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine were administered twice, at 24h intervals, by oral gavage to mice and assessed in the in vivo gut micronucleus test for genotoxic effects (frequency of micronucleated cells) and toxicity (apoptotic and mitotic cells). The concentrations of each compound and their main metabolites (sulfanilic acid and naphthionic acid) were measured in faeces during a 24-h period after single oral administrations of the food dyes to mice. Parent dye compounds and their main aromatic amine metabolites were detected in significant amounts in the environment of colonic cells. Acute oral exposure to food dye additives amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine did not induce genotoxic effect in the micronucleus gut assay in mice at doses up to 2000 mg/kg b.w. Food dyes administration increased the mitotic cells at all dose levels when compared to controls. These results suggest that the transient DNA damages previously observed in the colon of mice treated by amaranth and tartrazine by the in vivo comet assay [Sasaki, Y.F., Kawaguchi, S., Kamaya, A., Ohshita, M., Kabasawa, K., Iwama, K., Taniguchi, K., Tsuda, S., 2002. The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat. Res. 519, 103-119] are unable to be fixed in stable genotoxic lesions and might be partly explained by local cytotoxicity of the dyes.

  7. Comparison of ultrasonic with stirrer performance for removal of sunset yellow (SY) by activated carbon prepared from wood of orange tree: Artificial neural network modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, A. M.; Ghaedi, M.; Karami, P.

    2015-03-01

    The present work focused on the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution by ultrasound-assisted adsorption and stirrer by activated carbon prepared from wood of an orange tree. Also, the artificial neural network (ANN) model was used for predicting removal (%) of SY dye based on experimental data. In this study a green approach was described for the synthesis of activated carbon prepared from wood of an orange tree and usability of it for the removal of sunset yellow. This material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The impact of variables, including initial dye concentration (mg/L), pH, adsorbent dosage (g), sonication time (min) and temperature (°C) on SY removal were studied. Fitting the experimental equilibrium data of different isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models display the suitability and applicability of the Langmuir model. Analysis of experimental adsorption data by different kinetic models including pseudo-first and second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models indicate the applicability of the second-order equation model. The adsorbent (0.5 g) is applicable for successful removal of SY (>98%) in short time (10 min) under ultrasound condition.

  8. Comparison of ultrasonic with stirrer performance for removal of sunset yellow (SY) by activated carbon prepared from wood of orange tree: artificial neural network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, A M; Ghaedi, M; Karami, P

    2015-03-05

    The present work focused on the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution by ultrasound-assisted adsorption and stirrer by activated carbon prepared from wood of an orange tree. Also, the artificial neural network (ANN) model was used for predicting removal (%) of SY dye based on experimental data. In this study a green approach was described for the synthesis of activated carbon prepared from wood of an orange tree and usability of it for the removal of sunset yellow. This material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The impact of variables, including initial dye concentration (mg/L), pH, adsorbent dosage (g), sonication time (min) and temperature (°C) on SY removal were studied. Fitting the experimental equilibrium data of different isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models display the suitability and applicability of the Langmuir model. Analysis of experimental adsorption data by different kinetic models including pseudo-first and second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models indicate the applicability of the second-order equation model. The adsorbent (0.5g) is applicable for successful removal of SY (>98%) in short time (10min) under ultrasound condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 日落%Sunset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ I sit on the steps of the terrace in the evening-around six-reading a novel. The rest of the house is in darkness-there has been a power cut. As I read, swatting away the occasional mosquito (蚊子), I find an unusual shade of light falling on my page.

  10. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  11. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT-OF-USE (POU) REVERSE OSMOSIS. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate: 1) the effectiveness of a point of use (POU) re...

  12. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT-OF-USE (POU) REVERSE OSMOSIS. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate: 1) the effectiveness of a point of use (POU) re...

  13. The role of post-sunset vertical drifts at the equator in predicting the onset of VHF scintillations during high and low sunspot activity years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tulasi Ram

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The day-to-day variability in the occurrence of ionospheric scintillations, which are of serious concern in the trans-ionospheric communications, makes their prediction still a challenging problem. This paper reports on a systematic study in quantitatively identifying the precursors responsible, such as pre-reversal E×B drift velocity, geo-magnetic activity index (Kp and the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA gradient, for the onset of VHF scintillations over a low-latitude station, Waltair (20° N dip, during high (2001 and low (2004 sunspot activity years. The percentage of occurrences of VHF scintillations over Waltair show a good correlation with the monthly mean post-sunset vertical drift velocities at the equator, during both the high and low sunspot activity years. During the days on which intense (>10 dB scintillations occur, the ionization anomaly gradient (dN/dL, measured from ionosonde data of an equatorial (Trivandrum, 0.9° N dip and an off-equatorial station (Waltair, 20° N dip shows an enhancement in the gradient prior to the onset of the scintillations. However, this enhancement is not seen on days when the scintillations are weak (<10 dB or absent. The day-to-day post sunset enhancement in the E×B drift is found to decrease with increasing Kp-index and this decrease is more prominent in the equinoxes, less in winter and insignificant in the summer months. On a day-to-day basis, it is found that the value of the upward drift velocity at the equator should be ≥30 m/s for the onset of strong scintillations over Waltair for magnetically quiet days with average Kp≤2 (6 h prior to the local sunset during the high sunspot year, 2001. This threshold value of the upward drift reduces to 20 m/s with the decrease in the sunspot activity during 2004. Further, these conditions for the onset of intense scintillations is well defined in equinoxes, less in

  14. Citotoxicity of food dyes sunset yellow (E-110, bordeaux red (E-123, and tatrazine yellow (E-102 on Allium cepa L. root meristematic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiva Maria Silva Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the food dyes sunset yellow, bordeaux red, and tartrazine yellow on the cellular cycle of Allium cepa L. Each dye was evaluated at the doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL, at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Slides were prepared and cells were analyzed during the whole cell cycle for cellular aberrations totaling 5,000 total cells for each dose evaluated. The mitotic index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test (p < 0.05. The results showed that the three dyes used under the evaluated doses and exposure times were cytotoxic to the cells of the system-test used. Further cytotoxicity studies should be conducted for additional results and a proper evaluation of the effect of these three dyes on a cellular level.

  15. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los antecedentes de la papaya (Carica papaya, L. en Canarias vienen a poner de manifiesto, la viabilidad de este cultivo en invernadero y la posibilidad de su mayor expansión a corto plazo, debido a la introducción a lo largo de los últimos años de cultivares comerciales y de gran calidad, procedentes de Hawaii ('Sunrise' y de Brasil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' (BSA. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el crecimiento, desarrollo y productividad de los cultivares Sunset, Sunrise, y de los genotipos BH-65 y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' y las características morfológicas y organolépticas de sus frutos, con el fin de continuar con la selección de aquellos cultivares que mejor se adapten y cumplan con las exigencias mínimas de mercado, que mantengan una buena productividad en aquellas zonas marginales para la platanera y que sirvan de base para futuros programas de mejora. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los mayores porcentajes de floración se obtienen en el mes de Mayo (6 meses después de la plantación en las plantas hermafroditas de todos los cultivares, correspondiendo los mayores porcentajes a 'Sunset' y 'Sunrise' (80 y 90,4%, respectivamente. El número de hojas emitidas mensualmente es semejante en todos los cultivares, entre 7,5 y 7,8. Las plantas femeninas de 'Sunrise' así como las hermafroditas de 'Sunset' tienen mayor diámetro, y además, este último cultivar es más precoz en florecer y sus frutos son de mayor peso y tamaño. Hay que destacar también que en el punto de consumo los frutos del cultivar Sunrise son los que poseen mayor contenido en sólidos solubles totales (10,33 ºBrix. Además, los frutos hermafroditas de 'Sunrise' son los primeros en ser recolectados (422 días desde la plantación. Finalmente, señalar que el cultivar Sunset destaca por ser el más productivo (59,5 kg/pl y por tener mayores rendimientos por hectárea (158,627 kg/ha. No obstante, los genotipos BH-65 y BSA poseen un comportamiento muy

  16. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife Behavior of papaya cultivars Sunset, Sunrise and genotypes of 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' and BH- 65 in the south of Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los antecedentes de la papaya (Carica papaya, L. en Canarias vienen a poner de manifiesto, la viabilidad de este cultivo en invernadero y la posibilidad de su mayor expansión a corto plazo, debido a la introducción a lo largo de los últimos años de cultivares comerciales y de gran calidad, procedentes de Hawaii ('Sunrise' y de Brasil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' (BSA. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el crecimiento, desarrollo y productividad de los cultivares Sunset, Sunrise, y de los genotipos BH-65 y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' y las características morfológicas y organolépticas de sus frutos, con el fin de continuar con la selección de aquellos cultivares que mejor se adapten y cumplan con las exigencias mínimas de mercado, que mantengan una buena productividad en aquellas zonas marginales para la platanera y que sirvan de base para futuros programas de mejora. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los mayores porcentajes de floración se obtienen en el mes de Mayo (6 meses después de la plantación en las plantas hermafroditas de todos los cultivares, correspondiendo los mayores porcentajes a 'Sunset' y 'Sunrise' (80 y 90,4%, respectivamente. El número de hojas emitidas mensualmente es semejante en todos los cultivares, entre 7,5 y 7,8. Las plantas femeninas de 'Sunrise' así como las hermafroditas de 'Sunset' tienen mayor diámetro, y además, este último cultivar es más precoz en florecer y sus frutos son de mayor peso y tamaño. Hay que destacar también que en el punto de consumo los frutos del cultivar Sunrise son los que poseen mayor contenido en sólidos solubles totales (10,33 ºBrix. Además, los frutos hermafroditas de 'Sunrise' son los primeros en ser recolectados (422 días desde la plantación. Finalmente, señalar que el cultivar Sunset destaca por ser el más productivo (59,5 kg/pl y por tener mayores rendimientos por hectárea (158,627 kg/ha. No obstante, los genotipos BH-65 y BSA poseen un comportamiento muy

  17. Patterns of Orientation in the Megalithic Tombs of the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Michael

    Nearly all the Neolithic communal tombs of western Europe and the western Mediterranean have a well-defined orientation. In the west of Iberia, the great majority faced within the range of sunrise (and moonrise), while in Iberia as a whole and the west of France nearly all faced either sunrise or the sun when it had risen and was climbing in the sky. By contrast, at Fontvieille near Arles, tombs faced sunset, and along the French Mediterranean region to both east and west of Fontvieille, tombs faced either sunset or the sun when it was declining in the sky. In Sardinia, tombs faced southeasterly; by contrast, on Menorca, tombs faced southwesterly.

  18. Observational evidence for the plausible linkage of Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ electric field variations with the post sunset F-region electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sreeja

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a detailed observational study of the Equatorial Spread F (ESF events on geomagnetically quiet (Ap≤20 days of the solar maximum (2001, moderate (2004 and minimum (2006 years using the ionograms and magnetograms from the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat ~0.5° N in India. The study brings out some interesting aspects of the daytime Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ related electric field variations and the post sunset F-region electrodynamics governing the nature of seasonal characteristics of the ESF phenomena during these years. The observed results seem to indicate a plausible linkage of daytime EEJ related electric field variations with pre-reversal enhancement which in turn is related to the occurrence of ESF. These electric field variations are shown to be better represented through a parameter, termed as "E", in the context of possible coupling between the E- and F-regions of the ionosphere. The observed similarities in the gross features of the variations in the parameter "E" and the F-region vertical drift (Vz point towards the potential usage of the EEJ related parameter "E" as an useful index for the assessment of Vz prior to the occurrence of ESF.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye Sunset Yellow under UV-A light using TiO2/CAC composite catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, D; Shanthi, M

    2014-07-15

    The photocatalytic activity and the promoting effect of titania (TiO2) by commercial activated carbon (CAC) for removing the pollutant in wastewater were investigated. The TiO2/CAC composite photocatalysts with various ratios of CAC to TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement methods. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CAC was investigated for the degradation of Sunset Yellow (SY) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. The TiO2/CAC is found to be more efficient than prepared TiO2 and TiO2-P25 at pH 7 for the mineralization of SY. The synergism between TiO2 and CAC may increase the catalytic activity. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration and initial pH on photo mineralization of SY have been analyzed. The mineralization of SY has been confirmed by COD measurements. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  20. SnO2 nanoparticle-loaded activated carbon for simultaneous removal of Acid Yellow 41 and Sunset Yellow; derivative spectrophotometric, artificial neural network and optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajati, S; Ghaedi, M; Mahmoudi, Z; Sahraei, R

    2015-11-05

    The simultaneous adsorption of Acid Yellow 41 (AY41) and Sunset Yellow (SY) onto SnO2 nanoparticle-loaded activated carbon (SnO2-NP-AC with very high BET surface area of 1278.71 m(2) g(-1)) was investigated. To overcome the severe dyes spectral overlapping, derivative spectrophotometric method and principal component analysis-artificial neural network (PCA-ANN) were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of AY41 and SY in their binary solutions. By using central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology, the effects of variables such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, AY41 concentration and SY concentration on responses such as binary dyes removal percentages were examined. Optimal values were found to be 17.9 min, 0.024 g, 3.1, and 15.9 mg L(-1) and 18.7 mg L(-1), respectively. In binary solutions, the best fit to modified-extended Langmuir isotherm was obtained for the whole concentration range. In binary solutions, a synergism was observed for the AY41 and SY dyes adsorption onto SnO2-NP-AC. The adsorption rates at various times were analyzed. It indicated a pseudo-second-order kinetic model for the adsorption of both dyes.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye Sunset Yellow under UV-A light using TiO2/CAC composite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, D.; Shanthi, M.

    2014-07-01

    The photocatalytic activity and the promoting effect of titania (TiO2) by commercial activated carbon (CAC) for removing the pollutant in wastewater were investigated. The TiO2/CAC composite photocatalysts with various ratios of CAC to TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement methods. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CAC was investigated for the degradation of Sunset Yellow (SY) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. The TiO2/CAC is found to be more efficient than prepared TiO2 and TiO2-P25 at pH 7 for the mineralization of SY. The synergism between TiO2 and CAC may increase the catalytic activity. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration and initial pH on photo mineralization of SY have been analyzed. The mineralization of SY has been confirmed by COD measurements. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  2. Determination of benzidine in the food colours tartrazine and sunset yellow FCF, by reduction and derivatization followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F E; Lawrence, J F

    1999-09-01

    Free and bound benzidine, a non-sulphonated aromatic amine (NSAA), were determined in the food colours tartrazine and sunset yellow FCF. Bound amines were released by reducing with sodium dithionite, then total NSAAs were extracted into chloroform, transferred to aqueous acid solution and diazotized with sodium nitrite before coupling with 2-naphthol-3,6-disulphonic acid, disodium salt (R-salt). Coloured benzidine and aniline derivatives (BZDRS and ANRS) were analysed using reversed-phase ion pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an absorbance detector set at 548 nm. Levels of total benzidine were similar to those reported in studies conducted in the USA, and ranged from < 5 to 270 ng/g. Total aniline was also determined (0.2-188 micrograms/g). Recoveries of benzidine with this method were found to be lower than expected (average ca 46%), but were reproducible. Detection limits were 15-20 ng BZDRS/g (3-4 ng benzidine/g). Mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was evaluated for identifying and determining purity of the standards, but difficulties were encountered when the methodology was applied to commercial samples.

  3. An enhanced electrochemical platform based on graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for sensitive determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xinlan; Lu, Limin; Leng, Jing; Yu, Yongfang; Wang, Wenmin; Jiang, Min; Bai, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical platform was designed for the simultaneous determination of Sunset Yellow (SY) and Tartrazine (TT), synthetic food dyes, by combining the signal amplification properties of graphene oxide (GO) and the excellent electronic and antifouling properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Stable dispersion of GO/MWCNTs composite was produced by sonication mixing. Compared with glassy carbon, MWCNTs and GO electrodes, GO/MWCNTs electrode exhibited strong enhancement effect and greatly increased the oxidation signal of SY and TT. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 0.09-8.0 μM, with a low limit of detection of 0.025 μM for SY and 0.01 μM for TT (S/N = 3), respectively. To further validate its possible application, the proposed method was successfully used for the determination of SY and TT in orange juice with satisfactory results.

  4. 聚L-精氨酸/石墨烯修饰电极对日落黄的测定%The determination of sunset yellow by poly-L-arginine-graphene modified electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晴晴; 朱庆仁; 孙登明

    2015-01-01

    The poly-L-arginine-graphene modified electrode (PLA-ERGO/GCE) was fabricated by cyclic voltam-metric method. Due to the fast electron transfer rate and better catalytic ability on PLA-ERGO/GCE, the electro-chemical behaviors of sunset yellow was studied by cyclic voltammetric method (CV) and differential pulse voltam-metry (DPV). The redox process of sunset yellow was controlled by adsorption. Under optimal experiment conditions, the oxidation peak potential of sunset yellow was at 0.826 V. The calibration curves for sunset yellow was obtained in the range of 7.50×10-7~1.00×10-3 mol/L by DPV. The detection limit was 1.0×10-7 mol/L. This method had been suc-cessfully applied to the determination of sunset yellow in the sample with satisfactory results.%采用循环伏安法制备了聚L-精氨酸/石墨烯修饰电极(PLA-ERGO/GCE),该电极对日落黄(SY)有较快的电子传递速度和较好的催化性能。利用循环伏安法(CV)和差分脉冲伏安法(DPV)探究了SY在该电极上的电化学行为,SY在电极表面的氧化还原过程受吸附控制。在最佳实验条件下,SY在0.826 V处产生一个氧化峰。采用DPV法测定SY的线性范围为7.50×10-7~1.00×10-3 mol/L,检出限为1.0×10-7 mol/L。方法用于样品中日落黄的测定,结果满意。

  5. 黄蜀葵花对阿霉素肾病大鼠足细胞的保护作用%Protective effect of Sunset Abelmoschus on podocyte injury in adriamycin-induced nephropathy rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边琪; 郭志勇; 胡海燕; 李娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨黄蜀葵花(黄葵)治疗阿霉素肾病大鼠的疗效及其对足细胞病变的影响.方法 雄性SD大鼠50只,按随机数字法分为假手术组(n=10)、模型组(n=10)、黄葵低剂量组(0.5 g·kg-1·d-1,n=10)、黄葵中剂量组(1.0 g·kg-1·d-1,n=10)和黄葵高剂量组(2.0 g·kg-1·d-1,n=10).采用单侧肾切除联合两次阿霉素(ADR)注射法,制备阿霉素肾病大鼠模型.黄葵各组于右肾摘除术当天起给予相应剂量黄葵溶液灌胃.分别在术前、术后2、4、6、8周末检测大鼠尿蛋白、尿N-乙酰葡萄糖氨基转移酶(NAG)、血清白蛋白、Scr和血脂.第8周末宰杀大鼠,取肾组织行光镜和电镜检查,并观察肾组织nephrin的分布.结果 与模型组比较,黄葵各组在各时间点的尿蛋白量和尿NAG水平均降低,以高剂量组最显著(P<0.01);且血浆白蛋白增加,血脂紊乱改善,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).模型组及黄葵各治疗组Scr自第4周起较假手术组明显升高;第8周末,黄葵高剂量组Scr低于模型组(P<0.05).黄葵各组肾小球球性硬化和节段硬化比例均低于模型组,肾小管间质损害改善,且以高剂量组最显著.与模型组比较,黄葵各组足细胞的足突损伤减轻,足突融合程度和范围均有所改善,以高剂量组最显著.黄葵各组肾组织nephrin表达较模型组增加.结论 黄葵能减少阿霉素肾病大鼠的蛋白尿,减轻肾组织损伤和慢性化,其机制可能与改善足细胞病变有关.%Objective To explore the effect of Sunset Abelmoschus on podocyte injury in adriamycin-induced nephropathy rats.Methods Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups:sham operation group (n=10),model group (n=10),Sunset Abelmoschus low dose group (0.5 g·kg-1· d-1 n=10),middle dose group (1.0 g· kg-1· d-1,n=10) and high dose group (2.0 g· kg-1· d-1,n=10).Unilateral nephrectomy combined repeated adriamycin injection were performed to establish

  6. Sunset Song:An Elegy for the Primitive Golden Age%《落日之歌》:原始黄金时代的挽歌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡怡君

    2012-01-01

    The representative novel of the twentieth century Scottish writer Lewis Grassic Gibbon,Sunset Song, unfolds a historical scene of the transition from the old to the new in a Scottish village. Based on diffu- sionism and some ideas from the Scottish Enlightenment movement, he shows in the novel a sentimental at- tachment to the primitive golden age and at the same time the hopelessness when witnessing the destruction modern civilization wrought to the old life style. In the novel, the primitive golden age represented by the earth is impinged upon and then replaced by modern civilization. Gibbon's novel thus could be treated as an elegy for the primitive golden age.%20世纪初苏格兰作家刘易斯.格拉斯科·吉本的代表作《落日之歌》展示了一幅苏格兰农村新旧时代交替的图景。他在作品中表达了对原始农耕社会的眷恋之情,同时也表现了在现代工业文明给旧生活方式带来冲击时人的无奈和悲剧。小说中土地代表着吉本眼中的原始黄金时代,土地与现代文明诸多因素的冲突一一反映在小说情节中。整本小说可视为对原始黄金时代的一曲挽歌。

  7. Condensation of Self-Assembled Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow in Aqueous Solutions Crowded with Polyethylene Glycol and Doped with Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heung-Shik; Kang, Shin-Woong; Tortora, Luana; Kumar, Satyendra; Lavrentovich, Oleg D. (Chonbuk); (Kent)

    2012-10-10

    We use optical and fluorescence microscopy, densitometry, cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray scattering to study the phase behavior of the reversible self-assembled chromonic aggregates of an anionic dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) in aqueous solutions crowded with an electrically neutral polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doped with the salt NaCl. PEG causes the isotropic SSY solutions to condense into a liquid-crystalline region with a high concentration of SSY aggregates, coexisting with a PEG-rich isotropic (I) region. PEG added to the homogeneous nematic (N) phase causes separation into the coexisting N and I domains; the SSY concentration in the N domains is higher than the original concentration of PEG-free N phase. Finally, addition of PEG to the highly concentrated homogeneous N phase causes separation into the coexisting columnar hexagonal (C) phase and I phase. This behavior can be qualitatively explained by the depletion (excluded volume) effects that act at two different levels: at the level of aggregate assembly from monomers and short aggregates and at the level of interaggregate packing. We also show a strong effect of a monovalent salt NaCl on phase diagrams that is different for high and low concentrations of SSY. Upon the addition of salt, dilute I solutions of SSY show appearance of the condensed N domains, but the highly concentrated C phase transforms into a coexisting I and N domains. We suggest that the salt-induced screening of electric charges at the surface of chromonic aggregates leads to two different effects: (a) increase of the scission energy and the contour length of aggregates and (b) decrease of the persistence length of SSY aggregates.

  8. 高效液相色谱法测定糕点中的柠檬黄、日落黄%Determination of Lemon Yellow and Sunset Yellow in Pastry by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳

    2014-01-01

    The method for determination of lemon yellow and sunset yellow in pastry by high performance liquid chromatography was established. Samples was extracted by water immersion, and mixed rapidly by vortex mixer, and than soaked overnight. After taking centrifugal supernatant, lemon yellow and sunset yellow were determined with gradient elution of methanol and ammonium acetate solution by UV detector at 430 nm and 482 nm, respectively. The linear correlation coefficient was 0.999, and the detection limit of lemon yellow and sunset yellow was 0.4 and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively. The recovery was 72.5%-82.0%,and the relative standard deviation of determination results was 4.8%and 3.7%(n=5) for lemon yellow and sunset yellow. This method is simple and quick approach with less reagent,reducing the impurity interference and increasing the sensitivity at the same time.%建立高效液相色谱法测定糕点中的柠檬黄、日落黄的方法。样品经水浸泡提取,于涡旋混匀器中快速混匀,浸泡放置过夜,取离心后的上清液,以甲醇和乙酸铵溶液梯度淋洗,用紫外检测器检测,柠檬黄、日落黄分别采用430 nm和482 nm检测波长。线性相关系数为0.999,柠檬黄、日落黄的检出限分别为0.4,0.3 mg/kg。样品加标回收率为72.5%~82.0%,柠檬黄、日落黄测定结果的相对标准偏差分别为4.8%和3.7%(n=5)。方法简便快捷,节省试剂,减少了杂质干扰,提高了灵敏度。

  9. Moonrise: Sampling the South Pole-Aitken Basin to Address Problems of Solar System Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    A mission to land in the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the Moon's southern farside and return a sample to Earth for analysis is a high priority for Solar System Science. Such a sample would be used to determine the age of the SPA impact; the chronology of the basin, including the ages of basins and large impacts within SPA, with implications for early Solar System dynamics and the magmatic history of the Moon; the age and composition of volcanic rocks within SPA; the origin of the thorium signature of SPA with implications for the origin of exposed materials and thermal evolution of the Moon; and possibly the magnetization that forms a strong anomaly especially evident in the northern parts of the SPA basin. It is well known from studies of the Apollo regolith that rock fragments found in the regolith form a representative collection of many different rock types delivered to the site by the impact process (Fig. 1). Such samples are well documented to contain a broad suite of materials that reflect both the local major rock formations, as well as some exotic materials from far distant sources. Within the SPA basin, modeling of the impact ejection process indicates that regolith would be dominated by SPA substrate, formed at the time of the SPA basin-forming impact and for the most part moved around by subsequent impacts. Consistent with GRAIL data, the SPA impact likely formed a vast melt body tens of km thick that took perhaps several million years to cool, but that nonetheless represents barely an instant in geologic time that should be readily apparent through integrated geochronologic studies involving multiple chronometers. It is anticipated that a statistically significant number of age determinations would yield not only the age of SPA but also the age of several prominent nearby basins and large craters within SPA. This chronology would provide a contrast to the Imbrium-dominated chronology of the nearside Apollo samples and an independent test of the timing of the lunar cataclysm.

