WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunkist orange soda

  1. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  2. Sunkist. Edificio Central – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert C. Martin, Asociados

    1972-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunkist central building – (U.S.A. Architects: Albert C. Martin and Associates It consists of three floors: — the ground floor includes an auditorium, kitchen and cafeteria, a private diningroom, office area, etc.; — on the first floor are the sales department and the electronic data processing department, and — on the second floor, the firm's executive personnel department, and three kitchens for experimenting with products and developing formulas. This building was planned with the idea of reviving, by the design and the materials used, the memory and character of Old California.Consta de tres plantas: — la baja comprende: un auditorio, cocina y cafetería; un comedor privado, una zona dedicada a oficinas, etc.; — la segunda planta contiene: los departamentos de ventas y de proceso electrónico de datos, y — en la tercera planta se distribuyen: el departamento de personal ejecutivo de la empresa; y tres cocinas para la experimentación de productos y de fórmulas a desarrollar. El edificio fue proyectado pensando en que, por sus materiales y diseño, suscitase el recuerdo y el carácter de la antigua California.

  3. Baking soda overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda loading ... Baking soda contains sodium bicarbonate. ... Symptoms of baking soda overdose include: Constipation Convulsions Diarrhea Feeling of being full Frequent urination Irritability Muscle spasms Muscle weakness Vomiting

  4. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  5. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  6. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  7. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  8. Functional microbiology of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Banciu, Horia L; Muyzer, Gerard

    2015-06-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, including oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, aerobic chemolithotrophs, fermenting and respiring anaerobes. The main conclusion from this work is that the soda lakes are very different from other high-salt systems in respect to microbial richness and activity. The reason for this difference is determined by the major physico-chemical features of two dominant salts - NaCl in neutral saline systems and sodium carbonates in soda lakes, that are influencing the amount of energy required for osmotic adaptation.

  9. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. 1997 Ship Production Symposium, Paper Number 7: Physiological Factors Affecting Quality and Safety in Production Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    the normal human tendency or Brand Caffeine Brand Caffeine Mountain Dew 52 Diet Pepsi 34 Tab 44 Coca - Cola 34 Sunkist Orange 42 7-up 0 Dr. Pepper 38...deteriorate. Recent study of the brain’s ability to metabolize glucose, which is the fuel required to sustain basic cerebral functions, has determined...innocent foods, such as chocolate, cocoa, and most cola -based soda. Table One has been included for reader reference [29], and demonstrates the

  10. Orange Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence (Orange Book or OB) is a list of drugs approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act...

  11. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this page, ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like other ...

  12. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  13. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  14. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  15. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  16. The History of Soda Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵余燕

    2007-01-01

    <正>The name soda water tells something of its origins in US.Naturally carbonated(含二氧化碳的)water flows out of the ground in mineral springs around the world.These mineral springs have attracted people in

  17. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  18. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different degre

  19. Production of water-free soda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.A.M.; Geertman, R.M.; Oosterhof, H.; Witkamp, G.J.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    A process is presented in which anhydrous soda is crystallized and worked up to produce anhydrous soda crystals with a bulk density from 1300 to 1600 kg/m<3>. The process is characterized in that a solvent is used that allows the crystals to be formed and handled at atomspheric pressure in the prese

  20. Production of water-free soda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.A.M.; Geertman, R.M.; Oosterhof, H.; Witkamp, G.J.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    A process is presented in which anhydrous soda is crystallized and worked up to produce anhydrous soda crystals with a bulk density from 1300 to 1600 kg/m<3>. The process is characterized in that a solvent is used that allows the crystals to be formed and handled at atomspheric pressure in the

  1. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different

  2. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caustic soda, liquid. 21....102 Caustic soda, liquid. (a) The liquid caustic soda may consist of either 50 percent or 73 percent by weight sodium hydroxide in aqueous solution. The amount of caustic soda used shall be such...

  3. Caustic Soda Will Be Oversupply in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Liqin

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rapid output increase There are more than 220 caustic soda producers in China today. At the end of 2006 the capacity of caustic soda in China was 17.61 million t/a. The output of caustic soda was 15.118 million tons in 2006, an increase of 19.0% over 2005 and 1.331 million tons were exported, an increase of 55.8%. Production increased fastest in Northwest China, with growth 51.9% faster than 2005. The output in East China grew 22.9% and 22.3% in Southwest China, both higher than the national average level.

  4. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  5. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  6. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women.

  7. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  8. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  9. On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum-Grzhimaylo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary to the thesis “On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils” Alexey Grum-Grzhimaylo The presented thesis addresses aspects of biology and evolution of fungi that were recovered from saline soda soils. The work highlights the fact that saline soda soils are populated by a

  10. On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum-Grzhimaylo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary to the thesis “On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils” Alexey Grum-Grzhimaylo The presented thesis addresses aspects of biology and evolution of fungi that were recovered from saline soda soils. The work highlights the fact that saline soda soils are populated by a

  11. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically.

  12. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  13. Orange-flavored soft drink with the addition of isolated whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Souza Prado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current assay developed an orange-flavored soda pop with the addition of isolated whey protein, bottled in a 2L-polyethylene terephthalate container and stored at room temperature for 90 days. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses were conducted periodically on the product. The physicochemical analysis showed pH 3.53, 11.5ºBrix and 224 mg of citric acid per 100 mL of the drink and the following proximal composition: protein 0.501%, humidity 88.9%, ash 0.084% and carbohydrates 10.5%. Microbiological analyses detected no microorganisms during the storage period of the drink. Sensorial analysis results had good acceptability. Results showed that the product is stable when stored at room temperature for 90 days. This beverage contains higher nutritional rates and the same calorie rates when compared to sodas and some oranges juices found on the consumer market.

  14. An update on the dangers of soda pop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplowitz, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    The consumption of soda pop in the United States continues to increase in alarming proportions with consequent drastic effects on the dentition of many people. Patients should be asked about how much soda pop they ingest. Parents should be counseled on the effects of soda pop demineralization and begin to limit the amounts given to children at home and in schools. The dental team has the expertise and training to intervene with diet counseling, home care instructions and professionally applied fluoride to decrease the potential ravages of soda pop.

  15. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumpt...

  16. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996). As suggested by Eco (1999), I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific ...

  17. U.S. High School Kids Abandoning Sweetened Sodas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC team said. Despite declines in soda consumption, "intake of other sugar-sweetened beverages, including energy drinks and sports drinks, ... Dietary Guidelines for Americans currently recommends no-added-sugar beverages such ... decline in soda intake was seen across all subgroups -- boys and girls, ...

  18. Operation Orange Street Resurfacing 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — Track Operation Orange Cone projects for 2016. “Operation Orange Cone” is an initiative launched in 2015 as part of the Yarber Administration’s push to address the...

  19. Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children's body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Powell, Lisa M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2010-05-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children--children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American--may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption.

  20. Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, K E; Burt, B A; Eklund, S A

    2001-10-01

    Because of the complexity of the caries process, the potential cariogenicity of specific food items is difficult to assess. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between sugared soda consumption and caries. Dietary and dental examination data from the 1988-94 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used. From the food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall data, significant associations between DMFS and soda consumption were generally seen in persons over age 25. No differences in DMFS, relative to soda consumption, were seen in persons under age 25, or in analyses of dfs for children under age 12. The observed associations could be due to the cumulative effects of the long-term consumption of sugared soda. The absence of apparent effects of sugared soda consumption in younger people may also be related to the increased use of fluorides since the 1960s.

  1. Sponsorship of National Health Organizations by Two Major Soda Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  3. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  4. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  5. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  6. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption, hyperuricemia, and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Derebail, Vimal K; Shoham, David A; Anderson, Cheryl A; Steffen, Lyn M; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V

    2010-04-01

    The metabolism of high-fructose corn syrup used to sweeten soda drinks may lead to elevations in uric acid levels. Here we determined whether soda drinking is associated with hyperuricemia and, as a potential consequence, reduced kidney function. At baseline, 15,745 patients in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study completed a dietary questionnaire and had measurements of their serum creatinine and uric acid. After 3 and 9 years of follow-up, multivariate odds ratios from logistic regressions for binary outcome of hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease (eGFR less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) were evaluated. Compared to participants who drank less, consumption of over one soda per day was associated with increased odds of prevalent hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease. The odds ratio for chronic kidney disease significantly increased to 2.59 among participants who drank more than one soda per day and had a serum uric acid level over 9.0 mg/dl. In longitudinal analyses, however, drinking more than one soda per day was not associated with hyperuricemia or chronic kidney disease. Neither preexistent hyperuricemia nor development of hyperuricemia modified the lack of association between soda drinking and incident chronic kidney disease. Thus our study shows that high consumption of sugar-sweetened soda was associated with prevalent but not incident hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease.

  7. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice.

  8. Development of Soda Residue Concrete Expansion Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-min; WANG Li-jiu; M F Mohd Zain; F C Lai

    2003-01-01

    A new type of concrete expansion agent has been successfully developed for the first time in the world by utilizing an industrial waste residue-soda residue and an industrial wasteliquor.Adding 3%-6% of the agent into Portland cement enables a shrinkage-compensating concrete to be prepared.Mortar and concrete containing this expansion agent have better shrinkage-compensating and mechanical properties.The raw materials component,production process,technical properties,micro-analysis of mortar made with this expansion agent,mechanism of expansion and research results are described in this article.The experimental results show that the new type of concrete expansion agent accords with the standard and its main mineral component is xCaO-ySO3-zAl2O3.

  9. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  10. Damage Development in Confined Borosilicate and Soda-Lime Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    Elmira, NY). BF is a borosilicate glass manufactured by Schott Glass using a float process. SP float glass is a crystal clear, soda-lime glass . This...2005. 22 21. ASTM £494, "Technique for Measuring Ultrasonic Velocity in Materials", July 2001. 22. Schott Glass , Borofloat 33 Thermal Properties...21945 Damage Development in Conf"med Borosilicate and Soda-Lime Glasses Kathryn A. Dannemann1, Charles E. Anderson. Jr. 1, Sidney Chocron1, James

  11. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence.

  12. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat.

  13. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, Psoda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  14. Caffeine content of energy drinks, carbonated sodas, and other beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Goldberger, Bruce A; Cone, Edward J

    2006-03-01

    The caffeine content of 10 energy drinks, 19 carbonated sodas, and 7 other beverages was determined. In addition, the variability of the caffeine content of Coca-Cola fountain soda was evaluated. Caffeine was isolated from the samples by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The caffeine concentration of the caffeinated energy drinks ranged from none detected to 141.1 mg/serving. The caffeine content of the carbonated sodas ranged from none detected to 48.2 mg/serving, and the content of the other beverages ranged from < 2.7 to 105.7 mg/serving. The intra-assay mean, standard deviation, and % coefficient of variation for the Coca-Cola fountain samples were 44.5, 2.95, and 6.64 mg/serving, respectively.

  15. Soda pulp and fuel gases synthesis from Hesperaloe funifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Requejo, Ana; Ferrer, Ana; Navarro, Enrique

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the suitability of Hesperaloe funifera which is an alternative raw material, for pulping with soda-anthraquinone to produce pulp and paper. It was studied the influence of operational variables (temperature (155-185 degrees C), cooking time (20-60 min) and soda concentration (5-15%), with a constant addition of 1% of anthraquinone and a liquid/solid ratio of 8, in soda-anthraquinone cooking of H. funifera on pulps and paper sheets properties obtained. Finally, the cooking liquors were acidified to separate solid fractions that were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification in order to obtain synthesis and fuel gases. H. funifera contains little lignin and abundant alpha-cellulose; this, together with the morphological characteristics of its fibers, makes it a potentially highly useful papermaking raw material.

  16. The Beatability of Wheat Straw Soda and Monoethanolamine Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the beatability of soda and monoethanolamine pulps was compared. The refining of pulps was done in pilot scale Voith refiner Model LR 40. The results show that the maximum tensile and burst indices of monothanolamine pulp are reached with consumption of 70 kWh energy in pilot scale Voith refiner and the increasing of energy more than this level has the adverse effect on these indices. In the case of soda pulp increasing the energy up to 500 kWh has the linear relationship with tensile and burst indices. In comparison to monoethanolamine pulp, the refining of soda pulp is more difficult and needs more energy. Using monoethanolamine pulp resulted in saving of energy by 70-80 % to reach the optimum strength indices.

  17. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the...

  18. Glass-Forming Ability of Soda Lime Borate Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the composition dependence of glass-forming ability (GFA) of a series of iron-containing soda lime borate liquids by substituting Na2O for B2O3. We have characterized GFA by measuring the glass stability against crystallization using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC......). The results show that the GFA decreases when substituting Na2O for B2O3. Moreover, we find that there is no direct link between the kinetic fragility and GFA for the soda lime borate series studied herein. We have also discovered and clarified a striking thermal history dependence of the glass stability...

  19. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  20. Soda consumption and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study1234

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: The frequency of soda consumption remains high in the United States. Soda consumption has been associated with poor bone health in children, but few studies have examined this relation in adults, and to our knowledge, no study has examined the relation of soda consumption with risk of hip fractures.

  1. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  2. Using Soda Cans to Teach Physical Science Students about Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Humphreys, Teari C.; LaPorte, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, physical science students measured the mass of several soda cans, measured the mass and volume of water displaced when these cans were placed in water, and determined whether these cans sank or floated in water. Then, the students plotted graphs of the mass of displaced water versus the volume of displaced water, the mass of…

  3. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  4. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  5. Studies on Fast Remediation of Soda Meadow Alkaline Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lianren; SUN Yankun; LI Dawei

    2010-01-01

    Researches on models of remediation quickly in soda meadow alkaline soil, and dynamic variation of water-salt in saline soil of Zhaozhou County were studied systematically from 2001 to 2006. Realize the vegetation cover of those years through the artificial planting, mixed seeding lymc grass (Elymus dahuricus Turcz) and melilot in the mode of rotary tillage and deep loosening in lower and medium saline soils. The results showed that there was remarkable relationship between net evaporation (difference of precipitation and evaporation) and total salt content in the soil. The net evaporation could be used as a new method to forecast the dynamics variation of salt to ensure the pasture optimum sowing time. Realize the autumnal vegetation cover of those years through direct planting on the bourgeon layer of soda meadow alkaline soil, on the other hand, the covered pasture made the function of restraining salt and alkaline content to realize the biology reverse succession quickly. Forage seeds were seeded directly on the seeding bed of soda alkaline meadow at the end of July. In fall of the same year, a certain amount of biomass was obtained. The model, which has remarkable economical efficiency and use widely, represented the innovative model for the fast vegetation restoration on the soda alkaline meadow soil.

  6. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.

    The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.

    The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement

  7. Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2012-11-05

    Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda, and this is associated with the degree of consumption. These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity.

  8. Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Kuenen, Johannes Gijs

    2005-09-01

    The existence of chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) capable of growth in an extremely alkaline and saline environment has not been recognized until recently. Extensive studies of saline, alkaline (soda) lakes located in Central Asia, Africa and North America have now revealed the presence, at relatively high numbers, of a new branch of obligately autotrophic SOB in these doubly extreme environments. Overall more than 100 strains were isolated in pure culture. All of them have the potential to grow optimally at around pH 10 in media strongly buffered with sodium carbonate/bicarbonate and cannot grow at pHbacteria, dominating in hyposaline steppe soda lakes of Central Asia. The genus Thioalkalivibrio includes mostly slowly growing species better adapted to life in hypersaline conditions and with a more versatile metabolism. It includes denitrifying, thiocyanate-utilizing and facultatively alkaliphilic species.

  9. A Simple Ballistic Material Model for Soda-Lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    for soda-lime glass devel- oped and parameterized in the previous sections is next imple- mented in a VUMAT Material User Subroutine of the commercial...each element. The essential features of the coupling between the ABAQUS/ Explicit finite-element solver and the VUMAT Material User Subroutine at...state as well as values of the material state variables at the end of the time increment are determined within the VUMAT and returned to the ABAQUS

  10. An application of SODA methodology in student accommodation problems

    OpenAIRE

    E. Teimoury; H. Gitinavard; Mousavi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The one of the main problems that students have faced with are the accommodation problems. In this paper, we review problems that may occur in university systems. Also, we use strategic options development and analysis method (SODA) to represent the accommodation problems and to create an agreement between student and staff. This method can help us with achieving goals; because in the same situation, there are different viewpoints for various reasons. By plotting the cognitive maps of involve...

  11. Commentary: Soda taxes, obesity, and the shifty behavior of consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ryan D

    2011-06-01

    Rising obesity is a threat to public health, and taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce consumption and thus caloric intake could be a viable policy response. But raising the price of SSB calories will raise the quantity demanded of relatively cheaper calories, and net effect on obesity is unclear. I review the evidence on shifting calorie demand and discuss the viability of soda taxes to achieve improvements in public health.

  12. Improvement in hardness of soda-lime-silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Riya; De, Moumita; Roy, Sudakshina; Dey, Arjun; Biswas, Sampad K.; Middya, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop K.

    2012-06-01

    Hardness is a key design parameter for structural application of brittle solids like glass. Here we report for the first time the significant improvement of about 10% in Vicker's hardness of a soda-lime-silica glass with loading rate in the range of 0.1-10 N.s-1. Corroborative dark field optical and scanning electron microscopy provided clue to this improvement through evidence of variations in spatial density of shear deformation band formation as a function of loading rate.

  13. Ecomorphological variability of Arthrospira fusiformis (Cyanoprokaryota) in African soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaggwa, Mary Nakabungo; Burian, Alfred; Oduor, Steve Omondi; Schagerl, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The filamentous spirally coiled cyanoprokaryote Arthrospira fusiformis is found in extremely high densities in tropical soda lakes acting as driving force of the food web. We studied pronounced temporal morphological changes of Arthrospira in Kenyan soda lakes, Nakuru and Bogoria, and identified underlying key factors. Cell (diameter and height) and filament (height of coil, coil diameter, and number) dimensions were measured from weekly samples collected over a period of 16 months. In both lakes, medium-sized cells and large, widely coiled filaments prevailed most. Percentage of large, widely coiled filaments was promoted by elevated levels of soluble reactive phosphorus, wind speed, temperature and conductivity and the opposite for small filaments. Large, narrow-coiled filaments were associated with an increase in mainly Arthrospira-grazing zooplankton and cyanophage infections. Widely coiled spirals were promoted by increased turbulences. Based on fluorescence measurements, we found widely coiled filaments representing high vitality. From this study we were able to demonstrate for the first time morphological patterns of Arthrospira in nature. Arthrospira morphotypes are suitable for indicating the biological status in soda lakes as they are subjective and therefore reflective of what is happening in its habitat. Additionally, this outcome might be also of interest for commercial 'Spirulina' farms in enhancing high-quality production.

  14. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-07-22

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  15. Metadata and Buckets in the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.; Robbins, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs), and discuss the role of metadata in SODA. The premise of the SODA model is to "push down" many of the functionalities generally associated with archives into the data objects themselves. Thus the data objects become "smarter", and the archives "dumber". In the SODA model, archives become primarily set managers, and the objects themselves negotiate and handle presentation, enforce terms and conditions, and perform data content management. Buckets are our implementation of smart objects, and da is our reference implementation for dumb archives. We also present our approach to metadata translation for buckets.

  16. Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholdi, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known as the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral has applications in many fields of science. In optics, the illumination intensity at a point behind a slit is computed from the distance between two points on the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral also provides optimal curvature for train tracks between a straight run and an upcoming bend. It is striking that it can be also obtained with an orange and a kitchen knife.

  17. Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda, and this is associated with the degree of consumption. These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity. PMID:22583859

  18. Bubbling over: soda consumption and its link to obesity in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Jones, Malia; Yu, Hongjian; Goldstein, Harold

    2009-09-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in both adults and children in the last three decades in the n California, 62% of adolescents ages 12-17 and 41% of children ages 2-11 drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage every day. In addition, 24% of adults drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage on an average day. Adults who drink soda occasionally (not every day) are 15% more likely to be overweight or obese, and adults who drink one or more sodas per day are 27% more likely to be overweight or obese than adults who do not drink soda, even when adjusting for poverty status and race/ethnicity. This policy brief, produced collaboratively by the California Center for Public Health Advocacy and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, examines soda consumption in California by cities and counties using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2005). In addition, the brief investigates whether there is an association between soda consumption and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There are major differences in soda consumption rates by geographic area in California, suggesting that social and environmental factors affect the consumption of soda. Also, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among those who drink one or more sodas or other sweetened beverages every day than among those who do not consume these soft drinks. Establishing public policies that focus on reducing soda consumption could contribute to reversing California's increasing overweight and obesity problem.

  19. Assessment of soda ash calcination treatment of Turkish trona ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezer Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trona is relatively rare, non-metallic mineral, Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H2O. The pure material contains 70.3% sodium carbonate and by calcination the excess CO2 and water can be driven off, yielding natural soda ash. The terms soda ash and sodium carbonate are used interchangeably. Trona calcining is a key process step in production of soda ash (sodium carbonate anhydrate from the relatively cheap trona ore. The calcination reaction may proceeds in a sequence of steps. Depending on the conditions, it may result in formation of either sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3 · H2O, sodium sesquicarbonate or weigschederite (Na2CO3 · 3NaHCO3. The Beypazarı Turkish trona deposit is the second largest deposit in the world with the content of 84% trona. The decomposition of trona appeared to be a single stage process across the temperature range studied (150-200 °C with the representative samples of different size fractions in the draught up metallurgical furnace. The optimum particle size and calcination time were −6.35 mm and 30 minutes, respectively, at calcination temperature of 175 °C in a metallurgical furnace. Microwave-induced dry calcination of trona was possible and 5 minutes of calcination time at a power level of 900 was sufficient for complete calcination of −6.35 mm feed. This includes short time calcinations with the goal of improving economics and simplifying the thermal process.

  20. Tratamiento de sodas gastadas sulfhídricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fierro Franco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Una solución práctica a un problema de contaminación, en el cual se cumplen más de los objetivos previstos ya que la "Joda gastada" se puede reutilizar en varias plantas. Para este fin se realizó una caracterización de las "sodas gastadas sulfhidricas" y tres tratamientos a nivel de laboratorio y planta piloto: neutralización, aireación catalizada y oxidación catalizada.

  1. Improvement in hardness of soda-lime-silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Riya; De, Moumita; Roy, Sudakshina; Dey, Arjun; Biswas, Sampad K.; Middya, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop K. [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata-700032, CSIR (India); Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata-700032, CSIR (India)

    2012-06-05

    Hardness is a key design parameter for structural application of brittle solids like glass. Here we report for the first time the significant improvement of about 10% in Vicker's hardness of a soda-lime-silica glass with loading rate in the range of 0.1-10 N.s{sup -1}. Corroborative dark field optical and scanning electron microscopy provided clue to this improvement through evidence of variations in spatial density of shear deformation band formation as a function of loading rate.

  2. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic characterization of tropical soda apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV) was first identified in tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), a noxious weed, in Florida in 2002. This report provides the first full genome sequence of TSAMV. The full genome sequence of this virus will enable research scientists to develop additional spec...

  3. Economic impact of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) on Florida cattle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A written survey administered to 3,500 Florida cattle producers in 2006 documented tropical soda apple, as the most common pasture weed across the state of Florida. Over 80% of the survey respondents reported tropical soda apple on their ranches, and over 65% declared the plant to be a major proble...

  4. Natronobacillus azotifigens gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic diazotrophic haloalkaliphile from soda-rich habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, I.D.; Zadorina, E.V.; Kravchenko, I.K.; Boulygina, E.S.; Tourova, T.P.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria capable of nitrogen fixation were obtained in microoxic enrichments from soda soils in south-western Siberia, north-eastern Mongolia, and the Lybian desert (Egypt). The same organisms were obtained in anoxic enrichments with glucose from soda lake sediments in the Kulunda Step

  5. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Hamzeh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumption during pulping. The bleaching experiments showed that the pulps obtained with the three types of applied surfactants namely, ELA-2, FAE-20, and PEG1000 could be easily bleached with D0ED1 or D0EpD1 sequences. The addition of most used surfactants in soda pulping of bagasse led to higher brightness in comparison to reference pulp with the same bleaching sequence. Strength properties of bleached pulps obtained with surfactants were higher than the pulp obtained with conventional soda pulping.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide and caustic soda: Dancing with a dragon while bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Carl Houtman; Kolby Hirth

    2013-01-01

    When hydrogen peroxide is mixed with caustic soda, an auto-accelerating reaction can lead to generation of significant amounts of heat and oxygen. On the basis of experiments using typical pulp mill process concentration and temperatures, a relatively simple kinetic model has been developed. Evaluation of these model results reveals that hydrogen peroxide-caustic soda...

  7. What contributes to excessive diet soda intake in eating disorders: appetitive drive, weight concerns, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K

    2013-01-01

    Excessive diet soda intake is common in eating disorders. The present study examined factors contributing to excessive intake in a sample of individuals with lifetime eating disorders based on proposed DSM-5 criteria (n = 240) and non-eating disorder controls (n = 157). Individuals with eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, consumed more diet soda than controls. Eating disorder symptoms that reflect increased appetitive drive or increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake. Increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake when levels of appetitive drive were high, but not when they were low. Results highlight the importance of monitoring diet soda intake in individuals with eating disorders and may have implications for the maintenance of dysregulated taste reward processing in bulimia nervosa.

  8. Microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling in soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Berben, Tom; Melton, Emily Denise; Overmars, Lex; Vavourakis, Charlotte D; Muyzer, Gerard

    2014-09-01

    Soda lakes contain high concentrations of sodium carbonates resulting in a stable elevated pH, which provide a unique habitat to a rich diversity of haloalkaliphilic bacteria and archaea. Both cultivation-dependent and -independent methods have aided the identification of key processes and genes in the microbially mediated carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur biogeochemical cycles in soda lakes. In order to survive in this extreme environment, haloalkaliphiles have developed various bioenergetic and structural adaptations to maintain pH homeostasis and intracellular osmotic pressure. The cultivation of a handful of strains has led to the isolation of a number of extremozymes, which allow the cell to perform enzymatic reactions at these extreme conditions. These enzymes potentially contribute to biotechnological applications. In addition, microbial species active in the sulfur cycle can be used for sulfur remediation purposes. Future research should combine both innovative culture methods and state-of-the-art 'meta-omic' techniques to gain a comprehensive understanding of the microbes that flourish in these extreme environments and the processes they mediate. Coupling the biogeochemical C, N, and S cycles and identifying where each process takes place on a spatial and temporal scale could unravel the interspecies relationships and thereby reveal more about the ecosystem dynamics of these enigmatic extreme environments.

  9. Obesity prevention strategies: could food or soda taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S

    2016-03-01

    Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales?

  10. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  11. Interactive Network Exploration with Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Štajdohar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis is one of the most widely used techniques in many areas of modern science. Most existing tools for that purpose are limited to drawing networks and computing their basic general characteristics. The user is not able to interactively and graphically manipulate the networks, select and explore subgraphs using other statistical and data mining techniques, add and plot various other data within the graph, and so on. In this paper we present a tool that addresses these challenges, an add-on for exploration of networks within the general component-based environment Orange.

  12. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mortazavi Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color revolution is one of the new ways of changing a regime at the beginning of the twenty-first century, which has usually been carried out on corrupt, political systems remaining from the Cold War era in Eastern European countries and countries that have become independent from the former Soviet Union and through such revolution a new peaceful form of political power transition emerged. An exploration of the circumstances of Ukraine’s Orange Revolution suggests foreigners’ support and leading. Ukraine’s presidential elections of 2004 and the competition between Viktor Yushchenko and Victor Yanukovich and the presence of international observers in the process of elections and the controversy of electoral fraud and the West’s support of Yushchenko were all directed toward the formation of a color revolution in Ukraine. Poor economic conditions and official corruption, religious, linguistic, class and racial gaps in Ukraine led the way for foreigners to use them in creating electoral situations and prepare the fall of the government. The main purpose question in this article is the Orange Revolution and its causes.

  13. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  14. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V; Abascal, R

    1976-01-01

    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well.

  15. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  16. The Untapped Power of Soda Taxes: Incentivizing Consumers, Generating Revenue, and Altering Corporate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Roache

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, soda taxes are gaining momentum as powerful interventions to discourage sugar consumption and thereby reduce the growing burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Evidence from early adopters including Mexico and Berkeley, California, confirms that soda taxes can disincentivize consumption through price increases and raise revenue to support government programs. The United Kingdom’s new graduated levy on sweetened beverages is yielding yet another powerful impact: soda manufacturers are reformulating their beverages to significantly reduce the sugar content. Product reformulation – whether incentivized or mandatory – helps reduce overconsumption of sugars at the societal level, moving away from the long-standing notion of individual responsibility in favor of collective strategies to promote health. But as a matter of health equity, soda product reformulation should occur globally, especially in low- and middleincome countries (LMICs, which are increasingly targeted as emerging markets for soda and junk food and are disproportionately impacted by NCDs. As global momentum for sugar reduction increases, governments and public health advocates should harness the power of soda taxes to tackle the economic, social, and informational drivers of soda consumption, driving improvements in food environments and the public’s health.

  17. Shock wave propagation in soda lime glass using optical shadowgraphy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASAD Y B S R; BARNWAL S; NAIK P A; YADAV Y; PATIDAR R; KAMATH M P; UPADHYAY A; BAGCHI S; KUMAR A; JOSHI A S; GUPTA P D

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of shock waves in soda lime glass, which is a transparent material, has been studied using the optical shadowgraphy technique. The time-resolved shock velocity information has been obtained (1) in single shot, using the chirped pulse shadowgraphy technique, with a temporal resolution of tens of picoseconds and (2) in multiple shots, using conventional snapshot approach, with a second harmonic probe pulse. Transient shock velocities of $(5–7) \\times 10^{6}$ cm/s have been obtained. The scaling of the shock velocity with intensity in the $2 \\times 10^{13}–10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$ range has been obtained. The shock velocity is observed to scale with laser intensity as $I^{0.38}$. The present experiments also show the presence of ionization tracks, generated probably due to X-ray hotspots from small-scale filamentation instabilities. The results and various issues involved in these experiments are discussed

  18. Autotrophic microbial arsenotrophy in arsenic-rich soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Saltikov, Chad W.; Stolz, John F.; Hollibaugh, James T.

    2017-01-01

    A number of prokaryotes are capable of employing arsenic oxy-anions as either electron acceptors [arsenate; As(V)] or electron donors [arsenite; As(III)] to sustain arsenic-dependent growth (‘arsenotrophy’). A subset of these microorganisms function as either chemoautotrophs or photoautotrophs, whereby they gain sufficient energy from their redox metabolism of arsenic to completely satisfy their carbon needs for growth by autotrophy, that is the fixation of inorganic carbon (e.g. HCO3−) into their biomass. Here we review what has been learned of these processes by investigations we have undertaken in three soda lakes of the western USA and from the physiological characterizations of the relevant bacteria, which include the critical genes involved, such as respiratory arsenate reductase (arrA) and the discovery of its arsenite-oxidizing counterpart (arxA). When possible, we refer to instances of similar process occurring in other, less extreme ecosystems and by microbes other than haloalkaliphiles.

  19. STRESS RELAXATION AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF SODA-LIME GLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.W.Bao; Y.F.Han; F.T.Gong

    2004-01-01

    Stress relaxation of glass is a dualism effect, it often lead to strength degradation in strengthened glass, but on the other hand, it improves the reliability and stressuniformity of glasses. In this work, stress relaxation of soda-lime glass was investigated using three-point bending tests at 400-560℃ which is near the brittle to ductile transition temperature, for enhancing the safety of glass productions and exploring the most economic anneal process. The experimental results show that the speed of stress relaxation increases but the ultimate stress decreases with increasing temperature. The stress uniformity of the glass samples before and after anneal was examined using spherical indentation at arranged testing points. It indicates that the scatter of the local strength measured by the Hertzian indentation is smaller in the anneal glass than in initial specimen, so that the estimated Weibull modulus for the anneal specimen is higher. Furthermore, the strength evaluation by Hertzian indentation and statistical analysis was presented.

  20. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF A SODA LIME GLASS THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert FANTOZZI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively to the as received soda lime glass samples, the strength distribution after thermal shocks showed the appearance of a second branch in the Weibull curves. This branch is observed for temperature differences (ΔT equal or higher than the critical temperature difference (ΔTc for both water and motor oil cooling baths. The dispersion is more spread out in these two baths in comparison with the olive oil bath probably because of more pronounced slow crack growth effect. The Weibull modulus varies according to the used cooling bath and the considered temperature difference. In the case of thermal shock caused by air blast cooling at T = 20°C, a bimodal distribution is observed for only the critical state. The initial cracking time, obtained by acoustic emission, corresponds to the unstable propagation of the most critical defect. The number of cracks induced by thermal shock is proportional to the number of acoustic events.

  1. Soda Cans Metamaterial: A Subwavelength-Scaled Phononic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Lemoult

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photonic or phononic crystals and metamaterials, due to their very different typical spatial scales—wavelength and deep subwavelength—and underlying physical mechanisms—Bragg interferences or local resonances—, are often considered to be very different composite media. As such, while the former are commonly used to manipulate and control waves at the scale of the unit cell, i.e., wavelength, the latter are usually considered for their effective properties. Yet we have shown in the last few years that under some approximations, metamaterials can be used as photonic or phononic crystals, with the great advantage that they are much more compact. In this review, we will concentrate on metamaterials made out of soda cans, that is, Helmholtz resonators of deep subwavelength dimensions. We will first show that their properties can be understood, likewise phononic crystals, as resulting from interferences only, through multiple scattering effects and Fano interferences. Then, we will demonstrate that below the resonance frequency of its unit cell, a soda can metamaterial supports a band of subwavelength varying modes, which can be excited coherently using time reversal, in order to beat the diffraction limit from the far field. Above this frequency, the metamaterial supports a band gap, which we will use to demonstrate cavities and waveguides, very similar to those obtained in phononic crystals, albeit of deep subwavelength dimensions. We will finally show that multiple scattering can be taken advantage of in these metamaterials, by correctly structuring them. This allows to turn a metamaterial with a single negative effective property into a negative index metamaterial, which refracts waves negatively, hence acting as a superlens.

  2. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

  3. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes.

  4. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Meth...

  5. STRATEGI COPING ORANG TUA MENGHADAPI ANAK AUTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sulistyo Wardani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Autis merupakan grey area dibidang kedokteran, yang artinya masih merupakan suatu hal yang penyebab, mekanisme, dan terapinya belum jelas benar. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis ini memerlukan pemecahan sebagai upaya untuk beradaptasi terhadap masalah dari tekanan yang menimpa mereka. Konsep untuk memecahkan masalah ini disebut coping. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi strategi coping yang digunakan oleh orang tua untuk menghadapi anak penderita autis, bagaimana bentuk perilaku coping yang digunakan, dan apa dampak perilaku coping tersebut bagi orang tua. Subjek penelitian ini adalah orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis yang bersekolah di SD PLUS Harmony. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah interview, sedangkan teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis induktif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa strategi coping pada orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis berorientasi pada penyelesaian masalah yang dihadapi (Problem Focused Coping, sedangkan bentuk perilaku coping yang muncul yaitu Instrumental Action yang termasuk dalam Problem Focused Coping dan Self-Controlling, Denial, dan Seeking Meaning yang termasuk dalam Emotion Focused Coping. Dampak positif dari perilaku coping yang dilakukan oleh orang tua yaitu Exercised Caution dan Seeking Meaning, sedangkan dampak negatif yang muncul diatasi orang tua dengan Intropersitive, Negotiation, dan Accepting Responbility.

  6. Mini-Orange Spectrometer at CIAE

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yun; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-01-01

    A Mini-Orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, which consists of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO$_5$ permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principle and configuration of the Mini-Orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the Mini-Orange spectrometer.

  7. The Cost Implications of Replacing Soda Lime with Amsorb Plus in Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Osman Ahmed; Stephen Mannion

    2011-01-01

    Background and Goal of the Study. Desiccated soda lime is known to produce toxic compounds when interacting with volatile anesthetic agents. Amsorb Plus does not produce these but is more expensive per unit weight. Materials and Methods. In a prospective cross-over study, we evaluated the cost of using soda lime (Spherasorb, Intersurgical, UK) and Amsorb Plus. In four operating theatres over two 4-week periods, one for each product, we measured sevoflurane consumption, amount of absorbent use...

  8. Regular-soda intake independent of weight status is associated with asthma among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination.

  9. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  10. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  11. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  12. Arundo Distribution - Orange Co. [ds348

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Arundo (Arundo donax) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and were funded by...

  13. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  14. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... in retailing and also in the FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) supply. These changes are threatening and also bringing opportunities to companies. This paper has two objectives.

  15. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study, Eglin AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    SCFILE cue ESL-TR-86-22 HERBICIDE ORANGE SITE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY EGLIN AFB 10 A.B. CROCKETT, A. PROPP , T. KIMES EG&G IDAHO, INC O I P.O. BOX...Orange Site Characterization Study.4lin AFB 12- PERSONAL AIITHOS(S) Crockett, A.B. , Propp , A., Kinies T. / \\ 4 Final FROM APX 84/TO Sen 86 1 ... I

  16. Pengenalan Gangguan Depresif Pada Orang Usia Lanjut

    OpenAIRE

    Bongsoe, Syamsir

    2008-01-01

    Pada orang usia lanjut, gangguan depresif merupakan suasana alam perasaan yang utama bagi orang usia lanjut dengan penyakit fisik kronik dan kerusakan fungsi kognitif yang disebabkan oleh adanya penderitaan, disabilitas, perhatian keluarga yang kurang serta bertambah buruknya penyakit fisik yang banyak dialaminya. Selain itu proses-proses sehubungan dengan ketuaan dan penyakit fisik yang dialaminya akan mempengaruhi jalur frontostriatal, amygdala serta hypocampus, dan meningkatkan kerentanan ...

  17. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  18. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  19. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  20. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  1. Soda-lime glass behavior under laser shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, D.; Guin, J.-P.; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.; Nivard, M.; Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Seisson, G.; Hebert, D.; Berthe, L.; Boustie, M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and modeling the behavior of glass is an issue for certain aeronautical, military and civil applications. For example, parts of satellites and shuttles are made of glasses. During their lifetime, they are subjected to potentially damaging high velocity impacts. To determine the behavior of these structures during and after impact we used instrumented laser driven shock loading performed on high power intensity laser facilities. Transverse shadowgraphs of the front wave propagating inside the transparent material are collected at different times. These shadowgraphs provide information regarding the shock wave velocity. PDV or VISAR measurements provide time-resolved free surface velocity to determine material velocity when the shock wave breakout occurs. For some laser shots, shock wave corresponds to elastic wave then Hugoniot elastic limit may be determined. Under high pressure conditions glass permanently densifies and traces of such a plastic deformation are looked for on the path of the shock wave. Those experimental data are necessary to characterize the material behavior under such conditions and to model the mechanical behavior of glass structures. In this presentation we will present experimental results obtained for soda-lime silica glass samples loaded by laser induced shock.

  2. [Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria in soda lake stratified sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourova, T P; Grechnikova, M A; Kuznetsov, V V; Sorokin, D Yu

    2014-01-01

    Various previously developed techniques for DNA extraction from the samples with complex physicochemical structure (soils, silts, and sediments) and modifications of these techniques developed in the present work were tested. Their usability for DNA extraction from the sediments of the Kulunda Steppe hypersaline soda lakes was assessed, and the most efficient procedure for indirect (two-stage) DNA extraction was proposed. Almost complete separation of the cell fraction was shown, as well as the inefficiency of nested PCR for analysis of the clone libraries obtained from washed sediments by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Analysis of the clone library obtained from the cell fractions of stratified sediments (upper, medium, and lower layers) revealed that in the sediments of Lake Gorchina-3 most eubacterial phylotypes belonged to the class Clostridia, phylum Firmicutes. They were probably specific for this habitatand formed a new, presently unknown high-rank taxon. The data obtained revealed no pronounced stratification of the spe- cies diversity of the eubacterial component of the microbial community inhabiting the sediments (0-20 cm) in the inshore zone of Lake Gorchina-3.

  3. THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE OF A SODA LIME GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. MALOU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the thermal shock of a three millimeters thickness soda lime glass using the hot-cold thermal shock technique. The cooling was made by ambient air jet on previously warmed samples. The heat transfer coefficient was about 600 W/°C.m2 (Biot number β = 0.3. The thermal shock duration was fixed at 6 seconds. The hot temperature was taken between 100°C and 550°C while the cold temperature of the air flux was kept constant at 20°C. The acoustic emission technique was used for determining the failure time and the critical temperature difference (ΔTC. By referring to experimental results, thermal shock modelling computations are conducted. Our aim is especially focused on the fracture initiation moments during the cooling process and on the crack initiation sites. The used modeling is based on the local approach of the thermal shock during the experimental data treatment. For each test, the temperature profile and the transient stress state through the samples thickness are determined. By applying the linear superposition property of the stress intensity factors, evolution of the stress intensity factor KI in function of the pre-existing natural flaws in the glass surface is established. The size of the critical flaw is determined by the linear fracture mechanics laws. Computation results confirm the experimental values of the critical difference temperature obtained that is the source of the glass degradation.

  4. SODA-AQ PULPING OF PAULOWNIA WOOD AFTER HYDROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A trihybrid clone of Paulownia fortunei x tormentosa x elongata was used for pulp and paper production using the soda-anthraquinone (AQ process, comparing the results with those from Paulownia fortunei. An autohydrolysis process had been previously carried out on this raw material. A composite central experimental design and a multiple regression were used for modeling and optimizing the process. A valuable liquid phase could be obtained from the autohydrolysis process of Paulownia, trying to minimize cellulose degradation for pulp and paper production. A compromise to maximize the glucan and minimize the xylan contents in the postautohydrolysis solid phase could be achieved at 187.5ºC and 15 minutes. A suitable cellulosic pulp with kappa number ranging from 12.2 to 69.2 and ISO brightness from 18.2 to 30.6% presented better results than those from other studies. Regarding handsheets physical properties (tensile index 37.3 N•m/g and viscosity (848 cm3/g, significant improvements could be obtained when compared with previous results of a similar process using Paulownia fortunei or Paulownia elongata.

  5. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA since...

  6. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S; Jacques, Paul F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ∼30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend=0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend=0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  7. Lithographic fabrication of soda-lime glass based microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, L.; Norarat, R.; Napari, M.; Kivistö, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Chienthavorn, O. [Department of Chemistry and the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Whitlow, H.J., E-mail: harry.whitlow@he-arc.ch [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées Arc, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Grise 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry and the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2013-07-01

    Glass is an important material for chemical processing and analysis because of its relatively low cost, mechanical strength, chemical inertness, optical transparency, and electrical insulation and temperature resistance far beyond that of most polymeric materials. We have investigated techniques for direct writing with MeV ions on soda-lime glass as well as capping procedures to form closed buried channels suitable for high-pressure driven flow. Exposure and development of open-channel structures was studied using a combination of programmable proximity aperture lithography and different developers. Unlike our previous work on MeV ion beam lithography of natural silica where an 8% w/v HF in aqueous solution was used as a developer, it was found that 6% w/v HF + 0.5% w/v HCl was an effective developer. Addition of HCl to the developer was necessary, presumably to dissolve oxide residues that were insoluble in HF solution. Different capping and bonding procedures to create closed channels that are strong enough to withstand high hydrostatic pressure have also been tested. It was found that capping to create a closed channel could be achieved after thorough cleaning. This was followed by activation in ∼32% w/v NH{sub 4}OH or ∼30% w/v H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution, drying on a hot plate and bonded under uniaxial pressure in a furnace ramped up and down at 1 °C/min to 575 °C. Activation in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was found to give better bonding. Other methods using HF lead to poor bonding due to oxide precipitation.

  8. Where there's a will: can highlighting future youth-targeted marketing increase support for soda taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungjong; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2014-12-01

    Amid concern about high rates of obesity and related diseases, the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to young people by the food industry has come under heavy criticism by public health advocates, who cite decades of youth-targeted marketing in arguing for reforms. In light of recent evidence that the same event evokes stronger emotional reactions when it occurs in the future versus the past, highlighting youth-targeted marketing that has yet to occur may evoke stronger reactions to such practices, and perhaps, greater support for related health policy initiatives. In a between-subjects experiment, Web participants (N = 285) read that a major soda company had already launched (past condition) or was planning to launch (future condition) an advertising campaign targeting children. Measures included support for a soda tax and affective responses to the company's actions. Greater support for the soda tax was observed in the future condition than in the past condition. Moreover, participants in the future condition reported heightened negative emotions about the company's actions, which mediated the observed effect on soda tax support. The same action undertaken by the food industry (here, marketing soda to children) may evoke stronger negative emotions and greater support for a health policy initiative when it is framed prospectively rather than retrospectively.

  9. Histological effects of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on kidney of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns over soda pop drinks have been severally report. However, histological perspectives are not very common. Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate histological effect of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Materials and methods: The rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment group (A received a brand of soda pop drink on a daily basis for thirty days. The rats in treatment group (B received another brand of soda drink, while the control group (C received equal amount of water for the same period. The rats were given the drinks as well as feeds liberally for thirty days, and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The kidney was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A&B showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption of the renal structure. There are observable diffuse signs of glomerulonephritis with some congestion and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Chronic consumption of soda pop drinks may affect the microanatomy of the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Further study aimed at corroborating these observations in humans is warranted.

  10. Histological effects of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on kidney of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Health concerns over soda pop drinks have been severally report. However, histological perspectives are not very common. Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate histological effect of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Materials and methods : The rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment group (A received a brand of soda pop drink on a daily basis for thirty days. The rats in treatment group (B received another brand of soda drink, while the control group (C received equal amount of water for the same period. The rats were given the drinks as well as feeds liberally for thirty days, and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The kidney was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results : The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A&B showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption of the renal structure. There are observable diffuse signs of glomerulonephritis with some congestion and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Conclusion : Chronic consumption of soda pop drinks may affect the microanatomy of the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Further study aimed at corroborating these observations in humans is warranted.

  11. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Malaysian Orang Asli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, E; Prathap, K

    1976-05-01

    Necropsies were performed on 285 consecutively unclaimed Orang Asli bodies from Gombak Orang Asli Hospital during an eight-year period from May 1967 to April 1975. Of the 25 malignant neoplasms, hepatocellular carcinoma was by far the commonest (36%). The nine patients with this neoplasm had coexistant macronodular cirrhosis. There were 20 cases of cirrhosis; 45% of these had coexistant hepatocellular carcinoma. The 53,000 Orang Aslis living in West Malaysia comprise three tribes, the Negrito, Senoi, and Melayu Asli (Proto Malays). The Sinoi appear to have a high predilection for liver cancer, all our nine cases occurring in this group. These aboriginal people live in the jungles where they practice shifting cultivation and maintain their own dietary and social customs. Detailed studies of their dietary habits may provide a clue to the etiology of liver cancer in these people.

  13. Cleaner production in the ammonia-soda industry: an ecological and economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikowski, T; Buczkowski, R; Lemanowska, E

    2004-12-01

    Five methods to reduce the negative influence of soda ash factories on the natural environment are presented: 1. obtaining calcium-magnesium phosphates by treating the suspension from raw brine purification with orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), 2. production of precipitated chalk from soda processing waste, 3. production of gypsum and semi-brine, 4. desulphurisation of fume gases from the factory power plant, 5. utilization of distiller waste. The tests, accomplished on a laboratory scale, showed the high efficiency of these methods. Economic analysis has proved that only four out of the five presented processes can have a positive financial effect on soda ash factories, as well as being well justified economically. The value of two of the innovations presented is confirmed by their implementation in factories.

  14. Non-linear effects of soda taxes on consumption and weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David E; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects.

  15. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  16. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA), version 1.0 user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 1.0 is described. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system which consists of five program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an EVANS & SUTHERLAND PS300 graphics workstation. BOEING RIM-Version 7 relational database management system performs transparent database services. In the current version three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional (3D) animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. One module produces an interactive 3D animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  17. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA). Version 2.0: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.; Zsoldos, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 2.0, is discussed. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system that consists of six program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an Evans and Sutherland PS300 graphics workstation. In the current version, three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. Circular and rectangular, off nadir, fixed and scanning sensors are supported. One module produces an interactive three dimensional animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently, Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  18. Differential performance of tropical soda apple and its biological control agent Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in open and shaded habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth has been released since 2003 in the southeastern United States for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida, G. boliviana can be found on tropical soda apple growing in open pastures as well as in shady wooded areas...

  19. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Florida: A review of key program components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a small shrub native to South America that is invasive in pastures and conservation areas across Florida. Dense patches of tropical soda apple not only reduce cattle stocking rates and limit their movement, but also serve as reservoirs for pests of solan...

  20. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  2. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of orange juice soluble solids in degrees Brix; for example, a 62° Brix concentrate in 1-gallon cans may be named on the label “canned concentrated orange juice, 62° Brix”. If the food does not...

  3. Structural adaptation of Salsola soda L. (Chenopodiaceae from inland and maritime saline area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic analysis of leaf and stem in two populations of Salsola soda was carried out in order to examine mechanism of anatomical adaptations to environmental condition on saline habitats and to determine if there exists a morpho-anatomical differentiation between populations from maritime and inland saline area. Analysis included 26 quantitative characters of leaf and stem. The results showed that both populations exhibited halomorphic and xeromorphic adaptations, which refered to ecological plasticity and adaptations of plants to their habitats. Our research also showed that S. soda had quite a stable morphoanatomical structure, since only quantitative changes were recorded. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  4. Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2011-07-01

    In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local policy efforts to improve the retail food environment may be effective in improving adolescents' dietary behaviors.

  5. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange...

  6. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice obtained...

  7. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and label...

  8. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by Röh

  9. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by Röh

  10. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  11. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by

  12. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers.

  13. Photostability of natural orange-red and yellow fungal pigments in liquid food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapari, Sameer A S; Meyer, Anne S; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-07-22

    The variation in the photostability among the currently authorized natural pigments limits their application span to a certain type of food system, and more robust alternatives are being sought after to overcome this problem. In the present study, the photostability of an orange-red and a yellow fungal pigment extract produced by ascomycetous fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium and Epicoccum , respectively, were studied in a soft drink model medium and in citrate buffer at low and neutral pH. The quantitative and qualitative color change pattern of the fungal pigment extracts indicated an enhanced photostability of fungal pigment extracts compared to the commercially available natural colorants Monascus Red and turmeric used as controls. Yellow components of the orange-red fungal pigment extract were more photostable than the red components. Chemistry of the photodegradation of the orange-red pigment extract was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), and a light-induced formation of a structural analogue of sequoiamonascin C, a Monascus -like polyketide pigment discovered in the extract of Penicillium aculeatum IBT 14263 on yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium, was confirmed in the soft drink medium at pH 7.

  14. Biological treatment of sulfidic spent caustics under haloalkaline conditions using soda lake bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of a newbiotechnological process for the treatment of undiluted sulfidic spent caustics (SSC’s) using soda lake bacteria is described. SSC’s are waste solutions that are formed in the oil and gas industry due to the caustic (NaOH) scrubbing of hydrocarbon

  15. Tropical soda apple mosaic virus Identified in Solanum capsicoides in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red soda apple (Solanum capsicoides All.), a member of the Solanaceae, is a weed originally from Brazil. It is a perennial in southern Florida and is characterized by abundant prickles on stems, petioles and leaves. Prickles on stems are more dense than on its larger noxious weed relative, tropica...

  16. Imploding Soda Cans: From Demonstration to Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Jack F.

    2009-01-01

    A guided-inquiry exercise conducted in both the lecture and laboratory components of a college introductory chemistry course for non-science majors is described. The exercise gave students the opportunity to independently determine the relationship between the temperature of water in an aluminum soda can and the intensity of implosion upon placing…

  17. The Soda Can Optimization Problem: Getting Close to the Real Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul; Sprecher, Bryce; Yang, Lai; Dodge, Noah-Helen

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the dimensions of a soda can is a classic problem that is frequently posed to freshman calculus students. However, if we only minimize the surface area subject to a fixed volume, the result is a can with a square edge-on profile, and this differs significantly from actual cans. By considering a more realistic model for the can that…

  18. First Report of Macrophomina phaseolina Causing Leaf and Stem Blight of Tropical Soda Apple in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2006 progressive leaf necrosis was observed in tropical soda apple (SOLVI ) plants in Fort Pierce, FL. Leaves of the five month old plants presented progressive necrosis, then dried out and dropped. Necrosis progressed quickly from petioles through the stems and caused entire stems to di...

  19. Biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida: Post-release evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released as a biological control agent against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) in Sumter County, FL in 2006. Evaluation of beetle feeding damage to TSA plants and changes in the beetle po...

  20. Lewis acid-catalyzed depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol/water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin model compounds and soda lignin by super Lewis acidic metal triflates has been investigated in a mixture of ethanol and water at 400 °C. The strong Lewis acids convert representative model compounds for the structure-forming linkages in lignin, namely α-O-4, 5-O-4

  1. Transition metal catalyzed oxidation of Alcell lignin, soda lignin, and lignin model compounds in ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326160256; Jongerius, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325840202; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a component of lignocellulosic biomass from which important aromatic compounds can potentially be obtained. In the present work, Alcell and soda lignin were dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate (EMIM DEP) and subsequently oxidized using several transit

  2. Utilization of arylaliphatic nitriles by haloalkaliphilic Halomonas nitrilicus sp. nov. isolated from soda soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmura, A.; Shapovalova, A.A.; Van Pelt, S.; Van Rantwijk, F.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2008-01-01

    An enrichment culture from saline soda soils, using acetate as carbon and energy source and 2- phenylpropionitrile as nitrogen source (PPN) at pH 10, resulted in the isolation of strain ANL-αCH3. The strain was identified as a representative of the genus Halomonas in the Gammaproteobacteria. The

  3. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  4. Transition metal catalyzed oxidation of Alcell lignin, soda lignin, and lignin model compounds in ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326160256; Jongerius, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325840202; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a component of lignocellulosic biomass from which important aromatic compounds can potentially be obtained. In the present work, Alcell and soda lignin were dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate (EMIM DEP) and subsequently oxidized using several

  5. Diversity of RuBisCO and ATP citrate lyase genes in soda lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovaleva, O.L.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Kolganova, T.V.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sediments from six soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) and from hypersaline alkaline lakes of Wadi Natrun (Egypt) were analyzed for the presence of cbb and aclB genes encoding key enzymes Ci assimilation (RuBisCO in Calvin-Benson and ATP citrate lyase in rTCA cycles, respectively). The

  6. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional

  7. Application of Acid Whey in Orange Drink Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jaworska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare qualitative changes in orange and orange beverages containing whey during 12 months of storage. The beverages contained 12 % extract, half of which was orange concentrate, the rest was sugar or sugar and whey extract. Acid whey was used in the production of beverages, added at a rate of 50 % of the used water. Orange beverages with whey contained more protein, ash, glucose, lactose and vitamin B2 than the orange beverages, but less sucrose, fructose and vitamin C, and also showed lower antioxidant activity against the DPPH radical. No significant differences between the two types of beverages were found in the polyphenolic content or activity against the ABTS cation radical. The type of beverage had a significant effect on the colour parameter values under the CIELAB system, although no significant differences were found between the beverages in the sensory evaluation of colour desirability. The overall sensory evaluation of orange beverages with whey was 2–10 % lower than of other orange beverages. The intensity of orange, sweet and refreshing taste was greater in orange beverages, while that of sour and whey taste was greater in orange beverages containing whey. There were significant decreases in sucrose, lactose, all indicators of antioxidant activity and sensory quality during storage. Levels of glucose and fructose rose with the storage period, while the intensity of sour, orange and refreshing taste decreased.

  8. Spatial distribution of soda straws growth rates of the Coufin Cave (Vercors, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrette Yves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Choranche Cave system (Vercors, France is an excellent locality for measuring the growth rates of large numbers soda straws. This is especially the case for the Coufin Cave, as enlargement of the cave entrance in 1875 led to a change in stalactite color from brown to white, thus providing a reliable chronomarker. The date of this brown-to-white calcite transition has been confirmed by lamina counting. We measured and georeferenced the growth-lengths of 306 soda straws in a 1m2 area of the roof of the Coufin Cave entrance chamber. Because of the very slow and sometimes inexistent water feeding of those stalactites, hydrochemistry analysis were not achieved and drop rate effect on growth were neglected; this study is based on a geomorphological and geostatistical work. By measuring a large number of soda straws in a very small area for which most of the parameters affecting stalactite growth could be considered uniform, and because flow rates are very slow (frequencies are always superior to 1 drop per half hour, we could ascribe differences in growth rates to variations in the global increase of water flow through the unsaturated matrix. Statistical and geostatistical analyses of the measurements showed that this set of similarly shaped stalactites actually consisted of three Gaussian populations with different mean growth rates: fast growth rate (FGR- mean of 0.92 mm.y-1, medium growth rate (MGR- mean of 0.47 mm.y-1 and low growth rate (LGR- 0.09 mm.y-1. Plotting the lengths and spatial distribution of the 20 longest FGR soda straws revealed that there is a rough pattern to the water flow through the cave roof. Even if no direction is statisticaly different from others, the observed directional pattern is consistent with local and regional tectonic observations. Plots of the spatial distribution of the soda straws show that FGR soda straws follow lines of regional geological stress, whereas MGR and LGR soda straws are more dispersed.

  9. Orange County Photovoltaic Project & Educational COmponent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Government, FL (United States)

    2016-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the projects implemented, utilizing Department of Energy grant funds, to support the use and understanding of renewable energy in Orange County, Florida and the Greater Orlando Area. Orange County is located in the State of Florida and is most popularly referred to as Orlando. The greater Orlando area’s current population is 1,225,267 and in 2015 was the first destination to surpass 60 million visitors. Orange County utilized grant funds to add to the growing demand for access to charging stations by installing one level 2 dual NovaCharge CT4021 electric vehicle charging station at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. The charging station is considered a “smart” charger connected to a central network operated by a third party. Data collected includes the number of charging sessions, session start and end times, the electricity usage, greenhouse gases saved and other pertinent data used for reporting purposes. Orange County continues to support the use of electric vehicles in Metro Orlando and this project continues to bring awareness to our public regarding using alternative vehicles. Additionally, we offer all visitors to the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center free charges for their electric vehicles 24 hours a day. Since the operation of the charging station there have been 52 unique driver users, a total of 532.2258 kg of greenhouse gas savings and 159.03 gallons of gasoline savings. The installation of the additional electric vehicle charging station is part of a county-wide goal of promoting implementation of renewable energy technologies as well as supporting the use of electric vehicles including the Drive Electric Orlando & Florida programs. http://driveelectricorlando.com/ & ; http://www.driveelectricflorida.org/ . Grant funds were also used for Outreach and Educational efforts. Educational efforts about renewable energy were accomplished through

  10. Carbon monoxide production from degradation of desflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane by soda lime and Baralyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z X; Eger, E I; Laster, M J; Chortkoff, B S; Kandel, L; Ionescu, P

    1995-06-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that soda lime and Baralyme brand absorbent can degrade inhaled anesthetics to carbon monoxide (CO). We examined the factors that govern CO production and found that these include: 1) The anesthetic used: for a given minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC)-multiple, the magnitude of CO production (greatest to least) is desflurane > or = enflurane > isoflurane > halothane = sevoflurane. 2) The absorbent dryness: completely dry soda lime produces much more CO than absorbent with just 1.4% water content, and soda lime containing 4.8% or more water (standard soda lime contains 15% water) generates no CO. In contrast, both completely dry Baralyme and Baralyme with 1.6% water produce high concentrations of CO, and Baralyme containing 4.7% water produces concentrations equaling those produced by soda lime containing 1.4% water. Baralyme containing 9.7% or more water and standard Baralyme (13% water) do not generate CO.3) The type of absorbent: at a given water content, Baralyme produces more CO than does soda lime. 4) The temperature: an increased temperature increases CO production. 5) The anesthetic concentration: more CO is produced from higher anesthetic concentrations. These results suggest that CO generation can be avoided for all anesthetics by using soda lime with 4.8% (or more) water or Baralyme with 9.7% (or more) water, and by using inflow rates of less than 2-3 L/min. Such inflow rates are low enough to ensure that the absorbent does not dry out.

  11. Hydrogenolysis and Activation of Soda Lignin Using [BMIM]Cl as a Catalyst and Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To improve the reactivity of the soda lignin, an acid ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-mthylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl was used as the catalyst and solvent to degrade the soda lignin through hydrogenolysis. Structural elucidation of the lignin samples was conducted by using a combination of analytical methods including chemical analysis, ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra, two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-HSQC NMR techniques, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The antioxidant activities of the lignin samples were evaluated using the diammonium 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS+ radical scavenging and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging methods. The degradation mechanism was proposed based on the characterization results. The optimal reaction condition was as follows: the concentration of [BMIM]Cl in the solution was 10 wt %, the hydrogen initial pressure was 3 MPa, and the solution was heated for 4 h at 90 °C. After the reaction, the total hydroxyl content of the soda lignin increased by 81.3%, while the phenolic hydroxyl content increased by 23.1%. At the same time, the weight-average molar mass of the soda lignin sample decreased from 8220 to 6450 g/mol with an improved antioxidant activity. In addition, approximately 56.7% of the β-O-4 linkages were degraded in the lreaction. The main effect of the acid ionic liquid [BMIM]C1 was related to the cleavage of β-O-4 linkages. This study has shown the potential of using the catalyzed soda lignin as a natural polymer antioxidant.

  12. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Y Sorokin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. Oxidative part of the cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. They are present at high number of up to 106 viable cells/cm3 and represented by four genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira and Thioalkalibacter. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. The dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na+ - a unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotrophs. Some of the species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and 3 species out of 9 can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides. The reductive part of the cycle is also active in anoxic sediments of various soda lakes. In situ and laboratory experiments showed high sulfate reduction rates only hampered at salt-saturated conditions. The highest rates of sulfidogenesis were observed with elemental sulfur followed by thiosulfate. Formate was the most efficient electron donor with all three sulfur electron acceptors, while acetate was only utilized as an electron donor at sulfur-reducing conditions. The soda lake sulfidogenesis showed obligately alkaliphilic pH response matching the in situ conditions. Microbiological analysis showed a domination of three groups of haloalkaliphilic autotrophic SRB belonging to the order Desulfovibrionales with a clear tendency to grow by thiosulfate disproportionation even at salt-saturating conditions. Few novel representatives of the order Desulfobacterales capable of heterotrophic growth with VFA and alcohols at high pH and moderate salinity have also been found, while acetate oxidation was a function of a specialized group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-reducing bacteria belonging to the phylum Chrysiogenetes.

  13. Molecular identification of Nocardia species using the sodA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sánchez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sodA gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sodA gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia. We used 41 type species of various collections; a 386 bp fragment of the sodA gene was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the genes rrs (1171 bp, hsp65 (401 bp, secA1 (494 bp, gyrB (1195 bp and rpoB (401 bp. The sequences were aligned using the Clustal X program. Evolutionary trees according to the neighbour-joining method were created with the programs Phylo_win and MEGA 6. The specific variability of the sodA genus of the genus Nocardia was analysed. A high phylogenetic resolution, significant genetic variability, and specificity and reliability were observed for the differentiation of the isolates at the species level. The polymorphism observed in the sodA gene sequence contains variable regions that allow the discrimination of closely related Nocardia species. The clear specificity, despite its small size, proves to be of great advantage for use in taxonomic studies and clinical diagnosis of the genus Nocardia.

  14. Cross-sectional association between soda consumption and body mass index in a community-based sample of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eney, Anna E; Tsang, Siny; Delaney, Joseph A; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2017-08-22

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, such as soda, have been shown to play an important role in weight gain. Although soda consumption has been associated with body mass index (BMI) in many studies, it has been difficult to ascertain a true causal relationship between soda consumption and BMI for two reasons. First, findings have been based largely on observational and cross-sectional studies, with much less evidence from randomized controlled trials. Second, the reported relationships may be confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors that affect both soda consumption and BMI. In the present study, we used the twin design to better understand the relationship between soda consumption and BMI by accounting for measured and unmeasured confounds in non-experimental data. Associations from genetically informed tests in twins are considered "quasi-causal," suggesting that our confidence in the causal underpinning of the association between soda consumption and BMI has been strengthened. We hypothesized that the association between soda consumption and BMI would be significant both between and within twins. This was a cross sectional study of 5787 same sex adult twin pairs (18-97 years, 66% female) from the community based Washington State Twin Registry. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to investigate associations between soda consumption and BMI in the population (the phenotypic association between exposure and outcome among all twins treated as individuals) and within pairs of identical and fraternal twins (the quasi-causal association controlling for between pair genetic and environmental confounds). Among all twins, there was a significant phenotypic association between soda consumption and BMI that held when controlling for age, sex, race, annual household income, and education level (P consumption on BMI was greatly reduced and no longer significant, with a large genetic confound in both men and women (P consumption was associated

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ORANGE SEED DRYING KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  16. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, L.M.; Neely, E.E.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-04-30

    The Orange Cliffs area, an area rich in oil sands deposits and defined here as part of the Colorado Plateau floristic province, harbors approximately 209 species in 123 genera and 49 families. Because of the potential of exploitation of the oil sands deposits in the area, a species checklist was made and a discussion of physical and floristic aspects of the region is given here. The flora is compared statistically to the San Rafael Swell flora, which is also a subset of the Colorado Plateau. They define six vegetation types and three edaphic communities; these are described and mapped. Of eleven endemic plant species in the Orange Cliffs, three are local and rare. Sites for Astragalus nidularius, A. moencoppensis, and Xylorhiza glabriuscula var. linearifolia are discussed and mapped. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  18. Postharvest response of oranges of ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharoni, Y.; Lattar, F.S.; Monselise, S.P.

    1969-01-01

    Since the effect of ethylene on the respiration rate of young unripe oranges has not yet been described, experiments were carried out to study the respiratory response of such fruits to ethylene. Oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) of the Washington navel, Shamouti and Valencia varieties, growing on a sandy loam near Rehovot, Israel, were picked in June, July, September, December and January. Immediately after picking, they were weighed, placed in glass jars, and stored at 20/sup 0/. Each experiment comprised 12 jars, 4 for each variety. A constant stream (200 ml/min) of air containing 20 ppm of ethylene was run through the jars. The respiration rate was measured by the amount of CO/sub 2/ evolved by the fruits, and based on a fresh weight unit. The results show that in all 3 varieties, ethylene caused an immediate rise in respiration rate, at all stages of development tested, regardless of whether it was applied from the beginning of the test or after a certain period of storage in air. The pattern of response to ethylene of young unripe oranges (picked in June, July, and September) was therefore similar to that of ripe ones (picked in December and January).

  19. Unusual Orange-Colored Choroidal Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Krema

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical and paraclinical features of two patients with orangecolored choroidal metastases in whom the primary cancers have not previously been associated with such lesions. Case Report: Orange-colored choroidal lesions were detected on the fundus examination of one patient with metastatic small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the larynx and oropharynx, and in another subject with metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma of the leg. Although ultrasonographic characteristics of the choroidal masses were comparable to those of choroidal hemangiomas, fluorescein angiography revealed delayed initial fluorescence along with minimal fluorescence in subsequent phases of the angiogram which were in clear distinction from the earlier appearing and progressively intense fluorescence observed with circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas. Conclusion: Small cell neuroendocrine tumors and alveolar soft part sarcomas should be considered among the differential diagnoses for orange-colored choroidal metastases. Identifying these choroidal lesions could facilitate localizing the occult primary tumor. Fluorescein angiography may differentiate a unifocal orange choroidal metastasis from a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.

  20. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional microbial system. The microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. One of the explanations for that is high-energy efficiency of dissimilatory conversions of inorganic sulfur compounds, both oxidative and reductive, sufficient to cope with costly life at double extreme conditions. The oxidative part of the sulfur cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which are unique for soda lakes. The haloalkaliphilic SOB are present in the surface sediment layer of various soda lakes at high numbers of up to 10(6) viable cells/cm(3). The culturable forms are so far represented by four novel genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira, and Thioalkalibacter. The latter two were only found occasionally and each includes a single species, while the former two are widely distributed in various soda lakes over the world. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers the whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. Most importantly, the dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na(+) - a so far unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotroph. Furthermore, some species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and three out of nine species can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides as electron acceptor. The reductive part of the sulfur cycle is active in the anoxic layers of the sediments of soda lakes. The in situ measurements of sulfate reduction rates and laboratory experiments with sediment slurries using sulfate, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur as

  1. 试述小苏打系统加液碱生产工艺%Discussion on Manufacturing Technique of Adding Liquid Caustic Soda in Baking Soda System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林戌梅

    2016-01-01

    将离子膜液碱加入小苏打生产系统进行探索试验,通过不断优化生产条件,对离子膜液碱加入小苏打系统技术进行研究,得出其生产工艺的可行性。%It has been experimented that adds ionic membrane liquid caustic soda in the production system of baking soda. With the increasing improvement of production conditions, the technique of adding ionic membrane liquid caustic soda in baking soda system has been researched. Finally, the feasibility of this technique can be obtained.

  2. Investigation of migratory bird mortality associated with exposure to Soda Ash Mine tailings water in southwestern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Soda ash is a pulverized mineral, commonly referred to as “trona”, and harvested from underground deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Four companies own 5 mining...

  3. An Analysis of the Nonlinear Spectral Mixing of Didymium and Soda-Lime Glass Beads Using Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    lime glass beads using hyperspectral imagery (HSI) microscopy Ronald G. Resmini1*, Robert S. Rand2, David W. Allen3, and Christopher J. Deloye1...materials are spherical beads of didymium glass and soda- lime glass both ranging in particle size from 63 µm to 125 µm. Mixtures are generated by...plate: 0%/100%, 25%/75%, 50%/50%, 80%/20%, and 100%/0% didymium/soda- lime . Analysis methods are linear spectral unmixing (LSU), LSU applied to

  4. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarita Zainuddin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet neural networks (WNNs were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%, ethanol concentration (15-75%, cooking temperature (150-190 ºC, and time (60-180 min on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index. Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependent variables with error less than 6% were reproduced, while satisfactory R-squared values were obtained. It thus corroborated the good fit of the WNNs model for simulating the soda-ethanol pulping process for oil palm fronds.

  5. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  6. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  7. Laser Micro-Hole Drilling of Soda-Lime Glass with Femtosecond Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Ran; LI Yan; DOU Yan-Ping; FANG Ying; YANG Hong; GONG Qi-Huang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses, we have drilled micro-holes from the front and rear surface of soda-lime glass in ambient air. The machined holes have small aspect ratio or irregular inner walls. When the drilling is conducted from the rear surface in contact with distilled water, a good quality micro-hole with a high aspect ratio can be obtained. The corresponding formation mechanisms are investigated.

  8. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibille, Nadine

    2011-04-19

    The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey) that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  9. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schibille

    Full Text Available The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  10. NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy; Hossein Resalati Mail; pejman Rezayati Charani Mail

    2011-01-01

    Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were st...

  11. Factors affecting production of compound A from the interaction of sevoflurane with Baralyme and soda lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z X; Kandel, L; Laster, M J; Ionescu, P; Eger, E I

    1996-04-01

    Various alkali (e.g., soda lime) convert sevoflurane to CF2=C(CF3)OCH2F, a vinyl ether called "Compound A, " whose toxicity raises concerns regarding the safe administration of sevoflurane via rebreathing circuits. In the present investigation, we measured the sevoflurane degradation and output of Compound A caused by standard (13% water) Baralyme brand absorbent and standard (15% water) soda lime, and Baralyme and soda lime having various water contents (including no water). We used a flow-through system, applying a gas flow rate relative to absorbent volume that roughly equaled the rate/volume found in clinical practice. Both absorbents, at similar water contents, temperatures, and sevoflurane concentrations, produced roughly equal concentrations of Compound A. Dry and nearly dry absorbents produced less Compound A early in exposure to sevoflurane, and more later, than standard absorbents. Increases in temperature and sevoflurane concentration increased output of Compound A. Both absorbents, especially when dry, also destroyed Compound A, the concentration exiting from absorbent resulting from a complex sum of production and destruction. We conclude that the variability of concentrations of Compound A found in clinical practice may be largely explained by the inflow rate used (i.e., by rebreathing), sevoflurane concentration, and absorbent temperature and dryness. The effect of dryness is complex, with fresh dry absorbent destroying Compound A as it is made, and with dry absorbent that has been exposed to sevoflurane for a period of time providing a sometimes unusually high output of Compound A.

  12. Extraordinary focusing of sound above a soda can array without time reversal

    CERN Document Server

    Maznev, A A; Sun, Shu-yuan; Xu, Jun; Shen, Yong; Fang, Nicholas; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Lemoult et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 064301 (2011)] used time reversal to focus sound above an array of soda cans into a spot much smaller than the acoustic wavelength in air. In this study, we show that equally sharp focusing can be achieved without time reversal, by arranging transducers around a nearly circular array of soda cans. The size of the focal spot at the center of the array is made progressively smaller as the frequency approaches the Helmholtz resonance frequency of a can from below, and, near the resonance, becomes smaller than the size of a single can. We show that the locally resonant metamaterial formed by soda cans supports a guided wave at frequencies below the Helmholtz resonance frequency. The small focal spot results from a small wavelength of this guided wave near the resonance in combination with a near field effect making the acoustic field concentrate at the opening of a can. The focusing is achieved with propagating rather than evanescent waves. No sub-diffraction-limite...

  13. MODELING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF SODA PULP FROM OIL-PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ferrer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the variables soda (0.5-3.0%, hydrogen peroxide (1.0-6.0% and time (1-5 h in the bleaching of soda pulp of empty fruit bunches (EFB from oil-palm, on the properties of bleached pulps, was studied. Polynomial and neural fuzzy models reproduced the results of brightness, kappa number, and viscosity of the pulps with errors less than 10%. By the simulation of the bleaching of pulp, using the polynomial and neural fuzzy models, it was possible to find optimal values of operating variables, so that the properties of bleached pulps differed only slightly from their best values and yet it was possible to save chemical reagents, energy, and plant size, operating with lower values of operating variables. Thus, operating with 1.13% soda concentration and 2.25% hydrogen peroxide concentration for 3 hours, a pulp with a brightness of 75.1% (8.1% below the maximum and a viscosity of 740 mL/g (10.4% less than the maximum value, was obtained.

  14. Responses of phytoplankton to experimental fertilization with ammonium and phosphate in an African soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, John M; Kilham, Peter; Fisher, Thomas R

    1982-01-01

    Phytoplankton abundance in tropical lakes is more often judged to be limited by nitrogen than phosphorus, but seldom does the evidence include controlled enrichments of natural populations. In January 1980 we performed the first experimental fertilization in an equatorial African soda lake, Lake Sonachi, a small, meromictic volcanic crater lake in Kenya. During our study the natural phytoplankton abundance was ca. 80 μg chl a/l, and the euphotic zone PO4 and NH4 concentrations were less than 0.5 μM. In the monimolimnion PO4 reached 180 μM and NH4 reached 4,600 μM. Replicate polyethylene cylinders (5 m long, 1.2 m(3)) were enriched to attain 10 μM PO4 and 100 μM NH4. Phytoplankton responses were measured as chlorophyll, cell counts and particulate N, P and C. After two days, the chlorophyll increase in the P treatment was significantly higher than the control (PLake Sonachi sample was 21 and in samples from Lakes Bogoria and Elmenteita, two shallow soda lakes in Kenya, the ratios were 12 and 70 respectively. We conclude that limitation of phytoplankton abundance by phosphorus can occur even in some tropical African soda lakes.

  15. Kinetics of dissolution of a biocide soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L., E-mail: lesteban@icmm.csic.es [Materials Science Institute of Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Department of Biomaterials and Bioinspired Materials (Spain); Silva, A. C. da; Mello-Castanho, S. R. [Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) (Brazil); Pacharroman, C.; Moya, J. S. [Materials Science Institute of Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Department of Biomaterials and Bioinspired Materials (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    In the present study we have studied the lixiviation kinetics of silver nanoparticles, as well as the solubility of a particulate system (<30 {mu}m) composed of a glassy matrix of soda-lime glass containing 20 wt% of silver nanoparticles, under a constant flow (0.21 l/day) of deionizated water at room temperature. The kinetic of silver, CaO and SiO{sub 2} lixiviation followed a Jander model ({alpha}{sup 2}/4 Almost-Equal-To Kt). It has been proven that nanostructured soda-lime glass/nAg composed by particles <30 {mu}m with a 20 wt% of silver are a strong biocide versus Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. This soda-lime glass/nAg acts as a perfect dispenser of silver nanoparticles to the liquid media, avoiding the fast increasing of its concentration over the toxicity limit for human cells and for the environment.

  16. Wear Behaviour of Nanostructured Polymer-Based Safety Films on Soda-Lime Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Panagopoulos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The wear behaviour of bare and polymer-coated soda-lime glass specimens sliding against 440C stainless steel counterfaces was investigated with the aid of a pin-on-disk apparatus. The selected polymeric coatings were commercially supplied safety films, which are nowadays extensively applied on glass in the automotive and construction industry. One of their main failures is the degradation of their properties due to wear. In this work, the frictional behaviour of these coatings on glass were evaluated and compared to those of bare soda-lime glass. Correlations have been also made between the worn surfaces and weight loss in order to investigate the effect of wear conditions (speed, load on the wear behaviour of these tribosystems. In addition, during the dry wear of soda-lime glass sliding against stainless steel counterfaces, the dominant wear mechanisms were found to be localized adhesion and abrasion, whereas, in the case of the multilayered polymeric coatings localized adhesion, deformation and tearing were observed.

  17. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N., E-mail: cenastaein@usm.my; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  18. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Smith, Trever C; Small, Christina M; Thomas, Derek P; Seshu, J

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat). HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348) exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560), and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15) were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC), Decorin binding protein A (DbpA), fibronectin binding protein (BBK32), RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of the sodA

  19. PROGRAM PENGHITUNG JUMLAH ORANG LEWAT MENGGUNAKAN WEBCAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudianto Lande

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of public places's visitor data is very important. Usually we get it manually. AT the moment, video camera has been used for security. Therefor, the people counter software has been made using Normalized Sum-squared difference (NSSD method that take differences the sum of frame fixel and background, squared it then normalized by detection window area. The NSSD values that have been count then thresholded to detect the people occurance in detection window. This project is made using Borland Delphi 5.0 with Tvideo component. Corect people counting percentation of more than 90% was obtained. The succesness of this program depends on the right thresholding values. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Data jumlah pengunjung suatu tempat umum sangat penting. Data jumlah pengunjung biasanya didapat secara manual. Saat ini kamera video telah diterapkan untuk kepentingan keamanan. Karena itu dibuatlah program penghitung jumlah pengunjung dengan metode Normalized Sum-Squared Differences (NSSD yang mengambil selisih jumlah pixel frame dan background dan dikuadratkan, dinormalisasi dengan luasan detection window. Nilai NSSD yang didapat diseleksi dengan proses thresholding untuk mendeteksi keberadaan orang pada detection window. Penelitian ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Borland Delphi 5.0, dengan tambahan komponen TVideo. Program ini secara keseluruhan menunjukkan keberhasilan lebih dari 90%. Keberhasilan dari program ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh penentuan nilai threshold yang tepat. Kata kunci: penghitungan orang, sensor kamera, NSSD, Image processing.

  20. All-atom Molecular-level Computational Simulations of Planar Longitudinal Shockwave Interactions with Polyurea, Soda-lime Glass and Polyurea/Glass Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    All-atom molecular-level computational simulations of planar longitudinal shockwave interactions with polyurea, soda- lime glass and polyurea/glass...of this paper is to study the mechanical response of polyurea, soda- lime glass (glass, for short), polyurea/glass/polyurea and glass/polyurea/glass...methods, the interaction of shockwaves with material boundaries. Keywords Polyurea, Material interface, Shockwaves, Soda- lime glass Paper type Research

  1. How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Taber

    Full Text Available Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors.Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1 estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2 determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors..Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11 and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05 if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76. However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors.Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

  2. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is “Orange juice with preservative”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be...

  3. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2011-01-01

    Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  4. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low m

  5. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  6. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low

  7. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX... temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict vessels from portions of the Sabine...

  8. Self-reported academic grades and other correlates of sugar-sweetened soda intake among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn; Blanck, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping 2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions.

  9. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  10. Advancing the Orang Asli through Malaysia's Clusters of Excellence Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asri Mohd Noor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since gaining independence in 1957, the government of Malaysia has introduced various programmes to improve the quality of life of the Orang Asli (aboriginal people. The Ministry of Education, for example, is committed in providing education for all including the children of Orang Asli. However, whilst the number of Orang Asli children enrolled in primary and secondary schools has increased significantly over the last decade, the dropout rate among them is still high. This has been attributed to factors such as culture, school location, poverty, pedagogy and many more. The discussion in this article is drawn upon findings from fieldwork study at an Orang Asli village in Johor, Malaysia. This article discusses efforts in raising educational attainment of the Orang Asli through the implementation of the Clusters of Excellence Policy. In so doing it highlights the achievement of the policy and issues surrounding its implementation at the site.

  11. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2012 Digital Orthophotos - Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This metadata describes the digital orthoimagery covering Orange County, FL. This orthoimagery was collected under contract to the Orange County Property Appraiser...

  12. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  13. Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Design was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2004. The setting was a representative United States population sample. Participants included adults 20 years and older with no history of diabetes mellitus (n = 12,601; after exclusions for missing outcome and covariate information (n = 3,243, the analysis dataset consisted of 9,358 subjects. Exposure was consumption of two or more sugary soft drinks, based on 24-hour dietary recall. The main outcome measure was Albuminuria, defined by albumin to creatinine ratio cutpoints of >17 mg/g (males and >25 mg/g (females. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders (diet soda, age, race-ethnicity, gender, poverty. Interactions between age, race-ethnicity, gender, and overweight-obesity were explored. Further analysis adjusted for potential mediators: energy intake, basal metabolic rate, obesity, hypertension, lipids, serum uric acid, smoking, energy expenditure, and glycohemoglobin. Alternative soda intake definitions and cola consumption were employed. RESULTS: Weighted albuminuria prevalence was 11%, and 17% consumed 2+ sugary soft drinks/day. The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for sugary soda was 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.74. Associations were modified by gender (p = 0.008 and overweight-obesity (p = 0.014. Among women, the OR was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.53; the OR among males was not significant. In the group with body mass under 25 kg/m(2, OR = 2.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.25. Adjustment for potential

  14. The Orang Suku Laut of Riau, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Cynthia Gek Hua

    Land reform has been an indisputable part of Indonesian revolution. The consequent execution of development programmes for nation-building have provoked intense hostility over territorial rights. Global market forces in Indonesia have seen increasing flows of transnational investments, technology...... and resources that have resulted in great demand on sea and land spaces. In this momentum of change, several aspects of rural culture including indigenous populations, like the Orang Suku Laut (people of the sea) of Riau have been deemed by the state architects of development programmes to hinder progress...... the social assimilation of indigenous peoples as citizens, religious conversion and cultural identity. Cynthia Chou discusses how Indonesian nation-building development programmes have generated intense struggles over issues pertaining to territorial rights, social assimilation of indigenous peoples...

  15. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8 mg/l of washing soda for 192 h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges.

  16. Effects of argon ion irradiation on nucleation and growth of silver nanoparticles in a soda-glass matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gangopadhyay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores an experimental study for nucleation and non-equilibrium growth of silver nanoparticles in a soda-glass matrix. Ion-irradiation induced recoiling of silver atoms with argon ions (at energy 100 keV facilitates nucleation as well as growth of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix. Small growth of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix has been experimentally observed after the irradiation with higher fluences of the argon ions. Role of the argon ions for the evolution of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix has been elucidated in the present report. With increase of the argon-ion fluences, while slight athermal growth of the silver nanoparticles has been estimated, drastic increase in the optical responses and Rutherford backscattering (RBS yields of the silver nanoparticles have been observed in the sample with the maximum fluences. Possible correlations of increase of argon-ion fluences and the observed experimental results (optical and RBS, in particular have been explained in this article. Although it has been demonstrated using the silver metal film on a soda-glass substrate as a model example, the non-equilibrium approach of nucleation and ion-beam controlled growth of metal nanoparticles in a matrix should be applicable to other immiscible systems as well.

  17. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  18. USING Mg(OH2 IN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF WHEAT STRAW SODA-AQ PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlan Liu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The peroxide bleaching of high yield pulps from wood with Mg(OH2 has been developing recently in the pulp and paper industry. However, there is still a lack of data on the application of Mg(OH2 in peroxide bleaching of non-wood fibres. In this work, our purpose was to study the effect of Mg(OH2 on peroxide bleaching of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp. The results showed that Mg(OH2 significantly improved peroxide bleaching efficiency (expressed as the ratio between the brightness gain and the H2O2 consumption and selectivity (expressed as the ratio between the brightness gain and the viscosity losses of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp. The brightness, viscosity, and yield of bleached pulp can be significantly enhanced by increasing the replacement ratio of Mg(OH2. However, at 100% replacement of NaOH with Mg(OH2, the brightness of bleached pulp was much lower than that of the bleached pulp with NaOH as the sole alkaline source. When 24 to 73% of the NaOH was replaced with Mg(OH2, the COD of the bleaching filtrate was 11 to 38% lower than that of the NaOH as the sole alkaline source. The lower solubility and alkalinity of Mg(OH2, as well as the reduction of Cu ion content in bleached pulp were proposed as accounting for the favorable effect of Mg(OH2 on peroxide bleaching of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp.

  19. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  20. Arsenic, Prokaryotes, and Closed Basin Soda Lakes of the Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    A number of saline, alkaline soda lakes in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert of the United States have unusually high concentrations of inorganic arsenic dissolved in their brine-waters. The arsenic originates from natural rather than anthropogenic sources, namely volcanic hydrothermal inputs. When this influx is coupled with evapo-concentration and the unique chemical behavior of arsenic oxyanions in alkaline waters, it results in extremely elevated As concentrations. For example, the salinity and arsenate levels of 3 comparable soda lakes (pH 9.8) are: Big Soda Lake, NV (27 g/L; 20 uM), Mono Lake, CA (90 g/L; 200 uM), and Searles Lake, CA (340 g/L; 3,900 uM). The arsenic oxidation state changes from As5+ (arsenate) to As3+ (arsenite) with vertical transition from their oxygenated surface water to their anoxic bottom water. Similar phenomena occur in their littoral sediments. These lakes also harbor active populations of prokaryotes that achieve these As redox changes either by using arsenate as an electron acceptor for respiration, or by employing arsenite as a chemoautotrophic electron donor. Diverse microorganisms have been identified in these systems that are involved in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic therein, and in situ studies made with radiotracer (73As) and other means showed that these redox reactions occur at rapid rates. However, other than their use for waterfowl hunting (Big Soda Lake), as a region of scenic beauty (Mono Lake), or as a resource for the chemical industry (Searles Lake), there is little concern about the arsenic in these systems because the waters are not potable and their chemistry is too extreme to allow for the presence of fish. Nonetheless, microbial processes that govern arsenic biogeochemistry can greatly influence the hydrologic mobility and toxicity of this element in freshwater systems, such as drinking water aquifers. Moreover, anthropogenic inputs of arsenic can also occur in closed basin lakes in this region, such as

  1. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash. A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate, complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate, regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution, processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate, and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate. The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  2. Low-loss single-mode integrated waveguides in soda-lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonov, I. V.; Kalinkin, A. A.; Saygin, M. Yu.; Abroskin, A. G.; Radchenko, I. V.; Straupe, S. S.; Kulik, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    Low-loss single-mode optical waveguide fabrication process in extra-white soda-lime glass is demonstrated. Waveguiding structures are formed in bulk substrates employing femtosecond laser writing technology. The combination of a slit beam shaping method and a multiscan fabrication process enables writing of waveguides with a well-defined symmetric cross-sectional profile. Fabricated waveguides exhibit 0.86 dB/cm propagation loss for 800-nm wavelength. Bending loss in the waveguides is addressed experimentally and compared with a model for radiation loss.

  3. The Effects of Salt Water on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth parameters of soda-lime silicate were measured in distilled and salt water of various concentrations in order to determine if stress corrosion susceptibility is affected by the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film. Past research indicates that solvents effect the rate of crack growth, however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the slow crack growth parameters A and n. However, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  4. Effects of Aqueous Solutions on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth (SCG) parameters of soda-lime-silicate were measured in distilled and saltwater of various concentrations in order to determine if the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film affects stress corrosion susceptibility. Past research indicates that solvents affect the rate of crack growth; however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the SCG parameters A and n at high concentrations; however, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  5. Low-loss single-mode integrated waveguides in soda-lime glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinkin, Alexander; Abroskin, Andrey; Radchenko, Igor; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Low-loss single-mode optical waveguide fabrication process in extra-white soda-lime glass is demonstrated. Waveguiding structures are formed in bulk substrates employing femtosecond laser writing technology. The combination of a slit beam-shaping method and a multiscan fabrication process enables printing of waveguides with a well-defined symmetric cross-section profile. Fabricated waveguides exhibit 0.86 dB/cm propagation loss for 800~nm wavelength. Bending loss in the waveguides are addressed experimentally and compared with a model for radiation loss.

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L; Pecharroman, C; Moya, J S [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Malpartida, F [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Esteban-Cubillo, A, E-mail: jsmoya@icmm.csic.es [Tolsa S A R and D Department, Camino de Vallecas-Mejorada del Campo Km 1.6, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-16

    A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d{sub 50}{approx}30 {+-} 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca{sup 2+} lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies.

  7. An undergraduate experiment demonstrating the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, James T.; Whitehouse, Christopher B.; Oulton, Rupert F.; Gennaro, Sylvain D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel undergraduate research project that highlights the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans. We confirm the Helmholtz resonance nature of a single can by measuring its amplitude and phase response to a sound wave. Arranging multiple cans in arrays smaller than the wavelength, we then design an antenna that redirects sound into a preferred direction. The antenna can be thought of as a new resonator, composed of artificially engineered meta-atoms, similar to a metamaterial. These experiments are illustrative, tactile, and open ended so as to enable students to explore the physics of matter/wave interaction.

  8. Characterization of Hardwood Soda-AQ Lignins Precipitated from Black Liquor through Selective Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Hemanathan; Alén, Raimo; Sahoo, Gokarneswar

    2016-01-01

    In the development of integrated biorefinery process alternatives to produce value-added by-products, various black liquors from sulfur-free pulping processes offer potential feedstocks for recovering their main chemical constituents, lignin and aliphatic carboxylic acids. In this study, lignin fractions were obtained from silver birch (Betula pendula) soda-anthraquinone black liquor by carbonation (pH to about 8.5) or by acidification (pH to about 2) with H2SO4 after carbonation or directly....

  9. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of plants spontaneously colonizing the soda heap in Jaworzno (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Gucwa-Przepióra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the mycorrhizal status of plant species spontaneously established on the soda heap located in Jaworzno (Upper Silesia, Poland are presented. Additionally, the species of arbuscular fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota extracted from field-collected rhizosphere substrate samples of the heap are showed. Arbuscular mycorrhizae were described in 17 plant species. Five Glomus spp. were recognized in the spore populations of arbuscular fungi isolated. The investigation presented in this paper for the first time revealed Centaurea stoebe and Trifolium montanum to be hosts of arbuscular fungi.

  11. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium BaeSR two-component system positively regulates sodA in response to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, P; Collao, B; Álvarez, R; Salinas, H; Morales, E H; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P; Gil, F

    2013-10-01

    In response to antibiotics, bacteria activate regulatory systems that control the expression of genes that participate in detoxifying these compounds, like multidrug efflux systems. We previously demonstrated that the BaeSR two-component system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) participates in the detection of ciprofloxacin, a bactericidal antibiotic, and in the positive regulation of mdtA, an efflux pump implicated in antibiotic resistance. In the present work, we provide further evidence for a role of the S. Typhimurium BaeSR two-component system in response to ciprofloxacin treatment and show that it regulates sodA expression. We demonstrate that, in the absence of BaeSR, the transcript levels of sodA and the activity of its gene product are lower. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusions, we demonstrate that BaeR regulates sodA by a direct interaction with the promoter region.

  12. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States); Cunniff, Lori [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  13. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States); Cunniff, Lori [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  14. Shift in aggregation, ROS generation, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activities in the cells of an Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-09-01

    Washing soda, chemically identified as anhydrous sodium carbonate, is a popular cleaning agent among the rural and urban populations of India which often contaminates the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of sponge Eunapius carteri. Present investigation deals with estimation of cellular aggregation, generation of ROS and activities of antioxidant enzymes, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Prolonged treatment of washing soda inhibited the degree of cellular aggregation. Experimental exposure of 8 and 16mg/l of sodium carbonate for 48h elevated the physiological level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the agranulocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, whereas, treatment of 192h inhibited the ROS generation in three cellular morphotypes. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded to be inhibited under prolonged exposure of washing soda. Washing soda mediated inhibition of ROS generation and depletion in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were indicative to an undesirable shift in cytotoxic status and antioxidative defense in E. carteri. Inhibition in the activity of lysozyme under the treatment of sodium carbonate was suggestive to a severe impairment of the innate immunological efficiency of E. carteri distributed in the washing soda contaminated habitat. Washing soda mediated inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase indicated its neurotoxicity in E. carteri. Washing soda, a reported environmental contaminant, affected adversely the immunophysiological status of E. carteri with reference to cellular aggregation, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activity.

  15. Anaerobic utilization of pectinous substrates at extremely haloalkaline conditions by Natranaerovirga pectinivora gen. nov., sp. nov., and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica sp. nov., isolated from hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Panteleeva, A.N.; Kaparullina, E.N.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichments at pH 10, with pectin and polygalacturonates as substrates and inoculated with samples of sediments of hypersaline soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) demonstrated the potential for microbial pectin degradation up to soda-saturating conditions. The enrichments

  16. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-07-27

    Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students' in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Student data on consumption of various SSBs and in-school access to vending machines that sold SSBs were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS), conducted in 2010. Student data were linked to state laws regarding the sale of soda in school in 2010. Students were cross-classified based on their access to vending machines and whether their state banned soda in school, creating 4 comparison groups. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to compare these 4 groups with respect to students’ self-reported consumption of diet soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, or other SSBs. Students who had access to vending machines in a state that did not ban soda were the reference group. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, sex, grade, home food access, state median income, and U.S. Census region. Students consumed more servings of sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, and other SSBs if they resided in a state that banned soda in school but attended a school with vending machines that sold other SSBs. Similar results were observed where schools did not have vending machines but the state allowed soda to be sold in school. Intake was generally not elevated where both states and schools limited SSB availability – i.e., states banned soda and schools did not have SSB vending machines. State laws that ban soda but allow other SSBs may lead students to substitute other non-soda SSBs. Additional longitudinal research is needed to confirm this

  17. Instantaneous network RTK in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Orange County Real Time GPS Network (OCRTN) is an upgrade of a sub-network of SCIGN sites in southern California to low latency (1-2 sec), high-rate (1 Hz) data streaming, analysis, and dissemination. The project is a collaborative effort of the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) and the Orange County Public Resource and Facilities Division, with partners from the geophysical community, local and state government, and the private sector. Currently, ten sites are streaming 1 Hz raw data (Ashtech binary MBEN format) by means of dedicated, point-to-point radio modems to a network hub that translates the asynchronous serial data to TCP/IP and onto a PC workstation residing on a local area network. Software residing on the PC allows multiple clients to access the raw data simultaneously though TCP/IP. One of the clients is a Geodetics RTD server that receives and archives (1) the raw 1 Hz network data, (2) estimates of instantaneous positions and zenith tropospheric delays for quality control and detection of ground motion, and (3) RINEX data to decimated to 30 seconds. Data recovery is typically 99-100%. The server also produces 1 Hz RTCM data (messages 18, 19, 3 and 22) that are available by means of TCP/IP to RTK clients with wireless Internet modems. Coverage is excellent throughout the county. The server supports standard RTK users and is compatible with existing GPS instrumentation. Typical latency is 1-2 s, with initialization times of several seconds to minutes OCRTN site spacing is 10-15 km. In addition, the server supports “smart clients” who can retrieve data from the closest n sites (typically 3) and obtain an instantaneous network RTK position with 1-2 s latency. This mode currently requires a PDA running the RTD client software, and a wireless card. Since there is no initialization and re-initialization required this approach is well suited to support high-precision (centimeter-level) dynamic applications such as intelligent transportation

  18. Solubility of vanadium from manganese vanadates in aqueous solutions of soda ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalezov, B. D.; Krasheninin, A. G.; Vatolin, N. A.; Ovchinnikova, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    It is shown that, in the course of developing the technology of pure vanadium pentoxide preparation from manganic vanadium-containing metallurgical slags, their oxidative roasting and cinder formation without alkaline additives are accompanied by the decomposition of spinelides with the formation of manganese meta- and pyrovanadates. Concentrated aqueous solutions of soda ash with an Na2CO3 concentration of 120-150 g/dm3 are accepted as a selective leaching reagent for vanadium from a cinder. Manganese metaand pyrovanadates are synthesized, and the procedure of their preparation is presented. The solubility of vanadium from manganese vanadates in aqueous solutions of soda ash at C_{Na_2 CO_3 } = 150 g/dm^3 is studied at 20-95°C for pyrovanadate and at 85-95°C for metavanadate. It is shown that vanadium should be leached from converter manganic slags roasted without alkaline metal additives at a leaching solution temperature higher than 95°C. There is a possibility to increase the vanadium content in a leaching solution to 60-80 g/dm3. The results obtained are used in the development of the technology of vanadium leaching.

  19. ER3+-DOPED SODA-LIME SILICATE GLASS: ARTIFICIAL PINK GEMSTONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeranut Kaewwiset

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Er3+-doped soda-lime silicate glasses of the composition (in mol% (65-xSiO2:25Na2O:10CaO:xEr2O3 (where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fabricated by conventional melt quenching technique. The physical and optical properties were measured and investigated. The erbium oxide enters the glass network as a modifier by occupying the interstitial space in the network and generating the NBOs to the structure. The molar volume increases with an increase in Er2O3 content, which is attributed to the increase in the number of Non-Bridging Oxygen (NBOs. The increase of NBOs in the structure generally leads to an increase in average atomic separation. The density, molar volume and refractive index of glasses increased linearly with increasing Er2O3 concentration. The color of glasses was changed from light pink to intense pink as the Er2O3 concentration was increased from 1 to 5 mol%. The Vickers hardness of Er3+-doped glasses was found to be in the range of 450-500 HV. In this study, it can be concluded that the soda-lime silicate glasses doped with high Er2O3 concentration has intense pink color and high value of hardness which is suitable to be cut as gems.

  20. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N; Kun, Y; Rosli, R-N

    2015-01-01

    Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient pretreatment of Vietnamese rice straw by soda and sulfate cooking methods for enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dien, Le Quang; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Hoa, Doan Thai; Hoang, Phan Huy

    2015-02-01

    This manuscript presents a study on alkaline pretreatment of Vietnamese rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw that grows in Northern Vietnam for enzymatic saccharification. The NaOH pretreatment (soda cooking) and NaOH/Na2S pretreatment (sulfate cooking) were applied for rice straw pretreatment, which have relatively similar condition with industrial pulping processes but at lower temperature. Pretreated biomass solid was then enzymatic hydrolyzed by commercial enzyme Cellic®CTec2 (Novozymes) with enzyme dosage of 35 FPU/g to achieve reducing sugars. The suitable condition for pretreatment was found at temperature of about 100 °C, pretreatment time of 2 h, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:10 with active alkali dosage of 20 % of dry rice straw. Under this pretreatment condition, sugar yield in enzymatic hydrolysis up to 45.33 and 48.92 % over dry rice straw could be obtained after soda cooking and sulfate cooking pretreatment, respectively. Moreover, the changes of components of rice straw after pretreatment were also studied. The crystallinity of cellulose in pretreated biomass solid was calculated from XRD pattern. And the fibril morphology after treatment was revealed by the microscopic observations performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  2. Areal variability of the mineral soil cover in a reclaimed soda waste dumping site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klatka Sławomir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Areal variability of the mineral soil cover in a reclaimed soda waste dumping site. This paper provides an analysis of the areal variability of the thickness and selected physical and chemical properties of the mineral cover formed in the process of settling ponds reclamation at the former Krakow Soda Plant “Solvay”. The topsoil is intended to provide a substrate for plants, therefore, its quality is the main determinant of the development for herbaceous and woody vegetation. Areal variability of the topsoil parameters was determined by kriging. In the context of the envisaged direction of management of the settling ponds, the analysis showed that electrical conductivity, thickness of the soil cover and the sand fraction content have potentially the highest impact on the diversification of vegetation. Understanding the spatial variability of the soil cover parameters, that are essential for vegetation, may contribute to increasing the efficiency of biological reclamation and also to cost reduction. Precise selection of the areas unsuitable for plant growth makes it possible to improve soil parameters on limited areas similarly as in the precision agriculture.

  3. Microbial communities associated with the anthropogenic, highly alkaline environment of a saline soda lime, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Felföldi, Tamás; Szabó, Attila; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Kosobucki, Przemysław; Walczak, Maciej

    2017-07-01

    Soda lime is a by-product of the Solvay soda process for the production of sodium carbonate from limestone and sodium chloride. Due to a high salt concentration and alkaline pH, the lime is considered as a potential habitat of haloalkaliphilic and haloalkalitolerant microbial communities. This artificial and unique environment is nutrient-poor and devoid of vegetation, due in part to semi-arid, saline and alkaline conditions. Samples taken from the surface layer of the lime and from the depth of 2 m (both having pH ~11 and ECe up to 423 dS m(-1)) were investigated using culture-based (culturing on alkaline medium) and culture-independent microbiological approaches (microscopic analyses and pyrosequencing). A surprisingly diverse bacterial community was discovered in this highly saline, alkaline and nutrient-poor environment, with the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (representing 52.8% of the total bacterial community) and Firmicutes (16.6%) showing dominance. Compared to the surface layer, higher bacterial abundance and diversity values were detected in the deep zone, where more stable environmental conditions may occur. The surface layer was dominated by members of the genera Phenylobacterium, Chelativorans and Skermanella, while in the interior layer the genus Fictibacillus was dominant. The culturable aerobic, haloalkaliphilic bacteria strains isolated in this study belonged mostly to the genus Bacillus and were closely related to the species Bacillus pseudofirmus, B. cereus, B. plakortidis, B. thuringensis and B. pumilus.

  4. Calcium carbonate synthesis with prescribed properties based on liquid waste of soda production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Mikhailova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A promising direction in solving of environmental problems of soda industry is the development of low-waste resource-saving technologies, which consist in recycling of valuable waste components with obtaining the commercial products. Aim: The aim is to establish the optimal conditions for obtaining calcium carbonate with prescribed properties from liquid waste of soda production. Materials and Methods: Chemically deposited calcium carbonate is used as filler and should have certain physical and chemical properties. To obtain a product of prescribed quality the process of calcium carbonate deposition was performed of still waste liquid, that is the waste of calcium carbonate production and contain significant amount of calcium ions, and excessive production of the purified stock solution of sodium bicarbonate, which is composed of carbonate and hydrocarbonate ions. Results: The dependence of bulk density and specific surface area of calcium carbonate sediments and degree of deposition from such technological parameters are established: method of mixing the stock solutions, the concentration and molar ratio of reactants, temperature and reaction time. Conclusions: The optimal mode of deposition process is determined and the concept of production of calcium carbonate is developed. The quality of calcium carbonate meets the modern requirements of high dispersion, low bulk density and evolved specific surface of the product.

  5. Soda-Anthraquinone Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murr.) Rind Linerboard and Corrugated Medium Paper: A Preliminary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Mubarak Sa'adon, Amir; Ika Sukarno, Khairil; Fadrol Hisham Yusoff, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A preliminary test was conducted to investigate the characteristics of linerboard and corrugated medium paper made from durian rind waste. Naturally dried durian rinds were pulped according to Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with a condition of 20% active alkali, 0.1% AQ, 7:1 liquor to material ratio, 120 minutes cooking time and 170°C cooking temperature. The linerboard and corrugated medium paper with a basis weight of 120 gsm were prepared and evaluated according to Malaysian International Organization for Standardization (MS ISO) and Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). The results indicate that the characteristics of durian rind linerboard are comparable with other wood or non-wood based paper and current commercial paper. However, low CMT value for corrugated medium and water absorptiveness quality for linerboard could be improved in future. Based on the bulk density (0.672 g/cm3), burst index (3.12 kPa.m2/g) and RCT (2.00 N.m2/g), the durian rind has shown a good potential and suitable as an alternative raw material source for linerboard industry.

  6. Characterization of Low Firing Temperature Ceramic Glaze Using Phuket MSW and Soda Lime Cullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketboonruang, P.; Jinawat, S.; Kashima, D. P.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.; Sujaridworakun, P.; Buggakuptav, W.; Traipol, N.; Jiemsirilers, S.

    2011-10-01

    The normal firing temperature of ceramic products is around 1200 °C. In order to reduce firing temperature, industrial wastes were utilized in ceramic glaze. Phuket municipal solid waste (MSW), soda lime cullet, and borax were used as raw materials for low firing temperature glazes. The glaze compositions were designed using a triaxial diagram. Stoneware ceramic body was glazed then fired at 1000 and 1150 °C for 15 minutes. Morphology and phase composition of glazes were analyzed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal expansion compatibility of Stoneware body and glazes were investigated using a dilatometer. Melting behaviour of selected glaze was analyzed by heating stage microscopy. Phuket MSW and Soda lime glass cullet can be used in high percentage as major raw materials for low firing temperature ceramic glaze that show good texture and vitrified at lower firing temperature without using any commercial ceramic frits. The firing temperature can be reduced up to 150 °C in this study.

  7. Influence of Copolyester Composition on Adhesion to Soda-Lime Glass via Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ben; Hofmann, John; Pasquinelli, Melissa A

    2016-06-01

    Copolyesters are a subset of polymers that have the desirable properties of strength and clarity while retaining chemical resistance, and are thus potential candidates for enhancing the impact resistance of soda-lime glass. Adhesion between the polymer and the glass relates to the impact performance of the system, as well as the longevity of the bond between the polymer and the glass under various conditions. Modifying the types of diols and diacids present in the copolyester provides a method for fine-tuning the physical properties of the polymer. In this study, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the influence of the chemical composition of the polymers on adhesion of polymer film laminates to two soda-lime glass surfaces, one tin-rich and one oxygen-rich. By calculating properties such as adhesion energies and contact angles, these results provide insights into how the polymer-glass interaction is impacted by the polymer composition, temperature, and other factors such as the presence of free volume or pi stacking. These results can be used to optimize the adhesion of copolyester films to glass surfaces.

  8. ALKALI EXTRACTION OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM DEPITHED CORN STOVER AND EFFECTS ON SODA-AQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Cheng

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The main constituent of hemicellulose in corn stover was xylan, which accounted for 18.1% of the depithed raw material. More than 90% of the xylan can be extracted under the optimal conditions: NaOH concentration of 10%, temperature of 75ºC, and time of 2h. Solid fractions after extraction were subjected to soda-AQ pulping. In comparison with control pulp obtained without extraction, it was found that alkali pre-extraction could improve the brightness and decrease kappa number of the subsequent pulp, causing a slight loss of yield, viscosity, density, and burst strength, but an obvious improvement of tear strength. Moreover, the silicon content was decreased by 79.8% when the extraction conditions were set at 75 ºC with alkali concentration of 8%, suggesting that pre-extraction of hemicellulose is a potential way to solve silicon problems associated with alkaline pulping of stover.

  9. Effects of club soda and ginger brew on linguapalatal pressures in healthy swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krival, Kate; Bates, Crystal

    2012-06-01

    Oral chemesthesis is the detection of chemicals that activate temperature and pain receptors in the oral mucosa. Presentation of orally chemesthetic input has been theorized to stimulate a faster, stronger swallow. We measured differences in peak linguapalatal swallowing pressures, pressure durations, and pressure adjustments in response to two volumes of water and carbonation (in Schweppes® Club Soda) and carbonation + gingerol (in Reed's Extra Ginger Brew) in 20 young adult women. There was a main effect of stimulus on linguapalatal swallowing pressure, F(6,74) = 6.247, p = 0.000, hp(2) = 0.536 (Reed's Extra Ginger Brew > Schweppes Club Soda > water). Rising and releasing linguapalatal pressure durations were greater for carbonation + gingerol and carbonation than for water. Our results add to the evidence that orally chemesthetic beverages influence greater neuromotor activity compared to water during the oral stage of swallowing. Our findings also suggest that there may be some benefit to the cumulative addition of chemosensory agents in a beverage. Clinically, this provides a theoretical basis for considering the use of these or chemically similar beverages as facilitating stimuli in patients who aspirate thin liquids.

  10. Chronic B-Cell Leukemias and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Chronic B-cell Leukemias and Agent Orange Veterans who ... receive VA health care and disability compensation. About chronic B-cell leukemias Leukemia is a cancer of ...

  11. Dystonia not dystopia: effects of the legal high, 'Clockwork Orange'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Helen Elizabeth; Hawksley, Oliver

    2015-12-10

    A 27-year-old man presented to hospital after smoking a legal high named 'Clockwork Orange'. He suffered dystonia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis and a troponin rise. He was treated with procyclidine and intravenous fluids.

  12. Relative abundance of sweetpotato whitefly in orange-fleshed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Relative abundance of sweetpotato whitefly in orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars .... 8, 9 and 10. Table 1. Ecological factors and study condition of location (Umudike) in Nigeria (2010 and ..... approaches to Human Nutritional. Deficiencies.

  13. Integrasi Diri Sebagai Konsep Sehat Mental Orang Melayu Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nasilah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kesehatan mental merupakan hal yang sangat kompleks. Banyak faktor yang berperan dalam pembentukan kesehatan mental, seperti faktor sosial budaya dan agama. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui konsep kesehatan mental menurut Orang Melayu Riau. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif fenomenologi. Informan penelitian sebanyak delapan (8 orang yaitu tiga orang tokoh Melayu Riau, dan lima mahasiswa bersuku Melayu Riau. Data diperoleh dengan wawancara dan Focused Group Disscussion (FGD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kesehatan mental menurut Orang Melayu Riau adalah suatu kondisi yang menunjukkan adanya harmonisasi dan tercapainya kesejahteraan dalam kehidupan secara badaniah dan batiniah. Pencapaian kesehatan mental dilakukan dengan upaya meningkatkan pengendalian diri, kesadaran diri, dan penanaman nilai-nilai agama dalam hidup sehari-hari. Nilai-nilai agama, pendidikan, budaya, lingkungan dan media informasi memberikan bimbingan, memberikan pemecahan masalah, menentramkan batin, sehingga mendorong tercapainya keselarasan antara diri dan Tuhan sebagai bentuk integrasi diri. Kata Kunci : kesehatan mental,melayu riau, integrasi diri

  14. Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...

  15. Final critical habitat for Orange-nacre Mucket (Lampsilis perovalis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Orange-nacre Mucket (Lampsilis perovalis) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  16. Canary Island Date Palm - Orange Co. [ds349

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June,...

  17. The orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus is an un- usual fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    stand several cycles of freezing and thawing (Merrett and Haedrich 1997); ... Deep-water habitat may be damaged by trawling operations and may take many years to recover, so ... tool for managing orange roughy fisheries, both old and new.

  18. Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...

  19. Orange emission in Pr3+-doped fluoroindate glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Manzani, Danilo; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Goldner, Philippe; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    We synthesize and study the properties of praseodymium doped fluoroindate glasses. Glass compositions with praseodymium molar concentrations up to 5% were obtained with good optical quality. Thermal, optical, and luminescence properties are investigated. Judd-Ofelt analysis is used to determine radiative lifetime and emission cross-section of the orange transition originating from the 3P0 level. We find that these glasses are good candidates for the realization of blue diode laser pumped orange lasers for quantum information processing applications.

  20. Studi Komunikasi Antarpribadi Anak Dengan Orang Tua Tiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaterine Setiawan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the communication between the child and the stepparent and use the theory that consists of communication theory, communication function, the purpose of communication, interpersonal communication, effective interpersonal communication, interpersonal communication role and function of interpersonal communication. This study used a qualitative method with descriptive qualitative approach. The data used in this study consisted of primary data and secondary data. The primary data of the interviews with sources consisting of four children and one stepparent. While the secondary data obtained from other sources such as books and online data searches. The technique of collecting data using interviews, observation, literature review and data searches online. From this research it is known that children who learn about and understand the prospective stepparent before she married biological parents do relatively better than those who do not recognize his step prospective parents before marriage. It is also known that the interpersonal communication of children with stepparents dependent based on the character of the child and the stepparent respectively. Penelitian ini membahas tentang komunikasi antara anak dengan orang tua tiri dan menggunakan teori yang terdiri dari teori komunikasi, fungsi komunikasi, tujuan komunikasi, komunikasi antarpribadi, komunikasi antarpribadi yang efektif, peranan komunikasi antarpribadi dan fungsi komunikasi antarpribadi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer berupa hasil wawancara dengan narasumber yang terdiri dari empat orang anak dan satu orang tua tiri. Sedangkan data sekunder berupa data yang diperoleh dari buku dan sumber lain seperti penelusuran data online. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan wawancara, observasi, kajian pustaka dan penelusuran

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics of Orange Juice Samples From Seven Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some physicochemical parameters of orange juice from seven orange varieties (Pineapple orange, Hamlin, Trovita, Jincheng,1232 Tangor, Olinda Valencia, and Delta Valencia) were analyzed, special attention was paid to the level of sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, mineral composition, and color parameters. The results showed that total soluble solids (TSS),TSS/titratable acidity (TA) ratios, sugars, and organic acids were kept within a proper range for juice processing except that Jincheng had lower TSS than the others. Sucrose was the most dominant sugar in the orange cultivars, followed by fructose and glucose, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Serine and proline were the principal amino acids.Potassium was the most abundant mineral in all of the juice samples, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium content of most varieties was under 10 mg kg-1. Though all of the samples had orange colour, Olinda Valencia and Delta Valencia had deeper red colour than the others. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the samples in most of the characteristics. The results provided important information on the physicochemical characteristics of the varieties and on how to make the best use of orange cultivars for different purposes, which is of significance for both technological research and processing practice.

  2. FAKTOR PENDORONG DAN PENARIK ORANG BALI BERWISATA KE LUAR NEGERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Ana Pradnya Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Berwisata saat ini sudah menjadi gaya hidup bagi masyarakat, tak terkecuali orang Bali. Beberapa tahun terakhir tercatat banyak orang Bali yang berlibur, bahkan hingga ke luar negeri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil demografis orang Bali dan negara yang dikunjungi, faktor pendorong dan penarik, menganalisis tingkat motivasi dan perbedaan motivasi orang Bali yang pertama kali dan yang sering berwisata ke luar negeri. Teori Motivasi dan Teori Hirarki Kebutuhan Maslow digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Pengumpulan data menggunakan metode wawancara dan kuesioner dengan teknik Quota Sampling. Teknik analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis deskriptif kualitatif dan analisis statistik Diskriminan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa motivasi orang Bali sangat beragam, responden dapat memiliki motivasi lebih dari satu. Faktor pendorong yang paling dominan adalah educational opportunity disamping motif lain seperti relaxation dan play, sedangkan faktor penarik yang dominan adalah cultural factors, diikuti oleh natural environment dan recreation and attraction services. Ditemukan pula adanya perbedaan motivasi di antara orang Bali yang pertama kali dan yang sering melakukan perjalanan wisata ke luar negeri.

  3. Low temperature solution process-based defect-induced orange-red light emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Pranab; Baek, Sung-Doo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong Lee, Su; Il Lee, Tae; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    We report low-temperature solution-processed p-CuO nanorods (NRs)/n-ZnO NRs heterojunction light emitting diode (LED), exploiting the native point defects of ZnO NRs. ZnO NRs were synthesized at 90 °C by using hydrothermal method while CuO NRs were synthesized at 100 °C by using microwave reaction system. The electrical properties of newly synthesized CuO NRs revealed a promising p-type nature with a hole concentration of 9.64 × 1018 cm−3. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction showed a significantly high rectification ratio of 105 at 4 V with a stable current flow. A broad orange-red emission was obtained from the forward biased LED with a major peak at 610 nm which was attributed to the electron transition from interstitial zinc to interstitial oxygen point defects in ZnO. A minor shoulder peak was also observed at 710 nm, corresponding to red emission which was ascribed to the transition from conduction band of ZnO to oxygen vacancies in ZnO lattice. This study demonstrates a significant progress toward oxide materials based, defect-induced light emitting device with low-cost, low-temperature methods. PMID:26648420

  4. Characterization of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Compositions of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sweet Orange and Sour Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJi-Hong; XUXiao-Yong; DENGXiu-Xin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the present research, flow cytometry (FCM), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cleavedamplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) were employed to analyze somatic hybrid plants derived from electrofusion between embryogenic protoplasts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti) and leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange (C. aurantium L). FCM showed that all of the somatic hybrid plants had two-fold fluorescence intensity values of the diploid control, indicating that they were tetraploids. SSR and CAPS were used to characterize the compositions of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the somatic hybnd plants. As for SSR four primer pairs were tried and two showed polymorphisms between the fusion parents. With both pnmer pairs the somatic hybrid plants encompassed DNA bands from both parents, indicating that they were heterokaryonic hybrids. Amplification with some universal primers, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases, could distinguish the fusion parents from each other. As far as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA compositions were concerned the somatic hybrid plants shared the same banding patterns as the embryogenic parents for all of the polymorphic primer/enzyme combinations. The results herein demonstrated that the somatic hybrid plants inherited their nuclear genome from both fusion parents, whereas the cytoplasmic genomes were possibly only contributed by the embryogenic parent. Merits of the analytical methods and nuclear and cytoplasmic inheritance of citrus tetraploid somatic hybrids, together with their application, are discussed herein.

  5. Stricter School Soda Limits Offered: Facing Lawsuit Threat, Beverage Industry Vows to Curb High-Calorie Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    The soft-drink industry vowed to voluntarily curb selling sugary sodas and other high-calorie beverages in schools, a move that was taken under threat of litigation by critics who see the industry as a prime culprit in a national obesity crisis. The promise offered no guarantee that schools would go along with the restrictions, though many…

  6. Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii.

  7. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  8. Making a Low-Cost Soda Can Ethanol Burner for Out-of-Laboratory Flame Test Demonstrations and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Henson L. Lee; Domingo, Perfecto N., Jr.; Yanza, Elliard Roswell S.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to make a low-cost ethanol burner utilizing soda cans. It burns with a light blue flame suitable for out-of-laboratory flame test demonstrations where interference from a yellow flame needs to be avoided.

  9. Evaluation of smear layer removal by bicarbonate soda, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide and sodium hypochlorite with a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Natalie; Abbott, Paul; Castro Salgado, Jacqueline; Firth, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Various methods are used to evaluate irrigants. The primary aim was to develop a model for preliminary testing of potential irrigants. The second aim was to investigate the effect of bicarbonate soda on smear layer by comparing it with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Extracted human single-canal teeth were halved, and a uniform filing method was used to create smear layer. The following solutions were then applied - distilled water (control), 1% NaOCl, 17% EDTAC and bicarbonate soda at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Some samples had multiple solutions in different sequences. Samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Representative images were scored based on the degree of smear layer remaining. Results were analysed with the SAS system, using the GENMOD procedure. Complete smear layer was found in samples treated with all solutions except EDTAC used alone. There were no significant differences between the sequences, EDTAC/NaOCl/EDTAC and NaOCl/EDTAC/NaOCl. There were no significant differences between groups with and without bicarbonate soda. In conclusion, the model was effective for testing chemical effects on solutions on smear layer. Bicarbonate soda did not remove smear layer and provided no additional cleaning effects after EDTAC and NaOCl.

  10. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…

  11. The Effect of High-pressure Densification on Ballistic-penetration Resistance of a Soda-lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    resistance of a soda-lime glass 301 Proc. IMechE Vol. 225 Part L: J. Materials: Design and Applications angle changes caused by the surrounding atoms and...penetration of the plate by the FSP. The FSP is assumed to be made of AISI /SAE 4340 steel and this material is modelled using a linear EOS, the Johnson–Cook

  12. 降低纯碱铁分的实践方法%Practice Method of Reducing Soda Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁江

    2012-01-01

    传统降低纯碱铁分的方法是通过添加硫化钠和氯化镁,但此方法对纯碱生产会造成以下的负面影响:堵塞炉气系统、出现灰碱、影响重灰生产。根据生产实践,提出降低纯碱铁分新的方法:使用非金属及耐腐蚀金属材料、提高中和水浓度、合理的清洗制碱周期和稳定生产工况,通过减少硫化钠用量,达到延长煅烧炉运行周期,降低生产成本的目的。%The traditional method for reducing soda iron isto add sodium sulfate and magnesium chloride, but this method of soda ash production would cause the following negative effects : blocked furnace gas system, soda ash, effects of heavy ash production. According to the production practice, this paper put forward the new method to reduce soda iron:using non metal and corrosion resistance of metal materials, improving the neutralization of water concentration, reasonable cleaning alkali manufacturing cycle and stablizing production conditions. By reducing the sodium sulfide dosage, prolonging the operation cycle of calcining furnace, the cost of production is reduced.

  13. Stricter School Soda Limits Offered: Facing Lawsuit Threat, Beverage Industry Vows to Curb High-Calorie Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    The soft-drink industry vowed to voluntarily curb selling sugary sodas and other high-calorie beverages in schools, a move that was taken under threat of litigation by critics who see the industry as a prime culprit in a national obesity crisis. The promise offered no guarantee that schools would go along with the restrictions, though many…

  14. A RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF TEA, SMOKING AND SODA ON WEIGHT HEIGHT AND BONE MINARAL DENSITY (BMD OF ATHLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bayram TEMUR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate whether incomes of the family, tea, smoke and soda have effect on the weight, height and bone mineral density of athletes. 80 athletes whose average age was 16.62- 0.92 were included. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4 of the subjects was measured by Dual energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (DEXA (g/cm. Values of the family income and the daily consumption of tea, smoke and soda in the families of the athletes were researched. Values of weight and height of the athletes were also determined. In the analyses of the data obtained in the study, SPSS 15.0 package program was used. The results of this study demonstrated that there is no relation between the values of smoke, tea and soda with the values of weight, height and BMD. However, despite the lack of a relationship between the BMD values and the family income level, significant correlation was obtained between the BMD values with the height values (p≤0.01 and the weight values (p≤0.05. Consequently it was determined that tea, smoke and soda do not have effects on weight, height and BMD. Hence, it is thought that the lack of effect of smoking on weight, height and BMD could be due to the less daily smoking (1.67-0.79 and less smoking average in the subjects (26.3%.

  15. Sugar-sweetened beverage but not diet soda consumption is positively associated with progression of insulin resistance and prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have shown an inconsistent relationship between habitual beverage consumption and insulin resistance and prediabetes. Objective: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), rather than diet soda,...

  16. Detsibill : Meie aja kangelane Maryn E. Coote ning ajakirjandus. White label : Soda Effect - Uus kraam. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Poplauljast Marju Kuudist. Ansambli Soda Effect heliplaadist. Heliplaatidest: Sentenced "Buried Alive", Depeche Mode"Best of. Volume 1", Moby "Go: The Very Best", Bill Frisell, Ron CArter, Paul Motian "Nonesuch", My Chemical Romance "The Black Parade", Arabanda "Shams", Barbariz "Auh", Demogustico "Demogustico", Tutty Moreno ft. Jouce "Magica", Akon "Konvicted", Union Of Knives "Violence and Birdsong", Snoop Dogg "The Blue Carpet Treatment"

  17. Kinetics of reaction of roasting of soda ash and ilmenite ore concentrate for formation of sodium titanates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeaa I.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline metals and hydrogen titanates are of great interest for possible applications. The soda ash and Rosetta ilmenite ore concentrate briquette were investigated. The kinetic of formation of sodium titanate was studied in the temperature range 700°C to 900°C.

  18. State Policies Targeting Junk Food in Schools: Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Policy Change on Soda Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Murray, David M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. Methods. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000–2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Results. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.17, −0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = −0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. Conclusions. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile. PMID:21778484

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylophaga muralis Bur 1, a Haloalkaliphilic (Non-Methane-Utilizing) Methylotroph Isolated from a Soda Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Shmareva, Maria N.; Tarlachkov, Sergey V.; Mustakhimov, Ildar I.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Methylophaga muralis strain Bur 1 (VKM B-3046T), a non-methane-utilizing methylotroph isolated from a soda lake, is reported here. Strain Bur 1 possesses genes for methanol and methylamine (methylamine dehydrogenase and N-methylglutamate pathway) oxidation. Genes for the biosynthesis of ectoine were also found. PMID:27811106

  20. State policies targeting junk food in schools: racial/ethnic differences in the effect of policy change on soda consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Murray, David M; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-09-01

    We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000-2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17, -0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = -0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile.

  1. Detsibill : Meie aja kangelane Maryn E. Coote ning ajakirjandus. White label : Soda Effect - Uus kraam. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Poplauljast Marju Kuudist. Ansambli Soda Effect heliplaadist. Heliplaatidest: Sentenced "Buried Alive", Depeche Mode"Best of. Volume 1", Moby "Go: The Very Best", Bill Frisell, Ron CArter, Paul Motian "Nonesuch", My Chemical Romance "The Black Parade", Arabanda "Shams", Barbariz "Auh", Demogustico "Demogustico", Tutty Moreno ft. Jouce "Magica", Akon "Konvicted", Union Of Knives "Violence and Birdsong", Snoop Dogg "The Blue Carpet Treatment"

  2. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still uncultured poly-extremophiles compared to neutral brines of similar salinities. We present the first “metagenomic snapshots” of microbial communities thriving in the brines of four shallow soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) covering a salinity range from 170 to 400 g/L. Both amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments and direct metagenomic sequencing showed that the top-level taxa abundance was linked to the ambient salinity: Bacteroidetes, Alpha-, and Gamma-proteobacteria were dominant below a salinity of 250 g/L, Euryarchaeota at higher salinities. Within these taxa, amplicon sequences related to Halorubrum, Natrinema, Gracilimonas, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter, and Rhodobaca) and chemolithotrophic sulfur oxidizers (Thioalkalivibrio) were highly abundant. Twenty-four draft population genomes from novel members and ecotypes within the Nanohaloarchaea, Halobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were reconstructed to explore their metabolic features, environmental abundance and strategies for osmotic adaptation. The Halobacteria- and Bacteroidetes-related draft genomes belong to putative aerobic heterotrophs, likely with the capacity to ferment sugars in the absence of oxygen. Members from both taxonomic groups are likely involved in primary organic carbon degradation, since some of the reconstructed genomes encode the ability to hydrolyze recalcitrant substrates, such as cellulose and chitin. Putative sodium-pumping rhodopsins were found in both a Flavobacteriaceae- and a Chitinophagaceae-related draft genome. The predicted proteomes of both the latter and a Rhodothermaceae-related draft genome were indicative of a “salt-in” strategy of

  3. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  4. The superoxide dismutase SodA is targeted to the periplasm in a SecA-dependent manner by a novel mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenbrink, Martin; Edwards, Anne; Downie, J Allan

    2011-10-01

    The manganese/iron-type superoxide dismutase (SodA) of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 is exported to the periplasm of R. l. bv. viciae and Escherichia coli. However, it does not possess a hydrophobic cleaved N-terminal signal peptide typically present in soluble proteins exported by the Sec-dependent (Sec) pathway or the twin-arginine translocation (TAT) pathway. A tatC mutant of R. l. bv. viciae exported SodA to the periplasm, ruling out export of SodA as a complex with a TAT substrate as a chaperone. The export of SodA was unaffected in a secB mutant of E. coli, but its export from R. l. bv. viciae was inhibited by azide, an inhibitor of SecA ATPase activity. A temperature-sensitive secA mutant of E. coli was strongly reduced for SodA export. The 10 N-terminal amino acid residues of SodA were sufficient to target the reporter protein alkaline phosphatase to the periplasm. Our results demonstrate the export of a protein lacking a classical signal peptide to the periplasm by a SecA-dependent, but SecB-independent targeting mechanism. Export of the R. l. bv. viciae SodA to the periplasm was not limited to the genus Rhizobium, but was also observed in other proteobacteria.

  5. CHLORINE DIOXIDE BLEACHING OF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE JUTE PULP TO A VERY HIGH BRIGHTNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarwar Jahan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching of soda-anthraquinone jute pulp by chlorine dioxide (ClO2 was studied to reach a target brightness of above 88% for the purpose of using less bleaching chemicals. The performance of either chlorine dioxide or peroxide in the final bleaching to boost brightness was also studied. The experimental results revealed that the final brightness depended on ClO2 charge in the Do and D1 stages. The brightness reversion was lower when the final stage brightening was done by peroxide. The use of Mg(OH2 in the D1 and D2 stages improved the final brightness due to the formation of less chlorate and chlorite during the Mg(OH2- based ClO2 brightening stages. The strength properties of pulp bleached by peroxide in the final stage was slightly better than that from ClO2 as the final ClO2 bleaching stage.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity.

  7. Study of the counting rate capability of MRPC detectors built with soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, R.; Margoto Rodríguez, O.; Park, W.; Rodríguez Rodríguez, A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-09-01

    We report the results of three MRPC detectors built with soda lime glass and tested in the T10 beam line at CERN. The detectors consist of a stack of 280 μm thick glass sheets with 6 gaps of 220 μm . We built two identical MRPCs, except one had the edges of glass treated with resistive paint. A third detector was built with one HV electrode painted as strips. The detectors' efficiency and time resolution were studied at different particle flux in a pulsed beam environment. The results do not show any improvement with the painted edge technique at higher particle flux. We heated the MRPCs up to 40 °C to evaluate the influence of temperature in the rate capability. Results from this warming has indicated an improvement on the rate capability. The dark count rates show a significant dependence with the temperature.

  8. Infrared absorption spectra of transition metals-doped soda lime silica glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, E. M. A.; ElBatal, F. H.; Hamdy, Y. M.; Zidan, H. M.; Aziz, M. S.; Abdelghany, A. M.

    2010-03-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of some prepared undoped and transition metals-doped soda-lime-silicate glasses have been studied in the region of 400-4000 cm -1. IR spectra were analyzed to determine and differentiate the various vibrational modes by applying a deconvolution method to the IR spectra. Although the first sight reveals close similarity between the different transition metal- (TM) doped samples; careful inspection indicates some minor differences depending on the type of TM ions. These observed data are correlated with similar energy of the 3d orbitals of TM atoms in the neutral state and when the atoms are ionized, the 3d orbitals becomes more stable than the 4 s orbitals.

  9. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on adults, aged 18–98, collected from 220 census tracts in Los Angeles and Louisiana. We linked self-reported information on BMI and soda consumption with a database of directly observed outdoor advertisements. Results The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents, controlling for age, race and educational status. For every 10% increase in food advertising, there was a 1.05 (95% CI 1.003 - 1.093, padvertising and overweight/obesity. PMID:23305548

  10. Research on heavy metals in Ruditapes philippinarum and soda industry wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiaobin; XU Weihai; WANG Xinting; HUANG Xinping; DENG Liping; KANG Xinglun; JIANG Zhigang; MA Xuli

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution in Jiaozhou Bay was studied in Ruditapes. philippinarum, a bioindicator of seawater pollution. Heavy metals in soda industry wastes "white mud" were also studied. Comparison of microwave digestion method with general digestion method revealed that microwave digestion is superior to general digestion in precision, recovery, digestion speed and efficiency, etc. Cd concentration in Hongdao R.philippinarum samples exceeded the national standard by 0.046 mg/kg, that of Yinghai sample by 0.02 mg/kg,and that of Hongshiya sample by 0.22 mg/kg. Sample Pb concentration in Hongshiya was found to exceed the national standard by 0.02 mg/kg. However the heavy metals concentration in R. philippinarum near the Qingdao Alkaline Factory was complied with the standard. This was proved by Penaeus chinensis culture experiment.Therefore, the possible contamination source may come from other land areas.

  11. Soft sensor for ratio of soda to aluminate based on PCA-RBF multiple network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Wei-hua; LI Yong-gang; WANG Ya-lin

    2005-01-01

    Based on principal component analysis, a multiple neural network was proposed. The principal component analysis was firstly used to reorganize the input variables and eliminate the correlativity. Then the reorganized variables were divided into 2 groups according to the original information and 2 corresponding neural networks were established. A radial basis function network was used to depict the relationship between the output variables and the first group input variables which contain main original information. An other single-layer neural network model was used to compensate the error between the output of radial basis function network and the actual output variables. At last, The multiple network was used as soft sensor for the ratio of soda to aluminate in the process of high-pressure digestion of alumina. Simulation of industry application data shows that the prediction error of the model is less than 3%, and the model has good generalization ability.

  12. NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

  13. Purification of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf soda lignin with acidified water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sharifah Nurul Ain Syed; Zakaria, Sarani; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Hua, Chia Chin

    2014-09-01

    In this current study, the soda lignins from empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf core were recovered by two step precipitation method. The objective of this research is to study the purity of lignin by washing the lignins with acidified water. The purified lignins were undergone characterization by FT-IR, Uv-Vis and XRD. The FT-IR analysis shows that kenaf core has Guaiacyl(G) and Syringyl(S) unit meanwhile EFB has Hydroxyphenyl(H), Guaiacyl(G) and Syringyl(S) unit of lignin. As for XRD analysis, the non-purified shows that the existence of impurities which is salt (NaCl). The UV analysis shows the higher absorbance which lead to the purity of lignin.

  14. Severe pediatric ocular injury due to explosion of a firecracker inside a soda bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A Shazly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A ShazlyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: This case report describes a penetrating ocular injury, followed by endophthalmitis, in a four-year-old girl, resulting from explosion of a small K0201 match-cracker inside a soda bottle. The patient presented with two corneal lacerations, ruptured crystalline lens, multiple intraocular foreign bodies, and hyphema of the right eye, for which immediate surgical exploration and repair was performed. The patient developed aggressive endophthalmitis that led to atrophy of the eye within a few weeks. Severe ocular injuries can result from small, relatively “safe” firecrackers. Therefore, this type of firework should not be used, especially by minors.Keywords: pediatric trauma, endophthalmitis, firecracker

  15. PREPARATION OF ZEOLITE X COATINGS ON SODA-LIME TYPE GLASS PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tatlier

    Full Text Available Abstract The dissolution of glass in highly alkaline reaction mixtures and the impact of this phenomenon on zeolite coating formation were investigated. Coating samples were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM and thermogravimetry (TG. It was demonstrated that zeolite X coatings might be prepared on soda-lime glass. Glass dissolved to some degree, up to 2% of its original mass, in the reaction mixtures for the conditions investigated. This dissolution affected the zeolite synthesis taking place on the glass surface, resulting in phases different from those obtained on inert metal surfaces in some cases, especially for the use of reaction mixtures with relatively high Si/Al ratios. The percentage of dissolution of glass plates increased with their decreasing thickness, indicating a surface phenomenon for the dissolution. The stabilities of the coatings, which varied with the synthesis conditions, benefited from the addition of extra thin layers of polyacrylic acid.

  16. Bacillus lonarensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from a soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sultanpuram Vishnuvardhan; Thirumala, Mothe; Farooq, Mohammed; Sasikala, Chintalapati; Ramana, Chintalapati Venkata

    2015-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, motile and endospore-forming novel bacterial strain 25nlg(T) was isolated from Lonar soda lake, in India. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it was identified as a member of Firmicutes, being most closely related to Bacillus patagoniensis PAT 05(T) (96.6 %) and other members in the genus Bacillus (Bacillus. Strain 25nlg(T) represents a novel member of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus lonarensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 25nlg(T) (=KCTC 33413(T) = LMG 27974(T) = CGMCC = 1.12817(T)).

  17. Tracing potential soil contamination in the historical Solvay soda ash plant area, Jaworzno, Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutkowska, Katarzyna; Teper, Leslaw; Stania, Monika

    2015-11-01

    This study of soil conditions was carried out on 30 meadow soil (podzol) samples from the vicinity of the soda ash heap in Jaworzno, supplemented by analyses of 18 samples of waste deposited on the heap. In all samples, the total content of macroelements (Ca and Na) and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) as well as pH were analysed. The element concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The materials examined were neutral to ultra-alkaline. Total accumulations (mg kg(-1)) of chemical elements in the soil vary from 130.24 to 14076.67 for Ca, 41.40-926.23 for Na, 0.03-3.34 for Cd, 0.94-103.62 for Cr, 0.94-35.89 for Ni, 3.51-76.47 for Pb and 12.05-279.13 for Zn, whereas quantities of the same elements in the waste samples vary from 171705.13 to 360487.94 for Ca, 517.64-3152.82 for Na, 0.2-9.89 for Cd, 1.16-20.40 for Cr, 1.08-9.79 for Ni, 0.1-146.05 for Pb and 10.26-552.35 for Zn. The vertical distribution of the metals was determined in each soil profile. Despite enrichment of heavy metals in the uppermost horizon on the top of the heap, the results lead to the conclusion that the relation of historical production of soda ash in Jaworzno to current contamination of the local soil environment is insignificant.

  18. A model for the formation of layered soda-straw stalactites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bence Paul

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate records based upon instrumental data such as rainfall measurements are usually only available for approximately the last 150 years at most. To fully investigate decadal-scale climate variation, however, these records must be extended by the use of climate proxies. Soda-straw stalactites (straws are a previously under-utilised potential source of such data. In this contribution we investigate the structure and formation of straws and look at some issues that may affect the reliability of straw-based palaeoclimate records. We use laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS trace element analysis to document surface contamination features that have the potential to obscure annual trace element variations, and develop a method to reveal the underlying layering. We also use LA- ICP-MS to map the two-dimensional trace element distribution in straws. These maps reveal straw-layer geometry, in which layers are widest at the outside edge of the straw, narrowing and becoming almost parallel on the interior of the straw.Based upon these observations, we present a model for the formation of straws of this type, where rapid degassing of CO2 from the drip extending below the straw forms the wider outer layers. