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Sample records for sunlight intensity increases

  1. Intensity correlation imaging with sunlight-like source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Tang, Zhiguo; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Hui; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Jinbin; Liu, Yanyan; Xu, Zhuo

    2018-05-01

    We show a method of intensity correlation imaging of targets illuminated by a sunlight-like source both theoretically and experimentally. With a Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), we have modulated the coherence time of a thermal source up to 0.167 ns. And we carried out measurements of temporal and spatial correlations, respectively, with an intensity interferometer setup. By skillfully using the even Fourier fitting on the very sparse sampling data, the images of targets are successfully reconstructed from the low signal-noise-ratio(SNR) interference pattern by applying an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. The resulting imaging quality is as well as the one obtained by the theoretical fitting. The realization of such a case will bring this technique closer to geostationary satellite imaging illuminated by sunlight.

  2. Mycorrhiza symbiosis increases the surface for sunlight capture in Medicago truncatula for better photosynthetic production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Adolfsson

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a prominent role in plant nutrition by supplying mineral nutrients, particularly inorganic phosphate (Pi, and also constitute an important carbon sink. AM stimulates plant growth and development, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were grown with Rhizophagus irregularis BEG141 inoculum (AM, mock inoculum (control or with P(i fertilization. We hypothesized that AM stimulates plant growth through either modifications of leaf anatomy or photosynthetic activity per leaf area. We investigated whether these effects are shared with P(i fertilization, and also assessed the relationship between levels of AM colonization and these effects. We found that increased P(i supply by either mycorrhization or fertilization led to improved shoot growth associated with increased nitrogen uptake and carbon assimilation. Both mycorrhized and P(i-fertilized plants had more and longer branches with larger and thicker leaves than the control plants, resulting in an increased photosynthetically active area. AM-specific effects were earlier appearance of the first growth axes and increased number of chloroplasts per cell section, since they were not induced by P(i fertilization. Photosynthetic activity per leaf area remained the same regardless of type of treatment. In conclusion, the increase in growth of mycorrhized and P(i-fertilized Medicago truncatula plants is linked to an increase in the surface for sunlight capture, hence increasing their photosynthetic production, rather than to an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf area.

  3. Mycorrhiza Symbiosis Increases the Surface for Sunlight Capture in Medicago truncatula for Better Photosynthetic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Lisa; Keresztes, Áron; Uddling, Johan; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a prominent role in plant nutrition by supplying mineral nutrients, particularly inorganic phosphate (Pi), and also constitute an important carbon sink. AM stimulates plant growth and development, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were grown with Rhizophagus irregularis BEG141 inoculum (AM), mock inoculum (control) or with Pi fertilization. We hypothesized that AM stimulates plant growth through either modifications of leaf anatomy or photosynthetic activity per leaf area. We investigated whether these effects are shared with Pi fertilization, and also assessed the relationship between levels of AM colonization and these effects. We found that increased Pi supply by either mycorrhization or fertilization led to improved shoot growth associated with increased nitrogen uptake and carbon assimilation. Both mycorrhized and Pi-fertilized plants had more and longer branches with larger and thicker leaves than the control plants, resulting in an increased photosynthetically active area. AM-specific effects were earlier appearance of the first growth axes and increased number of chloroplasts per cell section, since they were not induced by Pi fertilization. Photosynthetic activity per leaf area remained the same regardless of type of treatment. In conclusion, the increase in growth of mycorrhized and Pi-fertilized Medicago truncatula plants is linked to an increase in the surface for sunlight capture, hence increasing their photosynthetic production, rather than to an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf area. PMID:25615871

  4. Increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity following their photomodification in natural sunlight: impacts on the duckweed Lemna gibba L. G-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.D.; Dixon, D.G.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors previously demonstrated that simulated solar radiation (SSR), with a fluence rate of only 40 mumol m -2 sec -1 , increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) toxicity to the duckweed Lemna gibba and that PAHs photomodified in SSR (generally oxygenation of the ring system) are more toxic than the parent compounds (Huang et al., Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 1993, 12, 1067-1077). It is not known, however, to what extent toxicity of PAHs can increase due to photomodification. Thus, natural sunlight, which has a high fluence rate (approximately 2000 mumol m -2 sec -1 ), was used to photomodify anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Toxicity was based on growth inhibition of L. gibba, measured as the rate of production of new leaves over an 8-day period. Initially, the toxicity of the PAHs applied in intact form was probed, with the compounds demonstrating greater toxicity in sunlight than in SSR. Next the PAHs were photomodified in sunlight prior to incubation with the plants. The half-lives of the PAHs in sunlight ranged from 12 min to 30 hr. Although most of the products of PAH photomodification are not yet identified, the degree that PAH toxicity increased following photomodification in sunlight could still be probed. The mixtures of photomodified chemicals that were derived from each PAH in sunlight were applied of L. gibba and growth inhibition under 100 mumol m -2 sec -1 of SSR was determined. The LC50s for the PAH photoproducts generated in sunlight were an order of magnitude lower than the LC50s for the PAHs applied in intact form. (author)

  5. Reversible degradation of inverted organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A

    2011-01-01

    . The transient state is believed to be a result of the breakdown of the diode behaviour of the ZnO electron transport layer by O2 desorption, increasing the hole conductivity. These results imply that accelerated degradation of organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight is not a straightforward process......Concentrated sunlight was used to study the performance response of inverted P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells after exposure to high intensity sunlight. Correlations of efficiency as a function of solar intensity were established in the range of 0.5–15 suns at three different stages: for a pristine...

  6. Relevance of sunscreen application method, visible light and sunlight intensity to free-radical protection: A study of ex vivo human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    With the continued rise in skin cancers worldwide there is a need for effective skin protection against sunlight damage. It was shown previously that sunscreens, which claimed UVA protection (SPF 20+), provided limited protection against UV-induced ascorbate radicals in human skin. Here the results of an electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation to irradiate ex vivo human skin with solar-simulated light are reported. The ascorbate radical signal in the majority of skin samples was directly proportional to the irradiance over relevant sunlight intensities (0.9-2.9 mW cm(-2)). Radical production (substratum-corneum) by UV (wavelengths 400 nm) was approximately 67% and 33% respectively. Ascorbate radicals were in steady state concentration at low irradiance (approximately 1 mW cm(-2) equivalent to UK sunlight), but at higher irradiance (approximately 3 mW cm(-2)) decreased with time, suggesting ascorbate depletion. Radical protection by a four star-rated sunscreen (with UVA protection) was optimal when applied as a thin film (40-60% at 2 mg cm(-2)) but less so when rubbed into the skin (37% at 4 mg cm(-2) and no significant protection at 2 mg cm(-2)), possibly due to cream filling crevices, which reduced film thickness. This study validates ESR determinations of the ascorbate radical for quantitative protection measurements. Visible light contribution to radical production, and loss of protection when sunscreen is rubbed into skin, has implications for sunscreen design and use for the prevention of free-radical damage.

  7. Effect of solution temperature, light intensity and light in combination with sunlight using mirror duct on growth of leaf lettuce (Lactuca savtiva L. cv. 'Greenwave')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, H.; Kushida, M.; Fujinuma, W.; Sekine, M.; Kaiho, K.; Arai, H.; Shibusawa, S.

    2004-01-01

    Leaf lettuce crops (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Greenwave') were grown in a plant production system using a Mirror Duct which intensified sunlight and transferred it to the inside of buildings. This system was expected to reduce the operational energy and lighting cost. The experiments were conducted under four photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPF) of 140,160, 180, and 200 micro mol mE-2 sE-1, in two light conditions, fluorescent light only and fluorescent light plus sunlight transferred with the Mirror Duct, and were repeated five times in total from August 2002 to July 2003. Five different solution temperatures were finally obtained through all the experiments due to temperature changes inside the experiment facility. Variance was analyzed to estimate the effect of these environmental factors on the growth of leaf lettuce. It was found that the fresh weight of leaf lettuce increased as PPF increased and the rate of increase of weight was 0.6 to 1.0 g per unit PPF in both 17.4 deg C and 23.5 deg C solution temperatures; the solution temperature had a significant effect upon the fresh weight; and a difference in fresh weight at harvest of between 40 and 60 g was observed between 17.4 deg C and 23.5 deg C solution temperatures. The light containing 10% sunlight was not effective for increasing fresh weight at harvest compared to the fluorescent lamp

  8. Reconfigurable Charge Pump Circuit with Variable Pumping Frequency Scheme for Harvesting Solar Energy under Various Sunlight Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Heon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose variable pumping frequency (VPF scheme which is merged with the previous reconfigurable charge pump (RCP circuit that can change its architecture according to a given sunlight condition. Here, merging the VPF scheme with the architecture reconfiguration can improve percentage output currents better by 21.4% and 22.4% than RCP circuit with the fixed pumping frequencies of 7 MHz and 15 MHz, respectively. Comparing the VPF scheme with real maximum power points (MPP, the VPF can deliver 91.9% of the maximum amount of output current to the load on average. In terms of the power and area overheads, the VPF scheme proposed in this paper consumes the power by 0.4% of the total power consumption and occupies the layout area by 1.61% of the total layout area.

  9. Beam intensity increases at the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.; Brumwell, F.; Norem, J.; Rauchas, A.; Stipp, V.; Volk, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) accelerator system has managed a 40% increase in time average beam current over the last two years. Currents of up to 15.6μA (3.25 x 10 12 protons at 30 Hz) have been successfully accelerated and cleanly extracted. Our high current operation demands low loss beam handling to permit hands-on maintenance. Synchrotron beam handling efficiencies of 90% are routine. A new H - ion source which was installed in March of 1983 offered the opportunity to get above 8 μA but an instability caused unacceptable losses when attempting to operate at 10 μA and above. Simple techniques to control the instabilities were introduced and have worked well. These techniques are discussed below. Other improvements in the regulation of various power supplies have provided greatly improved low energy orbit stability and contributed substantially to the increased beam current

  10. Increased intensity performance of the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raka, E.; Ahrens, L.; Frey, W.; Gill, E.; Glenn, J.W.; Sanders, R.; Weng, W.

    1985-05-01

    With the advent of H - injection into the Brookhaven AGS, circulating beams of up to 3 x 10 13 protons at 200 MeV have been obtained. Rf capture of 2.2 x 10 13 and acceleration of 1.73 x 10 13 up to the transition energy (approx. = 8 GeV) and 1.64 x 10 13 to full energy (approx. = 29 GeV) has been achieved. This represents a 50% increase over the best performance obtained with H + injection. The increase in circulation beam current is obtained without filling the horizontal aperture. This allows the rf capture process to utilize a larger longitudinal phase space area (approx. = 1 eV sec/bunch vs less than or equal to 0.6 eV sec with H + operation). The resulting reduction in relative longitudinal density partially offsets the increase in space charge effects at higher currents. In order to make the capture process independent of injected beam current, a dynamic beam loading compensation loop was installed on the AGS rf system. This is the only addition to the synchrotron itself that was required to reach the new intensity records. A discussion of injection, the rf capture process, and space charge effects is presented. 9 refs., 5 figs

  11. Reversible degradation of inverted organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Krebs, Frederik C; Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated sunlight was used to study the performance response of inverted P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells after exposure to high intensity sunlight. Correlations of efficiency as a function of solar intensity were established in the range of 0.5-15 suns at three different stages: for a pristine cell, after 30 min exposure at 5 suns and after 30 min of rest in the dark. High intensity exposure introduced a major performance decrease for all solar intensities, followed by a partial recovery of the lost performance over time: at 1 sun only 6% of the initial performance was conserved after the high intensity exposure, while after rest the performance had recovered to 60% of the initial value. The timescale of the recovery effect was studied by monitoring the cell performance at 1 sun after high intensity exposure. This showed that cell performance was almost completely restored after 180 min. The transient state is believed to be a result of the breakdown of the diode behaviour of the ZnO electron transport layer by O 2 desorption, increasing the hole conductivity. These results imply that accelerated degradation of organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight is not a straightforward process, and care has to be taken to allow for a sound accelerated lifetime assessment based on concentrated sunlight.

  12. Carotenoids content and sunlight susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppezzo, Oscar J.; Costa, Cristina; Pizarro, Ramon A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An environmental pink pigmented bacterium was isolated and identified as Rhodococcus sp. Pigmentation mutants were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. Pigments present in the wild type strain (RMB90), in a pale yellow mutant (RMB91) and in two mutants exhibiting increased pigmentation (RMB92 and RMB93), were extracted with chloroform-methanol and analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Survival of these strains after exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation from artificial sources was studied under different physiological and irradiation conditions. The ability of RMB91 to survive sunlight exposure was reduced with respect to that of RMB90. Resistance was similar in both strains when bacteria grew in the presence of a carotenoid synthesis inhibitor, which had no effect on survival of RMB91. Reduced sunlight resistance in RMB91 was also observed during irradiations under N2. Using artificial radiation sources, non pigmented bacteria were less resistant to UVA, but not to UVB or UVC. Lethal effects of sunlight and UVA on RMB92 and RMB93 were increased with respect to the wild type strain. Carotenoids protect Rhodococcus sp against deleterious effects of sunlight. In non-photosynthetic bacteria studied to date, photo protection by carotenoids was dependent on [O 2 ]. This is not the case with Rhodococcus sp RMB90, suggesting the occurrence of a different mechanism for protection. UVA radiation seems to playa key role in photo-damage. (author)

  13. Influence of thermoluminescence signal for debris flow surface materials by sunlight bleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Bo; Wei Mingjian; He Youbing; Zhou Rui; Zhao Qiuyue; Zhang Bin

    2013-01-01

    Thermoluminescence was utilized for measuring the thermoluminescence signals of the standard debris flow samples which were bleached by simulated sunlight and debris flow samples after real sunlight bleaching. The experiment results demonstrate that light bleaching phenomenon of the debris flow occurs when it experiences a period of exposure. The thermoluminescence signal of the samples weakens gradually with the increase of depth. The optical bleaching phenomenon is obvious. Within a certain depth, light bleaching phenomenon is enhanced with the increase of light intensity. The annealing depth of simulated sunlight bleaching experiment is about 1 mm, and the actual annealing depth of sunlight bleaching is about 6 mm. According to the equivalent dose variation with depth, the mud of natural debris flow can be divided into two stages. It has fundamental significance in the application of thermoluminescence dating techniques to divide the stages of debris flow sediments. (authors)

  14. Increasing intensity of TENS prevents analgesic tolerance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Karina L.; Sanada, Luciana S.; Rakel, Barbara A.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces hyperalgesia and pain. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) TENS, delivered at the same intensity (90% motor threshold (MT)) daily, result in analgesic tolerance with repeated use by the 5th day of treatment. Thecurrentstudytestedif 1) increasingintensityby 10% per daypreventsthedevelopmentoftolerance to repeated TENS, and 2) iflowerintensity TENS (50 % MT) produces an equivalentreduction in hyperalgesia when compared to 90% MT TENS. Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral knee joint inflammation (3% carrageenan) were separated according to the intensity of TENS used: Sham, 50% LF, 50% HF, 90% LF, 90% HF, and increased intensity by 10% per day (LF and HF). The reduced mechanical withdrawal threshold following the induction of inflammation was reversed by application of TENS applied at 90% MT and increasing intensity for the first 4 days. On the 5th day, the groups that received 90% MT intensity showed tolerance. Nevertheless, the group that received an increased intensity on each day still showed a reversal of the mechanical withdrawal threshold with TENS. These results show that the development of tolerance can be delayed by increasing intensity of TENS. PMID:22858165

  15. Photochemical effects of sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, F

    1972-07-01

    The importance of sunlight in bringing about not only photosynthesis in plants, but also other photochemical effects, is reviewed. More effort should be devoted to photochemical storage of the sun's energy without the living plant. There is no theoretical reason to believe that such reactions are impossible. Ground rules for searching for suitable solar photochemical reactions are given, and a few attempts are described, but nothing successful has yet been found. Future possibilities are suggested. Photogalvanic cells which convert sunlight into electricity deserve further research. Eugene Rabinowitch has been an active pioneer in these fields.

  16. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  17. Concentrated sunlight for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . A high solar intensity study of inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cells is presented. Performance peak positions were found to be in the range of 1-5 suns, with smaller cells peaking at higher solar concentrations. Additionally, concentrated sunlight is demonstrated as a practical tool for accelerated stability...... were degraded resulting in acceleration factors in the range of 19-55. This shows that concentrated sunlight can be used as qualitatively to determine the lifetime of polymers under highly accelerated conditions....

  18. Psoriasis, Psoralen and Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.C Naik

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical or oral administration of photoactive furocumarins followed by exposure to ultra violet light from artificial sources has been shown previously to clear psoriatic lesions. Sunlight has been chosen as the source of UVL m two separate paired comparison studies using topical and, oral 4,5, 8 trimethylpsoralen. Two out of 21 on topical therapy and none out of 6 patients on oral paired-comparison study showed faster clearance of the drug treated lesions compared to control sites.

  19. Neuromuscular Strain Increases Symptom Intensity in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Rowe

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a complex, multisystem disorder that can be disabling. CFS symptoms can be provoked by increased physical or cognitive activity, and by orthostatic stress. In preliminary work, we noted that CFS symptoms also could be provoked by application of longitudinal neural and soft tissue strain to the limbs and spine of affected individuals. In this study we measured the responses to a straight leg raise neuromuscular strain maneuver in individuals with CFS and healthy controls. We randomly assigned 60 individuals with CFS and 20 healthy controls to either a 15 minute period of passive supine straight leg raise (true neuromuscular strain or a sham straight leg raise. The primary outcome measure was the symptom intensity difference between the scores during and 24 hours after the study maneuver compared to baseline. Fatigue, body pain, lightheadedness, concentration difficulties, and headache scores were measured individually on a 0-10 scale, and summed to create a composite symptom score. Compared to individuals with CFS in the sham strain group, those with CFS in the true strain group reported significantly increased body pain (P = 0.04 and concentration difficulties (P = 0.02 as well as increased composite symptom scores (all P = 0.03 during the maneuver. After 24 hours, the symptom intensity differences were significantly greater for the CFS true strain group for the individual symptom of lightheadedness (P = 0.001 and for the composite symptom score (P = 0.005. During and 24 hours after the exposure to the true strain maneuver, those with CFS had significantly higher individual and composite symptom intensity changes compared to the healthy controls. We conclude that a longitudinal strain applied to the nerves and soft tissues of the lower limb is capable of increasing symptom intensity in individuals with CFS for up to 24 hours. These findings support our preliminary observations that increased mechanical

  20. Nature sunlight bleaching of Ti center ESR signal in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Gongming; Liu Chunru; Li Jianping; Fang Jiahu; Gao Lu; Lin Min

    2009-01-01

    Quartz grains were extracted from granite. Bleaching was carried out in four different area chosen for their different altitudes (Beijing, Yinchuan, Germu, Lhasa), in order to observe their behavior under different intensities of the UV (Ultra violet) component of sunlight. The result of our experiments indicate that the Ti center signal is totally bleachable by the natural sunlight and show that the Ti center signal was reduced to zero after about 128 h in Beijing and after 56 h for Lhasa. We can speculate that different intensity of the UV component of sunlight lead to different minimal time necessary to obtain the total bleaching of the quartz sample. (authors)

  1. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estim...

  2. Natural sunlight shapes crude oil-degradingbacterial communities in northern Gulf of Mexico surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando P Bacosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 d under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  3. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  4. MCS precipitation and downburst intensity response to increased aerosol concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, M.; Cotton, W. R.; van den Heever, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to rainfall in the High Plains of the United States as well as producers of severe weather such as hail, tornados and straight-line wind events known as derechos. Past studies have shown that changes in aerosol concentrations serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) alter the MCS hydrometeor characteristics which in turn modify precipitation yield, downdraft velocity, cold-pool strength, storm propagation and the potential for severe weather to occur. In this study, the sensitivity of MCS precipitation characteristics and convective downburst velocities associated with a derecho to changes in CCN concentrations were examined by simulating a case study using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The case study of the 8 May 2009 "Super-Derecho" MCS was chosen since it produced a swath of widespread wind damage in association with an embedded large-scale bow echo, over a broad region from the High Plains of western Kansas to the foothills of the Appalachians. The sensitivity of the storm to changes in CCN concentrations was examined by conducting a set of three simulations which differed in the initial aerosol concentration based on output from the 3D chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem. Results from this study indicate that while increasing CCN concentrations led to an increase in precipitation rates, the changes to the derecho strength were not linear. A moderate increase in aerosol concentration reduced the derecho strength, while the simulation with the highest aerosol concentrations increased the derecho intensity. These changes are attributed to the impact of enhanced CCN concentration on the production of convective downbursts. An analysis of aerosol loading impacts on these MCS features will be presented.

  5. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  6. Degadation of semiconducting polymers by concentrated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Manceau, Matthieu; Petersen, Martin Helgesen

    2011-01-01

    infra-red spectra of MEH-PPV degraded at 1 sun intensity and at high solar concentration only showed minor deviations in degradation mechanisms. The acceleration factor was found to vary linearly with the solar concentration. Finally, a comparison of the degradation rates at 1 sun and 100 suns...... was carried out in a materials study employing five different conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells for which acceleration factors in the range 19–55 were obtained.......A lens based sunlight concentration setup was used to accelerate the degradation of semiconducting polymers. Sunlight was collected outdoor and focused into an optical fiber bundle allowing for indoor experimental work. Photo-degradation of several polymers was studied by UV–vis absorbance...

  7. Investigation into increasing short-duration rainfall intensities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... This study explores this expectation by using historical short-duration ... weather station 5-min rainfall data were combined to extend the effective ... evidence was found of trends or indications of changes in rainfall intensities.

  8. Vulnerability Assessment of Housing Damage in the Philippines Due to an Increase Increase in Typhoon Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Miguel; Stromberg, Per; Gasparatos, Alexandros

    2010-05-01

    It is currently feared that the increase in surface sea temperature resulting from increasing level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere could result in higher tropical cyclone intensity in the future. Although the vulnerability of infrastructure and economic systems have been studied for a number of developed countries, very little work has been done on developing countries. The present work first attempts to evaluate the vulnerability of different regions in the Philippines to the passage of tropical cyclones. To this effect a total of 22 typhoons and tropical storms that affected the Philippines were analysed for the period 2003-2008. The data used was collected by the National Disaster Coordinating Council of the Philippines, who issue "SitRep" NDCC Reports after each major storm. This agency provides damage data for each region, including number of casualties, affected people, damaged and destroyed houses, and losses in the infrastructure and agriculture. The likely economic effects of increased typhoon intensity by using a Monte Carlo Simulation that magnifies the intensity of historical tropical cyclones between the years 1978 and 2008 to simulate the economic damage by 2085. The methodology used is based on the work of Esteban et al. (2009), which in turn uses the results of Knutson and Tuleya (2004) for the estimation of the increase in tropical cyclone intensity in 2085. The results show that downtime could increase from a national 1% to 1.3% by 2050 if economic and population growth are taken into account (29 to 36bn USD, from a total GDP of 2,757bn USD by 2050). If these are ignored the time lost each year can be estimated to cost around 630m USD (PPP) for the control scenario, which could increase to between 766m or 945mm USD by the year 2085 for the two different scenarios considered. This indirect damage depends on the geographical location and is for example higher in some areas of the northern island of Luzon, while the island of Mindanao in the

  9. THE RESULTS OF PROFESSIONAL APPROACH AND INCREASED INTENSITY OF WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Georgiev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of the research is to establish if the professional approach and increased intensity of applied results in improvements and differences between the functional and motoric abilities (skills and habits with students. Methods: The research has been conducted on a sample of 76 students at the age of 14. The first subsample consists of 40 students, and the second of 36 students, who, along with their regular school classes of 3 times a week and additional sports subject as choice (this refers to the first subsample as well, had regular trainings in basketball clubs three hours a week. They were tested by three indexes: 1 motoric abilities; 2 motoric skills and habits (Majeric, 2004; and 3 functional abilities (Jovanovic, 1999. There were calculated: basic descriptive statistic parameters, t-tests of independent samples, analysis of variance and Friedman test (Bala, 1986. Results: The results of the analyses are represented in 8 tables. On the base of the obtained results, the conclusion is that better results in all three indexes, are determined with the second subsample. It is those who are involved in regular school classes, have the sport as their additional subject choice, and had an active training work in their sports clubs. Discussion: The authors general conclusion of the research is that the number of that kind of research approach is quite small The results of the analyses of the first index in the conducted research show great similarity with the results obtained in the research of Georgiev, Kostovski, & Mitrevski (2012. The results of the second index indicate great similarity with Mitrevski’s research (2012. The results of the third index are logically sustained. They are better with the second subsample. References: Bala G (1986. Logicke osnove metoda za analizu podataka iz istrazivanja u fizickoj kulturi. Novi Sad, Sava Muncan. Georgiev G, Kostovski Z, Mitrevski V (2012. Sport Mont, 34-36, 105-9. Jovanovic G

  10. Effects of Sunlight Exposure on the Quality Parameters of Bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    microbial population (total coliform) of the bottled water with increasing exposure to sunlight was observed. ... safe drinking water which has led to the tremendous ... degradation under high temperature (Bach et al., ..... Solar and photocatalytic.

  11. The effects of sunlight exposure on the neutron response of CN-85 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Mirza, N.M.; Mirza, S.K.; Tufail, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of sunlight exposure on the neutron response of CN-85 track detectors has been studied. It has been observed that the response during the first 28 days of sunlight exposure is slightly enhanced (10%) and then deceases continuously with increase in the sunlight exposure. After 84 days of sunlight exposure the response of the exposed detector relative to an unexposed detector is only 22%. It is also observed that the response can not be maintained by wrapping the CN-85 etch track detectors in typewriter black carbon papers if they are exposed to sunlight. (author)

  12. Effects of concentrated sunlight on organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Katz, Eugene A.; Hirsch, Baruch

    2010-01-01

    We report the effects of concentrated sunlight on key photovoltaic parameters and stability of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Sunlight collected and concentrated outdoors was focused into an optical fiber and delivered onto a 1 cm2 bulk-heterojunction cell. Sunlight concentration C was varied gradu...

  13. Update of regional intensity-duration-frequency curves in Denmark: Tendency towards increased storm intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2009-01-01

    The regional model for estimation of extreme rainfall characteristics in Denmark has been updated with data from the augmented rain database 1 January 1997-1 August 2005, corresponding to almost twice the amount of data used in the previous study (1 January 1979-1 January 1997). In general...... patterns and a sub-regional division of the country in a western and eastern part. Comparison with the previous regional analysis shows a general increase in extreme rainfall characteristics. For the durations (30 min-3 h) and return periods (similar to 10 years) typical for most urban drainage designs...

  14. Researching design solutions for frames of buildings in case of increased seismic intensity in specific zones

    OpenAIRE

    Panasyuk Leonid; Kravchenko Galina; Trufanova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is a trend to increase the estimated seismic hazard for construction sites. With this, the buildings erected under the previously valid norms have the lesser hazard resistance. The present article inquiries into an issue of how the design solutions affect the safety of the building change under the increased seismic intensity. This article represents the calculation of a building without regard to seismic intensity and the same was made for a rate-7 seismic intensity district...

  15. Compression of Semesters or Intensity of Study: What is it that Increases Student Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurling, Steven

    This study examined the relationship between intensity of study (defined as more hours per week of class within a subject matter area) and student success. The researcher identified two possible methods for increasing the intensity of study: (1) Compression Hypothesis--shortening the length of terms and increasing the amount of time per week spent…

  16. Port Sunlight, essai architectural et social

    OpenAIRE

    Machet, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the city of Port Sunlight, its history, design and originality. Created by William Lever in 1888 in order to house his newly-built soap factory, Port Sunlight is part of the numerous “factory villages” built in the wake of the industrial revolution according to philanthropic and utilitarian principles. But this article intends to show that Port Sunlight differs from other factory towns. Its careful design, elaborate architecture and public facilities ...

  17. The effect of increasing exports on industrial energy intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yingmei; Qi Jianhong; Chen Xiaoliang

    2011-01-01

    Given China's heavy reliance on fuel energy and the dominance of its industrial sector in the economy, improving energy efficiency remains one of the practical means for the country to decrease energy intensity and to fulfill its commitment made at the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference to achieve a 40-45 percent reduction in CO 2 emission intensity by 2020. This study investigates the impact of exports on industrial energy intensity to explore the possibility of reducing energy intensity through greater exports. A panel varying-coefficient regression model with a dataset of China's 20 industrial sub-sectors over 1999-2007 suggests that in general, greater exports aggravate energy intensity of the industrial sector and that great divergences exist in the impact of exports on energy intensity across sub-sectors. A panel threshold model further estimates the thresholds for the major determinants of energy intensity: exports, input in technological innovations, and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) intensity. Given the great differences in specific sub-sector characteristics and the changing roles played by different factors across sub-sectors, there is no general export policy that would work for all sub-sectors in reducing sub-sector energy intensity. Instead, policies and measures aiming to encourage more efficient use of energy should take into full consideration the characteristics and situations of individual sub-sectors. - Research highlights: → We examine the impact of exports on industrial energy intensity in China. → Greater exports increase industrial energy intensity as a whole. → Divergences exist in the impact of exports on energy intensity across sub-sectors. → China should discard policies encouraging exports at the cost of energy efficiency. → Export policy to reduce energy intensity should cater to sub-sector characteristics.

  18. The effect of increasing exports on industrial energy intensity in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yingmei [School of Economics, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China); Qi Jianhong, E-mail: sducatherine@gmail.co [School of Economics, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China); Chen Xiaoliang [School of Economics, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Given China's heavy reliance on fuel energy and the dominance of its industrial sector in the economy, improving energy efficiency remains one of the practical means for the country to decrease energy intensity and to fulfill its commitment made at the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference to achieve a 40-45 percent reduction in CO{sub 2} emission intensity by 2020. This study investigates the impact of exports on industrial energy intensity to explore the possibility of reducing energy intensity through greater exports. A panel varying-coefficient regression model with a dataset of China's 20 industrial sub-sectors over 1999-2007 suggests that in general, greater exports aggravate energy intensity of the industrial sector and that great divergences exist in the impact of exports on energy intensity across sub-sectors. A panel threshold model further estimates the thresholds for the major determinants of energy intensity: exports, input in technological innovations, and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) intensity. Given the great differences in specific sub-sector characteristics and the changing roles played by different factors across sub-sectors, there is no general export policy that would work for all sub-sectors in reducing sub-sector energy intensity. Instead, policies and measures aiming to encourage more efficient use of energy should take into full consideration the characteristics and situations of individual sub-sectors. - Research highlights: {yields} We examine the impact of exports on industrial energy intensity in China. {yields} Greater exports increase industrial energy intensity as a whole. {yields} Divergences exist in the impact of exports on energy intensity across sub-sectors. {yields} China should discard policies encouraging exports at the cost of energy efficiency. {yields} Export policy to reduce energy intensity should cater to sub-sector characteristics.

  19. Gradually Increased Training Intensity Benefits Rehabilitation Outcome after Stroke by BDNF Upregulation and Stress Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical training is necessary for effective rehabilitation in the early poststroke period. Animal studies commonly use fixed training intensity throughout rehabilitation and without adapting it to the animals' recovered motor ability. This study investigated the correlation between training intensity and rehabilitation efficacy by using a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Sixty rats with successful stroke were then randomly assigned into four groups: control (CG, n=15, low intensity (LG, n=15, gradually increased intensity (GIG, n=15, and high intensity (HG, n=15. Behavioral tests were conducted daily to evaluate motor function recovery. Stress level and neural recovery were evaluated via plasma corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration, respectively. GIG rats significantly (P<0.05 recovered motor function and produced higher hippocampal BDNF (112.87 ± 25.18 ng/g. GIG and LG rats exhibited similar stress levels (540.63 ± 117.40 nM/L and 508.07 ± 161.30 nM/L, resp., which were significantly lower (P<0.05 than that (716.90 ± 156.48 nM/L of HG rats. Training with gradually increased intensity achieved better recovery with lower stress. Our observations indicate that a training protocol that includes gradually increasing training intensity should be considered in both animal and clinical studies for better stroke recovery.

  20. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  1. Increased intensity discrimination thresholds in tinnitus subjects with a normal audiogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Hots, J.; Verhey, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent auditory brain stem response measurements in tinnitus subjects with normal audiograms indicate the presence of hidden hearing loss that manifests as reduced neural output from the cochlea at high sound intensities, and results from mice suggest a link to deafferentation of auditory nerve...... fibers. As deafferentation would lead to deficits in hearing performance, the present study investigates whether tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds show impairment in intensity discrimination compared to an audiometrically matched control group. Intensity discrimination thresholds were...... significantly increased in the tinnitus frequency range, consistent with the hypothesis that auditory nerve fiber deafferentation is associated with tinnitus....

  2. Surfactant and natural sunlight enhanced Photogalvanic effect of Sudan I dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooran Koli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photogalvanic cells (PG have been extensively studied for solar power and storage at low intensity artificial sunlight. But, PG can be practically significant and applicable in daily life only when they are validated at natural sunlight intensity. Therefore, the present study of photogalvanics of Sudan I-Fructose with efficiency enhancer chemical such as Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS surfactant in alkaline medium has been used to observe their workable feasibility in natural sunlight with investigation for optimal fabrication parameters. The cell has been found workable in natural sunlight with greatly enhanced optimum cell performance compared to that for reported similar cells. The observed optimum cell performance in terms of maximum power, short-circuit current, open-circuit potential, conversion efficiency and storage capacity (as half change time is of the order of 1081.1 μW, 4200 μA, 1048 mV, 13.5%, and 31 min, respectively.

  3. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L.

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH ...

  4. Increasing potential for intense tropical and subtropical thunderstorms under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Martin S; Kuang, Zhiming; Maloney, Eric D; Hannah, Walter M; Wolding, Brandon O

    2017-10-31

    Intense thunderstorms produce rapid cloud updrafts and may be associated with a range of destructive weather events. An important ingredient in measures of the potential for intense thunderstorms is the convective available potential energy (CAPE). Climate models project increases in summertime mean CAPE in the tropics and subtropics in response to global warming, but the physical mechanisms responsible for such increases and the implications for future thunderstorm activity remain uncertain. Here, we show that high percentiles of the CAPE distribution (CAPE extremes) also increase robustly with warming across the tropics and subtropics in an ensemble of state-of-the-art climate models, implying strong increases in the frequency of occurrence of environments conducive to intense thunderstorms in future climate projections. The increase in CAPE extremes is consistent with a recently proposed theoretical model in which CAPE depends on the influence of convective entrainment on the tropospheric lapse rate, and we demonstrate the importance of this influence for simulated CAPE extremes using a climate model in which the convective entrainment rate is varied. We further show that the theoretical model is able to account for the climatological relationship between CAPE and a measure of lower-tropospheric humidity in simulations and in observations. Our results provide a physical basis on which to understand projected future increases in intense thunderstorm potential, and they suggest that an important mechanism that contributes to such increases may be present in Earth's atmosphere. Published under the PNAS license.

  5. Genotoxic action of sunlight upon Bacillus subtilis spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Nobuo

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Bacillus subtilis spores dried on membrane filter were exposed to natural sunlight from solar-noon time at Tokyo. The survival and mutation induction of wild-type (UVR) and repair-deficient (UVS) spores were determined on 66 occasions since 1979. Two of the values were considered to be useful in monitoring solar UV intensity; the inverse of the time (in minutes) of exposure to kill 63% of the UVS spores ('sporocidal index') and the induced mutation frequency at 60 minutes of exposure of the UVR spores ('mutagenic index'). Both values were varied greatly due to time of a year, weather and other conditions. Estimates of year-round changes under clear skies were obtained by connecting the maximum values attained in these years. In these curves, there are more than 7-fold differences in the genotoxicity between winter and summer months, with major increases observed in early spring and decreases through autumn. Using a series of UV cut-off filters, the wavelengths most effective for the sporocidal actions were estimated to be in the range of 308 - 325 nm, shorter wavelengths being effective when the genotoxicity was higher. Sunburn meter of Robertson-Berger type seems to respond to slightly longer wavelength components of the solar spectrum. However, a reasonable correlation was obtained between the reading of the meter and the sporocidal index. (author)

  6. Uncertainty about the intensity of impending pain increases ensuing pain responses in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Rossing, S.; Slimani, H.; Ptito, M.

    2018-01-01

    about the intensity of a pending painful stimulus affects pain differently in congenitally blind and sighted control subjects. We measured pain and anxiety in a group of 11 congenitally blind and 11 age- and sex-matched normal sighted control participants. Painful stimuli were delivered under two...... psychological conditions, whereby participants were either certain or uncertain about the intensity of a pending noxious stimuli. Although both blind and sighted participants had increased anxiety ratings in the uncertain condition, pain ratings increased only in the congenitally blind participants. Our data...

  7. Why did China's energy intensity increase during 1998-2006. Decomposition and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Ma, Chunbo; Hong, Dongyue

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that China's energy intensity has continuously decreased during the 1980s and mostly 1990s, the decreasing trend has reversed since 1998 and the past few years have witnessed rapid increase in China's energy intensity. We firstly conduct an index decomposition analysis to identify the key forces behind the increase. It is found that: (1) the high energy demand in industrial sectors is mainly attributed to expansion of production scale, especially in energy-intensive industries; (2) energy saving mainly comes from efficiency improvement, with energy-intensive sectors making the largest contribution; and (3) a heavier industrial structure also contributes to the increase. This study also makes the first attempt to bridge the quantitative decomposition analysis with qualitative policy analyses and fill the gap between decomposition results and policy relevance in previous work. We argue that: (1) energy efficiency improvement in energy-intensive sectors is mainly due to the industrial policies that have been implemented in the past few years; (2) low energy prices have directly contributed to high industrial energy consumption and indirectly to the heavy industrial structure. We provide policy suggestions in the end. (author)

  8. Terrestrial photovoltaic power systems with sunlight concentration. Annual progress report, January 1, 1975--December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1976-01-31

    This annual report is for the second year of a program to investigate the characteristics of the components and the total system using sunlight concentrated onto solar cells. The second year was primarily to experimentally investigate the conclusions of the first year of analytical studies. Cells have been fabricated that are designed for different intensities. Typically the efficiency of a cell will increase from its 11 percent at AM1 peak to efficiency at the designed concentration level and return to its initial efficiency at about 3 times its designed concentration level. The developed cells have been tested under high intensity simulators and in concentrated sunlight and have shown to have the predicted response. The experimental testing of passive cooling limitations for cooling cells with just finned arrangements in the back of the cell has been completed in the controlled environment of a wind tunnel. These experiments have confirmed the heat transfer coefficients that had been used in the analytical studies. Testing was done to collect heat transfer coefficients for actual wind conditions and these data show good agreement with the controlled wind tunnel data. Four photovoltaic/concentrator system experiments have been started with CR of about 3, 10, 25, and 100. System analysis has indicated that photovoltaic concentration systems may be attractive in low solar irradiation areas such as Cleveland.

  9. The velocity of light intensity increase modulates the photoprotective response in coastal diatoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Giovagnetti

    Full Text Available In aquatic ecosystems, the superimposition of mixing events to the light diel cycle exposes phytoplankton to changes in the velocity of light intensity increase, from diurnal variations to faster mixing-related ones. This is particularly true in coastal waters, where diatoms are dominant. This study aims to investigate if coastal diatoms differently activate the photoprotective responses, xanthophyll cycle (XC and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ, to cope with predictable light diel cycle and unpredictable mixing-related light variations. We compared the effect of two fast light intensity increases (simulating mixing events with that of a slower increase (corresponding to the light diel cycle on the modulation of XC and NPQ in the planktonic coastal diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata. During each light treatment, the photon flux density (PFD progressively increased from darkness to five peaks, ranging from 100 to 650 µmol photons m-2 s-1. Our results show that the diel cycle-related PFD increase strongly activates XC through the enhancement of the carotenoid biosynthesis and induces a moderate and gradual NPQ formation over the light gradient. In contrast, during mixing-related PFD increases, XC is less activated, while higher NPQ rapidly develops at moderate PFD. We observe that together with the light intensity and its increase velocity, the saturation light for photosynthesis (Ek is a key parameter in modulating photoprotection. We propose that the capacity to adequately regulate and actuate alternative photoprotective 'safety valves' in response to changing velocity of light intensity increase further enhances the photophysiological flexibility of diatoms. This might be an evolutionary outcome of diatom adaptation to turbulent marine ecosystems characterized by unpredictable mixing-related light changes over the light diel cycle.

  10. Using prepulsing: a useful way for increasing absorption efficiency of high intensity laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Huimin; Zhang Guoping; Sheng Jiatian

    1990-01-01

    Using prepulse to irradiate target for increasing absorption efficiency of high intensity incident laser beam is considered and some theoretical simulations have been done. 1-D non-LTE radiative hydrodynamic code is used to simulate the interactions of laser beam with matter. A gaussian laser prepulse of wavelength 1.06 μm, FWHM 600 ps and peak intensity 1.5 x 10 12 W/cm 2 was used to irradiate 20 μm thick Au plate target, after 3ns a main gaussian pulse with wavelength 1.06 μm, FWHM 600 ps and peak intensity 3.0 x 10 14 W/cm 2 irradiated the expanding Au plasma. The responces of laser-produced plasma conditions are shown. By comparing with without prepulsing, under the condition of same main incident laser pulse, the absorption efficiency is increased from 0.36 to 0.60 and the laser-x-ray conversion efficiency is increased from 0.16 to 0.25. The electron temperature of hot plasma is also higher than without prepulsing, and the x-ray spectrum which is emitted from laser-produced hot plasma is harder and more intense than without prepulsing. The responces of laser-produced plasma for Fe target with prepulsing are shown as well. The conclusion is that using prepulsing is a useful way for getting high absorption laser beam

  11. Increasing land-use intensity reverses the relative occupancy of two quadrupedal scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Twining

    Full Text Available Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo. We found the Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga had highest, albeit variable, occupancy in areas of low land use intensity and the Southeast Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator macromaculatus had highest occupancy in areas of high land use intensity. Land use had no effect on the combined occupancy of the two species. In high land use intensity sites, individual water monitors were larger and had better body condition, but at population level had a highly biased sex ratio with more males than females and increased signs of intraspecific conflict. We did not assess scavenging rate or efficiency as a process, but the high occupancy rates and apparent health of the scavengers in high land use intensity landscapes suggests this ecological process is robust to land use change.

  12. Plasma Irisin Modestly Increases during Moderate and High-Intensity Afternoon Exercise in Obese Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C.; Grunewald, Zachary I.; Liu, Ying; Heden, Timothy D.; Nyhoff, Lauren M.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Irisin is an exercise-responsive myokine that has been proposed to exert anti-obesity benefits; yet its response during exercise in obese women is not described. This study characterized plasma irisin levels during a single bout of afternoon isocaloric-exercise of different intensities (moderate- vs high-intensity) in obese females. Methods Eleven obese females participated in 3 randomized study days beginning at 1600h: 1) no exercise (NoEx), 2) moderate exercise (ModEx; 55%VO2max) and 3) high intensity interval exercise (IntEx; 4 min (80%VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lactate (whole-blood), and insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, and irisin (plasma) throughout 190 min of testing. Results Plasma irisin increased above baseline during ModEx and IntEx (P0.05). Peak irisin levels during ModEx and IntEx exercise were 11.9± 3.4% and 12.3 ± 4.1% relative to baseline (Pexercise intensities (P>0.05). Irisin levels remained elevated above resting for 125 minutes post-exercise during ModEx, whereas levels returned to baseline within 15 minutes post-exercise during IntEx. Similarly, no associations were found between plasma irisin levels and circulating lactate, glucose, insulin, c-peptide, or glucagon among study days (P>0.05). However, there was an inverse association between basal irisin and lean mass (r = -0.70, P = 0.01). Conclusion A single bout of moderate and high intensity afternoon exercise induces modest increases in circulating irisin concentrations during exercise; however the regulation post-exercise appears to be dimorphic between exercise intensity in obese females. Future studies are needed to compare morning and afternoon exercise on irisin secretion. PMID:28125733

  13. Sunlight technologies for photochemical deactivation of organic pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acher, A.; Fischer, E.; Tornheim, R. [The Volcani Center, Inst. of Soils and Water, Bet Dagan (Israel); Manor, Y. [Sheba Medical Center, Central Virology Lab., Ramat Gan (Israel)

    1997-12-31

    Sensitized-photochemical oxidation methods aimed at use in water treatment technologies for deactivation of biotic (microorganisms) and/or of xenobiotic (pesticides) pollutants in water were developed using global solar radiation or concentrated sunlight (up to 250 suns). The solar global radiation was used either for detoxification of industrial waste water from a pesticide factory to allow their discharge into the urban sewer, or for disinfection of domestric effluents to be used in crop irrigation. The disinfection process was eventually carried out in an experimental pilot-scale plant, capable of disinfection up to 50 m{sup 3}/h of effluent supplied by an activated sludge sewage treatment plant located in Tel-Aviv area. The treated effluents did not show any regrowth of the microorganisms during 7 days. The solar concentrated radiation experiments performed using facilities of the Sun Tower of The Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot. The concentrated sunlight was provided by different combination of several computer controlled heliostates, up to 8, that track the sun and focus the received sunlight onto the target situated on the roof of the sun-tower. The sunlight intensities measured on the target reached up to 200 kW/m{sup 2}. The experiments were performed either batch- or continuous-wise. The water-samples exposed to disinfection were the above effluent, filtered and supplemented with vaccine strain poliovirus or with different concentrations of an industrial potential pollutant (bromacil), MB 2 mg/L and two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (8.0 or 40.0 mg O{sub 2}/L). An exposure time of 2-3 seconds at 150 kW/m{sup 2} was decreased the microorganisms alive (counts) by five orders of magnitude. A comparison between the two above water treatment technologies is presented. (orig./SR)

  14. Dynamic light absorption of biomass-burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2014-02-01

    Wood-burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross section (integrated between 280 and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood-burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time, indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of primary organic aerosol with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood-burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass-burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood-burning OC.

  15. Dynamic light absorption of biomass burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2013-08-01

    Wood burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross-section (integrated between 280 nm and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of POA with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line Wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood burning OC.

  16. Transient increase in homocysteine but not hyperhomocysteinemia during acute exercise at different intensities in sedentary individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B(12, and B(6 in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18-27 yr took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI and 80% VO(2peak (high intensity, HI. Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h, during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min, and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h. Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0-10.1 µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0 and HI (9.4 (8.2-10.6 µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0, coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B(12, and B(6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations.

  17. Climate variability and increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue incidence in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Tang, Choon Siang; Pang, Fung Yin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue is currently a major public health burden in Asia Pacific Region. This study aims to establish an association between dengue incidence, mean temperature and precipitation and further discuss how weather predictors influence the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue in Singapore during the period 2000-2007. Materials and methods: Weekly dengue incidence data, daily mean temperature and precipitation and the midyear population data in Singapore during 2000-2007 were...

  18. Climate variability and increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue incidence in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Tang, Choon Siang; Pang, Fung Yin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-11-11

    Dengue is currently a major public health burden in Asia Pacific Region. This study aims to establish an association between dengue incidence, mean temperature and precipitation, and further discuss how weather predictors influence the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue in Singapore during the period 2000-2007. Weekly dengue incidence data, daily mean temperature and precipitation and the midyear population data in Singapore during 2000-2007 were retrieved and analysed. We employed a time series Poisson regression model including time factors such as time trends, lagged terms of weather predictors, considered autocorrelation, and accounted for changes in population size by offsetting. The weekly mean temperature and cumulative precipitation were statistically significant related to the increases of dengue incidence in Singapore. Our findings showed that dengue incidence increased linearly at time lag of 5-16 and 5-20 weeks succeeding elevated temperature and precipitation, respectively. However, negative association occurred at lag week 17-20 with low weekly mean temperature as well as lag week 1-4 and 17-20 with low cumulative precipitation. As Singapore experienced higher weekly mean temperature and cumulative precipitation in the years 2004-2007, our results signified hazardous impacts of climate factors on the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue cases. The ongoing global climate change might potentially increase the burden of dengue fever infection in near future.

  19. Natural organic matter and sunlight accelerate the degradation of 17ss-estradiol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, Dina M.; Snyder, Matthew T.; Wetzel, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomolar concentrations of steroid hormones such as 17β-estradiol can influence the reproductive development and sex ratios of invertebrate and vertebrate populations. Thus their release into surface and ground waters from wastewater facilities and agricultural applications of animal waste is of environmental concern. Many of these compounds are chromophoric and susceptible to photolytic degradation. High intensity UV-C radiation has been demonstrated to degrade some of these compounds in engineered systems. However, the degradation efficacy of natural solar radiation in shallow fresh waters is less understood. Here photolytic experiments with 17β-estradiol demonstrated modest photodegradation (∼ 26%) when exposed to simulated sunlight between 290 and 720 nm. Photodegradation significantly increased (∼ 40-50%) in the presence of 2.0-15.0 mg/l of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from humic acids of the Suwannee River, GA. However, rates of photodegradation reached a threshold at approximately 5.0 mg/l DOC. Observed suppression of photolysis in the presence of a radical inhibitor (i.e. 2-propanol) indicated that a significant proportion of the degradation was due to radicals formed from the photolysis of DOC. Although photodegradation was greatest in full sunlight containing UV-B (290-320 nm), degradation was also detected with UV-A (320-400 nm) and visible light (400-720 nm) alone

  20. Natural organic matter and sunlight accelerate the degradation of 17ss-estradiol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leech, Dina M. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3431 Arendell Street, Morehead City, NC 28557 (United States)], E-mail: dmleech@email.unc.edu; Snyder, Matthew T.; Wetzel, Robert G. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Nanomolar concentrations of steroid hormones such as 17{beta}-estradiol can influence the reproductive development and sex ratios of invertebrate and vertebrate populations. Thus their release into surface and ground waters from wastewater facilities and agricultural applications of animal waste is of environmental concern. Many of these compounds are chromophoric and susceptible to photolytic degradation. High intensity UV-C radiation has been demonstrated to degrade some of these compounds in engineered systems. However, the degradation efficacy of natural solar radiation in shallow fresh waters is less understood. Here photolytic experiments with 17{beta}-estradiol demonstrated modest photodegradation ({approx} 26%) when exposed to simulated sunlight between 290 and 720 nm. Photodegradation significantly increased ({approx} 40-50%) in the presence of 2.0-15.0 mg/l of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from humic acids of the Suwannee River, GA. However, rates of photodegradation reached a threshold at approximately 5.0 mg/l DOC. Observed suppression of photolysis in the presence of a radical inhibitor (i.e. 2-propanol) indicated that a significant proportion of the degradation was due to radicals formed from the photolysis of DOC. Although photodegradation was greatest in full sunlight containing UV-B (290-320 nm), degradation was also detected with UV-A (320-400 nm) and visible light (400-720 nm) alone.

  1. Blood lipid peroxides and muscle damage increased following intensive resistance training of female weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Fang; Chang, Wei-Yin; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Tsai, Wen-Yee; Lin, Chen-Li; Hsu, Mei-Chieh

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in muscle cell injury and antioxidant capacity of weightlifters following a 1-week intensive resistance-training regimen. Thirty-six female subjects participated in this study, and their ages ranged from 18 to 25 years. The sample group included 19 elite weightlifters with more than 3 years of weightlifting training experience, while the control group comprised 17 non-athletic individuals. Compared with non-athletes, weightlifters had significantly lower glutathione peroxidase activity and plasma vitamin C concentrations. Weightlifters also had significantly higher malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxy 2-(E)-nonenal (MDA+4-HNE) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and creatine kinase (CK) activity. For weightlifters, the plasma vitamin E level and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and CK activity increased significantly (P weightlifters (P injury in female weightlifters. Furthermore, proper rest after intensive training was found to be important for recovery.

  2. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Gary J.; Bingham, Carl; Goggin, Rita; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Netter, Judy C.

    2000-06-13

    Process and apparatus for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising: a) concentrating solar flux uniformly; b) directing the controlled uniform sunlight onto sample materials in a chamber enclosing multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity to allow the sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a sufficient period of time in days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth of representative weathering of the sample materials.

  3. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Humans evolved in sunlight and had depended on sunlight for its life giving properties that was appreciated by our early ancestors. However, for more than 40 years the lay press and various medical and dermatology associations have denounced sun exposure because of its association with increased risk for skin cancer. The goal of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits that have been associated with exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet B (UVB), visible and infrared radiation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing upper limb training intensity in chronic stroke using embodied virtual reality: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Chevalley, Odile; Schmidlin, Thomas; Garipelli, Gangadhar; Serino, Andrea; Vuadens, Philippe; Tadi, Tej; Blanke, Olaf; Millán, José D R

    2017-11-17

    Technology-mediated neurorehabilitation is suggested to enhance training intensity and therefore functional gains. Here, we used a novel virtual reality (VR) system for task-specific upper extremity training after stroke. The system offers interactive exercises integrating motor priming techniques and embodied visuomotor feedback. In this pilot study, we examined (i) rehabilitation dose and training intensity, (ii) functional improvements, and (iii) safety and tolerance when exposed to intensive VR rehabilitation. Ten outpatient stroke survivors with chronic (>6 months) upper extremity paresis participated in a ten-session VR-based upper limb rehabilitation program (2 sessions/week). All participants completed all sessions of the treatment. In total, they received a median of 403 min of upper limb therapy, with 290 min of effective training. Within that time, participants performed a median of 4713 goal-directed movements. Importantly, training intensity increased progressively across sessions from 13.2 to 17.3 movements per minute. Clinical measures show that despite being in the chronic phase, where recovery potential is thought to be limited, participants showed a median improvement rate of 5.3% in motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity; FMA-UE) post intervention compared to baseline, and of 15.4% at one-month follow-up. For three of them, this improvement was clinically significant. A significant improvement in shoulder active range of motion (AROM) was also observed at follow-up. Participants reported very low levels of pain, stress and fatigue following each session of training, indicating that the intensive VR intervention was well tolerated. No severe adverse events were reported. All participants expressed their interest in continuing the intervention at the hospital or even at home, suggesting high levels of adherence and motivation for the provided intervention. This pilot study showed how a dedicated VR system could deliver high

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial of Social Media: Effect of Increased Intensity of the Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline S; Gurary, Ellen B; Ryan, John; Bonaca, Marc; Barry, Karen; Loscalzo, Joseph; Massaro, Joseph

    2016-04-27

    A prior randomized controlled trial of social media exposure at Circulation determined that social media did not increase 30-day page views. Whether insufficient social media intensity contributed to these results is uncertain. Original article manuscripts were randomized to social media exposure compared with no social media exposure (control) at Circulation beginning in January 2015. Social media exposure consisted of Facebook and Twitter posts on the journal's accounts. To increase social media intensity, a larger base of followers was built using advertising and organic growth, and posts were presented in triplicate and boosted on Facebook and retweeted on Twitter. The primary outcome was 30-day page views. Stopping rules were established at the point that 50% of the manuscripts were randomized and had 30-day follow-up to compare groups on 30-day page views. The trial was stopped for futility on September 26, 2015. Overall, 74 manuscripts were randomized to receive social media exposure, and 78 manuscripts were randomized to the control arm. The intervention and control arms were similar based on article type (P=0.85), geographic location of the corresponding author (P=0.33), and whether the manuscript had an editorial (P=0.80). Median number of 30-day page views was 499.5 in the social media arm and 450.5 in the control arm; there was no evidence of a treatment effect (P=0.38). There were no statistically significant interactions of treatment by manuscript type (P=0.86), by corresponding author (P=0.35), by trimester of publication date (P=0.34), or by editorial status (P=0.79). A more intensive social media strategy did not result in increased 30-day page views of original research. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Characterization of increased persistence and intensity of precipitation in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Justin; Betts, Alan K.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Beckage, Brian; Bomblies, Arne

    2015-03-01

    We present evidence of increasing persistence in daily precipitation in the northeastern United States that suggests that global circulation changes are affecting regional precipitation patterns. Meteorological data from 222 stations in 10 northeastern states are analyzed using Markov chain parameter estimates to demonstrate that a significant mode of precipitation variability is the persistence of precipitation events. We find that the largest region-wide trend in wet persistence (i.e., the probability of precipitation in 1 day and given precipitation in the preceding day) occurs in June (+0.9% probability per decade over all stations). We also find that the study region is experiencing an increase in the magnitude of high-intensity precipitation events. The largest increases in the 95th percentile of daily precipitation occurred in April with a trend of +0.7 mm/d/decade. We discuss the implications of the observed precipitation signals for watershed hydrology and flood risk.

  7. Globally Increased Crop Growth and Cropping Intensity from the Long-Term Satellite-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p impact on the crop growth trend.

  8. GLOBALLY INCREASED CROP GROWTH AND CROPPING INTENSITY FROM THE LONG-TERM SATELLITE-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatiotemporal change trend of global crop growth and multiple cropping system under climate change scenarios is a critical requirement for supporting the food security issue that maintains the function of human society. Many studies have predicted the effects of climate changes on crop production using a combination of filed studies and models, but there has been limited evidence relating decadal-scale climate change to global crop growth and the spatiotemporal distribution of multiple cropping system. Using long-term satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and observed climate data from 1982 to 2012, we investigated the crop growth trend, spatiotemporal pattern trend of agricultural cropping intensity, and their potential correlations with respect to the climate change drivers at a global scale. Results show that 82.97 % of global cropland maximum NDVI witnesses an increased trend while 17.03 % of that shows a decreased trend over the past three decades. The spatial distribution of multiple cropping system is observed to expand from lower latitude to higher latitude, and the increased cropping intensity is also witnessed globally. In terms of regional major crop zones, results show that all nine selected zones have an obvious upward trend of crop maximum NDVI (p < 0.001, and as for climatic drivers, the gradual temperature and precipitation changes have had a measurable impact on the crop growth trend.

  9. SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, E F; Gersh, T; Silvestri, R; Stickgold, R; Salzman, C; Hobson, J A

    2001-06-01

    Clinical lore and a small number of published studies report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) intensify dreaming. This study examines the dream effects of paroxetine and fluvoxamine in order to both increase clinical knowledge of these agents and to test an important potential method for probing the relationship between REM sleep neurobiology and dreaming in humans. Fourteen normal, paid volunteers (4 males, 10 females; mean age 27.4 year, range 22--39) free of medical or neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as of psychotropic or sleep affecting drugs completed a 31-day home-based study consisting of: 7 days drug-free baseline; 19 days on either 100 mg fluvoxamine (7 Ss) or 20 mg paroxetine (7 Ss) in divided morning and evening doses; and 5 days acute discontinuation. Upon awakening, subjects wrote dream reports, self-scored specific emotions in their reports and rated seven general dream characteristics using 5-point Likert scales. Dream reports were independently scored for bizarreness, movement and number of visual nouns by three judges. REM sleep-related measures were obtained using the Nightcap ambulatory sleep monitor. Mean dream recall frequency decreased during treatment compared with baseline. Dream report length and judge-rated bizarreness were greater during acute discontinuation compared with both baseline and treatment and this effect was a result of the fluvoxamine-treated subjects. The subjective intensity of dreaming increased during both treatment and acute discontinuation compared with baseline. Propensity to enter REM sleep was decreased during treatment compared with baseline and acute discontinuation and the intensity of REM sleep increased during acute discontinuation compared with baseline and treatment. The decrease in dream frequency during SSRI treatment may reflect serotonergic REM suppression while the augmented report length and bizarreness during acute SSRI discontinuation may reflect cholinergic rebound from

  10. Increasing communication in the intensive care unit: is blogging the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication is a key factor to success in intensive care nursing. At Allegheny General Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) incorporated blogging as one of its primary means of communication. In the health care clinical environment, blogging can help to promote 2-way communication among nursing staff and leadership. Blogging can serve as a valuable method of relaying important updates, changes in practice, and educational resources. Incorporating a blog into the ICU environment involves a cultural shift and some potential barriers. Lack of a technological understanding of social media, outdated software systems, and limited hospital policies may pose issues when incorporating a blog into the health care setting. The benefits though are impressive. Blogging is a form of rapid, real-time communication for which any person may post or comment on an important thought or message. Blogging can help to increase compliance with quality measures, update staff on need to know information such as changes in policies and procedures, and provide up-to-date educational resources at any time, from anywhere.

  11. IS THERE A LINK BETWEEN SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE AND 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Yee-Moon Wang

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, our study confirmed an extremely high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and an important association between outdoor sunlight exposure and 25(OHD deficiency in Chinese stage 3-5 CKD patients. Further study is needed to determine whether increasing daily outdoor sunlight exposure may represent a cost-free treatment for correcting nutritional 25(OHD deficiency in the CKD population.

  12. Toxicological impact of cadmium-based quantum dots towards aquatic biota: Effect of natural sunlight exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, B.F. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Andreani, T. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CITAB − Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Vila Real (Portugal); Gavina, A., E-mail: anacsgavina@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Vieira, M.N. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, C.M. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha-Santos, T. [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Under sunlight exposure, all QDs form particle aggregates in the different media. • CdSeS/ZnS QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri before sunlight exposure. • Sunlight exposure decreased the toxicity of CdS 480 in all organisms. • Sunlight exposure increased the toxicity of CdS 380 QDs for D. magna. • Shell of QDs seemed to make them less harmful to aquatic organisms. - Abstract: Cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly applied in existent and emerging technologies, especially in biological applications due to their exceptional photophysical and functionalization properties. However, they are very toxic compounds due to the high reactive and toxic cadmium core. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity of three different QDs (CdS 380, CdS 480 and CdSeS/ZnS) before and after the exposure of suspensions to sunlight, in order to assess the effect of environmentally relevant irradiation levels in their toxicity, which will act after their release to the environment. Therefore, a battery of ecotoxicological tests was performed with organisms that cover different functional and trophic levels, such as Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The results showed that core-shell type QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri in comparison to core type QDs before sunlight exposure. However, after sunlight exposure, there was a decrease of CdS 380 and CdS 480 QD toxicity to bacterium. Also, after sunlight exposure, an effective decrease of CdSeS/ZnS and CdS 480 toxicity for D. magna and R. subcapitata, and an evident increase in CdS 380 QD toxicity, at least for D. magna, were observed. The results of this study suggest that sunlight exposure has an effect in the aggregation and precipitation reactions of larger QDs, causing the degradation of functional groups and formation of larger bulks which may be less prone to photo-oxidation due to their diminished surface area. The same

  13. Handling Ibuprofen increases pain tolerance and decreases perceived pain intensity in a cold pressor test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Rutchick

    Full Text Available Pain contributes to health care costs, missed work and school, and lower quality of life. Extant research on psychological interventions for pain has focused primarily on developing skills that individuals can apply to manage their pain. Rather than examining internal factors that influence pain tolerance (e.g., pain management skills, the current work examines factors external to an individual that can increase pain tolerance. Specifically, the current study examined the nonconscious influence of exposure to meaningful objects on the perception of pain. Participants (N = 54 completed a cold pressor test, examined either ibuprofen or a control object, then completed another cold pressor test. In the second test, participants who previously examined ibuprofen reported experiencing less intense pain and tolerated immersion longer (relative to baseline than those who examined the control object. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Water balance of goats in Jeneponto - South Sulawesi under sunlight exposure and water restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Prawira Rahardja

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Water balance of 5 does of Kacang goat of Jeneponto was studied under the condition of sunlight exposure and water restriction. The study was conducted in dry season with 4 consecutive treatments of 10 d with 4-5 d of adjustment period between two consecutive treatments: (1 indoor and unrestricted water; (2 indoor and restricted water; (3 10 h outdoor–and unrestricted water; (4 10 h outdoor – restricted water. The maximum air temperature of outdoor was 39.3OC, and it was 30OC in the indoor environment. In all treatments, the animals were placed in the individual crates. The plasma volume of the goats was higher under sunlight exposure, but it decreased by water restriction, while hematocrite value indicated a reverse responses. Sunlight exposure did not significantly decrease the intake and digestion of organic matter, but water restriction affected significantly and this effect was higher under sunlight exposre. The proportions of water loss through every avenue were maintained relatively constant either under water restriction or sunlight exposure in which the respration rate increased significantly. The findings suggest that sunlight exposure with unrestricted water resulted in a positive water balance without a significant change in organic matter intake and utilization. Water restriction resulted in a negative water balance, reducing organic matter intake and utilization. As the adaptive mechanisms, the goat appeared to be able to withstand in the harsh environment of Jeneponto by expanding plasma volume, increasing body temperature and respiration rate.

  15. Endurance training of moderate intensity increases testosterone concentration in young, healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Kulpa, J; Zoladz, J A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training on gonadal hormone profile in untrained men. Fifteen young, healthy men performed an endurance training of 5-week duration on a cycle ergometer. Before and after the exercise program all participants completed a maximal incremental test. Concentration of testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and cortisol (C) as well as blood morphology were determined in venous blood samples at rest both before and after the training. The training program resulted in 3.7% improvement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and 8.2% improvement of power output reached at VO(2max) (PO (max)). This was accompanied by significant increase in T (from 18.84+/-5.73 nmol.l(-1) to 22.03+/-6.61 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.0004) and calculated fT concentration (from 374+/-116 pmol.l(-1) to 470+/-153 pmol.l(-1), p = 0.00005). Moreover, the training caused a significant decrease in SHBG concentration (from 34.45+/-11.26 nmol.l(-1) to 31.95+/-10.40 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.01), whereas no significant changes were found in the cortisol concentration (334+/-138 nmol.l(-1) vs. 367+/-135 nmol.l(-1) for pre- and post-training measures, respectively, p = 0.50) and T/C and fT/C ratios. We have concluded that short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training can significantly increase testosterone concentration in previously untrained men.

  16. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p HIIT group had significant (p HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women.

  17. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  18. Gross separation approaching a blunt trailing edge as the turbulence intensity increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheichl, B

    2014-07-28

    A novel rational description of incompressible two-dimensional time-mean turbulent boundary layer (BL) flow separating from a bluff body at an arbitrarily large globally formed Reynolds number, Re, is devised. Partly in contrast to and partly complementing previous approaches, it predicts a pronounced delay of massive separation as the turbulence intensity level increases. This is bounded from above by a weakly decaying Re-dependent gauge function (hence, the BL approximation stays intact locally), and thus the finite intensity level characterizing fully developed turbulence. However, it by far exceeds the moderate level found in a preceding study which copes with the associated moderate delay of separation. Thus, the present analysis bridges this self-consistent and another forerunner theory, proposing extremely retarded separation by anticipating a fully attached external potential flow. Specifically, it is shown upon formulation of a respective distinguished limit at which rate the separation point and the attached-flow trailing edge collapse as [Formula: see text] and how on a short streamwise scale the typical small velocity deficit in the core region of the incident BL evolves to a large one. Hence, at its base, the separating velocity profile varies generically with the one-third power of the wall distance, and the classical triple-deck problem describing local viscous-inviscid interaction crucial for moderately retarded separation is superseded by a Rayleigh problem, governing separation of that core layer. Its targeted solution proves vital for understanding the separation process more close to the wall. Most importantly, the analysis does not resort to any specific turbulence closure. A first comparison with the available experimentally found positions of separation for the canonical flow past a circular cylinder is encouraging. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased vocal intensity due to the Lombard effect in speakers with Parkinson's disease: simultaneous laryngeal and respiratory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T; Huber, Jessica E; Richardson, Kelly; Kamphaus, Jennifer; DeCicco, Devan; Darling, Meghan; Fulcher, Katrina; Sussman, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether speakers with hypophonia, secondary to Parkinson's disease (PD), would increases their vocal intensity when speaking in a noisy environment (Lombard effect). The other objective was to examine the underlying laryngeal and respiratory strategies used to increase vocal intensity. Thirty-three participants with PD were included for study. Each participant was fitted with the SpeechVive™ device that played multi-talker babble noise into one ear during speech. Using acoustic, aerodynamic and respiratory kinematic techniques, the simultaneous laryngeal and respiratory mechanisms used to regulate vocal intensity were examined. Significant group results showed that most speakers with PD (26/33) were successful at increasing their vocal intensity when speaking in the condition of multi-talker babble noise. They were able to support their increased vocal intensity and subglottal pressure with combined strategies from both the laryngeal and respiratory mechanisms. Individual speaker analysis indicated that the particular laryngeal and respiratory interactions differed among speakers. The SpeechVive™ device elicited higher vocal intensities from patients with PD. Speakers used different combinations of laryngeal and respiratory physiologic mechanisms to increase vocal intensity, thus suggesting that disease process does not uniformly affect the speech subsystems. Readers will be able to: (1) identify speech characteristics of people with Parkinson's disease (PD), (2) identify typical respiratory strategies for increasing sound pressure level (SPL), (3) identify typical laryngeal strategies for increasing SPL, (4) define the Lombard effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli in waste stabilization microcosms in a sahelian region (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Ynoussa; Denyigba, Kokou; Wethe, Joseph; Ouattara, Aboubakar Sidiki

    2009-02-09

    Experiments on sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli were conducted from November 2006 to June 2007 in eight outdoors microcosms with different depths filled with maturation pond wastewater in order to determine pond depth influence on sunlight inactivation of E. coli. The long-term aim was to maximize sunlight inactivation of waterborne pathogens in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in sahelian regions where number of sunny days enable longer exposure of wastewater to sunlight. The inactivation was followed during daylight from 8.00 h to 17.00 h and during the night. Sunlight inactivation rates (K(S)), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were 16 and 24 times higher than the corresponding dark inactivation (K(D)) rates, respectively in cold and warm season. In warm season, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly. Inactivation of E. coli follows the evolution of radiation during the day. In shallow depth microcosms, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly than in high depth microcosms. The physical chemical parameters [pH, dissolved oxygen (DO)] of microcosms water were higher in shallow depth microcosms than in high depth microcosms suggesting a synergistic effect of sunlight and these parameters to damage E. coli. To increase the efficiency of the elimination of waterborne bacteria, the use of maturation ponds with intermediate depths (0.4m) would be advisable in view of the high temperatures and thus evaporation recorded in sahelian regions.

  1. The heart rate increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by central blood volume loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Oshima, Yoshitake; Ikuta, Komei; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Using a water immersion (WI) method, the combined effect of central blood volume (CBV) loading and work intensity on the time course of heart rate (HR) at the onset of upright dynamic exercise was investigated. Seven males cranked a cycle ergometer for 12 min using their un-immersed arms at low-, moderate- and high-work intensities, followed by a 12-min rest. For WI, the pre-exercise resting cardiac output increased by 36%, while HR decreased by 22% [from 76.8 (10.4) to 59.6 (9.8) beats/min]. WI also increased the high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) component of the HR variability, suggesting an increased vagal activity. During the initial 2 min of the exercise period at low-work intensity, HR increased by 34.9 and 25.8% in the WI and control conditions, respectively. These were 117 and 73% at high-work intensity, indicating more accelerated HR with WI than the control. The plasma norepinephrine concentration increased less during high-work intensity exercise during WI, as compared to exercise during control conditions. In conclusion, the HR increase at the onset of high-work intensity exercise is accelerated by CBV loading but not at low intensity, possibly reflecting vago-sympathetic interaction and reduced baroreflex sensitivity.

  2. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Jeffrey E; Wooding, Denise J; Kato, Hiroyuki; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 protein), seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O 2 ⋅kg -1 ⋅min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min). Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2-2.6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ) and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ). Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1- 13 C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake) was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13 CO 2 excretion (F 13 CO 2 ) were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F 13 CO 2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake ( P  = 0.45). Bi-phase linear regression ( R 2  = 0.64) of F 13 CO 2 resulted

  3. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Packer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 protein, seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O2⋅kg−1⋅min-1; mean ± SD performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min. Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2–2.6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1-13C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13CO2 excretion (F13CO2 were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F13CO2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake (P = 0.45. Bi-phase linear regression (R2 = 0.64 of F13CO2 resulted in an EAR

  4. Bench-to-bedside review: Dealing with increased intensive care unit staff turnover: a leadership challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Denny P; Burns, Judy; Doig, Chip J

    2005-01-01

    Critical care leaders frequently must face challenging situations requiring specific leadership and management skills for which they are, not uncommonly, poorly prepared. Such a fictitious scenario was discussed at a Canadian interdisciplinary critical care leadership meeting, whereby increasing intensive care unit (ICU) staff turnover had led to problems with staff recruitment. Participants discussed and proposed solutions to the scenario in a structured format. The results of the discussion are presented. In situations such as this, the ICU leader should first define the core problem, its complexity, its duration and its potential for reversibility. These factors often reside within workload and staff support issues. Some examples of core problems discussed that are frequently associated with poor retention and recruitment are a lack of a positive team culture, a lack of a favorable ICU image, a lack of good working relationships between staff and disciplines, and a lack of specific supportive resources. Several tools or individuals (typically outside the ICU environment) are available to help determine the core problem. Once the core problem is identified, specific solutions can be developed. Such solutions often require originality and flexibility, and must be planned, with specific short-term, medium-term and long-term goals. The ICU leader will need to develop an implementation strategy for these solutions, in which partners who can assist are identified from within the ICU and from outside the ICU. It is important that the leader communicates to all stakeholders frequently as the process moves forward. PMID:16277732

  5. Chemically enhanced sunlight for killing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, S.S.; Goswami, D.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) photocatalyzed oxidation of chemicals with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has received considerable attention. Much less recognized, however, is the ability of the same system to destroy bacteria. This study examined this phenomenon and the conditions that affect it. Bacteria in aqueous solution were given solar exposure with titanium dioxide and their survival with time was determined. Lamps with a predominantly solar ultraviolet spectrum were also used in the experiments. Without exposure to UV light, TiO 2 had no deleterious effect on the bacteria. However, several common bacteria on solar exposure in the presence of TiO 2 were killed in just a few minutes, whereas without TiO 2 it took over an hour to destroy them. A concentration of 0.01% TiO 2 was most effective in killing bacteria and 10-fold concentrations lower or higher were successively less effective. Inorganic and organic compounds in solution, even in small amounts, interfered with the efficiency of killing. Alkaline solution also reduced the bactericidal activity. Circulation and agitation provided by stirring to keep the TiO 2 particles suspended reduced the time necessary to kill the bacteria. Time-intensity curves for killing bacteria were the same general shape with or without TiO 2 , indicating that TiO 2 served merely as a catalyst to increase the rate of the reaction but that the mechanism of action was not changed. The shape of the curves show that the organisms are sensitized with a minimum intensity of radiation and that an increase doesn't greatly increase the rate of kill. Below this critical intensity, however, the time required for killing markedly increases as the intensity is decreased

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training Increases Cardiac Output and V˙O2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael A; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi M

    2017-02-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) frequently occur with high-intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the specific adaptation explaining this result remains elusive. This study examined changes in V˙O2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to periodized HIIT. Thirty-nine active men and women (mean age and V˙O2max = 22.9 ± 5.4 yr and 39.6 ± 5.6 mL·kg·min) performed HIIT and 32 men and women (age and V˙O2max = 25.7 ± 4.5 yr and 40.7 ± 5.2 mL·kg·min) were nonexercising controls (CON). The first 10 sessions of HIIT required eight to ten 60 s bouts of cycling at 90%-110% percent peak power output interspersed with 75 s recovery, followed by randomization to one of three regimes (sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume interval training (HIITHI), or periodized interval training (PER) for the subsequent 10 sessions. Before, midway, and at the end of training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which V˙O2max and maximal CO were estimated. Compared with CON, significant (P HIIT + SIT (39.8 ± 7.3 mL·kg·min to 43.6 ± 6.1 mL·kg·min), HIIT + HIITHI (41.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min to 44.6 ± 7.0 mL·kg·min), and HIIT + PER (39.5 ± 5.6 mL·kg·min to 44.1 ± 5.4 mL·kg·min) occurred which were mediated by significant increases in maximal CO (20.0 ± 3.1 L·min to 21.7 ± 3.2 L·min, P = 0.04). Maximal stroke volume was increased with HIIT (P = 0.04), although there was no change in maximal HR (P = 0.88) or arteriovenous O2 difference (P = 0.36). These CO data are accurate and represent the mean changes from pre- to post-HIIT across all three training groups. Increases in V˙O2max exhibited in response to different HIIT regimes are due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  7. Posttraining Increases in REM Sleep Intensity Implicate REM Sleep in Memory Processing and Provide a Biological Marker of Learning Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Rebecca S.; Smith, Carlyle T.; Nixon, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    Posttraining rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been reported to be important for efficient memory consolidation. The present results demonstrate increases in the intensity of REM sleep during the night of sleep following cognitive procedural/implicit task acquisition. These REM increases manifest as increases in total number of rapid eye…

  8. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux.

  9. Holick's rule and vitamin D from sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, John C; Sayre, Robert M; Holick, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Holick's rule says that sun exposure 1/4 of a minimal erythemal dose (MED) over 1/4 of a body is equivalent to 1000 International Units (IU) oral vitamin D3. Webb and Engelsen recently commented that the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum used to establish Holick's rule is unknown. They consequently used a spring midday Boston solar spectrum to estimate ample sunlight exposures for previtamin D3 (preD3) at various locations. Literature review found the source upon which this rule is based was a fluorescent sunlamp (FS lamp). The FS spectrum is known and its relative weighting against the action spectra for erythema and the preD3 is significantly different from the solar spectrum used to derive the standard vitamin D effective dose (SDD). The preD3 effectiveness of the solar spectrum per unit erythemal hazard is greater than the FS lamp by a factor of 1.32. Consequently, UV exposure estimates based on Boston reference sunlight, instead of the UV lamp employed in the originating experiments, over estimate UV exposure equivalent to approximately 1000 IU orally by approximately 1/3. This redefinition of SDD impacts risk/benefit assessments of optimal/feasible sun exposure for vitamin D maintenance and the application of Holick's rule to rational public health messages. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Weed suppression greatly increased by plant diversity in intensively managed grasslands: A continental-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Kirwan, Laura; Finn, John Anthony; Llurba, Rosa; Suter, Matthias; Collins, Rosemary P; Porqueddu, Claudio; Helgadóttir, Áslaug; Baadshaug, Ole H; Bélanger, Gilles; Black, Alistair; Brophy, Caroline; Čop, Jure; Dalmannsdóttir, Sigridur; Delgado, Ignacio; Elgersma, Anjo; Fothergill, Michael; Frankow-Lindberg, Bodil E; Ghesquiere, An; Golinski, Piotr; Grieu, Philippe; Gustavsson, Anne-Maj; Höglind, Mats; Huguenin-Elie, Olivier; Jørgensen, Marit; Kadziuliene, Zydre; Lunnan, Tor; Nykanen-Kurki, Paivi; Ribas, Angela; Taube, Friedhelm; Thumm, Ulrich; De Vliegher, Alex; Lüscher, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development".Across sites, years and sown densities, annual weed biomass in mixtures and monocultures was 0.5 and 2.0 t  DM ha -1 (7% and 33% of total biomass respectively). Over 95% of mixtures had weed biomass lower than the average of monocultures, and in two-thirds of cases, lower than in the most suppressive monoculture (transgressive suppression). Suppression was significantly transgressive for 58% of site-years. Transgressive suppression by mixtures was maintained across years, independent of site productivity.Based on models, average weed biomass in mixture over the whole experiment was 52% less (95% confidence interval: 30%-75%) than in the most suppressive monoculture. Transgressive suppression of weed biomass was significant at each year across all mixtures and for each mixture.Weed biomass was consistently low across all mixtures and years and was in some cases significantly but not largely different from that in the equiproportional mixture. The average variability (standard deviation) of annual weed biomass within a site was much lower for mixtures (0.42) than for monocultures (1.77). Synthesis and applications . Weed invasion can be diminished through a combination of forage species selected for complementarity and persistence traits in systems designed to reduce reliance on fertiliser nitrogen. In this study, effects of diversity on weed suppression were

  11. Ocean color remote sensing using polarization properties of reflected sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, R.; Pouliquen, E.; Breon, F.-M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the atmosphere and surface on sunlight backscattered to space by the ocean may be substantially reduced by using the unpolarized component of reflectance instead of total reflectance. At 450 nm, a wavelength of interest in ocean color remote sensing, and for typical conditions, 45% of the unpolarized reflectance may originate from the water body instead of 20% of the total reflectance, which represents a gain of a factor 2.2 in useful signal for water composition retrieval. The best viewing geometries are adjacent to the glitter region; they correspond to scattering angles around 100 deg, but they may change slightly depending on the polarization characteristics of the aerosols. As aerosol optical thickness increases, the atmosphere becomes less efficient at polarizing sunlight, and the enhancement of the water body contribution to unpolarized reflectance is reduced. Since the perturbing effects are smaller on unpolarized reflectance, at least for some viewing geometries, they may be more easily corrected, leading to a more accurate water-leaving signal and, therefore, more accurate estimates of phytoplankton pigment concentration.

  12. Head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy leads to an increase of opportunistic oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurhuis, Jennifer M.; Stokman, Monique A.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Frederik K. L.

    Objectives: The introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has led to new possibilities in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC). Limited information is available on how this more advanced radiation technique affects the oral microflora. In a prospective study we assessed the

  13. Generalization of Conditioned Fear along a Dimension of Increasing Fear Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two…

  14. Nutritional enrichment increases courtship intensity and improves mating success in male spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Johannes Peter; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    status (enriched or deficient) and that courtship intensity predicts mating success in males of the same nutritional status. We used wolf spiders, Pardosa prativaga, which have an elaborate display of courtship behaviors, including encircling, palp vibrations, abdomen vibrations, hopping, etc. Viability...

  15. Traceable calibration of photovoltaic reference cells using natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllejans, H.; Zaaiman, W.; Pavanello, D.; Dunlop, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    At the European Solar Test Installation (ESTI) photovoltaic (PV) reference cells are calibrated traceably to SI units via the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) using natural sunlight. The Direct Sunlight Method (DSM) is described in detail and the latest measurement results and an updated uncertainty budget are reported. These PV reference cells then provide a practical means for measuring the irradiance of natural or simulated sunlight during the calibration of other PV devices.

  16. Hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant: the importance of sunlight exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane F. Vilarta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant. METHODS: We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a representative sample of patients undergoing kidney transplant. We sought to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, compare these patients with a control group, and identify factors associated with hypovitaminosis D (e.g., sunlight exposure and dietary habits. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D was found in 79% of patients undergoing kidney transplant, and the major associated factor was low sunlight exposure. These patients had higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone serum levels. Compared with the control group, patients undergoing kidney transplant presented a higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and lower serum calcium, phosphate and albumin but higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirmed the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Therapeutic strategies such as moderate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation should be seriously considered for this population.

  17. Carcinogenic effect of sequential artificial sunlight and UV-A irradiation in hairless mice. Consequences for solarium 'therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staberg, B.; Wulf, H.C.; Poulsen, T.; Klemp, P.; Brodthagen, H.

    1983-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of artificial UV sunlight followed by UV-A irradiation in human solaria doses has been studied with the use of the hairless mouse as an animal model. Artificial sunlight exposure alone induced only a moderate skin tumor incidence (animals with at least one tumor) of 0.15 after one year, and UV-A irradiation alone induced no tumor formation. However, the combination of artificial sunlight exposure and subsequent UV-A irradiation significantly increased the tumor incidence to 0.72. We conclude that, in humans, tanning with UV-A for cosmetic purposes may not be an innocuous procedure

  18. Ultraviolet- and sunlight-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, T.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation and sunlight caused lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane (as detected by measurement of the oxidation index, A 233 /A 215 , and the amount of malondialdehyde formed) and made the membrane leaky (as revealed by the release of the trapped chromate anions). The oxidation index and the formation of malondialdehyde increased linearly with increasing dose of radiation and depended significantly on the dose rate. The effects were smaller in liposomes derived from Vibrio cholerae phospholipid than in those derived from egg lecithin. The effects of the radiation dose and dose rate on hemolysis and peroxidation (MDA formation) of the erythrocyte membrane followed a similar pattern. A direct correlation between the percentage leakage of chromate (Y) and the oxidation index (X) of the liposomal system was obtained as Y = 236.5 x X

  19. Threshold of musculoskeletal pain intensity for increased risk of long-term sickness absence among female healthcare workers in eldercare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars L Andersen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders increase the risk for absenteeism and work disability. However, the threshold when musculoskeletal pain intensity significantly increases the risk of sickness absence among different occupations is unknown. This study estimates the risk for long-term sickness absence (LTSA from different pain intensities in the low back, neck/shoulder and knees among female healthcare workers in eldercare. METHODS: Prospective cohort study among 8,732 Danish female healthcare workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004-2005, and subsequently followed for one year in a national register of social transfer payments (DREAM. Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR analysis we modeled risk estimates of pain intensities on a scale from 0-9 (reference 0, where 0 is no pain and 9 is worst imaginable pain in the low back, neck/shoulders and knees during the last three months for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for at least eight consecutive weeks during one-year follow-up. RESULTS: During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 6.3%. With adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and leisure physical activity, the thresholds of pain intensities significantly increasing risk of LTSA for the low back (HR 1.44 [95%CI 1.07-1.93], neck/shoulders (HR 1.47 [95%CI 1.10-1.96] and knees (HR 1.43 [95%CI 1.06-1.93] were 5, 4 and 3 (scale 0-9, respectively, referencing pain intensity of 0. CONCLUSION: The threshold of pain intensity significantly increasing the risk for LTSA among female healthcare workers varies across body regions, with knee pain having the lowest threshold. This knowledge may be used in the prevention of LTSA among health care workers.

  20. Magnetic orientation in birds: non-compass responses under monochromatic light of increased intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Munro, Ursula; Ford, Hugh; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2003-10-22

    Migratory Australian silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) were tested under monochromatic light at wavelengths of 424 nm blue and 565 nm green. At a low light level of 7 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1) in the local geomagnetic field, the birds preferred their seasonally appropriate southern migratory direction under both wavelengths. Their reversal of headings when the vertical component of the magnetic field was inverted indicated normal use of the avian inclination compass. A higher light intensity of 43 x 10(15) quanta m(-2) s(-1), however, caused a fundamental change in behaviour: under bright blue, the silvereyes showed an axial tendency along the east-west axis; under bright green, they showed a unimodal preference of a west-northwesterly direction that followed a shift in magnetic north, but was not reversed by inverting the vertical component of the magnetic field. Hence it is not based on the inclination compass. The change in behaviour at higher light intensities suggests a complex interaction between at least two receptors. The polar nature of the response under bright green cannot be explained by the current models of light-dependent magnetoreception and will lead to new considerations on these receptive processes.

  1. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, K. [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (Japan); Imamura, T.; Kazui, H.; Mori, E. [Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  2. Transient global amnesia: increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, M.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, K.; Imamura, T.; Kazui, H.; Mori, E.

    2002-01-01

    We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA. (orig.)

  3. Increased Protein Requirements in Female Athletes after Variable-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Denise J; Packer, Jeff E; Kato, Hiroyuki; West, Daniel W D; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-11-01

    Protein requirements are primarily studied in the context of resistance or endurance exercise with little research devoted to variable-intensity intermittent exercise characteristic of many team sports. Further, female populations are underrepresented in dietary sports science studies. We aimed to determine a dietary protein requirement in active females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. We hypothesized that these requirements would be greater than current IAAO-derived estimates in nonactive adult males. Six females (21.2 ± 0.8 yr, 68.8 ± 4.1 kg, 47.1 ± 1.2 mL O2·kg·min; mean ± SE) completed five to seven metabolic trials during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Participants performed a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test before consuming eight hourly mixed meals providing the test protein intake (0.2-2.66 g·kg·d), 6 g·kg·d CHO and sufficient energy for resting and exercise-induced energy expenditure. Protein was provided as crystalline amino acid modeling egg protein with [C]phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. Phenylalanine turnover (Q) was determined from urinary [C]phenylalanine enrichment. Breath CO2 excretion (FCO2) was analyzed using mixed effects biphase linear regression with the breakpoint and upper 95% confidence interval approximating the estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance, respectively. Protein intake had no effect on Q (68.7 ± 7.3 μmol·kg·h; mean ± SE). FCO2 displayed a robust biphase response (R = 0.66) with an estimated average requirement of 1.41 g·kg·d and recommended dietary allowance of 1.71 g·kg·d. The protein requirement estimate of 1.41 and 1.71 g·kg·d for females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise is greater than the IAAO-derived estimates of adult males (0.93 and 1.2 g·kg·d) and at the upper range of the American College of Sports Medicine athlete recommendations (1.2-2.0 g·kg·d).

  4. Magnified Sediment Export of Small Mountainous Rivers in Taiwan: Chain Reactions from Increased Rainfall Intensity under Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Jun-Yi; Jien, Shih-Hao; Zehetner, Franz; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-01-01

    Fluvial sediment export from small mountainous rivers in Oceania has global biogeochemical significance affecting the turnover rate and export of terrestrial carbon, which might be speeding up at the recognized conditions of increased rainfall intensity. In this study, the historical runoff and sediment export from 16 major rivers in Taiwan are investigated and separated into an early stage (1970-1989) and a recent stage (1990-2010) to illustrate the changes of both runoff and sediment export. The mean daily sediment export from Taiwan Island in the recent stage significantly increased by >80% with subtle increase in daily runoff, indicating more sediment being delivered to the ocean per unit of runoff in the recent stage. The medians of the runoff depth and sediment yield extremes (99.0-99.9 percentiles) among the 16 rivers increased by 6.5%-37% and 62%-94%, respectively, reflecting the disproportionately magnified response of sediment export to the increased runoff. Taiwan is facing increasing event rainfall intensity which has resulted in chain reactions on magnified runoff and sediment export responses. As the globe is warming, rainfall extremes, which are proved to be temperature-dependent, very likely intensify runoff and trigger more sediment associated hazards. Such impacts might occur globally because significant increases of high-intensity precipitation have been observed not only in Taiwan but over most land areas of the globe.

  5. Severe fire weather and intensive forest management increase fire severity in a multi-ownership landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zald, Harold S J; Dunn, Christopher J

    2018-04-26

    Many studies have examined how fuels, topography, climate, and fire weather influence fire severity. Less is known about how different forest management practices influence fire severity in multi-owner landscapes, despite costly and controversial suppression of wildfires that do not acknowledge ownership boundaries. In 2013, the Douglas Complex burned over 19,000 ha of Oregon & California Railroad (O&C) lands in Southwestern Oregon, USA. O&C lands are composed of a checkerboard of private industrial and federal forestland (Bureau of Land Management, BLM) with contrasting management objectives, providing a unique experimental landscape to understand how different management practices influence wildfire severity. Leveraging Landsat based estimates of fire severity (Relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, RdNBR) and geospatial data on fire progression, weather, topography, pre-fire forest conditions, and land ownership, we asked (1) what is the relative importance of different variables driving fire severity, and (2) is intensive plantation forestry associated with higher fire severity? Using Random Forest ensemble machine learning, we found daily fire weather was the most important predictor of fire severity, followed by stand age and ownership, followed by topographic features. Estimates of pre-fire forest biomass were not an important predictor of fire severity. Adjusting for all other predictor variables in a general least squares model incorporating spatial autocorrelation, mean predicted RdNBR was higher on private industrial forests (RdNBR 521.85 ± 18.67 [mean ± SE]) vs. BLM forests (398.87 ± 18.23) with a much greater proportion of older forests. Our findings suggest intensive plantation forestry characterized by young forests and spatially homogenized fuels, rather than pre-fire biomass, were significant drivers of wildfire severity. This has implications for perceptions of wildfire risk, shared fire management responsibilities, and developing

  6. Environmental problems attributed due to increased road traffic intensity in Hyderabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, Z.; Ansari, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Hyderabad is a historical city, so roads are not so wide to cater the present intensity of traffic, hence it is facing transportation problems. No any attempt of traffic management and control has been made in this regard to solve the acute problem of city. Some of the typical problems can be stated as poor driving, encroachments, unsystematic parking on roads, improper road markings and road sings, inadequate road geometry and inadequate control system at intersections etc. This study involves measurement of vehicles flow at five sites of Hyderabad city, and assessment of health hazards on human being due to noise congestion, improper road planning coupled with old city streets converted into roads which are now insufficient for present traffic density, resulting disturbance to pedestrians and dwellers who are living near by road for smooth walk. Motor vehicles, however, play a vital role in the field of public and goods transportation and this survey shows that there are about 726 vehicles operating per hour at the five sites in the city. (author)

  7. Using insulin pen needles up to five times does not affect needle tip shape nor increase pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puder, Jardena J; Atar, Michael; Muller, Beat; Pavan, Marco; Keller, Ulrich

    2005-02-01

    Reusing insulin pen needles could help to reduce the increasing economic burden of diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that reusing insulin pen needles leads to needle tip deformity and increased pain. Three blinded reviewers assessed 123 electron microscope pictures analyzing needle tip deformity of insulin pen needles used up to four times by diabetic subjects and up to five times by blinded non-diabetic volunteers. The estimated frequency of needle use was correlated to the actual number of needle use. Pain intensity and unpleasantness of each injection were measured by a visual analogue scale and their differences analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. Unused needles could be differentiated visually from used needles. However, there was no correlation between the actual and guessed number of times a needle was used (r = 0.07, P = 0.2). Evaluating all 270 injections, neither pain intensity nor unpleasantness increased with repeated injections of the same needles in people with diabetes (P = 0.1 and 0.96) and in the volunteers (P = 0.63 and 0.92). Using pen needles four to five times does not lead to progressive needle tip deformity and does not increase pain intensity or unpleasantness, but could increase convenience and lead to substantial financial savings in Europe of around EUR 100 million/year.

  8. Effects of Increasing Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Current Intensity on Cortical Sensorimotor Network Activation: A Time Domain fNIRS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makii Muthalib

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have shown neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES-evoked movements activate regions of the cortical sensorimotor network, including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC, premotor cortex (PMC, supplementary motor area (SMA, and secondary somatosensory area (S2, as well as regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC known to be involved in pain processing. The aim of this study, on nine healthy subjects, was to compare the cortical network activation profile and pain ratings during NMES of the right forearm wrist extensor muscles at increasing current intensities up to and slightly over the individual maximal tolerated intensity (MTI, and with reference to voluntary (VOL wrist extension movements. By exploiting the capability of the multi-channel time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy technique to relate depth information to the photon time-of-flight, the cortical and superficial oxygenated (O2Hb and deoxygenated (HHb hemoglobin concentrations were estimated. The O2Hb and HHb maps obtained using the General Linear Model (NIRS-SPM analysis method, showed that the VOL and NMES-evoked movements significantly increased activation (i.e., increase in O2Hb and corresponding decrease in HHb in the cortical layer of the contralateral sensorimotor network (SMC, PMC/SMA, and S2. However, the level and area of contralateral sensorimotor network (including PFC activation was significantly greater for NMES than VOL. Furthermore, there was greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation with the high NMES current intensities which corresponded with increased pain ratings. In conclusion, our findings suggest that greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation profile with high NMES current intensities could be in part attributable to increased attentional/pain processing and to increased bilateral sensorimotor integration in these cortical regions.

  9. Effects of Increasing Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Current Intensity on Cortical Sensorimotor Network Activation: A Time Domain fNIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Perrey, Stephane; Contini, Davide; Caffini, Matteo; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Kerr, Graham; Quaresima, Valentina; Ferrari, Marco; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked movements activate regions of the cortical sensorimotor network, including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and secondary somatosensory area (S2), as well as regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) known to be involved in pain processing. The aim of this study, on nine healthy subjects, was to compare the cortical network activation profile and pain ratings during NMES of the right forearm wrist extensor muscles at increasing current intensities up to and slightly over the individual maximal tolerated intensity (MTI), and with reference to voluntary (VOL) wrist extension movements. By exploiting the capability of the multi-channel time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy technique to relate depth information to the photon time-of-flight, the cortical and superficial oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin concentrations were estimated. The O2Hb and HHb maps obtained using the General Linear Model (NIRS-SPM) analysis method, showed that the VOL and NMES-evoked movements significantly increased activation (i.e., increase in O2Hb and corresponding decrease in HHb) in the cortical layer of the contralateral sensorimotor network (SMC, PMC/SMA, and S2). However, the level and area of contralateral sensorimotor network (including PFC) activation was significantly greater for NMES than VOL. Furthermore, there was greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation with the high NMES current intensities which corresponded with increased pain ratings. In conclusion, our findings suggest that greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation profile with high NMES current intensities could be in part attributable to increased attentional/pain processing and to increased bilateral sensorimotor integration in these cortical regions.

  10. Recharge heterogeneity and high intensity rainfall events increase contamination risk for Mediterranean groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Jasechko, Scott; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Andreo, Bartolomé; Barberá, Juan Antonio; Brielmann, Heike; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste; Darling, George; Filippini, Maria; Garvelmann, Jakob; Goldscheider, Nico; Kralik, Martin; Kunstmann, Harald; Ladouche, Bernard; Lange, Jens; Mudarra, Matías; Francisco Martín, José; Rimmer, Alon; Sanchez, Damián; Stumpp, Christine; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Karst develops through the dissolution of carbonate rock and results in pronounced spatiotemporal heterogeneity of hydrological processes. Karst groundwater in Europe is a major source of fresh water contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some countries like Austria or Slovenia. Previous work showed that karstic recharge processes enhance and alter the sensitivity of recharge to climate variability. The enhanced preferential flow from the surface to the aquifer may be followed by enhanced risk of groundwater contamination. In this study we assess the contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean using simulated transit time distributions. Using a new type of semi-distributed model that considers the spatial heterogeneity of karst hydraulic properties, we were able to simulate karstic groundwater recharge including its heterogeneous spatiotemporal dynamics. The model is driven by gridded daily climate data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Transit time distributions are calculated using virtual tracer experiments. We evaluated our simulations by independent information on transit times derived from observed time series of water isotopes of >70 karst springs over Europe. The simulations indicate that, compared to humid, mountain and desert regions, the Mediterranean region shows a stronger risk of contamination in Europe because preferential flow processes are most pronounced given thin soil layers and the seasonal abundance of high intensity rainfall events in autumn and winter. Our modelling approach includes strong simplifications and its results cannot easily be generalized but it still highlights that the combined effects of variable climate and heterogeneous catchment properties constitute a strong risk on water quality.

  11. Optimization of mNeonGreen for Homo sapiens increases its fluorescent intensity in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida-Miyake, Emiko; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Tanida, Isei

    2018-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is tremendously useful for investigating many cellular and intracellular events. The monomeric GFP mNeonGreen is about 3- to 5-times brighter than GFP and monomeric enhanced GFP and shows high photostability. The maturation half-time of mNeonGreen is about 3-fold faster than that of monomeric enhanced GFP. However, the cDNA sequence encoding mNeonGreen contains some codons that are rarely used in Homo sapiens. For better expression of mNeonGreen in human cells, we synthesized a human-optimized cDNA encoding mNeonGreen and generated an expression plasmid for humanized mNeonGreen under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The resultant plasmid was introduced into HEK293 cells. The fluorescent intensity of humanized mNeonGreen was about 1.4-fold higher than that of the original mNeonGreen. The humanized mNeonGreen with a mitochondria-targeting signal showed mitochondrial distribution of mNeonGreen. We further generated an expression vector of humanized mNeonGreen with 3xFLAG tags at its carboxyl terminus as these tags are useful for immunological analyses. The 3xFLAG-tagged mNeonGreen was recognized well with an anti-FLAG-M2 antibody. These plasmids for the expression of humanized mNeonGreen and mNeonGreen-3xFLAG are useful tools for biological studies in mammalian cells using mNeonGreen.

  12. Effect of artificial sunlight on the retention of external calcein marks on lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kehler, T.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    When choosing a fish marking technique to address fishery related questions, it is important to consider factors that affect mark retention. Calcein, a chemical marking agent, is under investigation for potential use on fish. Two laboratory trials were conducted with calcein-marked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush to determine the effect of artificial sunlight on calcein mark intensity. In trial 1, fish exposed to 18,000 lx for 7 d lost 90% or more of the calcein mark intensity (relative to the colorimetric key, mg/L) on the head, body, ventral region, and pectoral fins relative to mark intensity in fish that were maintained in darkness. In trial 2, light intensity was reduced 2.5-3.0-fold. After 7 d of light exposure, calcein mark intensity on the head was reduced by 40-45% relative to mark intensity in fish that were held in darkness; by day 14, calcein mark intensity on the head was reduced by 55-60% relative to that of dark-treated fish. No further decline was observed in light-exposed fish, and head mark intensity values did not differ among days 14, 21, and 28 for this treatment group. Of the four areas evaluated, the head and pectoral fin were more easily read using a colorimetric key than the lateral or ventral regions of the fish. The concentration of calcein spotted on filter paper to devise the colorimetric key ranged from 1 to 100 mg/L. A difference of approximately 7 mg/L in apparent calcein mark intensity means for the head region could be detected using the colorimetric key. These trials showed that calcein mark intensity on lake trout declined when fish were exposed to artificial sunlight, and the use of a colorimetric key improved the objectivity of calcein mark intensity assessment.

  13. Possibility of increasing intensity of mining by mechanization with use of shearer loaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Jaszczuk, M

    1981-10-01

    Discusses methods of increasing productivity of face systems in longwall mining. Feasibility of increasing coal output by variation of shearer loader haulage speed is analyzed. Effects of haulage speed variation on energy consumption or cutting tool wear are not considered. It is assumed that haulage speed does not depend on advance rate of the powered supports or the rate of face conveyor advance. Mathematical equations are derived for calculation of the optimum haulage speed variations. The method consists in use of variable haulage speed optimized for a given section of a longwall face without overloading the conveyor drive system. Situations with single drum shearer loaders and with bi-directional shearer loaders with cutting drums situated at both ends of the shearer are analyzed. Analyses show that by haulage speed variation shearer loader productivity is significantly increased. Performance tests under operational conditions show that in the case of a bi-directional shearer loader productivity increases by 31% and in the case of a shearer loader with a single drum by 11%. (4 refs.) (In Polish)

  14. Theory of direct sunlight transmission through orthogonal screen cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljofi, E.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of using the Rawshan screens to control high light intensity and to avoid excessive solar radiation penetrating inside the building interior. The exploration of the environmental characteristics of this device indicates an ideal solution to utilize available daylight in the arid atmosphere, reduces energy consumption due to the us of artificial light and ensures the continuity of the traditional architecture and the country heritage. A systematic analysis of direct sunlight transmission has been explored using a mathematical approach. The study intends to construct a predictive tool for the architects through which different specifications of the Rawshan screens were identified as far as direct beam of light concerned. The predictive tool was set-up to investigate various parameters of the screen such as the screen configurations, the aperture configurations, the change in orientation and the effect of the sky condition. The analysis of light transmission through the screen were set-up for orthogonal shapes

  15. Genotoxic action of sunlight upon Bacillus subtilis spores: monitoring studies at Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, N

    1989-12-01

    Samples of Bacillus subtilis spores dried on membrane filter were exposed to natural sunlight from solar-noon time at Tokyo. The survival and mutation induction of wild-type (UVR) and repair-deficient (UVS) spores were determined on 66 occasions since 1979. Two of the values were considered to be useful in monitoring solar UV intensity; the inverse of the time (in minutes) of exposure to kill 63% of the UVS spores ("sporocidal index") and the induced mutation frequency at 60 minutes of exposure of the UVR spores ("mutagenic index"). Both values were varied greatly due to time of a year, weather and other conditions. Estimates of year-round changes under clear skies were obtained by connecting the maximum values attained in these years. In these curves, there are more than 7-fold differences in the genotoxicity between winter and summer months, with major increases observed in early spring and decreases through autumn. Using a series of UV cut-off filters, the wavelengths most effective for the sporocidal actions were estimated to be in the range of 308-325 nm, shorter wavelengths being effective when the genotoxicity was higher. Sunburn meter of Robertson-Berger type seems to respond to slightly longer wavelength components of the solar spectrum. However, a reasonable correlation was obtained between the reading of the meter and the sporocidal index.

  16. Bleaching of the thermoluminescence of feldspars by selected wavelengths present in sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, G.B.; Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Feldspars occur in many sediments, and dating them by thermoluminescence (TL) requires a knowledge of how efficiently sunlight bleaches these minerals. The relative bleaching efficiencies of various wavelengths have been investigated for four alkali feldspars and an oligoclase, using the natural TL of the samples and the artificial TL induced by laboratory irradiation, bleached by wavelengths in the range 322-550 nm. Ultraviolet wavelengths are more efficient than the longer wavelengths at bleaching all the glow-curve peaks and are responsible for most of the phototransfer from high-temperature peaks to low-temperature peaks. Some feldspars show an initial increase in TL intensity with bleaching. Two sanidines of similar bulk composition but different TL glow curves show different dependences on bleaching wavelength. In a sodic sanidine with a dominant 240 o C peak the energy required to bleach to 50% was a thousand times greater at 550 nm than at 322 nm. In contrast, another sanidine with a complex glow curve between 150 and 450 o C showed a much slower change in the 330 o C peak with wavelength - a factor of 10 between 322 and 550 nm - with a region between 400 and 500 nm which was almost independent of wavelength. This behaviour is explained by competing mechanisms of phototransfer and bleaching which depend on wavelength in different ways. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the productivity decrease risk due to a future increase in tropical cyclone intensity in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Miguel; Longarte-Galnares, Gorka

    2010-12-01

    A number of scientists have recently conducted research that shows that tropical cyclone intensity is likely to increase in the future. This would result in an increase in the damage along with a decrease in economic productivity due to precautionary cessation of the economic activity of the affected areas during the passage of the cyclone. The economic effect of this stop in economic activity is a phenomenon that has not received much attention in the past, and the cumulative effect that it can have on the Japanese economy over the next 75 years has never been evaluated. The starting point for the evaluation of the economic risks is the change in the patterns of tropical cyclone intensity suggested by Knutson and Tuleya. The results obtained show how a significant decrease in the overall productivity of the country could be expected, which could lower GDP by between 6% and 13% by 2085. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle: incidence and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorella, D.; Helms, C.A.; Speer, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. The objectives of the current study were (1) to quantify the incidence of increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle and (2) to assess the clinical significance of this finding in patients with chronic acromioclavicular (AC) joint pain.Design and patients. Eight patients (five male and three female, 15-41 years of age) with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint and marked increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle are presented. These eight patients underwent MR examination over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998). The dictated reports of all shoulder MR examinations conducted over this same time period were reviewed retrospectively for the presence of signal abnormality in the distal cla-vicle. Clinical data and, in five patients, findings at shoulder arthroscopy or open surgery, were correlated with the results of MR imaging. One patient underwent arthroscopy on both shoulders.Results. The selected eight patients each presented clinically with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint. One patient is presented twice, as both shoulders were symptomatic (n=9). Plain film examination (9/9) failed to indicate a structural cause of shoulder pain in any of the patients. MR examination demonstrated abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle in all nine cases and no other cause for AC joint pain. Three patients responded to a course of conservative therapy. Six experienced refractory pain despite conservative therapy. Resection of the distal clavicle was performed in five of the six cases. All patients who underwent resection of the distal clavicle experienced complete resolution of AC joint pain. A retrospective review of the dictated reports for all shoulder MR imaging examinations performed at out institution over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998; n=761) demonstrated a 12.5% incidence of abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clav-icle.Conclusions. Increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle

  19. Increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle: incidence and clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorella, D.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Speer, K.P. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. The objectives of the current study were (1) to quantify the incidence of increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle and (2) to assess the clinical significance of this finding in patients with chronic acromioclavicular (AC) joint pain.Design and patients. Eight patients (five male and three female, 15-41 years of age) with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint and marked increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle are presented. These eight patients underwent MR examination over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998). The dictated reports of all shoulder MR examinations conducted over this same time period were reviewed retrospectively for the presence of signal abnormality in the distal cla-vicle. Clinical data and, in five patients, findings at shoulder arthroscopy or open surgery, were correlated with the results of MR imaging. One patient underwent arthroscopy on both shoulders.Results. The selected eight patients each presented clinically with disabling shoulder pain localized to the AC joint. One patient is presented twice, as both shoulders were symptomatic (n=9). Plain film examination (9/9) failed to indicate a structural cause of shoulder pain in any of the patients. MR examination demonstrated abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle in all nine cases and no other cause for AC joint pain. Three patients responded to a course of conservative therapy. Six experienced refractory pain despite conservative therapy. Resection of the distal clavicle was performed in five of the six cases. All patients who underwent resection of the distal clavicle experienced complete resolution of AC joint pain. A retrospective review of the dictated reports for all shoulder MR imaging examinations performed at out institution over a 25 month period (August 1996 to September 1998; n=761) demonstrated a 12.5% incidence of abnormally increased T2 signal in the distal clav-icle.Conclusions. Increased T2 signal in the distal clavicle

  20. Muon Intensity Increase by Wedge Absorbers for Low-E Muon Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab; Stratakis, D. [Fermilab; Bradley, J. [Fermilab

    2017-09-01

    Low energy muon experiments such as mu2e and g-2 have a limited energy spread acceptance. Following techniques developed in muon cooling studies and the MICE experiment, the number of muons within the desired energy spread can be increased by the matched use of wedge absorbers. More generally, the phase space of muon beams can be manipulated by absorbers in beam transport lines. Applications with simulation results are presented.

  1. Nordic Walking May Safely Increase the Intensity of Exercise Training in Healthy Subjects and in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejczak, Andrzej; Josiak, Krystian; Węgrzynowska-Teodorczyk, Kinga; Rudzińska, Eliza; Jankowska, Ewa A; Banasiak, Waldemar; Piepoli, Massimo F; Woźniewski, Marek; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) improves the exercise capacity and quality of life, and may also reduce mortality and hospitalizations. The greatest benefits are achieved through high-intensity aerobic exercises resulting in a stronger cardiorespiratory response. Nordic walking (NW), a walking technique using two poles and mimicking the movements performed while cross-country skiing, is associated with the involvement of more muscle groups than in the case of classic walking, and should therefore make it possible to increase exercise intensity, resulting in more effective training for patients with HF. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and safety of the NW technique, and to compare the effort intensity while walking with and without the NW technique in both healthy subjects and in patients with chronic HF. The study involved 12 healthy individuals (aged 30 ± 10 years, 5 men) and 12 men with stable chronic systolic HF (aged 63 ± 11 years, all categorized in New York Heart Association class II, median LVEF 30%, median peak VO(2) 18.25 mL/kg/min). All the participants completed two randomly assigned submaximal walking tests (one with NW poles and one without) conducted on a level treadmill for 6 min at a constant speed of 5 km/h. Walking with the NW technique was feasible, safe and well tolerated in all subjects. In both the control group and the chronic HF group, walking with the NW technique increased peak VO(2), RER, VE, PET CO(2), HR and SBP over walking without the poles; and the fatigue grade according to the abridged Borg scale was higher. Dyspnea did not increase significantly with the NW technique. The NW technique can increase the intensity of aerobic training in a safe and well-tolerated way in both healthy individuals and in patients with chronic HF.

  2. Increasing milk solids production across lactation through genetic selection and intensive pasture-based feed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index (EBI), on overall performance and lactation profiles for milk, milk solids, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) within 2 pasture-based systems of milk production likely to be used in the future, following abolition of the European Union's milk quota system. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of animals with North American origin and average or lower genetic merit at the time of the study; HighNA, North American Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit; and HighNZ, New Zealand Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark pasture (MP) system (2.64 cows/ha and 344 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,056 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). Pasture was allocated to achieve similar postgrazing residual sward heights for both treatments. A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, FS, and the interaction between genotype and FS on milk production, BW, and BCS across lactation were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotype and FS accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype by FS interaction was observed for any of the variables measured. Results show that milk solids production of the national average dairy cow can be increased across lactation through increased EBI. High EBI genotypes (HighNA and HighNZ) produced more milk solids per cow and

  3. The response of a simulated mesoscale convective system to increased aerosol pollution: Part II: Derecho characteristics and intensity in response to increased pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Michal; Grasso, Lewis D.; Cotton, William R.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2018-01-01

    Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) are important contributors to rainfall as well as producers of severe weather such as hail, tornados, and straight-line wind events known as derechos. In this study, different aerosol concentrations and their effects on a derecho event are examined by simulating a case study, the 8 May 2009 "Super-Derecho", using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a cloud-resolving model with sophisticated aerosol and cloud microphysics. Three simulations were conducted that differed in the initial aerosol concentrations, spatial distribution and chemical composition as derived from output of GEOS-Chem, a 3D chemical transport model. In order to understand the impact of changes in aerosol concentrations on the derecho characteristics, the dynamical processes that produced the strong surface wind were determined by performing back-trajectory analysis during two periods of the simulated storm: the development and the onset of dissipation. A time dependent and non-monotonic trend was found between the intensity of the derecho and the increased aerosol concentrations that served as cloud condensation nuclei. During the formation period of the MCS, the non-monotonic trend was attributed to the microphysical impact of aerosol loading on the intensity of the cold pool; that is, the impact of aerosols on both the melting and evaporation rates of hydrometeors. The subsequent intensity changes within the cold pool modified the balance between the horizontal vorticity generated by the cold pool and that of the environment, thereby impacting the orientation of the convective updraft at the leading line. This, in turn, altered the primary flow that contributed to the formation of the derecho-strength surface winds. The simulation with no anthropogenic aerosols exhibited the strongest cold pool and the primary flow was associated with a descending rear inflow jet that produced the derecho winds over a larger region. The simulation with the highest

  4. Photodegradation of nonylphenol by simulated sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanxia; Duan, Xiaoyong; Li, Xianguo; Zhang, Dahai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effects of some environmental factors on the photolysis of NP were studied. ► Experimental range of the factors was selected based on their occurrence in water. ► The degradation intermediates were identified by GC–MS. ► The photodegradation mechanism of NP in natural seawater was proposed. -- Abstract: The photodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) was studied to simulate its photolysis process in natural seawater. The effects of the initial NP concentration, the light intensity, the temperature, the initial pH, the dissolved oxygen content and the presence of common water constituents (i.e., Fe(III), NO 3 - and HCO 3 - ) on the photodegradation of NP in pure water have been assessed. The degradation rate increased in the presence of Fe(III), NO 3 - or HCO 3 - , and the photolysis rate of 4-NP was more rapid in alkaline solution than in an acidic medium. The DO content is a key factor in the photodegradation, and the rate of the photoreaction depended on the O 2 concentration. The degradation rate was slower in natural seawater than in pure water. 4-Nonylcatechol was identified as the intermediate of photodegradation of nonylphenol in natural seawater. The proposed pathway involved a reaction between irradiated NP and the reactive oxygen species that existed in the seawater

  5. Manipulating field margins to increase predation intensity in fields of winter wheat (Triticum eastivum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansion-Vaquie, Agathe; Ferrante, Marco; Cook, S M

    2017-01-01

    , intraguild predation, hyperparasitism) may complicate the assumption that a higher density of natural enemies would increase the level of biological control. We investigated the natural enemy guild composition and the predation rate along flower vs. grass margins at the edge of winter wheat (Triticum...... to the two margin types: specialists (mostly parasitic wasps) were attracted by the flower margins, while generalists (ground beetles, rove beetles and spiders) were more active in grass margins. The number of artificial caterpillars attacked was significantly greater in grass margins (mean = 48.9%, SD = 24...

  6. Crop growth and nitrogen turnover under increased temperatures and low autumn and winter light intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    The rise in mean annual temperatures under the projected climate change will affect both soil organic matter turnover and cropping patterns in agriculture. Nitrogen (N) mineralization may be higher during autumn and winter and may increase the risk of nitrate leaching. Our study tested whether...... before the late sowing of wheat caused generally higher levels of inorganic N to accumulate in soil. Despite the higher mineralization under the raised temperatures, at T+8 the late-sown winter wheat was able to reduce soil inorganic N to a lower level than late-sown wheat at the two lower temperatures...

  7. Photosynthesis, photoprotection, and growth of shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings under full sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G Heinrich; Winter, Klaus; Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, Barbara; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; Aranda, Jorge; García, Milton

    2012-09-01

    High solar radiation in the tropics is known to cause transient reduction in photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO(2) assimilation in sun-exposed leaves, but little is known how these responses affect the actual growth performance of tropical plants. The present study addresses this question. Seedlings of five woody neotropical forest species were cultivated under full sunlight and shaded conditions. In full sunlight, strong photoinhibition of PSII at midday was documented for the late-successional tree species Ormosia macrocalyx and Tetragastris panamensis and the understory/forest gap species, Piper reticulatum. In leaves of O. macrocalyx, PSII inhibition was accompanied by substantial midday depression of net CO(2) assimilation. Leaves of all species had increased pools of violaxanthin-cycle pigments. Other features of photoacclimation, such as increased Chl a/b ratio and contents of lutein, β-carotene and tocopherol varied. High light caused strong increase of tocopherol in leaves of T. panamensis and another late-successional species, Virola surinamensis. O. macrocalyx had low contents of tocopherol and UV-absorbing substances. Under full sunlight, biomass accumulation was not reduced in seedlings of T. panamensis, P. reticulatum, and V. surinamensis, but O. macrocalyx exhibited substantial growth inhibition. In the highly shade-tolerant understory species Psychotria marginata, full sunlight caused strongly reduced growth of most individuals. However, some plants showed relatively high growth rates under full sun approaching those of seedlings at 40 % ambient irradiance. It is concluded that shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings can achieve efficient photoacclimation and high growth rates in full sunlight.

  8. Carbon-Increasing Catalytic Strategies for Upgrading Biomass into Energy-Intensive Fuels and Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Riisager, Anders; Saravanamurugan, Shunmugavel

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant organic carbon source and has received a great deal of interest as renewable and sustainable feedstock for the production of potential biofuels and value-added chemicals with a wide range of designed catalytic systems. However, those natural polymeric...... materials are composed of short-chain monomers (typically C6 and C5 sugars) and complex lignin molecules containing plenty of oxygen, resulting in products during the downstream processing having low-grade fuel properties or limited applications in organic syntheses. Accordingly, approaches to increase...... corresponding key intermediates or final products are also reviewed. The effects of catalyst structure/type and reaction parameters on the catalytic performance along with relevant reaction mechanisms are in detail discussed. Apart from this, the formation of other useful compounds containing C-X bonds (X = O...

  9. The neutron beam intensity increase by in-core fuel management enhancement in multipurpose research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Vukadin, Z.; Konstantinovic, J.

    1986-01-01

    The exploitation characteristics of an existing multipurpose research reactor can be increased not only by great reconstruction, but also, to the considerable extent, by the in-core fuel management sophistication. The optimisation of the in-core fuel management procedure in such reactors is governed (among others) by the identified reactor utilisation goals, i.e. by weighting factors dedicated to different utilisation goals, which are often (regarding the in-core fuel management procedure) highly controversial. In this work the best solution for in-core fuel management is sought, with the highest weighting factor dedicated to the neutron beam usage, rather than sample irradiation in the reactor core. The term in-core fuel management includes: the core configuration, the locations of the fresh fuel inflow zone and spent fuel excite zone, and the fuel transfers between these two zones (author)

  10. Skin temperature increase mediated by wearable, long duration, low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Matthew D.; Huang, Wenyi; Ghanem, Angi; Guo, Yuan; Lewis, George K.

    2017-03-01

    One of the safety concerns with the delivery of therapeutic ultrasound is overheating of the transducer-skin interface due to poor or improper coupling. The objective of this research was to define a model that could be used to calculate the heating in the skin as a result of a novel, wearable long-duration ultrasound device. This model was used to determine that the maximum heating in the skin remained below the minimum threshold necessary to cause thermal injury over multiple hours of use. In addition to this model data, a human clinical study used wire thermocouples on the skin surface to measure heating characteristics during treatment with the sustained ultrasound system. Parametric analysis of the model determined that the maximum temperature increase is at the surface of the skin ranged from 40-41.8° C when perfusion was taken into account. The clinical data agreed well with the model predictions. The average steady state temperature observed across all 44 subjects was 40°C. The maximum temperature observed was less than 44° C, which is clinically safe for over 5 hours of human skin contact. The resultant clinical temperature data paired well with the model data suggesting the model can be used for future transducer and ultrasound system design simulation. As a result, the device was validated for thermal safety for typical users and use conditions.

  11. Charles Burchfield: "October Wind and Sunlight in the Woods."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gaynell

    1986-01-01

    Based on Charles Burchfield's watercolor, "October Wind and Sunlight in the Woods," the goal of this lesson is to introduce students in grades seven through nine to Burchfield's use of symbolism. (JDH)

  12. Analytic Models for Sunlight Charging of a Rapidly Spinning Satellite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tautz, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    ... photoelectrons can be blocked by local potential barriers. In this report, we discuss two analytic models for sunlight charging of a rapidly spinning spherical satellite, both of which are based on blocked photoelectron currents...

  13. Sunlight-induced DNA damage in human mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Wallin, Hakan; Holst, Erik

    2002-01-01

    of sunlight was comparable to the interindividual variation, indicating that sunlight exposure and the individual's background were the two most important determinants for the basal level of DNA damage. Influence of other lifestyle factors such as exercise, intake of foods, infections, and age could......In this study of 301 blood samples from 21 subjects, we found markedly higher levels of DNA damage (nonpyrimidine dimer types) in the summer than in the winter detected by single-cell gel electrophoresis. The level of DNA damage was influenced by the average daily influx of sunlight ... to blood sampling. The 3 and 6 day periods before sampling influenced DNA damage the most. The importance of sunlight was further emphasized by a positive association of the DNA damage level to the amount of time the subjects had spent in the sun over a 3 day period prior to the sampling. The effect...

  14. A paradoxical signal intensity increase in fatty livers using opposed-phase gradient echo imaging with fat-suppression pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkern, Robert V.; Voss, Stephan; Loeb Salsberg, Sandra; Krauel, Marta Ramon; Ludwig, David S.

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in obese and overweight children, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become more prevalent in the pediatric population. Appreciating subtleties of magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity behavior from fatty livers under different imaging conditions thus becomes important to pediatric radiologists. We report an initially confusing signal behavior - increased signal from fatty livers when fat-suppression pulses are applied in an opposed-phase gradient echo imaging sequence - and seek to explain the physical mechanisms for this paradoxical signal intensity behavior. Abdominal MR imaging at 3 T with a 3-D volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE) sequence in the opposed-phase condition (TR/TE 3.3/1.3 ms) was performed in five obese boys (14±2 years of age, body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) with spectroscopically confirmed fatty livers. Two VIBE acquisitions were performed, one with and one without the use of chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse fat suppression. The ratios of fat-suppressed over non-fat-suppressed signal intensities were assessed in regions-of-interest (ROIs) in five tissues: subcutaneous fat, liver, vertebral marrow, muscle and spleen. The boys had spectroscopically estimated hepatic fat levels between 17% and 48%. CHESS pulse fat suppression decreased subcutaneous fat signals dramatically, by more than 85% within regions of optimal fat suppression. Fatty liver signals, in contrast, were elevated by an average of 87% with CHESS pulse fat suppression. Vertebral marrow signal was also significantly elevated with CHESS pulse fat suppression, while spleen and muscle signals demonstrated only small signal increases on the order of 10%. We demonstrated that CHESS pulse fat suppression actually increases the signal intensity from fatty livers in opposed-phase gradient echo imaging conditions. The increase can be attributed to suppression of one partner of the opposed-phase pair that normally contributes to the

  15. A paradoxical signal intensity increase in fatty livers using opposed-phase gradient echo imaging with fat-suppression pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulkern, Robert V.; Voss, Stephan [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Loeb Salsberg, Sandra; Krauel, Marta Ramon; Ludwig, David S. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    With the increase in obese and overweight children, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become more prevalent in the pediatric population. Appreciating subtleties of magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity behavior from fatty livers under different imaging conditions thus becomes important to pediatric radiologists. We report an initially confusing signal behavior - increased signal from fatty livers when fat-suppression pulses are applied in an opposed-phase gradient echo imaging sequence - and seek to explain the physical mechanisms for this paradoxical signal intensity behavior. Abdominal MR imaging at 3 T with a 3-D volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE) sequence in the opposed-phase condition (TR/TE 3.3/1.3 ms) was performed in five obese boys (14{+-}2 years of age, body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) with spectroscopically confirmed fatty livers. Two VIBE acquisitions were performed, one with and one without the use of chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse fat suppression. The ratios of fat-suppressed over non-fat-suppressed signal intensities were assessed in regions-of-interest (ROIs) in five tissues: subcutaneous fat, liver, vertebral marrow, muscle and spleen. The boys had spectroscopically estimated hepatic fat levels between 17% and 48%. CHESS pulse fat suppression decreased subcutaneous fat signals dramatically, by more than 85% within regions of optimal fat suppression. Fatty liver signals, in contrast, were elevated by an average of 87% with CHESS pulse fat suppression. Vertebral marrow signal was also significantly elevated with CHESS pulse fat suppression, while spleen and muscle signals demonstrated only small signal increases on the order of 10%. We demonstrated that CHESS pulse fat suppression actually increases the signal intensity from fatty livers in opposed-phase gradient echo imaging conditions. The increase can be attributed to suppression of one partner of the opposed-phase pair that normally contributes to the

  16. Accelerated stability testing of organic photovoltaics using concentrated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Eugene A.; Manor, Assaf; Mescheloff, Asaf

    2012-01-01

    We suggest to use concentrated sunlight for accelerated studies of light-induced mechanisms in the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPV) based on the polymer (P3HT)/fullerene (PCBM) bulk heterojunctions. Two particular cases of the degradation are reported.......We suggest to use concentrated sunlight for accelerated studies of light-induced mechanisms in the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPV) based on the polymer (P3HT)/fullerene (PCBM) bulk heterojunctions. Two particular cases of the degradation are reported....

  17. Decontamination of poultry feed from ochratoxin A by UV and sunlight radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer Sumbal, Gul; Hussain Shar, Zahid; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail; Sirajuddin; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad; Mahesar, Safaraz Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Mycotoxin-contaminated feed is very dangerous for the growth and even life of poultry. The objective of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of ultra-violet irradiation for decontamination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in spiked and naturally contaminated poultry feed samples. Spiked and naturally contaminated feed samples were irradiated with ultra-violet light (UV) at distance of 25 cm over the feed samples. In vitro, the effect of UV intensity (0.1 mW cm(-2) at 254 nm UV-C) on different types of poultry feeds contaminated with OTA was evaluated. The same samples were also irradiated with sunlight and analysed for OTA by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Poultry feed samples containing 500 µg kg(-1) were 100% decontaminated in 180 min with UV radiation while OTA was decreased to 70-95 µg kg(-1) using the same poultry feed samples after 8 h sunlight irradiation. Therefore, UV light was found to be more effective. Only 1 h of UV irradiation was found to be sufficient to bring the OTA level to the maximum regulatory limit suggested for poultry feeds (100 µg kg(-1) ), while 8 h were needed to obtain this level using sunlight radiations. The proposed approach is a viable option to reduce the level of OTA in contaminated poultry feeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Adaptive fluid lens and sunlight redirection system : exploring a novel way of redirecting and altering sunlight in large span roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bristogianni, T.; Teuffel, P.; Stouffs, R.; Sariyildiz, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes a novel system to alter and redirect sunlight under large span roofs with the help of a fluid lens system. Focus lies on the computational design, testing, measurement and evaluation of the performance of a physical prototype.

  19. Acute high-intensity interval running increases markers of gastrointestinal damage and permeability but not gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie N; Impey, Samuel G; Doran, Dominic A; Fleming, Simon C; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval running on markers of gastrointestinal (GI) damage and permeability alongside subjective symptoms of GI discomfort. Eleven male runners completed an acute bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (eighteen 400-m runs at 120% maximal oxygen uptake) where markers of GI permeability, intestinal damage, and GI discomfort symptoms were assessed and compared with resting conditions. Compared with rest, HIIT significantly increased serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (0.051 ± 0.016 vs. 0.031 ± 0.021, p = 0.0047; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.006 to 0.036) and sucrose concentrations (0.388 ± 0.217 vs. 0.137 ± 0.148 mg·L -1 ; p HIIT and resting conditions. Plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was significantly increased (p HIIT whereas no changes were observed during rest. Mild symptoms of GI discomfort were reported immediately and at 24 h post-HIIT, although these symptoms did not correlate to GI permeability or I-FABP. In conclusion, acute HIIT increased GI permeability and intestinal I-FABP release, although these do not correlate with symptoms of GI discomfort. Furthermore, by using serum sampling, we provide data showing that it is possible to detect changes in intestinal permeability that is not observed using urinary sampling over a shorter time-period.

  20. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Poole, Alison E; Evans, Laura C; Bradley, David C; Macdonald, David W

    2014-02-01

    Invasive species are a major cause of species extinction in freshwater ecosystems, and crayfish species are particularly pervasive. The invasive American signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has impacts over a range of trophic levels, but particularly on benthic aquatic macroinvertebrates. Our study examined the effect on the macroinvertebrate community of removal trapping of signal crayfish from UK rivers. Crayfish were intensively trapped and removed from two tributaries of the River Thames to test the hypothesis that lowering signal crayfish densities would result in increases in macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness. We removed 6181 crayfish over four sessions, resulting in crayfish densities that decreased toward the center of the removal sections. Conversely in control sections (where crayfish were trapped and returned), crayfish density increased toward the center of the section. Macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness were inversely correlated with crayfish densities. Multivariate analysis of the abundance of each taxon yielded similar results and indicated that crayfish removals had positive impacts on macroinvertebrate numbers and taxon richness but did not alter the composition of the wider macroinvertebrate community. Synthesis and applications: Our results demonstrate that non-eradication-oriented crayfish removal programmes may lead to increases in the total number of macroinvertebrates living in the benthos. This represents the first evidence that removing signal crayfish from riparian systems, at intensities feasible during control attempts or commercial crayfishing, may be beneficial for a range of sympatric aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  1. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2016-01-01

    and phosphorylation were determined by western blotting. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mTOR (12%), PLN (16%) and CaMKII γ/δ (25%) was higher (P... and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 ser68 phosphorylation, compared to before the intervention. CaMKII thr287 and eEF2 thr56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β thr638/641 and mTOR ser2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN...

  2. Intensive skills week for military medical students increases technical proficiency, confidence, and skills to minimize negative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Genevieve; Hunt, Bonnie; Wall, Van; Rush, Robert; Molof, Alan; Schoeff, Jonathan; Wedmore, Ian; Schmid, James; Laporta, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The effects of stress induced cortisol on learning and memory is well documented in the literature.1-3 Memory and learning are enhanced at low levels while high levels are detrimental. Repetitive training in stressful situations enables management of the stress response4 as demonstrated by the high intensity training military members undergo to prepare for tactical situations. Appropriate management of one?s stress response is critical in the medical field, as the negative effects of stress can potentially hinder life-saving procedures and treatments. This also applies to physicians-in-training as they learn and practice triage, emergency medicine, and surgical skills prior to graduation. Rocky Vista University?s Military Medicine Honor?s Track (MMHT) held a week long high-intensity emergency medicine and surgical Intensive Skills Week (ISW), facilitated by military and university physicians, to advance students? skills and maximize training using the Human Worn Partial Surgical Task Simulator (Cut Suit). The short-term goal of the ISW was to overcome negative stress responses to increase confidence, technical and non-technical knowledge, and skill in surgery and emergency medicine in an effort to improve performance as third-year medical students. The long-term goal was to enhance performance and proficiency in residency and future medical practice. The metrics for the short-term goals were the focus of this pilot study. Results show an increase in confidence and decrease in perceived stress as well as statistically significant improvements in technical and non-technical skills and surgical instrumentation knowledge throughout the week. There is a correlative benefit to physician and non-physician military personnel, especially Special Operations Forces (SOF) medical personnel, from developing and implementing similar training programs when live tissue or cadaver models are unavailable or unfeasible. 2012.

  3. Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachkar, Zouhair; Lévy, Marina; Smith, Shafer

    2018-01-01

    The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming is expected to expand oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the world's thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo-records and future climate projections indicates strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from -50 to +50 %) on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Arabian Sea using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a nitrogen-based nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model that includes a representation of the O2 cycle. We show that the Arabian Sea productivity increases and its OMZ expands and deepens in response to monsoon wind intensification. These responses are dominated by the perturbation of the summer monsoon wind, whereas the changes in the winter monsoon wind play a secondary role. While the productivity responds quickly and nearly linearly to wind increase (i.e., on a timescale of years), the OMZ response is much slower (i.e., a timescale of decades). Our analysis reveals that the OMZ expansion at depth is driven by increased oxygen biological consumption, whereas its surface weakening is induced by increased ventilation. The enhanced ventilation favors episodic intrusions of oxic waters in the lower epipelagic zone (100-200 m) of the western and central Arabian Sea, leading to intermittent expansions of marine habitats and a more frequent alternation of hypoxic and oxic conditions there. The increased

  4. Intensification and deepening of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone in response to increase in Indian monsoon wind intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline in oxygen supply to the ocean associated with global warming is expected to expand oxygen minimum zones (OMZs. This global trend can be attenuated or amplified by regional processes. In the Arabian Sea, the world's thickest OMZ is highly vulnerable to changes in the Indian monsoon wind. Evidence from paleo-records and future climate projections indicates strong variations of the Indian monsoon wind intensity over climatic timescales. Yet, the response of the OMZ to these wind changes remains poorly understood and its amplitude and timescale unexplored. Here, we investigate the impacts of perturbations in Indian monsoon wind intensity (from −50 to +50 % on the size and intensity of the Arabian Sea OMZ, and examine the biogeochemical and ecological implications of these changes. To this end, we conducted a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the Arabian Sea using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS coupled to a nitrogen-based nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton–detritus (NPZD ecosystem model that includes a representation of the O2 cycle. We show that the Arabian Sea productivity increases and its OMZ expands and deepens in response to monsoon wind intensification. These responses are dominated by the perturbation of the summer monsoon wind, whereas the changes in the winter monsoon wind play a secondary role. While the productivity responds quickly and nearly linearly to wind increase (i.e., on a timescale of years, the OMZ response is much slower (i.e., a timescale of decades. Our analysis reveals that the OMZ expansion at depth is driven by increased oxygen biological consumption, whereas its surface weakening is induced by increased ventilation. The enhanced ventilation favors episodic intrusions of oxic waters in the lower epipelagic zone (100–200 m of the western and central Arabian Sea, leading to intermittent expansions of marine habitats and a more frequent alternation of hypoxic and oxic conditions there

  5. Long-term intensive management increased carbon occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) in bamboo forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhang-Ting; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Chang, Scott X.; Song, Zhao-Liang; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Guo-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Carbon (C) occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) is highly stable at millennium scale and its accumulation in soils can help increase long-term C sequestration. Here, we report that soil PhytOC storage significantly increased with increasing duration under intensive management (mulching and fertilization) in Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) plantations. The PhytOC storage in 0-40 cm soil layer in bamboo plantations increased by 217 Mg C ha-1, 20 years after being converted from paddy fields. The PhytOC accumulated at 79 kg C ha-1 yr-1, a rate far exceeding the global mean long-term soil C accumulation rate of 24 kg C ha-1 yr-1 reported in the literature. Approximately 86% of the increased PhytOC came from the large amount of mulch applied. Our data clearly demonstrate the decadal scale management effect on PhytOC accumulation, suggesting that heavy mulching is a potential method for increasing long-term organic C storage in soils for mitigating global climate change.

  6. Global warming hiatus contributed to the increased occurrence of intense tropical cyclones in the coastal regions along East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiuwei; Zhan, Ruifen; Wang, Yuqing

    2018-04-16

    The recent global warming hiatus (GWH) was characterized by a La Niña-like cooling in the tropical Eastern Pacific accompanied with the Indian Ocean and the tropical Atlantic Ocean warming. Here we show that the recent GWH contributed significantly to the increased occurrence of intense tropical cyclones in the coastal regions along East Asia since 1998. The GWH associated sea surface temperature anomalies triggered a pair of anomalous cyclonic and anticyclonic circulations and equatorial easterly anomalies over the Northwest Pacific, which favored TC genesis and intensification over the western Northwest Pacific but suppressed TC genesis and intensification over the southeastern Northwest Pacific due to increased vertical wind shear and anticyclonic circulation anomalies. Results from atmospheric general circulation model experiments demonstrate that the Pacific La Niña-like cooling dominated the Indian Ocean and the tropical Atlantic Ocean warming in contributing to the observed GWH-related anomalous atmospheric circulation over the Northwest Pacific.

  7. Apoptotic cell death during Drosophila oogenesis is differentially increased by electromagnetic radiation depending on modulation, intensity and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Niki E; Manta, Areti K; Giannarakis, Ioannis K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2016-01-01

    Present generations are being repeatedly exposed to different types and doses of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from wireless technologies (FM radio, TETRA and TV stations, GSM and UMTS phones/base stations, Wi-Fi networks, DECT phones). Although there is controversy on the published data regarding the non-thermal effects of NIR, studies have convincingly demonstrated bioeffects. Their results indicate that modulation, intensity, exposure duration and model system are important factors determining the biological response to irradiation. Attempting to address the dependence of NIR bioeffectiveness on these factors, apoptosis in the model biological system Drosophila melanogaster was studied under different exposure protocols. A signal generator was used operating alternatively under Continuous Wave (CW) or Frequency Modulation (FM) emission modes, at three power output values (10 dB, 0, -10 dB), under four carrier frequencies (100, 395, 682, 900 MHz). Newly emerged flies were exposed either acutely (6 min or 60 min on the 6th day), or repeatedly (6 min or 60 min daily for the first 6 days of their life). All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary.

  8. [Does open access publishing increase the impact of scientific articles? An empirical study in the field of intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, M; Aibar, E

    2013-05-01

    Some studies suggest that open access articles are more often cited than non-open access articles. However, the relationship between open access and citations count in a discipline such as intensive care medicine has not been studied to date. The present article analyzes the effect of open access publishing of scientific articles in intensive care medicine journals in terms of citations count. We evaluated a total of 161 articles (76% being non-open access articles) published in Intensive Care Medicine in the year 2008. Citation data were compared between the two groups up until April 30, 2011. Potentially confounding variables for citation counts were adjusted for in a linear multiple regression model. The median number (interquartile range) of citations of non-open access articles was 8 (4-12) versus 9 (6-18) in the case of open access articles (p=0.084). In the highest citation range (>8), the citation count was 13 (10-16) and 18 (13-21) (p=0.008), respectively. The mean follow-up was 37.5 ± 3 months in both groups. In the 30-35 months after publication, the average number (mean ± standard deviation) of citations per article per month of non-open access articles was 0.28 ± 0.6 versus 0.38 ± 0.7 in the case of open access articles (p=0.043). Independent factors for citation advantage were the Hirsch index of the first signing author (β=0.207; p=0.015) and open access status (β=3.618; p=0.006). Open access publishing and the Hirsch index of the first signing author increase the impact of scientific articles. The open access advantage is greater for the more highly cited articles, and appears in the 30-35 months after publication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of hip fractures by exposure to sunlight and pharmacotherapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D and K due to malnutrition or sunlight deprivation, compensatory hyperparathyroidism, increased bone resorption, low bone mineral density (BMD), and an increased risk of falls may contribute to an increased risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of interventions against hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease. With respect to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding Alzheimer's disease and hip fractures, the literature was searched with PubMed. Three RCTs were identified, and the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for individual RCTs. Exposure to sunlight with calcium supplementation, menatetrenone (vitamin K2) plus calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and risedronate plus calcium and vitamin D supplementation improved hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism, contributing to a reduction in bone resorption. Risedronate itself strongly decreased bone resorption. Menatetrenone also decreased the serum level of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. The three interventions increased metacarpal BMD and reduced the incidence of hip fractures. The respective RRs (95% CI) were 0.22 (0.049-0.999), 0.13 (0.031-0.554), and 0.26 (0.100- 0.690). The present study clarified the efficacy of three interventions, including exposure to sunlight, menatetrenone, and risedronate with calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation against hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Increased self-efficacy: the experience of high-intensity exercise of nursing home residents with dementia - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cecilie Fromholt; Telenius, Elisabeth Wiken; Engedal, Knut; Bergland, Astrid

    2015-09-14

    There has been increasing interest in the use of non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical exercise, to improve the well-being of nursing home residents with dementia. For reasons regarding disease symptoms, persons with dementia might find it difficult to participate in exercise programs. Therefore, it is important to find ways to successfully promote regular exercise for patients in residential care. Several quantitative studies have established the positive effects of exercise on biopsychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy in older people; however, little is known regarding the qualitative aspects of participating in an exercise program among older people with dementia. From the perspective of residents, we explored the experiences of participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program among nursing home residents with dementia. The participants were eight elderly people with mild-to-moderate dementia. We conducted semi-structured interviews one week after they had finished a 10-week supervised high-intensity exercise program. We analyzed the data using an inductive content analysis. Five overreaching and interrelated themes emerged from the interviews: "Pushing the limits," "Being invested in," "Relationships facilitate exercise participation," "Exercise revives the body, increases independence and improves self-esteem" and "Physical activity is a basic human necessity--use it or lose it!" The results were interpreted in light of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The exercise program seemed to improve self-efficacy through several mechanisms. By being involved, "being invested in" and having something expected of them, the participants gained a sense of empowerment in their everyday lives. The importance of social influences related to the exercise instructor and the exercise group was accentuated by the participants. The nursing home residents had, for the most part, positive experiences with regard to participating in the exercise program

  11. Biodegradation and photooxidation of crude oil under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, H. P.; Erdner, D.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    An enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. While the oil degradation and bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of sunlight on oil and bacterial assemblages in surface waters have received less attention. In this study, we amended surface water collected near the DWH site with crude oil and/or Corexit dispersant and incubated under natural sunlight in the nGoM for 36 d in summer of 2013. The residual alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and alkalyted PAHs were analyzed by GC-MS, and bacterial community was determined via pyrosequencing. The results show that n-alkane biodegradation rate constants (first order) were ca. ten-fold higher than the photooxidation rate constants. While biodegradation was characterized by a lag phase, photooxidation rate constants for the 2-3 ring and 4-5 ring PAHs, were 0.08-0.98 day-1 and 0.01-0.07 day-1, respectively. Compared to biodegradation, photooxidation increased the transformation of 4-5 ring PAHs by 70% and 3-4 ring alkylated PAHs by 36%. Sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and a driver of shifts in bacterial community structure in oil and Corexit treatments. In amended treatments, sunlight increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Halomonas and Bartonella, while the dark treatments enriched Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Pseudomonas. This suggests that different bacteria are degrading the hydrocarbons in the dark and under light exposure. In a follow up study using DNA-Stable isotope probing (SIP), we identified the alkane and PAH degraders using 13C-labeled hexadecane and phenanthrene, respectively. The results of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses in the light and dark incubations will be presented. For the first

  12. Increased cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake in response to ten sessions of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael M; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi A

    2018-01-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are widely reported in response to completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the mechanism explaining this result is poorly understood. This study examined changes in VO2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to 10 sessions of low-volume HIIT. Participants included 30 active men and women (mean age and VO2max=22.9±5.4 years and 39.6±5.6 mL/kg/min) who performed HIIT and 30 men and women (age and VO2max=25.7±4.5 years and 40.7±5.2 mL/kg/min) who served as non-exercising controls (CON). High intensity interval training consisted of 6-10 s bouts of cycling per session at 90-110 percent peak power output (PPO) interspersed with 75 s recovery. Before and after training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which CO, stroke volume (SV), and heart rate (HR) were estimated using thoracic impedance. To confirm VO2max attainment, a verification test was completed after progressive cycling at a work rate equal to 110%PPO. Data demonstrated significant improvements in VO2max (2.71±0.63 L/min to 2.86±0.63 L/min, Psessions of HIIT is due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  13. Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Allan A.; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2004-11-23

    A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS onto a secondary reflector that delivers a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in a chamber that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

  14. Increase of (CdSe/ZnS)Cys quantum dot luminescence intensity in the presence of TPPS4 porphyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Gustavo G.; Borissevitch, Iouri E.; Oleinikov, Vladimir A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nanocrystal semiconductor particles or Quantum Dots (QD) possess extraordinary photophysical characteristics, such as extreme high fluorescence quantum yield and optical absorption and very narrow fluorescence band, which can be easily shifted by changing of QD particle size. Due to these characteristics, QD is promising for fluorescence cancer diagnostics and photodynamic treatment. The efficiency of these processes can be in- creased by energy transfer between QD and classic fluorescence probes and photosensitizers (PS). In this work we present on the study of the increase of (CdSe/ZnS)Cys quantum dot luminescence intensity, stimulated by interaction with TPPS 4 porphyrin. The optical absorption and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques were employed. Water soluble QD (CdSe/ZnS) with emission at 580 nm, functionalized with cysteine (Cys), were studied. TPPS 4 porphyrin was used as a stimulator of QD luminescence. All experiments were realized in PBS buffer (pH 7.3; 7.5 mM) in Milli-Q quality water. The TPPS 4 adding into the QD solutions until the 5μM concentration produced an increase in QD luminescence intensity and lifetime, while for TPPS 4 concentrations higher than 20μM the reduction of the fluorescence intensity was observed, the emission spectra and fluorescence decays profile being unchanged. This effect can not be due to the electrostatic interaction between (CdSe/ZnS)Cys and TPPS 4 because both, (CdSe/ZnS)Cys and TPPS 4 , are negatively charged. We suppose that TPPS 4 porphyrin interacts directly with QD (ZnS) shell, reducing the dangling bound number. This reduction decreases, in turn, the probability of nonradiative ways of the excitation energy dissipation. When the majority of dangling bound is occupied by the TPPS 4 molecules, the effect of QD luminescence reduction (quenching) by porphyrin predominates, probably, via the energy transfer from QD to TPPS 4 . However, because of complexity in the systems involving

  15. Quality Assurance Analysis of a Large Multicenter Practice: Does Increased Complexity of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Lead to Increased Error Frequency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Adam C.; Wegner, Rodney E.; Scicutella, Carol; Heron, Dwight E.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Huq, M. Saiful; Bednarz, Gregory; Flickinger, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Error reduction is an important concern in clinical medicine. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is an important advancement in radiation oncology that increases the complexity of treatment, potentially increasing the error risk. We studied the frequency and severity of errors in a large multicenter practice to ascertain the impact of quality improvement interventions over time, IMRT, and type of practice. Methods and Materials: We analyzed prospective data from three academic and 16 community practice sites with 24,775 courses of radiotherapy (9,210 IMRT courses and 15,565 non-IMRT) between January 2006 and December 2009. All IMRT treatment was performed using one centralized dose planning center for all sites. Results: We prospectively identified various errors or potential errors in 0.14 % vs. 0.40 % of the IMRT vs. non-IMRT courses (13/9,210 vs. 62/15,565, p = 0.0004) and excluding potential errors: 0.03 % for IMRT vs. 0.21% for non-IMRT. We developed the Clinical Radiotherapy Error Severity Scale (CRESS) to classify error severity from 1 to 10, with 1 to 3 for potential or completely correctable errors, 4 to 5 for dose variations 5%. Multivariate analyses of CRESS values, severity >4, and any error (including potential) correlated significantly reduced errors with IMRT (p = 0.0001–0.0024) but found no significant difference between the academic and community practice sites and no change in error frequency over time despite implementation of 39 system-wide policy changes by the centralized quality improvement committee. Conclusions: Despite the increase in complexity with IMRT compared with conventional radiotherapy, it can be delivered with reduced error frequency.

  16. Successful pacing using a batteryless sunlight-powered pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberlin, Andreas; Zurbuchen, Adrian; Schaerer, Jakob; Wagner, Joerg; Walpen, Sébastien; Huber, Christoph; Haeberlin, Heinrich; Fuhrer, Juerg; Vogel, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Today's cardiac pacemakers are powered by batteries with limited energy capacity. As the battery's lifetime ends, the pacemaker needs to be replaced. This surgical re-intervention is costly and bears the risk of complications. Thus, a pacemaker without primary batteries is desirable. The goal of this study was to test whether transcutaneous solar light could power a pacemaker. We used a three-step approach to investigate the feasibility of sunlight-powered cardiac pacing. First, the harvestable power was estimated. Theoretically, a subcutaneously implanted 1 cm(2) solar module may harvest ∼2500 µW from sunlight (3 mm implantation depth). Secondly, ex vivo measurements were performed with solar cells placed under pig skin flaps exposed to a solar simulator and real sunlight. Ex vivo measurements under real sunlight resulted in a median output power of 4941 µW/cm(2) [interquartile range (IQR) 3767-5598 µW/cm(2), median skin flap thickness 3.0 mm (IQR 2.7-3.3 mm)]. The output power strongly depended on implantation depth (ρSpearman = -0.86, P pacemaker powered by a 3.24 cm(2) solar module was implanted in vivo in a pig to measure output power and to pace. In vivo measurements showed a median output power of >3500 µW/cm(2) (skin flap thickness 2.8-3.84 mm). Successful batteryless VVI pacing using a subcutaneously implanted solar module was performed. Based on our results, we estimate that a few minutes of direct sunlight (irradiating an implanted solar module) allow powering a pacemaker for 24 h using a suitable energy storage. Thus, powering a pacemaker by sunlight is feasible and may be an alternative energy supply for tomorrow's pacemakers. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Moderate-intensity interval training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and decreases inflammation in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Zeligowska, E; Mencel, J; Jaskolski, A; Jaskolska, A; Marusiak, J

    2014-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that physical training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy people. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of physical training on the basal serum level of the BDNF in the Parkinson's disease patients (PD patients) in relation to their health status. Twelve PD patients (mean ± S.E.M: age 70 ± 3 years; body mass 70 ± 2 kg; height 163 ± 3 cm) performed a moderate-intensity interval training (three 1-hour training sessions weekly), lasting 8 weeks. Basal serum BDNF in the PD patients before training amounted to 10,977 ± 756 pg x mL(-1) and after 8 weeks of training it has increased to 14,206 ± 1256 pg x mL(-1) (i.e. by 34%, P=0.03). This was accompanied by an attenuation of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (P=0.01). The training resulted also in a decrease of basal serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) (P=0.001) and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.03) levels. We have concluded that the improvement of health status of the Parkinson's disease patients after training could be related to the increase of serum BDNF level caused by the attenuated inflammation in those patients.

  18. Photolytic debromination pathway of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hexane by sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hua; Zou, Yonghong; Li, An; Christensen, Erik R.; Rockne, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify the photolytic debromination pathways of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Thirteen PBDEs (BDEs 209, 208, 207, 206, 196, 183, 154, 153, 100, 99, 85, 47 and 28) in hexane were individually exposed to sunlight for up to 64 h. A total of 180 PBDEs were screened and 74 BDE debromination products were detected. The disappearance rate constant increased exponentially with increasing number of bromines. While no evident difference in debromination preference among ortho, meta and para bromines was found for heavier congeners, the vulnerability rank order was meta ≥ ortho > para for the lighter congeners (≤8 Br). The total molar mass of PBDEs continuously decreased during sunlight exposure, indicating PBDEs were transformed to non-PBDE compounds. A stochastic least squares debromination pathway model was developed to simulate the reactions and determine the yields to extend the results beyond the experimental observations. -- Highlights: ► 74 PBDEs are identified as the products of debromination via photolysis. ► Debromination is more likely at meta than para positions for PBDEs with ≤8 bromines. ► The stochastic least squares model results agree with and expand the experimental observations. ► Mass imbalance indicates a significant loss of PBDE mass during sunlight exposure. -- The PBDE debromination products and pathways identified in this work will assist in future studies on their environmental fate

  19. Increased Brain Glucose Uptake After 12 Weeks of Aerobic High-Intensity Interval Training in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew M; Lowe, Val J; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training can increase brain volume and blood flow, but the impact on brain metabolism is less known. We determined whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases brain metabolism by measuring brain glucose uptake in younger and older adults. Brain glucose uptake was measured before and after HIIT or a sedentary (SED) control period within a larger exercise study. Study procedures were performed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Participants were younger (18 to 30 years) or older (65 to 80 years) SED adults who were free of major medical conditions. Group sizes were 15 for HIIT (nine younger and six older) and 12 for SED (six younger and six older). Participants completed 12 weeks of HIIT or SED. HIIT was 3 days per week of 4 × 4 minute intervals at over 90% of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) with 2 days per week of treadmill walking at 70% VO2peak. Resting brain glucose uptake was measured using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at baseline and at week 12. Scans were performed at 96 hours after exercise. VO2peak was measured by indirect calorimetry. Glucose uptake increased significantly in the parietal-temporal and caudate regions after HIIT compared with SED. The gains with HIIT were not observed in all brain regions. VO2peak was increased for all participants after HIIT and did not change with SED. We demonstrate that brain glucose metabolism increased after 12 weeks of HIIT in adults in regions where it is reduced in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  20. Sunlight and Vitamin D: A global perspective for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences.

  1. Captopril increases the intensity of monocyte infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and induces human T helper type 17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho dos Santos, J S; Menezes, C A S; Villani, F N A; Magalhães, L M D; Scharfstein, J; Gollob, K J; Dutra, W O

    2010-12-01

    The anti-hypertensive drug captopril is used commonly to reduce blood pressure of patients with severe forms of Chagas disease, a cardiomyopathy caused by chronic infection with the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Captopril acts by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the vasopressor metallopeptidase that generates angiotensin II and promotes the degradation of bradykinin (BK). Recent studies in mice models of Chagas disease indicated that captopril can potentiate the T helper type 1 (Th1)-directing natural adjuvant property of BK. Equipped with kinin-releasing cysteine proteases, T. cruzi trypomastigotes were shown previously to invade non-professional phagocytic cells, such as human endothelial cells and murine cardiomyocytes, through the signalling of G protein-coupled bradykinin receptors (B(2) KR). Monocytes are also parasitized by T. cruzi and these cells are known to be important for the host immune response during infection. Here we showed that captopril increases the intensity of T. cruzi infection of human monocytes in vitro. The increased parasitism was accompanied by up-regulated expression of ACE in human monocytes. While T. cruzi infection increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 by monocytes significantly, compared to uninfected cells, T. cruzi infection in association with captopril down-modulated IL-10 expression by the monocytes. Surprisingly, studies with peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that addition of the ACE inhibitor in association with T. cruzi increased expression of IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells in a B(2) KR-dependent manner. Collectively, our results suggest that captopril might interfere with host-parasite equilibrium by enhancing infection of monocytes, decreasing the expression of the modulatory cytokine IL-10, while guiding development of the proinflammatory Th17 subset. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2010 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sunlight-enhanced catalytic degradation over Ag–CuO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Herein, we report sunlight-activated photo-catalysis response of direct current radio frequency (DC/RF)-sputtered Ag–CuO nanoparticles thin films.We have adopted this approach for facile removal and easy recovery of thin filmsafter use. Ag was incorporated at 2.5 and 5.4 wt% with reference to pure CuO. Structural ...

  4. Effect of sunlight, transport and storage vessels on drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sunlight, transport and storage vessels on drinking water quality in rural Ghana. ... on drinking water quality in rural Ghana. K Obiri-Danso, E Amevor, LA Andoh, K Jones ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Electricity from Sunlight: The Future of Photovoltaics. Worldwatch Paper 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    Solar photovoltaic cells have been called the ultimate energy technology, environmentally benign and without moving parts, solar cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic energy conversion is fundamentally different from all other forms of electricity generation. Without turbines, generators or other mechanical equipment, it…

  6. Effect of sunlight shielding on leaf structure and amino acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Light sensitive albino tea cultivar 'Jinguang' (Camellia sinensis) which grows albinism leaf in yellow colour, results to high level of amino acids but low levels of photosynthetic pigments including chlorophylls, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, phytoxanthin and β-carotene when it is exposed to high sunlight illumination in the ...

  7. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  8. Turning Sunlight into Electricity-Inorganic Solar Cells and Beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Turning Sunlight into Electricity - Inorganic Solar Cells and Beyond. A K Shukla. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1294-1302. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Low-intensity training increases peak arm VO2 by enhancing both convective and diffusive O2 delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Ara, I; Gnaiger, E

    2014-01-01

    in prolonged low-intensity training of a small muscle group when the cardiac output capacity is not directly limiting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative roles of circulatory and muscle metabolic mechanisms by which prolonged low-intensity exercise training alters regional muscle VO2 ....

  10. Concentration of phenolic compounds is increased in lettuce grown under high light intensity and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Usue; Sgherri, Cristina; Miranda-Apodaca, Jon; Micaelli, Francesco; Lacuesta, Maite; Mena-Petite, Amaia; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Muñoz-Rueda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The present study was focused on lettuce, a widely consumed leafy vegetable for the large number of healthy phenolic compounds. Two differently-pigmented lettuce cultivars, i.e. an acyanic-green leaf cv. and an anthocyanic-red one, were grown under high light intensity or elevated CO 2 or both in order to evaluate how environmental conditions may affect the production of secondary phenolic metabolites and, thus, lettuce quality. Mild light stress imposed for a short time under ambient or elevated CO 2 concentration increased phenolics compounds as well as antioxidant capacity in both lettuce cvs, indicating how the cultivation practice could enhance the health-promoting benefits of lettuce. The phenolic profile depended on pigmentation and the anthocyanic-red cv. always maintained a higher phenolic amount as well as antioxidant capacity than the acyanic-green one. In particular, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, kaempferol, quercitrin and rutin accumulated under high light or high CO 2 in the anthocyanic-red cv., whereas cyanidin derivatives were responsive to mild light stress, both at ambient and elevated CO 2 . In both cvs total free and conjugated phenolic acids maintained higher values under all altered environmental conditions, whereas luteolin reached significant amounts when both stresses were administered together, indicating, in this last case, that the enzymatic regulation of the flavonoid synthesis could be differently affected, the synthesis of flavones being favored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sudden Intensity Increases and Radial Gradient Changes of Cosmic Ray Mev Electrons and Protons Observed at Voyager 1 Beyond 111 AU in the Heliosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, W. R.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Heikkila, B.; Lal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Voyager 1 has entered regions of different propagation conditions for energetic cosmic rays in the outer heliosheathat a distance of about 111 AU from the Sun. The low energy 614 MeV galactic electron intensity increased by 20over a time period 10 days and the electron radial intensity gradient abruptly decreased from 19AU to 8AU at2009.7 at a radial distance of 111.2 AU. At about 2011.2 at a distance of 116.6 AU a second abrupt intensity increase of25 was observed for electrons. After the second sudden electron increase the radial intensity gradient increased to18AU. This large positive gradient and the 13 day periodic variations of 200 MeV particles observed near theend of 2011 indicate that V1 is still within the overall heliospheric modulating region. The implications of these resultsregarding the proximity of the heliopause are discussed.

  12. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater horizon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Phoebe Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Chen, Huan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Podgorski, David C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Future Fuels Institute, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); McKenna, Amy M. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Tarr, Matthew A., E-mail: mtarr@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Sunlight oxygenates petroleum. - Highlights: • Oxidation seen in water-soluble oil fraction after exposure to simulated sunlight. • Oxygen addition occurred across a wide range of carbon number and DBE. • Oil compounds were susceptible to addition of multiple oxygens to each molecule. • Results provide understanding of fate of oil on water after exposure to sunlight. - Abstract: In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid–liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O{sub 5}), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O{sub 2}). Higher-order oxygen classes (O{sub 5}–O{sub 9}) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N{sub 1}) concurrent with an increased abundance of N{sub 1}O{sub x} classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher

  13. Effects of low intensity pulsed ultrasound with and without increased cortical porosity on structural bone allograft incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrhart Nicole

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though used for over a century, structural bone allografts suffer from a high rate of mechanical failure due to limited graft revitalization even after extended periods in vivo. Novel strategies that aim to improve graft incorporation are lacking but necessary to improve the long-term clinical outcome of patients receiving bone allografts. The current study evaluated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS, a potent exogenous biophysical stimulus used clinically to accelerate the course of fresh fracture healing, and longitudinal allograft perforations (LAP as non-invasive therapies to improve revitalization of intercalary allografts in a sheep model. Methods Fifteen skeletally-mature ewes were assigned to five experimental groups based on allograft type and treatment: +CTL, -CTL, LIPUS, LAP, LIPUS+LAP. The +CTL animals (n = 3 received a tibial ostectomy with immediate replacement of the resected autologous graft. The -CTL group (n = 3 received fresh frozen ovine tibial allografts. The +CTL and -CTL groups did not receive LAP or LIPUS treatments. The LIPUS treatment group (n = 3, following grafting with fresh frozen ovine tibial allografts, received ultrasound stimulation for 20 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for the duration of the healing period. The LAP treatment group (n = 3 received fresh frozen ovine allografts with 500 μm longitudinal perforations that extended 10 mm into the graft. The LIPUS+LAP treatment group (n = 3 received both LIPUS and LAP interventions. All animals were humanely euthanized four months following graft transplantation for biomechanical and histological analysis. Results After four months of healing, daily LIPUS stimulation of the host-allograft junctions, alone or in combination with LAP, resulted in 30% increases in reconstruction stiffness, paralleled by significant increases (p Conclusion The current study has demonstrated in a large animal model the potential of both LIPUS and LAP

  14. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA (p = .048) at 2 hr after exercise compared to placebo. In summary

  15. Leaf area index estimation in a pine plantation with LAI-2000 under direct sunlight conditions: relationship with inventory and hydrologic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, A.; Campo, A. D. del

    2011-01-01

    LAI is a key factor in light and rainfall interception processes in forest stands and, for this reason, is called to play an important role in global change adaptive silviculture. Therefore, it is necessary to develop practical and operative methodologies to measure this parameter as well as simple relationships with other silviculture variables. This work has studied 1) the feasibility of LAI-2000 sensor in estimating LAI-stand when readings are taken under direct sunlight conditions; and 2) the ability of LAI in studying rainfall partitioned into throughfall (T) in an Aleppo pine stand after different thinning intensities, as well as its relationships to basal area, (G), cover (FCC), and tree density (D). Results showed that the angular correction scheme applied to LAI-2000 direct-sunlight readings stabilized them for different solar angles, allowing a better operational use of LAI-2000 in Mediterranean areas, where uniform overcast conditions are difficult to meet and predict. Forest cover showed the highest predictive ability of LAI (R 2 = 0.98; S = 0.28), then G (R 2 = 0.96; S = 0.43) and D (R 2 = 0.50; S = 0.28). In the hydrological plane, T increased with thinning intensity, being G the most explanatory variable (R 2 = 0.81; S = 3.07) and LAI the one that showed the poorest relation with it (R 2 = 0.69; S = 3.95). These results open a way for forest hydrologic modeling taking LAI as an input variable either estimated form LAI-2000 or deducted from inventory data. (Author) 36 refs.

  16. Intense resistance exercise induces early and transient increases in ryanodine receptor 1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gehlert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1 critically contributes to skeletal muscle contraction abilities by mediating Ca²⁺ion oscillation between sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar compartments, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK senses contraction-induced energetic stress by phosphorylation at Thr¹⁷². Phosphorylation of RyR1 at serine²⁸⁴³ (pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ results in leaky RyR1 channels and impaired Ca²⁺homeostasis. Because acute resistance exercise exerts decreased contraction performance in skeletal muscle, preceded by high rates of Ca²⁺-oscillation and energetic stress, intense myofiber contractions may induce increased RyR1 and AMPK phosphorylation. However, no data are available regarding the time-course and magnitude of early RyR1 and AMPK phosphorylation in human myofibers in response to acute resistance exercise. PURPOSE: Determine the effects and early time-course of resistance exercise on pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and pAMPKThr¹⁷² in type I and II myofibers. METHODS: 7 male subjects (age 23±2 years, height: 185±7 cm, weight: 82±5 kg performed 3 sets of 8 repetitions of maximum eccentric knee extensions. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 15, 30 and 60 min post exercise. pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and pAMPKThr¹⁷² levels were determined by western blot and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry techniques. RESULTS: While total RyR1 and total AMPK levels remained unchanged, RyR1 was significantly more abundant in type II than type I myofibers. pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ increased 15 min and peaked 30 min (p<0.01 post exercise in both myofiber types. Type I fibers showed relatively higher increases in pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ levels than type II myofibers and remained elevated up to 60 min post resistance exercise (p<0.05. pAMPKThr¹⁷² also increased 15 to 30 min post exercise (p<0.01 in type I and II myofibers and in whole skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise induces acutely increased pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and

  17. Sunlight exposure is important for preventing hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, J; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

    2012-04-01

    Hypovitaminosis D as a result of malnutrition or sunlight deprivation, increased bone resorption, low bone mineral density (BMD), or an increased risk of falls may contribute to an increased risk of hip fractures in patients with neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with such neurological diseases. The English literature was searched using PubMed, and randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke were identified. The relative risk and the 95% confidence interval were calculated for individual randomized controlled trials, and a pooled data analysis (meta-analysis) was performed. Three randomized controlled trials were identified. Sunlight exposure improved hypovitaminosis D and increased the BMD. The relative risk (95% confidence interval) of hip fractures was 0.22 (0.05, 1.01) for Alzheimer's disease, 0.27 (0.08, 0.96) for Parkinson's disease, and 0.17 (0.02, 1.36) for stroke. The relative risk (95% confidence interval) calculated for the pooled data analysis was 0.23 (0.10, 0.56) (P = 0.0012), suggesting a significant risk reduction rate of 77%. The present meta-analysis added additional evidence indicating the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Natural sunlight bleaching of the aluminum center in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Yin Gongming; Han Kongyan; Bao Jifei; Liu Jingwei; Jia Li

    2007-01-01

    The effect of sunlight bleaching on ESR signals from the aluminum center in quartz is reported for two samples of sand-sized quartz, one from a granite and one from a beach sand. The grains were exposed to direct sunlight for periods of time up to 500 h, with bleaching carried out in four different cities in China that are from 50 to 3600 m above sea level. Each sample bleached to the same residual level, ∼55% for the granite and 80% for the beach sand of the initial value after a 200 Gy dose had been given. After 200 h, the bleaching level reached was independent of the height above sea level

  19. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  20. Increasing physical activity for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program: A community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, S Akeya; Libet, Julian; Pope, Charlene; Lauerer, Joy A; Johnson, Emily; Edlund, Barbara J

    2018-04-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), experience increased mortality-20 years greater disparity for men and 15 years greater disparity for women-compared to the general population (Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442). Numerous factors contribute to premature mortality in persons with SMI, including suicide and accidental death (Richardson RC, Faulkner G, McDevitt J, Skrinar GS, Hutchinson D, Piette JD. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(3):324-331; Thornicroft G. Physical health disparities and mental illness: The scandal of premature mortality. Br J Psychiatr. 2011;199:441-442), but research has shown that adverse health behaviors-including smoking, low rate of physical activity, poor diet, and high alcohol consumption-also significantly contribute to premature deaths (Jones J. Life expectancy in mental illness. Psychiatry Services. 2010. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/07/13/life-expectancy-in-mental-illness). This quality improvement (QI) project sought to improve health and wellness for veterans in the Mental Health Intensive Case Management Program (MHICM), which is a community-based intensive program for veterans with SMI at risk for decompensation and frequent hospitalizations. At the time of this QI project, the program had 69 veterans who were assessed and treated weekly in their homes. The project introduced a pedometer steps intervention adapted from the VA MOVE! Program-a physical activity and weight management program-with the addition of personalized assistance from trained mental health professionals in the veteran's home environment. Because a large percentage of the veterans in the MHICM program had high blood pressure and increased weight, these outcomes were the focus of this project. Through mental health case management involvement and

  1. Purification and Concentration of PCR Products Leads to Increased Signal intensities with Fewer Allelic Drop-Outs and Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria Irlund Pedersen, Line; Stangegaard, Michael; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2011-01-01

    and the quality of the DNA profiles without re-amplification of the sample. We have validated and implemented an automated method to purify and 2-fold concentrate PCR products resulting in allelic peaks with higher intensity (a median height across all loci from 130 to 404 RFU), fewer allelic dropouts...

  2. Photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment by sunlight and UV-A, -B and -C irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Kohei; Sugihara, Kazumi; Sanoh, Seigo; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of sunlight on the persistence and ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals contaminating the aquatic environment, we exposed nine pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen (AA), amiodarone (AM), dapsone (DP), dexamethasone (DX), indomethacin (IM), naproxen (NP), phenytoin (PH), raloxifene (RL), and sulindac (SL)) in aqueous media to sunlight and to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254, 302 or 365 nm (UV-C, UV-B or UV-A, respectively). Degradation of the pharmaceuticals was monitored by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sunlight completely degraded AM, DP and DX within 6 hr, and partly degraded the other pharmaceuticals, except AA and PH, which were not degraded. Similar results were obtained with UV-B, while UV-A was less effective (both UV-A and -B are components of sunlight). All the pharmaceuticals were photodegraded by UV-C, which is used for sterilization in sewage treatment plants. Thus, the photodegradation rates of pharmaceuticals are dependent on both chemical structure and the wavelength of UV exposure. Toxicity assay using the luminescent bacteria test (ISO11348) indicated that UV irradiation reduced the toxicity of some pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms by decreasing their amount (photodegradation) and increased the toxicity of others by generating toxic photoproduct(s). These results indicate the importance of investigating not only parent compounds, but also photoproducts in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments.

  3. Sunlight Induced Rapid Oil Absorption and Passive Room-Temperature Release: An Effective Solution toward Heavy Oil Spill Cleanup

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Mengchun

    2018-05-18

    Rapid cleanup and easy recovery of spilled heavy oils is always a great challenge due to their high viscosity (>103 mPa s). One of the efficient methods to absorb highly viscous oils is to reduce their viscosity by increasing their temperature. In this work, the authors integrate the sunlight‐induced light‐to‐heat conversion effect of polypyrrole (PPy) and thermoresponsive property of poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) into the melamine sponge, which successfully delivers a fast heavy oil absorption under sunlight and passive oil release underwater at room temperature. Thanks to the rationally designed functionalities, the PNIPAm/PPy functionalized sponges possess oleophilicity and hydrophobicity under sunlight. Due to the photothermal effect of PPy, the sponges locally heat up contacting heavy oil under sunlight and reduce its viscosity to a point where the oil voluntarily flow into the pores of the sponge. The material in this work is able to rapidly absorb the heavy oil with room temperature viscosity as high as ≈1.60 × 105 mPa s. The absorbed oil can be passively forced out the sponge underwater at room temperature due to the hydrophilicity of PNIPAm. The sunlight responsive and multifunctional sponge represents a meaningful attempt in coming up with a sustainable solution toward heavy oil spill.

  4. Sunlight Induced Rapid Oil Absorption and Passive Room-Temperature Release: An Effective Solution toward Heavy Oil Spill Cleanup

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Mengchun; Shi, Yusuf; Chang, Jian; Li, Renyuan; Ong, Chi Siang; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Rapid cleanup and easy recovery of spilled heavy oils is always a great challenge due to their high viscosity (>103 mPa s). One of the efficient methods to absorb highly viscous oils is to reduce their viscosity by increasing their temperature. In this work, the authors integrate the sunlight‐induced light‐to‐heat conversion effect of polypyrrole (PPy) and thermoresponsive property of poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) into the melamine sponge, which successfully delivers a fast heavy oil absorption under sunlight and passive oil release underwater at room temperature. Thanks to the rationally designed functionalities, the PNIPAm/PPy functionalized sponges possess oleophilicity and hydrophobicity under sunlight. Due to the photothermal effect of PPy, the sponges locally heat up contacting heavy oil under sunlight and reduce its viscosity to a point where the oil voluntarily flow into the pores of the sponge. The material in this work is able to rapidly absorb the heavy oil with room temperature viscosity as high as ≈1.60 × 105 mPa s. The absorbed oil can be passively forced out the sponge underwater at room temperature due to the hydrophilicity of PNIPAm. The sunlight responsive and multifunctional sponge represents a meaningful attempt in coming up with a sustainable solution toward heavy oil spill.

  5. Bacterial growth in humic waters exposed to UV-radiation and simulated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corin, N.; Backlund, P.; Wiklund, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sterile filtered (0.45 mu m) humic lake water was exposed to simulated sunlight (300-800 nm) or W-radiation (254 run)for various periods of times and the dissolved organic carbon content, absorbance at 254 and 460 nm and PH were recorded. The irradiated water was inoculated with a natural bacterial...... assemblage and the number of viable bacteria war estimated 3 and 5 days after the inoculation using the plate count technique. The number of viable bacteria increased with the irradiation time indicating that the chemical changes of the humus macromolecules observed during irradiation resulted...

  6. Effect of grape bunch sunlight exposure and UV radiation on phenolics and volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianqiang; Smart, Richard; Wang, Hua; Dambergs, Bob; Sparrow, Angela; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-15

    The effect of canopy leaf removal and ultraviolet (UV) on Pinot noir grape and wine composition was investigated in this study. Limited basal leaf removal in the fruit zone was conducted, compared to shaded bunches. The UV exposure was controlled using polycarbonate screens to block UV radiation, and acrylic screens to pass the UV. The results showed that bunch sunlight and UV exposure significantly increased the Brix and pH in the grape juice, and increased substantially wine colour density, anthocyanins, total pigment, total phenolics and tannin content. Bunch sunlight and UV exposure affected terpene alcohols, C13-norisprenoids and other volatile composition of the wine differently. Sunlight exposure and UV resulted in increase of nerol, geraniol and citronellol but not linalool. Sunlight exposure slightly increased the concentration of β-ionone, but the increase was not statistically significant for UV treatment. Neither sunlight nor UV treatment showed any impact on the concentration of β-damascenone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between solar activity and the H and K line cores in integrated sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebsen, D.E.; Mitchell, W.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the authors present and analyze new data on the cores of the H and K lines of ionized calcium in the spectrum of integrated sunlight. The intensities of the components Hsub(2γ), H 3 , Hsub(2r), Ksub(2γ), K 3 , and Ksub(2r) in the line cores were measured in terms of the continuum intensity at 4000 A during a solar rotation in September 1969. Other data on these components, obtained at or close to the time of solar minimum (September 1964) and solar maximum (September 1968), were also included. The intensities of these features are compared with two indices of solar activity: the Ca II plage index and the 2800 MHZ signal. The average correlation coefficients between the intensities of the measured features and those indices were 0.69 and 0.64, respectively. The results are consistent with those of Bumba and Ruzickova-Topolova (1967) for a solar rotation period in 1965. The method and results should provide a detailed quantitative basis for the study of the activity cycles and rotation periods of solar-type stars. (Auth.)

  8. Telehealth, Wearable Sensors, and the Internet: Will They Improve Stroke Outcomes Through Increased Intensity of Therapy, Motivation, and Adherence to Rehabilitation Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Jane H; Lee, Alan Chong W; Turk, Ruth; Stokes, Maria; Whitall, Jill; Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Clatworthy, Phil; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Meagher, Claire; Franco, Enrico; Yardley, Lucy

    2017-07-01

    Stroke, predominantly a condition of older age, is a major cause of acquired disability in the global population and puts an increasing burden on health care resources. Clear evidence for the importance of intensity of therapy in optimizing functional outcomes is found in animal models, supported by neuroimaging and behavioral research, and strengthened by recent meta-analyses from multiple clinical trials. However, providing intensive therapy using conventional treatment paradigms is expensive and sometimes not feasible because of social and environmental factors. This article addresses the need for cost-effective increased intensity of practice and suggests potential benefits of telehealth (TH) as an innovative model of care in physical therapy. We provide an overview of TH and present evidence that a web-supported program, used in conjunction with constraint-induced therapy (CIT), can increase intensity and adherence to a rehabilitation regimen. The design and feasibility testing of this web-based program, "LifeCIT," is presented. We describe how wearable sensors can monitor activity and provide feedback to patients and therapists. The methodology for the development of a wearable device with embedded inertial and mechanomyographic sensors, algorithms to classify functional movement, and a graphical user interface to present meaningful data to patients to support a home exercise program is explained. We propose that wearable sensor technologies and TH programs have the potential to provide most-effective, intensive, home-based stroke rehabilitation.

  9. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zoratti

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L. and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L..The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness.The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period.Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  10. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  11. Use of sunlight to degrade oxytetracycline in marine aquaculture's waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, J.F.; Esteves, V.I.; Santos, E.B.H.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic authorized for use in European aquaculture. Its photo-degradation has been widely studied in synthetic aqueous solutions, sometimes resorting to expensive methods and without proven effectiveness in natural waters. Thus, this work studied the possibility to apply the solar photo-degradation for removal of OTC from marine aquaculture's waters. For that, water samples were collected at different locals of the water treatment circuit, from two different aquaculture companies. Water samples were firstly characterized regarding to pH, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), organic carbon and UV–Vis spectroscopic characteristics. Then, the samples were spiked with OTC and irradiated using simulated sunlight in order to evaluate the matrix effects on OTC photo-degradation. From kinetic results, the apparent quantum yields and the outdoor half-life times, at 40°N for midsummer and midwinter days were estimated by the first time for these conditions. For a midsummer day, at sea level, the outdoor half-life time predicted for OTC in these aquaculture's waters ranged between 21 and 25 min. Additionally, the pH and salinity effects on the OTC photo-degradation were evaluated and it has been shown that high pH values and the presence of sea salt increase the OTC photo-degradation rate in aquaculture's waters, compared to results in deionised water. The results are very promising to apply this low-cost methodology using the natural sunlight in aquaculture's waters to remove OTC. - Highlights: • Oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of the most used antibiotics in aquaculture. • OTC photolysis in marine aquaculture's water is faster than in deionised water. • The sunlight radiation quickly remove the OTC from aquaculture's water. • Outdoor half-life for a midsummer day is 21–25 min in aquaculture's water. • High pH's and salinities increase the OTC photo-degradation. - This work

  12. Dissolved organic carbon biodegradability from thawing permafrost stimulated by sunlight rather than inorganic nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Chen, L.; Zhang, B.; Wang, G.; Qin, S.; Yang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost thaw could result in a large portion of frozen carbon being laterally transferred to aquatic ecosystems as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). During this delivery process, the size of biodegradable DOC (BDOC) determines the proportion of DOC mineralized by microorganisms and associated carbon loss to the atmosphere, which may further trigger positive carbon-climate feedback. Thermokarst is an abrupt permafrost thaw process that can enhance DOC export and also impact DOC processing through increased inorganic nitrogen (N) and sunlight exposure. However, it remains unclear how thermokarst-impacted BDOC responds to inorganic N addition and ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. Here we explored the responses of DOC concentration, composition and its biodegradability to inorganic N and UV light in a typical thermokarst on the Tibetan Plateau, by combining field observation and laboratory incubation with spectra analyses (UV-visible absorption and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra) and parallel factor analyses. Our results showed that BDOC in thermokarst feature outflows was significantly higher than in reference water. Furthermore, inorganic N addition had no influence on thermokarst-impacted BDOC, whereas exposure to UV light significantly increased BDOC by as much as 2.3 times higher than the dark-control. Moreover, N addition and UV irradiation did not generate additive effects on BDOC. These results imply that sunlight rather than inorganic N can increase thermokarst-derived BDOC, potentially strengthening the positive permafrost carbon-climate feedback.

  13. Technical-economic feasibility of orbiting sunlight reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferov, Z.; Minin, V.

    1986-02-01

    The use of deflectors in orbit as a means of providing artificial illumination is examined. Considerations of technical and economic feasibility are addressed. Three main areas of application are distinguished: reflecting sunlight onto the surface of the Earth; concentration of the flow of solar energy on an orbiting receiver; and retransmission of optical radiation. The advantages of the artificial Earth illumination application of the orbiting reflector scheme in terms of energy savings in lighting cities, and additional daylight time for critical periods of farming operations are discussed.

  14. Adipositas ikke associeret med øget mortalitet ved kritisk sygdom og intensiv terapi [Obesity is not associated with an increased mortality in critical disease and intensive care.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Palle; Lange, Britt

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The mortality and morbidity among obese intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been a matter of concern. Most of the retrospective studies performed have yielded contradictory results. Recently, two large prospective studies showed that respiratory failure......, length of mechanical ventilation and ICU acquired infections were increased in obese patients. Obesity was, however, not associated with increased mortality. The results were confirmed by a meta-analysis which showed that obesity was associated with increased morbidity but not with increased mortality...

  15. Exercise increases sphingoid base-1-phosphate levels in human blood and skeletal muscle in a time- and intensity-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranowski, Marcin; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Charmas, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates cardiovascular function and plays an important role in muscle biology. We have previously reported that cycling exercise increased plasma S1P. Here, we investigated the effect of exercise duration and intensity on plasma and skeletal muscle S1P lev...

  16. Degradation of emerging contaminants from water under natural sunlight: The effect of season, pH, humic acids and nitrate and identification of photodegradation by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumaki, Elena; Mamais, Daniel; Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Nika, Maria-Christina; Bletsou, Anna A; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Eftaxias, Alexander; Stratogianni, Georgia

    2015-11-01

    Both photodegradation and hydrolysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were investigated in order to evaluate their photochemical fate in aquatic environment and to assess the effect of season and specific characteristics of water (pH, humic acids and nitrate concentration) on the removal of target EDCs and NSAIDs through photodegradation. An additional objective was the identification of the photodegradation by-products of specific NSAIDs and their dependence on irradiation time. Selected compounds' transformation was investigated under natural sunlight radiation while control experiments were conducted in the dark. As expected, most of compounds' degradation rate decreased with decreasing light intensity between two different experimental periods. Most of the tested compounds exhibited different rates of degradation during direct and indirect photolysis. The degradation rate of the selected compounds increased in the presence of NO3(-) and the photodegradation rate was higher for some compounds in alkaline than in acidic solution. The effect of humic acids' presence in the water depends on the absorbance spectrum of the compound and the produced photosensitizers. More specifically, humic acids act as inner filter toward most of the selected NSAIDs and as photosensitizers toward most of the EDCs. The results of the irradiation experiments in the presence of both humic acids and NO3(-), indicate that the direct photolysis is much more efficient than indirect photochemical processes. Finally, several degradation by-products of ketoprofen and diclofenac were identified in the samples, exposed to sunlight. The dependence of these by-products on radiation time is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity associated with disability progression in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hooghe, M B; Haentjens, P; Nagels, G; Garmyn, M; De Keyser, J

    2012-04-01

    Sunlight and vitamin D have been inversely associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity in relation to disability progression in MS. We conducted a survey among persons with MS, registered by the Flemish MS society, Belgium, and stratified data according to relapsing-onset and progressive-onset MS. We used Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses with time to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 6 as outcome measure. Hazard ratios for the time from onset and from birth were calculated for the potentially predictive variables, adjusting for age at onset, gender and immunomodulatory treatment. 704 (51.3%) of the 1372 respondents had reached EDSS 6. In relapsing-onset MS, respondents reporting equal or higher levels of sun exposure than persons of the same age in the last 10 years had a decreased risk of reaching EDSS 6. In progressive-onset MS, increased sun sensitivity was associated with an increased hazard of reaching EDSS 6. The association of higher sun exposure with a better outcome in relapsing-onset MS may be explained by either a protective effect or reverse causality. Mechanisms underlying sun sensitivity might influence progression in progressive-onset MS.

  18. Increased signal intensity within glioblastoma resection cavities on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging to detect early progressive disease in patients receiving radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Luke A. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Erickson, Bradley J. [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Agrawal, Jay P. [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Department of Radiology, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Our study tested the diagnostic accuracy of increased signal intensity (SI) within FLAIR MR images of resection cavities in differentiating early progressive disease (ePD) from pseudoprogression (PsP) in patients with glioblastoma treated with radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide therapy. In this retrospective study approved by our Institutional Review Board, we evaluated the records of 122 consecutive patients with partially or totally resected glioblastoma. Region of interest (ROI) analysis assessed 33 MR examinations from 11 subjects with histologically confirmed ePD and 37 MR examinations from 14 subjects with PsP (5 histologically confirmed, 9 clinically diagnosed). After applying an N4 bias correction algorithm to remove B0 field distortion and to standardize image intensities and then normalizing the intensities based on an ROI of uninvolved white matter from the contralateral hemisphere, the mean intensities of the ROI from within the resection cavities were calculated. Measures of diagnostic performance were calculated from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve using the threshold intensity that maximized differentiation. Subgroup analysis explored differences between the patients with biopsy-confirmed disease. At an optimal threshold intensity of 2.9, the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for FLAIR to differentiate ePD from PsP was 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.686-0.873) with a sensitivity of 0.818 and specificity of 0.694. The AUROC increased to 0.86 when only the patients with biopsy-confirmed PsP were considered. Increased SI within the resection cavity of FLAIR images is not a highly specific sign of ePD in glioblastoma patients treated with the Stupp protocol. (orig.)

  19. Effect of exposure to sunlight and phosphorus-limitation on bacterial degradation of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Theis; Søndergaard, Morten; Tranvik, Lars

    2008-05-01

    This study reports on the interacting effect of photochemical conditioning of dissolved organic matter and inorganic phosphorus on the metabolic activity of bacteria in freshwater. Batch cultures with lake-water bacteria and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) extracted from a humic boreal river were arranged in an experimental matrix of three levels of exposure to simulated sunlight and three levels of phosphorus concentration. We measured an increase in bacterial biomass, a decrease in DOC and bacterial respiration as CO(2) production and O(2) consumption over 450 h. These measurements were used to calculate bacterial growth efficiency (BGE). Bacterial degradation of DOC increased with increasing exposure to simulated sunlight and availability of phosphorus and no detectable growth occurred on DOC that was not pre-exposed to simulated sunlight. The outcome of photochemical degradation of DOC changed with increasing availability of phosphorus, resulting in an increase in BGE from about 5% to 30%. Thus, the availability of phosphorus has major implications for the quantitative transfer of carbon in microbial food webs.

  20. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Mat...

  1. Repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol does not lead to increased signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images - a voxel-based whole brain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Soenke; Kromrey, Marie-Luise [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); University Hospital, Carl Gustav Carus University Dresden, Institute for Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Grothe, Matthias [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Neurology, Greifswald (Germany); Domin, Martin [University Medicine Greifswald, Functional Imaging Unit, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    To identify a possible association between repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol and increased signal intensity in the grey and white matter using voxel-based whole-brain analysis. In this retrospective single-centre study, 217 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging and at least one annual follow-up examination with intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of gadobutrol. Using the ''Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra'' (DARTEL) normalisation process, tissue templates for grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were calculated, as were GM-CSF and WM-CSF ratios. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis was used to calculate the signal intensity for each voxel in each data set. Paired t-test was applied to test differences to baseline MRI for significance. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis demonstrated no significant changes in signal intensity of grey and white matter after up to five gadobutrol administrations. There was no significant change in GM-CSF and grey WM-CSF ratios. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis did not demonstrate increased signal intensity of GM and WM on unenhanced T1-weighted images after repeated gadobutrol administration. The molecular structure of gadolinium-based contrast agent preparations may be an essential factor causing SI increase on unenhanced T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  2. Bleaching of the thermoluminescence of feldspars by sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, G.B.; Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Feldspars are an important component of materials used for thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) dating of sediments; and successful dating implies a knowledge of the degree of re-setting by exposure to sunlight of the stored luminescence energy. We have studied the bleaching by full sunlight of the TL of six alkali feldspars of representative composition and of one oligoclase. The high potassium and high sodium feldspars are the brightest, and are also the least easily bleached, whereas those of intermediate (K-Na) composition bleach quickly. On a time scale of upwards of 16 h, all samples would have bleached enough for them to be useful for TL dating. A search was made for individual glow curve peaks that bleach particularly quickly (and are thus similar to the well-known 325 o C peak used in the TL dating of quartz). In the samples studied, there was only one glow curve peak that was selectively susceptible to bleaching: the 280 o C peak in oligoclase. (author)

  3. Can Skin Exposure to Sunlight Prevent Liver Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Gorman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Liver inflammation contributes towards the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Here we discuss how skin exposure to sunlight may suppress liver inflammation and the severity of NAFLD. Following exposure to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation (UVR, the skin releases anti-inflammatory mediators such as vitamin D and nitric oxide. Animal modeling studies suggest that exposure to UVR can prevent the development of NAFLD. Association studies also support a negative link between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and NAFLD incidence or severity. Clinical trials are in their infancy and are yet to demonstrate a clear beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation. There are a number of potentially interdependent mechanisms whereby vitamin D could dampen liver inflammation, by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and liver fibrosis, modulating the gut microbiome and through altered production and transport of bile acids. While there has been a focus on vitamin D, other mediators induced by sun exposure, such as nitric oxide may also play important roles in curtailing liver inflammation.

  4. Climate-change driven increase in high intensity rainfall events: Analysis of development in the last decades and towards an extrapolation of future progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eva; Pfister, Angela; Gerd, Büger; Maik, Heistermann; Bronstert, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological extreme events can be triggered by rainfall on different spatiotemporal scales: river floods are typically caused by event durations of between hours and days, while urban flash floods as well as soil erosion or contaminant transport rather result from storms events of very short duration (minutes). Still, the analysis of climate change impacts on rainfall-induced extreme events is usually carried out using daily precipitation data at best. Trend analyses of extreme rainfall at sub-daily or even sub-hourly time scales are rare. In this contribution two lines of research are combined: first, we analyse sub-hourly rainfall data for several decades in three European regions.Second, we investigate the scaling behaviour of heavy short-term precipitation with temperature, i.e. the dependence of high intensity rainfall on the atmospheric temperature at that particular time and location. The trend analysis of high-resolution rainfall data shows for the first time that the frequency of short and intensive storm events in the temperate lowland regions in Germany has increased by up to 0.5 events per year over the last decades. I.e. this trend suggests that the occurrence of these types of storms have multiplied over only a few decades. Parallel to the changes in the rainfall regime, increases in the annual and seasonal average temperature and changes in the occurrence of circulation patterns responsible for the generation of high-intensity storms have been found. The analysis of temporally highly resolved rainfall records from three European regions further indicates that extreme precipitation events are more intense with warmer temperatures during the rainfall event. These observations follow partly the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. Based on this relation one may derive a general rule of maximum rainfall intensity associated to the event temperature, roughly following the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This rule might be used for scenarios of future maximum

  5. Low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation lowers action potential threshold and increases spike firing in layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alexander D; Hong, Ivan; Boddington, Laura J; Garrett, Andrew R; Etherington, Sarah; Reynolds, John N J; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-10-29

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has become a popular method of modulating neural plasticity in humans. Clinically, rTMS is delivered at high intensities to modulate neuronal excitability. While the high-intensity magnetic field can be targeted to stimulate specific cortical regions, areas adjacent to the targeted area receive stimulation at a lower intensity and may contribute to the overall plasticity induced by rTMS. We have previously shown that low-intensity rTMS induces molecular and structural plasticity in vivo, but the effects on membrane properties and neural excitability have not been investigated. Here we investigated the acute effect of low-intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS) on neuronal excitability and potential changes on the passive and active electrophysiological properties of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro. Whole-cell current clamp recordings were made at baseline prior to subthreshold LI-rMS (600 pulses of iTBS, n=9 cells from 7 animals) or sham (n=10 cells from 9 animals), immediately after stimulation, as well as 10 and 20min post-stimulation. Our results show that LI-rMS does not alter passive membrane properties (resting membrane potential and input resistance) but hyperpolarises action potential threshold and increases evoked spike-firing frequency. Increases in spike firing frequency were present throughout the 20min post-stimulation whereas action potential (AP) threshold hyperpolarization was present immediately after stimulation and at 20min post-stimulation. These results provide evidence that LI-rMS alters neuronal excitability of excitatory neurons. We suggest that regions outside the targeted region of high-intensity rTMS are susceptible to neuromodulation and may contribute to rTMS-induced plasticity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimated Cost-Effectiveness of Intensive Interdisciplinary Behavioral Treatment for Increasing Oral Intake in Children With Feeding Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert; Burdo-Hartman, Wendelin; Halpin, Elizabeth; Williams, Carol

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE : To examine the cost-effectiveness of intensive interdisciplinary behavioral treatment (IIBT) to address severe pediatric feeding difficulties and lead to the removal or prevention of gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) from the perspective of the insurance company.  METHODS : Costs associated with G tubes and IIBT were compiled from the available literature and national databases. Costs were updated to price at the start of 2015 to allow data from different years to be analyzed on the same scale.  RESULTS : One-way sensitivity and two-way threshold analyses demonstrated that IIBT may be a cost-effective treatment for prevention and removal of G tubes over 5 and 10 years.  DISCUSSION : Data from this study can be used to justify cost of services for IIBT, and programs can use these data to discuss conservative savings of IIBT based on their treatment model and level of effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Is There Evidence That Active Videogames Increase Energy Expenditure and Exercise Intensity for People Poststroke and with Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Judith E; Guarrera-Bowlby, Phyllis; Myslinski, Mary Jane; Kafri, Michal

    2015-02-01

    This article asked and answered the question of whether there was evidence to support the use of videogames for promotion of wellness and fitness for people poststroke and those with cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PEDro using a population, intervention, and outcome (PIO) approach and the key words "stroke (or CP) AND video games (and synonyms) AND energy expenditure (EE) (and synonyms)" was conducted. It yielded two relevant references for people poststroke and five references for people with CP. The literature extraction and synthesis by the categories of the PIO indicated that most studies used only the population of interest, except two that compared the EE with that of healthy controls. The main finding is that both people poststroke (moderate severity) and people with CP (mild severity) can achieve moderate EE playing Wii(™) (Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan), PlayStation(®) (Sony, Tokyo, Japan), and Kinect(™) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) games. Adults with CP of mild severity played the videogames at vigorous levels, whereas those with severe CP played them at low levels. There appears to be an interaction between development and severity that influences the exercise intensity measured by EE. The findings suggests that videogames are a gateway for wellness promotion.

  8. Pengaruh Suhu Terhadap Tegangan Permukaan Sabun Cuci Piring Cair Buatan Sendiri, Sunlight, Dan S.O.S

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Okio Patar

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the surface tension of homemade liquid dish soap, Sunlight, and SOS was carried out. The temperatures was variated 280C(without heating), 300C, 400C and 500C. The homemade liquid dish soap was prepared by using an active ingredients. The active ingredient of the liquid dishwashing soap were sodium lauryl ether sulphate, sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate, and sodium lauril ether sulfate, respectively. The determination of surface tension was based the increasing of t...

  9. Quantification of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in the urine of Swedish adults and children following exposure to sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Liljendahl, Tove Sandberg; Kotova, Natalia; Segerbäck, Dan

    2012-01-01

    DNA damage following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is important in skin cancer development. The predominant photoproduct, cyclobutane thymine dimer (T=T), is repaired and excreted in the urine, where it provides a biomarker of exposure. To quantify urinary T=T levels after recreational sunlight exposure in adults and children. Average UVR doses were measured with personal dosimeters. Urinary T=T was analysed with (32)P-postlabelling. ResuLTS: Background levels of T=T increased...

  10. Sunlight triggers cutaneous lupus through a CSF-1-dependent mechanism in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Byrne, Katelyn T; Lucas, Julie A; Rabacal, Whitney A; Croker, Byron P; Zong, Xiao-Hua; Stanley, E Richard; Kelley, Vicki R

    2008-11-15

    Sunlight (UVB) triggers cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus through an unknown mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that UVB triggers CLE through a CSF-1-dependent, macrophage (Mø)-mediated mechanism in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. By constructing mutant MRL-Fas(lpr) strains expressing varying levels of CSF-1 (high, intermediate, none), and use of an ex vivo gene transfer to deliver CSF-1 intradermally, we determined that CSF-1 induces CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Fas(lpr) mice, but not in lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. UVB incites an increase in Møs, apoptosis in the skin, and CLE in MRL-Fas(lpr), but not in CSF-1-deficient MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. Furthermore, UVB did not induce CLE in BALB/c mice. Probing further, UVB stimulates CSF-1 expression by keratinocytes leading to recruitment and activation of Møs that, in turn, release mediators, which induce apoptosis in keratinocytes. Thus, sunlight triggers a CSF-1-dependent, Mø-mediated destructive inflammation in the skin leading to CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Fas(lpr) but not lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. Taken together, CSF-1 is envisioned as the match and lupus susceptibility as the tinder leading to CLE.

  11. Morphology-controlled electrodeposition of Cu2O microcrystalline particle films for application in photocatalysis under sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guodong; Zhai, Wei; Sun, Fengqiang; Chen, Wei; Pan, Zizhao; Li, Weishan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► PEG was used to electro-deposit Cu 2 O microcrystalline particle films. ► Morphologies of Cu 2 O microcrystals could be controlled by the amount of PEG. ► The films showed regularly varied photocatalytic activities under sunlight. ► The films could be recycled and showed stable activities. -- Abstract: Morphology-controlled Cu 2 O microcrystalline particle films had been successfully electrodeposited on tin-doped indium oxide glass substrates in CuSO 4 solutions containing different amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG) additives. With an increase of PEG, microcrystals gradually changed from irregular shapes to cubes, octahedrons, and spherical shapes. Sizes increasingly became smaller with an increase of PEG under the same deposition time. These films had been first used as recyclable photocatalysts and showed excellent and photocatalytic activities in photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under sunlight. Activities were regularly varied relative to the morphologies of films controlled by the amount of PEG and could be further enhanced by adding a little amount of hydrogen peroxide in the MB solution. The method for controllable preparation of Cu 2 O microcrystals with photocatalytic activities was simple and inexpensive. The as-prepared particle films could also be used in photodegradation of many other pollutants under sunlight.

  12. A generic approach for sunlight and shadow impact computation on large city models

    OpenAIRE

    Jaillot , Vincent; Pedrinis , Frédéric; Servigne , Sylvie; Gesquière , Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Study of sunlight and shadow effects on the city has become more accessible with the development of 3D citymodels. It allows measuring when and how an object is exposed to the sunlight, which enables conducting manyrelated studies such as energy analyses or urban planning. While many works have been done for this purpose, itmay be interesting to know which objects (terrain, buildings, trees, etc.) prevent other objects from beingexposed to the sunlight. In this paper w...

  13. Acute growth hormone administration causes exaggerated increases in plasma lactate and glycerol during moderate to high intensity bicycling in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K.H.; Larsson, B.; Flyvbjerg, A.

    2002-01-01

    ). In the placebo trial, all subjects completed the exercise protocol without any difficulties. In contrast, two subjects were not able to complete the exercise protocol in the GH trial, and one subject barely managed to complete the protocol. In addition, GH administration resulted in exaggerated increases...... in increased whole body fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry). Plasma glucose was, on average, 9% higher during exercise after GH administration compared with placebo (P ... during 90 min of subsequent bicycling at moderate to high intensity. The exaggerated increase in plasma lactate may be associated with substantially decreased exercise performance....

  14. Improved brachial artery shear patterns and increased flow-mediated dilation after low-volume high-intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshan, Kamran; Mafi, Farnoosh; Biglari, Soheil; Gandomkar Bagheri, Habibalah

    2018-06-22

    What is the central question of this study? Endothelial function is impaired because of increased oscillatory and retrograde shear in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous moderate intensity exercise can modulate oscillatory and retrograde shear, blood flow and flow-mediated arterial dilation in these patients. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that low-volume high-intensity interval training, by increasing anterograde shear and decreasing retrograde shear and oscillatory index, can increase nitric oxide production and consequently result in increased flow-mediated dilation and outward arterial remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes is characterized by endothelial dysfunction associated with impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increases retrograde and oscillatory shear. The present study investigated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and shear rate in patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline and follow-up after 12 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIIT) or continuous moderate intensity training (CMIT). Seventy five sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes and untreated pre- or stage I hypertension were randomly divided into LV-HIIT, CMIT and control groups. The LV-HIIT group intervention was 12 intervals of 1.5 min at 85%-90% HR max and 2 min at 55%-60% HR max . The CMIT group intervention was 42 min of exercise at 70% HR max for 3 sessions per week during 12 weeks. High-resolution Doppler ultrasound was used to measure FMD, arterial diameter, anterograde and retrograde blood flow and shear rate patterns. Brachial artery FMD increased significantly in the LV-HIIT group (3.83 ± 1.13 baseline, 7.39 ± 3.6% follow-up), whereas there were no significant increase in the CMIT group (3.45 ± 0.97 baseline, 4.81 ± 2.36% follow-up) compared to the control group (3.16 ± 0

  15. Evidence of Increased Antibiotic Resistance in Phylogenetically-Diverse Aeromonas Isolates from Semi-Intensive Fish Ponds Treated with Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemant J; Benet-Perelberg, Ayana; Naor, Alon; Smirnov, Margarita; Ofek, Tamir; Nasser, Ahmed; Minz, Dror; Cytryn, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    The genus Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments encompassing a broad range of fish and human pathogens. Aeromonas strains are known for their enhanced capacity to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes and therefore, are frequently targeted as indicator bacteria for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. This study evaluated temporal trends in Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance in two adjacent semi-intensive aquaculture facilities to ascertain the effects of antibiotic treatment on antimicrobial resistance. In the first facility, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim was added prophylactically to fingerling stocks and water column-associated Aeromonas were monitored periodically over an 11-month fish fattening cycle to assess temporal dynamics in taxonomy and antibiotic resistance. In the second facility, Aeromonas were isolated from fish skin ulcers sampled over a 3-year period and from pond water samples to assess associations between pathogenic strains to those in the water column. A total of 1200 Aeromonas isolates were initially screened for sulfadiazine resistance and further screened against five additional antimicrobials. In both facilities, strong correlations were observed between sulfadiazine resistance and trimethoprim and tetracycline resistances, whereas correlations between sulfadiazine resistance and ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol resistances were low. Multidrug resistant strains as well as sul1, tetA , and intI1 gene-harboring strains were significantly higher in profiles sampled during the fish cycle than those isolated prior to stocking and these genes were extremely abundant in the pathogenic strains. Five phylogenetically distinct Aeromonas clusters were identified using partial rpoD gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, prior to fingerling stocking the diversity of water column strains was high, and representatives from all five clusters were identified, including an A. salmonicida

  16. Evidence of increased antibiotic resistance in phylogenetically-diverse Aeromonas isolates from semi-intensive fish ponds treated with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant J Patil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments encompassing a broad range of fish and human pathogens. Aeromonas strains are known for their enhanced capacity to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes and therefore, are frequently targeted as indicator bacteria for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. This study evaluated temporal trends in Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance in two adjacent semi-intensive aquaculture facilities to ascertain effects of antibiotic treatment on antimicrobial resistance. In the first facility, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim was added prophylactically upon fingerling stocking and water column-associated Aeromonas were monitored periodically over an eleven-month fish-fattening cycle to assess temporal dynamics in taxonomy and antibiotic resistance. In the second facility, Aeromonas were isolated from fish skin ulcers sampled over a three-year period and from pond water samples to assess associations between pathogenic strains to those in the water column. A total of 1200 Aeromonas spp. were isolated, initially screened for sulfadiazine resistance and further screened against five additional antibiotics. In both facilities, strong correlations were observed between sulfadiazine resistance and trimethoprim and tetracycline resistances, whereas correlations between sulfadiazine resistance and ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol resistances were low. Abundance of multi-drug resistant strains as well as sul1, tetA and intI1 gene-harboring strains was significantly higher in profiles sampled during the fish cycle than those isolated prior to stocking and these genes were extremely abundant in the pathogenic strains. Five phylogenetically-distinct Aeromonas clusters were revealed using partial rpoD gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, prior to fingerling stocking the diversity of water column strains was high, and representatives from all five clusters were

  17. A holistic life cycle analysis of waste management scenarios at increasing source segregation intensity: the case of an Italian urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2014-11-01

    Life cycle analysis of several waste management scenarios for an Italian urban area was performed on the basis of different source segregation collection (SS) intensities from 0% up to 52%. Source segregated waste was recycled and or/recovered by composting. Residual waste management options were by landfilling, incineration with energy recovery or solid recovered fuel (SRF) production to substitute for coal. The increase in fuel and materials consumption due to increase in SS had negligible influence on the environmental impact of the system. Recycling operations such as incineration and SRF were always advantageous for impact reduction. There was lower impact for an SS of 52% even though the difference with the SS intensity of 35% was quite limited, about 15%. In all the configurations analyzed, the best environmental performance was achieved for the management system producing SRF by the biodrying process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased signal intensities in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted images: evidence in children undergoing multiple gadolinium MRI exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Houchun H.; Pokorney, Amber; Towbin, Richard B.; Miller, Jeffrey H. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Recent reports have suggested residual gadolinium deposition in the brain in subjects undergoing multiple contrast-enhanced MRI exams. These findings have raised some concerns regarding gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) usage and retention in brain tissues. To summarize findings of hyperintense brain structures on precontrast T1-weighted images in 21 children undergoing multiple GBCA MRI exams. This retrospective study involved 21 patients, each of whom received multiple MRI examinations (range: 5-37 exams) with GBCA over the course of their medical treatment (duration from first to most recent exam: 1.2-12.9 years). The patients were between 0.9 and 14.4 years of age at the time of their first GBCA exam. Regions of interest were drawn in the dentate nucleus and the globus pallidus on 2-D fast spin echo images acquired at 1.5 T. The signal intensities of these two structures were normalized by that of the corpus callosum genu. Signal intensity ratios from these patients were compared to control patients of similar ages who have never received GBCA. Signal intensity ratios increased between the first and the most recent MRI exam in all 21 patients receiving GBCA, with an increase of 18.6%±12.7% (range: 0.5% to 47.5%) for the dentate nucleus and 12.4%±7.4% (range: -1.2% to 33.7%) for the globus pallidus (P<0.0001). Signal intensity ratios were also higher in GBCA patients than in controls (P<0.01). The degree of signal intensity enhancement did not correlate with statistical significance to the cumulative number or volume of GBCA administrations each patient received, the patient's age or the elapsed time between the first and most recent GBCA MRI exams. These results in children are consistent with recent findings in adults, suggesting possible gadolinium deposition in the brain. (orig.)

  19. The ability of non-computer tasks to increase biomechanical exposure variability in computer-intensive office work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dechristian França; Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Nogueira, Helen Cristina; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postures and muscle activity in the upper body were recorded from 50 academics office workers during 2 hours of normal work, categorised by observation into computer work (CW) and three non-computer (NC) tasks (NC seated work, NC standing/walking work and breaks). NC tasks differed significantly in exposures from CW, with standing/walking NC tasks representing the largest contrasts for most of the exposure variables. For the majority of workers, exposure variability was larger in their present job than in CW alone, as measured by the job variance ratio (JVR), i.e. the ratio between min-min variabilities in the job and in CW. Calculations of JVRs for simulated jobs containing different proportions of CW showed that variability could, indeed, be increased by redistributing available tasks, but that substantial increases could only be achieved by introducing more vigorous tasks in the job, in casu illustrated by cleaning.

  20. High intensity interior aircraft noise increases the risk of high diastolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the effects of aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, and other factors on the risk of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP in Indonesian Air Force pilots.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using data extracted from annual medical check-ups indoctrination aerophysiologic training records at the Saryanto Aviation and Aerospace Health Institute (LAKESPRA in Jakarta from January 2003 – September 2008. For analysis of DBP: the case group with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg were compared with contral group with DBP < 79 mmHG. One case matched to 12 controls.Results: Out of 567 pilots, 544 (95.9% had complete medical records. For this analysis there were 40 cases of high DBP and 480 controls for DBP. Pilots exposed to aircraft noise 90-95 dB rather than 70-80 dB had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.70; 95% confi dence interval (CI = 1.05-6.97]. Pilots with resting pulse rates of ≥ 81/minute rather than ≤ 80/minute had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.26-5.61. In terms of total fl ight hours, pilots who had 1401-11125 hours rather than 147-1400 hours had a 3.2-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.01-10.03.Conclusion: High interior aircraft noise, high total flight hours,  and high resting pulse rate, increased risk for high DBP. Self assessment of resting pulse rate can be used to control the risk of high DBP. (Med J Indones 2009; 276: 276-82Keywords: diastolic blood pressure, aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, military pilots

  1. An intervention to reduce sitting and increase light-intensity physical activity at work: Design and rationale of the 'Stand & Move at Work' group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P; Mullane, Sarah L; Toledo, Meynard J; Rydell, Sarah A; Gaesser, Glenn A; Crespo, Noe C; Hannan, Peter; Feltes, Linda; Vuong, Brenna; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    American workers spend 70-80% of their time at work being sedentary. Traditional approaches to increase moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may be perceived to be harmful to productivity. Approaches that target reductions in sedentary behavior and/or increases in standing or light-intensity physical activity [LPA] may not interfere with productivity and may be more feasible to achieve through small changes accumulated throughout the workday METHODS/DESIGN: This group randomized trial (i.e., cluster randomized trial) will test the relative efficacy of two sedentary behavior focused interventions in 24 worksites across two states (N=720 workers). The MOVE+ intervention is a multilevel individual, social, environmental, and organizational intervention targeting increases in light-intensity physical activity in the workplace. The STAND+ intervention is the MOVE+ intervention with the addition of the installation and use of sit-stand workstations to reduce sedentary behavior and enhance light-intensity physical activity opportunities. Our primary outcome will be objectively-measured changes in sedentary behavior and light-intensity physical activity over 12months, with additional process measures at 3months and longer-term sustainability outcomes at 24months. Our secondary outcomes will be a clustered cardiometabolic risk score (comprised of fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure), workplace productivity, and job satisfaction DISCUSSION: This study will determine the efficacy of a multi-level workplace intervention (including the use of a sit-stand workstation) to reduce sedentary behavior and increase LPA and concomitant impact on cardiometabolic health, workplace productivity, and satisfaction. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02566317 (date of registration: 10/1/2015). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Facile synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticle and synergistic effect of iron nanoparticle in the presence of sunlight for the degradation of DOM from textile wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Fahmida; Nayna, Omme Kulsum; Tareq, Shafi M.; Rikta, Sharmin Yousuf; Kamal, Abdul KI

    2018-05-01

    This study explores the capacity of synthesized Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) under sunlight for the degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from synthetic (Procion blue dye) solution as well as from textile wastewater (TWW). Fe2O3 NPs were properly synthesized and confirmed by UV absorbance, FTIR spectra and SEM image analysis. Photocatalytic degradation of DOM from TWW and synthetic solution was performed by catalyst Fe2O3 NPs (5 mg/L) in the presence of solar irradiation (up to 40 h). The DOM degradation of the TWW and synthetic solution has been analyzed by fluorescence 3D excitation emission matrix (3D EEM). Synergistic effect was expected and it was found that the rate of decrease of fluorescence intensity increased with time. Within 20 h, for the synthetic solution, reduction of fluorescence intensity (80%) reaches an equilibrium. In contrast, the rate of decrease in the fluorescence intensity is highest (91%) in 40 h of irradiation for TWW. This reduction of fluorescence intensity indicates the degradation of DOM and can be expressed well by second-order model kinetics. Reduction of TOC, BOD5 and COD load again validated the degradation of DOM from TWW by catalyst Fe2O3 NPs-induced solar irradiation. We applied the treated wastewater on the plant to observe the reusability of the treated TWW, and the morphological data analysis of the plant demonstrates that the catalyst Fe2O3 NPs-induced solar-irradiated wastewater exhibits less adverse impact on plant morphology.

  3. Harvesting Water from Air: Using Anhydrous Salt with Sunlight

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2018-04-02

    Atmospheric water is abundant alternative water resource, equivalent to 6 times of water in all rivers on Earth. This work screens 14 common anhydrous and hydrated salt couples in terms of their physical and chemical stability, water vapor harvesting and release capacity under relevant application scenarios. Among the salts screened, copper chloride (CuCl2), copper sulfate (CuSO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) distinguish themselves and are further made into bi-layer water collection devices, with the top layer being photothermal layer while the bottom layer being salt-loaded fibrous membrane. The water collection devices are capable of capturing water vapor out of the air with low relative humidity (down to 15 %) and releasing water under regular and even weakened sunlight (i.e. 0.7 kW/m2). The work shines light on the potential use of anhydrous salt towards producing drinking water in water scarce regions.

  4. Recovery of hexavalent chromium from water using photoactive TiO2-montmorillonite under sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Djellabi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium was removed from water under sunlight using a synthesized TiO2-montmorillonite (TiO2-M employing tartaric acid as a hole scavenger. Cr(VI species was then reduced to Cr(III species by electrons arising from TiO2 particles. After that, the produced Cr(III species  was transferred to montmorillonite  due to electrostatic attractions leading to  set free TiO2 particles for a further Cr(VI species reduction. Furthermore, produced Cr(III, after Cr(VI reduction, does not  penetrate into the solution. The results indicate that no dark adsorption of Cr(VI species on TiO2-M is present, however, the reduction of Cr(VI species under sunlight increased strongly as a function of tartaric acid concentration up to 60 ppm, for which the extent of reduction is maximum within 3 h. On the other hand, the reduction extent of Cr(VI species is maximum with an initial concentration of Cr(VI species lower than 30 ppm by the use of 0.2 g/L of TiO2-M. Nevertheless, the increase of the Cr(VI initial concentration led to increase the amount of Cr(VI species reduced (capacity of reduction until a Cr(VI concentration of 75 and 100 ppm, for which  it remained constant at around 221 mg/g. For comparison, the increase of Cr(VI species concentration in the case of the commercial TiO2 P25 under the same conditions exhibited its deactivation when the reduced amount decreased from 198.1 to 157.6 mg/g as the concentration increased from 75 to 100 ppm.

  5. Relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions and nonlinear increase in the conversion efficiency of an optical parametric oscillator using a bi-directional pump geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, G; McConnell, G

    2010-03-01

    A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22% was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95% overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm(2) (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm(2) from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm(2), without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.

  6. Persistence of Bacteroides ovatus under simulated sunlight irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Shengkun

    2014-07-04

    Background: Bacteroides ovatus, a member of the genus Bacteroides, is considered for use in molecular-based methods as a general fecal indicator. However, knowledge on its fate and persistence after a fecal contamination event remains limited. In this study, the persistence of B. ovatus was evaluated under simulated sunlight exposure and in conditions similar to freshwater and seawater. By combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection, the decay rates of B. ovatus were determined in the presence and absence of exogenous photosensitizers and in salinity up to 39.5 parts per thousand at 27°C. Results: UVB was found to be important for B. ovatus decay, averaging a 4 log10 of decay over 6 h of exposure without the presence of extracellular photosensitizers. The addition of NaNO2, an exogenous sensitizer producing hydroxyl radicals, did not significantly change the decay rate of B. ovatus in both low and high salinity water, while the exogenous sensitizer algae organic matter (AOM) slowed down the decay of B. ovatus in low salinity water. At seawater salinity, the decay rate of B. ovatus was slower than that in low salinity water, except when both NaNO2 and AOM were present. Conclusion: The results of laboratory experiments suggest that if B. ovatus is released into either freshwater or seawater environment in the evening, 50% of it may be intact by the next morning; if it is released at noon, only 50% may be intact after a mere 5 min of full spectrum irradiation on a clear day. This study provides a mechanistic understanding to some of the important environmental relevant factors that influenced the inactivation kinetics of B. ovatus in the presence of sunlight irradiation, and would facilitate the use of B. ovatus to indicate the occurrence of fecal contamination.

  7. The response of a simulated mesoscale convective system to increased aerosol pollution: Part I: Precipitation intensity, distribution, and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Michal; Cotton, William R.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Saleeby, Stephen M.; Pierce, Jeffery R.

    2018-01-01

    Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) are important contributors to rainfall in the High Plains of the United States and elsewhere in the world. It is therefore of interest to understand how different aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) may impact the total amount, rates and spatial distribution of precipitation produced by MCSs. In this study, different aerosol concentrations and their effects on precipitation produced by an MCS are examined by simulating the 8 May 2009 "Super-Derecho" MCS using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with sophisticated aerosol and microphysical parameterizations. Three simulations were conducted that differed only in the initial concentration, spatial distribution, and chemical composition of aerosols. Aerosol fields were derived from the output of GEOS-Chem, a 3D chemical transport numerical model. Results from the RAMS simulations show that the total domain precipitation was not significantly affected by variations in aerosol concentrations, however, the pollution aerosols altered the precipitation characteristics. The more polluted simulations exhibited higher precipitation rates, higher bulk precipitation efficiency, a larger area with heavier precipitation, and a smaller area with lighter precipitation. These differences arose as a result of aerosols enhancing precipitation in the convective region of the MCS while suppressing precipitation from the MCS's stratiform-anvil. In the convective region, several processes likely contributed to an increase of precipitation. First, owing to the very humid environment of this storm, the enhanced amount of cloud water available to be collected overwhelmed the reduction in precipitation efficiency associated with the aerosol-induced production of smaller droplets which led to a net increase in the conversion of cloud droplets to precipitation. Second, higher aerosol concentrations led to invigoration of convective updrafts which

  8. Bell's palsy: what is the prognostic value of measurements of signal intensity increases with contrast enhancement on MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, B.P.J.; Efinger, K.; Solbach, T.; Gottschalk, A.; Baehren, W.; Griesbeck, F.; Kornhuber, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the prognostic value of measurements of the degree of contrast enhancement of the intratemporal segments of the facial nerve. We prospectively obtained MRI, slice thickness <1 mm of 20 patients with a facial palsy on the first day of inpatient treatment, and measured contrast enhancement of the nerve. The data were compared with compound muscle action potential (CMAP) measurements and the clinical course. Analysis of the initial enabled differentiation of three patients whose palsy was to show no improvement from 17 whose palsy was to resolve as expected. No patient with a poor outcome showed lesser increase in signal in the internal auditory canal, pars tympanica and pars mastoidea than patients who fully recovered. In no patient who had been diagnosed on the basis of the initial MRI as having a ''normal'' palsy was the amplitude of the (CMAP) reduced to less than 20% that of the normal side. Measurement of contrast enhancement was thus shown to be a prognostic indicator and may provide a basis for a differential treatment of facial palsy. (orig.)

  9. Dissimilarity of Ant Communities Increases with Precipitation, but not Reduced Land-Use Intensity, in Indonesian Cacao Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Buchori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Land-use degradation and climate change are well-known drivers of biodiversity loss, but little information is available about their potential interaction. Here, we focus on the effects of land-use and precipitation on ant diversity in cacao agroforestry. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, we selected 16 cacao agroforestry plots with a shaded vs. unshaded plot in each of eight villages differing in precipitation (1032–2051 mm annual rainfall. On each plot, 10 cacao trees with similar size and age (7–10 years were selected for hand collection of ants on each cacao tree and the soil surface. In total, we found 80 ant species belonging to five subfamilies. Land-use intensification (removal of shade trees and precipitation had no effect on species richness of ants per cacao tree (alpha diversity and, in an additive partitioning approach, within-plot beta diversity. However, higher precipitation (but not shade significantly increased ant species dissimilarity across cacao trees within a plot, with ant species showing contrasting responses to precipitation. Reduced precipitation causing drought stress appeared to contribute to convergence of ant community structure, presumably via reduced heterogeneity in cacao tree growth. In conclusion, reduced precipitation greatly influenced ant community dissimilarity and appeared to be more important for ant community structure than land-use intensification.

  10. High-intensity stress elicits robust cortisol increases, and impairs working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory in Special Forces candidates: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2010-07-01

    While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment.

  11. A holistic life cycle analysis of waste management scenarios at increasing source segregation intensity: The case of an Italian urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste management scenarios starting from different SS intensity were analyzed by LCA. • Several experimental data were utilized for the inventory. • Collection activities influences marginally global impact. • Maximum global environmental gain was achieved by SRF for coke substitution. - Abstract: Life cycle analysis of several waste management scenarios for an Italian urban area was performed on the basis of different source segregation collection (SS) intensities from 0% up to 52%. Source segregated waste was recycled and or/recovered by composting. Residual waste management options were by landfilling, incineration with energy recovery or solid recovered fuel (SRF) production to substitute for coal. The increase in fuel and materials consumption due to increase in SS had negligible influence on the environmental impact of the system. Recycling operations such as incineration and SRF were always advantageous for impact reduction. There was lower impact for an SS of 52% even though the difference with the SS intensity of 35% was quite limited, about 15%. In all the configurations analyzed, the best environmental performance was achieved for the management system producing SRF by the biodrying process

  12. Does aging with a cortical lesion increase fall-risk: Examining effect of age versus stroke on intensity modulation of reactive balance responses from slip-like perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prakruti J; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aging with and without a cerebral lesion such as stroke affects modulation of reactive balance response for recovery from increasing intensity of sudden slip-like stance perturbations. Ten young adults, older age-match adults and older chronic stroke survivors were exposed to three different levels of slip-like perturbations, level 1 (7.75m/s(2)), Level II (12.00m/s(2)) and level III (16.75m/s(2)) in stance. The center of mass (COM) state stability was computed as the shortest distance of the instantaneous COM position and velocity relative to base of support (BOS) from a theoretical threshold for backward loss of balance (BLOB). The COM position (XCOM/BOS) and velocity (ẊCOM/BOS) relative to BOS at compensatory step touchdown, compensatory step length and trunk angle at touchdown were also recorded. At liftoff, stability reduced with increasing perturbation intensity across all groups (main effect of intensity pbalance control, potentially contributing toward a higher fall risk in older stroke survivors. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A holistic life cycle analysis of waste management scenarios at increasing source segregation intensity: The case of an Italian urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Micale, Caterina

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Waste management scenarios starting from different SS intensity were analyzed by LCA. • Several experimental data were utilized for the inventory. • Collection activities influences marginally global impact. • Maximum global environmental gain was achieved by SRF for coke substitution. - Abstract: Life cycle analysis of several waste management scenarios for an Italian urban area was performed on the basis of different source segregation collection (SS) intensities from 0% up to 52%. Source segregated waste was recycled and or/recovered by composting. Residual waste management options were by landfilling, incineration with energy recovery or solid recovered fuel (SRF) production to substitute for coal. The increase in fuel and materials consumption due to increase in SS had negligible influence on the environmental impact of the system. Recycling operations such as incineration and SRF were always advantageous for impact reduction. There was lower impact for an SS of 52% even though the difference with the SS intensity of 35% was quite limited, about 15%. In all the configurations analyzed, the best environmental performance was achieved for the management system producing SRF by the biodrying process.

  14. Sunlight Modulates Fruit Metabolic Profile and Shapes the Spatial Pattern of Compound Accumulation within the Grape Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Noam; Walbaum, Natasha; Agam, Nurit; Fait, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Vineyards are characterized by their large spatial variability of solar irradiance (SI) and temperature, known to effectively modulate grape metabolism. To explore the role of sunlight in shaping fruit composition and cluster uniformity, we studied the spatial pattern of incoming irradiance, fruit temperature and metabolic profile within individual grape clusters under three levels of sunlight exposure. The experiment was conducted in a vineyard of Cabernet Sauvignon cv. located in the Negev Highlands, Israel, where excess SI and midday temperatures are known to degrade grape quality. Filtering SI lowered the surface temperature of exposed fruits and increased the uniformity of irradiance and temperature in the cluster zone. SI affected the overall levels and patterns of accumulation of sugars, organic acids, amino acids and phenylpropanoids, across the grape cluster. Increased exposure to sunlight was associated with lower accumulation levels of malate, aspartate, and maleate but with higher levels of valine, leucine, and serine, in addition to the stress-related proline and GABA. Flavan-3-ols metabolites showed a negative response to SI, whereas flavonols were highly induced. The overall levels of anthocyanins decreased with increased sunlight exposure; however, a hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the members of this family were grouped into three distinct accumulation patterns, with malvidin anthocyanins and cyanidin-glucoside showing contrasting trends. The flavonol-glucosides, quercetin and kaempferol, exhibited a logarithmic response to SI, leading to improved cluster uniformity under high-light conditions. Comparing the within-cluster variability of metabolite accumulation highlighted the stability of sugars, flavan-3-ols, and cinnamic acid metabolites to SI, in contrast to the plasticity of flavonols. A correlation-based network analysis revealed that extended exposure to SI modified metabolic coordination, increasing the number of negative

  15. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single

  16. PRKCZ methylation is associated with sunlight exposure in a North American but not a Mediterranean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunlight exposure has been shown to alter DNA methylation patterns across several human cell-types, including T-lymphocytes. Since epigenetic changes establish gene expression profiles, changes in DNA methylation induced by sunlight exposure warrant investigation. The purpose of this study was to as...

  17. Sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity associated with disability progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Haentjens, P.; Nagels, G.; Garmyn, M.; De Keyser, J.

    Background: Sunlight and vitamin D have been inversely associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: We investigated sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity in relation to disability progression in MS. Methods: We conducted a survey among persons with MS, registered by the Flemish MS

  18. On the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight. I - 1983-1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Espenak, Fred; Jennings, Donald E.; Brault, James W.; Wagner, Jeremy

    1987-01-01

    Frequency measurements for the Delta V = 2 transitions of CO in the integrated light spectrum of the sun are presented. The nature and magnitude of systematic errors which typically arise in absolute velocity measurements of integrated sunlight are explored in some detail, and measurements believed accurate at the level of about 5 m/s or less are presented. It is found that the integrated light velocity varies by about 3 m/s or less over a one-day period. Over the long term, the data indicate an increasing blue-shift in these weak infrared lines amounting to 30 m/s from 1983 to 1985. The sense of the drift is consistent with a lessening in the magnetic inhibition of granular convection at solar minimum. Such an effect has implications for the spectroscopic detectability of planetary-mass companions to solar-type stars.

  19. Investigation of sunlight-induced deterioration of aroma of pummelo (Citrus maxima) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Ni, Hui; Yang, Yuanfan; Wu, Ling; Cai, Hui-nong; Xiao, An-feng; Chen, Feng

    2014-12-10

    Deterioration of aromas of pummelo essential oil (EO) induced by sunlight was compared to those induced by heat and oxygen exposure using the techniques of sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. The sunlight-exposed EO was found to possess an oily off-flavor odor, which was significantly different from its counterparts induced by oxygen and heat. The strong oily note of the sunlight-exposed EO was attributed to the existence of linalool oxides and limonene oxides, as well as the lack of neral and geranial, for which UV sunlight was revealed to be the critical contributor causing the chemical reactions for the aroma changes. The results demonstrated that UV sunlight could significantly affect the aroma of the pummelo EO, providing valuable information that will benefit the production and storage of EO-based aromatic products.

  20. Asteroid thermal modeling in the presence of reflected sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    A new derivation of simple asteroid thermal models is presented, investigating the need to account correctly for Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation when IR observations contain substantial reflected sunlight. The framework applies to both the NEATM and related thermal models. A new parameterization of these models eliminates the dependence of thermal modeling on visible absolute magnitude H, which is not always available. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the potential impact of violating Kirchhoff's law on estimates of physical parameters such as diameter and IR albedo, with an emphasis on NEOWISE results. The NEOWISE papers use ten different models, applied to 12 different combinations of WISE data bands, in 47 different combinations. The most prevalent combinations are simulated and the accuracy of diameter estimates is found to be depend critically on the model and data band combination. In the best case of full thermal modeling of all four band the errors in an idealized model the 1σ (68.27%) confidence interval is -5% to +6%, but this combination is just 1.9% of NEOWISE results. Other combinations representing 42% of the NEOWISE results have about twice the CI at -10% to +12%, before accounting for errors due to irregular shape or other real world effects that are not simulated. The model and data band combinations found for the majority of NEOWISE results have much larger systematic and random errors. Kirchhoff's law violation by NEOWISE models leads to errors in estimation accuracy that are strongest for asteroids with W1, W2 band emissivity ɛ12 in both the lowest (0.605 ≤ɛ12 ≤ 0 . 780), and highest decile (0.969 ≤ɛ12 ≤ 0 . 988), corresponding to the highest and lowest deciles of near-IR albedo pIR. Systematic accuracy error between deciles ranges from a low of 5% to as much as 45%, and there are also differences in the random errors. Kirchhoff's law effects also produce large errors in NEOWISE estimates of pIR, particularly for high

  1. Increasing the Intensity over Time of an Electric-Assist Bike Based on the User and Route: The Bike Becomes the Gym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. De La Iglesia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many citizens have busy days that make finding time for physical activity difficult. Thus, it is important to provide citizens with tools that allow them to introduce physical activity into their lives as part of the day’s routine. This article proposes an app for an electric pedal-assist-system (PAS bicycle that increases the pedaling intensity so the bicyclist can achieve higher and higher levels of physical activity. The app includes personalized assist levels that have been adapted to the user’s strength/ability and a profile of the route, segmented according to its slopes. Additionally, a social component motivates interaction and competition between users based on a scoring system that shows the level of their performances. To test the training module, a case study in three different European countries lasted four months and included nine people who traveled 551 routes. The electric PAS bicycle with the app that increases intensity of physical activity shows promise for increasing levels of physical activity as a regular part of the day.

  2. Improvements in exercise performance with high-intensity interval training coincide with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Flueck, Daniela; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2013-01-01

    sessions of HIT to determine the mechanisms explaining improvements in exercise performance. Sixteen untrained (43 +/- 6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) subjects completed six sessions of repeated (8-12) 60 s intervals of high-intensity cycling (100% peak power output elicited during incremental maximal exercise test...... (similar to 20 P = 0.026), as assessed by cytochrome c oxidase activity. Skeletal muscle deoxygenation also increased while maximal cardiac output, total hemoglobin, plasma volume, total blood volume, and relative measures of peripheral fatigue resistance were all unaltered with training. These results...

  3. The economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from sunlight and wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M. K.; Spath, P. L.; Watt, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing photoelectrochemical and electrolytical technologies to convert energy from the sun and wind into hydrogen was studied. In exploring opportunities to reduce the cost of hydrogen production through interaction with the electric utility grid, it was found that direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of sunlight has the economic potential to compete with direct photovoltaic/electrolysis, notwithstanding the significant stability and efficiency issues that are still awaiting solution. Interaction with the grid, while maximizing electrolizer use, makes a significant impact on the economics of producing hydrogen by photovoltaic/electrolysis, making wind-based systems also more economical. Electrolysis was found to be the optimal solution only with electricity from renewable sources or with less expensive non-peak electricity. On the other hand, the delivered cost of hydrogen was found to the lowest when electricity production was decoupled from the hydrogen production operation. Decoupled hydrogen production also has an additional benefit, i.e. it produces the hydrogen where it is needed, therefore it mitigates the need for various storage and distribution costs. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  4. The relationship between long-term sunlight radiation and cognitive decline in the REGARDS cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shia T.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Howard, Virginia J.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Peace, Fredrick; McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-04-01

    Sunlight may be related to cognitive function through vitamin D metabolism or circadian rhythm regulation. The analysis presented here sought to test whether ground and satellite measures of solar radiation are associated with cognitive decline. The study used a 15-year residential history merged with satellite and ground monitor data to determine sunlight (solar radiation) and air temperature exposure for a cohort of 19,896 cognitively intact black and white participants aged 45+ from the 48 contiguous United States. Exposures of 15, 10, 5, 2, and 1-year were used to predict cognitive status at the most recent assessment in logistic regression models; 1-year insolation and maximum temperatures were chosen as exposure measures. Solar radiation interacted with temperature, age, and gender in its relationships with incident cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, the odds ratio (OR) of cognitive decline for solar radiation exposure below the median vs above the median in the 3rd tertile of maximum temperatures was 1.88 (95 % CI: 1.24, 2.85), that in the 2nd tertile was 1.33 (95 % CI: 1.09, 1.62), and that in the 1st tertile was 1.22 (95 % CI: 0.92, 1.60). We also found that participants under 60 years old had an OR = 1.63 (95 % CI: 1.20, 2.22), those 60-80 years old had an OR = 1.18 (95 % CI: 1.02, 1.36), and those over 80 years old had an OR = 1.05 (0.80, 1.37). Lastly, we found that males had an OR = 1.43 (95 % CI: 1.22, 1.69), and females had an OR = 1.02 (0.87, 1.20). We found that lower levels of solar radiation were associated with increased odds of incident cognitive impairment.

  5. Molecular and sensory mechanisms to mitigate sunlight-induced DNA damage in treefrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, André P; Lipinski, Victor M; Santos, Mauricio B; Santos, Caroline P; Jardim, Sinara S; Cechin, Sonia Z; Loreto, Elgion L S

    2015-10-01

    The increased incidence of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has been proposed as an environmental stressor, which may help to explain the enigmatic decline of amphibian populations worldwide. Despite growing knowledge regarding the UV-induced biological effects in several amphibian models, little is known about the efficacy of DNA repair pathways. In addition, little attention has been given to the interplay between these molecular mechanisms with other physiological strategies that avoid the damage induced by sunlight. Here, DNA lesions induced by environmental doses of solar UVB and UVA radiation were detected in genomic DNA samples of treefrog tadpoles (Hypsiboas pulchellus) and their DNA repair activity was evaluated. These data were complemented by monitoring the induction of apoptosis in blood cells and tadpole survival. Furthermore, the tadpoles' ability to perceive and escape from UV wavelengths was evaluated as an additional strategy of photoprotection. The results show that tadpoles are very sensitive to UVB light, which could be explained by the slow DNA repair rates for both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6,4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6,4PPs). However, they were resistant to UVA, probably as a result of the activation of photolyases during UVA irradiation. Surprisingly, a sensory mechanism that triggers their escape from UVB and UVA light avoids the generation of DNA damage and helps to maintain the genomic integrity. This work demonstrates the genotoxic impact of both UVB and UVA radiation on tadpoles and emphasizes the importance of the interplay between molecular and sensory mechanisms to minimize the damage caused by sunlight. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=12), HIIT for an acute bout (AT1), short term HIIT for 3 and 5 sessions (ST3 and ST5), long-term training for 8 weeks (LT) (6 in each group). The rats of the training groups were made to run on a treadmill for 60 min in three stages: 6 min running for warm-up, 7 intervals of 7 min running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 min with an intensity of 80-110% VO2max and 3 min at 50-60% VO2max), and 5-min running for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Rats were sacrificed and the hearts were extracted to analyze the levels of UCP2, UCP3 and eNOS mRNA by RT-PCR. UCP3 expression was increased significantly following an acute training bout. Repeated HIIT for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in UCPs mRNA and a significant increase in eNOS expression in cardiac muscle. This study indicates that Long term HIIT through decreasing UCPs mRNA and increasing eNOS mRNA expression may enhance energy efficiency and physical performance.

  7. Enhancing the aggressive intensity of hydrodynamic cavitation through a Venturi tube by increasing the pressure in the region where the bubbles collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, H.; Hoshino, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we used a Venturi tube for generating hydrodynamic cavitation, and in order to obtain the optimum conditions for this to be used in chemical processes, the relationship between the aggressive intensity of the cavitation and the downstream pressure where the cavitation bubbles collapse was investigated. The acoustic power and the luminescence induced by the bubbles collapsing were investigated under various cavitating conditions, and the relationships between these and the cavitation number, which depends on the upstream pressure, the downstream pressure at the throat of the tube and the vapor pressure of the test water, was found. It was shown that the optimum downstream pressure, i.e., the pressure in the region where the bubbles collapse, increased the aggressive intensity by a factor of about 100 compared to atmospheric pressure without the need to increase the input power. Although the optimum downstream pressure varied with the upstream pressure, the cavitation number giving the optimum conditions was constant for all upstream pressures.

  8. Enhancing the aggressive intensity of hydrodynamic cavitation through a Venturi tube by increasing the pressure in the region where the bubbles collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Soyama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used a Venturi tube for generating hydrodynamic cavitation, and in order to obtain the optimum conditions for this to be used in chemical processes, the relationship between the aggressive intensity of the cavitation and the downstream pressure where the cavitation bubbles collapse was investigated. The acoustic power and the luminescence induced by the bubbles collapsing were investigated under various cavitating conditions, and the relationships between these and the cavitation number, which depends on the upstream pressure, the downstream pressure at the throat of the tube and the vapor pressure of the test water, was found. It was shown that the optimum downstream pressure, i.e., the pressure in the region where the bubbles collapse, increased the aggressive intensity by a factor of about 100 compared to atmospheric pressure without the need to increase the input power. Although the optimum downstream pressure varied with the upstream pressure, the cavitation number giving the optimum conditions was constant for all upstream pressures.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by iodine doped tin oxide nanoparticles under UV and sunlight irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M.; Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Dutta, Joydeep, E-mail: dutta@squ.edu.om [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • A sol–gel method used to synthesize tin oxide nanoparticles. • Nanoparticles of tin oxide doped with different iodine concentrations. • Degradation studies carried up with UV–vis, TOC, HPLC and GC instruments. • 1% iodine doped tin dioxide showed maximum photodegradation efficiency. - Abstract: Iodine doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:I) nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel synthesis and their photocatalytic activities with phenol as a test contaminant were studied. In the presence of the catalysts, phenol degradation under direct sunlight was comparable to what was achieved under laboratory conditions. Photocatalytic oxidation reactions were studied by varying the catalyst loading, light intensity, illumination time, pH of the reactant and phenol concentration. Upon UV irradiation in the presence of SnO{sub 2}:I nanoparticles, phenol degrades very rapidly within 30 min, forming carboxylic acid which turns the solution acidic. Phenol degradation rate with 1% iodine doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles is at least an order of magnitude higher compared to the degradation achieved through undoped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles under similar illumination conditions.

  10. Converting sunlight into audible sound by means of the photoacoustic effect: The Heliophone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, N B; Glorieux, C; Liu, L; Rychtáriková, M; Van der Donck, T; Jacobs, A

    2016-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five years after Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter explored the photoacoustic effect, and about 40 years after Rosencwaig and Gersho modeled the effect in a photoacoustic cell configuration, the phenomenon is revisited in a "Heliophone" device that converts sunlight into sound. The light is focused on a carbon blackened copper coated Kapton foil in an acoustic cell by means of a compound parabolic collimator, and its intensity is modulated by a mechanical chopper. A horn is employed to make the sound audible without electronic amplification. The description of the photoacoustic effect that was introduced by Rosencwaig and Gersho is extended to a cell-horn configuration, in which the periodically heated air above the foil acts as an oscillating piston, driving acoustic waves in the horn. The pressure in the cavity-horn assembly is calculated by considering the air layer piston as an equivalent volume velocity source. The importance of the carbon black (soot) layer to enhance light absorption, but above all to enhance the photothermal excitation efficiency, is elucidated by means of an experimentally supported physical model.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by iodine doped tin oxide nanoparticles under UV and sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M.; Sillanpää, Mika; Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A sol–gel method used to synthesize tin oxide nanoparticles. • Nanoparticles of tin oxide doped with different iodine concentrations. • Degradation studies carried up with UV–vis, TOC, HPLC and GC instruments. • 1% iodine doped tin dioxide showed maximum photodegradation efficiency. - Abstract: Iodine doped tin oxide (SnO 2 :I) nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel synthesis and their photocatalytic activities with phenol as a test contaminant were studied. In the presence of the catalysts, phenol degradation under direct sunlight was comparable to what was achieved under laboratory conditions. Photocatalytic oxidation reactions were studied by varying the catalyst loading, light intensity, illumination time, pH of the reactant and phenol concentration. Upon UV irradiation in the presence of SnO 2 :I nanoparticles, phenol degrades very rapidly within 30 min, forming carboxylic acid which turns the solution acidic. Phenol degradation rate with 1% iodine doped SnO 2 nanoparticles is at least an order of magnitude higher compared to the degradation achieved through undoped SnO 2 nanoparticles under similar illumination conditions

  12. Increased signal intensity of prostate lesions on high b-value diffusion-weighted images as a predictive sign of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, Michael; Schimmoeller, Lars; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk; Arsov, Christian; Rabenalt, Robert; Albers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of lesions detected in prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with increased signal intensity (SI) on high b-value diffusion-weighted images as a sign of malignancy. One hundred and three consecutive patients with prostate MRI examination and MRI-guided in-bore biopsy were retrospectively included in the study. MRI-guided in-bore biopsy histologically confirmed prostate cancer in 50 patients (n = 92 lesions). The other 53 patients (n = 122 lesions) had negative bioptical results. In patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, 46 of the 92 lesions had visually increased SI on the high b-value images compared with the peripheral zone (SI = +27 ± 16%) or the central gland (SI = +37 ± 19%, P < 0.001 respectively). In patients with a negative biopsy, ten of the 122 lesions had visually increased SI (compared with the peripheral zone, SI = +29 ± 18%, and with the central gland, SI = +41 ± 15%, P < 0.001 respectively). Neither the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values nor the Gleason Score of lesions with increased SI were significantly different from lesions without increased SI. Visually increased SI on the high b-value images of diffusion-weighted imaging using standard b-values is a sign of malignancy but can occasionally also be a feature of benign lesions. However, it does not indicate more aggressive tumours. (orig.)

  13. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  14. Sunlight-driven eco-friendly smart curtain based on infrared responsive graphene oxide-polymer photoactuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeladhar; Raturi, Parul; Singh, J P

    2018-02-27

    Photomechanical actuation is the conversion of light energy into mechanical energy through some smart materials. Infrared-responsive smart materials have become an emerging field of research due to easy availability and eco-friendly nature of their stimulus in the form of sunlight, which contains about 50% of near-infrared(nIR) making these materials useful at macro-scale photoactuator applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of highly versatile nIR triggered photoactuators based on graphene oxide/polycarbonate bilayers that offers fast, low-cost fabrication, large deflection, reversible actuation and wavelength-selective response. The photoactuators are realized by vacuum filtration of graphene oxide/water dispersion through polycarbonate membrane resulting graphene oxide/polymer bilayer structure. The photoactuation response was measured in the form of deflection from equilibrium position as a result of infrared-irradiation. The deflection is caused by the generated thermal stress at the interface of bilayers due to mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient as a results of nIR absorption by graphene oxide and subsequent temperature rise. A maximum deflection of 12 mm (circular-shaped structure with diameter 28 mm) with corresponding bending curvature of 0.33 cm -1 was shown by this photoactuator for illumination intensity of 106 mW/cm 2 . Few applications of these photoactuators such as sunlight-driven smart curtain, infrared actuated curtain and self-folding box are also demonstrated.

  15. Increased signal intensity of the cochlea on pre- and post-contrast enhanced 3D-FLAIR in patients with vestibular schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Masahiro; Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Nihashi, Takashi [Nagoya University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Medical Informatics, Nagakute (Japan); Nakashima, Tsutomu [Nagoya University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    In the vestibular schwannoma patients, the pathophysiologic mechanism of inner ear involvement is still unclear. We investigated the status of the cochleae in patients with vestibular schwannoma by evaluating the signal intensity of cochlear fluid on pre- and post-contrast enhanced thin section three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR). Twenty-eight patients were retrospectively analyzed. Post-contrast images were obtained in 18 patients, and 20 patients had the records of their pure-tone audiometry. Regions of interest of both cochleae (C) and of the medulla oblongata (M) were determined on 3D-FLAIR images by referring to 3D heavily T2-weighted images on a workstation. The signal intensity ratio between C and M on the 3D-FLAIR images (CM ratio) was then evaluated. In addition, correlation between the CM ratio and the hearing level was also evaluated. The CM ratio of the affected side was significantly higher than that of the unaffected side (p < 0.001). In the affected side, post-contrast signal elevation was observed (p < 0.005). In 13 patients (26 cochleae) who underwent both gadolinium injection and the pure-tone audiometry, the post-contrast CM ratio correlated with hearing level (p < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that alteration of cochlear fluid composition and increased permeability of the blood-labyrinthine barrier exist in the affected side in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Furthermore, although weak, positive correlation between post-contrast cochlear signal intensity on 3D-FLAIR and hearing level warrants further study to clarify the relationship between 3D-FLAIR findings and prognosis of hearing preservation surgery. (orig.)

  16. Increased signal intensity of the cochlea on pre- and post-contrast enhanced 3D-FLAIR in patients with vestibular schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Masahiro; Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Nihashi, Takashi; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2009-01-01

    In the vestibular schwannoma patients, the pathophysiologic mechanism of inner ear involvement is still unclear. We investigated the status of the cochleae in patients with vestibular schwannoma by evaluating the signal intensity of cochlear fluid on pre- and post-contrast enhanced thin section three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR). Twenty-eight patients were retrospectively analyzed. Post-contrast images were obtained in 18 patients, and 20 patients had the records of their pure-tone audiometry. Regions of interest of both cochleae (C) and of the medulla oblongata (M) were determined on 3D-FLAIR images by referring to 3D heavily T2-weighted images on a workstation. The signal intensity ratio between C and M on the 3D-FLAIR images (CM ratio) was then evaluated. In addition, correlation between the CM ratio and the hearing level was also evaluated. The CM ratio of the affected side was significantly higher than that of the unaffected side (p < 0.001). In the affected side, post-contrast signal elevation was observed (p < 0.005). In 13 patients (26 cochleae) who underwent both gadolinium injection and the pure-tone audiometry, the post-contrast CM ratio correlated with hearing level (p < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that alteration of cochlear fluid composition and increased permeability of the blood-labyrinthine barrier exist in the affected side in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Furthermore, although weak, positive correlation between post-contrast cochlear signal intensity on 3D-FLAIR and hearing level warrants further study to clarify the relationship between 3D-FLAIR findings and prognosis of hearing preservation surgery. (orig.)

  17. Diffuse alopecia areata is associated with intense inflammatory infiltration and CD8+ T cells in hair loss regions and an increase in serum IgE level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanism leading to an abrupt hair loss in diffuse alopecia areata (AA remains unclear. Aims: To explore the characteristics of diffuse AA and possible factors involved in its pathogenesis. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of 17 diffuse AA patients and 37 patchy AA patients were analyzed retrospectively. Serum IgE level was evaluated in all diffuse and patchy AA patients, as well as 27 healthy subjects without hair loss to serve as normal control. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher′s exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between inflammatory cell infiltration and laboratory values were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation test. Results: The mean age of patients with diffuse AA was 27 years with a mean disease duration of 1.77 months. All of them presented in spring or summer with an acute onset of diffuse hair loss preceded by higher incidence of scalp pruritus. Although no statistically significant difference on the incidence of atopic disease among three groups has been found, serum IgE level in diffuse AA was higher than that in healthy controls, but was comparable to that in patchy AA group. Histopathology of lesional scalp biopsies showed more intense infiltration comprising of mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3 + , and CD8 + T cells around hair bulbs in diffuse AA group than in patchy AA group. Moreover, IgE level in diffuse AA patients positively correlated with intensity of infiltration by mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and CD8 + T cells. Conclusions: Hypersensitivity may be involved in pathogenesis of diffuse AA. The acute onset of diffuse AA may be related to intense local inflammatory infiltration of hair loss region and an increase in serum IgE level.

  18. Increased signal intensity at the proximal patellar tendon: correlation between MR imaging and histology in eight cadavers and clinical MR imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Seong Jong; Jin, Wook; Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong-Koo [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gou Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We set out to investigate the cause of persistently increased signal intensity (SI) in the posterior portion of the proximal patellar tendon (pPT) on T1-weighted images (T1WI). MR imaging was performed in eight cadavers, followed by gross histological examination. In addition, 84 patients without trauma history or anterior knee pain were included to compare the SI of the PTs. The patients were divided according to their age, sex, and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades. The length and thickness of the increased SI portion in the pPT and whole PT (wPT) on T1WI were recorded. Histological specimens demonstrated that the adipose tissue, vessels, and perivascular connective tissue invaginated into the posterior portion of the pPT. This histological anatomy corresponded to the pPT signal change on MR imaging. There was linear and interdigitating increased SI of the pPT in all of the 84 patients (100 %). There were no differences in the lengths and thicknesses of the increased SI portion of pPTs and wPTs according to age, sex, and KL grade (all p > 0.05). The increased SI of the pPT on T1WI and fluid-sensitive MR images results from invaginating fat, vessels, and perivascular connective tissue. It is not pathological, but a normal and common finding. (orig.)

  19. l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation increase glutamine-glutathione axis and muscle HSP-27 in rats trained using a progressive high-intensity resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jaqueline Santos Moreira; Raizel, Raquel; Hypólito, Thaís Menezes; Rosa, Thiago Dos Santos; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-08-01

    In this study we investigated the chronic effects of oral l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation, either in their free or dipeptide form, on glutamine-glutathione (GLN-GSH) axis and cytoprotection mediated by HSP-27 in rats submitted to resistance exercise (RE). Forty Wistar rats were distributed into 5 groups: sedentary; trained (CTRL); and trained supplemented with l-alanyl-l-glutamine, l-glutamine and l-alanine in their free form (GLN+ALA), or free l-alanine (ALA). All trained animals were submitted to a 6-week ladder-climbing protocol. Supplementations were offered in a 4% drinking water solution for 21 days prior to euthanasia. Plasma glutamine, creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (MYO), and erythrocyte concentration of reduced GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) were measured. In tibialis anterior skeletal muscle, GLN-GSH axis, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP-27), and glutamine synthetase were determined. In CRTL animals, high-intensity RE reduced muscle glutamine levels and increased GSSG/GSH rate and TBARS, as well as augmented plasma CK and MYO levels. Conversely, l-glutamine-supplemented animals showed an increase in plasma and muscle levels of glutamine, with a reduction in GSSG/GSH rate, TBARS, and CK. Free l-alanine administration increased plasma glutamine concentration and lowered muscle TBARS. HSF-1 and HSP-27 were high in all supplemented groups when compared with CTRL (p alanine, in both a free or dipeptide form, improve the GLN-GSH axis and promote cytoprotective effects in rats submitted to high-intensity RE training.

  20. Are gender differences in upper-body power generated by elite cross-country skiers augmented by increasing the intensity of exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Myhre, Kenneth; Welde, Boye; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the impact of exercise intensity on gender differences in upper-body poling among cross-country skiers, as well as the associated differences in aerobic capacity, maximal strength, body composition, technique and extent of training. Eight male and eight female elite skiers, gender-matched for level of performance by FIS points, carried out a 4-min submaximal, and a 3-min and 30-sec maximal all-out test of isolated upper-body double poling on a Concept2 ski ergometer. Maximal upper-body power and strength (1RM) were determined with a pull-down exercise. In addition, body composition was assessed with a DXA scan and training during the previous six months quantified from diaries. Relative to the corresponding female values (defined as 100%), the power output produced by the men was 88%, 95% and 108% higher during the submaximal, 3-min and 30-sec tests, respectively, and peak power in the pull-down strength exercise was 118% higher (all Pgender differences in upper-body power among cross-country skiers augmented as the intensity of exercise increased. The gender differences observed here are greater than those reported previously for both lower- and whole-body sports and coincided with greater peak aerobic capacity and maximal upper-body strength, relatively more muscle mass in the upper-body, and more extensive training of upper-body strength and endurance among the male skiers.

  1. Efficacy of a dose range of simulated sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in South Asian adults: implications for targeted guidance on sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Mark D; Webb, Ann R; Kift, Richard; Durkin, Marie T; Allan, Donald; Herbert, Annie; Berry, Jacqueline L; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and cutaneous synthesis is an important source. South Asians cannot attain adequate amounts of vitamin D by following general recommendations on summer sunlight exposure at northerly latitudes, and increased exposure may be appropriate for improving their vitamin D status. We examined the efficacy of a dose range of simulated summer sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in UK adults of South Asian ethnicity. In a dose-response study, healthy adults of South Asian ethnicity (n = 60; 20-60 y old) received 1 of 6 ultraviolet exposures ranging from 0.65 to 3.9 standard erythema doses (SEDs), which were equivalent to 15-90 min unshaded noontime summer sunlight at 53.5°N (Manchester, United Kingdom), 3 times/wk for 6 wk, while wearing casual clothes that revealed a 35% skin area. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured weekly, and dietary vitamin D was estimated. At baseline, all completing participants (n = 51) were vitamin D insufficient [25(OH)D concentrations 10 ng/mL. Targeted guidance on sunlight exposure could usefully enhance vitamin D status to avoid deficiency [25(OH)D concentration >10 ng/mL] in South Asians living at latitudes distant from the equator. This trial was registered at the ISRCTN Register (www.isrctn.org) as 07565297.

  2. Increase in tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities in advanced head-and-neck cancer for dose-escalated intensity-modulated photon and proton therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eJakobi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Presently used radio-chemotherapy regimens result in moderate local control rates for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Dose escalation (DE may be an option to improve patient outcome, but may also increase the risk of toxicities in healthy tissue. The presented treatment planning study evaluated the feasibility of two DE levels for advanced HNSCC patients, planned with either intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMXT or proton therapy (IMPT.Materials and Methods:For 45 HNSCC patients, IMXT and IMPT treatment plans were created including DE via a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB in the high-risk volume, while maintaining standard fractionation with 2 Gy per fraction in the remaining target volume. Two DE levels for the SIB were compared: 2.3 Gy and 2.6 Gy. Treatment plan evaluation included assessment of tumor control probabilities (TCP and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP.Results:An increase of approximately 10% in TCP was estimated between the DE levels. A pronounced high-dose rim surrounding the SIB volume was identified in IMXT treatment. Compared to IMPT, this extra dose slightly increased the TCP values and to a larger extent the NTCP values. For both modalities, the higher DE level led only to a small increase in NTCP values (mean differences < 2% in all models, except for the risk of aspiration, which increased on average by 8% and 6% with IMXT and IMPT, respectively, but showed a considerable patient dependence. Conclusions:Both DE levels appear applicable to patients with IMXT and IMPT since all calculated NTCP values, except for one, increased only little for the higher DE level. The estimated TCP increase is of relevant magnitude. The higher DE schedule needs to be investigated carefully in the setting of a prospective clinical trial, especially regarding toxicities caused by high local doses that lack a sound dose response description, e.g., ulcers.

  3. Effect of exposure to sunlight and phosphorus-limitation on bacterial degradation of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Theis; Søndergaard, Morten; Tranvik, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the interacting effect of photochemical conditioning of dissolved organic matter and inorganic phosphorus on the metabolic activity of bacteria in freshwater. Batch cultures with lake-water bacteria and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) extracted from a humic boreal river were...... arranged in an experimental matrix of three levels of exposure to simulated sunlight and three levels of phosphorus concentration. We measured an increase in bacterial biomass, a decrease in DOC and bacterial respiration as CO(2) production and O(2) consumption over 450 h. These measurements were used...

  4. Increase of (CdSe/ZnS)Cys quantum dot luminescence intensity in the presence of TPPS{sub 4} porphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Gustavo G.; Borissevitch, Iouri E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Fisica; Kuzmin, Vladimir A. [Emanuel Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, RAS-RU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oleinikov, Vladimir A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Biooganic Cemistry, RAS-RU, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Nanocrystal semiconductor particles or Quantum Dots (QD) possess extraordinary photophysical characteristics, such as extreme high fluorescence quantum yield and optical absorption and very narrow fluorescence band, which can be easily shifted by changing of QD particle size. Due to these characteristics, QD is promising for fluorescence cancer diagnostics and photodynamic treatment. The efficiency of these processes can be in- creased by energy transfer between QD and classic fluorescence probes and photosensitizers (PS). In this work we present on the study of the increase of (CdSe/ZnS)Cys quantum dot luminescence intensity, stimulated by interaction with TPPS{sub 4} porphyrin. The optical absorption and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques were employed. Water soluble QD (CdSe/ZnS) with emission at 580 nm, functionalized with cysteine (Cys), were studied. TPPS{sub 4} porphyrin was used as a stimulator of QD luminescence. All experiments were realized in PBS buffer (pH 7.3; 7.5 mM) in Milli-Q quality water. The TPPS{sub 4} adding into the QD solutions until the 5{mu}M concentration produced an increase in QD luminescence intensity and lifetime, while for TPPS{sub 4} concentrations higher than 20{mu}M the reduction of the fluorescence intensity was observed, the emission spectra and fluorescence decays profile being unchanged. This effect can not be due to the electrostatic interaction between (CdSe/ZnS)Cys and TPPS{sub 4} because both, (CdSe/ZnS)Cys and TPPS{sub 4}, are negatively charged. We suppose that TPPS{sub 4} porphyrin interacts directly with QD (ZnS) shell, reducing the dangling bound number. This reduction decreases, in turn, the probability of nonradiative ways of the excitation energy dissipation. When the majority of dangling bound is occupied by the TPPS{sub 4} molecules, the effect of QD luminescence reduction (quenching) by porphyrin predominates, probably, via the energy transfer from QD to TPPS{sub 4}. However

  5. Sunlight suppressing rejection of 280- to 320-nm UV-radiation-induced skin tumors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morison, W.L.; Kelley, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Repeated exposure of female C3H/HeNCR- mice to sunlight prevented the normal immunologic rejection of a UV-induced tumor. This systemic immunologic alteration was transferred to syngeneic lethally X-irradiated animals with lymphoid cells from mice exposed to sunlight. The lymphoid cells also were able to suppress the capacity of lymphoid cells from normal animals to reject a UV-induced tumor. The 295- to 320-nm wave band appeared to be responsible for this immunosuppressive effect of sunlight because suppression was prevented by filtration of the radiation through Mylar and by application of a sunscreen containing para-aminobenzoic acid. These observations may have importance in understanding the pathogenesis of sunlight-induced skin cancer in humans

  6. Influence of light intensity on the photodegradation of bisphenol A polycarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, M.; Gijsman, P.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of light intensity on the photodegradation rate and photodegradation mechanisms of an unstabilized BPA-PC film was studied by irradiating the BPA-PC samples with a wavelength distribution comparable to terrestrial sunlight and varying irradiation intensities. The highest intensity used

  7. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ragon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in

  8. Sunlight-Exposed Biofilm Microbial Communities Are Naturally Resistant to Chernobyl Ionizing-Radiation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general

  9. Sunlight and Vitamin D: The Bone and Cancer Connections (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holick, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an essential role for calcium metabolism and bone health. It has been estimated that 90 to 95% of our vitamin D requirement comes from casual exposure to sunlight. There is a wide variety of factors that strongly influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D. These include melanin pigmentation, latitude, time of day, sunscreen use, and aging. There is an association with increased risk and mortality to breast, colon, and prostrate cancer. There is evidence that 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is directly metabolised in prostate, breast, colon, and skin cells to its active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 has the capacity to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, it may be that an increase in the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D results in the increase in the production of 1,25(OH) 2 D in tissues not related to calcium metabolism that results in a decrease in malignancy. (author)

  10. The rise of the photosynthetic rate when light intensity increases is delayed in ndh gene-defective tobacco at high but not at low CO2 concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes eMartin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 11 plastid ndh genes have hovered frequently on the edge of dispensability, being absent in the plastid DNA of many algae and certain higher plants. We have compared the photosynthetic activity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Petit Havana with five transgenic lines (ndhF, pr-ndhF, T181D, T181A and ndhF FC and found that photosynthetic performance is impaired in transgenic ndhF-defective tobacco plants at rapidly fluctuating light intensities and higher than ambient CO2 concentrations. In contrast to wild type and ndhF FC, which reach the maximum photosynthetic rate in less than one min when light intensity suddenly increases, ndh defective plants (ndhF and T181A show up to a 5 min delay in reaching the maximum photosynthetic rate at CO2 concentrations higher than the ambient 360 ppm. Net photosynthesis was determined at different CO2 concentrations when sequences of 130, 870, 61, 870 and 130 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR sudden light changes were applied to leaves and photosynthetic efficiency and entropy production were determined as indicators of photosynthesis performance. The two ndh-defective plants, ndhF and T181A, had lower photosynthetic efficiency and higher entropy production than wt, ndhF FC and T181D tobacco plants, containing full functional ndh genes, at CO2 concentrations above 400 ppm. We propose that the Ndh complex improves cyclic electron transport by adjusting the redox level of transporters during the low light intensity stage. In ndhF-defective strains, the supply of electrons through the Ndh complex fails, transporters remain over-oxidized (specially at high CO2 concentrations and the rate of cyclic electron transport is low, impairing the ATP level required to rapidly reach high CO2 fixation rates in the following high light phase. Hence, ndh genes could be dispensable at low but not at high atmospheric concentrations of CO2.

  11. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion augments the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression during recovery from intense interval exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Michael E; Martin, Brian J; Gillen, Jenna B; Skelly, Lauren E; MacInnis, Martin J; Green, Alex E; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) prior to an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would augment signaling cascades and gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. On two occasions separated by ∼1 wk, nine men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 yr, weight 78 ± 13 kg, V̇O(2 peak) 48 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 10 × 60-s cycling efforts at an intensity eliciting ∼90% of maximal heart rate (263 ± 40 W), interspersed with 60 s of recovery. In a double-blind, crossover manner, subjects ingested a total of 0.4 g/kg body weight NaHCO3 before exercise (BICARB) or an equimolar amount of a placebo, sodium chloride (PLAC). Venous blood bicarbonate and pH were elevated at all time points after ingestion (P 0.05). However, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression after 3 h of recovery was higher in BICARB vs. PLAC (approximately sevenfold vs. fivefold compared with rest, P < 0.05). We conclude that NaHCO3 before HIIT alters the mRNA expression of this key regulatory protein associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. The elevated PGC-1α mRNA response provides a putative mechanism to explain the enhanced mitochondrial adaptation observed after chronic HIIT supplemented with NaHCO3 in rats. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Effect of sunlight radiation, rainfall and droplet spectra of sprays on persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis deposits after application of DiPel 76AF formulation onto conifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, A.; Sundaram, K.M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Effect of sunlight radiation, rainfall and droplet spectra of sprays on per ‐sistence of a Bacillus thuringiensis subspp. kurstaki (Btk) formulation, DiPel? 76AF, was examined after application onto spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] foliage. The investigation consisted of three studies: (i) Study I: a laboratory microcosm study to examine the photostability of DiPel 76AF deposits on foliage after different periods of exposure to two radiation intensities, (ii) Study II: a laboratory microcosm study to examine the rainfastness of foliar deposits after exposure to different amounts of rainfall consisting of two separate droplet spectra, and (iii) Study III: a field microcosm study to investigate the influence of two different droplet spectra of DiPel 76AF sprays on foliar persistence of Btk under natural weathering conditions. In all studies, persistence of Btk was investigated both by bioassay [using spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens)] and total protein assay.The findings of Study I indicated that bioactivity of foliar deposits decreased with increasing duration of exposure to radiation, and with increasing radiation intensity. The half‐life (DT 50 , the exposure period required for 50% of the initial bioactivity to disappear) was 5.1 d for the low intensity, and 3.9 d for the higher intensity. In contrast with the bioassay results, the total protein levels [determined by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method] showed no decrease with increasing duration of exposure, or with increasing radiation intensity.The findings of Study II indicated that bioactivity of foliar deposits decreased with increasing cumulative rainfall. A new term, RF 50 [the amount of rain (in mm) required to washoff 50% of the initial deposit], was introduced to understand the relationship between rainfall intensity and reduction in bioactivity. When the same amount of rain was applied in different droplet sizes, the RF 50 value was high (5.2 mm) for the small rain droplets

  13. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Factors Associated With the Increasing Rates of Discharges Directly Home From Intensive Care Units-A Direct From ICU Sent Home Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Vincent I; Priestap, Fran A; Lam, Joyce N H; Ball, Ian M

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between rates of discharge directly to home (DDH) from the intensive care unit (ICU) and bed availability (ward and ICU). Also to identify patient characteristics that make them candidates for safe DDH and describe transfer delay impact on length of stay (LOS). Retrospective cohort study of all adult patients who survived their stay in our medical-surgical-trauma ICU between April 2003 and March 2015. Median age was 49 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 33.5-60.4), and the majority of the patients were males (54.8%). Median number of preexisting comorbidities was 5 (IQR: 2-7) diagnoses. Discharge directly to home increased from 28 (3.1% of all survivors) patients in 2003 to 120 (12.5%) patients in 2014. The mean annual rate of DDH was between 11% and 12% over the last 6 years. Approximately 62% (n = 397) of patients waited longer than 4 hours for a ward bed, with a median delay of 2.0 days (IQR: 0.5-4.7) before being DDH. There was an inverse correlation between ICU occupancy and DDH rates ( r P = -.55, P < .0001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.36 to -0.69, R 2 = .29). There was no correlation with ward occupancy and DDH rates ( r s = -.055, P = .64, 95% CI = -0.25 to 0.21). The DDH rates have been increasing over time at our institution and were inversely correlated with ICU bed occupancy but were not associated with ward occupancy. The DDH patients are young, have few comorbidities on admission, and few discharge diagnoses, which are usually reversible single system problems with low disease burden. Transfers to the ward are delayed in a majority of cases, leading to increased ICU LOS and likely increased overall hospital LOS as well.

  15. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for high-grade gliomas: Does IMRT increase the integral dose to normal brain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanto, Ulrich; Frija, Erik K.; Lii, MingFwu J.; Chang, Eric L.; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment increases the total integral dose of nontarget tissue relative to the conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique for high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with 3D-CRT for glioblastoma multiforme were selected for a comparative dosimetric evaluation with IMRT. Original target volumes, organs at risk (OAR), and dose-volume constraints were used for replanning with IMRT. Predicted isodose distributions, cumulative dose-volume histograms of target volumes and OAR, normal tissue integral dose, target coverage, dose conformity, and normal tissue sparing with 3D-CRT and IMRT planning were compared. Statistical analyses were performed to determine differences. Results: In all 20 patients, IMRT maintained equivalent target coverage, improved target conformity (conformity index [CI] 95% 1.52 vs. 1.38, p mean by 19.8% and D max by 10.7%), optic chiasm (D mean by 25.3% and D max by 22.6%), right optic nerve (D mean by 37.3% and D max by 28.5%), and left optic nerve (D mean by 40.6% and D max by 36.7%), p ≤ 0.01. This was achieved without increasing the total nontarget integral dose by greater than 0.5%. Overall, total integral dose was reduced by 7-10% with IMRT, p < 0.001, without significantly increasing the 0.5-5 Gy low-dose volume. Conclusions: These results indicate that IMRT treatment for high-grade gliomas allows for improved target conformity, better critical tissue sparing, and importantly does so without increasing integral dose and the volume of normal tissue exposed to low doses of radiation

  16. Caffeine prevents high-intensity exercise-induced increase in enzymatic antioxidant and Na+-K+-ATPase activities and reduction of anxiolytic like-behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Juliano M; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Gutierres, Jessié M; Soares, Mayara S P; Oliveira, Pathise S; Rubin, Maribel A; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa; Spanevello, Roselia M

    2017-11-01

    Here we investigated the impact of chronic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and caffeine consumption on the activities of Na + -K + -ATPase and enzymes of the antioxidant system, as well as anxiolytic-like behaviour in the rat brain. Animals were divided into groups: control, caffeine (4 mg/kg), caffeine (8 mg/kg), HIIT, HIIT plus caffeine (4 mg/kg) and HIIT plus caffeine (8 mg/kg). Rats were trained three times per week for 6 weeks, and caffeine was administered 30 minutes before training. We assessed the anxiolytic-like behaviour, Na + -K + -ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the brain. HIIT-induced anxiolytic-like behaviour increased Na + -K + -ATPase and GPx activities and TBARS levels, altered the activities of SOD and CAT in different brain regions, and decreased GSH levels. Caffeine, however, elicited anxiogenic-like behaviour and blocked HIIT effects. The combination of caffeine and HIIT prevented the increase in SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and GPx activity in three brain regions. Our results show that caffeine promoted anxiogenic behaviour and prevented HIIT-induced changes in the antioxidant system and Na + -K + -ATPase activities.

  17. Delirium in the intensive care setting and the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS): Drowsiness increases the risk and is subthreshold for delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Soenke; Nuñez, David Garcia; Meyer, Rafael; Richter, André; Fernandez, Susana Franco; Rudiger, Alain; Schubert, Maria; Jenewein, Josef

    2017-12-01

    Sedation is a core concept in the intensive care setting, however, the impact of sedation on delirium has not yet been studied to date. In this prospective cohort study, 225 patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation (RASS) scores of -1 - drowsiness and 0 - alert- and calmness were assessed with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 1998 (DRS-R-98) and DSM-IV-TR-determined diagnosis of delirium assessing drowsiness versus alertness. By itself, drowsiness increased the odds for developing delirium eightfold (OR 7.88 pmemory representing the core domains of delirium, or the temporal onset were very sensitive towards delirium, however lacked specificity. Conversely, delusions, perceptual abnormalities and lability of affect representing the non-core domain were very specific for delirium in the drowsy, however, not very sensitive. In the absence of delirium, drowsiness caused attentional impairment and language abnormalities. Drowsiness increased the odds for developing delirium eightfold and caused more severe delirium, which was characterized by sleep-wake cycle and language abnormalities. Further, drowsiness by itself caused attentional impairment and language abnormalities, thus, with its disturbance in consciousness was subthreshold for delirium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sunlight mediated seasonality in canopy structure and photosynthetic activity of Amazonian rainforests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Choi, Sungho; Park, Taejin; Barichivich, Jonathan; Ciais, Philippe; Fu, Rong; Ganguly, Sangram; Hall, Forrest; Hilker, Thomas; Huete, Alfredo; Jones, Matthew; Kimball, John; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Mõttus, Matti; Nemani, Ramakrishna R; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Saleska, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Resolving the debate surrounding the nature and controls of seasonal variation in the structure and metabolism of Amazonian rainforests is critical to understanding their response to climate change. In situ studies have observed higher photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates, increased litterfall and leaf flushing during the Sunlight-rich dry season. Satellite data also indicated higher greenness level, a proven surrogate of photosynthetic carbon fixation, and leaf area during the dry season relative to the wet season. Some recent reports suggest that rainforests display no seasonal variations and the previous results were satellite measurement artefacts. Therefore, here we re-examine several years of data from three sensors on two satellites under a range of sun positions and satellite measurement geometries and document robust evidence for a seasonal cycle in structure and greenness of wet equatorial Amazonian rainforests. This seasonal cycle is concordant with independent observations of solar radiation. We attribute alternative conclusions to an incomplete study of the seasonal cycle, i.e. the dry season only, and to prognostications based on a biased radiative transfer model. Consequently, evidence of dry season greening in geometry corrected satellite data was ignored and the absence of evidence for seasonal variation in lidar data due to noisy and saturated signals was misinterpreted as evidence of the absence of changes during the dry season. Our results, grounded in the physics of radiative transfer, buttress previous reports of dry season increases in leaf flushing, litterfall, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration in well-hydrated Amazonian rainforests. (letter)

  19. Chemo-radiotherapy for localized pancreatic cancer: increased dose intensity and reduced acute toxicity with concomitant radiotherapy and protracted venous infusion 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poen, Joseph C.; Collins, Helen L.; Niederhuber, John E.; Oberhelman, Harry A.; Vierra, Mark A.; Bastidas, Augusto J.; Young, Harvey S.; Slosberg, Edward A.; Jeffrey, Brooke R.; Longacre, Teri A.; Goffinet, Don R.

    1996-01-01

    intensity was significantly greater for the PVI treatment group. Cumulative 5-FU dose (mean = 7.1 gm/m 2 vs. 2.5 gm/m 2 , p 2 /wk vs. 0.5 gm/m2/wk, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients receiving PVI 5-FU. Following pancreaticoduodenectomy, 93% of those receiving PVI 5-FU were able to maintain a radiotherapy dose intensity of ≥ 900 cGy/wk throughout treatment, compared with 63% of those receiving bolus 5-FU (p = 0.03). No difference was seen for patients with locally advanced disease (67% vs. 76%, p = ns). Hematologic toxicity was reduced for patients receiving PVI 5-FU. Grade II-III neutropenia was less common for patients treated with PVI (10% vs. 34%, p = 0.04) compared with patients receiving bolus 5-FU. Thrombocytopenia was limited to Grade I in both treatment groups. Gastrointestinal toxicity as assessed by percent body weight loss during treatment was similar in the two treatment groups and was independent of disease stage. Mean percent weight loss for PVI and bolus 5-FU regimens were 4.7% and 4.1%, respectively (p = ns). Weight loss ≥ 5% body weight (32% vs. 31%) and ≥ 10% (10% vs. 7.7%, p = ns) were also similar between treatment groups. RT treatment interruptions for hematologic, gastrointestinal or other acute toxicities were less common for patients receiving PVI 5-FU (5% vs. 20%, p = 0.11) compared with patients receiving bolus 5-FU. Conclusion: Concurrent radiotherapy and protracted venous infusion 5-FU was well tolerated treatment for patients with localized pancreatic cancer and allowed for a 2.6 fold increase in 5-FU dose intensity for all patients, significantly greater radiotherapy dose intensity for resected patients and equivalent or reduced acute hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity. Longer follow-up will be needed to assess late effects and the impact on overall survival

  20. Nocturnal light pollution and underexposure to daytime sunlight: Complementary mechanisms of circadian disruption and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Routine exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in work, home, and community settings is linked with increased risk of breast and prostate cancer (BC, PC) in normally sighted women and men, the hypothesized biological rhythm mechanisms being frequent nocturnal melatonin synthesis suppression, circadian time structure (CTS) desynchronization, and sleep/wake cycle disruption with sleep deprivation. ALAN-induced perturbation of the CTS melatonin synchronizer signal is communicated maternally at the very onset of life and after birth via breast or artificial formula feedings. Nighttime use of personal computers, mobile phones, electronic tablets, televisions, and the like--now epidemic in adolescents and adults and highly prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children--is a new source of ALAN. However, ALAN exposure occurs concomitantly with almost complete absence of daytime sunlight, whose blue-violet (446-484 nm λ) spectrum synchronizes the CTS and whose UV-B (290-315 nm λ) spectrum stimulates vitamin D synthesis. Under natural conditions and clear skies, day/night and annual cycles of UV-B irradiation drive corresponding periodicities in vitamin D synthesis and numerous bioprocesses regulated by active metabolites augment and strengthen the biological time structure. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in children and adults in developed and developing countries as a consequence of inadequate sunlight exposure. Past epidemiologic studies have focused either on exposure to too little daytime UV-B or too much ALAN, respectively, on vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency or melatonin suppression in relation to risk of cancer and other, e.g., psychiatric, hypertensive, cardiac, and vascular, so-called, diseases of civilization. The observed elevated incidence of medical conditions the two are alleged to influence through many complementary bioprocesses of cells, tissues, and organs led us to examine effects of the totality of the artificial light

  1. Combined Treatment of Alendronate and Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS Increases Bone Mineral Density at the Cancellous Bone Osteotomy Site in Aged Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aonuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During fracture healing, alendronate encourages callus volume by inhibiting bone resorption, whereas low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS enhances bone regeneration by promoting an anabolic response. Methods: In the present study, 9-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, with a unilateral proximal tibial osteotomy, were treated with alendronate (daily, 1 g/kg plus sham-LIPUS (n = 14, saline plus LIPUS (20 min/day (n = 18, alendronate plus LIPUS (n = 16, or saline plus sham- LIPUS as a control (n = 13 for 4 weeks. The rats were then examined for changes in bone mineral density (BMD during metaphyseal bone repair. Results: The combined therapy signi cantly increased BMD at the osteotomy site at 4 weeks (p < 0.001 compared with the control, without affecting the contralateral, non-osteotomized tibia. Both alendronate and LIPUS alone also exerted a positive, albeit less, effect on BMD in the affected limb (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions: Alendronate and LIPUS cooperate to enhance BMD during metaphyseal bone healing. Keywords: LIPUS, bisphosphonate, bone mineral density.

  2. Association between increased blood interleukin-6 levels on emergency department arrival and prolonged length of intensive care unit stay for blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masashi; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Shinozaki, Koichiro; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Systemic immune response to injury plays a key role in the pathophysiological mechanism of blunt trauma. We tested the hypothesis that increased blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels of blunt trauma patients on emergency department (ED) arrival are associated with poor clinical outcomes, and investigated the utility of rapid measurement of the blood IL-6 level. We enrolled 208 consecutive trauma patients who were transferred from the scene of an accident to a level I trauma centre in Japan and admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Blood IL-6 levels on ED arrival were measured by using a rapid measurement assay. The primary outcome variable was prolonged ICU stay (length of ICU stay > 7 days). The secondary outcomes were 28-day mortality, probability of survival and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores. Patients with prolonged ICU stay had significantly higher blood IL-6 levels on ED arrival than the patients without prolonged ICU stay (P tool to improve assessment of injury severity and prediction of clinical outcomes in the initial phase of trauma care.

  3. High Intensity Interval Training Increases Natural Killer Cell Number and Function in Obese Breast Cancer-challenged Mice and Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Nicole G; Fan, Isabella Y; Gillen, Jenna B; Chew, Marianne; Marcinko, Katarina; Steinberg, Gregory R; Gibala, Martin J; Ashkar, Ali A

    2017-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) boosts natural killer (NK) cell number and activity in normal weight breast cancer patients; however, whether this occurs in obese individuals is not well established. The goal of this study was to determine whether HIIT effectively boosts NK cells as a therapeutic strategy against breast cancer in an obese mouse model and in overweight/obese women. Diet induced female C57Bl/6 obese mice were assigned to undergo HIIT for four weeks or remain sedentary. Female participants were subjected to a six weeks HIIT protocol. HIIT mice acclimatized to treadmill running were subsequently injected with 5 × 10 5 polyoma middle T (MT) breast cancer cells intravenously. NK cell number and activation were monitored using flow cytometry, and tumor burden or lipid content evaluated from histological lung and liver tissues, respectively. In both mice and humans, circulating NK cell number and activation (CD3-NK1.1+CD27+ and CD3-CD56+, respectively) markedly increased immediately after HIIT. HIIT obese mice had reduced lung tumor burden compared to controls following MT challenge, and had diminished hepatic lipid deposition despite minimal body weight loss. Our findings demonstrate that HIIT can benefit obese individuals by enhancing NK cell number and activity, reducing tumor burden, and enhancing metabolic health.

  4. Dietary fat acutely increases glucose concentrations and insulin requirements in patients with type 1 diabetes: implications for carbohydrate-based bolus dose calculation and intensive diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Howard A; Atakov-Castillo, Astrid; Smith, Stephanie A; Steil, Garry M

    2013-04-01

    Current guidelines for intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes base the mealtime insulin bolus calculation exclusively on carbohydrate counting. There is strong evidence that free fatty acids impair insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that patients with type 1 diabetes would require more insulin coverage for higher-fat meals than lower-fat meals with identical carbohydrate content. We used a crossover design comparing two 18-h periods of closed-loop glucose control after high-fat (HF) dinner compared with low-fat (LF) dinner. Each dinner had identical carbohydrate and protein content, but different fat content (60 vs. 10 g). Seven patients with type 1 diabetes (age, 55 ± 12 years; A1C 7.2 ± 0.8%) successfully completed the protocol. HF dinner required more insulin than LF dinner (12.6 ± 1.9 units vs. 9.0 ± 1.3 units; P = 0.01) and, despite the additional insulin, caused more hyperglycemia (area under the curve >120 mg/dL = 16,967 ± 2,778 vs. 8,350 ± 1,907 mg/dL⋅min; P Carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio for HF dinner was significantly lower (9 ± 2 vs. 13 ± 3 g/unit; P = 0.01). There were marked interindividual differences in the effect of dietary fat on insulin requirements (percent increase significantly correlated with daily insulin requirement; R(2) = 0.64; P = 0.03). This evidence that dietary fat increases glucose levels and insulin requirements highlights the limitations of the current carbohydrate-based approach to bolus dose calculation. These findings point to the need for alternative insulin dosing algorithms for higher-fat meals and suggest that dietary fat intake is an important nutritional consideration for glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes.

  5. A Multidisciplinary Quality Improvement Approach Increases Breastmilk Availability at Discharge from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for the Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixby, Christine; Baker-Fox, Cindy; Deming, Crystal; Dhar, Vijay; Steele, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Mothers of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants often struggle to establish and maintain a milk supply. Children's Hospital of Orange County (CHOC Children's) data from 2005 to 2011 showed that while the total percentage of all neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) babies being discharged on breastmilk had remained stable, the percentage of VLBW babies with breastmilk at discharge had declined. This information resulted in a quality improvement initiative to remove barriers and implement programs shown to have the greatest impact on initiating and sustaining lactation in this patient subset. The objective of this initiative was to increase breastmilk availability at discharge for the VLBW population. A multidisciplinary program was initiated, which included NICU parent and staff education, clarification of roles, and improved access to pumping supplies. Physicians and nurses completed online education. An algorithm defining roles in lactation support was developed, and a resource team of trained bedside nurses was formed. Lactation consultant time was then refocused on the VLBW population. In addition, "Lactation Support" was added to the physician daily documentation to bring the topic to daily bedside rounds. Twice weekly lactation rounds between the lactation consultant and neonatologist addressed lactation concerns for each dyad. To address pumping issues, the loaner pump program was enhanced. To assess the effectiveness of the initiative, breastmilk availability at discharge for the VLBW population at CHOC Children's was compared from baseline (2011) to the end of June 2015. VLBW breastmilk availability at discharge upon project initiation was 58.7% and increased by 36% to a final rate of 80% by 2013--a rate sustained through the first 6 months of 2015. The results of this initiative suggest that a multidisciplinary approach, including education, changes in workflow, and redefinition of roles, is effective in improving breastmilk rates at discharge in the VLBW

  6. Exogenous indirect photoinactivation of bacterial pathogens and indicators in water with natural and synthetic photosensitizers in simulated sunlight with reduced UVB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraccini, P A; Wenk, J; Boehm, A B

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the UVB-independent and exogenous indirect photoinactivation of eight human health-relevant bacterial species in the presence of photosensitizers. Eight bacterial species were exposed to simulated sunlight with greatly reduced UVB light intensity in the presence of three synthetic photosensitizers and two natural photosensitizers. Inactivation curves were fit with shoulder log-linear or first-order kinetic models, from which the presence of a shoulder and magnitude of inactivation rate constants were compared. Eighty-four percent reduction in the UVB light intensity roughly matched a 72-95% reduction in the overall bacterial photoinactivation rate constants in sensitizer-free water. With the UVB light mostly reduced, the exogenous indirect mechanism contribution was evident for most bacteria and photosensitizers tested, although most prominently with the Gram-positive bacteria. Results confirm the importance of UVB light in bacterial photoinactivation and, with the reduction of the UVB light intensity, that the Gram-positive bacteria are more vulnerable to the exogenous indirect mechanism than Gram-negative bacteria. UVB is the most important range of the sunlight spectrum for bacterial photoinactivation. In aquatic environments where photosensitizers are present and there is high UVB light attenuation, UVA and visible wavelengths can contribute to exogenous indirect photoinactivation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Increasing use of less-invasive hemodynamic monitoring in 3 specialty surgical intensive care units: a 5-year experience at a tertiary medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, Orlando C; Calabrese, Rebecca C; Staff, Ilene

    2015-01-01

    Less-invasive hemodynamic monitoring (eg, esophageal doppler monitoring [EDM] and arterial pressure contour analysis, FloTrac) is increasingly used as an alternative to pulmonary artery catheters (PACs) in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU). The decrease in use of PACs is not associated with increased mortality. Five-year retrospective review of 1894 hemodynamically monitored patients admitted to 3 surgical ICUs in a university-affiliate, tertiary care urban hospital. Data included the number of admissions, diagnosis-related group discharge case mix, length of stay, insertion of monitoring devices (PAC, EDM, and FloTrac probes), administered intravenous vasoactive agents (β-predominant agonists--dobutamine, epinephrine, and dopamine; vasopressors--norepinephrine and phenylephrine), and mortality. Data from hospital administrative databases were compiled to create patient characteristic and monitoring variables across a 5-year time period, 2005 to 2009 inclusive. Chi-square for independent proportions, 1-way analysis of variance, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used; tests for trend were conducted. An α level of .05 was considered significant. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences v14 was used for all statistical testing. There was a significant change in the type of hemodynamic monitors inserted in 2 of the 3 surgical ICUs (in the general surgery and neurointensive care but not in the cardiac ICU) from PACs to less-invasive devices (FloTrac or EDM) during the 5-year study period (P < .001). There was no change in mortality rate over the time period (P = .492). There was an overall increase in the proportion of monitored patients who received intravenous vasoactive agents (P < .001) with a progressive shift from β-agonists to vasopressors (P < .002). Multivariate analyses indicated that age, case mix, and use of vasoactive agents were all independent predictors of inhospital mortality (P = .001) but that type of monitoring was not (P = .638). In a 5

  8. Effect of Increasing Experience on Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes in the Management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Pretesh R., E-mail: patel073@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yoo, Sua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Broadwater, Gloria [Cancer Center Biostatistics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Miles, Edward F. [Naval Medical Center, Portsmouth, Virginia (United States); D' Amico, Thomas A.; Harpole, David [Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kelsey, Chris R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of increasing experience with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods and Materials: The records of all patients who received IMRT following EPP at Duke University Medical Center between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Target volumes included the preoperative extent of the pleural space, chest wall incisions, involved nodal stations, and a boost to close/positive surgical margins if applicable. Patients were typically treated with 9-11 beams with gantry angles, collimator rotations, and beam apertures manually fixed to avoid the contalateral lung and to optimize target coverage. Toxicity was graded retrospectively using National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria version 4.0. Target coverage and contralateral lung irradiation were evaluated over time by using linear regression. Local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Thirty patients received IMRT following EPP; 21 patients also received systemic chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 15 months. The median dose prescribed to the entire ipsilateral hemithorax was 45 Gy (range, 40-50.4 Gy) with a boost of 8-25 Gy in 9 patients. Median survival was 23.2 months. Two-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 47%, 34%, and 50%, respectively. Increasing experience planning MPM cases was associated with improved coverage of planning target volumes (P=.04). Similarly, mean lung dose (P<.01) and lung V5 (volume receiving 5 Gy or more; P<.01) values decreased with increasing experience. Lung toxicity developed after IMRT in 4 (13%) patients at a median of 2.2 months after RT (three grade 3-4 and one grade 5). Lung toxicity developed in 4 of the initial 15 patients vs none of the last 15 patients treated. Conclusions: With increasing experience, target volume coverage improved and dose to the

  9. Spectropolarimetric Measurements of Scattered Sunlight in the Huggins Bands: Retrieval of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, D.; Sander, S. P.; Stutz, J.; Pongetti, T. J.; Yung, Y. L.; Wong, M.; Natraj, V.; Li, K.; Shia, R.

    2009-12-01

    Ozone concentrations in the troposphere have increased over the past century as a result of anthropogenic emissions of NOx and volatile organic compounds. In addition to being harmful to human health and plant life, ozone is an important greenhouse gas, especially in the middle and upper troposphere. Therefore, accurate monitoring of tropospheric ozone vertical distributions is crucial for a better understanding of air quality and climate change. Simulations of vector radiative transfer in the near ultraviolet region have shown that tropospheric ozone profiles can be retrieved using polarization measurements. However, to date there has been no experimental test of this method. A new compact, portable spectropolarimeter has been built for atmospheric remote sensing. The first comprehensive description of the configuration and performance of this instrument for ground-based operation is provided and sample atmospheric scattered sunlight spectra are shown. Using optimal estimation retrieval theory we study the information content of polarization spectra in the Huggins band and uncertainties in the retrieval associated with the measurement parameters, such as aerosol scattering.

  10. Sunlight stability and rain-fastness of formulations of Baculovirus heliothis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignoffo, C.M.; Garcia, C.; Saathoff, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    Sunlight-Ultraviolet, with an activity spectrum from 290 to 400 nm, is the most destructive factor affecting the persistence of baculoviruses. Benzopurpurin (a disazo dye) and carbon provided the best protection when polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) of Baculovirus heliothis were exposed to an artificial spectrum simulating sunlight-UV (UV). Greater than 75% of the original PIB activity was still present after 48 h of sunlight-UV. When sprayed on soybeans and exposed to natural sunlight, only formulations with carbon provided significant protection of PIB. The half-life of formulations were PIB-only 4.9 +/- 1.4 h (mean +/- SE), PIB + polymer (pyrrolidone-based sticker) 3.3 +/- 0.6 h, PIB + polymer + benzopurpurin 3.4 +/- 0.7 h, and PIB + polymer + carbon 27.7 +/- 5.2 h. PIB of B. heliothis tenaciously adhere to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, leaflets after spraying and drying. Less than 6% of the PIB activity of nonformulated PIB was lost after a drenching, simulated rainfall. More than 97% of the original PIB activity of carbon formulations was still present on soybean leaflets after 10 h of exposure to sunlight-UV. In contrast, 20% was present for formulations without carbon

  11. Sunlight Triggers Cutaneous Lupus through a Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) Dependent Mechanism in MRL-Faslpr mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Byrne, Katelyn T.; Lucas, Julie A.; Rabacal, Whitney A.; Croker, Byron P.; Zong, Xiao-Hua; Stanley, E. Richard; Kelley, Vicki R.

    2008-01-01

    Sunlight (UVB) triggers cutaneous (CLE) and systemic lupus through an unknown mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that UVB triggers CLE through a CSF-1-dependent, macrophage (Mø) -mediated mechanism in MRL-Faslpr mice. By constructing mutant MRL-Faslpr strains expressing varying levels of CSF-1 (high, intermediate, none), and use of an ex-vivo gene transfer to deliver CSF-1 intra-dermally, we determined that CSF-1 induces CLE in lupus-susceptible, MRL-Faslpr mice, but not in lupus-resistant, BALB/c mice. Notably, UVB incites an increase in Mø, apoptosis in the skin and CLE in MRL-Faslpr, but not in CSF-1-deficient MRL-Faslpr mice. Furthermore, UVB did not induce CLE in BALB/c mice. Probing further, UVB stimulates CSF-1 expression by keratinocytes leading to recruitment and activation of Mø that, in turn, release mediators, which induce apoptosis in keratinocytes. Thus, sunlight triggers a CSF-1-dependent, Mø-mediated destructive inflammation in the skin leading to CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Faslpr, but not lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. Taken together, we envision CSF-1 as the “match” and lupus-susceptibility as the “tinder” leading to CLE. PMID:18981160

  12. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in sedentary aging men but not masters' athletes: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Peter; Hayes, Lawrence D; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the impact high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in active compared with sedentary aging men. 22 lifetime sedentary (SED; 62 ± 2 years) and 17 masters' athletes (LEX; 60 ± 5 years) were recruited to the study. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, the study required three assessment phases; enrollment (phase A), following preconditioning exercise (phase B), and post-HIIT (phase C). Serum IGF-I was determined by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. IGF-I was higher in LEX compared to SED at baseline (p = 0.007, Cohen's d = 0.91), and phase B (p = 0.083, Cohen's d = 0.59), with only a small difference at C (p = 0.291, Cohen's d = 0.35). SED experienced a small increase in IGF-I following preconditioning from 13.1 ± 4.7 to 14.2 ± 6.0 μg·dl -1 (p = 0.376, Cohen's d = 0.22), followed by a larger increase post-HIIT (16.9 ± 4.4 μg·dl -1 ), which was significantly elevated compared with baseline (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.85), and post-preconditioning (p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.51). LEX experienced a trivial changes in IGF-I from A to B (18.2 ± 6.4 to 17.2 ± 3.7 μg·dl -1 [p = 0.538, Cohen's d = 0.19]), and a small change post-HIIT (18.4 ± 4.1 μg·dl -1 [p = 0.283, Cohen's d = 0.31]). Small increases were observed in fat-free mass in both groups following HIIT (p HIIT with preconditioning exercise abrogates the age associated difference in IGF-I between SED and LEX, and induces small improvements in fat-free mass in both SED and LEX.

  13. Prediction of near-term increases in suicidal ideation in recently depressed patients with bipolar II disorder using intensive longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Colin A; Thompson, Wesley K; Frank, Ellen; Swartz, Holly A

    2017-01-15

    There are substantial gaps in understanding near-term precursors of suicidal ideation in bipolar II disorder. We evaluated whether repeated patient-reported mood and energy ratings predicted subsequent near-term increases in suicide ideation. Secondary data were used from 86 depressed adults with bipolar II disorder enrolled in one of 3 clinical trials evaluating Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy and/or pharmacotherapy as treatments for depression. Twenty weeks of daily mood and energy ratings and weekly Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were obtained. Penalized regression was used to model trajectories of daily mood and energy ratings in the 3 week window prior to HDRS Suicide Item ratings. Participants completed an average of 68.6 (sd=52) days of mood and energy ratings. Aggregated across the sample, 22% of the 1675 HDRS Suicide Item ratings were non-zero, indicating presence of at least some suicidal thoughts. A cross-validated model with longitudinal ratings of energy and depressed mood within the three weeks prior to HDRS ratings resulted in an AUC of 0.91 for HDRS Suicide item >2, accounting for twice the variation when compared to baseline HDRS ratings. Energy, both at low and high levels, was an earlier predictor than mood. Data derived from a heterogeneous treated sample may not generalize to naturalistic samples. Identified suicidal behavior was absent from the sample so it could not be predicted. Prediction models coupled with intensively gathered longitudinal data may shed light on the dynamic course of near-term risk factors for suicidal ideation in bipolar II disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lifelong exercise, but not short-term high-intensity interval training, increases GDF11, a marker of successful aging: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bradley T; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Stratton, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence D

    2017-07-01

    Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males. SED follistatin was moderately greater than LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.66), and was largely greater post-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 1.22). The HIIT-induced increase in follistatin was large in SED (Cohen's d  = 0.82) and absent in LEX (Cohen's d  = 0.03). GDF11 was higher in LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.49) and post-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.63) compared to SED HIIT resulted in no change to GDF11 in LEX or SED (Cohen's d  = 0.00-0.03). Peak power output and GDF11 were correlated ( r  = 0.603), independent of grouping. Differences in GDF11 with lifelong exercise training, paired with the correlation between GDF11 and peak power output, suggested that GDF11 may be a relevant myostatin-interacting peptide to successful aging in humans, and strategies to maintain this need to be further explored. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  15. Different rays of sunlight: Understanding information disclosure and carbon transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisoff, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of two types information disclosure programs – state-based mandatory carbon reporting programs and the voluntary Carbon Disclosure Project, which uses investor pressure to push firms to disclose carbon emissions and carbon management strategies. I match firms in each program to control groups of firms that have not participated in each program. Using panel data methods and a difference in differences specification, I measure the impact of each program on plant-level carbon emissions, plant-level carbon intensity, and plant level output. I find that neither program has generated an impact on plant-level carbon emissions, emissions intensity, or output. Placing this study in contrast with others that demonstrate improvements from mandatory information disclosure, these results suggest that how information is reported to stakeholders has important implications for program effectiveness. - Highlights: ► This article evaluates the Carbon Disclosure Project and state carbon reporting requirements. ► Evaluation is conducted with propensity score matching and difference-in-differences. ► State Disclosure Programs fail to lead power plants to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. ► The Carbon Disclosure Project leads to decreases in carbon emissions and electricity output. ► Information disclosure and transparency may be important part of policy mix but have limitations

  16. Effects of water stress and light intensity on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigments of Aloe vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Saeid; Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Zeinolabedin; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, Ali; Nicola, Silvana

    2016-09-01

    Aloe vera L. is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. In order to determine the effects of light intensity and water deficit stress on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and pigments of A. vera, a split-plot in time experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a research greenhouse. The factorial combination of three light intensities (50, 75 and 100% of sunlight) and four irrigation regimes (irrigation after depleting 20, 40, 60 and 80% of soil water content) were considered as main factors. Sampling time was considered as sub factor. The first, second and third samplings were performed 90, 180 and 270 days after imposing the treatments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the highest light intensity and the severe water stress decreased maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv)/Fm, quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ФPSII), Chl and photochemical quenching (qP) but increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), minimum fluorescence (F0) and Anthocyanin (Anth). Additionally, the highest Fm, Fv/Fm, ФPSII and qP and the lowest NPQ and F0 were observed when 50% of sunlight was blocked and irrigation was done after 40% soil water depletion. Irradiance of full sunlight and water deficit stress let to the photoinhibition of photosynthesis, as indicated by a reduced quantum yield of PSII, ФPSII, and qP, as well as higher NPQ. Thus, chlorophyll florescence measurements provide valuable physiological data. Close to half of total solar radiation and irrigation after depleting 40% of soil water content were selected as the most efficient treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, H; Mikkelsen, K; Poulsen, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sunlight exposure of the skin is known to be the most important source of vitamin D. The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate vitamin D status amongst sunlight-deprived individuals (veiled Arab women, veiled ethnic Danish Moslem women and Danish controls); and (ii) through food...... intake analysis to estimate the oral intake of vitamin D necessary to keep a normal vitamin D status in sunlight-deprived individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study amongst randomly selected Moslem women of Arab origin living in Denmark. Age-matched Danish women were included as controls. To control...... for racial differences, a group of veiled ethnic Danish Moslem women (all Caucasians) was included. SETTING: Primary Health Care Centre, City Vest and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus Amtssygehus, Aarhus, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Sixty-nine Arab women (60 veiled...

  18. Effect of sunlight on the survival of pathogenic E. coli in freshwater and sea water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Thampuran, N.

    2011-01-01

    An enteropathogenic group of E. coli are the emerging category of pathogen of public health significance. Several recent pathogenic E. coli outbreaks are associated with drinking water. Aquaculture, the fast emerging food production sector also poses a pathogenic EHEC outbreak risk, as it regularly...... uses cow dung, a reservoir of this organism. Hence, a experiment was set up to study the duration of survival of pathogenic E. coli under sunlight and darkness. Eight pathogenic E. coli isolates from clinical (EPEC, ETEC, EHEC, EAEC), veterinary (CTE3, CTE4) and environmental sources (ASHE3, Rao II......) were studied for their survival under sunlight and darkness in fresh water and seawater. Effect of direct sunlight on the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of cultures was also studied. The results of the study indicated a distinct pattern between freshwater system and seawater system. Pathogenic E...

  19. Evaluation of sunlight induced structural changes and their effect on the photocatalytic activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} for the degradation of phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, M. [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Ismail, Iqbal M.I. [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Salah, Numan [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chandrasekaran, S. [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Qamar, M.Tariq [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hameed, A., E-mail: afmuhammad@kau.edu.sa [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • The interaction of UV photons of sunlight induces defects in V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • The photon induced defects promotes the trapping and transfer of excited electrons. • The nature of the substituent at 2-position affects the degradation process. • The formation of the intermediates is influenced by the nature of substituents. • The released ions are subjected further transformation. - Abstract: Despite knowing the fact that vanadium pentoxide is slightly soluble in aqueous medium, its photocatalytic activity was evaluated for the degradation of phenol and its derivatives (2-hydroxyphenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-aminophenol and 2-nitrophenol) in natural sunlight exposure. The prime objective of the study was to differentiate between the homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysis incurred by dissolved and undissolved V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in natural sunlight exposure. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was synthesized by chemical precipitation procedure using Triton X-100 as morphology mediator and characterized by DRS, PLS, Raman, FESEM and XRD. A lower solubility of ∼5% per 100 ml of water at 23 °C was observed after calcination at 600 °C. The study revealed no contribution of the dissolved V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the photocatalytic process. In sunlight exposure, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder exhibited substantial activity for the degradation, however, a low mineralization of phenolic substrates was observed. The initial low activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} followed by a sharp increase both in degradation and mineralization in complete spectrum sunlight exposure, was further investigated that revealed the decrease in the bandgap and the reduction in the particle size with the interaction of UV photons (<420 nm) as this effect was not observable in the exposure of visible region of sunlight. The role of the chemically different substituents attached to an aromatic ring at 2-positions and the secondary interaction of released ions during the degradation process with the reactive

  20. Roles of sunlight and natural ventilation for controlling infection: historical and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, R A; Dancer, S J

    2013-08-01

    Infections caught in buildings are a major global cause of sickness and mortality. Understanding how infections spread is pivotal to public health yet current knowledge of indoor transmission remains poor. To review the roles of natural ventilation and sunlight for controlling infection within healthcare environments. Comprehensive literature search was performed, using electronic and library databases to retrieve English language papers combining infection; risk; pathogen; and mention of ventilation; fresh air; and sunlight. Foreign language articles with English translation were included, with no limit imposed on publication date. In the past, hospitals were designed with south-facing glazing, cross-ventilation and high ceilings because fresh air and sunlight were thought to reduce infection risk. Historical and recent studies suggest that natural ventilation offers protection from transmission of airborne pathogens. Particle size, dispersal characteristics and transmission risk require more work to justify infection control practices concerning airborne pathogens. Sunlight boosts resistance to infection, with older studies suggesting potential roles for surface decontamination. Current knowledge of indoor transmission of pathogens is inadequate, partly due to lack of agreed definitions for particle types and mechanisms of spread. There is recent evidence to support historical data on the effects of natural ventilation but virtually none for sunlight. Modern practice of designing healthcare buildings for comfort favours pathogen persistence. As the number of effective antimicrobial agents declines, further work is required to clarify absolute risks from airborne pathogens along with any potential benefits from additional fresh air and sunlight. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cathodic protection of carbon steel in natural seawater: Effect of sunlight radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, Alessandro [Istituto per l' Energetica e le Interfasi, IENI - CNR, Milano, via Roberto Cozzi 53 20125 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: alessandro.benedetti@cnr.it; Magagnin, Luca [Dip. Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica G. Natta, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Passaretti, Francesca [Istituto per l' Energetica e le Interfasi IENI - CNR, Lecco, c.so Promessi Sposi 29, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Chelossi, Elisabetta; Faimali, Marco [Istituto di Scienze Marine, ISMAR- CNR - Via De Marini 6, 16149, Genova (Italy); Montesperelli, Giampiero [Universita di Roma - Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Roma (Italy)

    2009-11-01

    Cathodic protection of metals in seawater is known to be influenced by chemical-physical parameters affecting cathodic processes (oxygen discharge, hydrogen evolution and calcareous deposit precipitation). In shallow seawater, these parameters are influenced by sunlight photoperiod and photosynthetic activity. The results presented here represent the first step in studies dedicated to cathodic protection in shallow photic seawater. This paper reports on carbon steel protected at -850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (oxygen limiting current regime) in the presence of sunlight radiation but in the absence of biological and photosynthetic activity, the role of which deserves future research. Comparison of results obtained by exposing electrochemical cells to daylight cycles in both biologically inactivated natural seawater and in NaCl 3.5 wt.% solutions showed that sunlight affects current densities and that calcareous deposit interfere with light-currents effects. Sunlight radiation and induced heating of the solution have been separated, highlighting results not otherwise obvious: (1) observed current waves concomitant with sunlight radiation depend fundamentally on solar radiation, (2) solar radiation can determine current enhancements from early to late phases of aragonite crystal growth, (3) a three-day-old CaCO{sub 3} layer reduces but does not eliminate the amplitude of the current waves. Theoretical calculations for oxygen limiting currents and additional field tests showed that sunlight, rather than bulk solution heating, is the main cause of daily current enhancements. This was confirmed by polarizations performed at -850 and -1000 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (constant bulk temperature), during which the electrode was irradiated with artificial lighting. This test also confirmed O{sub 2} discharge to be the cathodic process involved. A mechanism of radiation conversion to heat in the oxygen diffusion layer region is proposed.

  2. Comparison of germicidal activity of sunlight with the response of a sunburning meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billen, D; Green, A E.S.

    1975-01-01

    In the present work, we compare germicidal activity of sunlight on strain AB 2480 with the irradiance of sunlight as measured with a Sunburning Ultraviolet Meter (manufactured by the Skin and Cancer Hospital, Temple University Health Sciences Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). This instrument, an adaptation by Berger of one developed by Robertson (1972), uses a magnesium tungstate phosphor with a response approximating that of the erythema action spectrum. The light emitted by the phosphor is detected by a phototube which produces a proportional electric current, the signal used in these experiments. (auth)

  3. Errors in short circuit measurements due to spectral mismatch between sunlight and solar simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Errors in short circuit current measurement were calculated for a variety of spectral mismatch conditions. The differences in spectral irradiance between terrestrial sunlight and three types of solar simulator were studied, as well as the differences in spectral response between three types of reference solar cells and various test cells. The simulators considered were a short arc xenon lamp AMO sunlight simulator, an ordinary quartz halogen lamp, and an ELH-type quartz halogen lamp. Three types of solar cells studied were a silicon cell, a cadmium sulfide cell and a gallium arsenide cell.

  4. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuliano, Sandra; Ayton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Background Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female) during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI)/adequate intakes (AI)] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001), magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001), potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001) and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001), and above the upper limit (UL) for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001), whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001) and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001). Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d). Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05), nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy) foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year.

  5. Fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamp use in chambers and greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langhans, R.W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge lamps have opened up great opportunities for researchers to study plant growth under controlled environment conditions and for commercial growers to increase plant production during low/light periods. This report describes the advantages and disadvantages of using each lamp in growth chambers, growth rooms and greenhouses. Growth Chambers are small (3m x 4/m and smaller) walk-in or reach-in enclosures with programmable, accurate temperature, relative humidity (RH) and irradiance control over wide ranges. The intent of growth chambers was to replicate sunlight conditions and transfer research results directly to the greenhouse or outside. It was realized that sunlight and outside conditions could not be mimicked. Growth chambers are also used to study irradiance and spectral fluxes. Growth Rooms are usually large rooms (larger than 3m x 4m) with only lamp irradiance, but providing relatively limited ranges of environmental control (i.e., 10 to 30 C temperature, 50 to 90% RH and ambient to 1000 ppm CO{sub 2}), and commonly independent of outside conditions. Irradiance requirements for growth rooms are similar to those of growth chambers. Growth rooms are also used for growing a large number of plants in a uniform standard environment condition and in commercial horticulture for tissue culture, seed germination (plugs) and seedling growth. Greenhouses are designed to allow maximum sunlight penetration through the structure. Initially greenhouses were used to extend the growing season. Then as heating systems, and cooling systems improved, they were used year round. Low light during the winter months reduced plant growth, but with the advent of efficient lamps (HID and fluorescent) it became possible to increase growth to rates close to that in summer months. Supplementary lighting is used during low light periods of the year and anytime to ensure consistent total daily irradiance for research plants.

  6. Procalcitonin-guided interventions against infections to increase early appropriate antibiotics and improve survival in the intensive care unit: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens U; Hein, Lars; Lundgren, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    For patients in intensive care units, sepsis is a common and potentially deadly complication and prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy improves prognosis. The objective of this trial was to determine whether a strategy of antimicrobial spectrum escalation, guided by daily measure...

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of nanocellulose supported zinc oxide composite for RhB dye as well as ciprofloxacin drug under sunlight/visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavker, Neha; Sharma, Manu

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesised from zinc acetate di-hydrate via co-precipitation method. Nanocellulose was isolated from agrowaste using chemo-mechanical treatments and characterized. Nanocellulose supported zinc oxide composites were prepared through in-situ method by adding different amounts of nanocellulose. The photocatalytic efficiency of pure Zno and nanocellulose supported ZnO was calculated using RhB dye under visible light and sun light. The composites which had nanocellulose in greater ratio showed higher degradation efficiency in sunlight rather than visible light for both; dye and drug. All the composites showed high rate of photodegradation compared to bare ZnO and bare nanocellulose. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity was observed maximum where the amount of cellulose was maximum. The maximum observed rate was 0.025 min-1 using Ciprofloxacin drug due to the increase in lifetime of Z4 sample delaying the electron and hole pair recombination. The degrading efficiency of nanocellulose supported zinc oxide (NC/ZnO) composite for RhB was found to be 35% in visible, 76% in sunlight and 75% for ciprofloxacin under sunlight.

  8. Reversible degradation in ITO-containing organic photovoltaics under concentrated sunlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Mescheloff, A.; Veenstra, S.C.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Katz, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stabilities of ITO-containing and ITO-free organic solar cells were investigated under simulated AM 1.5G illumination and under concentrated natural sunlight. In both cases ITO-free devices exhibit high stability, while devices containing ITO show degradation of their photovoltaic performance. The

  9. Sunlight-enhanced calcareous deposition on cathodic stainless steel in natural seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Eashwar, M.; SathishKumar, P.; Ravishankar, R.; Subramanian, G.

    In replicate series of experiments in natural seawater, one in full darkness and the other in a 1:1 diurnal cycle with as little as 5 percent of natural solar illumination, sunlight promoted calcareous deposition on cathodic stainless steel surfaces...

  10. Colour Counts: Sunlight and Skin Type as Drivers of Vitamin D Deficiency at UK Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ann R; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Kift, Richard C; Farrar, Mark D; Wilkinson, Jack; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2018-04-07

    Sunlight exposure, with resulting cutaneous synthesis, is a major source of vitamin D for many, while dietary intake is low in modern diets. The constitutive pigment in skin determines skin type, observed as white, brown, or black skin. The melanin pigment absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and protects underlying skin from damage caused by UVR. It also reduces the UVR available for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. It has been shown that the white-skinned population of the UK are able to meet their vitamin D needs with short, daily lunchtime exposures to sunlight. We have followed the same methodology, based on a 10-year UK all-weather UVR climatology, observation (sun exposure, diet, vitamin D status), and UVR intervention studies with Fitzpatrick skin type V (brown) adults, to determine whether sunlight at UK latitudes could provide an adequate source of vitamin D for this section of the population. Results show that to meet vitamin D requirements, skin type V individuals in the UK need ~25 min daily sunlight at lunchtime, from March to September. This makes several assumptions, including that forearms and lower legs are exposed June-August; only exposing hands and face at this time is inadequate. For practical and cultural reasons, enhanced oral intake of vitamin D should be considered for this population.

  11. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide inversions based on spectral measurements of scattered sunlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlemmix, T.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of inversion methods for tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), based on ground based observations of scattered sunlight with themulti-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) technique. NO2 is an atmospheric trace gas which, when present near

  12. HISTORY OF SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE IS A RISK FACTOR FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schick, T.; Ersoy, L.; Lechanteur, Y.T.; Saksens, N.T.; Hoyng, C.B.; Hollander, A.I. den; Kirchhof, B.; Fauser, S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of current and past sunlight exposure and iris color on early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Of 3,701 individuals from the EUGENDA database, 752 (20.3%) showed early AMD, 1,179 (31.9%) late AMD, and 1,770 (47.8%) were controls. Information

  13. Greenhouse Effect: Temperature of a Metal Sphere Surrounded by a Glass Shell and Heated by Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc H.; Matzner, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the "z"-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the…

  14. DNA damage by ethylbenzenehydroperoxide formed from carcinogenic ethylbenzene by sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Chitose; Uchida, Takafumi; Midorikawa, Kaoru; Murata, Mariko; Hiraku, Yusuke; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Ueda, Koji; Kojima, Nakao; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2003-01-01

    Ethylbenzene, widely used in human life, is a non-mutagenic carcinogen. Sunlight-irradiated ethylbenzene caused DNA damage in the presence of Cu 2+ , but unirradiated ethylbenzene did not. A Cu + -specific chelator bathocuproine inhibited DNA damage and catalase showed a little inhibitory effect. The scopoletin assay revealed that peroxides and H 2 O 2 were formed in ethylbenzene exposed to sunlight. These results suggest that Cu + and alkoxyl radical mainly participate in DNA damage, and H 2 O 2 partially does. When catalase was added, DNA damage at thymine and cytosine was inhibited. Ethylbenzenehydroperoxide, identified by GC/MS analysis, induced the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 ' -deoxyguanosine and caused DNA damage at consecutive guanines, as observed with cumenehydroperoxide. Equimolar concentrations of H 2 O 2 and acetophenone were produced by the sunlight-irradiation of 1-phenylethanol, a further degraded product of ethylbenzene. These results indicate a novel pathway that oxidative DNA damage induced by the peroxide and H 2 O 2 derived from sunlight-irradiated ethylbenzene may lead to expression of the carcinogenicity

  15. Colour Counts: Sunlight and Skin Type as Drivers of Vitamin D Deficiency at UK Latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann R. Webb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight exposure, with resulting cutaneous synthesis, is a major source of vitamin D for many, while dietary intake is low in modern diets. The constitutive pigment in skin determines skin type, observed as white, brown, or black skin. The melanin pigment absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UVR and protects underlying skin from damage caused by UVR. It also reduces the UVR available for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. It has been shown that the white-skinned population of the UK are able to meet their vitamin D needs with short, daily lunchtime exposures to sunlight. We have followed the same methodology, based on a 10-year UK all-weather UVR climatology, observation (sun exposure, diet, vitamin D status, and UVR intervention studies with Fitzpatrick skin type V (brown adults, to determine whether sunlight at UK latitudes could provide an adequate source of vitamin D for this section of the population. Results show that to meet vitamin D requirements, skin type V individuals in the UK need ~25 min daily sunlight at lunchtime, from March to September. This makes several assumptions, including that forearms and lower legs are exposed June–August; only exposing hands and face at this time is inadequate. For practical and cultural reasons, enhanced oral intake of vitamin D should be considered for this population.

  16. Plant Leaf Imaging using Time of Flight Camera under Sunlight, Shadow and Room Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Foix, Sergi; Alenya, Guillem

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the effects of ambient light on Time of Flight (ToF) depth imaging for a plant's leaf in sunlight, shadow and room conditions. ToF imaging is sensitive to ambient light and we try to find the best possible integration times (IT) for each condition. This is important in...

  17. Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Wen-Shing; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2010-11-08

    A hybrid method for using sunlight and light-emitting diode (LED) illumination powered by renewable solar energy for indoor lighting is simulated and presented in this study. We can illuminate an indoor space and collect the solar energy using an optical switching system. When the system is turned off, the full spectrum of the sunlight is concentrated by a concentrator, to be absorbed by solar photovoltaic devices that provide the electricity to power the LEDs. When the system is turned on, the sunlight collected by the concentrator is split into visible and non-visible rays by a beam splitter. The visible rays pass through the light guide into a light box where it is mixed with LED light to ultimately provide uniform illumination by a diffuser. The non-visible rays are absorbed by the solar photovoltaic devices to provide electrical power for the LEDs. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid sunlight/LED illumination with the renewable solar energy saving design is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems.

  18. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour...

  19. Sunlight exposure or vitamin D supplementation for vitamin D-deficient non-western immigrants: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, I.S.; Boeke, A.J.P.; van der Meer, I.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; Knol, D.L.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in non-western immigrants. In this randomized clinical trial, vitamin D 800 IU/day or 100,000 IU/3 months were compared with advised sunlight exposure. Vitamin D supplementation was more effective than advised sunlight exposure in improving vitamin D

  20. Antiradical capacity and polyphenol composition of asparagus spears varieties cultivated under different sunlight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczyński, Bartosz; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Golczak, Dorota; Korczak, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis has a high nutritional value. Asparagus is rich in a number of bioactive compounds, mainly flavonoids (quercetin), glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, fructans (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) and phytosterols (b-sitosterol). These compounds may play an important role in human health. The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant potential and polyphenol composition of white, pale-colored and green asparagus spears of different cultivars. Investigations were conducted on different asparagus spear extracts. The study included three colors of asparagus (white, pale-colored and green) from five different cultivars subjected to the ethanol extraction procedure. Total phenolic content was also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Polyphenol (phenolic acids and flavonols) composition was estimated using the HPLC method. The antioxidant properties of extracts were examined using DPPH, ABTS and metal ion chelating assays. The highest contents of phenolic and flavonoids were observed in green asparagus from Grolim and the lowest in pale-colored asparagus from Gyjmlin. It was found that both the color of asparagus and the cultivar had a significant effect on the composition of phenolic acid and flavonols. Radical scavenging activity toward DPPH• and ABTS was highest for green asparagus cv. Grolim and Eposs. The greatest number of Fe ions was chelated by samples of green asparagus cv. Grolim and Huchel's Alpha and pale-colored asparagus cv. Huchel's Alpha. It was shown that the antioxidant activity of asparagus spears measured by antiradical and chelating activity test depends on variety and color. The highest activity was found in green asparagus and the lowest was identified in white asparagus extracts. It has also been clarified that changes in flavonol and phenolic acid composition and increases in their diversity depends on growing with sunlight and variety. Asparagus can provide a valuable source of phenolic compounds in the

  1. Visual performance with sport-tinted contact lenses in natural sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Graham B; Horn, Fraser C; Barney, Tyler; Pexton, Brett; Baird, Richard Y

    2009-05-01

    The use of tinted and clear contact lenses (CLs) in all aspects of life is becoming a more popular occurrence, particularly in athletic activities. This study broadens previous research regarding performance-tinted CLs and their effects on measures of visual performance. Thirty-three subjects (14 male, 19 female) were fitted with clear B&L Optima 38, 50% visible light transmission Amber and 36% visible light transmission Gray-Green Nike Maxsight CLs in an individualized randomized sequence. Subjects were dark-adapted with welding goggles before testing and in between subtests involving a Bailey-Lovie chart and the Haynes Distance Rock test. The sequence of testing was repeated for each lens modality. The Amber and Gray-Green lenses enabled subjects to recover vision faster in bright sunlight compared with clear lenses. Also, subjects were able to achieve better visual recognition in bright sunlight when compared with clear lenses. Additionally, the lenses allowed the subjects to alternate fixation between a bright and shaded target at a more rapid rate in bright sunlight as compared with clear lenses. Subjects preferred both the Amber and Gray-Green lenses over clear lenses in the bright and shadowed target conditions. The results of the current study show that Maxsight Amber and Gray-Green lenses provide better contrast discrimination in bright sunlight, better contrast discrimination when alternating between bright and shaded target conditions, better speed of visual recovery in bright sunlight, and better overall visual performance in bright and shaded target conditions compared with clear lenses.

  2. Sunlight exposure during leisure activities and risk of prostate cancer in Montréal, Canada, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jennifer; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise

    2014-07-28

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer in men in many developed countries, but no modifiable risk factors have been identified. A handful of analytical studies have suggested a possible etiological role for sunlight exposure. We report here on the association between leisure-time sunlight exposure during adulthood and PCa risk in the context of a population-based case-control study. In all, 1,904 PCa cases were ascertained across Montreal French hospitals between 2005 and 2009. Concurrently, 1,962 population controls, frequency matched to cases by age (±5 years), were selected from the electoral list for French-speakers in Greater Montreal. Interviews elicited the frequency of engagement in any leisure activity during adulthood. This was used to derive cumulative sunlight exposure indices: a cumulative number of leisure activities events entailing sunlight exposure and a cumulative duration of sunlight exposure during leisure activities. Unconditional logistic regression was conducted to yield odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for estimating the association between sunlight exposure indices and PCa risk, adjusting for age, ancestry, family history of PCa, PCa screening, education, solar protection, body mass index and physical activity. Compared with men in the upper quartile category for the number of sunlight exposure events, men never exposed during leisure time had an OR of 1.32 (95% CI: 0.82-2.14). ORs were 1.11, 0.91 and 1.00 for the first to the third quartiles of exposure, respectively. Similar results were observed for cumulative duration of exposure to sunlight, and by PCa aggressiveness. These findings provide little evidence of an association between sunlight exposure during leisure-time and PCa risk. Men with no sunlight exposure appeared at somewhat higher risks but none of the estimates achieved statistical significance.

  3. MODIS Measures Fraction of Sunlight Absorbed by Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    At the height of the solar cycle, the Sun is finally displaying some fireworks. This image from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows a large solar flare from June 6, 2000 at 1424 Universal Time (10:24 AM Eastern Daylight Savings Time). Associated with the flare was a coronal mass ejection that sent a wave of fast moving charged particles straight towards Earth. (The image was acquired by the Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), one of 12 instruments aboard SOHO) Solar activity affects the Earth in several ways. The particles generated by flares can disrupt satellite communications and interfere with power transmission on the Earth's surface. Earth's climate is tied to the total energy emitted by the sun, cooling when the sun radiates less energy and warming when solar output increases. Solar radiation also produces ozone in the stratosphere, so total ozone levels tend to increase during the solar maximum. For more information about these solar flares and the SOHO mission, see NASA Science News or the SOHO home page. For more about the links between the sun and climate change, see Sunspots and the Solar Max. Image courtesy SOHO Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope, ESA/NASA

  4. High-intensity intermittent "5-10-15" running reduces body fat, and increases lean body mass, bone mineral density, and performance in untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnholt, Tanja Højegaard; Tybirk, Jonas; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    treadmill running (P running at 85% of maximal aerobic speed was lower (P beneficial changes and better performance......The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10......, and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P 

  5. High-intensity intermittent "5-10-15" running reduces body fat, and increases lean body mass, bone mineral density, and performance in untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnholt, Tanja Højegaard; Tybirk, Jonas; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    , and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P bone mineral density was 1.1 and 0.9% higher (P bone turnover markers osteocalcin......The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10...

  6. Intensity increase of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt of the Earth in July 1972 according to data of the ''Prognoz-2'' artificial Earth satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyudov, V.A.; Volodichev, N.N.; Nechaev, O.Yu.; Savenko, I.A.; Saraeva, M.A.; Shavrin, P.I.

    1979-01-01

    Carried out is the investigation of the 6-10 MeV electrons in the outer radiation belt of the Earth at the ''Prognoz-2'' artificial Earth satellite along the trajectory of the satellite motion according to the Mac Ilvain parameter L. With the help of a ternary coincidance telescope in Juny 1972, the formationand decay of the belt of energetic electrons with the maximum intensity in the L=3.7 region was recorded. The maximum fluxer of this belt electrons are estimated. It is supposed that the event recorded is the consequence of the magnetospherical disturbance that occured on 18.4.1972

  7. Sunlight-thin nanophotonic monocrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depauw, Valérie; Trompoukis, Christos; Massiot, Inès; Chen, Wanghua; Dmitriev, Alexandre; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.; Gordon, Ivan; Poortmans, Jef

    2017-09-01

    Introducing nanophotonics into photovoltaics sets the path for scaling down the surface texture of crystalline-silicon solar cells from the micro- to the nanoscale, allowing to further boost the photon absorption while reducing silicon material loss. However, keeping excellent electrical performance has proven to be very challenging, as the absorber is damaged by the nanotexturing and the sensitivity to the surface recombination is dramatically increased. Here we realize a light-wavelength-scale nanotextured monocrystalline silicon cell with the confirmed efficiency of 8.6% and an effective thickness of only 830 nm. For this we adopt a self-assembled large-area and industry-compatible amorphous ordered nanopatterning, combined with an advanced surface passivation, earning strongly enhanced solar light absorption while retaining efficient electron collection. This prompts the development of highly efficient flexible and semitransparent photovoltaics, based on the industrially mature monocrystalline silicon technology.

  8. Long-term decline of the canopy-forming algae Gelidium corneum, associated to extreme wave events and reduced sunlight hours, in the southeastern Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Fontán, Almudena; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Uyarra, María C.

    2018-05-01

    Canopy-forming macroalgae are experiencing large biogeographical shifts due to climate change. One of them (Gelidium corneum) has shown a dramatic decline in biomass in northern Spain, in the past 20 years. We investigate here two most plausible hypotheses to explain its decline: (i) a combination of increasing wave energy and decrease of irradiance in the growth season; and (ii) a combination of increasing light in summer and decreasing nutrient concentration. Using a dataset of biomass and environmental variables (1993-2016), in three sectors and three water depths, we have determined that the variables explaining more biomass variability were: suspended solids, nitrate, sunlight hours, significant wave height threshold exceedances (Hs5m), temperature, silicate, and nitrite. When undertaking multiple regression analyses for the whole depth range, only the model including sunlight hours with Hs5m was selected, being highly significant (p algae from the substratum during the growth season. The decline rate in biomass with time, at each sector and depth, was highly correlated (p < 0.001) to the wave energy flux received at each depth, which was higher at 5 m in all sectors, decreasing with depth. In turn, nutrients, instead of decreasing, have increased, and only nitrate presented a significant negative correlation with G. corneum biomass, which was not significant after detrending. The significant (p = 0.001) increase in rainfall over the studied period can explain the increase of those nutrients. Hence, we question whether the effect of nutrients is such, as already described. The most likely factor explaining the decline of this macroalga was the combination of sunlight hours decrease and Hs5m increase.

  9. Leaf area index estimation in a pine plantation with LAI-2000 under direct sunlight conditions: relationship with inventory and hydrologic variables; Estimacion del indice de area foliar en pinares de repolacion con LAI-2000 bajo radiacion solar directa: relacion con variables de inventario e hidrologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, A.; Campo, A. D. del

    2011-07-01

    LAI is a key factor in light and rainfall interception processes in forest stands and, for this reason, is called to play an important role in global change adaptive silviculture. Therefore, it is necessary to develop practical and operative methodologies to measure this parameter as well as simple relationships with other silviculture variables. This work has studied 1) the feasibility of LAI-2000 sensor in estimating LAI-stand when readings are taken under direct sunlight conditions; and 2) the ability of LAI in studying rainfall partitioned into throughfall (T) in an Aleppo pine stand after different thinning intensities, as well as its relationships to basal area, (G), cover (FCC), and tree density (D). Results showed that the angular correction scheme applied to LAI-2000 direct-sunlight readings stabilized them for different solar angles, allowing a better operational use of LAI-2000 in Mediterranean areas, where uniform overcast conditions are difficult to meet and predict. Forest cover showed the highest predictive ability of LAI (R{sup 2} = 0.98; S = 0.28), then G (R{sup 2} = 0.96; S = 0.43) and D (R{sup 2} = 0.50; S = 0.28). In the hydrological plane, T increased with thinning intensity, being G the most explanatory variable (R{sup 2} = 0.81; S = 3.07) and LAI the one that showed the poorest relation with it (R{sup 2} = 0.69; S = 3.95). These results open a way for forest hydrologic modeling taking LAI as an input variable either estimated form LAI-2000 or deducted from inventory data. (Author) 36 refs.

  10. The effect of season and latitude on in vitro vitamin D formation by sunlight in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, J M; Moodley, G P; Hough, F S; Koch, H; Chen, T; Lu, Z; Holick, M F

    1996-10-01

    To assess the effect of season and latitude on the in vitro formation of previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) by sunlight in two cities in South Africa, Cape Town and Johannesburg. An in vitro study utilising vials containing 7-DHC, which were exposed to sunlight for a period of 1 hour between 8:00 and 17:00 on 1 day a month for a year. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 were separated from 7-DHC by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the amounts formed were calculated with the use of external standards. A marked seasonal variation in vitamin D3 production was noted in Cape Town, with very little being formed during the winter months of April through September. In Johannesburg, in vitro formation changed little throughout the year, and was similar to that found in Cape Town during the summer. During sunlit hours, vitamin D3 production was maximal at midday and small quantities were still being formed between 8:00 and 9:00, and between 16:00 and 17:00 during the summer. During winter in Cape Town, peak formation at midday was less than one-third of that in Johannesburg, and negligible amounts were formed before 10:00 and after 15:00. The previously documented seasonal variation in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D recorded in patients in Johannesburg is probably a consequence of the increased clothing worn and the decreased time spent out of doors during winter, rather than decreased ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth. The limited in vitro formation of vitamin D3 during winter in Cape Town may have clinical implications insofar as the management of metabolic bone diseases like rickets and osteoporosis is concerned. Breast-fed infants resident in the area are likely to suffer from vitamin D deficiency rickets unless vitamin D supplements are provided, or the mothers are encouraged to take their children out of doors.

  11. Degradation of ethylparaben under simulated sunlight using photo-Fenton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Benítez, Henry; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    Ethylparaben (EPB) has been classified by different research groups as a potential endocrine-disrupting chemical, implying that it can potentially interfere with the normal balance of the endocrine system of living beings, which with its presence in different effluents, including drinking water, generates the need to seek methods that allow its removal from different water bodies. Advanced oxidation processes have been employed widely to remove organic compounds from different matrices. In this way, Fenton technology (process based on the reaction between ferrous ions and hydrogen peroxide) has been able to degrade different substrates, but due to the Fe(2+) requirements to carry out the reaction optimally, combination of the conventional Fenton process with visible light radiation (photo-Fenton) is an alternative used in the treatment of pollution due to the presence of chemicals. In this way, the effectiveness of photo-Fenton on EPB degradation was assessed using a face-centered central composite experimental design that allowed assessment of the effects of Fe(2+) and H2O2 initial concentrations on process. In general, results indicated that after 180 min of reaction almost all EPB was eliminated, the dissolved organic carbon in solution was reduced and the sample biodegradability index was increased.

  12. Effect on light intensity and mineral nutrition on carbohydrate and organic acid content in leaves of young coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.; Vento, Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Young coffee plants (Coffea arabica, L., var. Caturra) were grown under different conditions of mineral nutrition (1/8 N-P-K, N-P-K, 3 N-P-K, N 1/2-P-K and N-2P-K) and illumination (directly in the sunlight or shaded) with the aim of studying the effect of light and mineral nutrition on carbohydrate and organic acid content of the leaves. For determining these compounds 14 CO 2 was used. Sugars were separated after the method of paper chromatography. The results obtained showed that the incorporation of 14 C in sugars and organic acids was more intensive in plants grown directly in the sunlight, while in starch 14 C was incorporated more intensively in the shaded plants. Carbohydrate content rose parallel to the increase of nitrogen in the nutrient solution. Changingthe rate of phosphorus from 1/2P to two doses exerted highest effect on 14 C incorporation in starch and in hemicellulose. (author)

  13. Generating hydrogen from sunlight and water using photovoltaic tandem cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    Photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy to energy in hydrogen at viable efficiency is a long-term goal needed to usher in the hydrogen economy worldwide. The twin cell technology based Tandem Cell tackles a number of challenges faced by single photoelectrochemical cell based water splitting and offers a novel way of utilising complimentary parts of the solar spectrum in two cells. The overall process results in a complete system driven by solar energy that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen Solar Ltd is a UK based enterprise that is working towards commercialisation of this Tandem Cell technology. One of the main project activities involved the development and optimisation of methods for preparation of larger scale photocatalytic electrodes using reproducible low cost industrial processes, with efficiencies equal to or greater than those from small scale samples made experimentally in University laboratories. Stability is also an important issue and endurance testing was performed on some samples. Spray pyrolysis methods offer considerable promise as for preparation of metal oxide semiconductor films at low cost, reproducibly. These studies lead to optimised designs for Tandem Cells, resulting in construction of an array of 12 Tandem Cells. The findings of this array work, in particular engineering issues, were very significant. Based on this work it is intended to build another two array systems that consists of 24 Tandem Cells which will be tested for light to chemical conversion efficiency, to determine what efficiency has been achieved overall. The main conclusions resulting from this project were as follows. Overall, considerable progress was made in characterising the factors that affect photoelectrode performance efficiency but that, losses in efficiency when increasing the area of photoelectrodes was greater than expected and optimisation of efficiency at practical device scale needs more work. Based on the outcome of this work program

  14. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloidesgrown under different light intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO D.T. SANTOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii andPueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloidesplants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity ofN. wightiiand P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light.

  15. Improved Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes based on Silver Nanowire Networks by a Simple Sunlight Illumination Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Pengfei; Yang, Liu; Chang, Cheng; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have attracted wide attention as transparent electrodes for emerging flexible optoelectronics. However, the sheet resistance is greatly limited by large wire-to-wire contact resistances. Here, we propose a simple sunlight illumination approach to remarkably improve their electrical conductivity without any significant degradation of the light transmittance. Because the power density is extremely low (0.1 W/cm2, 1-Sun), only slight welding between Ag NWs has been observed. Despite this, a sheet resistance of solar concentrations. Due to the reduced resistance, high-performance transparent film heaters as well as efficient defrosters have been demonstrated, which are superior to the previously-reported Ag NW based film heaters. Since the sunlight is environmentally friendly and easily available, sophisticated or expensive facilities are not necessary. Our findings are particularly meaningful and show enormous potential for outdoor applications. PMID:28169343

  16. Photodegradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol in Aqueous Systems under Simulated and Natural Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gryglik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents results of studies on 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP degradation in aqueous solutions using photochemically initiated processes by simulated and natural sunlight. A number of possible substrate photodegradation routes were investigated, by both direct photolysis and photosensitized oxidation process. The major role of singlet oxygen in 2,4-DCP photodegradation was proved. Rose Bengal and derivatives of porphine and phthalocyanine were used as sensitizers. The influences of various process parameters on the reaction rate were investigated. On the basis of experimental data reaction rate constants of 2,4-DCP photosensitized oxidation were determined. The possibility of using natural sunlight to degrade 2,4-DCP in water in the middle latitudes was stated. The acute toxicity bioassay was conducted with the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a bioluminescent indicator. The obtained results encourage further research on this process.

  17. Effects of UV, sunlight and X-ray radiation on quiescent human cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nondividing human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) in culture have been used to study the effect on cell lethality of ultraviolet light, natural sunlight and X-rays. A lethal effect is defined as cellular degeneration, loss from the culture and inability to exclude vital strains. Far- and mid-UV have a readily observable lethal effect (cell loss), with DNA and DNA damage as the critical target and critical damage respectively. In part, natural sunlight kills cells by a similar mechanism but has an additional lethal effect at longer exposure times. This additional effect is expressed by the retention of the dead cells in culture, in contrast to the UV-induced promotion of cell degeneration and loss. Relatively large doses of X-rays that destroy proliferative capacity, have no detectable lethal effect on the maintenance of non-dividing cells. The biological response of nondividing HDF to radiations from different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is dissimilar. (author)

  18. Sunlight reflection off the spacecraft with a solar sail on the surface of mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starinova, O. L.; Rozhkov, M. A.; Gorbunova, I. V.

    2018-05-01

    Modern technologies make it possible to fulfill many projects in the field of space exploration. One such project is the colonization of Mars and providing favorable conditions for living on it. Authors propose principles of functioning of the spacecraft with a solar sail, intended to create a thermal and light spot in a predetermined area of the Martian surface. This additional illumination can maintain and support certain climatic conditions on a small area where a Mars base could be located. This paper investigate the possibility of the spacecraft continuously reflect the sunlight off the solar sail on the small area of the Mars surface. The mathematical motion model in such condition of the solar sail's orientation is considered and used for motion simulation session. Moreover, the analysis of this motion is performed. Thus, were obtained parameters of the synchronic non-Keplerian orbit and spacecraft construction. In addition, were given recommendations for further applying satellites to reflect the sunlight on a planet's surface.

  19. Reflected Sunlight Reduction and Characterization for a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    A baffle system for the elimination of first-order specular and diffuse reflection of sunlight from the sunshade of a deep-space optical receiver telescope is presented. This baffle system consists of rings of 0.5cm blades spaced 2.5 cm apart on the walls of GO hexagonal sunshade tubes that combine to form the telescope sunshade. The shadow cast by the blades, walls, and rims of the tubes prevent all first-order reflections of direct sunlight from reaching the primary mirror of the telescope. A reflection model of the sunshade without baffles is also presented for comparison. Since manufacturers of absorbing surfaces do not measure data near grazing incidence, the reflection properties at anticipated angles of incidence must be characterized. A description of reflection from matte surfaces in term of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) is presented along with a discussion of measuring BRDF near grazing incidence.

  20. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Junfeng; Chen Jingwen; Martens, D.; Quan Xie; Yang Fenglin; Kettrup, A.; Schramm, K.-W.

    2003-01-01

    Photolysis of PAHs on surfaces may determine their ultimate fate in the environment. - Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorbed on surfaces of spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation was investigated. PAHs were produced by combustion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), wood, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and styrene in a stove. The factors of sunlight irradiation on the surfaces of spruce needles were taken into consideration when investigating the kinetic parameters. The photolysis of the 18 PAHs under study follows first-order kinetics. The photolysis half-lives range from 15 h for dibenzo(a,h)anthracene to 75 h for phenanthrene. Photolysis of some PAHs on surfaces of spruce needles may play an important role on the fate of PAHs in the environment

  1. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Iuliano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives: To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design: Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results: Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI/adequate intakes (AI] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001, magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001, potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001 and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001, and above the upper limit (UL for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001, whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001 and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001. Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d. Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05, nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions: Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year.

  2. Increasing the Process Capacity of a Knowledge Intensive Process Through the Use of Process Reengineering and Knowledge-Value Added Methodologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Errol

    2003-01-01

    In the increasingly dynamic environment of information technology, it has become imperative that organizations continue to seek ways to effectively capture and measure knowledge in order to survive...

  3. Converting sunlight into red light in fluorosilicate glass for amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Chengguo, E-mail: mingchengguo1978@163.com [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Feng [Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ren, Xiaobin [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Yuan, Fengying; Qin, Yueting [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); An, Liqun; Cai, Yuanxue [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Fluorosilicate glass was prepared by high-temperature melting method to explore highly efficient luminescence materials for amorphous silicon solar cells. Absorption, excitation and emission spectra of the glass were measured. The optical characters of the glass were discussed in details. The glass can efficiently convert sunlight into red light. Our glass can be applied to amorphous silicon solar cells as a converter of solar spectrum.

  4. The Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2-Zeolite Composite for Degradation of Dye Using Synthetic UV and Jeddah Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila M. Al-Harbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research different composites of impregnated TiO2 with LTA or FAU zeolites were used as different weight% ratio for photodegradation of organic dye. Normal laboratory UV-lamps were used as a source of UV irradiation. In addition a setup of system of mirrors was used to collect real Jeddah sunlight. A comparison of UV and real sunlight photodegradation activity showed that the real sunlight enhances new centers of active sites exhibiting higher catalytic activity than that of UV irradiated samples.

  5. Modified optical fiber daylighting system with sunlight transportation in free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ngoc-Hai; Pham, Thanh-Tuan; Shin, Seoyong

    2016-12-26

    We present the design, optical simulation, and experiment of a modified optical fiber daylighting system (M-OFDS) for indoor lighting. The M-OFDS is comprised of three sub-systems: concentration, collimation, and distribution. The concentration part is formed by coupling a Fresnel lens with a large-core plastic optical fiber. The sunlight collected by the concentration sub-system is propagated in a plastic optical fiber and then collimated by the collimator, which is a combination of a parabolic mirror and a convex lens. The collimated beam of sunlight travels in free space and is guided to the interior by directing flat mirrors, where it is diffused uniformly by a distributor. All parameters of the system are calculated theoretically. Based on the designed system, our simulation results demonstrated a maximum optical efficiency of 71%. The simulation results also showed that sunlight could be delivered to the illumination destination at distance of 30 m. A prototype of the M-OFDS was fabricated, and preliminary experiments were performed outdoors. The simulation results and experimental results confirmed that the M-OFDS was designed effectively. A large-scale system constructed by several M-OFDSs is also proposed. The results showed that the presented optical fiber daylighting system is a strong candidate for an inexpensive and highly efficient application of solar energy in buildings.

  6. A new mathematical approximation of sunlight attenuation in rocks for surface luminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos, E-mail: nick.laskaris@gmail.com [University of the Aegean, Department of Mediterranean Studies, Laboratory of Archaeometry, 1 Demokratias Avenue, Rhodes 85100 (Greece); Liritzis, Ioannis, E-mail: liritzis@rhodes.aegean.gr [University of the Aegean, Department of Mediterranean Studies, Laboratory of Archaeometry, 1 Demokratias Avenue, Rhodes 85100 (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The attenuation of sunlight through different rock surfaces and the thermoluminescence (TL) or Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals clock resetting derived from sunlight induced eviction of electrons from electron traps, is a prerequisite criterion for potential dating. The modeling of change of residual luminescence as a function of two variables, the solar radiation path length (or depth) and exposure time offers further insight into the dating concept. The double exponential function modeling based on the Lambert-Beer law, valid under certain assumptions, constructed by a quasi-manual equation fails to offer a general and statistically sound expression of the best fit for most rock types. A cumulative log-normal distribution fitting provides a most satisfactory mathematical approximation for marbles, marble schists and granites, where absorption coefficient and residual luminescence parameters are defined per each type of rock or marble quarry. The new model is applied on available data and age determination tests. - Highlights: > Study of aattenuation of sunlight through different rock surfaces. > Study of the thermoluminescence (TL) or Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals as a function of depth. > A Cumulative Log-Normal Distribution fitting provides the most satisfactory modeling for marbles, marble schists and granites. > The new model (Cummulative Log-Norm Fitting) is applied on available data and age determination tests.

  7. A new mathematical approximation of sunlight attenuation in rocks for surface luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos; Liritzis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The attenuation of sunlight through different rock surfaces and the thermoluminescence (TL) or Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals clock resetting derived from sunlight induced eviction of electrons from electron traps, is a prerequisite criterion for potential dating. The modeling of change of residual luminescence as a function of two variables, the solar radiation path length (or depth) and exposure time offers further insight into the dating concept. The double exponential function modeling based on the Lambert-Beer law, valid under certain assumptions, constructed by a quasi-manual equation fails to offer a general and statistically sound expression of the best fit for most rock types. A cumulative log-normal distribution fitting provides a most satisfactory mathematical approximation for marbles, marble schists and granites, where absorption coefficient and residual luminescence parameters are defined per each type of rock or marble quarry. The new model is applied on available data and age determination tests. - Highlights: → Study of aattenuation of sunlight through different rock surfaces. → Study of the thermoluminescence (TL) or Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals as a function of depth. → A Cumulative Log-Normal Distribution fitting provides the most satisfactory modeling for marbles, marble schists and granites. → The new model (Cummulative Log-Norm Fitting) is applied on available data and age determination tests.

  8. Sunlight Effects on Immune System: Is There Something Else in addition to UV-Induced Immunosuppression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. González Maglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight, composed of different types of radiation, including ultraviolet wavelengths, is an essential source of light and warmth for life on earth but has strong negative effects on human health, such as promoting the malignant transformation of skin cells and suppressing the ability of the human immune system to efficiently detect and attack malignant cells. UV-induced immunosuppression has been extensively studied since it was first described by Dr. Kripke and Dr. Fisher in the late 1970s. However, skin exposure to sunlight has not only this and other unfavorable effects, for example, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, but also a positive one: the induction of Vitamin D synthesis, which performs several roles within the immune system in addition to favoring bone homeostasis. The impact of low levels of UV exposure on the immune system has not been fully reported yet, but it bears interesting differences with the suppressive effect of high levels of UV radiation, as shown by some recent studies. The aim of this article is to put some ideas in perspective and pose some questions within the field of photoimmunology based on established and new information, which may lead to new experimental approaches and, eventually, to a better understanding of the effects of sunlight on the human immune system.

  9. Sunlight Effects on Immune System: Is There Something Else in addition to UV-Induced Immunosuppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, M. L.; Leoni, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sunlight, composed of different types of radiation, including ultraviolet wavelengths, is an essential source of light and warmth for life on earth but has strong negative effects on human health, such as promoting the malignant transformation of skin cells and suppressing the ability of the human immune system to efficiently detect and attack malignant cells. UV-induced immunosuppression has been extensively studied since it was first described by Dr. Kripke and Dr. Fisher in the late 1970s. However, skin exposure to sunlight has not only this and other unfavorable effects, for example, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, but also a positive one: the induction of Vitamin D synthesis, which performs several roles within the immune system in addition to favoring bone homeostasis. The impact of low levels of UV exposure on the immune system has not been fully reported yet, but it bears interesting differences with the suppressive effect of high levels of UV radiation, as shown by some recent studies. The aim of this article is to put some ideas in perspective and pose some questions within the field of photoimmunology based on established and new information, which may lead to new experimental approaches and, eventually, to a better understanding of the effects of sunlight on the human immune system. PMID:28070504

  10. Low intensity shear stress increases endothelial ELR+ CXC chemokine production via a focal adhesion kinase-p38{beta} MAPK-NF-{kappa}B pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Sadiq S; Soltau, Thomas D; Chaturvedi, Gaurav; Totapally, Balagangadhar; Hagood, James S; Andrews, William W; Athar, Mohammad; Voitenok, Nikolai N; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Patel, Rakesh P; Fallon, Michael B; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2009-02-27

    CXC chemokines with a glutamate-leucine-arginine (ELR) tripeptide motif (ELR(+) CXC chemokines) play an important role in leukocyte trafficking into the tissues. For reasons that are not well elucidated, circulating leukocytes are recruited into the tissues mainly in small vessels such as capillaries and venules. Because ELR(+) CXC chemokines are important mediators of endothelial-leukocyte interaction, we compared chemokine expression by microvascular and aortic endothelium to investigate whether differences in chemokine expression by various endothelial types could, at least partially, explain the microvascular localization of endothelial-leukocyte interaction. Both in vitro and in vivo models indicate that ELR(+) CXC chemokine expression is higher in microvascular endothelium than in aortic endothelial cells. These differences can be explained on the basis of the preferential activation of endothelial chemokine production by low intensity shear stress. Low shear activated endothelial ELR(+) CXC chemokine production via cell surface heparan sulfates, beta(3)-integrins, focal adhesion kinase, the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38beta, mitogen- and stress-associated protein kinase-1, and the transcription factor.

  11. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates accumulate at the onset of intense exercise in man but are not essential for the increase in muscle oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gibala, Martin J.; Howarth, Krista R.

    2006-01-01

    dichloroacetate (DCA) in an attempt to alter the level of TCAI. Five men performed strenuous leg kicking exercise (64+/-8 W) under noninfused control (CON) and DCA-supplemented conditions; biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and after 5, 15, and 180 s of exercise. In CON, the total concentration...... seconds of exercise; however, this increase is not essential for the contraction-induced increase in mitochondrial respiration....

  12. Interacting effects of sunlight, agriculturally derived dissolved organic matter and reactive oxygen species on fecal indicator bacteria growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial survival in agriculturally impacted surface waters is dependent on resource availability and also on potential resource transformations, mediated by biotic and abiotic processes. In this study, we focused on the effect of sunlight irradiated cattle fecal extract (CFE) a...

  13. Comparison Study On Sunlight Or Gamma Radiation Aging Resistance Of Poly (Vinyl Pyrrolidone) Aqueous Solution With PVP Nanogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Binh; Pham Thu Hong; Nguyen Nguyet Dieu; Nguyen Thanh Duoc

    2011-01-01

    Comparison study on sunlight or gamma-radiation aging resistance of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) aqueous solution with PVP nanogel at 0.5% was carried out. Sunlight or gamma- radiation aging resistance of PVP aqueous solution and nanogel was evaluated on the basis of their intrinsic viscosity, UV-VIS absorbance, weight averaged molecular weight (M w ). The PVP aqueous solution and nanogel exposed to sunlight in the storage duration of 3 months and to gamma radiation at absorbed doses of 0, 15, 30, 50 kGy were used for this study. Furthermore, the stability of PVP nanogel and of PVP aqueous solution was also studied on the change of their intrinsic viscosity, UV-VIS absorbance, weight averaged molecular weight, particle size distribution and coil size. The experimental results were shown that the aging resistance of PVP nanogel was higher than that of PVP aqueous solution when exposed to gamma radiation or sunlight. (author)

  14. Why We Need More Nature at Work: Effects of Natural Elements and Sunlight on Employee Mental Health and Work Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Mihyang; Colarelli, Stephen M; O'Brien, Kimberly; Boyajian, Melanie E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of natural elements and direct and indirect sunlight exposure on employee mental health and work attitudes. We recruited participants via an online panel from the United States and India, and analyzed data from 444 employees. Natural elements and sunlight exposure related positively to job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and negatively to depressed mood and anxiety. Direct sunlight was a dominant predictor of anxiety; indirect sunlight was a dominant predictor of depressed mood, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Natural elements buffered the relationship between role stressors and job satisfaction, depressed mood, and anxiety. We also found that depressed mood partially mediated the relationship between natural elements and job satisfaction. We discuss scientific and policy implications of these findings.

  15. Why We Need More Nature at Work: Effects of Natural Elements and Sunlight on Employee Mental Health and Work Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Mihyang; Colarelli, Stephen M.; O'Brien, Kimberly; Boyajian, Melanie E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of natural elements and direct and indirect sunlight exposure on employee mental health and work attitudes. We recruited participants via an online panel from the United States and India, and analyzed data from 444 employees. Natural elements and sunlight exposure related positively to job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and negatively to depressed mood and anxiety. Direct sunlight was a dominant predictor of anxiety; indirect sunlight was a dominant predictor of depressed mood, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Natural elements buffered the relationship between role stressors and job satisfaction, depressed mood, and anxiety. We also found that depressed mood partially mediated the relationship between natural elements and job satisfaction. We discuss scientific and policy implications of these findings. PMID:27214041

  16. Air Ambient-Operated pNIPAM-Based Flexible Actuators Stimulated by Human Body Temperature and Sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Kanao, Kenichiro; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2015-05-27

    Harnessing a natural power source such as the human body temperature or sunlight should realize ultimate low-power devices. In particular, macroscale and flexible actuators that do not require an artificial power source have tremendous potential. Here we propose and demonstrate electrically powerless polymer-based actuators operated at ambient conditions using a packaging technique in which the stimulating power source is produced by heat from the human body or sunlight. The actuating angle, force, and reliability are discussed as functions of temperature and exposure to sunlight. Furthermore, a wearable device platform and a smart curtain actuated by the temperature of human skin and sunlight, respectively, are demonstrated as the first proof-of-concepts. These nature-powered actuators should realize a new class of ultimate low-power devices.

  17. Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Seco, Joao; Eaton, Bree R.; Simeone, F. Joseph; Kooy, Hanne; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Adams, Judith; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: At present, proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for growing children is delivered to the whole vertebral body (WVB) to avoid asymmetric growth. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of delivering vertebral body sparing (VBS) versus WVB CSI with passively scattered (PS) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in growing children treated for medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Five plans were generated for medulloblastoma patients, who had been previously treated with CSI PS proton radiation therapy: (1) single posteroanterior (PA) PS field covering the WVB (PS-PA-WVB); (2) single PA PS field that included only the thecal sac in the target volume (PS-PA-VBS); (3) single PA IMPT field covering the WVB (IMPT-PA-WVB); (4) single PA IMPT field, target volume including thecal sac only (IMPT-PA-VBS); and (5) 2 posterior-oblique (−35°, +35°) IMPT fields, with the target volume including the thecal sac only (IMPT2F-VBS). For all cases, 23.4 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness [RBE]) was prescribed to 95% of the spinal canal. The dose, linear energy transfer, and variable-RBE-weighted dose distributions were calculated for all plans using the tool for particle simulation, version 2, Monte Carlo system. Results: IMPT VBS techniques efficiently spared the anterior vertebral bodies (AVBs), even when accounting for potential higher variable RBE predicted by linear energy transfer distributions. Assuming an RBE of 1.1, the V10 Gy(RBE) decreased from 100% for the WVB techniques to 59.5% to 76.8% for the cervical, 29.9% to 34.6% for the thoracic, and 20.6% to 25.1% for the lumbar AVBs, and the V20 Gy(RBE) decreased from 99.0% to 17.8% to 20.0% for the cervical, 7.2% to 7.6% for the thoracic, and 4.0% to 4.6% for the lumbar AVBs when IMPT VBS techniques were applied. The corresponding percentages for the PS VBS technique were higher. Conclusions: Advanced proton techniques can sufficiently reduce the dose to the vertebral

  18. Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula, E-mail: dgiantsoudi@mgh.harvard.edu; Seco, Joao; Eaton, Bree R.; Simeone, F. Joseph; Kooy, Hanne; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Adams, Judith; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: At present, proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for growing children is delivered to the whole vertebral body (WVB) to avoid asymmetric growth. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of delivering vertebral body sparing (VBS) versus WVB CSI with passively scattered (PS) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in growing children treated for medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Five plans were generated for medulloblastoma patients, who had been previously treated with CSI PS proton radiation therapy: (1) single posteroanterior (PA) PS field covering the WVB (PS-PA-WVB); (2) single PA PS field that included only the thecal sac in the target volume (PS-PA-VBS); (3) single PA IMPT field covering the WVB (IMPT-PA-WVB); (4) single PA IMPT field, target volume including thecal sac only (IMPT-PA-VBS); and (5) 2 posterior-oblique (−35°, +35°) IMPT fields, with the target volume including the thecal sac only (IMPT2F-VBS). For all cases, 23.4 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness [RBE]) was prescribed to 95% of the spinal canal. The dose, linear energy transfer, and variable-RBE-weighted dose distributions were calculated for all plans using the tool for particle simulation, version 2, Monte Carlo system. Results: IMPT VBS techniques efficiently spared the anterior vertebral bodies (AVBs), even when accounting for potential higher variable RBE predicted by linear energy transfer distributions. Assuming an RBE of 1.1, the V10 Gy(RBE) decreased from 100% for the WVB techniques to 59.5% to 76.8% for the cervical, 29.9% to 34.6% for the thoracic, and 20.6% to 25.1% for the lumbar AVBs, and the V20 Gy(RBE) decreased from 99.0% to 17.8% to 20.0% for the cervical, 7.2% to 7.6% for the thoracic, and 4.0% to 4.6% for the lumbar AVBs when IMPT VBS techniques were applied. The corresponding percentages for the PS VBS technique were higher. Conclusions: Advanced proton techniques can sufficiently reduce the dose to the vertebral

  19. Driving forces behind the increasing cardiovascular treatment intensity.A dynamic epidemiologic model of trends in Danish cardiovascular drug utilization.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    . Objectives: To investigate the driving forces behind the increasing treatment prevalence of cardiovascular drugs, in particular statins, by means of a dynamic epidemiologic drug utilization model. Methods: Material: All Danish residents older than 20 years by January 1, 1996 (4.0 million inhabitants), were...

  20. Driving forces behind the increasing cardiovascular treatment intensity.A dynamic epidemiologic model of trends in Danish cardiovascular drug utilization.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    . Objectives: To investigate the driving forces behind the increasing treatment prevalence of cardiovascular drugs, in particular statins, by means of a dynamic epidemiologic drug utilization model. Methods: Material: All Danish residents older than 20 years by January 1, 1996 (4.0 million inhabitants), were...

  1. Unlike Quercetin Glycosides, Cyanidin Glycoside in Red Leaf Lettuce Responds More Sensitively to Increasing Low Radiation Intensity before than after Head Formation Has Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of low-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD; 43–230 μmol m–2 s–1) on the major phenolic compounds of red leaf lettuce in three growth stages, before, during, and after head formation, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 and evaluating via multiple regression analysis. Generally, the light-related increase of flavonoid glycosides was structure and growth stage-dependent. In detail, an interaction was detected between plant age and PPFD regarding cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside concentration: the increase was strongest before head formation. The relationship between PPFD and quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside concentration was linear, whereas the increase of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and -3-O-glucuronide concentrations abated with increasing PPFD. Independent of growth stage, the caffeic acid derivatives concentration was not related to PPFD. All major phenolic compounds decreased with plant age. These results show the differential regulation of cyanidin, quercetin, and caffeic acid derivatives in lettuce, although closely connected biosynthetically, and emphasize the importance of ontogeny in the study of plant physiology. PMID:24382136

  2. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  3. Increased detection of schistosomiasis with Kato-Katz and SWAP-IgG-ELISA in a Northeastern Brazil low-intensity transmission area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiliane Rodrigues Carneiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The laboratory diagnosis of schistosomiasis is based mainly on the detection of parasite eggs in stool samples through the Kato-Katz (KK technique, reading one slide by test. However, a widely known limitation of parasitological methods is reduced sensitivity, particularly in low endemic areas. METHODS: To increase sensitivity, we conducted further slide readings from the same stool sample using the parasitological method associated with a serological test. We used the KK method (three slides and the IgG anti-Schistosoma mansoni-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique to diagnose schistosomiasis in low endemic areas in the Brazilian State of Ceará. Fecal samples and sera from 250 individuals were analyzed. RESULTS: Sixteen percent and 47.2% of samples were positive in parasitological tests and serological tests, respectively. Parasitological methods showed that 32 (80% individuals tested positive on the first slide, 6 (15% on the second slide, and 2 (5% on the third. The performance of the ELISA test in the diagnosis, using the KK method as diagnostic reference, showed a negative predictive value of 100%, with specificity and positive predictive values of 62.8% and 33.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the increase from one to three slides analyzed per sample using the KK technique was shown to be a useful procedure for increasing the diagnostic sensitivity of this technique.

  4. A sunlight-induced method for rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using an Andrachnea chordifolia ethanol extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi Zarchi, A.A.; Faridi Majidi, R. [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Nanomedicine, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, N.; Shahverdi, A.R. [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arfan, M.; Rehman, T.; Ali, M. [University of Peshawar, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (Pakistan); Amini, M. [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    In this study a sunlight-induced method for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using an ethanol extract of Andrachnea chordifolia is described. The silver nitrate solutions (1 mM) containing the ethanol extract of Andrachnea chordifolia were irradiated by both sunlight radiation and by sunlight radiation passed through different colored filters (red, yellow or green). The smallest size of silver nanoparticles was obtained when a silver ion solution was irradiated for 5 minutes by direct sunlight radiation. Further examination of the shape and size and of the surface chemistry of these biogenic silver nanoparticles, which were prepared under sunlight radiation, was carried out using transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy images show spherical particles with an average size of 3.4 nm. Hydroxyl residues were also detected on the surface of these biogenic silver nanoparticles fabricated using plant extract of Andrachnea chordifolia under sunlight radiation. Our study on the reduction of silver ions by this plant extract in darkness shows that the synthesis process can take place under dark conditions at much longer incubations (48 hours). Larger silver polydispersed nanoparticles ranging in size from 3 to 30 nm were obtained when the silver ions were treated with the ethanol extract of Andrachnea chordifolia under dark conditions for 48 hours. (orig.)

  5. Sunlight persistence and rainfastness of spray-dried formulations of baculovirus isolated from Anagrapha falcifera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez-Guerra, P; McGuire, M R; Behle, R W; Hamm, J J; Sumner, H R; Shasha, B S

    2000-04-01

    Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses such as the one isolated from the celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby) (AfMNPV), have the potential to be successful bioinsecticides if improved formulations can prevent rapid loss of insecticidal activity from environmental conditions such as sunlight and rainfall. We tested 16 spray-dried formulations of AfMNPV to determine the effect of different ingredients (e.g., lignin, corn flour, and so on) on insecticidal activity after simulated rain and simulated sunlight (at Peoria, IL) and natural sunlight exposures (at Tifton, GA). The most effective formulation contained pregelatinized corn flour and potassium lignate, which retained more than half of its original activity after 5 cm of simulated rain, and almost full activity after 8 h of simulated sunlight. In Georgia, formulations made with and without lignin were compared for persistence of insecticidal activity when exposed to natural sunlight. In addition, the effect of fluorescent brighteners as formulation components and spray tank additives was tested. Results showed that the formulations with lignin had more insecticidal activity remaining after sunlight exposure than formulations without lignin. The inclusion of brighteners in the formulation did not improve initial activity or virus persistence. However, a 1% tank mix significantly enhanced activity and improved persistence. Scanning electron micrographs revealed discreet particles, and transmission electron micrographs showed virus embedded within microgranules. Results demonstrated that formulations made with natural ingredients could improve persistence of virus-based biopesticides.

  6. Unlike Quercetin Glycosides, Cyanidin Glycoside in Red Leaf Lettuce Responds More Sensitively to Increasing Low Radiation Intensity before than after Head Formation Has Started

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Christine; Klaering, Hans-Peter; Schreiner, Monika; Kroh, Lothar W.; Krumbein, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of low-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD; 43–230 μmol m–2 s–1) on the major phenolic compounds of red leaf lettuce in three growth stages, before, during, and after head formation, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 and evaluating via multiple regression analysis. Generally, the light-related increase of flavonoid glycosides was structure and growth stage-dependent. In detail, an interaction was detected between plant age and PPFD regarding cyanidin-3-O-(6″...

  7. AGS intensity upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four

  8. Formation of rutile fasciculate zone induced by sunlight irradiation at room temperature and its hemocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuan-Hui; Zheng, Xiang; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Guo-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile was fabricated under sunlight irradiation at room temperature, using titanium tetrachloride as a sole precursor. The crystal phase, morphology and microstructure, and optical absorption behavior of the samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) and UV–vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS), respectively. XRD results show that the crystal phase of the sample is composed of rutile only, and a lattice distortion displays in the crystallite of the sample. HRTEM results show that the morphology of rutile particle is fasciculate zone constituted of nanoparticles with a diameter of 4–7 nm, and these particles grow one by one and step by step. The pattern of the selected area electron diffraction of the sample is Kikuchi type, which can be attributed to the predominant orientation growth of rutile nanoparticles along [001] induced by sunlight irradiation. DRS results show that the absorption threshold of the sample is 415 nm, corresponding to the band gap energy of 2.99 eV, which is lower than the band gap energy of rutile, 3.03 eV. Blood compatibility measurement shows that the sample has no remarkable effect on hemolytic and coagulation activity. The percent hemolysis of red blood cells is less than 5% even treated with a big dosage of the fasciculate rutile and under UV irradiation, and there are no obvious changes of plasma recalcification time after the rutile treatment. Thus, the novel structure of rutile fasciculate has low potential toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe. Highlights: • A novel approach to fabricate the fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile • The fasciculate grows from a particle to nanorod and to fasciculate, step by step. • A preferred orientation growth induced by sunlight irradiation in the fasciculate • The rutile fasciculate is low toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe

  9. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  10. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  11. Bell's palsy: what is the prognostic value of measurements of signal intensity increases with contrast enhancement on MRI?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, B.P.J.; Efinger, K.; Solbach, T.; Gottschalk, A.; Baehren, W. [Department of Radiology, Armed Forces Hospital, Deutsche Bundeswehr, Ulm (Germany); Griesbeck, F.; Kornhuber, A.W. [Department of Neurology/Psychiatry, Armed Forces Hospital, Deutsche Bundeswehr, Ulm (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Our objective was to assess the prognostic value of measurements of the degree of contrast enhancement of the intratemporal segments of the facial nerve. We prospectively obtained MRI, slice thickness <1 mm of 20 patients with a facial palsy on the first day of inpatient treatment, and measured contrast enhancement of the nerve. The data were compared with compound muscle action potential (CMAP) measurements and the clinical course. Analysis of the initial enabled differentiation of three patients whose palsy was to show no improvement from 17 whose palsy was to resolve as expected. No patient with a poor outcome showed lesser increase in signal in the internal auditory canal, pars tympanica and pars mastoidea than patients who fully recovered. In no patient who had been diagnosed on the basis of the initial MRI as having a ''normal'' palsy was the amplitude of the (CMAP) reduced to less than 20% that of the normal side. Measurement of contrast enhancement was thus shown to be a prognostic indicator and may provide a basis for a differential treatment of facial palsy. (orig.)

  12. Greenhouse effect: temperature of a metal sphere surrounded by a glass shell and heated by sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Phuc H; Matzner, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the z-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the greenhouse effect given by Kittel and Kroemer (1980 Thermal Physics (San Francisco: Freeman)) and can serve as a very simple model demonstrating the much more complex Earth greenhouse effect. Solution of the model problem provides an excellent pedagogical tool at the Junior/Senior undergraduate level.

  13. Sunlight simulators-the key to understanding the physiological effects of the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available simulator Slide 4 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za ۞ Benefits of natural sunlight ۞ Restrictions of lifestyles ۞ Common misconceptions ۞ Experimental setups Slide 5 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Cancer Males...,043 181,439 Lung 965,241 848,132 386,891 330,786 Melanoma of skin 79,043 21,952 81,134 18,829 Breast 1,151,298 410,712 Leukemia 171,037 125,142 129,485 97,364 All sites but skin 5,801,839 3,795,991 5,060,657 2...

  14. Concentration of sunlight to solar-surface levels using non-imaging optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleckman, Philip; O'Gallagher, Joseph; Winston, Roland

    1989-05-01

    An account is given of the design and operational principles of a solar concentrator that employs nonimaging optics to achieve a solar flux equal to 56,000 times that of ambient sunlight, yielding temperatures comparable to, and with further development of the device, exceeding those of the solar surface. In this scheme, a parabolic mirror primary concentrator is followed by a secondary concentrator, designed according to the edge-ray method, which is filled with a transparent oil. The device may be used in materials-processing, waste-disposal, and solar-pumped laser applications.

  15. Session 6: photo-catalytic degradation of Toluene using sunlight-type excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerte, A.; Hernandez-Alonso, M.D.; Martinez-Arias, A.; Conesa, J.C.; Soria, J.; Fernandez-Garcia, M. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, -Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    In this report we investigate the doping of anatase-TiO{sub 2} with nine different cations. It is shown that W can be one of the best options for toluene photo-degradation using sunlight-type excitation. Thermal and hydrothermal treatments were applied to amorphous Ti-W mixed oxide precursors with varying W:Ti atomic ratio for obtaining nano-structured particles having different properties. All Ti-W precursors were prepared by a microemulsion method and the mixed oxides characterized by using XRD, XPS, as well as XAFS, Raman and UV-Vis Spectroscopies. (authors)

  16. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  17. Persistence of marine fish environmental DNA and the influence of sunlight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Andruszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Harnessing information encoded in environmental DNA (eDNA in marine waters has the potential to revolutionize marine biomonitoring. Whether using organism-specific quantitative PCR assays or metabarcoding in conjunction with amplicon sequencing, scientists have illustrated that realistic organism censuses can be inferred from eDNA. The next step is establishing ways to link information obtained from eDNA analyses to actual organism abundance. This is only possible by understanding the processes that control eDNA concentrations. The present study uses mesocosm experiments to study the persistence of eDNA in marine waters and explore the role of sunlight in modulating eDNA persistence. We seeded solute-permeable dialysis bags with water containing indigenous eDNA and suspended them in a large tank containing seawater. Bags were subjected to two treatments: half the bags were suspended near the water surface where they received high doses of sunlight, and half at depth where they received lower doses of sunlight. Bags were destructively sampled over the course of 87 hours. eDNA was extracted from water samples and used as template for a Scomber japonicus qPCR assay and a marine fish-specific 12S rRNA PCR assay. The latter was subsequently sequenced using a metabarcoding approach. S. japonicus eDNA, as measured by qPCR, exhibited first order decay with a rate constant ~0.01 hr -1 with no difference in decay rate constants between the two experimental treatments. eDNA metabarcoding identified 190 organizational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to varying taxonomic ranks. There was no difference in marine fish communities as measured by eDNA metabarcoding between the two experimental treatments, but there was an effect of time. Given the differences in UVA and UVB fluence received by the two experimental treatments, we conclude that sunlight is not the main driver of fish eDNA decay in the experiments. However, there are clearly temporal effects that

  18. Dispersed single-phase-step Michelson interferometer for Doppler imaging using sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-15

    A Michelson interferometer is dispersed with a fiber array-fed spectrograph, providing 59 Doppler sensing channels using sunlight in the 510-570 nm wavelength region. The interferometer operates at a single-phase-step mode, which is particularly advantageous in multiplexing and data processing compared to the phase-stepping mode of other interferometer spectrometer instruments. Spectral templates are prepared using a standard solar spectrum and simulated interferometer modulations, such that the correlation function with a measured 1D spectrum determines the Doppler shift. Doppler imaging of a rotating cylinder is demonstrated. The average Doppler sensitivity is ~12 m/s, with some channels reaching ~5 m/s.

  19. High-frequency, low-intensity vibrations increase bone mass and muscle strength in upper limbs, improving autonomy in disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M Loreto; Hernández, Marta; Holmgren, Luz J; Sanhueza, Enrique; Escobar, Raúl G

    2011-08-01

    Disuse osteoporosis in children is a progressive disease that can affect quality of life. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration (HFLMV) acts as an anabolic signal for bone and muscle. We undertook a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of regional HFLMV in disabled children. Sixty-five children 6 to 9 year of age were randomized into three groups: placebo, 60 Hz, and 90 Hz. In the two active groups, a 0.3-g mechanical vibration was delivered to the radii and femurs for 5 minutes each day. After 6 months, the main endpoint was bone mineral density (BMD) at the ultradistal radius (UDR), 33% radii (33%R), and femoral necks (FN). Secondary endpoints were area and bone mineral content (BMC) at the UDR, 33%R, and FN; grip force of the upper and lower limbs; motor function; and PedsQL evaluation. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Fifty-seven children (88%) completed the protocol. A significant increase was observed in the 60-Hz group relative to the other groups in BMD at the UDR (p = .011), in grip force of the upper limbs (p = .035), and in the "daily activities item" (p = .035). A mixed model to evaluate the response to intervention showed a stronger effect of 60 Hz on patients with cerebral palsy on the UDR and that between-subject variability significantly affected the response. There were no reported side effects of the intervention. This work provides evidence that regional HFLMV is an effective and safe strategy to improve bone mass, muscle strength, and possibly independence in children with motor disabilities. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  20. Nurse-led implementation of an insulin-infusion protocol in a general intensive care unit: improved glycaemic control with increased costs and risk of hypoglycaemia signals need for algorithm revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull Eva M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strict glycaemic control (SGC has become a contentious issue in modern intensive care. Physicians and nurses are concerned about the increased workload due to SGC as well as causing harm through hypoglycaemia. The objective of our study was to evaluate our existing degree of glycaemic control, and to implement SGC safely in our ICU through a nurse-led implementation of an algorithm for intensive insulin-therapy. Methods The study took place in the adult general intensive care unit (11 beds of a 44-bed department of intensive care at a tertiary care university hospital. All patients admitted during the 32 months of the study were enrolled. We retrospectively analysed all arterial blood glucose (BG results from samples that were obtained over a period of 20 months prior to the implementation of SGC. We then introduced an algorithm for intensive insulin therapy; aiming for arterial blood-glucose at 4.4 – 6.1 mmol/L. Doctors and nurses were trained in the principles and potential benefits and risks of SGC. Consecutive statistical analyses of blood samples over a period of 12 months were used to assess performance, provide feedback and uncover incidences of hypoglycaemia. Results Median BG level was 6.6 mmol/L (interquartile range 5.6 to 7.7 mmol/L during the period prior to implementation of SGC (494 patients, and fell to 5.9 (IQR 5.1 to 7.0 mmol/L following introduction of the new algorithm (448 patients. The percentage of BG samples > 8 mmol/L was reduced from 19.2 % to 13.1 %. Before implementation of SGC, 33 % of samples were between 4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L and 12 patients (2.4 % had one or more episodes of severe hypoglycaemia ( Conclusion The retrospective part of the study indicated ample room for improvement. Through the implementation of SGC the fraction of samples within the new target range increased from 33% to 45.8%. There was also a significant increase in severe hypoglycaemic episodes. There continues to be potential

  1. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  2. Photoelectrochemical-type sunlight photodetector based on MoS2/graphene heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zongyu; Han, Weijia; Chander, D Sathish; Qi, Xiang; Zhang, Han; Tang, Hongli; Ren, Long

    2015-01-01

    We have fabricated a novel sunlight photo-detector based on a MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure. The MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure was prepared by a facile hydrothermal method along with a subsequent annealing process followed by a substrate-induced high selective nucleation and growth mechanism. The microstructures and morphologies of the two-dimensional MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure can be experimentally confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a UV–vis absorption spectrometer. Photoresponse investigations performed by a photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurement system indicate that the synthesized MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure shows superior photoresponse activities under the illumination of sunlight in contrast with bare MoS 2 and graphene. The improved photoresponsivity can be attributed to the enhanced light absorption, strong light–matter interaction and the extremely efficient charge separation of the heterostructure. The structure and performances of the MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure suggest promising applications in the field of photonics and optoelectronics. (paper)

  3. A full-sunlight-driven photocatalyst with super long-persistent energy storage ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Zhijian; Zhang, Guozhu; Zou, Tao; Zou, Zhijun; Zhang, Shunping; Zeng, Dawen; Xie, Changsheng

    2013-01-01

    A major drawback of traditional photocatalysts like TiO2 is that they can only work under illumination, and the light has to be UV. As a solution for this limitation, visible-light-driven energy storage photocatalysts have been developed in recent years. However, energy storage photocatalysts that are full-sunlight-driven (UV-visible-NIR) and possess long-lasting energy storage ability are lacking. Here we report, a Pt-loaded and hydrogen-treated WO3 that exhibits a strong absorption at full-sunlight spectrum (300-1,000 nm), and with a super-long energy storage time of more than 300 h to have formaldehyde degraded in dark. In this new material system, the hydrogen treated WO3 functions as the light harvesting material and energy storage material simultaneously, while Pt mainly acts as the cocatalyst to have the energy storage effect displayed. The extraordinary full-spectrum absorption effect and long persistent energy storage ability make the material a potential solar-energy storage and an effective photocatalyst in practice.

  4. A pathway for sustainable conversion of sunlight to hydrogen using proposed compact CPV system

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2018-03-22

    Solar energy being intermittent in nature, can provide a sustainable, steady and high density energy source when converted into electrolytic hydrogen. However, in current photovoltaic market trend with 99% conventional single junction PV panels, this cannot be achieved efficiently and economically. The advent of the multi-junction solar cells (MJCs), with cell-efficiency exceeding 46%, has yet to receive wide spread acceptance in the current PV market in form of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system, because of its system design complexity, limiting its application scope and customers. The objective of this paper is to develop a low cost compact CPV system that will not only eliminate its application and installation related restrictions but it is also introducing a highly efficient and sustainable photovoltaic system for common consumer, to convert intermittent sunlight into green hydrogen. The developed CPV system negates the common conviction by showing two times more power output than the flat plate PV, in tropical region. In addition, sunlight to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 18% is recorded for CPV, which is two times higher than alone electricity production efficiency of flat plate PV.

  5. Roles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerases Poleta and Polzeta in response to irradiation by simulated sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmin, Stanislav G; Pavlov, Youri I; Kunkel, Thomas A; Sage, Evelyne

    2003-08-01

    Sunlight causes lesions in DNA that if unrepaired and inaccurately replicated by DNA polymerases yield mutations that result in skin cancer in humans. Two enzymes involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) of UV-induced photolesions are DNA polymerase eta (Poleta) and polymerase zeta (Polzeta), encoded by the RAD30A and REV3 genes, respectively. Previous studies have investigated the TLS roles of these polymerases in human and yeast cells irradiated with monochromatic, short wavelength UVC radiation (254 nm). However, less is known about cellular responses to solar radiation, which is of higher and mixed wavelengths (310-1100 nm) and produces a different spectrum of DNA lesions, including Dewar photoproducts and oxidative lesions. Here we report on the comparative cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of simulated sunlight (SSL) and UVC radiation on yeast wild-type, rad30Delta, rev3Delta and rev3Delta rad30Delta strains. The results with SSL support several previous interpretations on the roles of these two polymerases in TLS of photodimers and (6-4) photoproducts derived from studies with UVC. They further suggest that Poleta participates in the non-mutagenic bypass of SSL-dependent cytosine-containing Dewar photoproducts and 8-oxoguanine, while Polzeta is mainly responsible for the mutagenic bypass of all types of Dewar photoproducts. They also suggest that in the absence of Polzeta, Poleta contributes to UVC- and SSL-induced mutagenesis, possibly by the bypass of photodimers containing deaminated cytosine.

  6. Factors influencing adherence with therapeutic sunlight exposure in older people in intermediate care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durvasula, Seeta; Sambrook, Philip N; Cameron, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing low adherence with therapeutic sunlight exposure in a randomized controlled trial conducted with older people living in intermediate care facilities. The study involved participants in the FREEDOM (Falls Risk Epidemiology: Effect of vitamin D on skeletal Outcomes and other Measures) study, a randomized controlled trial of therapeutic sun exposure to reduce falls in older people in intermediate care facilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty participants in the FREEDOM trial, and with ten sunlight officers who were employed to facilitate the sun exposure. Two focus groups involving 10 participants in the FREEDOM trial were also held at the end of the intervention period. Common themes were derived from the interview and focus group transcripts. The study showed that the perceived health benefits did not influence adherence with the sun exposure. Factors such as socializing with others and being outdoors were more important in encouraging attendance. The main barriers to adherence included the perceived inflexibility and regimentation of daily attendance, clash with other activities, unsuitable timing and heat discomfort. This study showed that providing greater flexibility and autonomy to older people in how and when they receive sun exposure is likely to improve adherence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A pathway for sustainable conversion of sunlight to hydrogen using proposed compact CPV system

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Oh, Seung Jin; Ng, Kim Choon

    2018-01-01

    Solar energy being intermittent in nature, can provide a sustainable, steady and high density energy source when converted into electrolytic hydrogen. However, in current photovoltaic market trend with 99% conventional single junction PV panels, this cannot be achieved efficiently and economically. The advent of the multi-junction solar cells (MJCs), with cell-efficiency exceeding 46%, has yet to receive wide spread acceptance in the current PV market in form of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system, because of its system design complexity, limiting its application scope and customers. The objective of this paper is to develop a low cost compact CPV system that will not only eliminate its application and installation related restrictions but it is also introducing a highly efficient and sustainable photovoltaic system for common consumer, to convert intermittent sunlight into green hydrogen. The developed CPV system negates the common conviction by showing two times more power output than the flat plate PV, in tropical region. In addition, sunlight to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 18% is recorded for CPV, which is two times higher than alone electricity production efficiency of flat plate PV.

  8. Inactivation and mutation induction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to simulated sunlight: evaluation of action spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk-Meuser, K; Pawlowsky, K; Kiefer, J

    1992-07-15

    The effectiveness of polychromatic light irradiation was investigated for haploid yeast cells. Inactivation and mutation induction were measured in both a RAD-wildtype strain and an excision-repair defective strain. The behaviour of vegetative "wet" cells was compared to that of dehydrated cells. The aim of the study was to assess the interaction of UVC with other wavelengths in cells of different states of humidity. The irradiation procedure was therefore carried out using a solar simulator either with full spectrum or with a UVC-blocking filter (modified sunlight) added. The results were analysed on the basis of separately determined action spectra. The summation of the efficiency of individual wavelengths was compared to the values obtained from polychromatic irradiation. It is shown that the effects caused by the whole-spectrum irradiation in wet cells can be predicted sufficiently from the calculation, while dried wildtype cells exhibit higher mutation rates. Thus it can be assumed that drying-specific damage leads to lethal and mutagenic lesions which are processed in different ways, causing a synergistic behaviour in mutation induction. Irradiation of vegetative cells with modified sunlight (UVC-) results in less inactivation and lower mutation rates than were calculated. From these results it can be concluded that this antagonistic behaviour is caused by the interaction of near-UV photoproducts.

  9. Prevalence and sunlight photolysis of controlled and chemotherapeutic drugs in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Lin, Yen-Ching; Lee, Wan-Ning

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the occurrences and natural fates of chemotherapeutics and controlled drugs when found together in hospital effluents and surface waters. The results revealed the presence of 11 out of 16 drugs in hospital effluents, and the maximum detected concentrations were at the μg L −1 level in the hospital effluents and the ng L −1 level in surface waters. The highest concentrations corresponded to meperidine, morphine, 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide. The sunlight photolysis of the target compounds was investigated, and the results indicated that morphine and codeine can be significantly attenuated, with half-lives of 0.27 and 2.5 h, respectively, in natural waters. Photolysis can lower the detected environmental concentrations, also lowering the estimated environmental risks of the target drugs to human health. Nevertheless, 5-fluorouracil and codeine were found to have a high risk quotient (RQ), demonstrating the high risks of directly releasing hospital wastewater into the environment. - Highlights: • High occurrence of chemotherapeutics and controlled substances in aqueous systems. • Photolysis lowers the detected concentrations of morphine and codeine. • 5-fluorouracil and codeine in hospital effluents have high risk quotients. - Chemotherapeutics and controlled drugs occur at significant levels in hospital effluents and surface waters. Natural sunlight photolysis reduces their environmental occurrence

  10. Effect of sunlight irradiation on photocatalytic pyrene degradation in contaminated soils by micro-nano size TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chien, S.W.; Chang, C.H.; Chen, S.H.; Wang, M.C.; Madhava Rao, M.; Satya Veni, S.

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils by micro-nano size TiO 2 in the presence and absence of sunlight was investigated. The results showed that the synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO 2 was more efficient on pyrene degradation in quartz sand and red and alluvial soils than the corresponding reaction system without sunlight irradiation. In the presence of sunlight irradiation, the photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene was very pronounced in alluvial and red soils and especially in quartz sand. However, in the absence of sunlight irradiation, the catalytic pyrene degradation by TiO 2 and the photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene were almost nil. This implicates that ultra-violet (UV) wavelength range of sunlight plays an important role in TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and in photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene. The percentages of photocatalytic pyrene degradation by TiO 2 in quartz sand, alluvial and red soils under sunlight irradiation were 78.3, 23.4, and 31.8%, respectively, at 5 h reaction period with a 5% (w/w) dose of the amended catalyst. The sequence of TiO 2 -enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils was quartz sand > red soil > alluvial soil, due to different texture and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the quartz sand and other two soils. The differential Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of degraded pyrene in alluvial soil corroborate that TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic degradation rate of degraded pyrene was much greater than photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) rate of degraded pyrene. Based on the data obtained, the importance for the application of TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and associated organic contaminants in contaminated soils was elucidated. - Highlights: → Synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO 2 promoted degradation of pyrene. → Micro-nano size TiO 2 enhanced

  11. Water bath hyperthermia is a simple therapy for psoriasis and also stimulates skin tanning in response to sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreham, D.R.; Gasmann, H.C.; Mitchel, R.E.J

    1994-07-01

    An eight week trial, involving superficial hyperthermia delivered biweekly via simple water bath immersion, was tested for its ability to clear mild to moderate psoriatic lesions. Seven patients were treated and three cases rapidly improved. In the remaining patients, the treatment frequency was increased to alternate days; two cases improved significantly, one patient showed a partial response, and the fourth had no visible change (this was the only patient taking concurrent drug therapy - etretinate). In addition to resolving psoriatic lesions, water bath hyperthermia also reduced edema (swelling) and relieved pruritus (itching) in all patients, both during the treatment period and for up to several months after lesions had returned. Lesion reappearance occurred within one to three months after the last heat treatment. We retreated one patient and produced a second complete remission. These results indicate that simple repetitive water bath hyperthermia alone is effective in the treatment of psoriatic lesions in heatable locations. An unexpected side effect was enhanced melanin content (tanning) in all areas where hyperthermia treated skin was exposed to sunlight. (author)

  12. Integrating a Silicon Solar Cell with a Triboelectric Nanogenerator via a Mutual Electrode for Harvesting Energy from Sunlight and Raindrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiang; Sun, Na; Liu, Jiawei; Wen, Zhen; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2018-03-27

    Solar cells, as promising devices for converting light into electricity, have a dramatically reduced performance on rainy days. Here, an energy harvesting structure that integrates a solar cell and a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) device is built to realize power generation from both sunlight and raindrops. A heterojunction silicon (Si) solar cell is integrated with a TENG by a mutual electrode of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film. Regarding the solar cell, imprinted PEDOT:PSS is used to reduce light reflection, which leads to an enhanced short-circuit current density. A single-electrode-mode water-drop TENG on the solar cell is built by combining imprinted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a triboelectric material combined with a PEDOT:PSS layer as an electrode. The increasing contact area between the imprinted PDMS and water drops greatly improves the output of the TENG with a peak short-circuit current of ∼33.0 nA and a peak open-circuit voltage of ∼2.14 V, respectively. The hybrid energy harvesting system integrated electrode configuration can combine the advantages of high current level of a solar cell and high voltage of a TENG device, promising an efficient approach to collect energy from the environment in different weather conditions.

  13. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  14. Graphene-SnO2 composites for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Humaira; Christian Kemp, K; Chandra, Vimlesh; Kim, Kwang S

    2012-09-07

    Graphene sheets decorated with SnO(2) nanoparticles (RGO-SnO(2)) were prepared via a redox reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and SnCl(2). Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced to graphene (RGO) and Sn(2+) was oxidized to SnO(2) during the redox reaction, leading to a homogeneous distribution of SnO(2) nanoparticles on RGO sheets. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show uniform distribution of the nanoparticles on the RGO surface and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows an average particle size of 3-5 nm. The RGO-SnO(2) composite showed an enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity for the organic dye methylene blue under sunlight compared to bare SnO(2) nanoparticles. This result leads us to believe that the RGO-SnO(2) composite could be used in catalytic photodegradation of other organic dyes.

  15. Sunlight effects on the 3D polar current system determined from low Earth orbit measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laundal, Karl M.; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere is associated with large-scale currents in the ionosphere at polar latitudes that flow along magnetic field lines (Birkeland currents) and horizontally. These current systems are tightly linked, but their global behaviors are rarely...... analyzed together. In this paper, we present estimates of the average global Birkeland currents and horizontal ionospheric currents from the same set of magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field measurements, from the low Earth orbiting Swarm and CHAMP satellites, are used to co-estimate poloidal...... and toroidal parts of the magnetic disturbance field, represented in magnetic apex coordinates. The use of apex coordinates reduces effects of longitudinal and hemispheric variations in the Earth’s main field. We present global currents from both hemispheres during different sunlight conditions. The results...

  16. Type II GaSb quantum ring solar cells under concentrated sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Che-Pin; Hsu, Shun-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Yen; Chang, Ching-Wen; Tu, Li-Wei; Chen, Kun-Cheng; Lay, Tsong-Sheng; Lin, Chien-Chung

    2014-03-10

    A type II GaSb quantum ring solar cell is fabricated and measured under the concentrated sunlight. The external quantum efficiency confirms the extended absorption from the quantum rings at long wavelength coinciding with the photoluminescence results. The short-circuit current of the quantum ring devices is 5.1% to 9.9% more than the GaAs reference's under various concentrations. While the quantum ring solar cell does not exceed its GaAs counterpart in efficiency under one-sun, the recovery of the open-circuit voltages at higher concentration helps to reverse the situation. A slightly higher efficiency (10.31% vs. 10.29%) is reported for the quantum ring device against the GaAs one.

  17. Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol Under Sunlight Using ZnO Nanoparticles as Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajar, Kausar; Sirajuddin; Balouch, Aamna; Bhanger, M. I.; Sherazi, Tufail H.; Kumar, Raj

    2018-03-01

    Herein we demonstrate a simplistic microwave assisted chemical precipitation approach regarding the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. As-prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffractometry and scrutinized as photo-catalysts for degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under sunlight. The study substantiated that 98.5% of 4-CP was degraded within 20 min in the absence of initiator like H2O2 which reflects an outstanding prospective use for ZnO NPs as photo-catalysts. The nanocatalysts were recycled four times and still showed catalytic efficiency up to 95.5% for degradation of 4-CP in the specified 20 min.

  18. Sunlight-assisted synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using chitosan as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, E.; Maryani; Ashadi

    2018-04-01

    The present study we explore an environmentally friendly colloidal silver nanoparticles preparation using chitosan as reducing agent and stabilizer. It develops a new strategy on preparation of silver nanoparticles through the gel phase using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as accelerator reagent. Sunlight irradiation was employed to assisted reducing process of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon of silver nanoparticles was investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The shape and size of silver particles were analyzed using TEM. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the appearance of LSPR absorption peak at 396.0–412.0 nm. The absorption peak of LSPR were affected by NaOH amount, time of sulight irradiation and concentration of AgNO3. The produced silver nanoparticles were spherical with dominant size range of 5 to 8 nm as shown by TEM images. All colloidals were stable without any aggregation for 30 days after preparation.

  19. On the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight. 2: 1983-1992 and comparisons with magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Plymate, Claude

    1994-01-01

    We report additional results in our program to monitor the wavelength stability of lines in the 2.3 micrometer spectrum of integrated sunlight. We use the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of the National Solar Observatory to monitor 16 delta V = 2 lines of (12)C(16)O, as well as five atomic lines. Wavenumber calibration is achieved using a low-pressure N2O absorption cell and checked against terrestrial atmospheric lines. Imperfect optical integration of the solar disk remains the principal source of error, but this error has been reduced by improved FTS/telescope collimation and observing procedures. The present results include data from an additional 13 quarterly observing runs since 1985. We continue to find that the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight is variable, in the sense of having a greater reshift at solar maximum. This is supported by the temporal dependence of the integrated light velocity, and by the presence of a correlation between velocity and the disk-averaged magnetic flux derived from Kitt Peak magnetograms. The indicated peak-to-peak apparent velocity amplitude over a solar cycle is approximately the same as the velocity amplitude of the Sun's motion about the solar system barycenter. This represents about half the amplitude which we inferred in Paper I (Deming et al. 1987), but the present result has a much greater statistical significance. Our results have implications for those investigations which search for the Doppler signatures of planetary-mass companions to solar-type stars. We contrast our results to the recent finding by McMillan et al. 1993 that solar absorption lines in the violet spectral region are wavelength-stable over the solar cycle.

  20. Changing clinical guidelines from delayed to early aperient administration for enterally fed intensive care patients was associated with increased diarrhoea: a before-and-after, intention-to-treat evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Kammy; Smith, Roger J; Reid, David A; Santamaria, John D

    2015-11-01

    The 14-bed intensive care unit of a tertiary referral hospital adopted a guideline to start docusate sodium with sennosides when enteral nutrition was started. This replaced a guideline to start aperients after 24h of enteral nutrition if no bowel action had occurred. We sought to determine the effect of this change on the incidence of diarrhoea and constipation in intensive care. Retrospective audit of the medical records of consecutive adult patients admitted to intensive care and given enteral nutrition, excluding those with a primary gastrointestinal system diagnosis, between Jan-Aug 2011 (the delayed group, n=175) and Jan-Aug 2012 (the early group, n=175). The early aperient guideline was implemented during Sep-Dec 2011. The early and delayed groups were similar in age (median 62 years vs. 64 years; P=0.17), sex (males 65% vs. 63%; P=0.91), and postoperative cases (31% vs. 33%; P=0.82) and had similar proportions who received mechanical ventilation (95% vs. 95%; P=1.00), an inotrope or vasopressor (63% vs. 70%; P=0.17), renal replacement therapy (8% vs. 10%; P=0.71), opiates (77% vs. 80%; P=0.60), antibiotics (89% vs. 91%; P=0.72) and metoclopramide (46% vs. 55%; P=0.11). A significantly larger proportion of the early group received an aperient (54% vs. 29%, P<0.001) and experienced diarrhoea (38% vs. 27%, P=0.04), but the groups had similar proportions affected by constipation (42% vs. 43%, P=0.91). Changing guidelines from delayed to early aperient administration was associated with an increase in the incidence of diarrhoea but was not associated with the incidence of constipation. These findings do not support changing guidelines from delayed to early aperient administration. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  2. Increasing signal intensity within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1W magnetic resonance images in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlation with cumulative dose of a macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent, gadobutrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanov, Dragan A. [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia); Clinical Center Nis, Center for Radiology, Nis (Serbia); Aracki-Trenkic, Aleksandra [Clinical Center Nis, Center for Radiology, Nis (Serbia); Vojinovic, Slobodan; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia); Clinical Center Nis, Clinic for Neurology, Nis (Serbia); Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate correlation between cumulative dose of gadobutrol and signal intensity (SI) within dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted images in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Dentate nucleus-to-pons and globus pallidus-to-thalamus SI ratios, and renal and liver functions, were evaluated after multiple intravenous administrations of 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol at 27, 96-98, and 168 weeks. We compared SI ratios based on the number of administrations, total amount of gadobutrol administered, and time between injections. Globus pallidus-to-thalamus (p = 0.025) and dentate nucleus-to-pons (p < 0.001) SI ratios increased after multiple gadobutrol administrations, correlated with the number of administrations (ρ = 0.263, p = 0.046, respectively) and depended on the length of administration (p = 0.017, p = 0.037, respectively). Patients receiving gadobutrol at 27 weeks showed the greatest increase in both SI ratios (p = 0.006; p = 0.014, respectively, versus 96-98 weeks). GGT increased at the end of the study (p = 0.004). In patients with RRMS, SI within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus increased on unenhanced T1-weighted images after multiple gadobutrol injections. Administration of the same total amount of gadobutrol over a shorter period caused greater SI increase. (orig.)

  3. Aloe sterol supplementation improves skin elasticity in Japanese men with sunlight-exposed skin: a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Miyuki Tanaka,1 Yuki Yamamoto,2 Eriko Misawa,1 Kazumi Nabeshima,1 Marie Saito,1 Koji Yamauchi,1 Fumiaki Abe,1 Fukumi Furukawa2 1Functional Food Ingredients Department, Food Ingredients & Technology Institute, Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd., Zama, Kanagawa, 2Department of Dermatology, Wakayama Medical University, Kimiidera, Wakayama, Japan Background/objective: Recently, it was confirmed that the daily oral intake of plant sterols of Aloe vera gel (Aloe sterol significantly increases the skin barrier function, moisture, and elasticity in photoprotected skin. This study aimed to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affected skin conditions following sunlight exposure in Japanese men. Methods: We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin conditions in 48 apparently healthy men (age range: 30–59 years; average: 45 years. The subjects were instructed to expose the measurement position of the arms to the sunlight outdoors every day for 12 weeks. The skin parameters were measured at 0 (baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Results: Depending on the time for the revelation of the sunlight, the b* value and melanin index increased and the skin moisture decreased. After taking an Aloe sterol tablet daily for 12 weeks, the skin elasticity index (R2, R5, and R7 levels were significantly higher than the baseline value. There were no differences between the groups in these skin elasticity values. In the subgroup analysis of subjects aged <46 years, the change in the R5 and R7 was significantly higher in the Aloe group than in the placebo group at 8 weeks (P=0.0412 and P=0.0410, respectively. There was a difference in the quantity of sun exposure between each subject, and an additional clinical study that standardizes the amount of ultraviolet rays is warranted. No Aloe sterol intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period

  4. Azo dyes degradation using TiO2-Pt/graphene oxide and TiO2-Pt/reduced graphene oxide photocatalysts under UV and natural sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Marcela-Corina; Coros, Maria; Pogacean, Florina; Magerusan, Lidia; Socaci, Crina; Turza, Alexandru; Pruneanu, Stela

    2017-08-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes with different structures (amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine) using TiO2-Pt nanoparticles (TPt), TiO2-Pt/graphene oxide (TPt-GO) and TiO2-Pt/reduced graphene oxide (TPt-rGO) composites were investigated in the presence of UV and natural sunlight irradiation. The composites were prepared by a combined chemical-thermal method and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Infrared (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The modification of TiO2-Pt with graphene oxide shifted its optical absorption edge towards the visible region and increased its photocatalytic activity under UV and natural sunlight irradiation. The efficiency of catalysts on azo dyes degradation (in similar conditions) reached high values (above 99%) under sunlight conditions, proving the remarkable photocatalytic activities of obtained composites. TPt-GO nanocomposite exhibited higher photoactivity than TPt or TPt-rGO, demonstrating degradation efficiencies of 99.56% for amaranth, 99.15% for sunset yellow and 96.23% for tartrazine. The dye photodegradation process follows a pseudo-first-order kinetic with respect to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction mechanism. A direct dependence between azo dyes degradation rate and chemical structure of dyes has been observed.

  5. 76 FR 62052 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to First Solar, Inc., for the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to First Solar, Inc., for the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Record of decision. SUMMARY: The U.S... The proposed DSSFP is a photovoltaic solar electrical generating facility using commercial, thin-film...

  6. Fate of kelthane residues on apple pomace exposed to drying in the dark, sunlight, and ultraviolet light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, T.E.; Toscano, R.A.

    1972-01-01

    The present investigations were undertaken to determine the fate of Kelthane residues intentionally applied to apples under controlled laboratory conditions and the reduction of these residues in the pomace by exposure to drying in the dark, in sunlight, and ultraviolet light irradiation

  7. Use of sunlight to partially detoxify groundnut (peanut) cake flour and casein contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha, T; Murthy, V S

    1981-03-01

    Sunlight destroyed 83 and 50% of the toxin added to casein and groundnut cake flour, respectively. Equilibrium dialysis revealed that both casein and groundnut protein bind aflatoxin but the toxin bound to casein appeared more photo-labile than that bound to groundnut protein.

  8. 76 FR 50493 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Desert Sunlight Holdings, LLC, Desert...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA-48649, LLCAD06000 L51010000 ER0000... right-of-way (ROW) application CACA-48649 for the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project (DSSF). The DSSF is... (CACA-052682) where the project would interconnect with the SCE regional transmission system. The DSSF...

  9. Screening of Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. conidia with exposure to simulated sunlight and a range of temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley-Davies, J.; Moore, D.; Prior, C.

    1996-01-01

    Conidia of 14 isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium flavoviride and M. anisopliae were formulated by suspending in paraffinic oil or as dry powder. Non-indicating silica gel was added to both formulations which were stored at 13 °C for at least 2 wk before exposure to a range of temperatures: −10°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40° and 50° to determine the effects of temperature of storage on viability. At 50° the isolate studied in most detail (M. flavoviride, IMI 330189) initially showed a gradual decline in viability with 73% germination for oil samples after 60 d from an initial level of 93%, whereas the dry samples typically showed higher germination rates (initially 96% germination, dropping to 80% after 60 d). Subsequently there was a rapid decline and both oil formulated and dry conidia had lost almost all viability by 90 d. Samples of IMI 330189 stored dry or in oil, at 40° and below showed > 79% germination after 90 d. M. flavoviride 191–660 exhibited the highest temperature tolerance with >40% germination of the dry stored conidia after 90 d at 50°. Some isolates of both B. bassiana and Metarhizium spp. showed markedly lower tolerance of high temperatures. Samples stored dry usually showed greater percentage germination than samples in oil for all isolates, at all temperatures. The isolates were also exposed to 4, 8, 16 and 24 h uv light from a sunlight simulator at 40°. Conidial viability decreased markedly in all isolates with increasing uv exposure. Germination ranged between 10 and 50% after 24 h exposure to uv, 191–660 retaining highest viability. (author)

  10. Diffused sunlight driven highly synergistic pathway for complete mineralization of organic contaminants using reduced graphene oxide supported photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sundaram Ganesh; Ramalingam Vinoth [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw, E-mail: neppolian.b@res.srmuniv.ac.in [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Ashokkumar, Muthupandian [The School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Diffused sunlight is firstly used as an effective source for the degradation of organics. • More than 10 fold synergistic effect is achieved by sono-photocatalysis. • rGO enhances the degradation efficiency up to 54% as compared with CuO–TiO{sub 2} alone. • Plausible mechanism and intermediates formed are supported with experimental studies. - Abstract: Diffused sunlight is found to be an effective light source for the efficient degradation and mineralization of organic pollutant (methyl orange as a probe) by sono-photocatalytic degradation using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported CuO–TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. The prepared catalysts are characterized by XRD, XPS, UV–vis DRS, PL, photoelectrochemical, SEM-EDS and TEM. A 10 fold synergy is achieved for the first time by combining sonochemical and photocatalytic degradation under diffused sunlight. rGO loading augments the activity of bare CuO–TiO{sub 2} more than two fold. The ability of rGO in storing, transferring, and shuttling electrons at the heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and CuO facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs, as evidenced by the photoluminescence results. The complete mineralization of MO and the by-products within a short span of time is confirmed by TOC analysis. Further, hydroxyl radical mediated degradation under diffused sunlight is confirmed by LC–MS. This system shows similar activity for the degradation of methylene blue and 4-chlorophenol indicating the versatility of the catalyst for the degradation of various pollutants. This investigation is likely to open new possibilities for the development of highly efficient diffused sunlight driven TiO{sub 2} based photocatalysts for the complete mineralization of organic contaminants.

  11. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...

  13. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Photovoltaic Cells Using Reference Cells Under Simulated Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic cell under simulated sunlight by means of a calibrated reference cell procedure. 1.2 Electrical performance measurements are reported with respect to a select set of standard reporting conditions (SRC) (see Table 1) or to user-specified conditions. 1.2.1 The SRC or user-specified conditions include the cell temperature, the total irradiance, and the reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 This test method is applicable only to photovoltaic cells with a linear response over the range of interest. 1.4 The cell parameters determined by this test method apply only at the time of test, and imply no past or future performance level. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this s...

  14. Direct photolysis rates and transformation pathways of the lampricides TFM and niclosamide in simulated sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Megan B.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Remucal, Christina K.

    2016-01-01

    The lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2′,5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) are directly added to many tributaries of the Great Lakes that harbor the invasive parasitic sea lamprey. Despite their long history of use, the fate of lampricides is not well understood. This study evaluates the rate and pathway of direct photodegradation of both lampricides under simulated sunlight. The estimated half-lives of TFM range from 16.6 ± 0.2 h (pH 9) to 32.9 ± 1.0 h (pH 6), while the half-lives of niclosamide range from 8.88 ± 0.52 days (pH 6) to 382 ± 83 days (pH 9) assuming continuous irradiation over a water depth of 55 cm. Both compounds degrade to form a series of aromatic intermediates, simple organic acids, ring cleavage products, and inorganic ions. Experimental data were used to construct a kinetic model which demonstrates that the aromatic products of TFM undergo rapid photolysis and emphasizes that niclosamide degradation is the rate-limiting step to dehalogenation and mineralization of the lampricide. This study demonstrates that TFM photodegradation is likely to occur on the time scale of lampricide applications (2–5 days), while niclosamide, the less selective lampricide, will undergo minimal direct photodegradation during its passage to the Great Lakes.

  15. Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2003-08-01

    Rickets, a disease of vitamin D deficiency, is rarely confronted by the practicing pediatrician in the United States today. At the turn of the 20th century, rickets was rampant among the poor children living in the industrialized and polluted northern cities of the United States. With the discovery of vitamin D and the delineation of the anti-rachitic properties of cod-liver oil by the 1930s, it became possible to not only treat but also eradicate rickets in the United States. Rickets was a common disease in 17th century England. Frances Glisson's treatise on rickets published in 1650, a glorious contribution to English medicine, described the clinical and anatomic features of rickets in great detail. The exact etiology of rickets had been elusive until the 1920s. During the Glissonian era, rickets was a mysterious disease. By the late 19th and early 20th century, faulty diet or faulty environment (poor hygiene, lack of fresh air and sunshine) or lack of exercise was implicated in its etiology. Animal experiments, appreciation of folklore advocating the benefits of cod-liver oil, and the geographical association of rickets to lack of sunshine were all relevant factors in the advancement of knowledge in the conquest of this malady. In this article, the history of rickets pertaining to the discovery of vitamin D, cod-liver oil, and sunlight is reviewed.

  16. Towards a Better Understanding of the Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Sunlight-Induced Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Mandy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much less prevalent than its nonmelanoma skin cancer counterparts, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM is the most lethal human skin cancer. Epidemiological and biological studies have established a strong link between lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV light, particularly sunburn in childhood, and the development of melanoma. However, the specific molecular targets of this environmental carcinogen are not known. Data obtained from genetic and molecular studies over the last few years have identified the INK4a/ARF locus as the “gatekeeper” melanoma suppressor, encoding two tumour suppressor proteins in human, p16 INK4a and p14 ARF . Recent developments in molecular biotechnology and research using laboratory animals have made a significant gene breakthrough identifying the components of the p16 INK4a /Rb pathway as the principal and rate-limiting targets of UV radiation actions in melanoma formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in melanoma development and its relationship to sunlight UV radiation.

  17. Direct Photolysis Rates and Transformation Pathways of the Lampricides TFM and Niclosamide in Simulated Sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Megan B; Hubert, Terrance D; Remucal, Christina K

    2016-09-20

    The lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) are directly added to many tributaries of the Great Lakes that harbor the invasive parasitic sea lamprey. Despite their long history of use, the fate of lampricides is not well understood. This study evaluates the rate and pathway of direct photodegradation of both lampricides under simulated sunlight. The estimated half-lives of TFM range from 16.6 ± 0.2 h (pH 9) to 32.9 ± 1.0 h (pH 6), while the half-lives of niclosamide range from 8.88 ± 0.52 days (pH 6) to 382 ± 83 days (pH 9) assuming continuous irradiation over a water depth of 55 cm. Both compounds degrade to form a series of aromatic intermediates, simple organic acids, ring cleavage products, and inorganic ions. Experimental data were used to construct a kinetic model which demonstrates that the aromatic products of TFM undergo rapid photolysis and emphasizes that niclosamide degradation is the rate-limiting step to dehalogenation and mineralization of the lampricide. This study demonstrates that TFM photodegradation is likely to occur on the time scale of lampricide applications (2-5 days), while niclosamide, the less selective lampricide, will undergo minimal direct photodegradation during its passage to the Great Lakes.

  18. SASKTRAN: A spherical geometry radiative transfer code for efficient estimation of limb scattered sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourassa, A.E.; Degenstein, D.A.; Llewellyn, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The inversion of satellite-based observations of limb scattered sunlight for the retrieval of constituent species requires an efficient and accurate modelling of the measurement. We present the development of the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model for the prediction of limb scatter measurements at optical wavelengths by method of successive orders along rays traced in a spherical atmosphere. The component of the signal due to the first two scattering events of the solar beam is accounted for directly along rays traced in the three-dimensional geometry. Simplifying assumptions in successive scattering orders provide computational optimizations without severely compromising the accuracy of the solution. SASKTRAN is designed for the analysis of measurements from the OSIRIS instrument and the implementation of the algorithm is efficient such that the code is suitable for the inversion of OSIRIS profiles on desktop computers. SASKTRAN total limb radiance profiles generally compare better with Monte-Carlo reference models over a large range of solar conditions than the approximate spherical and plane-parallel models typically used for inversions

  19. Sunlight-charged electrochromic battery based on hybrid film of tungsten oxide and polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Liu, Jingrong; Lei, Yanhua; Liu, Tao; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng

    2018-05-01

    Electrochromic (EC) energy storage devices that could realize the multifunctional integration of energy storage and electrochromism have gained much recent attention. Herein, an EC battery based on the hybrid film of W18O49 and polyaniline (PANI) is developed and assembled, which integrates energy storage and EC functions in one device. The W18O49/PANI-EC battery delivers a discharging capacity of 52.96 mA h g-1, which is about two times higher than that of the W18O49-EC battery. Sunlight irradiation could greatly promote the oxidation reactions of both W18O49 and PANI during the charging process of the W18O49/PANI-EC battery, thus effectively accelerating the charging rate. This work provides a green, convenient, environmentally friendly, and cost-free charging strategy for the EC energy systems and could further advance the development of the multifunctional EC devices based on the organic/inorganic composites.

  20. ZnO-graphene quantum dots heterojunctions for natural sunlight-driven photocatalytic environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suneel; Dhiman, Ankita; Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Krishnan, Venkata

    2018-07-01

    In this work, we report the formation of heterojunctions comprising of graphene quantum dots (GQD) decorated ZnO nanorods (NR) and its use as efficient photocatalysts for environmental remediation. The heterojunctions has been designed to be active both in the UV and visible light regions and anticipated utilize the maximum part of the solar light spectrum. In this view, we examined the photocatalytic performance of our heterojunctions towards the degradation of colored pollutant (methylene blue (MB) dye) and a colorless pollutant (carbendazim (CZ) fungicide) under sunlight irradiation. Compared to bare photocatalyst ZnO and GQD, the heterojunction with 2 wt% of GQD (ZGQD2) showed the best photocatalytic activity by effectively degrading (about 95%) of organic pollutants (MB and CZ) from water within a short span of 70 min. The superior photocatalytic activity of these ZnO-GQD heterojunctions could be attributed to efficient charge carrier separation lead suppressed recombination rate at photocatalyst interfaces. In addition to the enhanced light absorption from UV to visible region, the high specific surface area of ZGQD2 heterojunction (353.447 m2 g-1) also imparts strong adsorption capacity for pollutants over catalyst surface, resulting in high photoactivity. Based on the obtained results, band gap alignment at ZnO-GQD heterojunction and active species trapping experiments, a plausible mechanism is proposed for photocatalytic reaction. The excellent photostability and recyclability of the ZnO-GQD heterojunctions fostering as promising photocatalyst candidate for environmental remediation applications.

  1. Hydrogen at the Rooftop: Compact CPV-Hydrogen system to Convert Sunlight to Hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2017-12-27

    Despite being highest potential energy source, solar intermittency and low power density make it difficult for solar energy to compete with the conventional power plants. Highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides best technology to be paired with the electrolytic hydrogen production, as a sustainable energy source with long term energy storage. However, the conventional gigantic design of CPV system limits its market and application to the open desert fields without any rooftop installation scope, unlike conventional PV. This makes CPV less popular among solar energy customers. This paper discusses the development of compact CPV-Hydrogen system for the rooftop application in the urban region. The in-house built compact CPV system works with hybrid solar tracking of 0.1° accuracy, ensured through proposed double lens collimator based solar tracking sensor. With PEM based electrolyser, the compact CPV-hydrogen system showed 28% CPV efficiency and 18% sunlight to hydrogen (STH) efficiency, for rooftop operation in tropical region of Singapore. For plant designers, the solar to hydrogen production rating of 217 kWh/kg has been presented with 15% STH daily average efficiency, recorded from the long term field operation of the system.

  2. Hydrogen at the Rooftop: Compact CPV-Hydrogen system to Convert Sunlight to Hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    Despite being highest potential energy source, solar intermittency and low power density make it difficult for solar energy to compete with the conventional power plants. Highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides best technology to be paired with the electrolytic hydrogen production, as a sustainable energy source with long term energy storage. However, the conventional gigantic design of CPV system limits its market and application to the open desert fields without any rooftop installation scope, unlike conventional PV. This makes CPV less popular among solar energy customers. This paper discusses the development of compact CPV-Hydrogen system for the rooftop application in the urban region. The in-house built compact CPV system works with hybrid solar tracking of 0.1° accuracy, ensured through proposed double lens collimator based solar tracking sensor. With PEM based electrolyser, the compact CPV-hydrogen system showed 28% CPV efficiency and 18% sunlight to hydrogen (STH) efficiency, for rooftop operation in tropical region of Singapore. For plant designers, the solar to hydrogen production rating of 217 kWh/kg has been presented with 15% STH daily average efficiency, recorded from the long term field operation of the system.

  3. Antenna size reduction as a strategy to increase biomass productivity: a great potential not yet realized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, de T.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Cerezo-Chinarro, O.; Mussgnug, J.H.; Kruse, O.; Ballottari, M.; Bassi, R.; Bujaldon, S.; Wollman, F.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    A major limitation in achieving high photosynthetic efficiency in microalgae mass cultures is the fact that the intensity of direct sunlight greatly exceeds the photosynthetic capacity of the cells. Due to the high pigment content of algal cells, the light absorption rate surpasses the much slower

  4. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  5. Sunlight-Driven Forging of Amide/Ester Bonds from Three Independent Components: An Approach to Carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yating; Huang, Binbin; Yang, Chao; Chen, Qingqing; Xia, Wujiong

    2016-11-04

    A photoredox catalytic route to carbamates enabled by visible irradiation (or simply sunlight) has been developed. This process leads to a novel approach to the construction of heterocyclic rings wherein the amide or ester motifs of carbamates were assembled from three isolated components. Large-scale experiments were realized by employing continuous flow techniques, and reuse of photocatalyst demonstrated the green and sustainable aspects of this method.

  6. Coupled optic-thermodynamic analysis of a novel wireless power transfer system using concentrated sunlight for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Ming-Liang; Li, Yun-Ze; Mao, Yu-Feng; Liang, Yi-Hao; Liu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel space wireless power transfer system is proposed. • Concentrated sunlight is used as the medium to avoid multiple conversions. • Fresnel lens and optical fiber bundle make the system compact and space-qualified. • Coupled optic-thermodynamic model is developed to analyze link efficiencies. • End-to-end efficiency achieved is as twice as that of microwave or laser system. - Abstract: The energy generation and supply for in-orbit spacecraft have become an urgent problem concerning efficient and economical utilization of spacecraft formation flying. To fill the gap between the requirement of inter-spacecraft energy transfer and the development of wireless power transfer, this paper presents a novel wireless power transfer system whose transmission medium is concentrated sunlight. The system concentrates sunlight using a Fresnel lens, and changes the direction of concentrated sunlight beam with optical fibers. The light energy is converted to thermal form by a heat collector, and then it is utilized to generate electricity by a Stirling engine integrated with linear alternator. Equipments employed on fractionated spacecraft shall be supported by this electric energy. A coupled optic-thermodynamic model was developed to analyze system link efficiencies. This system offers characteristics such as high flexibility, relatively low cost for launch and maintenance, and most importantly, high end-to-end efficiency. Simulation results show that the geometric concentration ratio and the temperature ratio of expansion and compression spaces are two key parameters of this system. Output power of 234.3 W was achieved on the distance of 100 m, and the end-to-end efficiency of the system was above 20%.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dyes under sunlight using biocompatible TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, B.; Sonkar, A. K.; Singh, N.; Dash, D.; Rath, Chandana

    2017-08-01

    As TiO2 is one of the most popular photocatalysts, we have studied here the photocatalytic degradation of the most common dyestuffs like rhodamine B (RhB), congo red (CR) and methylene blue (MB), which mainly come from the textile and photographic industries using nanoparticles of TiO2. Nanoparticles of TiO2 synthesized through a simple and cost effective sol-gel technique crystallizes in the anatase phase, showing a band gap less than that of bulk value. Particles consisting of coherently scattered domains of size 33 nm are found to be agglomerated and polycrystalline in nature. While the degradation rates of MB, CR and RhB after irradiating with a renewable source of energy, i.e. sunlight, show 100% degradation, TiO2 irradiated with UV light of 4.8 eV shows a much slower degradation rate. To use the waste water after photocatalysis, we examine further the biocompatibile nature of the TiO2 nanoparticles by platelet interaction activity, hemolysis effect and MTT assay. It is worth mentioning here that TiO2 nanoparticles are found to be highly hemocompatible, show no platelet aggregation, and the level of intracellular ROS in human platelets does not show significant change in ROS level. We conclude that TiO2 nanoparticles constitute an excellent photocatalyst and biocompatible material, and that after photocatalytic degradation of dye effluents obtained from textile industries, purified water can be used in agriculture and domestic sectors.

  8. A practical demonstration of water disinfection using TiO2 films and sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Silvia; Gómez, Luis A; Reyes, Karina; Teresa Leal, Ma

    2006-10-01

    The scope of this study is the assessment of the efficiency of solar disinfection by heterogeneous photocatalysis with sol-gel immobilized (titanium dioxide) TiO2 films over glass cylinders. The solar disinfection process known as SODIS was considered as a reference. Spring water naturally polluted with coliform bacteria was exposed to sunlight in plastic bottles with and without TiO2 over simple solar collectors and the disinfection effectiveness was measured. Total and fecal coliforms quantification was performed by means of the chromogenic substrate method in order to obtain the efficiency of each disinfection treatment. The disinfection with TiO2 was more efficient than the SODIS process, inactivating total coliforms as well as fecal coliforms. On a sunny day (more than 1000 W m(-2) irradiance), it took the disinfection with immobilized TiO2 15 min of irradiation to inactivate the fecal coliforms to make them undetectable. For inactivation of total coliforms, 30 min was required, so that in less than half the time it takes SODIS, the treated water complies with the microbial standards for drinking water in Mexico. Another important part of this study has been to determine the bacterial regrowth in water after the disinfection processes were tested. After SODIS, bacterial regrowth of coliforms was observed. In contrast, when using the TiO2 catalyst, coliforms regrowth was not detected, neither for total nor for fecal coliforms. The disinfection process using TiO2 kept treated water free of coliforms at least for seven days after sun irradiation. This demonstration opens the possibility of application of this simple method in rural areas of developing countries.

  9. Daytime Cognitive Performance in Response to Sunlight or Fluorescent Light Controlling for Sleep Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jhanic; Zamos, Adela; Rao, Rohit; Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Light is the primary synchronizer of the human circadian rhythm and also has acute alerting effects. Our study involves and comparing the alertness, performance and sleep of participants in the NASA Ames Sustainability Base, which uses sunlight as its primary light source, to in a traditional office building which uses overhead florescent lighting and varying exposure to natural light. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the use of natural lighting as a primary light source improves daytime cognitive function and promotes nighttime sleep. Participants from the Sustainability Base will be matched by gender and age to individuals working in other NASA buildings. In a prior study we found no differences in performance between those working in the Sustainability Base and those working in other buildings. Unexpectedly, we found that the average sleep duration among participants in both buildings was short, which likely obscured our ability to detect a difference the effect of light exposure on alertness. Given that such sleep deprivation has negative effects on cognitive performance, in this iteration of the study we are asking the participants to maintain a regular schedule with eight hours in bed each night in order to control for the effect of self-selected sleep restriction. Over the course of one week, we will ask the participants to wear actiwatches continuously, complete a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and digit symbol substitution task (DSST) three times per day, and keep daily sleepwork diaries. We hope that this study will provide data to support the idea that natural lighting and green architectural design are optimal to enhance healthy nighttime sleep patterns and daytime cognitive performance.

  10. Reusable sunlight activated photocatalyst Ag3PO4 and its significant antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Shankar; Singh, Sarika; Bahadur, D.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and surfactant free soft chemical approach is adopted for the successful synthesis of Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. The obtained Ag 3 PO 4 NPs are nearly spherical in shape with a size of 250 ± 50 nm. These NPs are highly efficient for the degradation of three organic dyes (methylene blue, rhodamine B and methyl orange) under four different types of light sources. In this case, the superior photocatalytic activity is mainly driven by singlet oxygen radicals and it is confirmed through the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping technique, using several quenchers/sources. Notably, these NPs have the ability to absorb large portion of solar spectrum and therefore it displays higher efficiency under sunlight as compared to UV-C light and a 60 W household compact fluorescence lamp (CFL). Furthermore, these NPs exhibit excellent colloidal stability and recycling capability for the degradation of dyes. In addition, it possesses significant antibacterial activity with complete inhibition of bacterial pathogen, Escherichia coli at a very low concentration (0.01 mg/mL) after a mere 15 min of incubation time. The inhibition of bacterial growth is also suggested from the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli by fluorescence microscopy. Thus, these NPs may provide a potential outcome for the environmental remediation. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the mechanism involved in photodegradation of organic dyes and inhibition of bacterial growth using Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Excellent catalytic activity for dyes degradation under different light sources. • Mechanism involving catalyst mediated ROS generation in photocatalysis suggested. • Good recycling capability of Ag 3 PO 4 even after the fifth cycles. • Extraordinary antibacterial activity of Ag 3 PO 4 after a very short incubation time. • Detection of intracellular ROS in bacterial cells by fluorescence

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  12. Dose escalation by image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy leads to an increase in pain relief for spinal metastases: a comparison study with a regimen of 30 Gy in 10 fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinlan; Xiao, Jianghong; Peng, Xingchen; Duan, Baofeng; Li, Yan; Ai, Ping; Yao, Min; Chen, Nianyong

    2017-12-22

    Under the existing condition that the optimum radiotherapy regimen for spinal metastases is controversial, this study investigates the benefits of dose escalation by image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) with 60-66 Gy in 20-30 fractions for spinal metastases. In the dose-escalation group, each D50 of planning gross tumor volume (PGTV) was above 60 Gy and each Dmax of spinal cord planning organ at risk volume (PRV) was below 48 Gy. The median biological effective dose (BED) of Dmax of spinal cord was lower in the dose-escalation group compared with that in the 30-Gy group (69.70 Gy vs. 83.16 Gy, p pain responses were better in the dose-escalation group than those in the 30-Gy group ( p = 0.005 and p = 0.024), and the complete pain relief rates were respectively 73.69% and 34.29% ( p = 0.006), 73.69% and 41.38% ( p = 0.028) in two compared groups. In the dose-escalation group, there is a trend of a longer duration of pain relief, a longer overall survival and a lower incidence of acute radiation toxicities. No late radiation toxicities were observed in both groups. Dosimetric parameters and clinical outcomes, including pain response, duration of pain relief, radiation toxicities and overall survival, were compared among twenty-five metastatic spinal lesions irradiated with the dose-escalation regimen and among forty-four lesions treated with the 30-Gy regimen. Conventionally-fractionated IG-IMRT for spinal metastases could escalate dose to the vertebral lesions while sparing the spinal cord, achieving a better pain relief without increasing radiation complications.

  13. A hairy-leaf gene, BLANKET LEAF, of wild Oryza nivara increases photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Yasui, Hideshi; Yamagata, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Yoko; Furuya, Naruto; Araki, Takuya; Ueno, Osamu; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    High water use efficiency is essential to water-saving cropping. Morphological traits that affect photosynthetic water use efficiency are not well known. We examined whether leaf hairiness improves photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice. A chromosome segment introgression line (IL-hairy) of wild Oryza nivara (Acc. IRGC105715) with the genetic background of Oryza sativa cultivar 'IR24' had high leaf pubescence (hair). The leaf hairs developed along small vascular bundles. Linkage analysis in BC 5 F 2 and F 3 populations showed that the trait was governed by a single gene, designated BLANKET LEAF (BKL), on chromosome 6. IL-hairy plants had a warmer leaf surface in sunlight, probably due to increased boundary layer resistance. They had a lower transpiration rate under moderate and high light intensities, resulting in higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. Introgression of BKL on chromosome 6 from O. nivara improved photosynthetic water use efficiency in the genetic background of IR24.

  14. Intense ion beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Sudan, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation

  15. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiles of the Berry Skin of Two Red Grape Cultivars (Vitis vinifera) in Which Anthocyanin Synthesis Is Sunlight-Dependent or -Independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Le; Xin, Hai-Ping; Li, Ji-Hu; Li, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Global gene expression was analyzed in the berry skin of two red grape cultivars, which can (‘Jingyan’) or cannot (‘Jingxiu’) synthesize anthocyanins after sunlight exclusion from fruit set until maturity. Gene transcripts responding to sunlight exclusion in ‘Jingyan’ were less complex than in ‘Jingxiu’; 528 genes were induced and 383 repressed in the former, whereas 2655 genes were induced and 205 suppressed in ‘Jingxiu’. They were regulated either in the same or opposing manner in the two cultivars, or in only one cultivar. In addition to VvUFGT and VvMYBA1, some candidate genes (e.g. AOMT, GST, and ANP) were identified which are probably involved in the differential responses of ‘Jingxiu’ and ‘Jingyan’ to sunlight exclusion. In addition, 26 MYB, 14 bHLH and 23 WD40 genes responded differently to sunlight exclusion in the two cultivars. Interestingly, all of the 189 genes classified as being relevant to ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation were down-regulated by sunlight exclusion in ‘Jingxiu’, but the majority (162) remained unchanged in ‘Jingyan’ berry skin. It would be of interest to determine the precise role of the ubiquitin pathway following sunlight exclusion, particularly the role of COP9 signalosome, cullins, RING-Box 1, and COP1-interacting proteins. Only a few genes in the light signal system were found to be regulated by sunlight exclusion in either or both cultivars. This study provides a valuable overview of the transcriptome changes and gives insight into the genetic background that may be responsible for sunlight-dependent versus -independent anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry skin. PMID:25158067

  16. Seca da semente de café ao sol Effect of sunlight on coffee seed viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho diz respeito a estudos realizados com o objetivo de observar a influência da luz solar sôbre a capacidade germinativa da semente despolpada de café e verificar, portanto, a possibilidade de se efetuar a seca desta semente exclusivamente ao sol. Além de um ensaio preliminar, foram efetuados mais outros dois, compreendendo, ao todo, duas secas ao sol, duas em um secador a baixa temperatura (±28°C, uma a sombra e uma em um secador a alta temperatura (±40°C. Pelas correlações entre as porcentagens de germinação e de umidade, que foram estabelecidas após diferentes períodos de secagem, foram tiradas as duas seguintes conclusões, que são as principais com relação ao objetivo dêstes ensaios : 1 Os raios solares são prejudiciais à capacidade germinativa da semente de café; sua nocividade acha-se, porém, intimamente ligada ao teor de umidade na semente. 2 À vista da conclusão acima, verifica-se que a semente despolpada de café e, muito provavelmente, também a não despolpada, podem ser perfeitamente sêcas a pleno sol sem que haja prejuízo para sua vitalidade, uma vez que sejam recolhidas antes que o seu teor de umidade caia abaixo do ponto crítico de 8% - 9%.In this paper the author deals with the question related to the coffee seed drying, with special attention to the effect of the sun radiations on seed viability. Based on the results obtained, the following conclusions were drawn : (a The sun rays have no specific influence on the viability of hulled coffee seed ; their effect is indirect and related to loss of moisture by the seed. (b Coffee seed can be dried in the sunlight without loss of viability if the water content does not drop under 8% to 9%. Below this critical level seed germination falls rapidly. (c The moisture content of coffee seed dried „in the sun may fall to about 7% in a short time with the consequent injury to viability. (d Under most conditions in the state of São Paulo

  17. Reduced volume but increased training intensity elevates muscle Na+-K+ pump alpha1-subunit and NHE1 expression as well as short-term work capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Thomassen, Martin; Kolding, Helle

    2008-01-01

    by 30-s sprint runs three to four times a week, whereas CON continued the endurance training ( approximately 45 km/wk). After the 4-wk sprint period, the expression of the muscle Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(1)-subunit and Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger isoform 1 was 29 and 30% higher (P ... pulmonary maximum oxygen uptake and 10-k time were unchanged. No changes in CON were observed. The present data suggest a role of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in the control of K(+) homeostasis and in the development of fatigue during repeated high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, performance during intense exercise....... Furthermore, plasma K(+) concentration was reduced (P

  18. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswara Rao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped in spectral-colored cellophane were exposed to sunlight and compared to an unwrapped bottle to determine chemical and physical changes as well as modifications of biological properties. Each bottle of water was named according to the color of cellophane paper with letter E (stands for exposed as a prefix with (E-violet, E-indigo, E-blue, E-green, E-yellow, E-orange, and Ered. E-control (without wrap was exposed to polychromatic sunlight. This study addresses two main issues viz., the chemical and physical changes in E-water and its effect on biological activities. Chemical and physical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; physical conductance by a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter; osmolarity by a vapor pressure osmometer; and, salt solubility profile of 10% sodium bicarbonate were determined. Furthermore, testing the effect of E-waters on human lymphocyte proliferation, mosquito larvae hatching and seed germination determined the functional role of solar radiation through specific spectrum/s of visible light on various biological processes. We found that water exposed to visible spectral emissions of sunlight had an altered elemental composition, electrical conductance, osmolarity and salt-solubility, as well as differences in bio-modulatory effects. A gradual increase in leaching of Boron from Eviolet to E-red was noted. E-indigo showed maximal increase in electrical conductance and maximal salt

  19. Hydration and transparency of the rabbit cornea irradiated with UVB-doses of 0.25 J/cm(2) and 0.5 J/cm(2) compared with equivalent UVB radiation exposure reaching the human cornea from sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejka, Cestmír; Ardan, Taras; Sirc, Jakub; Michálek, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Brůnová, Blanka; Rosina, Jozef

    2011-07-01

    Exposure of the cornea to UV radiation from sunlight evokes intraocular inflammation, photokeratitis. Photokeratitis is caused by UVB radiation. It is accompanied by changes of corneal hydration and light absorption. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two UVB doses on corneal optics in rabbits and to compare these UVB doses with the equivalent exposure of UVB radiation reaching the human cornea from sunlight. Rabbit corneas were irradiated with a daily UVB dose of 0.25 J/cm(2) or 0.5 J/cm(2) for 4 days. One day after finishing the irradiations the rabbits were sacrificed and corneal light absorption measured using our spectrophotometrical method. Corneal hydration was examined using an ultrasonic Pachymeter every experimental day before the irradiation procedure and the last day before sacrificing the animals. Changes in corneal optics appeared after the repeated exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.25 J/ cm(2) and massively increased after the repeated exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.5 J/cm(2). The first significant changes in corneal hydration appeared after a single exposure of the cornea to a UVB dose of 0.25 J/cm(2). Changes in corneal hydration appeared after the exposure of the rabbit cornea to a single UVB dose equivalent to 2.6 hours of solar UVB radiation reaching the human cornea, as measured by UVB sensors embedded in the eyes of mannequin heads facing the sun on a beach at noon in July. Repeated exposure of the rabbit cornea to the same UVB dose evoked profound changes in corneal optics. Although comparison of experimental and outdoor conditions are only approximate, the results in rabbits point to the danger for the human eye from UVB radiation when short stays in sunlight are repeated for several consecutive days without UV protection.

  20. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound increases bone volume, osteoid thickness and mineral apposition rate in the area of fracture healing in patients with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, S.; Nolte, P.A.; Korstjens, C.M.; van Duin, M.A.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerates impaired fracture healing, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how LIPUS affects bone healing at the tissue level in patients with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula, by using histology

  1. Using Microporous Polytetrafluoroethylene Thin Sheets as a Flexible Solar Diffuser to Minimize Sunlight Glint to Cameras in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  2. Aromatic/heterocyclic amino acids and the simulated sunlight-ultraviolet inactivation of the Heliothis/Helicoverpa baculovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignoffo, C.M.; Garcia, C.

    1995-01-01

    Tryptophan, of five aromatic/heterocyclic amino acids (tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, histidine) provided significant protection of the Heliothis baculovirus (HzSNPV) from inactivation by simulated ultraviolet (SUV). Fifty percent of SUV protection of HzSNPV with tryptophan or tyrosine was obtained at 0.03 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. Rates as high as 100.0 mg/ml of phenylalanine, histidine, or proline provided <50% protection. The extent of tryptophan protection was correlated with its absorption in the sunlight UV-B spectra. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Using microporous polytetrafluoroethylene thin sheets as a flexible solar diffuser to minimize sunlight glint to cameras in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-09-01

    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  4. Sunlight impelled photocatalytic pursuance of Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO ternary nanocomposites on rhodamine B degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamelu, K.; Ali, B. M. Jaffar

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a hydrothermal method combined with polyol reduction process for the synthesis of an Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO ternary nanocomposites in which the Ag, Pt and TiO2 nanoparticles are dispersed on the Sulfonated graphene oxide nanosheets. The structural and optical properties of obtained nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, UV-DRS, Raman, FTIR and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposites shows increased light absorption ability in the visible region due to surface plasmon resonance effect of noble metal. The rate of electron-hole pair recombination was significating reduced for nanocomposites system compare to pure. Also, their Performance for the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B as a model organic pollutant is explored. The results showed that Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO nanocomposites could degrade 95% of the dye within 90 min, under natural sunlight irradiation. The reaction kinetics of ternary nanocomposites exhibit more than 2.2 fold increased photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2. Sulfonated graphene based ternary photocatalyst are potential candidates for wastewater treatment in real time application, due to this ability degrade cationic and anionic dyes.

  5. Fatores associados à maior mortalidade e tempo de internação prolongado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de adultos Factors associated with increased mortality and prolonged length of stay in an adult intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Francioso de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A unidade de terapia intensiva é sinônimo de gravidade e apresenta taxa de mortalidade entre 5,4% e 33%. Com o aperfeiçoamento de novas tecnologias, o paciente pode ser mantido por longo período nessa unidade, ocasionando altos custos financeiros, morais e psicológicos para todos os envolvidos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os fatores associados à maior mortalidade e tempo de internação prolongado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva adulto. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo todos os pacientes admitidos consecutivamente na unidade de terapia intensiva de adultos, clínica/cirúrgica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, no período de seis meses. Foram coletados dados como: sexo, idade, diagnóstico, antecedentes pessoais, APACHE II, dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva, reintubação orotraqueal, traqueostomia, dias de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva, alta ou óbito na unidade de terapia intensiva. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 401 pacientes, sendo 59,6% homens e 40,4% mulheres, com idade média de 53,8±18,0 anos. A média de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva foi de 8,2±10,8 dias, com taxa de mortalidade de 13,46%. Dados significativos para mortalidade e tempo de internação prolongado em unidade de terapia intensiva (p11, traqueostomia e reintubação. CONCLUSÃO: APACHE >11, traqueostomia e reintubação estiveram associados, neste estudo, à maior taxa de mortalidade e tempo de permanência prolongado em unidade de terapia intensiva.OBJECTIVE: The intensive care unit is synonymous of high severity, and its mortality rates are between 5.4 and 33%. With the development of new technologies, a patient can be maintained for long time in the unit, causing high costs, psychological and moral for all involved. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for mortality and prolonged length of stay in an adult intensive care unit. METHODS: The study

  6. Human Influence on Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Adam H.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Hall, Timothy M.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K.; Wing, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity.We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  8. Knowledge of vitamin D and perceptions and attitudes toward sunlight among Chinese middle-aged and elderly women: a population survey in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ka-Kui

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and biological risk factors for vitamin D inadequacy are known; however, cultural- and population-specific behaviours and attitudes that influence these risk factors, particularly among Asian people, are less well documented. To understand more about prevailing attitudes and behaviour toward sunlight and knowledge of vitamin D among a population at greater risk of impaired vitamin D status, poor bone health and osteoporosis, we conducted a telephone interview survey of 547 middle-aged and elderly Chinese women living in Hong Kong. Methods All telephone interviews were conducted using the Computer Assisted Telephone Technique and target respondents were selected by random sampling. Interviews were conducted in Cantonese and eighteen main questions were asked pertaining to personal characteristics, perceptions, attitudes and behaviour toward sunlight, and knowledge about vitamin D. Results The survey results showed that 62.3% (n = 341 did not like going in the sun and 66.7% of respondents spent an average of 6–10 hours indoors, between 6:30 am and 7:00 pm, during weekdays. However, 58% of people thought that they had enough exposure to sunlight. The majority had heard of vitamin D, but knowledge about the role and sources of vitamin D was low. Among those who knew that sunlight was a source of vitamin D, the majority spent less than 1 h in the sun in the past week (76.4% vs 23.6%, 1 h in the sun in the past week, chi-square p Conclusion The survey revealed considerable ignorance and confusion about the role of sunlight in vitamin D production, and the function and sources of vitamin D. Attitudes and behaviour toward sunlight were largely negative and many took measures to avoid sunlight, particularly among younger (middle-aged women who had good awareness of vitamin D.

  9. Patterns and timing of sunlight exposure and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin – a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone Michelle R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, comprised of basal (BCC and squamous (SCC cell carcinomas, is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposure is the most important environmental risk factor for NMSC. However, the precise relationship between UVR and the risk of NMSC is complex, and the relationship may differ by skin cancer type. Methods A case–control study was conducted among Florida residents to investigate measures of patterns (intermittent vs. continuous and timing (childhood vs. adulthood of sunlight exposure in BCC and SCC. Participants included 218 BCC and 169 SCC cases recruited from a university dermatology clinic and 316 controls with no history of skin or other cancers. Results A history of blistering sunburn (a measure of intermittent sunlight exposure was associated with both BCC (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.27-3.03 and SCC (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.22-3.33. Additionally, having a job in the sun for ≥3 months for 10 years or longer (a measure of continuous sunlight exposure was also associated with both BCC and SCC in our study population. With the exception of younger age at first blistering sunburn, measures of younger age at sunlight exposure tended to be associated with SCC, but not BCC risk. Conclusions Results from the current study suggest that sunlight exposure is associated with both BCC and SCC risk regardless of the pattern in which the exposure was received (i.e. intermittent vs. continuous. The data also suggest that sunlight exposure at a younger age may be more important for SCC but not BCC, however additional studies are needed to further characterize sunlight exposure-response relationships in different types of NMSC.

  10. Patterns and timing of sunlight exposure and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin – a case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Fenske, Neil A; Rollison, Dana E; Wang, Wei; Stockwell, Heather G; O’Rourke, Kathleen; Giuliano, Anna R; Sondak, Vernon K; Messina, Jane L; Roetzheim, Richard G; Cherpelis, Basil S

    2012-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), comprised of basal (BCC) and squamous (SCC) cell carcinomas, is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the most important environmental risk factor for NMSC. However, the precise relationship between UVR and the risk of NMSC is complex, and the relationship may differ by skin cancer type. A case–control study was conducted among Florida residents to investigate measures of patterns (intermittent vs. continuous) and timing (childhood vs. adulthood) of sunlight exposure in BCC and SCC. Participants included 218 BCC and 169 SCC cases recruited from a university dermatology clinic and 316 controls with no history of skin or other cancers. A history of blistering sunburn (a measure of intermittent sunlight exposure) was associated with both BCC (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.27-3.03) and SCC (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.22-3.33). Additionally, having a job in the sun for ≥3 months for 10 years or longer (a measure of continuous sunlight exposure) was also associated with both BCC and SCC in our study population. With the exception of younger age at first blistering sunburn, measures of younger age at sunlight exposure tended to be associated with SCC, but not BCC risk. Results from the current study suggest that sunlight exposure is associated with both BCC and SCC risk regardless of the pattern in which the exposure was received (i.e. intermittent vs. continuous). The data also suggest that sunlight exposure at a younger age may be more important for SCC but not BCC, however additional studies are needed to further characterize sunlight exposure-response relationships in different types of NMSC

  11. A phytotron for plant stress research: how far can artificial lighting compare to natural sunlight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, S.; Döhring, T.; Köfferlein, M.; Kosak, A.; Martin, P.; Seidlitz, H.K.

    1996-01-01

    Plants have adapted very efficiently to their natural light habitat. Artificial plant illumination, therefore, requires careful design. Not only the quantity of radiation per area or volume (intensity) but also the spectral quality has to match seasonal and diurnal variations of natural global radiation as close as possible. The GSF Research Center has developed a phytotron system especially devoted to plant stress research, where these requirements are of particular importance. The phytotron consists of seven closed chambers (4 walk-in size chambers, two medium and one small sun simulator). Our contribution outlines the basic design of the lighting and presents spectral data. A good approximation of terrestrial global radiation is achieved if several commercially available lamp types are combined and adequate filters are applied to reject unwanted infrared and harmful ultraviolet radiation. A programmable switch control for the individual lamp banks allows a variation of both spectrum and intensity of the illumination. Spectroradiometric measurements show that the maximum level of illumination in the small and in the medium size chambers can compete both in spectral distribution and in intensity with outdoor global radiation for solar elevations up to 60°. The maximum light level available inside the large walk-in chambers reaches an irradiance corresponding to solar elevation of 50°. The UV-B: UV-A: PAR ratio, which mirrors the spectral balance of plant lighting, can be adjusted to values following the diurnal variation of natural global radiation.(author)

  12. Effect of Ambient Sunlight Intensity on the Temporal Phenolic Profiles of Vitis Vinifera L. Cv. Chardonnay During the Ripening Season -- A Field Study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, David; Turóczy, Zoltán; Olejníčková, Julie; Kumšta, M.; Sotolář, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2017), s. 94-102 ISSN 0253-939X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/1565; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : abiotic stress * catechin * grape berries * OD 280nm * UV light * viticulture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2016

  13. Intense low energy positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1993-01-01

    Intense positron beams are under development or being considered at several laboratories. Already today a few accelerator based high intensity, low brightness e + beams exist producing of the order of 10 8 - 10 9 e + /sec. Several laboratories are aiming at high intensity, high brightness e + beams with intensities greater than 10 9 e + /sec and current densities of the order of 10 13 - 10 14 e + sec - 1 cm -2 . Intense e + beams can be realized in two ways (or in a combination thereof) either through a development of more efficient B + moderators or by increasing the available activity of B + particles. In this review we shall mainly concentrate on the latter approach. In atomic physics the main trust for these developments is to be able to measure differential and high energy cross-sections in e + collisions with atoms and molecules. Within solid state physics high intensity, high brightness e + beams are in demand in areas such as the re-emission e + microscope, two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation, low energy e + diffraction and other fields. Intense e + beams are also important for the development of positronium beams, as well as exotic experiments such as Bose condensation and Ps liquid studies

  14. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of legume based swards are affected by light intensity in a Mediterranean agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Giovanni Antonio; Piluzza, Giovanna; Sanna, Federico; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Sulas, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    In Mediterranean grazed woodlands, microclimate changes induced by trees influence the growth and development of the understory, but very little is known about its polyphenolic composition in relation to light intensity. We investigated the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of different legume-based swards and variations due to full sunlight and partial shade. The research was carried out in a cork oak agrosilvopastoral system in Sardinia. The highest values of DPPH reached 7 mmol TEAC 100 g -1 DW, total phenolics 67.1 g GAE kg -1 DW and total flavonoids 7.5 g CE kg -1 DW. Compared to full sunlight, partial shade reduced DPPH values by 29 and 42%, and the total phenolic content by 23 and 53% in 100% legume mixture and semi natural pasture. Twelve phenolic compounds were detected: chlorogenic acid in 80% legume mixture (partial shade) and verbascoside in pure sward of bladder clover (full sunlight) were the most abundant. Light intensity significantly affected antioxidant capacity, composition and levels of phenolic compounds. Our results provide new insights into the effects of light intensity on plant secondary metabolites from legume based swards, underlining the important functions provided by agroforestry systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Photocatalysis and self-cleaning from g-C3N4 coated cotton fabrics under sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunde; Zhou, Ji; Zhang, Jin; Lou, Yaqin; Huang, Zhenwu; Ye, Yong; Jia, Li; Tang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    Graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets have been facilely assembled via electrostatic interaction onto cotton fabrics for achieving multi-functionalities. The surface morphologies, chemical composition and optical features of the g-C3N4-coated fabrics were characterized. The treated cotton fabrics exhibited remarkable photocatalytic degradation activity and superior self-cleaning performance. A complete degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and removal of stains were accomplished under simulated sunlight irradiation. More importantly, the modified fabrics can be reused in catalysis reactions with great durability. The practical treatment approach demonstrated from this work has great potential to be applied in textile industry for functional fabrics manufacture.

  16. The influence of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in simulated sunlight on ascospores causing Black Sigatoka disease of banana and plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Mark; Burt, P. J. A.; Wilson, Kate

    The influence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in simulated natural sunlight on the viability of ascospores of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the cause of Black Sigatoka disease in banana and plantain, has been investigated as part of a study to assess the windborne spread of this pathogen from mainland Central and South America into the Caribbean. Spores were killed following continuous exposure to UV radiation for periods of 6 h or over. This relatively short exposure time suggests that the distances over which viable spores can be transported will be determined not only by the speed of the wind but also the amount of cloud cover and the time off day that spore release occurs. On this basis, wind dispersal of viable spores over distances greater than a few hundred kilometres is unlikely. These conclusions are reinforced by an examination of historical reports of the arrival of the disease in previously uninfected areas of the Americas and Africa.

  17. A Kolmogorov-type competition model with multiple coexistence states and its applications to plant competition for sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Winfried; Nevai, Andrew L.

    2008-12-01

    It is demonstrated that a Kolmogorov-type competition model featuring species allocation and gain functions can possess multiple coexistence statesE Two examples are constructed: one in which the two competing species possess rectangular allocation functions but distinct gain functions, and the other in which one species has a rectangular allocation function, the second species has a bi-rectangular allocation function, and the two species share a common gain function. In both examples, it is shown that the species nullclines may intersect multiple times within the interior of the first quadrant, thus creating both locally stable and unstable equilibrium points. These results have important applications in the study of plant competition for sunlight, in which the allocation functions describe the vertical placement of leaves for two competing species, and the gain functions represent rates of photosynthesis performed by leaves at different heights when shaded by overlying leaves belonging to either species.

  18. Abnormal responses to mid-ultraviolet light of cultured fibroblasts from patients with disorders featuring sunlight sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.; Paterson, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The postultraviolet light (UV) colony-forming ability and DNA repair properties were examined of human skin fibroblasts derived from two groups of donors at high risk of cancer; (a) persons exhibiting sensitivity to sunlight; and (b) persons with conditions possibly associated with an underlying defect in the repair of radiogenic DNA damage. A comparison was made between the effects of far UV (254 nm) and mid UV (313 nm). Biochemical studies performed on strains sensitive to 313-nm UV alone suggest that their unusual photoresponse is not attributable to defective repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers. Furthermore, our data imply that thymine glycols are unlikely candidates for the critical lethal lesions in 313-nm UV-sensitive strains. Evidence is presented in support of the contention that mid UV may be partially radiomimetic, thus extending our understanding of the deleterious biological effects of this ubiquitous environmental carcinogen

  19. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-14

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. [Effects of light intensities after anthesis on the photosynthetic characteristics and chloroplast ultrastructure in mesophyll cell of summer maize (Zea mays L. )].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia; Cui, Hai Yan; Shi, Jian Guo; Dong, Shu Ting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Ji Wang

    2018-03-01

    We examined the changes of photosynthetic characteristics and chloroplast ultrastructure in mesophyll cell of summer maize in response to different light intensities in the field, with the summer maize hybrid Denghai 605 as experimental material. Two treatments of both shading (S) and increasing light (L) from flowering to physiological maturity stage were designed, with the ambient sunlight treatment as control (CK). Under shading treatment, poorly developed thylakoid structure, blurry lamellar structure, loose granum, large gap between slices and warping granum were the major characteristics in chloroplast. Meanwhile, photosynthetic rate (P n ), transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and actual photo-chemical efficiency (Φ PSII ) decreased, whereas the maximal photochemical efficiency and non-photochemical quenching increased, which resulted in decreases in grain yield under shading treatment. However, a better development was observed in chloroplasts for L treatment, with the number of grana and lamellae increased and lamellae arranged compactly. In addition, P n and Φ PSII increased under L treatment, which increased grain yield. The chloroplast arrangement dispersed in mesophyll cells and chloroplast ultrastructure was destroyed after shading, and then chlorophyll synthesis per unit leaf area and photosynthetic capacity decreased. In contrast, the number of grana and lamellae increased and lamellae arranged compactly after increasing light, which are beneficial for corn yield.

  1. Effects of gamma rays, ultraviolet radiation, sunlight, microwaves and electromagnetic fields on gene expression mediated by human immunodeficiency virus promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libertin, C.R.; Woloschak, G.E.; Panozzo, J.; Groh, K.R.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work by our group and others has shown the modulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter or long terminal repeat (LTR) after exposure to neutrons and ultraviolet radiations. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene, the transcription of which is mediated by the HIV-LTR, we designed experiments to examine the effects of exposure to different types of radiation (such as γ rays, ultraviolet and sunlight irradiations, electromagnetic fields and microwaves) in HIV-LTR-driven expression of CAT. These results demonstrated ultraviolet-light-induced transcription from the HIV promoter, as has been shown by others. Exposure to other DNA-damaging agents such as γ rays and sunlight (with limited exposures) had no significant effect on transcription mediated by HIV-LTR, suggesting that induction of HIV is not mediated by just any type of DNA damage but rather may require specific types of DNA damage. Microwaves did not cause cell killing when cells in culture were exposed in high volumes of medium, and the same cells showed no changes in expression. When microwave exposure was carried out in low volumes of medium (so that excessive heat was generated) induction of HIV-LTR transcription (as assayed by CAT activity) was evident. Electromagnetic field exposures had no effect on expression of HIV-LTR. These results demonstrate that not all types of radiation and not all DNA-damaging agents are capable of inducing HIV. We hypothesize that induction of HIV transcription may be mediated by several different signals exposure to radiation. 22 refs., 8 figs

  2. Roles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerases Polη and Polζ in response to irradiation by simulated sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmin, Stanislav G.; Pavlov, Youri I.; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Sage, Evelyne

    2003-01-01

    Sunlight causes lesions in DNA that if unrepaired and inaccurately replicated by DNA polymerases yield mutations that result in skin cancer in humans. Two enzymes involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) of UV-induced photolesions are DNA polymerase η (Polη) and polymerase ζ (Polζ), encoded by the RAD30A and REV3 genes, respectively. Previous studies have investigated the TLS roles of these polymerases in human and yeast cells irradiated with monochromatic, short wavelength UVC radiation (254 nm). However, less is known about cellular responses to solar radiation, which is of higher and mixed wavelengths (310–1100 nm) and produces a different spectrum of DNA lesions, including Dewar photoproducts and oxidative lesions. Here we report on the comparative cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of simulated sunlight (SSL) and UVC radiation on yeast wild-type, rad30Δ, rev3Δ and rev3Δ rad30Δ strains. The results with SSL support several previous interpretations on the roles of these two polymerases in TLS of photodimers and (6–4) photoproducts derived from studies with UVC. They further suggest that Polη participates in the non-mutagenic bypass of SSL-dependent cytosine-containing Dewar photoproducts and 8-oxoguanine, while Polζ is mainly responsible for the mutagenic bypass of all types of Dewar photoproducts. They also suggest that in the absence of Polζ, Polη contributes to UVC- and SSL-induced mutagenesis, possibly by the bypass of photodimers containing deaminated cytosine. PMID:12888515

  3. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to rarefaction curve analysis, richness of bacteria diversity in feces decreased as time progressed. Some pathogens such as Campylobacter were detected only at the beginning, meaning they substantially decayed during the course of our study. Overall, this study indicated: (1) sunlight can influence the community structure and (2) after excretion the fecal bacteria diversity can be significantly changed over time. Future studies should therefore use not only the microbial signature of fresh but also moderately aged fecal samples to develop more accurate community profiles for fecal source tracking.

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  8. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  9. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  10. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence......In this article, we introduce the so-called stochastic conditional intensity (SCI) model by extending Russell’s (1999) autoregressive conditional intensity (ACI) model by a latent common dynamic factor that jointly drives the individual intensity components. We show by simulations that the proposed...... for a joint latent factor and show that its inclusion allows for an improved and more parsimonious specification of the multivariate intensity process...

  11. Preparation of K-doped TiO{sub 2} nanostructures by wet corrosion and their sunlight-driven photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Kim, Jiyoon; Chang, Sung-Jin [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Byung-Hyuk [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang-Won, E-mail: bryan.kwangwon.park@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jongin, E-mail: hongj@cau.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Potassium-doped TiO{sub 2} nanowire networks were prepared by the corrosion reaction of Ti nanoparticles in an alkaline solution. • They were applied to sunlight-driven photocatalytic degradation of differently charged dye molecules. • The adsorption of the dye molecules on the photocatalyst surface is crucial for their sunlight-driven photodegradation. - Abstract: K-doped TiO{sub 2} nanowire networks were prepared by the corrosion reaction of Ti nanoparticles in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The prepared nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Their sunlight-driven photocatalytic activity was also investigated with differently charged dye molecules, such as methylene blue, rhodamine B and methyl orange. The adsorption of the dye molecules on the photocatalyst surface would play a critical role in their selective photodegradation under sunlight illumination.

  12. Meteorological Reference Years of Daily Mean Temperature during the Sunlight Time; Anos Tipos de Temperaturas Medias Diarias durante las Horas de Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchante Jimenez, M.; Ramirez Santigosa, L.N.; Mora Lopez, L.; Sidrach de Cardona Ortin, M.

    2002-07-01

    In this work the characterization of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been analyzed. An algorithm for the hourly series generation from extreme daily values has been applied to evaluate the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time. A generic algorithm has been enounced as a function of the sunrise time. This algorithm allows taking into account the fractions related to the sunrise and sunset hours. This methodology has been applied in data from 45 Spanish stations, uniformly distributed in the Iberian Peninsula. Data for a period of 14 years has been used in most of locations, and once the interest variable has been calculated, the meteorological reference year of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been evaluated in each stations. The next step is the evaluation of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time in any point into the zone of evaluation, not only in the measured stations. >From the result data in each measured station, an geographic information system has been used in order to calculate the interpolation, obtaining maps with a data each 5 km for each of the 365 days of the year. Then, this results can be superposed with the solar radiation evaluation obtaining the input data for the sizing of the photovoltaic grid connected system in any point of the Spanish geography. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Removal of chlortetracycline from spiked municipal wastewater using a photoelectrocatalytic process operated under sunlight irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghrir, Rimeh, E-mail: rimeh.daghrir@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Drogui, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.drogui@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Delegan, Nazar, E-mail: delegan@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada); El Khakani, My Ali, E-mail: elkhakani@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of chlortetracycline in synthetic solution and in municipal effluent was investigated using a photoelectrocatalytic oxidation process under visible irradiation. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} used as photoanode with 3.4 at.% of nitrogen content was prepared by means of a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) process. Under visible irradiation, higher photoelectrocatalytic removal efficiency of CTC was recorded using N-doped TiO{sub 2} compared to the conventional electrochemical oxidation, direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes. The photoelectrocatalytic process operated at 0.6 A of current intensity during 180 min of treatment time promotes the degradation of 99.1 ± 0.1% of CTC. Under these conditions, removal rates of 85.4 ± 3.6%, 87.4 ± 3.1% and 55.7 ± 2.9% of TOC, TN and NH{sub 4}{sup +} have been recorded. During the treatment, CTC was mainly transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The process was also found to be effective in removing indicator of pathogens such as fecal coliform (log-inactivation was higher than 1.2 units). - Highlights: •PECO process is a feasible technology for the treatment of MWW contaminated by CTC. •99.1% ± 0.1% of CTC was degraded by PECO using N-doped TiO{sub 2}. •85.4% ± 3.6% of TOC removal and 97.5% ± 1.2% of COD removal were achieved. •87.4% ± 3.1% of TN removal and 55.7% ± 2.9% of NH{sub 4}{sup +} removal were recorded. •More than 94% of fecal coliform was removed (abatement > 1.2-log units)

  14. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Natural Alternative International, Inc. (NAI), submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim is beta-alanine, which is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that an increase in physical...... performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that only one out of 11 pertinent human intervention studies (including 14 pertinent outcomes) from which conclusions could be drawn showed an effect of beta...

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF SUNLIGHT AND WIND ON THE POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Lichograj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Changing conditions have a significant impact on the efficiency and durability of photovoltaic cells. On photovoltaic modules have also influence such external factors as temperature of the module, which changes during the long exposure to light radiation, wind, pollution and the frequency of rainfall. Parameters of PV modules provided by the manufacturers differ significantly from the results achieved under natural conditions. This work presents the laboratory study on the impact of temperature of the polycrystalline silicon module to the change of generated voltage tested with no load. Research confirms the correlation of temperature increase during the long exposure to light radiation with a voltage drop. At the same time simulation of wind causes the cooling of the module and increase the voltage circuit. Further development of research on the effects of environmental conditions will allow for accurate placement optimization of photovoltaic farms.

  17. An experimental investigation with artificial sunlight of a solar hot-water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal performance measurements were made of a commercial solar hot water heater in a solar simulator to determine basic performance characteristics of a traditional type of flat plate collector, with and without side reflectors (to increase the solar flux). Information on each of the following was obtained; (1) the effect of flow and incidence angle on the efficiency of a flat plate collector (but only without side reflectors); (2) transient performance under flow and nonflow conditions; (3) the effectiveness of reflectors to increase collector efficiency for a zero radiation angle at fluid temperatures required for solar air conditioning; and (4) the limits of applicability of a collector efficiency correlation based on the Hottel Whillier equation.

  18. Refuse dumps from leaf-cutting ant nests reduce the intensity of above-ground competition among neighboring plants in a Patagonian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Lescano, María Natalia

    2017-11-01

    In arid environments, the high availability of sunlight due to the scarcity of trees suggests that plant competition take place mainly belowground for water and nutrients. However, the occurrence of soil disturbances that increase nutrient availability and thereby promote plant growth may enhance shoot competition between neighboring plants. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the influence of the enriched soil patches generated by the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, on the performance of the alien forb Carduus thoermeri (Asteraceae) under different intraspecific competition scenarios. Our results showed that substrate type and competition scenario affected mainly aboveground plant growth. As expected, plants growing without neighbors and in nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed more aboveground biomass than plants growing with neighbors and in nutrient-poor steppe soils. However, aboveground competition was more intense in nutrient-poor substrates: plants under shoot and full competition growing in the nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed higher biomass than those growing on steppe soils. Belowground biomass was similar among focal plants growing under different substrate type. Our results support the traditional view that increments in resource availability reduce competition intensity. Moreover, the fact that seedlings in this sunny habitat mainly compete aboveground illustrates how limiting factors may be scale-dependent and change in importance as plants grow.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  20. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Peixoto, Paulo H P; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.

  1. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria to enhance biohydrogen production from sunlight and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Hausinger, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    To mitigate global warming caused by burning fossil fuels, a renewable energy source available in large quantity is urgently required. We are proposing large-scale photobiological H(2) production by mariculture-raised cyanobacteria where the microbes capture part of the huge amount of solar energy received on earth's surface and use water as the source of electrons to reduce protons. The H(2) production system is based on photosynthetic and nitrogenase activities of cyanobacteria, using uptake hydrogenase mutants that can accumulate H(2) for extended periods even in the presence of evolved O(2). This review summarizes our efforts to improve the rate of photobiological H(2) production through genetic engineering. The challenges yet to be overcome to further increase the conversion efficiency of solar energy to H(2) also are discussed.

  2. Sunlight mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using redox phytoprotein and their application in catalysis and colorimetric mercury sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Senthilnathan, Rajendran; Megarajan, Sengan; Anbazhagan, Veerappan

    2015-10-01

    Owing to the benign nature, plant extracts mediated green synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly expanding. In this study, we demonstrated the successful green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by utilizing natural sunlight and redox protein complex composed of ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) and ferredoxin (FD). The capping and stabilization of the AgNPs by the redox protein was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Light and redox protein is the prerequisite factor for the formation of AgNPs. The obtained result shows that the photo generated free radicals by the redox protein is responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) to Ag(0). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of spherical AgNPs with size ranging from 10 to 15 nm. As-prepared AgNPs exhibi