  10. The sunset of Utopian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Castro Orellana

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza, en primer lugar, la representación del espacio urbano que se articula en algunos de los relatos utópicos clásicos (Moro, Campanella. En estos escritos nos encontramos ante una propuesta de sociedad ideal como expresión de la voluntad ordenadora de la razón humana que se enfrenta a la naturaleza y que apuesta por la edificación de un futuro mejor. En este contexto, las ciudades soñadas por las utopías deben considerarse como esbozos imaginarios de un concepto de construcción real que determinó significativamente buena parte de la modernidad urbana. Dicha voluntad utópica ha sufrido un importante resquebrajamiento a partir de la segunda mitad del Siglo XX, como lo testimonian una serie de relatos contra-utópicos en la literatura (Orwell, Huxley o Dick y, sobre todo, en la cinematografía reciente (Blade Runner, Brazil o Matrix. Este desplazamiento en el diseño de las ciudades del futuro trae consigo una inversión en los códigos del discurso utópico, que sería fiel reflejo de la experiencia contemporánea del sujeto en el espacio urbano y consecuencia del desarrollo y la crisis de la modernidad occidental. Todo esto implica, además, una mutación decisiva en la noción de futuro que afectaría sustancialmente a nuestra civilización de principios del Siglo XXI.

  11. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.; Forster, C.; Jenkins, C.; Schamel, S.; Sprinkel, D.; and Swain, R.

    1999-02-01

    This project reactivates ARCO's idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming was used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project completed in December 1996. During the demonstration phase begun in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery is testing the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having simular producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially t o other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  12. ALTAIR Radar Plasma Drifts and in situ Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements on Two Sounding Rockets and the C/NOFS Satellite in the Low Latitude Ionosphere at Sunset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudeki, Erhan; Pfaff, Robert; Rowland, Douglas; Klenzing, Jeffrey; Freudenreich, Henry

    2016-07-01

    We present ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar plasma drifts and in situ electric field, magnetic field, and plasma density measurements made simultaneously with probes on two sounding rockets and the C/NOFS satellite in the low latitude ionosphere in the vicinity of Kwajalein Atoll. The coincident data were gathered during sunset conditions prior to a spread-F event during the NASA EVEX Campaign. The sounding rocket apogees were 180 km and 330 km, while the C/NOFS altitude in this region was ~ 390 km. Electric field data from all three platforms display upwards vertical plasma drifts, while the zonal drifts change direction as a function of altitude and/or local time. The variable drifts provide evidence of a dynamic plasma environment which may contribute to the unstable conditions necessary for spread-F instabilities to form.

  13. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Steven

    1999-07-08

    This project reactivates ARCO's idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steam was used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project completed in December 1996. During the demonstration phase begun in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery is testing the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objective of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  14. 柠檬黄、日落黄在含乳饮料中褪色分析及改进%Analysis and improvement on fading of tartrazine and sunset yellow in milk beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余立意; 薛玉清; 杨忻怡; 舒成亮; 欧凯; 李言郡; 马海然

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析人工偶氮类色素柠檬黄、日落黄在含乳饮料中的褪色原因。方法通过测定Lab值,比色法计算其ΔE值,对比柠檬黄和日落黄与β-胡萝卜素在普通水体系以及含乳体系中的褪色速率,同时设计试验对比以乳清分离蛋白和酪朊酸钠作为蛋白质来源体系中复配柠檬黄日落黄色素的褪色速度,并使用 Ellman’s法测定两者体系中巯基的数量。通过测定不同浓度半胱氨酸体系中复配柠檬黄日落黄色素的褪色情况,验证巯基数量对合成偶氮类色素褪色的影响。结果在普通水体系中复配柠檬黄日落黄稳定性较好,褪色速度较慢,而在含乳体系中复配柠檬黄日落黄色素的褪色速度快于天然色素。Ellman’s法测定乳清分离蛋白的巯基数量远远大于酪朊酸钠,同时乳清蛋白体系中复配柠檬黄日落黄色素褪色速度快于酪朊酸钠体系。半胱氨酸浓度梯度实验显示,半胱氨酸浓度越高复配柠檬黄日落黄色素褪色越快。结论通过不同实验法案能够确定,含乳饮料中的巯基是导致合成偶氮类色素快速褪色的原因之一。%ABSTRACT:Objective To analyze the reasons for the color fading of tartrazine and sunset yellow in milk beverages. Methods The fading rates of mixed artificial color and β-carotene in water as well as milk beverage systems were compared using the colorimetry and the value ofΔE. In addition, the fading rates of mixed artificial color in the systems of whey protein isolate and sodium caseinate were also compared, and Ellman’s method was applied to determine the amount of sulfhydryl groups in those two kinds of systems. The effect of sulfhydryl groups on the fading of tartrazine and sunset yellow was verified by testing the fading rate at different concentration of cysteine systems. Results The results showed that the artificial color was more stable thanβ-carotene in a non-milksystem, but in

  15. 柠檬黄、日落黄在含乳饮料中褪色分析及改进%Analysis and improvement on fading of tartrazine and sunset yellow in milk beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余立意; 薛玉清; 杨忻怡; 舒成亮; 欧凯; 李言郡; 马海然

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析人工偶氮类色素柠檬黄、日落黄在含乳饮料中的褪色原因。方法通过测定Lab值,比色法计算其ΔE值,对比柠檬黄和日落黄与β-胡萝卜素在普通水体系以及含乳体系中的褪色速率,同时设计试验对比以乳清分离蛋白和酪朊酸钠作为蛋白质来源体系中复配柠檬黄日落黄色素的褪色速度,并使用 Ellman’s法测定两者体系中巯基的数量。通过测定不同浓度半胱氨酸体系中复配柠檬黄日落黄色素的褪色情况,验证巯基数量对合成偶氮类色素褪色的影响。结果在普通水体系中复配柠檬黄日落黄稳定性较好,褪色速度较慢,而在含乳体系中复配柠檬黄日落黄色素的褪色速度快于天然色素。Ellman’s法测定乳清分离蛋白的巯基数量远远大于酪朊酸钠,同时乳清蛋白体系中复配柠檬黄日落黄色素褪色速度快于酪朊酸钠体系。半胱氨酸浓度梯度实验显示,半胱氨酸浓度越高复配柠檬黄日落黄色素褪色越快。结论通过不同实验法案能够确定,含乳饮料中的巯基是导致合成偶氮类色素快速褪色的原因之一。%Objective To analyze the reasons for the color fading of tartrazine and sunset yellow in milk beverages. MethodsThe fading rates of mixed artificial color andβ-carotene in water as well as milk beverage systems were compared using the colorimetry and the value ofΔE. In addition, the fading rates of mixed artificial color in the systems of whey protein isolate and sodium caseinate were also compared, and Ellman’s method was applied to determine the amount of sulfhydryl groups in those two kinds of systems. The effect of sulfhydryl groups on the fading of tartrazine and sunset yellow was verified by testing the fading rate at different concentration of cysteine systems.ResultsThe results showed that the artificial color was more stable thanβ-carotene in a non-milksystem, but in milk beverage

  16. 液相-子空间夹角判据联用分析饮料中的柠檬黄和日落黄%Analysis of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow in Drinks Based on HPLC and Vector-Subspace Angle Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋光均; 刘柳; 粟晖; 孙增强; 罗嘉利

    2015-01-01

    通过液相-光谱联用,采用向量-子空间夹角判据进行计算,建立了饮料中柠檬黄和日落黄的分析方法。该方法先采用全波长光纤光谱仪建立不同浓度柠檬黄和日落黄的标准光谱数据库,以及市售碳酸型饮料和功能型饮料的样品光谱数据,再进行液相-光谱联用,得到扣除饮料中待测组分后的本底光谱数据;运用向量-子空间夹角判据进行计算饮料中柠檬黄和日落黄的含量。试验结果表明,在3~30μg/mL内柠檬黄和日落黄的标准工作曲线线性关系良好(R2柠檬黄=0.9976,R2日落黄=0.9998);向量-子空间夹角判据计算结果与高效液相色谱法测定结果比较,相对误差小于2.5%,样本加标回收率为89.5%~109.0%, RSD为4.9%~6.1%,该方法能满足定量分析需求。%In this paper,a new analysis method for testing tartrazine and the sunset yellow in drinks was established based on vector-subspace criterion with high performance liquid chromatography and spectrometer. At first, the spectral databases of the drinks and the standard spectral databases of tartrazine, sunset yellow were constructed by multi-wavelength spectrometer. Then the multi-wavelength UV spectral databases of drinks background were constructed after the tartrazine or the sunset yellow was decucted from drinks by HPLC-spectrometer, respectively. Three kinds of spectral libraries were computed to analysis for determinating the tartrazine and the sunset yellow in drinks based on Vector-subspace angle criterion. The results showed that the linear relationship of standard curve of tartrazine and sunset yellow were good in the range of 3~30μg/mL (R2tartrazine=0.999 8,R2sunset yelow=0.999 8). Comparing the results of vector-space angle criterion with the results of high performance liquid chromatography, the RSDs were less than 2.50%. And the recoveries of tartrazine, sunset yellow were 89.5%~109.0%with RSDs of 4.9%~6.1%, so the method met the requirement

  17. 谷物中柠檬黄和日落黄高效液相色谱检测方法的优化%Optimization of the Test of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow in Cereals by Means of HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初红涛; 张晖; 王军; 靳凤龙; 苏立强

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to explore an optimized method to measure the artificial pigment by means of high performance liquid chromatograph. [ Method] The gradient elution technique of HPLC was used to isolate and analyze tartrazine and sunset yellow in the cereals. The pre-treatment temperature, ultrasonic time, the column temperature and the elution conditions were studied, and the best experimental conditions were confirmed. [Result] At 40 ℃ , the optimal chromatography analysis condition was moving phase, with pH (6. 8) , methanol/ water of acetic acid-ammonium acetate (0.02 mol/L) , and column temperature (35 ℃ ). Gradient elution condition was 20% -35% methanol, 3%/min; 35% -98% , 6%/min; 98% , 8 min. The content of tartrazine and sunset yellow in cereal was tested precisely by the means of HPLC. The average recoveries of standard addition were 97. 9% and 100. 2% , and the detection limit were 0.02 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg. [ Conclusion ] This method shortened the analysis time, improved the detection sensitivity and the resolution of artificial color.%[目的]探索利用高效液相色谱检测人工色素的优化方法.[方法]以高效液相色谱方法梯度洗脱,分离、分析谷物中的柠檬黄和日落黄,对前处理温度、超声时间、柱温、梯度洗脱条件进行考察,确定最佳检测条件.[结果]在样品前处理温度40℃下,最佳色谱分析条件为流动相为含pH为6.8的醋酸-醋酸铵(0.02moL/L)的甲醇/水混合液、柱温35℃,梯度洗脱条件甲醇:20%~35%,3%/min;35%~98%,6%/min;98%继续8min.采用HPLC优化法测定谷物中柠檬黄和日落黄含量的精密度良好,二者平均加样回收率分别为97.9%和100.2%,最低检出限分别为0.02、0.03mg/kg.[结论]该方法缩短了分析时间,提高了检测灵敏度和人工色素的分离度.

  18. Uncertainty evaluation for determining concentration of sunset yellow in biscuit by HPLC%液相色谱法测定饼干中日落黄含量的测量不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏大伟; 程江山; 郑玉芝

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for uncertainty evaluation of sunset yellow color content determination in biscuit by HPLC was established. By adopting layer modeling evaluation,the total determining uncertainty was evaluated. The uncertainty of external calibration curve was calculated by the least square method. And the result was revised by the recovery ratio. The results showed that the relative standard uncertainty was 0.618mg/kg, and the expand relative standard uncertainty was l.24mg/kg.%利用外标法测定日落黄含量的公式,建立了一个利用高效液相色谱法测定饼干中日落黄含量结果不确定度评定的数学模型,通过该模型对测量过程中不确定度的来源进行了逐层的分析和合成,对标准曲线的不确定度评定采用了最小二乘法,并通过t检验结果的判断,对结果用加标回收率进行了修正.通过对各变量的分析,计算各变量的不确定度,最后计算得出合成标准不确定度0.618mg/kg,扩展标准不确定度1.24mg/kg.

  19. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-05-24

    We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant kb, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-5) mol L(-1), with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(-8) mol L(-1) for SY and 1.43×10(-8) mol L(-1) for TT (SN(-1)=3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of SY and TT both involved a one-electron-one-proton-transfer process.

  20. 阴离子交换树脂结合近红外漫反射光谱测定碳酸饮料中日落黄%Determination of Sunset Yellow in Carbonated Drinks by Anion Exchange Resin in Combination with Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李积慧; 杜国荣; 康俊; 蔡文生; 邵学广

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic colorant sunset yellow in carbonated drinks was enriched by alkaline anion exchange resin, and of the resin with adsorbate was measured directly by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIDRS). Then the calibration model was built by partial least squares (PLS)regression with 34 spiked samples and the concentrations were in the range of 0. 05-1.2 g/L. The coefficient of determination (R2) and standard deviation of the calibration model were 0.9883 and 0.0187,respectively. Meanwhile, three concentrated commercial drinks with sunset yellow were. used for validation and the recoveries of sunset yellow were 95.01%, 105.8% and 99.54%. As a result, the trace amount of sunset yellow in commercial samples with interference was quantitatively detected and the sensitivity of near infrared spectroscopy technology was improved by this preconcentration method.%采用强碱性阴离子交换树脂富集饮料中的合成食用色素日落黄,用近红外漫反射光谱技术直接测定富集有色素的树脂.将34个模拟样品建模,日落黄浓度范围为0.05~1.2g/L.以柠檬黄和亮丽春红5R为干扰,经偏最小二乘回归建模,得到决定系数为0.9883,标准偏差为0.0187的稳健模型.定量预测3种不同市售饮料中的日落黄,回收率分别为95.1%,105.8%和99.5%.富集使样品的最小检出浓度达到9.94mg/L.方法提高了近红外光谱技术的检测灵敏度,实现了饮料中微量日落黄的定量测定.

  1. The association of leisure-time physical activity and active commuting with measures of socioeconomic position in a multiethnic population living in the Netherlands: results from the cross-sectional SUNSET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Munter Jeroen SL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most European origin populations measures of socioeconomic position are positively associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA, this is unclear for active commuting. In addition, these associations have scarcely been studied in ethnic minority groups, who often have a high cardiovascular disease risk. Because of the expected public health potential, we assessed the relationship of active commuting and LTPA with measures of socioeconomic position across two large ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands as compared to the European-Dutch population. Methods We included South Asian-Surinamese (n = 370, African-Surinamese (n = 689, and European-Dutch (n = 567 from the cross-sectional population-based SUNSET study (2001–2003. Active commuting and LTPA were assessed by the SQUASH physical activity questionnaire and calculated in square-root-transformed metabolic equivalents of task-hours/week (SQRTMET. Socioeconomic position was indicated by level of education (low/high and occupational class (low/high. We used age-adjusted linear regression models to assess the association between physical activity and socioeconomic position. Results Compared to the European-Dutch men, South Asian-Surinamese men engaged in lower levels of commuting activity and LTPA, and South Asian-Surinamese women engaged in lower levels of LTPA than their European-Dutch counterparts. Differences between the African Surinamese and the European-Dutch were small. We observed a positive gradient in active commuting activity for education in European-Dutch men (beta high education was 0.93, 95%CI: 0.45-1.40 SQRTMET higher versus low education, in South Asian-Surinamese men (beta: 0.56, 0.19-0.92, but not in African-Surinamese men (−0.06, -0.45-0.33, p for ethnicity-interaction = 0.002. In women we observed a positive gradient in active commuting activity and occupational class in European-Dutch women, and less strongly in South Asian

  2. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A green and facile approach for synthesis of β-CD-PDDA-Gr at room temperature. •We present the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE for simultaneous detection of SY and TT. •SY and TT's electrooxidations are both the one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. •Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of SY and TT were discussed. -- Abstract: We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant k{sub b}, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 2.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1}, with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for SY and 1.43 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for TT (S N{sup −1} = 3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant

  3. "Sunrise" and "Sunset" of Lithuanian Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalis NAKROŠIS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the transformative approach, the NPM and post-NPM models this article explains the proliferation, autonomy, control and innovative behavior of Lithuanian agencies and other public sector organizations in the 1990-2010 period. While the expansion of governmental functions during Lithuania’s transition to democracy and its accession to the EU brought agencification in 1990-2004, the adoption of government-wide organizational reforms during the economic crisis marked the start of de-agencification in 2009- 2010. The degree of autonomy and control of the Lithuanian public sector organizations is largely explained by their legal basis and political salience of their tasks. Finally, in line with the post-NPM model, structural capacities and participation in networks have a strong impact on innovative behavior of these organizations.

  4. SUNSETTING THE ICC: IS IT REALLY DEAD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Stone

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC was created in 1887 to regulate railroads. By the mid-1970’s it had grown into the premier independent agency in the federal government, regulating all domestic transport modes except air. But starting in the ‘70’s, the Commission began to shrink in both size and power. By 1995’s end, it disappeared, and was replaced by the Surface Transportation Board (STB that regulates only railroads, although to a lesser extent than the ICC had. There remains the question of whether the ICC is really dead or just renamed.

  5. Prevalence of anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) during sunset in areas of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant in Guaira County, State of Parana, Brazil; Prevalencia de anofelinos (Diptera: Culicidae) no crepusculo vespertino em areas da Usina Hidreletrica de Itaipu, no Municipio de Guaira, Estado do Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Anthony Erico; Mello, Rubens Pinto de; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Alencar, Jeronimo; Gentile, Carla [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Diptera

    1997-11-01

    Systematic collections of anophelines were conducted from November 1995 to August 1995 from 18:00 to 20:00 hr using Shannon traps and human-bait along the lake margin which forms the Itaipu Hydroelectric Reservoir, State of Parana, Brazil. Species prevalence was studied at 15 min intervals. Anopheles albitarsis sensu latu and An. galvaoi, were the most frequently collected mosquitoes. All Anopheles species populations peaked between 18:45 and 19:30 hr. The observations illustrate the existence of haematophagic activity cycle during the early evening hours: exogenous stimulus (the beginning of sunset) Shannon trap (light attraction) human bait (haematophagy) rest and digestion exogenous stimulus Shannon trap or surrounding vegetation. The greater abundance of An. albitarsis collected in human-bait and Shannon trap suggests it may be a potential malaria vector in the region. (author) 20 refs.

  6. Analysis of tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake in foods by capillary zone electrophoresis%食品中柠檬黄铝色淀和日落黄铝色淀的毛细管区带电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一丁; 常翠兰; 郭启雷; 曹红; 白玉; 刘虎威

    2014-01-01

    A novel analytical method for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake using capillary zone electrophoresis(CZE)was studied. The pigments contained in the col-or lakes were successfully separated from the aluminum matrix in the pre-treatment process, which included the following steps:dissolve the color lakes in 0. 1 mol / LH2 SO4 ,adjust the pH of the solution to 5. 0,then mix it with the solution of EDTA·2Na and heat it in a water bath, then use polyamide powder as the stationary phase of solid phase extraction to separate the pig-ments from the solution,and finally elute the pigments with 0. 1 mol / L NaOH. The CZE condi-tions systematically optimized for tartrazine aluminum lake were:48. 50cm of a fused silica capillary with 40. 00cm effective length and 50 μm i. d.,the temperature controlled at 20. 0 ℃ , 29. 0kV applied,HPO 2-4 -PO 3-4(0. 015 mol / L,pH 11. 45)solution as running buffer,detection at 263 nm. The conditions for sunset yellow aluminum lake were:the same capillary and tempera-ture,25. 0kV applied,HPO 2-4 -PO 3-4(0. 025mol / L,pH 11. 45)solution as running buffer,detec-tion at 240 nm. The limits of detection were 0. 26 mg / L and 0. 27mg / L,and the linear ranges were 0. 53 - 1. 3 × 102 mg / L and 0. 54 - 1. 4 × 102mg / L for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake,respectively. The RSDs were 4. 3% and 5. 7%(run to run,n = 6),5. 6%and 6. 0%(day to day,n = 6)for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. Further developments for this method could make it a routinely used method ana-lyzing color lakes in foods.%发展了一种新的采用毛细管区带电泳分析柠檬黄铝色淀和日落黄铝色淀的方法。通过前处理步骤成功实现了铝色淀中铝基质与色素的分离。利用石英毛细管柱(48.50 cm(有效长度40.00 cm)×50μm),分别针对柠檬黄铝色淀和日落黄铝色淀进行了电泳条件的优化,并得到最优分离结果。所建

  7. Reactividad Química de los Azo Colorantes Amarillo Anaranjado y Rojo Allura mediante Descriptores Globales y la Función de Fukui Chemical Reactivity of the Azo dyes Sunset Yellow and Allura Red by Global Descriptors and the Fukui Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo E Ensuncho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se calcularon descriptores globales y locales de la reactividad para los colorantes amarillo anaranjado y rojo allura con el fin de analizar su reactividad química intrínseca. Los cálculos computacionales se llevaron a cabo tanto en vacio como en la fase acuosa, la cual se representó por medio de una constante dieléctrica de 78.5 e introducida por el modelo de solvente del continuo polarizado. Los resultados mostraron que el colorante rojo allura es menos susceptible a la adición nucleofílica que el amarillo anaranjado, ya que los sustituyentes electrodonadores metilo y metoxilo disminuyen la capacidad del grupo azo para aceptar electrones. El análisis de la función condensada de Fukui para el ataque nucleofílico e índice de electrofilicidad local, mostraron que el sitio preferido de ataque del agente reductor (ión bisulfito fue C4, lo cual estuvo en concordancia con los reportes experimentales.In the present work local and global descriptors of the reactivity were calculated for sunset yellow and allura red to analyze its intrinsic reactivity. The computational calculations were carried out in vacuum and aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is represented by a dielectric constant of 78.5, introduced by polarizable continuum model. The results show that allura red is less susceptible to nucleophilic addition than sunset yellow, because the electrodonor substituents methyl and methoxy decrease the capability of the azo group to accept electrons. The analysis of condensed Fukui function for a nucleophilic attack and local electrophilicity index showed that the preferred direction of attack the reducing agent (bisulfite ion occurs on C4, which was in good agreement with experimental reports.

  8. Subsistence hunting of Cuniculus pacain the middle of the Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Valsecchi

    Full Text Available Ungulates, large primates and caviomorfs are cited by Amazonian hunters as preferred species. In this research, paca (Cuniculus paca hunting was investigated in relation to water levels and the lunar cycle. In eight years of monitoring in the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, the killing of 625 pacas was registered in five monitored communities. Paca hunting took place mainly at night and the most commonly used method is “spotlighting”. A positive correlation between the number of pacas killed and water level (rs=0.890; p<0.0001 was found. At least 37% of the pacas were hunted when moon illumination level was less than 10%, before moonrise or after moonset. In the Boa Esperança community, capture of paca tended to decrease on nights with high moon illumination (rs= −0.663; p=0.067. At the same time, an expressive catch-per-unity-effort decrease was also observed in this community (r2= −0.881; p<0.001, allowing us to predict unsustainable hunting levels for the next decade. The stock of animals in these areas could be continuously replaced if surrounding areas consisted of continuous forests. However, continuous hunting and deforestation force local hunters to travel longer distances to kill prey such as pacas. The confirmation of the relation between paca habits and lunar illumination and water level, a pattern described by local hunters, demonstrates the potential value of participatory research and the possibility of integrating traditional knowledge into scientific knowledge.

  9. Study and orientation of the Mt. Oche `Dragon House' in Euboea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Katsiotis, M.; Papanikolaou, D.

    2009-07-01

    In southern Euboea, Central Greece, there are several megalithic buildings known as ‘drakospita’ (or dragon houses) whose builders and purpose are unknown. On 22 March 2002 and 4 July 2004 we visited the bestpreserved of all drakospita on top of Mt. Oche, measured its dimensions and calculated its orientation based on the azimuth of sunset and moonrise. A Sirius-rise orientation corresponding to ca 1100 B.C., not inconsistent with previous archaeological dating based on artefacts found inside the structure, indicates a religious/astronomical purpose for the building. It could probably be argued that at least the famous drakospito at Mt. Oche was not only a place of worship but also an ancient astronomical observatory.

  10. Comparison of preparative method during determination of tartrazine and sunset yellow water-solubility colour by HPLC in drinks%HPLC法测定饮料中色素柠檬黄、日落黄前处理方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡增轩; 黄百芬; 王天娇; 冯靓; 任一平

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of two preparative method during determination of tartrazine and sunset yellow water - solubility colour by HPLC in drinks. Methods: Preparation samples with two method respectively, and test the result with F - test and t - test after separation with HPLC. Rsesults: F - test were performed on the results of two methods, Fc < Ft. t - test were performed on the result after adjustment with recovery, tc < tt. Conclusion: There were no significant difference between two preparative methods.%目的:对HPLC法测定饮料中人工合成色素柠檬黄、日落黄时两种前处理方法进行比较.方法:分别以稀释和聚酰胺吸附处理样品,经色谱分离后对计算结果进行统计处理,对结果进行F检验和t检验.结果:经对两种前处理方法的结果进行F检验,F.经对回收率校正后的结果进行t检验,t.结论:两种前处理方法的精密度和平均值无显著性差异.

  11. 自我身份的消解与重构--太宰治《斜阳》的成长主题解读%The Deconstruction and Reconstruction of Self-Identity--The Growth Theme of Osamu Dazai’s Sunset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷婷; 徐旻

    2013-01-01

      Sunset is a Japanese novel written after the Second World War, in which the confused ideas of the time make the author, Osamu Dazai, stick to the value system rebuilt in his inner world. But he suffered oppressions inevitably from both social reality and traditional conventions. The novel unveils the puzzlement and disillusion brought about by the deconstruction of self-identity, as well as reflects the growing-up process during the protagonist’s reconstruction of self-identity, which also implicates the developing process of the author’s own spirit. The fictional and realistic elements interweaving with each other constitute the growth theme in both transparent and obscure ways.%  《斜阳》创作于二战后的日本,混乱的时代思潮促使作者太宰治坚守自我内部重构的价值体系,却不可避免遭遇来自社会现实与传统制度的压抑。作品揭示了自我身份的消解带来的困惑与幻灭,着力刻画了女主人公在重构自我身份中的成长,同时蕴含着作者本人的精神成长历程。这种虚构与现实的要素共同构成了小说明暗交织的成长主题。

  12. A Comparison Study on the Interaction of Sunset Yellow and β-Carotene with Bovine Serum Albumin%日落黄和β-胡萝卜素与牛血清白蛋白相互作用的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张方圆; 倪永年

    2012-01-01

    Interaction of Sunset yellow (SY) and β-carotene (BC) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated under simulated physiological conditions by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence, UV-Vis, FT-IR and CD). Both SY and BC quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic parameters (△H, △S, and △) obtained from the fluorescence data measured at three different temperatures indicated that the binding of SY to BSA involved electrostatic force, and that of BC to BSA mainly by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. The binding sites number n and binding constants Ka were also obtained. The result of FT-IR spectra and CD showed that the binding of SY to BSA induced conformational changes in BSA.%在模拟生理pH条件(pH=7.4)下,采用多种光谱法研究日落黄和β-胡萝卜素与BSA的相互作用,并比较两者与BSA相互作用过程的差异性.通过荧光光谱法和紫外吸收光谱法确定了日落黄和β-胡萝卜素对牛血清白蛋白的荧光猝灭机制,采用Stern—Volmer、双对数方程和热力学公式求出相互作用的猝灭常数、结合常数配、结合位点数月和作用力类型.结果表明:日落黄和β-胡萝卜素对BSA的猝灭属于静态猝灭,两者与BSA的民都达到10^5L/mol,结合位点数均为1,日落黄与BSA的作用力以静电引力为主,而β-胡萝卜素则是通过氢键和范德华力与BSA作用.通过红外光谱法和圆二色谱法研究了二者对BSA构象的影响,结果表明,日落黄与BSA作用的过程中,会引起BSA二级结构的改变,而β-胡萝卜素则对BSA的构象基本不产生影响.

  13. Citotoxicity of food dyes sunset yellow (E-110, bordeaux red (E-123, and tatrazine yellow (E-102 on Allium cepa L. root meristematic cells Citotoxicidade dos corantes alimentares amarelo crepúsculo (E-110, vermelho bordeaux (E-123 e amarelo tartrazina (E-102 em células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiva Maria Silva Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the food dyes sunset yellow, bordeaux red, and tartrazine yellow on the cellular cycle of Allium cepa L. Each dye was evaluated at the doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL, at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Slides were prepared and cells were analyzed during the whole cell cycle for cellular aberrations totaling 5,000 total cells for each dose evaluated. The mitotic index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test (p Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito citotóxico dos corantes alimentares amarelo crepúsculo, vermelho bordeaux e amarelo tartrazina sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Cada corante foi avaliado nas doses de 0,4 e 4,0 mL, nos tempos de exposição de 24 e 48 horas, em células de pontas de raízes de Allium cepa L. Prepararam-se lâminas e analisaram-se células, em todo o ciclo celular, e a presença de aberrações celulares, totalizando 5.000 células para cada dose avaliada. Foi calculado o índice mitótico e a análise estatística foi feita por meio do teste quiquadrado (p < 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que os três corantes, nas doses e tempos de exposição avaliados, foram citotóxicos às células do sistema-teste utilizado. Estudos adicionais de citotoxicidade devem ser conduzidos para se somar a estes resultados e, assim, avaliar, com propriedade, a ação destes três corantes em nível celular.

  14. 76 FR 288 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... production of the agricultural products because of the availability of wholly nonsynthetic substitute products, or (c) inconsistent with organic farming and handling. Renewals After considering all public... that no chemicals should be allowed for use in organic products. Most commenters provided specific...

  15. 76 FR 31495 - National Organic Program, Sunset Review (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...-established and accepted organic production, handling, and processing systems. Therefore, the NOP is....601(e)(4) Copper sulfate--for use as tadpole shrimp November 3, 2013. control in aquatic rice... naturally occurring plant, animal, or mineral, sources? . 3. Is the substance created by naturally occurring...

  16. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Ban the sunset? Nonpropositional content and regulation of pharmaceutical advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegler, Paul; Vargas, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The risk that direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription pharmaceuticals (DTCA) may increase inappropriate medicine use is well recognized. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration addresses this concern by subjecting DTCA content to strict scrutiny. Its strictures are, however, heavily focused on the explicit claims made in commercials, what we term their "propositional content." Yet research in social psychology suggests advertising employs techniques to influence viewers via nonpropositional content, for example, images and music. We argue that one such technique, evaluative conditioning, is operative in DTCA. We further argue that evaluative conditioning fosters unjustified beliefs about drug safety and efficacy, antagonising the autonomy of viewers' choices about advertised medicines. We conclude that current guidelines are deficient in failing to account for evaluative conditioning, and that more research and debate are needed to determine the permissibility of this and other forms of nonpropositional persuasion.

  18. People's party, Skele, ride off into the sunset

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti Rahvapartei hääletas riigile illegaalsete valimiskulude võla maksmisest hoidumiseks partei kongressil tegevuse lõpetamise poolt, Andris Skele teatas poliitilise tegevuse lõpetamisest. Valdis Zatlersi uue reformipartei loomisest, seisukohtadest ning võimalikest liitujatest

  19. 75 FR 14500 - National Organic Program, Sunset Review (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ..., oligofructose enriched (CAS 9005-80-5); Konjac flour (CAS 37220-17-0); Lemongrass, frozen; Orange shellac..., oligofructose enriched (CAS 9005-80-5); Konjac flour (CAS 37220-17-0); Lemongrass, frozen; Orange shellac... written order of a licensed veterinarian; and (ii) A meat withdrawal period of at least 56 days after...

  20. 77 FR 33290 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... minerals at section 205.605(b) and sodium nitrate at section 205.602 will be dealt with in separate actions... the exception of the amendment to yeast at section 205.605(a) and the removal of sulfur dioxide at... comments on the proposed amendments for hops and lignin sulfonate and the proposed removal of...

  1. Driving into the Sunset: Supporting Cognitive Functioning in Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S.; Bunce, David

    2011-01-01

    The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challenge—how to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called “the older driver problem.” Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving. PMID:21748014

  2. Teaching through Trade Books: Sunrise, Sunset, and Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2015-01-01

    December brings the winter solstice, the day with the shortest amount of sunlight for the northern hemisphere. Students can notice the pattern of days getting darker earlier across the United States up to this point and then notice as the amount of sunlight starts to increase in the following months. Through making observations and collecting data…

  3. 78 FR 25879 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...-lactone-- Renew. production by the oxidation of D- glucose with bromine water is prohibited. 205.605(a) Tartaric acid--made Renew. from grape wine. Synthetic, nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as..., carrageenan, cellulose, calcium sulfate, glucono delta-lactone, and tartaric acid made from grape wine. AMS is...

  4. 78 FR 61154 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... delta-lactone--production by the oxidation Renew. of D-glucose with bromine water is prohibited. 205.605(a) Tartaric acid--made from grape wine Renew. Synthetic, nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances... 1: agar- agar, animal enzymes, carrageenan, tartaric acid--made from grape wine, calcium sulfate...

  5. Multicultural Astronomy Learning Using Sunrise and Sunset Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalha, T.

    2008-06-01

    Effective learning mixed with enjoyable activities needs a suitable environment different from the normal curriculum that we (the teachers) and the students are familiar with. On this note, Astronomy activities are attractive and involving. We believe that there is always room to propose educational projects that are implemented outside the classroom walls. In this conference, we will give practical examples of Astronomy Peace Projects that were implemented in middle schools (for Jews, Christians, Moslems and Druzes) in Israel, during the 2002-2007 school years.

  6. People's party, Skele, ride off into the sunset

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti Rahvapartei hääletas riigile illegaalsete valimiskulude võla maksmisest hoidumiseks partei kongressil tegevuse lõpetamise poolt, Andris Skele teatas poliitilise tegevuse lõpetamisest. Valdis Zatlersi uue reformipartei loomisest, seisukohtadest ning võimalikest liitujatest

  7. Material Support of Terrorists and Foreign Terrorist Organizations: Sunset Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-11

    vague, and the “boilerplate” First Amendment clause does nothing to supply greater clarity, Humanitarian Law Project v. Gonzales , F.Supp.2d , (C.D. Cal...739 (9th Cir. 2002); United States v. Felix- Gutierrez , 940 F.2d 1200, 1204-205 (9th Cir. 1991). CRS-8 18 U.S.C. 37 (violence at

  8. 76 FR 46595 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... received on Microorganisms emphasized the critical need for microorganisms in organic food processing for...: (202) 720-3252; Fax: (202) 205-7808. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Organic Foods...), Microorganisms, Activated charcoal (CAS s 7440-44-0; 64365-11-3), Cyclohexylamine (CAS...

  9. 77 FR 1996 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... soil bacterium Streptomyces griseus and can be used to control bacterial disease in crops.\\10\\ In... potential for antibiotic overuse, potential for development of antibiotic resistance, and the impact of... exemption for streptomycin for plant disease control in organic crop production at Sec. 205.601(i)(11) as...

  10. Driving into the Sunset: Supporting Cognitive Functioning in Older Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Young

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challenge—how to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called “the older driver problem.” Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving.

  11. Pre-Hispanic Sanctuaries in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Cultural astronomy studies in the Canarian archipelago now have a tradition spanning two decades. The statistical relevance of astronomical implications for a certain number of sites and the spectacular character of some of the astronomical hierophanies discovered - with low probability of having been produced by chance in most cases - clearly points to an intentionality in the astronomical relationships discovered so far. All these arguments strongly suggest that tracking the movement of the celestial bodies was an important consideration in the erection and purpose of many pre-Hispanic sanctuaries. The alignment of footprint engravings at Montaña Tindaya, and the major lunistice moonrise at Roque Nublo and the summer solstice sunset at Teide, as observed from the sacred sites of Bentaiga and Gamona, respectively, may also be catalogued as outstanding examples of the strong relationship between astronomy and landscape in ancient Canary Islands culture. The recently discovered light-and-shadow effects at Risco Caído will also be briefly discussed.

  12. Drying, phase separation, and deposition in droplets of sunset yellow chromonic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Adam; Davidson, Zoey S.; Huang, Yongyang; Still, Tim; Zhou, Chao; Yodh, A. G.

    We investigate the drying process and the final deposition patterns of multi-phase sessile droplets containing aqueous lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LC). The experiments employ a variety of optical techniques including profilometry, polarization optical microscopy and optical coherence microscopy. An unusual hierarchical LC assembly is observed during drying; in particular, LC mesogens are first formed at the start of drying and then compartments of isotropic, nematic and columnar phases arise. Nonuniform evaporation creates concentration gradients in droplets such that LC phases emerge from the outer edge of the drop and advance to the center over the course of drying. Distinct outward flows associated with the ``coffee-ring effect'' are seen initially, but the assembly of the mesogens creates viscosity, density, and surface tension gradients that effectively introduce new convective flows and complex LC phase boundaries within the drop. Finally, we show that the final deposit shape of chromonic materials changes with rate of evaporation. We gratefully acknowledge financial support through NSF DMR12-05463, MRSEC DMR11-20901, NASA NNX08AO0G, and NSF DBI-1455613.

  13. Orthorectified Photomosaic for Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthophotos combine the image characteristics of a photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. The primary digital orthophotoquad (DOQ) is a 1-meter ground...

  14. The Sunset Supply Base: Long Term COTS Supportability, Implementing Affordable Methods and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    cost effective technology insertion in fielded Navy systems. Based on a defined �Target Market�, a � Marketing Mix � is defined that identifies a series...Based on a defined Target Market, a Marketing Mix is defined that identifies a series of marketing actions to achieve a competitive advantage for the...481 B. MARKETING MIX ................................................................................ 482

  15. 77 FR 1979 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012) for Nutrient Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... different sectors of the organic market (i.e. infant formula, baby food, fluid milk, breakfast cereals, and... FDAs fortification policy include certain forms of DHA and ARA in fluid milk and dairy products, and... food, fluid milk, breakfast cereals, and pet food) that will be impacted by this action would...

  16. Infrared Astronomy with Arrays: The Next Generation; Sunset Village, Los Angeles, CA, Oct. 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, Ian S.

    1994-01-01

    Conference papers on infrared array techniques and methods for infrared astronomy are presented. Topics covered include the following: infrared telescopes; infrared spectrometers; spaceborne astronomy; astronomical observatories; infrared cameras; imaging techniques; sky surveys; infrared photography; infrared photometry; infrared spectroscopy; equipment specifications; data processing and analysis; control systems; cryogenic equipment; adaptive optics; image resolution; infrared detector materials; and focal plane arrays.

  17. Toxicological impact of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food coloring agents in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPMS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed M.Hashem, Attia H.Atta, Mahmoud S. Arbid, Somaia A. Nada, Samar M. Mouneir and Gihan Farag Asaad (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt (pages 43-51

  18. Misfortunes, memories and sunsets: non-professional images in Dutch news media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantti, M.; Bakker, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the professional news media, invitations to submit photos and video material are the most common means of allowing citizens to participate in the content production, as opposed to merely commenting on professional material. Based on interviews with leading journalists in different media in the Ne

  19. Oil and gas - a sunset industry? The role of petroleum in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses (1) issues where insights and perceptions have improved over the last 25 years of oil and gas history, (2) summarises some of the most important changes or trends that have shaped energy industries and that are expected to affect developments in the future, and (3) discusses issues that should be considered when it is discussed what the future may bring to the Norwegian petroleum industry and to the energy industries in general. Because of the petroleum activities in the North Sea, Norway is soon the 7th biggest oil producer and is becoming the most important supplier to the Continental gas market. 41 refs., 45 figs., 1 tab.

  20. 76 FR 12939 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... International Trade Administration Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy. The Department has conducted an... antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930,...

  1. South Korea-North Korea Relations: Sunshine's Final Sunset? Maybe Not

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aidan Foster-Carter

    2016-01-01

      North Korea's decision to start the new year with a bang -- its fourth nuclear test, carried out on January 6 -- guaranteed a downturn in inter-Korean ties, and in the DPRK's relations with the international community...

  2. Toxicological impact of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food coloring agents in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    JPMS

    2011-01-01

    Mohamed M.Hashem, Attia H.Atta, Mahmoud S. Arbid, Somaia A. Nada, Samar M. Mouneir and Gihan Farag Asaad (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt) (pages 43-51)

  3. Voedingsstatus van Hindoestaanse en Creoolse Surinamers en autochtone Nederlanders in Nederland : Het SUNSET-onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman J; van Valkengoed IGM; de Boer EJ; Nicolaou M; van der A DL; CVG

    2011-01-01

    Dit onderzoek toont aan dat de vitamine D status met name in Surinamers en de ijzerstatus van vrouwen in de vruchtbare leeftijd in het algemeen ontoereikend zijn. Daarnaast is aandacht nodig voor de matige vitamine D-status (< 50 nmol/L) bij autochtone Nederlanders, matige vitamine B12-status in

  4. 77 FR 59287 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012) for Nutrient Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... policy at 21 CFR 104.20 provides for the rational addition of essential nutrients to food for human... to specify that only vitamins and minerals which are declared essential for food in 21 CFR 101.9 and... . \\b\\ Some of the DHA and ARA used in organic products is derived from fish oil, currently provided...

  5. ETV VR/VS SUNSET LABORATORY MODEL 4 OC-EC FIELD ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a verification report statement that describes the verification test which was conducted over a period of approximately 30 days (April 5 to May 7, 2013) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate Model 4 OC-EC analyzers at the Battelle Columbus Operations Special ...

  6. 77 FR 44429 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... / Monday, July 30, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: This document...) 205-7808. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On June 6, 2012, the Agricultural Marketing Service...

  7. False Dawns, Bleak Sunset: The Coalition Government's Policies on Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The Coalition Government's policies on career guidance are analysed. Its rhetorical concern for career guidance provision is based largely on its support for social mobility, and its recognition of the role of career guidance in moving towards a demand-led skills system. Initial policy statements affirmed its intention to establish an all-age…

  8. Astronomical elements in the religious and funerary world of the ancient Iberians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban, César

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an archaeoastronomical study of 16 sacred and funerary Iberian sites. The work is based on the analysis of the orientation of architectural structures as well as the horizon surrounding each site. Seven of the sites surveyed (44% of them show relevant astronomical relations, mainly to the sunrise or sunset at the equinoxes. We find that most of the iberian sacred buildings not dedicated to cults of domestic character are oriented to the part of the horizon where the sunrise (or moonrise takes place. This pattern of orientations is similar to those shown by Greek, pre- Roman African and perhaps Phoenician and Punic temples, and definetively different to Roman and Etruscan patterns.

    Se presenta un análisis arqueoastronómico de la orientación de las estructuras arquitectónicas así como del horizonte que rodea a 16 yacimientos ibéricos de carácter religioso y funerario. Siete de los lugares estudiados (un 44% presentan relaciones astronómicas relevantes, principalmente con el orto u ocaso solar en los equinoccios. Por otra parte, se obtiene que la mayoría de los edificios de culto ibéricos no domésticos se encuentran orientados hacia la zona del horizonte donde se producen los ortos del sol (o la luna. Este patrón de orientaciones es similar al mostrado por los templos griegos, los africanos prerromanos y quizás también los púnicos y fenicios, pero diferente al romano y al etrusco.

  9. 78 FR 60850 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the... certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR 55805 (August 30, 2002). \\2\\ See Initiation of...

  10. 78 FR 692 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ....19.20. Although the HTS numbers are provided for convenience and customs purposes, the written... and Countervailing Duty Centralized Electronic Service System (``IA ACCESS''). IA ACCESS is available... directly on the Internet at http://ia.ita.doc.gov/ia/ . The signed Decision Memorandum and...

  11. 75 FR 13257 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... interested parties and Petitioners in the original investigation, Nation Ford Chemical Company and Sun... Color Index No. 51319 and Chemical Abstract No. 6358-30-1, with the chemical name of diindolo... the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigments dispersed...

  12. Equatorial Vortex Experiment (EVEX): A Study of the Ionospheric Plasma Circulation and the Sunset Layer from Kwajalein Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The approach is to measure ExB drifts (through electric field observations) in conjunction with E and F region turbulence observations. This will be accomplished...

  13. 75 FR 38463 - Greige Polyester Cotton Printcloth From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... International Trade Administration Greige Polyester Cotton Printcloth From the People's Republic of China: Final... Order; Greige Polyester Cotton Printcloth from the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 36927 (June 27... Antidumping Duty Order; Greige Polyester Cotton Printcloth from the People's Republic of China, 70 FR...

  14. 77 FR 75998 - Lemon Juice from Mexico: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... parties, The Coca-Cola Company and its subsidiary, The Coca-Cola Export Corporation, Mexico Branch... (percent) The Coca-Cola Export Corporation, Mexico Branch 146.10 Citrotam Internacional S.P.R. de...

  15. 76 FR 68404 - Uranium From the Russian Federation; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the Suspension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ..., the USSR dissolved and the United States subsequently recognized the twelve newly independent states... September 2008, Congress enacted legislation which codified many provisions in the amended Suspension...

  16. 76 FR 55351 - Artist Canvas from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... have been primed/coated, whether or not made from cotton, whether or not archival, whether bleached or... woven prepared painting and/or printing surfaces. Artist canvas and stretcher strips (whether or not... order is dispositive. \\1\\ Artist canvases with a non-copyrighted preprinted outline, pattern, or...

  17. 78 FR 73726 - Endangered Fish and Wildlife; Final Rule To Remove the Sunset Provision of the Final Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Georgia and Florida ( http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/shipstrike/routes.htm ; Lagueux et al., 2011); modifying... off Florida/Georgia (considering only the first season in which SMAs were in effect). Wiley et al... commercial whale-watch or ferry companies; two from public aquariums; and one from a commercial...

  18. 76 FR 54206 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... International Trade Administration Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited... review of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan. As a result of this... duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan \\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  19. As Time Passed by Came Sunset. Christen Købke’s 'View of Lake Sortedam', its Genesis and Colour Changes’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Vila Espuna, Anna; Wadum, Jørgen;

    2014-01-01

    -EDX. The genesis of the painting is described as well as the results of the pigment analyses showing colour changes in certain areas of the composition related to deterioration of the pigment Prussian blue. The admixture of the blue pigment with lead white as a determining factor in the fading is proposed...

  20. 78 FR 69646 - Sodium Nitrite From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... International Trade Administration Sodium Nitrite From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the... countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on sodium nitrite from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would be... sodium nitrite from the PRC, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``the...

  1. 75 FR 19364 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... this review are addressed in the ``Issues and Decision Memorandum'' (``Decision Memorandum'') from John.... Ltd., or Dongguan Haoshun Furniture Ltd Locke Furniture Factory, or Kai Chan Furniture Co., 7.24...

  2. 76 FR 30655 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ..., Coinbra-Frutesp (SA), Fischer S.A. Comercio, Industria, and Agricultura, Montecitrus Trading S.A., and... margin (percent) Fischer S.A. Comercio, Industria, and Agricultura *..... 12.46 Montecitrus Trading S.A 60.29 Sucocitrico Cutrale, S.A 19.19 All-Others Rate 16.51 * Fischer S.A. Comercio, Industria,...

  3. 76 FR 33243 - Sulfanilic Acid From India; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... production of optical brighteners, food colors, specialty dyes, and concrete additives. The principal... sulfanilic acid (sodium sulfanilate). Sulfanilic acid is a synthetic organic chemical produced from...

  4. 76 FR 73592 - Certain Lined Paper Products From Indonesia: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ..., 4811.90.9035, 4811.90.9050, 4811.90.9080, 4811.90.9090, 4820.10.2010, 4820.10.2020, 4820.10.2030, 4820... of the United States. The tariff classifications are provided for convenience and U.S. Customs...

  5. 78 FR 14771 - Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico: Termination of Suspension Agreement, Termination of Five-Year Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... tomatoes imported into the United States from Mexico provided written notice to the Department of Commerce... tomatoes from Mexico, the Department of Commerce is terminating the suspension agreement, terminating the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 76 FR 4865 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico: Final Results of the First Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Mexico: Final Results of the First Five... Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On September 29, 2010, the Department of Commerce...

  7. 77 FR 33420 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751(c) of the... certain activated carbon from the PRC would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping...

  8. 76 FR 76123 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Orders: Lined Paper Products From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... cover, a rear cover, and/or backing of any composition, regardless of the inclusion of images or.... Wenbao Paper Products Factory. Anhui Light Industries Foshan City Wenhai 78.38 International Co.,...

  9. 78 FR 21100 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of the Expedited Second... low enriched uranium (``LEU'') from France. The Department finds that revocation of this antidumping... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Low Enriched Uranium From France,...

  10. 78 FR 77425 - Raw Flexible Magnets From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... International Trade Administration Raw Flexible Magnets From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... magnets (``RFM'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff... flexible magnets regardless of shape,\\2\\ color, or packaging.\\3\\ Subject flexible magnets are...

  11. 78 FR 61334 - Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of the Expedited... silicon metal from the Russian Federation.\\1\\ The Department finds that revocation of this antidumping...-0197. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty order on silicon metal from...

  12. 76 FR 62040 - Pure Magnesium From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ..., the Russian Federation and Ukraine; Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair..., thorium, zirconium and rare earths. Excluded from the scope of the order are alloy primary magnesium (that...

  13. 77 FR 31834 - Clad Steel Plate from Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... or backing of ferrous metal (usually carbon or low alloy steel) where the latter predominates by... A263 (400 series stainless types) and A264 (300 series stainless types). Nickel and nickel-base alloy...

  14. 78 FR 38944 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Final Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ..., regardless of the GPL (grams per liter of citric acid) level of concentration, brix level, brix/acid ratio, pulp content, clarity, grade, horticulture method (e.g., organic or not), processed form (e.g.,...

  15. 75 FR 60084 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose from Mexico: Preliminary Results of the First Five-year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Initiation from the domestic interested party and respondent interested party, Quimica Amtex S.A. de C.V. (Quimica Amtex), within the 30-day deadline specified in 19 CFR 351.218(d)(3)(i).\\1\\ The Department did not... following weighted-average margins: Quimica Amtex 12.61 percent All Others 12.61 percent Public Comment Any...

  16. Factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment and control among ethnic groups in Amsterdam, The Netherlands: The SUNSET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Agyemang; I. van Valkengoed; R. Koopmans; K. Stronks

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine factors associated with hypertension awareness, pharmacological treatment and control among ethnic groups in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We analysed data on hypertensive subjects ( Dutch n = 130, Hindustani n = 115 and African Surinamese n 225). After adjustments for important

  17. 月色迷人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    本刊编辑部

    2015-01-01

    [美文欣赏]The Fascinating Moonrise There is a hill near my home that I often climb at night.The noise of the city is a faroff murmur.In the hush of dark I share the cheerfulness of crickets and the confidence of owls.But it is the drama of the moonrise that I come to see.For that restores in me a quiet and clarity that the city spends too freely.From this hill I have watched many

  18. 浅谈"落霞"系列小说中的"帝师"形象%On image of emperor's teacher in novel series named sunsetting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑先彬

    2007-01-01

    二月河在"落霞"系列小说中塑造了一大批栩栩如生的人物形象,其中最为出色的当属于伍次友、邬思道、方苞等人的"帝师"形象,这些帝师形象是明清历史演义小说中"军师"形象和中国传统文化中特有的"才子"形象的结合体.在他们的身上寄托了作者的政治理想,作者正是通过伍次友等人的"帝师"形象,重塑了儒家思想至高无上的地位.

  19. 76 FR 25670 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Italy: Final Results of the Full Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ..., Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial Service Workers International Union; United Auto Workers... coercivity of between 50 and 300 oersteds. This product is most commonly used in electronic sensors and...

  20. How could the Viking Sun compass be used with sunstones before and after sunset? Twilight board as a new interpretation of the Uunartoq artefact fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Barta, András; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Vikings routinely crossed the North Atlantic without a magnetic compass and left their mark on lands as far away as Greenland, Newfoundland and Baffin Island. Based on an eleventh-century dial fragment artefact, found at Uunartoq in Greenland, it is widely accepted that they sailed along chosen latitudes using primitive Sun compasses. Such instruments were tested on sea and proved to be efficient hand-held navigation tools, but the dimensions and incisions of the Uunartoq find are far from optimal in this role. On the basis of the sagas mentioning sunstones, incompatible hypotheses were formed for Viking solar navigation procedures and primitive skylight polarimetry with dichroic or birefringent crystals. We describe here a previously unconceived method of navigation based on the Uunartoq artefact functioning as a 'twilight board', which is a combination of a horizon board and a Sun compass optimized for use when the Sun is close to the horizon. We deduced an appropriate solar navigation procedure using a twilight board, a shadow-stick and birefringent crystals, which bring together earlier suggested methods in harmony and provide a true skylight compass function. This could have allowed Vikings to navigate around the clock, to use the artefact dial as a Sun compass during long parts of the day and to use skylight polarization patterns in the twilight period. In field tests, we found that true north could be appointed with such a medieval skylight compass with an error of about ±4° when the artificially occluded Sun had elevation angles between +10° and -8° relative to the horizon. Our interpretation allows us to assign exact dates to the gnomonic lines on the artefact and outlines the schedule of the merchant ships that sustained the Viking colony in Greenland a millennium ago.

  1. 76 FR 25668 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Final Results of the Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... less, and includes between 0.20 and 0.30 percent copper and between 0.20 and 0.50 percent cobalt. This... iron-chromium-cobalt alloy stainless strip is also excluded from the scope of the order. This ductile stainless steel strip contains, by weight, 26 to 30 percent chromium, and 7 to 10 percent cobalt, with...

  2. How could the Viking Sun compass be used with sunstones before and after sunset? Twilight board as a new interpretation of the Uunartoq artefact fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Ádám; Barta, András; Åkesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    Vikings routinely crossed the North Atlantic without a magnetic compass and left their mark on lands as far away as Greenland, Newfoundland and Baffin Island. Based on an eleventh-century dial fragment artefact, found at Uunartoq in Greenland, it is widely accepted that they sailed along chosen latitudes using primitive Sun compasses. Such instruments were tested on sea and proved to be efficient hand-held navigation tools, but the dimensions and incisions of the Uunartoq find are far from optimal in this role. On the basis of the sagas mentioning sunstones, incompatible hypotheses were formed for Viking solar navigation procedures and primitive skylight polarimetry with dichroic or birefringent crystals. We describe here a previously unconceived method of navigation based on the Uunartoq artefact functioning as a ‘twilight board’, which is a combination of a horizon board and a Sun compass optimized for use when the Sun is close to the horizon. We deduced an appropriate solar navigation procedure using a twilight board, a shadow-stick and birefringent crystals, which bring together earlier suggested methods in harmony and provide a true skylight compass function. This could have allowed Vikings to navigate around the clock, to use the artefact dial as a Sun compass during long parts of the day and to use skylight polarization patterns in the twilight period. In field tests, we found that true north could be appointed with such a medieval skylight compass with an error of about ±4° when the artificially occluded Sun had elevation angles between +10° and −8° relative to the horizon. Our interpretation allows us to assign exact dates to the gnomonic lines on the artefact and outlines the schedule of the merchant ships that sustained the Viking colony in Greenland a millennium ago. PMID:24910520

  3. Spread-F during the magnetic storm of 22 January 2004 at low latitudes: Effect of IMF-Bz in relation to local sunset time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R G Rastogi; H Chandra; P Janardhan; Thai Lan Hoang; Louis Condori; T K Pant; D S V V D Prasad; B Reinisc

    2014-08-01

    The paper describes the results of spread-F at low latitude stations around the world during the magnetic storm starting at 0130 UT on 22 January 2004. The storm can be divided into two phases, first phase up to 1000 UT when interplanetary magnetic field IMF-Bz was highly fluctuating around a small positive value and the second phase after a sudden large southward turning of IMF-Bz at 1030 UT. The first phase produced strong spread-F at Jicamarca, Sao Luis, and Ascension Island and caused complete inhibition of spread-F at Thumba and Waltair in India. It generated weak spread-F at Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam and strong spread-F at Hainan and Chung Li. The strong spread-F at Hainan and Chung Li were caused by the positive IMF-Bz during the first phase of the storm and not by the negative pulse of IMF-Bz at 1000 UT.

  4. 33 CFR 207.180 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... navigation. (ii) From sunrise to sunset. Large discs, identical in color and number to the light signals... displayed at all locks as follows: (i) From sunset to sunrise. One green light shall indicate the lock...

  5. El apagón analógico: el British Film Institute y la educación en los tres últimos decenios Analogue Sunset. The Educational Role of the British Film Institute, 1979-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary Bazalgette

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantean los elementos clave de las estrategias de educación en el cine llevadas a cabo por el Instituto Británico del Cine (BFI en las escuelas británicas durante los veinticinco últimos años de la era analógica. Desde siempre, el BFI se ha implicado de forma activa en el diseño de los planes de estudio de cine, así como en todo lo que de algún modo suscitó preocupación entre los educadores, como fue el caso de la apuesta, de un lado, por el uso instrumental del cine para apoyar el plan curricular y el aprendizaje de las cualidades intrínsecas y distintivas del cine como mediador y, de otro lado, la apuesta por su función ideológica en la sociedad. También se aborda en este artículo la cuestión de si el cine en sí mismo constituye un área de estudio o si sería más adecuado incluirlo en el ámbito de la televisión como parte de los medios de imagen en movimiento. El BFI ha desempeñado un papel crucial en la investigación de estos interrogantes, así como en la demostración y ejemplificación de la enseñanza del cine destinada a los jóvenes. No obstante, las continuas vicisitudes que han surgido en este tiempo han orientado las perspectivas educativas en diferentes direcciones. La tesis central de este artículo es demostrar que la educación en el cine, aplicable a todos los medios de comunicación en general, debe ser un derecho accesible a todos los estudiantes, y no quedar reducido a una minoría o presentado como una posible opción. Los proyectos clave que se detallan a continuación en este artículo orientan sobre algunos procedimientos destinados a que las instituciones culturales subvencionadas con dinero público puedan intervenir en la política educativa y en su implantación.This paper traces key features of the BFI’s evolving strategies for film education in UK schools during the final 25 years of the analogue era. Historically, the BFI did much to establish the characteristics of film study, but it also embodied tensions which have continued to preoccupy educators, such as the relationship between the instrumental use of film to support the curriculum, and learning about its intrinsic and distinctive qualities as a medium, or about its ideological function in society. The paper also addresses the question of whether «film» on its own constitutes a valid area of study, or whether it is more properly studied alongside television as part of «moving image media». The BFI has played a key role in exploring these issues and in exemplifying how film, or moving image media, can be taught to younger learners, but the internal vicissitudes it has constantly experienced have always pulled its educational activities in different directions. The central argument of this paper is that film education –and indeed media education in general– should be an entitlement for every learner, not something offered only to a minority or provided as an optional extra. The key projects described in this paper indicate some of the ways in which a publicly funded cultural institution can intervene in educational policy and practice.

  6. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  7. The American counter-dumping year reexamination and the sunset reexamine the system to search analyze%美国反倾销年度复审与日落复审制度探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2006-01-01

    对美国反倾销法中的四种行政复审制度分别做了介绍,特别是年度复审和日落复审,内容大多源于美国法典(United States Code,USC)和美国联邦行政法典(Code of Federal Regulations,CFR).美国的反倾销行政复审制度虽然复杂繁琐,但相对比较成熟完备,了解美国的反倾销行政复审制度不仅可作为完善我国相关制度的借鉴,而且对于我国企业应对美国对华反倾销也具有现实意义.

  8. The Song of the Sabia in the 3rd. Festival Internacional da Canção: boo and sunset of the Tom Jobim bossa nova`s aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guilherme Poletto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Song of the Sabia, composition of Tom Jobim and Chico Buarque. Mobilizes different series of sources in order to reconstruct historically the boo to the performance of the song during the III International Song Festival, held in 1968 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Seeks to highlight how this episode catalyzed the existence of different expectations on the popular song and its role as a vehicle for ideals of modernity amid the interference of the authoritarian environment in the cultural and political field. Then, based on the analysis of the constitutive parameters of the song, suggests possibilities for understanding its musical and poetic construction in critical dialogue with its reverberations in cultural terms.This article discusses the Song of the Sabia, composition of Tom Jobim and Chico Buarque. Mobilizes different series of sources in order to reconstruct historically the boo to the performance of the song during the III International Song Festival, held in 1968 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Seeks to highlight how this episode catalyzed the existence of different expectations on the popular song and its role as a vehicle for ideals of modernity amid the interference of the authoritarian environment in the cultural and political field. Then, based on the analysis of the constitutive parameters of the song, suggests possibilities for understanding its musical and poetic construction in critical dialogue with its reverberations in cultural terms.

  9. The 1988 Arctic Survey, Diurnal Study (Sunrise and Sunset) and Peak Altitude (22 km) Flights for the In Situ Detection of ClO and BrO from the NASA ER-2 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.

    1996-01-01

    Two critical areas of research were addressed successfully by this research. The first involves NASA ER-2 airborne observations of ClO and BrO radical destruction of ozone within the arctic vortex. The second involves the analysis of diurnal variations in ClO, to test the production and loss rates of ClO that constitutes the test for coupling reactions between the chlorine and nitrogen systems. We discuss results from this research in order.

  10. 美国反倾销日落复审中的反倾销税吸收问题%Absorption of antidumping duty in U.S.Antidumping sunset review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高波

    2004-01-01

    “历史上,美国反倾销法一直没有日落复审的相关规定.这导致其反倾销措施在法律上可以无限期适用。WTO协议对美国生效以后,美国在1997年根据《乌拉圭同合协议法案》(Uruguay Round Agreements Act)修订了《1930年关税法》.对日落复审进行了相应规定。与此同时,美国商务部和国际贸易委员会(下简称商务部和委员会)也于1998年分别对各自的相关

  11. Sex differences in the association between serum ferritin and fasting glucose in type 2 diabetes among South Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, and ethnic Dutch: the population-based SUNSET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Louise H; Nicolaou, Mary; van der A, Daphne L; Busschers, Wim B; Brewster, Lizzy M; Snijder, Marieke B; Stronks, Karien; van Valkengoed, Irene G M

    2013-04-01

    Moderately elevated iron stores below the levels commonly associated with hemochromatosis have been implicated in the etiology of diabetes. Studies suggest that iron status (measured by serum ferritin) differs significantly according to sex, but inconsistent findings have been reported. Our aim is to test the association between serum ferritin and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and fasting glucose concentrations in a population-based, multiethnic, cross-sectional study including men and women of African Surinamese, South Asian Surinamese, and ethnic Dutch origin. We analyzed data on 508 ethnic Dutch, 597 African Surinamese, and 339 South Asian Surinamese aged 35-60 years. Type 2 diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose level ≥7.0 mmol/L or a self-reported diagnosis. Serum ferritin was positively associated with type 2 diabetes and fasting glucose, but differences in the associations according to sex were observed. Serum ferritin concentration was positively associated with type 2 diabetes among women in all ethnic groups (odds ratio [OR] ethnic Dutch: 1.07 [95% CI 1.01-1.13]; OR South Asian Surinamese: 1.05 [1.00-1.10]; OR African Surinamese: 1.05 [1.01-1.10]), but not among men. Serum ferritin was also more strongly associated with fasting glucose in women than in men. Moreover, the magnitude of sex differences in the association between serum ferritin and fasting glucose, but not type 2 diabetes, was more pronounced in the African Surinamese group than in the other ethnic groups (P for interaction ≤0.0001). We found a positive association between serum ferritin and type 2 diabetes and fasting glucose in our multiethnic population, which appeared stronger among women than men. Further evaluation of the variation in sex differences between ethnic groups is warranted, particularly among the African Surinamese, to understand the mechanisms behind these sex differences.

  12. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, S.

    2001-01-09

    The objective of this project is not just to produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  13. Studies on static adsorption capabilities of macroporous resins to edible synthetic colorant sunset yellow%大孔树脂对合成食用色素日落黄的吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 姜子涛; 李荣

    2009-01-01

    比较了10种大孔树脂对日落黄的吸附能力,发现大孔弱碱性阴离子交换树脂D301T的吸附效果最佳.根据静态实验考察了溶液体积、pH值、温度、吸附时间等因素对D301T树脂吸附能力的影响以及洗脱剂的种类、最小使用量、洗脱时间等因素对日落黄洗脱的影响.结果显示:D301T树脂的饱和吸附量为31.50 mg/g、吸附率99.10%,最佳吸附温度55 ℃、振荡时间为110 min;最佳的洗脱剂是4 mol/L的HCl,可达到91.03%的洗脱效果.

  14. 高效液相色谱法测定食品中的日落黄和柠檬黄%Determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine in food by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 于同月; 李莎莎; 李劭彤; 李巧玲

    2013-01-01

    本研究以一种膨化食品香米饼(含有日落黄)和水蜜桃果汁饮料(含有日落黄和柠檬黄)作为实验材料.用溶解-离心-聚酰胺粉酸性条件下吸附-碱性条件下脱附法提取膨化食品中的色素;用稀释法来处理饮料样品.处理好后的样品,用高效液相色谱仪在梯度洗脱条件下检测两种食品中的色素含量.两种色素在2.0~40μg/mL浓度范围内线性关系良好,相对标准偏差均小于2.1%,回收率在88.3%~99.9%之间,此方法精确度高、简单易行且分离效果较好.

  15. 日落黄和柠檬黄人工抗原的合成与鉴定%Synthesis and Identification of the Artificial Antigens for Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菲; 刘丽强; 匡华; 彭池方; 宋珊珊; 胡金伟; 胥传来

    2011-01-01

    通过综合分析日落黄和柠檬黄的化学结构,构建半抗原,采用多种偶联方式将其与载体蛋白偶联,制备完全抗原.通过采用紫外光谱扫描和液相色谱-质谱联用技术对合成产物进行了鉴定和分析,结果表明,日落黄的半抗原合成不够理想,偶联比率为6;而柠檬黄的完全抗原经鉴定偶联成功,偶联比率是12.该实验结果可为制备可特异性地识别柠檬黄的抗体提供参考.

  16. DETERMINATION OF TARTRAZINE and SUNSET YELLOW IN DRINKS BY USING GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE%玻碳电极测定饮料中柠檬黄、日落黄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁敏思; 邹永德; 王玉东; 白燕

    2009-01-01

    [目的]建立操作简便、环保的电化学方法测定饮料中柠檬黄、日落黄.[方法]以玻碳电极为工作电极,用微分脉冲伏安法(Differential Pulse Voltammetry,DPV)测定饮料中柠檬黄、日落黄的含量.[结果]在0.10 mol/L KNO3溶液中,峰电流与两种着色剂在0.10~0.80 μg/ml浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系,柠檬黄的相关系数为0.989,日落黄为0.994;两者检测限均为O.05 μg/ml.[结论]方法快速简便,可应用于实际样品的检测.

  17. 分光光度法测定硬质糖果中诱惑红、柠檬黄、亮蓝的含量%Spectrophotometry Determination of Allura Red,Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in Hard Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖萍坚; 翁小红; 吴文君; 杜建中

    2013-01-01

    利用单波长法测定蓝莓味硬糖中诱惑红、亮蓝含量,双波长等吸收法测定香橙味硬糖中诱惑红、柠檬黄的含量.结果显示,诱惑红在0.3~40 mg·L-1、柠檬黄在0.6~40 mg·L-1、亮蓝在0.08~20 mg·L-1浓度范围内具有良好的性线关系,相关系数大于0.999.该方法具有计算简单、操作方便、准确性较高等特点.

  18. Simultaneous determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine by dual wavelength K-factor spectrophotometry%双波长K系数分光光度法同时测定日落黄与柠檬黄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海春

    2003-01-01

    采用双波长K系数分光光度法同时测定饮料中的日落黄和柠檬黄,其中日落黄的回归方程为A1/A2=0.9083+2.604×10-2c/A 2,r日=0.9998,线性范围为5~60μg/mL,柠檬黄的回归方程为A1/A 2=0.9105+3.204×10-2c/A2,r柠=0.9999,线性范围为10~55μg/mL.对实际样品的测定表明,日落黄的加标回收率为99.72%,柠檬黄的加标回收率为94.76%,比双波长法更符合要求.

  19. Adsorption Behavior of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine Using Crosslinked Arginine as Adsorbent%交联精氨酸对阴离子染料日落黄、柠檬黄的吸附行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟蜜; 余军霞; 孙小梅; 李步海

    2006-01-01

    研究了pH值、染料浓度、吸附时间、温度对交联精氨酸吸附能力的影响.用精氨酸作单体、戊二醛为交联剂,20℃水浴摇床150 r/min反应240 h,离心,洗涤,冷冻干燥,制备成交联精氨酸吸附剂.在25℃.pH2.0,吸附剂对日落黄和柠檬黄48 h的吸附量分别达到408.92 mg/g和306.96 mg/g,吸附反应符合Langmuir等温吸附模型.结果表明:方法简单、条件温和;产物对阴离子染料日落黄和柠檬黄有良好的吸附性能.

  20. Determination of Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow in Canned Apricot High Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定杏罐头中的柠檬黄、日落黄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬妍; 杨书宁

    2010-01-01

    水果罐头中添加的合成色素大部分被果肉所吸附,为充分提取色素,优化水果罐头中合成色素的测定方法.采用无水乙醇-氨水溶液浸泡、离心,提取被杏果肉吸附的柠檬黄、日落黄,高效液相色谱法测定.柠檬黄、日落黄的平均回收率分别为99.32%和98.96%,相对标准偏差分别为0.51%和0.33%.

  1. 液相色谱法测定果蔬汁中柠檬黄和日落黄方法优化%METHOD OPTIMIZATION OF DETERMINING TARTRAZINE AND SUNSET YELLOW IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE JUICE BY HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小会; 邓敬颂

    2010-01-01

    对液相色谱法测定果蔬汁中柠檬黄和日落黄进行了方法优化,对色谱条件进行了调整,采用ODS-C18型(250 mm×4.6 mm)色谱柱,流动相甲醇-0.02 mol/L乙酸铵(体积比40:60,pH 4),流速为0.6 mL/min.采用紫外检测器,柠檬黄检测波长为430 nm,日落黄检测波长为510 nm.该方法测定结果的相对标准偏差为柠檬黄1.3%(n =4)、日落黄2.3%(n=4).柠檬黄和日落黄的平均回收率分别为84.17%、88.33%.该法满足实验要求.

  2. 双波长比值光谱法测定饮料中的色素%Dual-wavelength Ratio Spectrometric Determination of Carmine, Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in Beverages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜建中; 李青梅; 朱艺强; 丁玎; 谭永辉

    2010-01-01

    应用双波长比值光谱法测定了果味汽水、水果泡泡中胭脂红、日落黄、酒石黄的含量.依据该3种色素的比值光谱特征,以日落黄为干扰组分,分别选择431、456nm和509、525nm为测定酒石黄和胭脂红的波长;以胭脂红为干扰组分时,选择514、535nm为测定日落黄的波长.结果显示,酒石黄在0.1~60mg/L、胭脂红在0.2~80mg/L、日落黄在0.8~90mg/L的质量浓度范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别是100.5%、101.1%和102.4%.本方法操作简便、易于推广,可应用于实际样品的检测.

  3. 高效液相色谱法同时测定栀子黄、柠檬黄和日落黄色素%Simultaneous Determination of Gardenia Yellow,Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁呈华; 曹丰璞; 杨浩; 田基民

    2010-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)法同时测定栀子黄、柠檬黄和日落黄色素.色谱柱采用Symmetry Shield RP8柱(5 μm, 3.9 mm×150 mm),流动相:乙腈:水( 25:75),检测波长: 440 nm,流速: 0.8 mL/min,室温下检测,三者在5 min内达到基线分离.此方法具有简单、快速、准确以及灵敏度高等优点.

  4. 76 FR 70703 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ...; Site 2 (11 acres, sunset 10/31/12)--North Distribution Center, located at Km. 1.1 on Highway 869, Cata... 165 and Las Palmas Avenue, Cata o; Site 4 (2 acres, sunset 10/31/14)--Bayamon Logistics, Storage and Distribution Center, intersection of Calle C and Highway 28, Bayam n; Site 5 (17.38 acres total, sunset 10/31...

  5. STS-76 - Being Prepared for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center via SCA 747 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Moonrise over Atlantis: the space shuttle Atlantis receives post-flight servicing in the Mate-Demate Device (MDD), following its landing at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, 31 March 1996. Once servicing was complete, one of NASA's two 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, No. 905, was readied to ferry Atlantis back to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Delivery of Atlantis to Florida was delayed until 11 April 1996, due to an engine warning light that appeared shortly after take off on April 6. The SCA returned to Edwards only minutes after departure. The right inboard engine #3 was exchanged, and the 747 with Atlantis atop was able to depart 11 April for Davis-Monthan Air Force Base for a refueling stop. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside

  6. 75 FR 65448 - Potassium Permanganate From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... reasonably foreseeable future. See Potassium Permanganate From China Determination, 75 FR 63856 (October 18... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 23240 (May 3, 2010). As a result of its review, the... People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 75...

  7. 76 FR 64312 - Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Final Results of the Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July 1, 2011) (Notice of... FR 12467 (March 27, 1989). The Department received a notice of intent to participate in this sunset... and Tube, Hannibal Industries, JMC Steel Group, Leavitt Tube, Searing Industries, and Western Tube...

  8. 78 FR 34024 - Endangered Fish and Wildlife; Proposed Rule To Eliminate the Expiration Date Contained in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...; Proposed Rule To Eliminate the Expiration Date Contained in the Final Rule To Reduce the Threat of Ship... sunset clause is removed. NMFS seeks public comment on the Proposed Rule to eliminate the sunset clause... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for...

  9. 78 FR 28146 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Texas estuaries to the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) so the shrimp may reach a larger, more valuable size and to..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Texas Closure AGENCY... size. DATES: Effective 30 minutes after sunset, May 23, 2013, to 30 minutes after sunset, July 15, 2013...

  10. Baseline Establishment Using Virtual Environment Traumatic Brain Injury Screen (VETS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    List E Jacket Pepper Arrow Cotton Movie List D Finger Blanket Penny Lemon Insect List C Baby Perfume Monkey Sunset Iron List B Candle Sugar Paper... Perfume Monkey Sunset Iron List B Candle Sugar Paper Sandwich Wagon List A Elbow Carpet Apple Saddle Bubble info@DVBIC.org Page 7 of 8Release 02/2012 MACE

  11. 14 CFR 101.35 - Equipment and marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... between sunset and sunrise (as corrected to the altitude of operation) unless the balloon and its... visible for at least one mile. (d) No person may operate between sunrise and sunset an unmanned free... conspicuity colors or has colored pennants or streamers attached which are visible for at least one mile....

  12. 50 CFR 32.41 - Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ice fishing from January 1 through the end of February from legal sunrise to legal sunset. 3. We do not allow ice shanties, houses, or shelters on F Pool. 4. When ice fishing, we do not allow... allow bank fishing from legal sunrise to legal sunset only at designated sites along the Spaulding...

  13. 78 FR 33060 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Sunset Review (``Sunset Review''). Department contact Antidumping Duty Proceedings Laminated Woven Sacks from China (A-570-916) Jennifer Moats, (202) 482-5047. (1st Review). Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe..., (202) 482-4136. Review). Countervailing Duty Proceedings Laminated Woven Sacks from China...

  14. 75 FR 74681 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... are scheduled for initiation in January 2011 and will appear in that month's Notice of Initiation of Five-Year Sunset Reviews. Department contact Antidumping Duty Proceedings Heavy Forged Hand Tools, With... Five-year (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63...

  15. 76 FR 7534 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of China: Final... Commerce (``Department'') initiated a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel... FR 60731 (October 1, 2010) (``Sunset Initiation''); see also Antidumping Duty Order;...

  16. 76 FR 78194 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of Kentucky; Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... to sunset the CAIR and CAIR FIPs for control periods in 2012 and beyond. See 76 FR 48322. EPA also... the clarity, color, and visible distance that one can see. PM 2.5 can also cause serious health... the issuance of the Transport Rule only insofar as the Transport Rule provides for the sunsetting...

  17. 77 FR 67790 - Honey From Argentina; Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ..., and flavored honey. The subject merchandise includes all grades and colors of honey whether in liquid... for entries on or after August 2, 2012, pursuant to the recent sunset of the Orders.\\9\\ \\8\\ The Department revoked the Orders under five-year sunset reviews on September 21, 2012, pursuant to 19 CFR...

  18. Spectacular Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Marbling paper is a favorite in many elementary classrooms. The marbling project described in this article, using a sunset and silhouette concept, is foolproof, inexpensive, and engaging. After looking at images of incredible sunsets for inspiration, each student uses marbling paper, black construction paper, three colors of chalk, and a tub of…

  19. 77 FR 46385 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Pipe From Germany: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order... pipe (seamless pipe) from Germany pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the... Germany pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Sunset Initiation. The Department received a notice...

  20. Demonstrating Electrophoretic Separation in a Straight Paper Channel Delimited by a Hydrophobic Wax Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiu; Lin, Wanqi; Cai, Longfei

    2016-01-01

    A demonstration is described of electrophoretic separation of carmine and sunset yellow with a paper-based device. The channel in the paper device was fabricated by hand with a wax pen. Electrophoretic separation of carmine and sunset yellow was achieved within a few minutes by applying potential on the channel using a simple and inexpensive power…

  1. Whither Does the Sun Rove?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    If one asked some friends where on the horizon they should expect to see the sunrise, half of the answers would be in the east. Of course, something analogous would happen with the sunset and the west. However, sunrise and sunset virtually never occur at these cardinal points. In fact, those answers correctly describe observations only during the…

  2. 78 FR 72639 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on non-malleable cast iron pipe fittings from the People's... expedited (120-day) sunset review of the antidumping duty order on non-malleable cast iron pipe...

  3. Reactividad Química de los Azo Colorantes Amarillo Anaranjado y Rojo Allura mediante Descriptores Globales y la Función de Fukui Chemical Reactivity of the Azo dyes Sunset Yellow and Allura Red by Global Descriptors and the Fukui Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ensuncho,Adolfo E.; Jesús M López; Juana Robles

    2012-01-01

    Se calcularon descriptores globales y locales de la reactividad para los colorantes amarillo anaranjado y rojo allura con el fin de analizar su reactividad química intrínseca. Los cálculos computacionales se llevaron a cabo tanto en vacio como en la fase acuosa, la cual se representó por medio de una constante dieléctrica de 78.5 e introducida por el modelo de solvente del continuo polarizado. Los resultados mostraron que el colorante rojo allura es menos susceptible a la adición nucleofílica...

  4. Optimization Model of Organization Modes Choice of Sunset-departure and Sunrise-arrival Train Based on Simultaneous Integrated Maintain Time on High-speed Railway%基于全线矩形天窗的高速铁路夕发朝至列车开行模式选择优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天伟; 聂磊; 贺振欢

    2015-01-01

    Three organization modes ,i.e. ,waiting for simultaneous integrated maintain time(SIMT) on a high speed railway(HSR) station(WHRS) ,transfer from HSR to conventional railway(CR) before SIMT and arri‐ving at the destination(T HCD) on the CR , transfer from HSR to CR before SIM T and from CR to HSR after SIMT(HCCH),were proposed according to SIMT on HSR .The operation process of sunset‐departure and sunrise‐arrival trains in every organization mode was analyzed . The nonlinear integer program optimization model of operation mode choice was built , with passenger satisfaction on departure and arrival moments and fare attraction w hich affect passengers'choice behavior , section carrying capacity and difficulty of transportation organization adjustment which affect the quality and quantity of rail transport products supply as objective func‐tion . Variable logical , the moment of train operation process , the relation betw een the selection of cities and the arrival or departure moment at the cities ,and the number of arrival‐departrue railway lines were considered in its constraints .An appropriate size numerical example shows that when SIMT from 00 :00 to 04 :00 ,WHRS and 300 km/h of multiple units are preferred for the long distance train OD . T HCD and 250 km/h of multiple units are the first choice for the medium distance train OD .%在全线矩形天窗下提出等线、下线、下线‐上线共3种高速铁路夕发朝至列车开行模式,分析每种模式下列车运行过程。以影响旅客选择行为的列车始发、终到时刻满意度、票价吸引力、影响铁路运输产品供给数量及质量的区段通过能力和运输组织难度为目标函数,构建满足变量逻辑约束、列车运行过程约束、关键地点与运行时刻约束、到发线数量约束的开行模式选择非线性整数规划优化模型,通过算例应用验证了构建模型的可行性和有效性。研究结果表明:在0:00~04:00开设全线距形天窗时,长距离列车OD应选择300 km/h的动车组和等线模式,中距离列车OD应选择250 km/h的动车组和下线模式。

  5. On Ugly Life of Bottom Citizens in Fangfang's Novels ——A Case Study on Scenery, Black Holes, and Sunset%浅析方方小说中底层市民的丑态人生——以《风景》《黑洞》《落日》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉娟

    2011-01-01

    分析方方小说原生态的创作方法,认为其小说中塑造了一系列丑陋的都市小市民形象,通过描写他们粗俗、肮脏的生活布景来揭露他们病态的灵魂和异化了的人性;并从更深层次上揭示了人性自私冷漠,人间温情普遍缺失的悲剧现实,也表现了作家的现实批判精神和人文关怀。%The original creative methods of Fang Fang are analyzed. She portrayed a series of ugly images among urban bottom citizens. Through describing their vulgar and dirty life, she exposed their ill-like soul and alienated humanity. Furthermore, from a deeper level, she revealed a tragic reality in which human are selfish, cold, and lack of warmth. Also, she showed her realistic critical spirit and humanistic eare in his novels.

  6. Determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in Drinks by an Electrochemical Sensor Based on the Composite of Graphene Quantum Dots/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes%石墨烯量子点功能化多壁碳纳米管构建日落黄和酒食黄同时检测的电化学传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐利斌; 尹争志; 曾延波; 李蕾

    2015-01-01

    通过静电作用,成功将石墨烯量子点(GQDs)复合到多壁碳纳米管(MWNTs)表面,制得石墨烯量子点-多壁碳纳米管复合物(GQDs-MWNTs),并对其进行了扫描电镜、紫外-可见吸收光谱表征.相对于单独的MWNTs修饰玻碳电极(MWNTs/GCE),GQDs-MWNTs/GCE表现出更好的导电性,以及对日落黄和酒食黄显著的电催化性能,这两者的峰电位差达到230mY;检测日落黄和酒食黄的线性范围分别为30~230 ng·mL-1和40~600 ng·mL-1,检测限分别为4.05 ng·mL-1和8.06 ng· mL-1.研究了日落黄和酒食黄的电化学行为和机理,并用于饮料中两物质的分析测定.

  7. Van Gogh's Starry Nights, Lincoln's Moon, Shakespeare's Stars, and More: Tales of Astronomy in Art, History, and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Donald

    2009-10-01

    How do astronomical methods make it possible to calculate dates and times for Vincent van Gogh's night-sky paintings? Why is there a blood-red sky in Edvard Munch's The Scream? On what dates did Ansel Adams create his moonrise photographs in Yosemite? How can the 18.6-year cycle of the lunar nodes and the Moon's declination on the night of August 29-30, 1857, explain a long-standing mystery about Abraham Lincoln's honesty in the murder case known as the almanac trial? Why is a bright star described in Act 1, Scene 1, of Hamlet? To answer questions like these, our Texas State group has published a series of articles over the last two decades, applying astronomy to art, history, and literature.

  8. Danish Passage Graves, "Spring/Summer/Fall full Moons" and Lunar Standstills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Claus Jørgen

    2015-05-01

    The author proposes and discusses a model for azimuth distribution which involves the criterion of a 'spring full moon' (or a 'fall full moon') proposed by Marciano Da Silva (Da Silva 2004). The model is based on elements of the rising pattern of the summer full moon combined with directions pointing towards full moonrises which occur immediately prior to lunar standstill eclipses and directions aimed at the points at which these eclipses begin. An observed sample of 153 directions has been compared with the proposed model, which has been named the lunar 'season pointer'. Statistical tests show that the model fits well with the observed sample within the azimuth interval of 54.5° to 156.5°. The conclusion made is that at least the 'season pointer' section of the model used could very well explain the observed distribution.

  9. Arhaeoastronomical analysis of Levinsadovka sacrificial complex (South Russia)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    The article presents research data using arhaeoastronomical methods of Levinsadovka settlement sacrificial complex in Northern Black Sea coast. In this work, new method of accounting terrain elevations using topographic maps was developed in arhaeoastronomical studies. Calculations of azimuths of the sun and moon rise and set in the astronomically significant moments of the year were made and astronomical regularities in the organization of the sacrificial complex identified. Related to the moon directions, as the most dedicated, identified. Revealed that the stone tools and fragments, used as sacrifices, mark the direction to the northern minor standstill moonrise. A similar situation was found on two archaeological sites: in Bezymennoye II settlement South sanctuary and in Pustynka settlement religious building. Drawing on ethnographic and folklore data, it is concluded about semiotic connection of stone tools, found in these religious constructions, with the "thunderstones" and meteorites.

  10. 78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping... a sunset review of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan,...

  11. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  12. 77 FR 32530 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... Goldberger, (202) 482-4136. 804) (2nd Review). Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Poland (A-455-...

  13. 50 CFR 27.31 - General provisions regarding vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the request of any authorized official. (h) Stopping, parking or leaving any vehicle, whether attended... motor vehicle shall not be operated at anytime without proper brakes and brake lights, or from sunset...

  14. 78 FR 8492 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, TX Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ..., La Porte; Site 18 (106 acres, sunset 5/31/2014)--Bay Area Business Park, located at Red Bluff Road...)--Port Crossing Industrial Park, located along McCabe Road and State Highway 146, La Porte; Site 22...

  15. Hydrocephalus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swollen veins that are easily seen with the naked eye downward cast of the eyes (called "sunsetting") ... of the signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus should see a doctor right away. The doctor will do ...

  16. 75 FR 61700 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden... purified carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from, inter alia, Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden, pursuant to... (120-day) sunset reviews of the Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden antidumping duty orders...

  17. Colors of the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  18. The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

  19. 76 FR 49449 - Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order on Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Nitrate From the Russian Federation AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... duty investigation on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (``ammonium nitrate'') from the Russian... and the ITC instituted a second sunset review of the ammonium nitrate suspended investigation....

  20. 50 CFR 216.185 - Requirements for monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA sonar) Sonar § 216.185 Requirements for monitoring. (a) In order to... sunset); (2) Use low frequency passive SURTASS sonar to listen for vocalizing marine mammals; and (3)...

  1. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  2. Army Workload and Performance System: Actions Needed to Complete Assessment of Unnecessary Overlap with Logistics Modernization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    and Deputy Commanding General directed that a plan be developed to “ sunset ,” or retire, AWPS and transition its functionality to another system...tasked to prepare a plan to sunset AWPS, but the functionality of the system must remain available to users. The AWPS project team’s efforts will...depends on the number of pages in the publication and whether the publication is printed in color or black and white. Pricing and ordering information

  3. [Inspection of undesignated food color in imported chewing gum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Y; Ishiwata, H; Yamada, T

    1999-01-01

    An unknown color in chewing gum imported from Canada was determined. The color was identified by TLC and HPLC as the trisodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4[(4-sulfopheny)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (RS-SA), one of the subsidiary colors of sunset yellow FCF. The concentration of RS-SA in sunset yellow FCF used in the chewing gum was 4.3%

  4. GETDB: 103500 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eived from the National Institute of Genetics. CyUW14 Link to clone table - 1 550 Link to cluster table 550 1 Request - pns sunset...bryonic Expression pns sunset (ch) Larval GFP pns Larval X-gal sg, fb, gut, mt Ad... Cluster id 550 Link to Cluster Table Link to cluster table 550 Num of clusters 1 Stock Request Request - Em

  5. Метафоры утренней и вечерней зари в литовской и русской поэзии

    OpenAIRE

    Елена [Jelena] Коницкая [Konickaja; Бируте [Birutė] Ясюнайте [Jasiūnaitė

    2016-01-01

    Metaphors of Dawn in Lithuanian and Russian Poetry This article analyzes the realizations of certain basic metaphors of dawn/sunset in the works of twentieth-century Lithuanian and Russian poets. The first part of the article examines important discrepancies between biomorphic, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic metaphors, as well as mythological metaphors. In Lithuanian poetry, dawn/sunset is associated with different objects compared to Russian poetry (wild strawberries and cherry, birds, ...

  6. Electrochemical sensor based on graphene and mesoporous TiO2 for the simultaneous determination of trace colourants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tian; Sun, Junyong; Meng, Wen; Song, Li; Zhang, Yuxia

    2013-12-15

    Currently, synthetic colourants draw much attention as food additives. This paper investigated the simultaneous electrocatalytic oxidation of sunset yellow and tartrazine, two yellow colourants commonly present in food together, with a novel voltammetric sensor based on graphene and mesoporous TiO2 modified carbon paste electrode. Due to the high accumulation effect and great catalytic capability of graphene and mesoporous TiO2, the developed sensor exhibited well-defined and separate square wave voltammetric peaks (i.e., 272 mV) for sunset yellow tartrazine. The peak currents of sunset yellow and tartrazine increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.02-2.05 μM and 0.02-1.18 μM, respectively. And the detection limit was 6.0 and 8.0 nM for sunset yellow and tartrazine, respectively. This new sensor was applied to determine sunset yellow and tartrazine in several food sample extracts. Results suggested that the proposed sensor was sensitive, rapid and reliable.

  7. Time of day that Aedes sierrensis females enter oviposition sites prior to laying eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, David L; Colwell, Arthur E; Mills, Brittany M

    2008-03-01

    An ovitrap with a time-segregated entrance was used to separate eggs laid by Aedes sierrensis females according to the time of day that females entered the ovitrap. During a 37-day period in Lake County, CA, females that entered the ovitrap between sunrise and sunset laid 82% of the total number of eggs collected. A daily peak in oviposition (eggs per hour) was produced by females that entered during the 2-h period ending at sunset. Overall, females that oviposited had entered the ovitrap throughout the diel cycle except for a 2-h period ending at sunrise. Those eggs laid by females that entered the ovitrap between 2 h after sunset and 2 h before sunrise provided the 1st evidence that Ae. sierrensis females are capable of locating oviposition sites during the night.

  8. The orientation of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator during a partial solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, A; Castellini, C; Tiribilli, B

    2004-10-01

    To acquire more information about the identification and use of the sun and other celestial cues in the sea-land orientation of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator, we carried out releases in a confined environment during a partial solar eclipse and at sunset. The sandhoppers were unable to identify the sun (86% covered) during the eclipse nor to use other celestial compass factors of orientation. This was probably due to the low level of light intensity (close to the minimum level for orientation recorded at sunset) and to the variations in intensity and pattern of skylight polarization.

  9. China as a Market Economy after 2016:Lower Margins of Discretion?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo; L.Pupo

    2011-01-01

    <正>This article examines below how the imposition of countervailing measures against Chinese products and the extension of antidumping duties by sunset reviews are expected after 2016,when China will be granted market economy status by the entire WTO community according to its Protocol of Accession.And the result shows that subsidy investigations and sunset reviews of antidumping duties are likely to play a more important role than original dumping investigations in the next years. China will now have to demonstrate that its long and intense preparation in the WTO dispute settlement system,heavily focused on trade remedy disputes,was not in vain.

  10. A review on mesopelagic fishes belonging to family Myctophidae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Catul, V.; Gauns, M.; Karuppasamy, P.K.

    are oviparous and both sexes are non-guarding pelagic spawners. They release eggs and seminal fluid into the water, where fertilization takes place. The tiny eggs (0.70-0.90 mm, with a segmented yolk, moderately perivitelline space, single oil globule... at irregular intervals. Vertical migration at night usually starts about one hour prior to sunset and is essentially complete between one-half to one hour after sunset. The migrational patterns may also be dependent on life history stage, sex, latitude...

  11. 胜利电讯测试、分析仪%Sunrise Telecom's Test Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1.SunSet E20/E20c手持式测试仪表新增功能 SunSet E20产品系列的新增功能,同时适用于彩色显示版(E20c)和单色显示版(E20),而且增强了E20的新业务校验能力,完善了对Frame Relay、ISDN、SS7、GSM及V5.1/V5.2的支持.

  12. Simultaneous determination of basic orange2, metanil yellow, tartrazine, sunset yellow in bean-product and acid orange Ⅱ, ponceau 2R, rhodanmine B in chili powder by thin-layer chromatographic scanning%薄层色谱扫描法同时检测豆制品中碱性橙、皂黄、柠檬黄和日落黄以及辣椒粉中酸性橙Ⅱ、丽春红2R和罗丹明B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏立娅; 韩媛媛; 匡林鹤; 刘峥颢; 吴广臣

    2010-01-01

    建立了利用薄层色谱和薄层色谱扫描技术同时检测豆制品中碱性橙、皂黄、柠檬黄、日落黄4种色素和辣椒粉中酸性橙Ⅱ、丽春红2R、罗丹明B3种非食用色素的方法.豆制品经丙酮和乙醇-氨溶液提取,辣椒粉经乙醇-氨溶液提取,采用硅胶G薄层板,正丁醇-无水乙醇-1%氨水(6:2:2)为展开剂上行展开.利用双波长反射锯齿薄层扫描方式,碱性橙、皂黄、柠檬黄、日落黄采用450 nm为检测波长,酸性橙Ⅱ、丽春红2R、罗丹明B采用520 nm为检测波长,参比波长均为700 nm.7种色素的线性范围在0.04~2.4μg之间,相关系数在0.9954~0.9994之间.碱性橙、皂黄、柠檬黄、日落黄、丽春红2R的最低检出量为0.02μg,酸性橙Ⅱ为0.08μg,罗丹明B为0.01μg.辣椒面和豆皮样品的加标回收率为74.0%~98.0%,相对标准偏差(RSD)在1.1%~4.5%之间.通过与高效液相色谱法的对比,该方法可以有效的对辣椒面和豆制品中的碱性橙等色素进行同时分析.

  13. 《月升王国》——为爱寻一方净土

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    持梦菲

    2013-01-01

    《月升王国》(Moonrise Kingdom)可谓导演韦斯·安德森(Wes Anderson)用光影魔术精心打造的一场梦。影片鲜明的复古色调、动画般夸张又极其简约的镜头掌控、华丽考究的场景设置以及灵动贴切的配乐赋予这场梦童话般的色彩,让人深深地沉浸在其中。影片将背景设在1965年一个偏僻孤远的小岛新潘赞岛上,讲述了12岁的少年Sam和少女Suzy相约私奔的故事。影片的故事情节和表现手法虽然夸张、荒诞,却将孩童世界与成人世界的冲突和矛盾展露无遗,孩子们的坚定勇敢、从容不迫与成人的懦弱退缩、迷茫不定形成了鲜明

  14. A Thorium-rich Mare Basalt Rock Fragment from the Apollo 12 Regolith: A Sample from a Young Procellarum Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Barra, F.; Swindle, T. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this abstract, we report on the composition, mineralogy and petrography of a basaltic rock fragment, 12032,366-18, found in the Apollo 12 regolith. Age data, collected as part of an investigation by Barra et al., will be presented in detail in. Here, only the age dating result is summarized. This rock fragment garnered our attention because it is significantly enriched in incompatible elements, e.g., 7 ppm thorium, compared to other known lunar basalts. Its mineral- and trace-element chemistry set it apart from other Apollo 12 basalts and indeed from all Apollo and Luna basalts. What makes it potentially very significant is the possibility that it is a sample of a relatively young, thorium-rich basalt flow similar to those inferred to occur in the Procellarum region, especially northwestern Procellarum, on the basis of Lunar Prospector orbital data. Exploiting the lunar regolith for the diversity of rock types that have been delivered to a landing site by impact processes and correlating them to their likely site of origin using remote sensing will be an important part of future missions to the Moon. One such mission is Moonrise, which would collect regolith samples from the South Pole-Aitken Basin, concentrating thousands of rock fragments of 3-20 mm size from the regolith, and returning the samples to Earth.

  15. Effects of meteorology, astronomical variables, location and human disturbance on the singing apes: Hylobates albibarbis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Susan M

    2008-04-01

    Gibbons are characterized by their species-specific calls. The frequency of singing is known to be affected by rainfall, with singing occurring less in the wet season. I investigate the hypothesis that gibbon singing is also affected by the natural light-dark cycle, and by the changing light intensity and air quality resulting from the smoke haze which blankets the Indonesian island of Borneo on a yearly basis. I compare three singing variables-onset of singing, average duration of singing bout and number of female great calls produced during the dry season of 2006 when there was no smoke haze (June-August) and when there was smoke haze present (September-November). I present evidence which indicates that the changes in singing behavior are affected by changes in rainfall and smoke intensity but not by other meteorological factors (i.e. wind and light intensity) or changing astronomical cues (light intensity, month, time of sunrise, time of moonrise, nocturnal illumination index, day length and night length). The possible long-term effects of this on gibbon behavior and territoriality are discussed. The need to carry out more research on the long-term effects of the smoke haze on wildlife behavior and possible solutions to the problem are discussed.

  16. 77 FR 14001 - Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation: Uranium From the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended Investigation on Uranium From Russia, 76 FR 38694 (July 1, 2011) and Initiation of Five-year (Sunset) Reviews, 76 FR 38613 (July 1, 2011). As a result of..., 76 FR 68404 (November 4, 2011). On March 2, 2012, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act, the...

  17. 75 FR 47263 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian Federation; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ....'' \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 16437 (April 1, 2010) (Notice of..., 75 FR 16437 (2010). Section 351.218(d)(1)(i) of the Department's regulations provides domestic... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the...

  18. 78 FR 50100 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Wupatki...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... are 9 animal bones, 1 piece of charred cotton cloth, 1 axe, 1 pitcher fragment, 1 Walnut black-on-white mug, 1 Tsegi red-on-orange ladle, 1 Sunset red bowl, 1 Turkey Hill red jar, 2 obsidian projectile...

  19. 76 FR 24856 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ..., and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) from the People's Republic of China..., track tools and wedges; (3) picks and mattocks; and (4) axes, adzes and similar hewing tools. Hand...

  20. 76 FR 38612 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea and Taiwan: Final... Commerce (the Department) initiated the second sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on polyester... otherwise processed for spinning, of polyesters measuring 3.3 decitex (3 denier, inclusive) or more...

  1. 77 FR 62217 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY... certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would likely lead to a... the sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the...

  2. 75 FR 26198 - Foreign-Trade Zone 121 - Albany, New York, Application for Expansion and Reorganization Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... framework (ASF) adopted by the Board (74 FR 1170, 01/12/09; correction 74 FR 3987, 01/22/09). CDRPC is now... cumulative acreage by 163 acres) as follows: proposed Site 5, 1694 acres, Luther Forest-STEP, 10 Hermes Road, Malta, NY. The applicant proposes that Site 5 be subject to a seven-year ``sunset'' time limit,...

  3. 78 FR 64472 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... method either to an exterior ply of plastic film such as biaxially-oriented polypropylene (``BOPP'') or... (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 39256 (July 1, 2013). DATES: Effective Date: October 29, 2013. FOR FURTHER... polypropylene strip and/or woven polyethylene strip, regardless of the width of the strip; with or without...

  4. Long-term health effects on the next generation of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, R.

    2009-01-01

    Each year, many pregnant women fast from dawn to sunset during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. Medical theory suggests that this may have negative long-term health effects on their offspring. Building upon the work of Almond and Mazumder (2008), and using Indonesian crosssectional data, I show th

  5. 78 FR 48416 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... People's Republic of China, 73 FR 45405 (August 5, 2008). On April 2, 2013, the Department initiated the... Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 19647 (April 2, 2013). The Department...; California Steel & Tube; Hannibal Industries; JMC Steel Group; Maruichi American Corporation;...

  6. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Survey; population status reports for blue-winged teal, sandhill cranes, woodcock, mourning doves, white... Order 12866. OMB bases its determination of regulatory significance upon the following four criteria: (a..., shooting hours are sunrise to sunset, and each waterfowl hunter 16 years of age or older must carry on...

  7. 75 FR 32533 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... on Certain Shrimp From Viet Nam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... reviews conducted by the Department of Commerce on imports of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam... reviews, and sunset review conducted by the Department of Commerce on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...

  8. Punane süda mustal lipul / Lauri Kaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaare, Lauri

    2004-01-01

    Helsingis 17. korda toimuva festivali "Armastus ja Anarhia" kavas olnud filmidest - korealase Park Chan-Wooki "Vanapoiss" ("Old Boy"), Richard Linklateri "Enne päikeseloojangut" ("Before Sunset"), india film "Homne võib jööda tulemata" ("Tomorrow May Never Come"), mehhiko "Nikotiin" ("Nicotina") jt

  9. 77 FR 263 - Certain Cut-To-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From Italy and Japan: Revocation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... physical description, and in which the chemistry quantities do not equal or exceed any one of the levels...''), respectively. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 67082 (November 1, 2010). As a result of... closed box pass, of a width exceeding 150 mm but not exceeding 1250 mm, and of a nominal or...

  10. 77 FR 74173 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on honey from the People... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on honey from the PRC, pursuant to section 751(c) of...

  11. Palgatööjõust iseenda peremeheks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Viis firmaomanikust ärinaist - OÜ Loodusjõud viie ökopoe omanik Ave Oit, Hektor-Lighti omanik ja tegevjuht Ülle Jõks, Pilgrim Eesti OÜ omanikud Ruth Laidvee ja Piret Liiv ning keskuse Atlantis, restorani Subboteja ja klubi Sunset omanik Olga Aasav - oma firma rajamisest ning ettevõtlusega seotud riskidest. Kommenteerib Kaubandus-Tööstuskoja peadirektor Siim Raie

  12. Effect of shade on various parameters of Friesian cows in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sleep than cows without access to shade. Different .... Comparison of the total daily feeding times of dairy cows is ... great influence on the duration of feeding times. Rate of feeding is ..... two major peaks in eating activity at sunrise and sunset,.

  13. 77 FR 30197 - Changes in Requirements for Specimens and for Affidavits or Declarations of Continued Use or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... roundtable discussion on the topic of ``The Future of the Use-Based Register.'' Panelists and audience... registrations chosen to participate in the pilot rather than targeting a specific subset of registrations. While... targeting. The limited nature of the pilot and ``sunset provision'' are geared to alleviate...

  14. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  15. 76 FR 44575 - Paper Clips From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of the Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Paper Clips From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of the... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on paper clips from the..., the Department initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on paper clips from the...

  16. 77 FR 42697 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Orders: Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines, 66 FR 11257 (February 23, 2001). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 67412 (November 1, 2011... Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines, 77 FR 39735 (July 5, 2012),...

  17. 77 FR 16937 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... benefits projected to result from the Cross State Air Pollution Rule. The commenter argues that EPA does... Transport Rule, commonly referred to as the Cross State Air Pollution Rule, sunsets the requirements of CAIR... environmental health or safety risk that EPA has reason to believe may have a disproportionate effect...

  18. Teaching Astronomy With Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Claire J.; Carr, Everett Q.

    1982-01-01

    Details of the services offered by a school planetarium in upstate New York are provided. The use of computers includes a full-day simulation of a voyage to Mars and back, the finding of great-circle distances, and deriving sunrise and sunset times, moon positions, and eclipse seasons. (MP)

  19. 76 FR 12022 - Foreign-Trade Zone 147-Berks County, PA; Site Renumbering Notice; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Logistics, 600 & 601 Memory Lane, York; Site 23 (9.17 acres)--D&D Distribution Services, 789 Kings Mill Road...; Site 12 (242 acres)--LogistiCenter, Allen Road Extension and Distribution Drive, Carlisle; Site 13 (100..., 7810 Olde Scotland Road, Shippensburg; Site 18 (208 acres, sunset 5/31/2014)--Key Logistics Park...

  20. Introduction to Solar Motion Geometry on the Basis of a Simple Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavrus, Vyacheslav; Shelevytsky, Ihor

    2010-01-01

    By means of a simple mathematical model developed by the authors, the apparent movement of the Sun can be studied for arbitrary latitudes. Using this model, it is easy to gain insight into various phenomena, such as the passage of the seasons, dependences of position and time of sunrise or sunset on a specific day of year, day duration for…

  1. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's Republic of...'') initiated the second Sunset Reviews of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bars from.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bars from...

  2. 77 FR 51561 - Notice of Temporary Restriction Order for Skinny Dipper Hot Springs, Boise County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Restriction Order for Skinny Dipper Hot Springs, Boise...: This serves as notice of a sunset-to-sunrise recreational use restriction of Skinny Dipper Hot Springs... Hot Springs, and the public lands in Lot 3, Section 25, T. 9 N., R.3 E., Boise Meridian, Boise...

  3. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... duty order on OJ from Brazil. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 5563 (Feb. 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012) (ITC... Orange Juice From Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). \\4\\ The Department preliminarily found that...

  4. The influence of prices on market participation decisions of poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Interestingly, a negative correlation exists between the number of chicken sold and distance to the market. .... Review of Agricultural Economics 31 (1): 103-121. Akinola, L.A.F. and .... symposium Sunset Hotel, Kisumu 22-23 April, 2009. Muthee, A.M ... Indigenous Poultry in Kenya – a Market Approach [Available online.

  5. On the Equivalence of Regularization Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ji-Feng

    2002-01-01

    We illustrate via the sunset diagram that dimensional regularization ‘deforms' the nonlocal contentsof multi-loop diagrams with its equivalence to cutoff regularization scheme recovered only after sub-divergence wassubtracted. Then we employed a differential equation approach for calculating loop diagrams to verify that dimensionalare argued especially in nonperturbativc perspective.

  6. 75 FR 71736 - In the Matter of: Certain Data Storage Products and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... behalf of Data Network Storage, LLC of Newport Beach, California. A supplement to the complaint was filed...., 855 Riverside Parkway, Suite 40, West Sacramento, CA 95605. Xyratex (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, No. C-7-2 (Level 2) Bay Avenue, Lorong Bayan Indah 3, 1900 Penang, Malaysia. Dot Hill Systems Corp., 1351 S. Sunset...

  7. The photobehaviour of Daphnia spp. as a model to explain diel vertical migration in zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    Many pelagic animal species in the marine environment and in lakes migrate to deeper water layers before sunrise and return around sunset. The amplitude of these diel vertical migrations (DVM) varies from several hundreds of metres in the oceans to approx. 5-20 m in lakes. DVM can be studied from a

  8. 76 FR 67673 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... International Trade Administration Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final... (the Department) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless... the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and...

  9. 78 FR 77101 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China...'') initiated a sunset review of the countervailing duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR... of China (GOC) and respondent interested parties. \\1\\ See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires...

  10. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  11. 77 FR 66796 - Foreign-Trade Zone 147-Reading, PA Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...)--Conewago Industrial Park, 1100 Zeager ] Road, Elizabethtown; Site 16 (134 acres)--Matrix Development Group... proposed service area is within and adjacent to the Harrisburg Customs and Border Protection port of entry.... The ASF allows for the possible exemption of one magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits...

  12. 76 FR 61667 - Proposed Foreign-Trade Zone-West Tennessee Area Under Alternative Site Framework; Application Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ..., adjacent to the Memphis Customs and Border Protection (CBP) port of entry, under the alternative site... International Trade Development Corporation, Board Order 904, July 2, 1997); FTZ 262, Southaven, Mississippi... allows for the possible exemption of one magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits that generally...

  13. 77 FR 15995 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ...) by the Industrial Development Board of Blount County and the Cities of Alcoa and Maryville, Tennessee.... The proposed service area is within and adjacent to the Knoxville U.S. Customs and Border Protection... magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits that generally apply to sites under the ASF, and...

  14. 76 FR 65171 - Foreign-Trade Zone 272-Counties of Lehigh and Northampton, PA; Application for Reorganization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board) by the Lehigh Valley Economic Development Corporation, grantee of FTZ 272... Customs and Border Protection port of entry. The applicant is requesting authority to reorganize its... sites. The ASF allows for the possible exemption of one magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits...

  15. Karibskaja ekzotika i zapozdalõi zvonok / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Pärast päikeseloojangut" ("After the Sunset") : režissöör Brett Ratner : USA 2004 ja õudusfilm "Ring 2" ("The Ring Two") : režissöör Hideo Nakata : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Jaapan 2005

  16. 75 FR 76025 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... party responded to the sunset review notice of initiation by the applicable deadline * * *'' (75 FR... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead...

  17. 76 FR 13356 - Magnesium Metal From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the PRC, pursuant to section...

  18. Re-evaluation of azo dyes as food additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt, Iona; Larsen, John Christian; Mortensen, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    . Of the 11 previously authorisedazo dyes (Red 2 G, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Azorubine, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Amaranth, Brilliant Black BN, Brown FK, Brown HT and Litholrubine BK), the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for Red 2G was withdrawn because of concerns regarding genotoxicity...

  19. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October 29... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No....

  20. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... of Five-Year Sunset Review, 77 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012); Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey; and... from Italy and Turkey, 77 FR 53909 (September 4, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey... Order, 78 FR 693 (January 4, 2013); and Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited...

  1. White-throated sparrows calibrate their magnetic compass by polarized light cues during both autumn and spring migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muheim, Rachel; Phillips, John B; Deutschlander, Mark E

    2009-11-01

    The interaction and hierarchy of celestial and magnetic compass cues used by migratory songbirds for orientation has long been the topic of an intense debate. We have previously shown that migratory Savannah sparrows, Passerculus sandwichensis, use polarized light cues near the horizon at sunrise and sunset to recalibrate their magnetic compass. Birds exposed to a +/-90 deg. shifted artificial polarization pattern at sunrise or sunset recalibrated their magnetic compass, but only when given full access to celestial cues, including polarized light cues near the horizon. In the current study, we carried out cue conflict experiments with white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis, during both spring and autumn migration in a transition zone between the species' breeding and wintering areas on the south shore of Lake Ontario. We show that white-throated sparrows also recalibrate their magnetic compass by polarized light cues at sunrise and sunset. Sunrise exposure to an artificial polarization pattern shifted relative to the natural magnetic field or exposure to a shift of the magnetic field relative to the natural sky both led to recalibration of the magnetic compass, demonstrating that artificial polarizing filters do not create an anomalous, unnatural orientation response. Our results further indicate that there is no evidence for a difference in compass hierarchy between different phases of migration, confirming previous work showing that polarized light cues near the horizon at sunrise and sunset provide the primary calibration reference both in the beginning and at the end of migration.

  2. Orbital Sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The STS-68 crew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour told a post-flight audience at JSC that this sunrise was one of the most scenic sunrises/ sunsets witnessed during the week and a half long Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2) mission. Jutting clouds, back-lit by the dawn colors, are sandwiched between the blue airglow and the silhouetted horizon of Earth.

  3. Evaluation of Proposed Cab Glass Coating for FAA Control Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 88 ABW Cleared 01/17/2014; 88ABW-2014-0142. Report contains color . 14. ABSTRACT AFRL assessed the...wear vision correction? None Contacts Glasses Both If required, which correction do you use: Monofocal Bifocal Trifocal Color perception results...Date: __________________ Local Time: ___________AM/PM Sunrise local: _______________ Sunset local

  4. Learning and Leveraging Context for Maritime Threat Analysis: Vessel Classification using Exemplar-SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    from severe lighting effects typically asso- ciated with sunrise and sunset conditions. These could include deep shadows or saturation which made visual...four of the 9 vessel classes in this preliminary study. Every effort was made to select a wide range of colors and orientations (direction of travel

  5. Glider-based Passive Acoustic Monitoring Techniques in the Southern California Region & West Coast Naval Training Range Demonstration of Glider-based Passive Acoustic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...indicate sunset to sunrise , with vertical grid lines marking midnight local time. Figure 2 above shows data obtained from a HARP passive acoustic

  6. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  7. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform seconda

  8. 75 FR 47541 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil and Japan: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ...) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 16437 (April 1, 2010). The... HTSUS. Tool steels, as defined in the HTSUS. Silico-manganese (as defined in the HTSUS) or silicon..., Method A, with excellent surface quality and chemistry restrictions as follows: 0.012 percent...

  9. Cathodoluminescence and micro-structural evidence for crystallisation and deformation processes of granites in the Eastern Lachlan Fold Belt (SE Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Axel; Lennox, Paul; Trzebski, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Trace elements (Al, K, Ti, Fe), growth and deformation pattern in quartz of the multiple deformed Carcoar, Barry and Sunset Hills granites were investigated by electron micro probe and cathodoluminescence. Zoned quartz phenocrysts with high Ti concentrations (>70 ppm) that show blue cathodoluminescence originated from the early stage of magma crystallisation. Multiple deformation of quartz causes the redistribution of Al and K in the quartz lattice, which results in the accumulation of these elements in submicroscopic inclusions (Carcoar and Barry granodiorites and Sunset Hills granite were intruded in the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian at depths of 4-8.6 and 10-12 km, respectively. In contrast to the continuous crystallisation of the granodiorite magmas, the magma of the Sunset Hills granite ascended in a stepwise fashion, causing multiple quartz nucleation. The two granodiorites were multiple, post-magmatically deformed, first, during Early Devonian under more brittle conditions at temperatures of 350-400 °C, whereas the Sunset Hills granite experienced more ductile deformation at temperatures of around 550 °C.

  10. 50 CFR 32.40 - Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... canoes and car-top boats, as well as from designated locations on the banks of Puffer Pond. We prohibit... hour before legal sunrise to 1/2 hour after legal sunset. 7. We prohibit night fishing or ice fishing... designated banks of Heard Pond. We limit access to Heard Pond to foot traffic only. Monomoy National...

  11. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform

  12. Influence of coat protein transgene copy number on resistance in transgenic line 63-1 against Papaya ringspot virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Line 63-1 is a 'Sunset'-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R, plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA),

  13. 76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... International Trade Administration Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy would... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy, pursuant to section 751(c)(2)...

  14. 75 FR 38983 - Magnesium Metal From the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ...: Background On March 1, 2010, the Department initiated sunset reviews of the Chinese and Russian antidumping..., by weight, and that have been entered into the United States as conforming to an ``ASTM Specification... weight, that do not conform to an ``ASTM Specification for Magnesium Alloy;'' \\2\\ (2) magnesium that is...

  15. 50 CFR 218.23 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... look a little to one side and out of the corners of their eyes, paying attention to the things on the... 12968-D). (E) After sunset and prior to sunrise, lookouts shall employ Night Lookouts Techniques in... (e.g., safety or weather). (H) Naval vessels shall maneuver to keep at least 500 yds (460 m)...

  16. 50 CFR 216.244 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... naked eye. (xi) After sunset and prior to sunrise, lookouts shall employ Night Lookouts Techniques in... their eyes, paying attention to the things on the outer edges of their field of vision. (xii) Personnel... and shall maneuver to keep at least 457 m (1,500 ft) away from any observed whale, consistent...

  17. 78 FR 15703 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, Indonesia, the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine; Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset..., Department of Commerce. ] SUMMARY: On November 5, 2012, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated... products from India, Indonesia, the People's Republic of China (PRC), Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine....

  18. Creativity in Advertising Design Education: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose, affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including advertising…

  19. The influence of temperature calibration on the OC–EC results from a dual-optics thermal carbon analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sunset Laboratory Dual-Optical Carbonaceous Analyzer that simultaneously measures transmission and reflectance signals is widely used in thermal-optical analysis of particulate matter samples. Most often this instrument is used to measure total carbon (TC), organic carbon (O...

  20. Punane süda mustal lipul / Lauri Kaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaare, Lauri

    2004-01-01

    Helsingis 17. korda toimuva festivali "Armastus ja Anarhia" kavas olnud filmidest - korealase Park Chan-Wooki "Vanapoiss" ("Old Boy"), Richard Linklateri "Enne päikeseloojangut" ("Before Sunset"), india film "Homne võib jööda tulemata" ("Tomorrow May Never Come"), mehhiko "Nikotiin" ("Nicotina") jt

  1. 78 FR 59650 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 40 Under Alternative Site Framework Cleveland, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Lorain Counties, Ohio, in and adjacent to the Cleveland Customs and Border Protection port of entry, FTZ... by September 30, 2020, to a five-year ASF sunset provision for magnet sites that would terminate... is admitted for a bona fide customs purpose by September 30, 2016. Signed at Washington, DC,...

  2. GETDB: 112464 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ed from the National Institute of Genetics. FM7c - 2 - - 0 - 2 patterns? (SG) pns sunset (ch), mesoderm cns ... Num of clones 2 Cluster id - Link to Cluster Table - Num of clusters 0 Stock Request - Embryonic Expression 2 patterns

  3. Influence of coat protein transgene copy number on resistance in transgenic line 63-1 against Papaya ringspot virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Line 63-1 is a 'Sunset'-derived transgenic papaya expressing the coat protein (CP) gene from a mild mutant of a Hawaiian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Previous work showed that line 63-1 R, plants exhibited a range of resistance to severe PRSV isolates from Hawaii (HA), Jamaica (JA), Thai

  4. 75 FR 79335 - Foreign-Trade Zone 158-Vicksburg/Jackson, MI, Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... application and case record and to report findings and recommendations to the Board. Public comment is invited..., sunset 3/31/2012)-- within the 429-acre Turner Industrial Park located at the U.S. Highway 45 and MS... the Board on a case-by-case basis. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Camille Evans of...

  5. Convective boundary layers driven by nonstationary surface heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, R.; Jonker, H.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the response of dry convective boundary layers to nonstationary surface heat fluxes is systematically investigated. This is relevant not only during sunset and sunrise but also, for example, when clouds modulate incoming solar radiation. Because the time scale of the associated change

  6. 77 FR 28355 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...\\ This notice is a correction. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 25683 (May 1...: Brenda E. Waters, Office of AD/CVD Operations, Customs Unit, Import Administration, International Trade... No. ITC Case No. Country Product Department contact A-570-905 731-TA-709......... China...

  7. 78 FR 16654 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would likely lead to a continuation or... a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the PRC, pursuant...

  8. Karibskaja ekzotika i zapozdalõi zvonok / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Pärast päikeseloojangut" ("After the Sunset") : režissöör Brett Ratner : USA 2004 ja õudusfilm "Ring 2" ("The Ring Two") : režissöör Hideo Nakata : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Jaapan 2005

  9. The Chinese Pyramids and the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese Pyramids are huge ancient burial mounds. In the satellite images we can see some complexes where the main buildings are the pyramidal mounds of an emperor and his empress. Here we discuss a possible sunrise/sunset orientation of these two pyramids on the solstices and equinoxes.

  10. Modeling Statistics of Fish Patchiness and Predicting Associated Influence on Statistics of Acoustic Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    corresponding to the time before sunset (at which time the general behavior of the fish was observed to change) was used (Figure 14). Where possible, fish...Line color reflects best fit estimates of instantaneous swimming speed, and line width represents the “flux” (speed x density) of fish biomass. (A

  11. Первый фильм комом / Сергей Трофимов

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Трофимов, Сергей

    2009-01-01

    Vene filmirežissööri Igor Minajevi, kes elab ja töötab Prantsusmaal, mängufilm "Kaugel Sunset-Boulevard'ist" linastus 31. märtsil Tallinnas Vene Kultuurikeskuses. Publiku reaktsioonist homoseksuaalsetele stseenidele filmis

  12. Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Technologies on Munitions Response Sites Fort Rucker, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    for visual review. Each response associated with known TOI was colored blue and each response 20 associated with non-TOI was colored gray. These...osd.mil Program Manager, Munitions Response Mr. Daniel Ruedy HydroGeoLogic, Inc. 11107 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 400 Reston, VA 20190 703-736-4531

  13. Endist Pärnu politseinikku kahtlustatakse kuriteos / Ester Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees 11. jaan. lk. 7. Aastatel 1999-2004 Pärnu politseiprefektuuri ülemkomissarina töötanud Gunnar Suur vahendas väidetavalt julgestuspolitsei politseiametnikke Pärnu ööklubisse Sunset turvameesteks. Vt. samas: Natalia Miilvee. Vastus prokuratuurist

  14. Кино о закулисье советского кино / Андрей Бабин

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Бабин, Андрей

    2009-01-01

    Vene filmirežissööri Igor Minajevi, kes elab ja töötab Prantsusmaal, mängufilm "Kaugel Sunset-Boulevard'ist" linastus 31. märtsil Tallinnas Vene Kultuurikeskuses. Vaatajatega kohtusid režissöör, helilooja Vadim Šer ja näitleja Lembit Ulfsak

  15. Фильм о людях снимавших фильмы / Игорь Минаев ; интервьюировала Инга Домбровская

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Минаев, Игорь

    2009-01-01

    Vene filmirežissööri Igor Minajevi, kes elab ja töötab Prantsusmaal, mängufilmi "Kaugel Sunset-Boulevard'ist" näeb 31. märtsil Tallinnas Vene Kultuurikeskuses. Režissöör oma filmist, milles teeb kaasa ka Lembit Ulfsak

  16. Любителей кино ждут на показе российского фильма

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Vene filmirežissööri Igor Minajevi, kes elab ja töötab Prantsusmaal, mängufilmi "Kaugel Sunset-Boulevard'ist" näeb täna Tallinnas Vene Kultuurikeskuses. Vaatajatega kohtuvad režissöör, helilooja Vadim Šer ja näitleja Lembit Ulfsak

  17. Cafe de la Soul jätkab superdiivadega. Mutant ja Bashment juhatavad sisse tantsumuusika-festivali. Bonboni pidu Pärnus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Võimsahäälne tantsumuusika-diiva Michelle Weeks Club-Hollywoodis 12. juulil. Juulikuine "Mutant Disco" ja "Bashment" on kuulutatud Sun Dance Music Festivali ametlikuks eelpeoks 12. juulil Von Krahlis. Tallinlane Bonbon korraldab Pärnu klubis Sunset suvise peo

  18. Кино на все времена! / Элла Аграновская

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Аграновская, Элла, 1950-

    2009-01-01

    Vene filmirežissöör Igor Minajev, kes elab ja töötab Prantsusmaal, sai valmis teose "Kaugel Sunset-Boulevard'ist". Rollides ka Lembit Ulfsak ja vene kino legend Tatjana Samoilova. Filmi saab näha 31. märtsil Vene Kultuurikeskuse filmiklubis

  19. Regional Consumer Magazines and the Ideal White Reader: Constructing and Retaining Geography as Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Katherine

    1994-01-01

    Examines representations of nature and culture in the consumer magazines "Midwest Living,""Southern Living," and "Sunset." Finds distinct patterns in each that construct the Midwest, South, and West as cultural/geographic texts. Finds that the magazines' emphasis on advertising and tourism both obscures and commodifies racial repression while…

  20. 77 FR 47595 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 74775 (December 1, 2011). \\1\\ Antidumping Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India and Japan, 60 FR 9661..., India, Japan, and Spain; Determination, 77 FR 45653 (August 1, 2012), and ITC Publication 4341...

  1. The Early Years: The Earth-Sun System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    We all experience firsthand many of the phenomena caused by Earth's Place in the Universe (Next Generation Science Standard 5-ESS1; NGSS Lead States 2013) and the relative motion of the Earth, Sun, and Moon. Young children can investigate phenomena such as changes in times of sunrise and sunset (number of daylight hours), Moon phases, seasonal…

  2. The Ionospheric Bubble Index deduced from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jaeheung; Noja, Max; Stolle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In the post-sunset tropical ionospheric F-region plasma density often exhibits depletions, which are usually called equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). In this paper we give an overview of the Swarm Level 2 Ionospheric Bubble Index (IBI), which is a standard scientific data of the Swarm mission. Th...

  3. 78 FR 77423 - Raw Flexible Magnets From the People's Republic of China and Taiwan: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... International Trade Administration Raw Flexible Magnets From the People's Republic of China and Taiwan: Final... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on raw flexible magnets from the People's Republic of China and...) sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on raw flexible magnets from the People's Republic of...

  4. 75 FR 51919 - National Organic Program; Amendment to the National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... raised in the United States in 2008 at 398,531.\\1\\ The Nutrition Business Journal calculated the market... including soups, broths, prepared meals, ice cream and egg nog. The USDA accredits certifying agents who... place through the Board's sunset review process rather than through the petition process. The...

  5. The green flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Pete

    2015-07-01

    Sunrise and sunset can be spectacular - the result of a beautiful interaction between the light from our nearest star and the Earth's atmosphere. But for Pete Lawrence, a phenomenon connected with these events holds even more appeal - the elusive “green flash”.

  6. Variability of observed low-altitude astronomical refraction (LAAR) from different geographic locations: progress toward a global map of LAAR variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Russell D; Lozowski, Edward P; Machel, Hans G

    2005-09-20

    The variability of the astronomical refraction of the setting Sun as measured from Holetown, Barbados, West Indies, is compared to sunset refraction measured from Edmonton, Alberta, during the same time of year. At about 13 degrees N latitude, Holetown experiences a marine tropical climate, while Edmonton (53 degrees N) has a subarctic continental climate. The 17 sunsets recorded from Holetown between 27 December 2003, and 21 February 2004, and between 25 and 30 December 2004, show a mean astronomical refraction of 0 degrees .475 and standard deviation of 0 degrees .012. The 26 sunsets recorded from Edmonton between 31 December 1992, and 17 February 1993, show a mean astronomical refraction of 0 degrees .699 and standard deviation of 0 degrees .118. The Barbados mean is significantly less than the Edmonton mean, while the variability of the Barbados data is an order of magnitude less than the Edmonton data. The variability of refraction appears to be strongly correlated with the variability in the surface vertical temperature gradient recorded on the same day as the sunset observations. This suggests that mapping of the geographic distribution of low-altitude astronomical refraction variability could be based on climatology of the surface vertical temperature gradient.

  7. 77 FR 23660 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on silicon metal from the... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on silicon metal from the PRC, pursuant to section 751(c)...

  8. 78 FR 6192 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-65; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... incorporated in the United States and then reincorporated in a tax haven. Item II--Extension of Sunset Date for... Unallowability 2011-011 Chambers. of Costs Associated with Foreign Contractor Excise Tax. V Technical Amendments... Register at 77 FR 27548 on May 10, 2012, to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion...

  9. 78 FR 6183 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-65; Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... incorporated in the United States and then reincorporated in a tax haven. Item II--Extension of Sunset Date for... Unallowability 2011-011 Chambers. of Costs Associated with Foreign Contractor Excise Tax. V Technical Amendments... Register at 77 FR 27548 on May 10, 2012, to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion...

  10. 78 FR 8032 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities AGENCY... default setting of captions off at the beginning of each call will become effective thirty days after... will sunset on a common date, which will be either (1) 180 days after the effective date for the...

  11. 77 FR 28355 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the... of initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the...

  12. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  13. Regional Consumer Magazines and the Ideal White Reader: Constructing and Retaining Geography as Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Katherine

    1994-01-01

    Examines representations of nature and culture in the consumer magazines "Midwest Living,""Southern Living," and "Sunset." Finds distinct patterns in each that construct the Midwest, South, and West as cultural/geographic texts. Finds that the magazines' emphasis on advertising and tourism both obscures and…

  14. 75 FR 54595 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's... duty orders on certain iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of... initiation of the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders\\1\\ on certain iron construction castings...

  15. 50 CFR 32.28 - Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hunters age 15 and younger must remain within sight and normal voice contact of an adult age 21 or older... from sunrise to sunset. 2. Fishing is permitted year-round, from refuge beaches only. Hobe Sound... supervise and must remain within sight of and in normal voice contact of the youth hunter age 15 and under...

  16. 50 CFR 32.60 - South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... legal sunset. 2. We allow nonmotorized boats and boats with electric motors. We allow boats with... rifles or shotguns. 4. Access into all refuge hunt areas for hunting and scouting is by foot or bicycle... require personal identification at check-in. 3. Any movement within the refuge must be by foot or bicycle...

  17. Role of the residual layer and large-scale subsidence on the development and evolution of the convective boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blay-Carreras, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Coster, de O.; Darbieu, C.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Lohou, F.; Lothon, M.; Pietersen, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Observations, mixed-layer theory and the Dutch Large-Eddy Simulation model (DALES) are used to analyze the dynamics of the boundary layer during an intensive operational period (1 July 2011) of the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence campaign. Continuous measurements made by remote s

  18. 77 FR 44213 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... International Trade Administration Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic... certain corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (``CORE'') from Germany and the Republic of Korea..., Director, Office 3, on ``Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping Duty Orders on Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel...

  19. 78 FR 16832 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... International Trade Administration Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic... corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (``CORE'') from Germany and the Republic of Korea (``Korea...-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 85 (January 3, 2012). \\2\\ See Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat...

  20. 77 FR 25141 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and South Korea: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and South Korea... of the antidumping duty (AD) orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from... Countervailing Duty Operations, Office 3, regarding ``Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping Duty Orders on Corrosion...

  1. A New View on an Old Debate: Type of Cue-Conflict Manipulation and Availability of Stars Can Explain the Discrepancies between Cue-Calibration Experiments with Migratory Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Sissel; Muheim, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Migratory birds use multiple compass systems for orientation, including a magnetic, star and sun/polarized light compass. To keep these compasses in register, birds have to regularly update them with respect to a common reference. However, cue-conflict studies have revealed contradictory results on the compass hierarchy, favoring either celestial or magnetic compass cues as the primary calibration reference. Both the geomagnetic field and polarized light cues present at sunrise and sunset have been shown to play a role in compass cue integration, and evidence suggests that polarized light cues at sunrise and sunset may provide the primary calibration reference for the other compass systems. We tested whether migratory garden warblers recalibrated their compasses when they were exposed to the natural celestial cues at sunset in a shifted magnetic field, which are conditions that have been shown to be necessary for the use of a compass reference based on polarized light cues. We released the birds on the same evening under a starry sky and followed them by radio tracking. We found no evidence of compass recalibration, even though the birds had a full view of polarized light cues near the horizon at sunset during the cue-conflict exposure. Based on a meta-analysis of the available literature, we propose an extended unifying theory on compass cue hierarchy used by migratory birds to calibrate the different compasses. According to this scheme, birds recalibrate their magnetic compass by sunrise/sunset polarized light cues, provided they have access to the vertically aligned band of maximum polarization near the horizon and a view of landmarks. Once the stars appear in the sky, the birds then recalibrate the star compass with respect of the recalibrated magnetic compass. If sunrise and sunset information can be viewed from the same location, the birds average the information to get a true geographic reference. If polarized light information is not available near the

  2. A new view on an old debate: type of cue conflict manipulation and availability of stars can explain the discrepancies between cue conflict experiments with migratory songbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel eSjöberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Migratory birds use multiple compass systems for orientation, including a magnetic, star and sun/polarized light compass. To keep these compasses in register, birds have to regularly update them with respect to a common reference. However, cue-conflict studies have revealed contradictory results on the compass hierarchy, favoring either celestial or magnetic compass cues as the primary calibration reference. Both the geomagnetic field and polarized light cues present at sunrise and sunset have been shown to play a role in compass cue integration, and evidence suggests that polarized light cues at sunrise and sunset may provide the primary calibration reference for the other compass systems. We tested whether migratory garden warblers recalibrated their compasses when they were exposed to the natural celestial cues at sunset in a shifted magnetic field, which are conditions that have been shown to be necessary for the use of a compass reference based on polarized light cues. We released the birds on the same evening under a starry sky and followed them by radio tracking. We found no evidence of compass recalibration, even though the birds had a full view of polarized light cues near the horizon at sunset during the cue-conflict exposure. Based on a meta-analysis of the available literature, we propose an extended unifying theory on compass cue hierarchy used by migratory birds to calibrate the different compasses. According to this scheme, birds recalibrate their magnetic compass by sunrise/sunset polarized light cues, provided they have access to the vertically aligned band of maximum polarization near the horizon and a view of landmarks. If polarized light information is not available near the horizon at sunrise or sunset, the birds temporarily transfer the previously calibrated magnetic compass information to the available celestial compasses. Once the stars appear in the sky, the birds then recalibrate the star compass with respect of the

  3. A Moment Frozen in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    On May 19th, 2005, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this stunning view as the Sun sank below the rim of Gusev crater on Mars. This Panoramic Camera (Pancam) mosaic was taken around 6:07 in the evening of the rover's 489th martian day, or sol. Spirit was commanded to stay awake briefly after sending that sol's data to the Mars Odyssey orbiter just before sunset. This small panorama of the western sky was obtained using Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer color filters. This filter combination allows false color images to be generated that are similar to what a human would see, but with the colors slightly exaggerated. In this image, the bluish glow in the sky above the Sun would be visible to us if we were there, but an artifact of the Pancam's infrared imaging capabilities is that with this filter combination the redness of the sky farther from the sunset is exaggerated compared to the daytime colors of the martian sky. Because Mars is farther from the Sun than the Earth is, the Sun appears only about two-thirds the size that it appears in a sunset seen from the Earth. The terrain in the foreground is the rock outcrop 'Jibsheet,' a feature that Spirit has been investigating for several weeks (rover tracks are dimly visible leading up to 'Jibsheet'). The floor of Gusev crater is visible in the distance, and the Sun is setting behind the wall of Gusev some 80 km (50 miles) in the distance. This mosaic is yet another example from MER of a beautiful, sublime martian scene that also captures some important scientific information. Specifically, sunset and twilight images are occasionally acquired by the science team to determine how high into the atmosphere the martian dust extends, and to look for dust or ice clouds. Other images have shown that the twilight glow remains visible, but increasingly fainter, for up to two hours before sunrise or after sunset. The long martian twilight (compared to Earth's) is caused by sunlight scattered

  4. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns and time courses of activity and feed availability were investigated in three generations of farmed mink (2003-2005) subjected to three different feedings routines; normal farm feeding (close to average ad libitum), ad libitum, and restricted feeding. The mink were fed daily at h12...... on different feeding schedules. The diurnal activity rhythm in both the farm fed and the ad libitum fed mink consisted of three activity peaks; one around sunrise, one prior to feeding time, and one around sunset. However, the restrictively fed mink decreased their activity in the morning when feed...... was not available and increased their activity up to expected feeding time at noon and again around sunset. When feeding was postponed, the restrictively fed mink increased their activity up to expected feeding time, whereas the ad libitum or farm fed mink did not. The results indicate that mink fed restrictively...

  5. An experimental investigation of performance of a double pass solar air heater with thermal storage medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafiz Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a double pass solar air heater was experimentally investigated using four different configurations. First configuration contained only absorber plate whereas copper tubes filled with thermal storage medium (paraffin wax were added on the absorber plate in the second configuration. Aluminum and steel rods as thermal enhancer were inserted in the middle of paraffin wax of each tube for configurations three and four respectively. Second configuration provided useful heat for about 1.5 hours after the sunset compared to first configuration. Configurations three and four provided useful heat for about 2 hours after the sunset. The maximum efficiency of about 96% was achieved using configuration three (i.e. using Aluminum rods in the middle of copper tubes filled with paraffin wax.

  6. Shadowing on Apollo 12 Solar Cells and Possible Movement of the ALSEP Central Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Paul A.; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    A fortuitous arrangement of a west-facing solar cell and a bracket on the Apollo 12 ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) has allowed us to precisely determine the relative position of the Sun near sunset relative to the Apollo 12 central station over a period of nearly 8 years. The small bracket, mounted on the central station due west of the cell, casts a shadow on the cell near sunset, decreasing the output of the cell proportional to the area of shadow covering the cell. The pattern of shadowing by the bracket gives good agreement with the known change of solar azimuth on a yearly timescale, but the pattern gradually but constantly changed from year-to-year, in a manner inconsistent with the known and changing position of the Sun.

  7. Spherical harmonic representation of the main geomagnetic field for world charting and investigations of some fundamental problems of physics and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, D. R.; Hide, R.; Leaton, B. R.; Lowes, F. J.; Malin, S. R. C.; Wilson, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Progress in the harmonic analysis of MAGSAT data is reported. Single-day data sets were subdivided into information on the sunrise side of the Earth and information on the sunset side of the Earth. Data for the main and external fields each demonstrate a clear and consistent systematic difference between the sets of data which was determined to be, due to ionospheric currents which differ from the sunset to the sunrise terminator. A toroidal field was analyzed for and determined to be an apparent toroidal field resulting from electric currents concentrated in the two terminators. Progressive elimination of auroral zone data demonstrates that the information presented does not arise from complications due to Birkeland currents.

  8. Feeding chronology of juvenile piranhas, Pygocentrus notatus, in the Venezuelan llanos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1988 rainy season, I studied the 24 h feeding chronology of juvenile (40–68 mm standard length) piranhas, Pygocentrus notatus (Characidae: Serrasalminae) from a natural population inhabiting a small savanna stream in Apure State, Venezuela. Stomach contents analyses, supported by laboratory determinations of digestion rate, showed that these fish are primarily diurnal carnivores. Predatory activity on 4–5 August 1988 increased markedly after sunrise, peaked around 1100 h, and essentially stopped after sunset. Means of stomach content weight-to-fish weight ratios among the periods sampled were significantly different. Small fish were the major prey at all hours (81% of total prey volume). Underlying factors responsible for the observed 24 h feeding patterns were not investigated, but avoidance of predation by adult piranhas, which were very active near sunset, may have been important.

  9. Determination of components of mixed color solutions by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with calibration algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chun; Li, Run; Que, Li-Zhi; Zhu, Tuo; Chen, Guo-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The three-dimensional spectra of mixed solutions of allure red, sunset yellow and brilliant blue were obtained. Then the three synthetic food colors were determined by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithms, respectively. The component number of model is three by core-consistency diagnostic. The average recoveries of allure red, sunset yellow and brilliant blue obtained by PARAFAC were 98.75% +/- 8.9%, 97.22% +/- 2.9% and 99.00% +/- 2.9% and those by ATLD algorithm were 99.78% +/- 5.9%, 92.52% +/- 5.5% and 97.23% +/- 5.8%, respectively. Results show that both of the algorithms can be used in direct and rapid determination of multi-components of mixtures. From further comparison, the PARAFAC is more stable and advantageous.

  10. Influence of the Ionosphere on the Observation of the Mid-Latitude Pi2 Pulsations at the Global Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. A. Rakhmatulin; A.Y. Pashinin

    2005-01-01

    Results of our investigation showed that occurrence frequency of Pi2 over a 24 hour period undergoes seasonal variations in time coincidence with foF2. In the winter months, at sunrise and sunset (when foF2gradients are the largest) the observation probability of these oscillations is minimal. At periods of summer solstice when the F2-layer persists almost round the clock, no effect of Pi2 pulsation attenuation is observed at sunrise and sunset. The pulsation amplitudes behave in a similar manner. Results of this study suggest the conclusion that the propagation of signal from the Pi2 sourse into the mid-latitudes, and also the parameters of these pulsations are essentially affected by electron density in the ionospheric F2-layer.

  11. Coral spawn timing is a direct response to solar light cycles and is not an entrained circadian response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, A. K.; Hilton, J. D.; Vize, P. D.

    2009-09-01

    Broadcast spawning corals release gametes into the oceans with extraordinarily accurate timing. While the date of spawning is set by the lunar cycle, the hour/minute of spawning is set by the solar cycle. In this report, we describe experiments that test whether the time of spawning is regulated by an entrained biological clock or whether it is directly controlled by the solar cycle. Montastraea franksi samples were collected on the morning of the predicted spawning. Fragments from colonies were kept under three different lighting conditions and spawning monitored. The three conditions were sunset times of 0, 1 or 2 h earlier than normal. Fragments from the same colony spawned differently under these three conditions, with an early sunset causing a corresponding early shift in spawning. These results indicate that spawn timing is not controlled by a circadian rhythm and that it is directly controlled by local solar light cycle.

  12. ONR Tokyo Scientific Bulletin. Volume 6, Number 1, January-March 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    experimentaiist who received his Ph. D. from Adelaide, and - David Cartwright from Los Alamos who had just arrived and was to provide theoretical support...antennas such as was found to occur with a 500 Kw transmitter at Darwin (built in Italy). Usually there were no problems, but at sunrise and sunset there...disastrous cyclone in Darwin five years ago). Early work at Armidale about five years ago involved the use of spectroscopic techniques in studies of radio

  13. Village Without Barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing’s efforts to transform the Olympic Village for the Paralympicsare praised by athletes as well as officials when Sinisn Vidic wandered ina wheelchair along the busi-ness and culture avenue in thenorthwestern part of the BeijingParalympic Village, the sunset and gentlebreeze made the Serbian marksman feel as free and easy as at home in Belgrade, capi-tal city of Serbia.

  14. Mulholland Drive: An Intertextual Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Barzegar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive from Kristeva’s concept of intertextuality. To achieve this aim, this study provides a close reading of the selected film so as to trace and illustrate the polyphonic network of references, citations, quotations and intertexts of Mulholland Drive to the significant already-made films such as Sunset Boulevard, The Wizard of Oz, and Persona.

  15. Eight Minutes and a Half

    CERN Document Server

    Varieschi, G U

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe a simple conceptual problem, regarding the actual position of the Sun at sunset or sunrise. Although this problem can be easily explained in terms of rotating frames of references and standard Coriolis Effect, it is sometimes misunderstood by students and even by some physics textbooks. We also present a simple experimental activity which can be used as a demonstration of this peculiar kinematical effect in general physics courses, or become part of laboratory activities.

  16. Refraction near the horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Liller, William

    1990-01-01

    Variations in astronomical refraction near the horizon are examined. Sunset timings, a sextant mounted on a tripod, and a temperature profile are utilized to derive the variations in refraction data, collected from 7 locations. It is determined that the refraction ranges from 0.234 to 1.678 deg with an rms deviation of 0.16, and it is observed that the variation is larger than previously supposed. Some applications for the variation of refraction value are discussed.

  17. Risk of field cultivation of pickling cucumber caused by unfavorable sunshine duration conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy, accessible to plants during sunshine from the sunrise to the sunset is of key importance in productivity of agrocenoses. The aim of the work was to determine risk of pickling cucumber cultivation caused by an unfavorable course of sunshine duration in Poland on the basis of a 40-year research period 1966-2005. The research into the subject was undertaken due to frequent occurrence of sunshine deficiency in Poland and its high temporal and spatial variability. Effect of solar con...

  18. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 76, Number 6, November-December 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    1933-12-01

    non-commissionedofficers. ’l.’hecourse of instruction will be for one year. This new institution, like all military schoolsin Mexico ,is under the...direct control and supervision of the "Direccion General de Educacion Militar" (Directo- rate General of Military Education). AUSTRIA-Oesterreich...Arkansas, Mississippi and Louisiana; the 40th (Sunshine) Division from Cali- fornia, Colorado,Utah, Arizona and New Mexico ; and the41st (Sunset

  19. The Air Land Sea Bulletin. Issue No. 2010-1, January 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    and 8 months, that number doubled. With the increas- ing demand for full motion video (FMV), total flight hours by February 2009 reached 600,000...engagements on this road were all at sunset, approximately 1800 hours. Even though this was the first time this RCP had operated in this area of...and airborne radio system (SINCGARS), including full motion video (FMV) capability. OPERATIONS The OA-X is not a “low-tech” solution but a

  20. Proceedings of the Biennial EO/EEO Research Symposium (2nd) Held in Cocoa Beach, Florida on December 2-4, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    are excerpts from the sonnet by Emma Lazarus immortalized at the base of the Statue of Liberty: “Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand a...43 11. “Reverse” Discrimination .77 .63 12. Overall EO Climate . 73 .66 Factors Status Groups 1...Overall EO Climate .67 .31 . 73 (3. Majority Officer Women) 1. Sexual Harassment .76 .66 and Discrimination 2. Differential

  1. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  2. The Importance of an Integrated Approach in Solving a Problem in Mosquito Systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    species [Elliott considered =dunhami] that bites at sunset, and therefore mainly outside houses, and preferentially on animals .’ Kitzmiller, Kreutzer and...Deane, L. M., 0. R. Causey and M. P. Deane. 1948. Notas sobre a distrib- uicao e a biologia dos anofelinos das regioes Nordestina e Amazonica . do...summary of the “tarsimacu~atd’ complex of AnopheZes (Diptera: Culicidae). Am. J. Hyg. 33(C):88-100. Simpson, G. G. 1961. Principles of Animal

  3. 表示时间的介词用法归纳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佩夫

    2002-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ.常用来表示"点"时间的介词有: ①at用于表示钟点、夜晚、中午、拂晓等固定词组中.如: at half past five(在五点半),at night(在夜晚),at sunset(在日落时分),at the age of(在……岁时),等等.

  4. Effects of crepuscular photoenvironment on light-induced behavior of Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, P B; Miller, R J

    1984-11-01

    Phototactic response rates in the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna were found to increase greatly when cultured under a lighting regime that included simulation of sunset and sunrise. The changes in intensity and color of the crepuscular periods are known to be the primary stimulus for vertical migrations of many planktonic forms, and may have importance to many other animals as well. The value of this type of lighting to investigators of animal behavior and physiology is discussed.

  5. Twilight at Gusev

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Here is the martian twilight sky at Gusev crater, as imaged by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit around 6:20 in the evening of the rover's 464th martian day, or sol (April 23, 2005). Spirit was commanded to stay awake briefly after sending that sol's data to Mars Odyssey at sunset. This small panorama of the western sky was obtained using camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer color filters. This filter combination allows false color images to be generated that are similar to what a human would see, but with the colors exaggerated. In this image, the bluish glow in the sky above where the Sun had just set would be visible to us if we were there, but the redness of the sky farther from the sunset is exaggerated compared to the daytime colors of the martian sky. These kinds of images are beautiful and evocative, but they also have important scientific purposes. Specifically, twilight images are occasionally acquired by the science team to determine how high into the atmosphere the martian dust extends, and to look for dust or ice clouds. Other images have shown that the twilight glow remains visible, but increasingly fainter, for up to two hours before sunrise or after sunset. The long martian twilight compared to Earth's is caused by sunlight scattered around to the night side of the planet by abundant high altitude dust. Similar long twilights or extra-colorful sunrises and sunsets sometimes occur on Earth when tiny dust grains that are erupted from powerful volcanoes scatter light high in the atmosphere. These kinds of twilight images are also more sensitive to faint cloud structures, though none were detected when these images were acquired. Clouds have been rare at Gusev crater during Spirit's 16-month mission so far.

  6. Advanced Lighting Controls for Reducing Energy Use and Cost in DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    and Performance COP Coefficient of Performance COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf CRI Color Rendering Index CT Current Transducer DALI Digital...clock can be used to trigger events by time of day, sunrise or sunset, on a specific day of the week, or on a specific date. Network Bridge DyNet...change the color appearance of the lighting fixtures o To have the ability to control the light output of the overhead light fixtures o Better access

  7. Sunrise, Earth Limb, SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The colors of this sunrise/sunset scene provide insights into the relative density of the Earth's atmosphere (15.5S, 158.5E). This scene captures the silhouette of several thunderstorms with their cirrus anvil tops spreading out against the tropopause - the top of the lowest layer of atmosphere, the troposphere which is also the most dense and refracts light at the red end of the spectrum while the blues refract in the stratosphere, the highest layer.

  8. Neurobiology of circadian timing neuron%昼夜节律神经元的神经生物学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建明

    2000-01-01

    @@ Why do birds sing in the morning and frogs call at night ? Why do m ost heart attacks strike before dawn, while asthamatic attacks occur after sunset? Why do we feel that the dark, short days of winter are dreary and the long, s unny days of summer are cheerful? The answer to these questions lies in understa nding the function of the biological clock in our brain.

  9. Relative Metabolic Stability, but Disrupted Circadian Cortisol Secretion during the Fasting Month of Ramadan

    OpenAIRE

    Suhad Bahijri; Anwar Borai; Ghada Ajabnoor; Altaf Abdul Khaliq; Ibrahim AlQassas; Dhafer Al-Shehri; George Chrousos

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic feeding and sleep schedule disturbances are stressors that exert damaging effects on the organism. Practicing Muslims in Saudi Arabia go through strict Ramadan fasting from dawn till sunset for one month yearly. Modern era Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia are associated with disturbed feeding and sleep patterns, namely abstaining from food and water and increasing daytime sleep, and staying awake and receiving food and water till dawn. HYPOTHESIS: Strict Ramadan practices...

  10. Task Inventory Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    participle forms, past- participle forma, and past~tense forms, when these are added to verbs on the list. (2) The same rule applies when a...still(ness) sunrise teach (er) spent sting sunset team spider stir sunshine tear spike stitch supper tease spill stock suppose teaspoon spin stocking...34Demonstrates safety practice to workers" (22- TEACHING ) "Assigns duties to subordinates" (23-SUPERINTENDING) 119 Pages that follow first list

  11. Using a Video Camera to Measure the Radius of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joshua; Hughes, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    A simple but accurate method for measuring the Earth's radius using a video camera is described. A video camera was used to capture a shadow rising up the wall of a tall building at sunset. A free program called ImageJ was used to measure the time it took the shadow to rise a known distance up the building. The time, distance and length of…

  12. Waddling on the Dark Side: Ambient Light Affects Attendance Behavior of Little Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Chiaradia, André; Wasiak, Paula; Renwick, Leanne; Dann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Visible light on Earth largely comes from the sun, including light reflected from the moon. Predation risk is strongly determined by light conditions, and some animals are nocturnal to reduce predation. Artificial lights and its consequent light pollution may disrupt this natural behavior. Here, we used 13 years of attendance data to study the effects of sun, moon, and artificial light on the attendance pattern of a nocturnal seabird, the little penguin Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. The little penguin is the smallest and the only penguin species whose activity on land is strictly nocturnal. Automated monitoring systems recorded individually marked penguins every time they arrived (after sunset) at or departed (before sunrise) from 2 colonies under different lighting conditions: natural night skylight and artificial lights (around 3 lux) used to enhance penguin viewing for ecotourism around sunset. Sunlight had a strong effect on attendance as penguins arrived on average around 81 min after sunset and departed around 92 min before sunrise. The effect of moonlight was also strong, varying according to moon phase. Fewer penguins came ashore during full moon nights. Moon phase effect was stronger on departure than arrival times. Thus, during nights between full moon and last quarter, arrival times (after sunset) were delayed, even though moonlight levels were low, while departure times (before sunrise) were earlier, coinciding with high moonlight levels. Cyclic patterns of moon effect were slightly out of phase but significantly between 2 colonies, which could be due to site-specific differences or presence/absence of artificial lights. Moonlight could be overridden by artificial light at our artificially lit colony, but the similar amplitude of attendance patterns between colonies suggests that artificial light did not mask the moonlight effect. Further research is indeed necessary to understand how seabirds respond to the increasing artificial night

  13. Eating timing an evolutionary manager of postmodern rumen physiology and health: a review

    OpenAIRE

    NIKKHAH, Akbar

    2011-01-01

    Akbar NikkhahDepartment of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IranAbstract: Natural diurnal patterns of grazing and rumination lead intensive ruminant production. Ruminants have evolved to ruminate mostly overnight and to graze during the day, especially during sunrise, the afternoon, and sunset. Accordingly, rumen fermentation, postrumen nutrient assimilation, and peripheral metabolism possess circadian patterns. The evolutionary patterns of eati...

  14. The astronomical significance of megalithic stone alignments at Vibhuthihalli in northern Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Kameswara; Thakur, Priya

    2010-03-01

    A megalithic site at Vibhuthihalli in Karnataka, India, contains alignments of stones that are arranged in a square pattern with rows and columns showing a diagonal arrangement. Such structures are non-sepulchral, and although their purpose is not clear it has been suggested that they have astronomical significance. We investigated this possibility and our observations showed that the rows of stones point to the direction of equinoctial sunrise and sunset. lt is likely that calendrical events were monitored at this site.

  15. Astronomical elements in the religious and funerary world of the ancient Iberians

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, César

    2002-01-01

    We present an archaeoastronomical study of 16 sacred and funerary Iberian sites. The work is based on the analysis of the orientation of architectural structures as well as the horizon surrounding each site. Seven of the sites surveyed (44% of them) show relevant astronomical relations, mainly to the sunrise or sunset at the equinoxes. We find that most of the iberian sacred buildings not dedicated to cults of domestic character are oriented to the part of the horizon where the sunrise (or mo...

  16. Instant and opportune time in Existential Graphs of Charles S. Peirce. For a Kairologic dimension of creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Romero Tenorio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For esthetics, creativity is the emergence of the moment that makes it unique or a pendulum movement that revives as reminiscent blinded by a repetitive sunset. Matching process and teleology (thought which we turn, Peirce join these two dimensions (time and transit, without really glimpse a moment of humanity to enjoy the negligible. Hence, we propose an opportune time to direct us towards a more human temporality.

  17. On the Internet, with the Exploded Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessamyn West

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Looking at print books from a writer’s first-person perspective I wrote a book in 2009 and 2010. It’s getting published this year (2011 sometime. Let me tell you about what it’s like writing a print book for a large trade publisher during the long leisurely sunset of print. It was different from what I thought [...

  18. Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure Pyramids and the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the orientation of the Egyptian pyramids at Giza with respect to sunrises and sunsets, using SunCalc.net software. We can see that Khufu and Khafre pyramids had been positioned in a manner that, from each pyramid, it was always possible to observe the points of the horizon where the sun was rising and setting on each day of the year. A discussion for the Menkaure pyramid is also proposed.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Synthetic Color(s) by Derivative Spectroscopy in Syrup Formulations and Validation by HPLC: Exposure Risk of Colors to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Shanya Das; Dixit, Sumita; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2014-01-01

    Color additives are used in pediatric syrup formulations as an excipient; though not pre-requisite, but pediatric syrup formulations are normally colored. An attempt has been made to measure simultaneously the single drug, acetaminophen (AT), along with the colors, carmoisine (CA), erythrosine (ET), and sunset yellow FCF (SSY) added in it by three derivative spectroscopy methods namely, 1st order, ratio, and differential derivative methods. Moreover, evaluation has been made for the exposure ...

  20. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  1. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  2. From outer space to paradise? : Remapping Hawai'i in "Lilo and Stitch"

    OpenAIRE

    Laemmerhirt, Iris-Aya

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the European discovery of the Hawaiian Islands by Captain James Cook in 1778, this island state has been shamelessly exploited economically and reimagined for a wide, mainly white, audience in the media. The island state continues to occupy a unique place in public consciousness, evoking escapist fantasies of dazzling long, sandy beaches, spectacular sunsets, swaying palm trees, and beautiful hula dancers as well as skilled surfers enjoying perfect waves. Numerous novels, TV series...

  3. The functional role of tabular structures for large reef fishes: avoiding predators or solar irradiance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, J. T.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Large reef fishes may often be seen sheltering under tabular structures on coral reefs. There are two principle explanations for this behaviour: avoidance of predation or avoidance of solar irradiance. This study sought supporting evidence to distinguish between these two explanations by examining the usage of tabular structures on a shallow mid-shelf reef of the Great Barrier Reef at midday and sunset. If predation avoidance is most important, usage should increase towards sunset; conversely, if avoidance of solar radiation is most important, more fishes should use cover at midday. Underwater video observations revealed that tabular structures were extensively used by large reef fishes at midday, being characterised by numerous species, especially Lutjanidae and Haemulidae. In contrast, at sunset, tabular structures were used by significantly fewer large reef fishes, being characterised mostly by species of unicornfish ( Naso spp.). Resident times of fishes using tabular structures were also significantly longer at midday (28:06 ± 5:55 min) than at sunset (07:47 ± 2:19 min). The results suggest that the primary function of tabular structures for large reef fishes is the avoidance of solar irradiance. This suggestion is supported by the position of fishes when sheltering. The majority of large reef fishes were found to shelter under the lip of tabular structure, facing outwards. This behaviour is thought to allow protection from harmful downwelling UV-B irradiance while allowing the fish to retain photopic vision and survey more of the surrounding area. These findings help to explain the importance of tabular structures for large reef fishes on coral reefs, potentially providing a valuable energetic refuge from solar irradiance.

  4. Debunking Technical Competency as the Sole Source of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    electric light permitted work past sunset and hence increased productivity and output. The automobile and aircraft opened opportunities for Americans...opened their own bicycle business, but Wilbur’s interest in aeronautics started after reading about a famous German glider pilot. Wilbur’s Thomas...inventors attempted to develop such a machine; however, on December 17, 1903, an unlikely high school dropout with a printing press and bicycle repair

  5. Review of Army Food Related Operations in Hot Desert Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Hypernatremia, Azotemia, and Dehydration Due to High-Protein Tube Feeding, Ann. Intern. Med., 68, 778-791, 1968. 33. Lehninger , A.L., Biochemistry , 1970, Worth...beverages should be carefully avoided. The best principle is "no alcohol before sunset." (f) As wide a variety as possible shoiuld be atteupted in the...29. Stryer, L., Biochemistry , 1988, W.H. Fresman and Ccmlny, New York. 30. Paraira, M.D., Conrad, E.J., Hicks, W., and Elman, R., Therapeutic

  6. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal(1 Samir A.M.Zaahkouk

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow, food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect might explain hyperactivity of children that was claimed associated with consumption of food colorants. The study revealed that administration of both natural and synthetic food colorants (permitted dose significantly increases serum AST and serum urea. All colorants with the exception of sun-set yellow significantly increase serum total bilirubin. While, chlorophyll, fast-green and sun-set yellow were significantly increase serum ALT. Some of the colorants used have a retard destructive effect on some vital organ functions, which extends even after the recovery period. Therefore, large quantities and /or long periods of colorants administration should not be used as additive in man's diet or as a drink. Hence, these colorants should restrictly be used in nutritional therapy. And more caring must be done prevent our children to eat or drink these colorants with much amounts or for long period.

  7. The diel zooplankton motion at 1000 and 300 m depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, J.; Badan, A.; Candela, J.; Sheinbaum, J.

    2007-05-01

    A well known feature of a large fraction of the zooplankton in the 300 m near-surface layer is the daily vertical migration cycle, which is phase locked with the light cycle. Less documented is the similar cycle in deeper layers away from significant light. Here we show, based on direct measurements, the mean vertical velocity cycle for layers 170 m thick, one centered at 1000 m and another, for reference, at 300 m depth, in the central Gulf of Mexico. Averages over 473 days are computed timing each cycle with the sunrise and sunset. Both cycles are highly symmetrical odd functions where, in the deeper layer, the downward/upward migration is delayed/advanced relative to the upper layer by about 1 h 40 min. In the upper layer, the peak speeds are close to 40 mm/s, with corresponding vertical displacements about 250 m, and in the deeper layer the peak speeds are 10 mm/s with vertical displacements of approximately 120 m. In the upper layer, the peak downward motion occurs minutes before sunrise, wheras in the lower layer, the peak downward velocity occurs 1.5 hours after the sunrise. The peak upward velocities are found 1.5 hours before sunset in the deeper layer and just minutes after sunset in the upper layer. Therefore, the nightly permanence towards shallower water lasts longer, for about 3.5 hours, in the deeper layers than closer to surface.

  8. Framework and criteria for program evaluation in the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-30

    This study addresses the development of a framework and generic criteria for conducting program evaluation in the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy. The evaluation process is intended to provide the Assistant Secretary with comprehensive and consistent evaluation data for management decisions regarding policy and strategy, crosscutting energy impacts and resource allocation and justification. The study defines evaluation objectives, identifies basic information requirements (criteria), and identifies a process for collecting evaluation results at the basic program level, integrating the results, and summarizing information upward through the CE organization to the Assistant Secretary. Methods are described by which initial criteria were tested, analyzed, and refined for CE program applicability. General guidelines pertaining to evaluation and the Sunset Review requirements are examined and various types, designs, and models for evaluation are identified. Existing CE evaluation reports are reviewed and comments on their adequacy for meeting current needs are provided. An inventory and status survey of CE program evaluation activities is presented, as are issues, findings, and recommendations pertaining to CE evaluation and Sunset Review requirements. Also, sources of data for use in evaluation and the Sunset Review response are identified. An inventory of CE evaluation-related documents and reports is provided.

  9. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one

  10. Investigating the effect of geomagnetic storm and equatorial electrojet on equatorial ionospheric irregularity over East African sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seba, Ephrem Beshir; Nigussie, Melessew

    2016-11-01

    The variability of the equatorial ionosphere is still a big challenge for ionospheric dependent radio wave technology users. To mitigate the effect of equatorial ionospheric irregularity on trans-ionospheric radio waves considerable efforts are being done to understand and model the equatorial electrodynamics and its connection to the creation of ionospheric irregularity. However, the effect of the East-African ionospheric electrodynamics on ionospheric irregularity is not yet well studied due to lack of multiple ground based instruments. But, as a result of International Heliophysical Year (IHY) initiative, which was launched in 2007, some facilities are being deployed in Africa since then. Therefore, recently deployed instruments, in the Ethiopian sector, such as SCINDA-GPS receiver (2.64°N dip angle) for TEC and amplitude scintillation index (S4) data and two magnetometers, which are deployed on and off the magnetic equator, data collected in the March equinoctial months of the years 2011, 2012, and 2015 have been used for this study in conjunction with geomagnetic storm data obtained from high resolution OMNI WEB data center. We have investigated the triggering and inhibition mechanisms for ionospheric irregularities using, scintillation index (S4), equatorial electrojet (EEJ), interplanetary electric field (IEFy), symH index, AE index and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz on five selected storm and two storm free days. We have found that when the eastward EEJ fluctuates in magnitude due to storm time induced electric fields at around noontime, the post-sunset scintillation is inhibited. All observed post-sunset scintillations in equinox season are resulted when the daytime EEJ is non fluctuating. The strength of noontime EEJ magnitude has shown direct relation with the strength of the post-sunset scintillations. This indicates that non-fluctuating EEJ stronger than 20 nT, can be precursor for the occurrence of the evening time ionospheric irregularities

  11. VHF and L-band scintillation characteristics over an Indian low latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. S. Rama Rao

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of simultaneous VHF (244 MHz and L-band (1.5 GHz scintillations recorded at a low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E, during the low sunspot activity year of March 2004 to March 2005, suggest that the occurrence of scintillations is mainly due to two types, namely the Plasma Bubble Induced (PBI, which maximizes during the post sunset hours of winter and equinoctial months, and the Bottom Side Sinusoidal (BSS type, which maximizes during the post-midnight hours of the summer solstice months. A detailed study on the spectral characteristics of the scintillations at both the frequencies show that the post-sunset scintillations are strong with fast fading (≈40 fad/min and are multiple in nature in scattering, giving rise to steep spectral slopes, whereas the post-midnight scintillations, which occur mostly on the VHF signal with low fading rate (≈4 fad/min, are of the BSS type, often showing typical Fresnel oscillations with reduced roll off spectral slopes, indicating that the type of irregularity resembles a thin screen structure giving rise to weak scattering. Using the onset times of several similar scintillation patches across the two satellite (FLEETSAT 73° E, INMARSAT 65° E ray paths (sub-ionospheric points are separated by 82 km, the East ward movement of the irregularity patches is found to vary from 150 to 250 m/s during the post sunset hours and decrease slowly during the post midnight hours. Further, the east-west extent of the PBI type of irregularities is found to vary from 100 to 500 km, while that of the BSS type extend up to a few thousand kilometers.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities; Auroral ionosphere; Electric fields and currents

  12. Understanding Green Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  13. A Spring without Water: The Conundrum of Anti-Dumping Duties in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Vinti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Agreement on the Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1994 (Anti-Dumping Agreement permits the imposition of anti-dumping duties for as long and to the extent necessary to counteract dumping which is causing injury, subject to the proviso that they must be terminated after five years unless a sunset review has been initiated. A sunset review has the purpose of either permitting or terminating the continuation of an anti-dumping duty. This is significant because if the sunset review is not initiated prior to the expiry of the five-year period, the anti-dumping duties will be terminated. Therefore, this places an emphasis on the determination of the precise date of commencement of the anti-dumping duties. This is because an incorrect determination of the date of the imposition of the anti-dumping duty has obvious financial implications for the interested parties. The Supreme Court of Appeal in South Africa has delivered two salient judgments in this regard: firstly, in Progress Office Machines CC v SARS 2008 2 SA 13 (SCA (POM, and then more recently, in Association of Meat Importers v ITAC 2013 4 All SA 253 (SCA (AMIE. This paper contends that these two judgments are in conflict and are riddled with inconsistencies. Secondly, the paper contends that the SCA has in the recent AMIE case virtually rewritten its earlier judgment of Progress Office Machines. Lastly, the paper shows that the approach of South African courts to whether the Anti-Dumping Agreement is binding on South African law is fraught with uncertainty and ambivalence. The case analysis also reflects on the impact of the newly minted but yet to be implemented Customs Duty Act with a view to assessing the impact of the new legislation on the issues currently plaguing the anti-dumping regime of South Africa.

  14. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, C.; Lühr, H.; Ma, S. Y.; Stolle, C.; Fejer, B. G.

    2012-08-01

    In this study five years of CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload) fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) data is used to investigate the characteristics of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). We filtered the FGM data by using band-passes with four different cut-off periods to get the EPBs with different maximum spatial scale sizes in the meridional plane ranging from 76-608 km. Associated with the EPB observations at about 400 km, the typical altitude of CHAMP during the year 2000-2005, we also investigate the post-sunset equatorial vertical plasma drift data from ROCSAT-1 (Republic of China Satellite 1). Since the height of the F-layer is highly correlated with the vertical plasma drift and solar flux, we sorted the ROCSAT-1 data into different groups by F10.7. From the integrated vertical drift we have estimated the post-sunset uplift of the ionosphere. By comparing the properties of EPB occurrence for different scale sizes with the global distribution of plasma vertical uplift, we have found that EPBs reaching higher altitudes are more structured than those which are sampled by CHAMP near the top side of the depleted fluxtube. Such a result is in accord with 3-D model simulations (Aveiro and Hysell, 2010). Small-scale EPB structures are observed by CHAMP when the irregularities reach apex heights of 800 km and more. Such events are encountered primarily in the Brazilian sector during the months around November, when the post-sunset vertical plasma drift is high.

  15. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xiong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study five years of CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload fluxgate magnetometer (FGM data is used to investigate the characteristics of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs. We filtered the FGM data by using band-passes with four different cut-off periods to get the EPBs with different maximum spatial scale sizes in the meridional plane ranging from 76–608 km. Associated with the EPB observations at about 400 km, the typical altitude of CHAMP during the year 2000–2005, we also investigate the post-sunset equatorial vertical plasma drift data from ROCSAT-1 (Republic of China Satellite 1. Since the height of the F-layer is highly correlated with the vertical plasma drift and solar flux, we sorted the ROCSAT-1 data into different groups by F10.7. From the integrated vertical drift we have estimated the post-sunset uplift of the ionosphere. By comparing the properties of EPB occurrence for different scale sizes with the global distribution of plasma vertical uplift, we have found that EPBs reaching higher altitudes are more structured than those which are sampled by CHAMP near the top side of the depleted fluxtube. Such a result is in accord with 3-D model simulations (Aveiro and Hysell, 2010. Small-scale EPB structures are observed by CHAMP when the irregularities reach apex heights of 800 km and more. Such events are encountered primarily in the Brazilian sector during the months around November, when the post-sunset vertical plasma drift is high.

  16. Wind-Related Orientation Patterns in Diurnal, Crepuscular and Nocturnal High-Altitude Insect Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gao; Lim, Ka Sing; Reynolds, Don R; Reynolds, Andy M; Chapman, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground) where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects' self-powered speed is directed downstream), and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here, we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected "medium-sized" windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg), flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all "migration events" analyzed), and was also frequent at sunset (85%) and at night (81%). Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment), but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation "performance" significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  17. Application of a nonradioactive method of measuring protein synthesis in industrially relevant Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadehbeigi, Nazanin; Dickson, Alan James

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high medical and commercial value of recombinant proteins for clinical and diagnostic purposes, the protein synthesis machinery of mammalian host cells is the subject of extensive research by the biopharmaceutical industry. RNA translation and protein synthesis are steps that may determine the extent of growth and productivity of host cells. To address the problems of utilization of current radioisotope methods with proprietary media, we have focused on the application of an alternative method of measuring protein synthesis in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. This method employs puromycin as a nonradioactive label which incorporates into nascent polypeptide chains and is detectable by western blotting. This method, which is referred to as SUnSET, successfully demonstrated the expected changes in protein synthesis in conditions that inhibit and restore translation activity and was reproducibly quantifiable. The study of the effects of feed and sodium butyrate addition on protein synthesis by SUnSET revealed an increase following 1 h feed supplementation while a high concentration of sodium butyrate was able to decrease translation during the same treatment period. Finally, SUnSET was used to compare protein synthesis activity during batch culture of the CHO cell line in relation to growth. The results indicate that as the cells approached the end of batch culture, the global rate of protein synthesis declined in parallel with the decreasing growth rate. In conclusion, this method can be used as a "snapshot" to directly monitor the effects of different culture conditions and treatments on translation in recombinant host cells.

  18. Analysis of nocturnal air temperature in districts using mobile measurements and a cooling indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, François; Bouyer, Julien; Claverie, Rémy; Pétrissans, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    The urban heat island phenomenon is generally defined as an air temperature difference between a city center and the non-urbanized rural areas nearby. However, this description does not encompass the intra-urban temperature differences that exist between neighborhoods in a city. This study investigates the air temperature dynamics of neighborhoods for meteorological conditions that lead to important urban heat island amplitude. Local climate zones (LCZs) have been determined in Nancy, France, and mobile screen-height air temperature measurements are performed using an instrumented vehicle. Initially, hourly measurements are performed within four different LCZs. These results show that air temperature within LCZ demonstrates a nocturnal cooling in two phases, i.e., a first phase between 1 to 3 h before sunset and 3 to 5 h after sunset, and a second phase from 3 to 5 h after sunset to sunrise. During phase 1, neighborhoods exhibit different cooling rate values and air temperature gaps develop between districts, while during phase 2, cooling rates tend to be analogous. Then, a larger meteorological data set is used to investigate these two phases for a selection of 13 LCZs. Normalized cooling rates are calculated between daytime measures and nighttime measures in order to quantify the air temperature dynamics of the studied areas during phase 1. Considering this indicator, three groups are emerging: LCZ compact midrise and open midrise with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.09 h -1 LCZ large lowrise and open lowrise/sparsely built with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.011 h -1 LCZ low plants with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.014 h -1 Results indicate that the relative position of LCZ within the conurbation does not drive air temperature dynamics during phase 1. In addition, measures performed during phase 2 tend to illustrate that cooling rates are similar to all LCZ during this period.

  19. LC/MS method using cloud point extraction for the determination of permitted and illegal food colors in liquid, semiliquid, and solid food matrixes: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ebru; Mittendorf, Klaus; Senyuva, Hamide

    2011-01-01

    A cloud point extraction method is reported using LC/MS for the determination of regulated water-soluble food colors (Allura Red, Sunset Yellow, erythrosine, and tartrazine) and banned fat-soluble synthetic azo dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV; Red B; 7B; Black B; Red G; Metanil Yellow; and Rhodamine B). The extraction of all 14 colors was carried out with cloud point extraction using the nonionic surfactant Triton X 114. Optimized conditions for cloud point extraction were 3% Triton X 114 (w/v), 0.1 M ammonium acetate, and heating at 50 degrees C for 30 min. This approach proved effective in giving quantitative recoveries from a diverse range of food matrixes, and optimized LC gave baseline chromatographic separation for all colors including Sudan IV and Red B. Single-laboratory validation was performed with spiking into liquid matrixes (wine and homemade wine), semiliquid matrixes (sauce and homemade paprika paste), and solid matrixes (spice and homemade chili powder) using the respective blank matrixes for matrix-matched calibration. The LOQ values for water-soluble colors were in the range of 15-150 mg/kg, and for the fat-soluble colors, 0.1-1.5 mg/kg. The mean recovery values were in the range of 69.6-116.0% (except Allura Red and Sunset Yellow in wine, for which recoveries were lower). The mean RSDs for colors were in the range of 4.0-14.8%. A small survey was conducted of samples of confectionery products, dried fruits, wines, bitter sodas, juices, sauces, pastes, and spices, which demonstrated the applicability of the method to a diverse selection of real food samples. Allura Red was detected in strawberry jelly and Sunset Yellow in artificial saffron.

  20. Highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platforms for food colourants based on the property-tuning of porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qin; Xia, Shanhong; Tong, Jianhua; Wu, Kangbing

    2015-08-05

    It is very challenging to develop highly-sensitive analytical platforms for toxic synthetic colourants that widely added in food samples. Herein, a series of porous carbon (PC) was prepared using CaCO3 nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) as the hard template and starch as the carbon precursor. Characterizations of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the morphology and porous structure were controlled by the weight ratio of starch and nano-CaCO3. The electrochemical behaviours of four kinds of widely-used food colourants, Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red, were studied. On the surface of PC samples, the oxidation signals of colourants enhanced obviously, and more importantly, the signal enhancement abilities of PC were also dependent on the starch/nano-CaCO3 weight ratio. The greatly-increased electron transfer ability and accumulation efficiency were the main reason for the enhanced signals of colourants, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. The prepared PC-2 sample by 1:1 starch/nano-CaCO3 weight ratio was more active for the oxidation of food colourtants, and increased the signals by 89.4-fold, 79.3-fold, 47.3-fold and 50.7-fold for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. As a result, a highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed, and the detection limits were 1.4, 3.5, 2.1 and 1.7 μg L(-1) for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. The practical application of this new sensing platform was demonstrated using drink samples, and the detected results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  1. The puzzle of self-reported weight gain in a month of fasting (Ramadan among a cohort of Saudi families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhotmah Balkees

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During Ramadan fast, approximately one billion Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and another meal before sunrise. Many studies reported good health-related outcomes of fasting including weight loss. The objective of this study is to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a group of families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross-section study using a pre-designed questionnaire to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a representative cohort of Saudis living in Jeddah. It was piloted on 173 nutrition students and administered by them to their families. Results A total of 173 Saudi families were interviewed. One out of 5 indicated that their expenditure increases during Ramadan. Approximately two thirds of the respondents (59.5% reported weight gain after Ramadan. When asked about their perspective explanations for that: 40% attributed that to types of foods being rich in fat and carbohydrates particularly date in (Sunset meal 97.7% and rice in (Dawn meal 80.9%. One third (31.2% indicated that it was due to relative lack of physical exercise in Ramadan and 14.5% referred that to increase in food consumption. Two thirds (65.2% of those with increased expenditure reported weight gain. Conclusion Surprisingly weight gain and not weight loss was reported after Ramadan by Saudis which indicates timely needed life-style and dietary modification programs for a population which reports one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes.

  2. Wind-related orientation patterns in diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal high-altitude insect migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream, and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected ‘medium-sized’ windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg, flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all ‘migration events’ analyzed, and was also frequent at sunset (85% and at night (81%. Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment, but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation ‘performance’ significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  3. Application of Best Estimate Approach for Modelling of QUENCH-03 and QUENCH-06 Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Kaliatka

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the QUENCH-03 and QUENCH-06 experiments are modelled using ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAPSIM codes. For the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, SUSA3.5 and SUNSET tools were used. The article demonstrates that applying the best estimate approach, it is possible to develop basic QUENCH input deck and to develop the two sets of input parameters, covering maximal and minimal ranges of uncertainties. These allow simulating different (but with the same nature tests, receiving calculation results with the evaluated range of uncertainties.

  4. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the

  5. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-02-29

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Electrodynamical response of the Indian low-mid latitude ionosphere to the very large solar flare of 28 October 2003 – a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Manju, G.; T. K. Pant; Devasia, C. V.; Ravindran, S.; Sridharan, R

    2009-01-01

    The electrodynamic effects on the low-mid latitude ionospheric region have been investigated using GPS (global positioning system) data, ionosonde data and ΔH values, during the very large solar flare (X17.2/4B) of 28 October 2003. The results bring out the flare induced unusual behaviour of the equatorial ionosphere on this day just prior to sunset. The important observations are i) Large and prolonged Ne enhancements observed from ionosonde data just after the flare-related peak enhan...

  7. Tropospheric ozone columns and ozone profiles for Kiev in 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Shavrina, A. V.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Veles, A. A.; Sheminova, V. A.; Synyavski, I. I.; Sosonkin, M. G.; Romanyuk, Ya. O.; Eremenko, N. A.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Monsar, O. A.; Kroon, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on ground-based FTIR observations being performed within the framework of the ESA-NIVR-KNMI project 2907 entitled "OMI validation by ground based remote sensing: ozone columns and atmospheric profiles" for the purpose of OMI data validation. FTIR observations were performed during the time frames August-October 2005, June-October 2006 and March-October 2007, mostly under cloud free and clear sky conditions and in some days from early morning to sunset covering the full range of sola...

  8. A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud

    CERN Document Server

    May, Brian Harold

    2008-01-01

    The Zodiacal Light, that misty diffuse cone of light seen in the West after Sunset and the East before Sunrise, is a beautiful and intriguing phenomenon. Even though everyone can enjoy the sight from a suitably dark location, it is poorly understood, and has been the subject of relatively little research. Brian May began his research into the subject in 1970, and was finally awarded his PhD in 2007, after a hiatus of more than 30 years pursuing his other career as guitarist with his rock band Queen. This book is Brian 's thesis, and as such presents the results of his research for astronomers.

  9. The O(N) linear sigma model at finite temperature beyond the Hartree approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Baacke, J

    2003-01-01

    We study the O(N) linear sigma model with spontaneous symmetry breaking, using a Hartree-like ansatz with a classical field and variational masses. We go beyond the Hartree approximation by including the two-loop contribution, the sunset diagram, using the 2PPI expansion. We have computed numerically the effective potential at finite temperature. We find a phase transition of second order, while it is first order in the one-loop Hartree approximation. We also discuss some implications of the fact that in this order, the decay of the sigma into two pions affects the thermal diagrams.

  10. O(N) linear sigma model beyond the Hartree approximation at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Baacke, J; Michalski, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    We study the O(N) linear sigma model with spontaneous symmetry breaking at finite temperature in the framework of the two-particle point-irreducible (2PPI) effective action. We go beyond the Hartree approximation by including the two-loop contribution, i.e., the sunset diagram. A phase transition of second order is found, whereas it is of first order in the one-loop Hartree approximation. Furthermore, we show the temperature-dependence of the variational mass parameters and comment on their relation to the physical sigma and pion masses.

  11. Total solar eclipse of 1995 October 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1994-01-01

    A total eclipse of the sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 24 Oct. 1995. The path of the moon's shadow begins in the Middle East and sweeps across India, Southeast Asia, and the waters of the Indonesian archipelago before ending at sunset in the Pacific. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality.

  12. Observations of atmospheric water vapor with the SAGE 2 instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jack C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.

    1988-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) is discussed. The SAGE 2 instrument was a multichannel spectrometer that inferred the vertical distribution of water vapor, aerosols, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone by measuring the extinction of solar radiation at spacecraft sunrise/sunset. At altitudes above 20 km, the SAGE 2 and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) data are in close agreement. The discrepancies below this altitude may be attributed to differences in the instruments' field of view and time of data acquisition.

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Study about electrolytic hydrogen production from photovoltaic energy: design, operation and evaluation of a pilot facility for H{sub 2} production of 1.2 Nm''3 H{sub 2}/h; Estudio teorico y experimental sobre la produccion de hidrogeno electrolitico a partir de energia solar fotovoltaica: diseno, operacion y evaluacion de una planta piloto de produccion de hidrogeno electrolitico de 1,2 NM''3 H{sub 2}/h''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.

    2003-07-01

    This Ph D. is divided into five section: Section 1 presents objectives of the work. Section 2 present State of the art related hydrogen production from renewable energies, mainly electrolytic production from photovoltaic energy. A review of main projects at european level it is presented. Section 3 describes experimental facility from an operational point of view. Section 4 main part of the Ph D., present operational energetic and exegetic evaluation of the system for a dy and for a year of continuous operation from sunrise to sunset. Finally, Chapter 5 presents main result of the work. (Author)

  14. L'Astronomia del Venerdi' Santo e l'ora della Sindone

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2012-01-01

    The solar eclipse of Good Friday has always been recognized as a problem from the astronomical point of view. The date of Crucifixion has been investigated by many scholars and the most accredited one is friday 3 april 33, when, at sunset an eclipsed Moon rised. Few minutes later the apparition of a third star of medium magnitude stated the beginning of the sabbatical rest: before that time Jesus has been buried, wrapped into the shroud. All these topics are reviewed from an astronomical point of view with some theological considerations.

  15. Investigating the vertical dimension of Singapore's urban heat island through quadcopter platforms: an pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Winston; Ho, Dawn

    2016-04-01

    In numerous cities, measurements of urban warmth in most urban heat island (UHI) studies are generally constrained towards surface or near-surface (Singapore, which is a rapidly urbanizing major tropical metropolis. Three different land use/land cover categories were sampled; a high-rise residential estate, a university campus, and an urban park/green-space. Sorties were flown repeatedly at four different times - sunrise, noon, sunset and midnight. Initial results indicate significant variations in intra-site stability and inversion development between the urban canopy and boundary layers. These profiles are also temporally dynamic, depending on the time of day and larger-scale weather conditions.

  16. Orientation of the northern gate of the Goseck Neolithic rondel

    OpenAIRE

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2009-01-01

    The two southernmost gates of the Goseck rondel, built by the Stichbandkeramik culture around 4800 BCE, were oriented to the winter solstice sunrise and sunset. The northern gate of the rondel deviates a few degrees from the Meridian line. It is suggested that this deviation from the cardinal direction is due a stellar orientation towards Edasich, which was the pole star at the time, and is thus related to the concept of the world pillar and the pole star as the top of it.

  17. The cern axion solar telescope (CAST): an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamonje, S.; Arsov, V.; Aune, S.; Aune, T.; Avignone, F. T.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Beltran, B.; Bräuninger, H.; Carmona, J.; Cebrián, S.; Chesi, E.; Cipolla, G.; Collar, J.; Creswick, R.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Dedousis, S.; Delattre, M.; Delbart, A.; Deoliveira, R.; Dilella, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Engelhauser, J.; Fanourakis, G.; Farach, H.; Ferrer, E.; Fischer, H.; Formenti, F.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Hartmann, R.; Hasinoff, M.; Heinsius, F.-H.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Irastorza, I.; Jacoby, J.; Joux, J.-N.; Kang, D.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakic, B.; Lasseur, C.; Liolios, A.; Lippitsch, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Luzon, G.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Mutterer, M.; Nikolaidis, A.; de Solorzano, A. Ortiz; Papaevangelou, T.; Placci, A.; Raffelt, G.; Rammos, P.; Robert, J. P.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M.; Schill, C.; Serber, W.; Semertzidis, Y.; Vieira, J.; Villar, J.; Vullierme, B.; Walckiers, L.; Zioutas, K.

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), a 10 meter long LHC, 9 Tesla, test magnet is mounted on a moving platform that tracks the sun about 1.5 hours during sunrise, again during sunset. It moves ±80 vertically and ±400 horizontally. It has been taking data continuously since July 10, 2003. Data analyzed thus far yield an upper bound on the photon-axion coupling constant, gaγγ ⩽ 3 × 10-10 GeV-1 for axion masses less than 5 × 10-2 eV.

  18. Threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams within a configuration space technique

    CERN Document Server

    Groote, S

    2000-01-01

    The near threshold expansion of generalized sunset-type (water melon) diagrams with arbitrary masses is constructed by using a configuration space technique. We present analytical expressions for the expansion of the spectral density near threshold and compare it with the exact expression obtained earlier using the method of the Hankel transform. We formulate a generalized threshold expansion with partial resummation of the small mass corrections for the strongly asymmetric case where one particle in the intermediate state is much lighter than the others.

  19. Sub-Hourly Impacts of High Solar Penetrations in the Western United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hummon, M.; Hodge, B. M.; Heaney, M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents results of analysis on the sub-hourly impacts of high solar penetrations from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2. Extreme event analysis showed that most large ramps were due to sunrise and sunset events, which have a significant predictability component. Variability in general was much higher in the high-solar versus high-wind scenario. Reserve methodologies that had already been developed for wind were therefore modified to take into account the predictability component of solar variability.

  20. CSIR South Africa mobile LIDAR - First scientific results: comparison with satellite, sun photometer and model simulations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available in Fig. 3b, which further evidences the planetary (nocturnal) boundary layer (PBL) structure. The PBL is found to be at approximately 3 km and is stable without much variation. During the night, when there is no solar input, aerosols are non... thermodynamic chemical reactions causing turbulence in the PBL. The boundary layer height is therefore expected to vary more during the day and to stabilise after sunset. Aerosol extinction measurements by LIDAR and SAGE II When validating the results from...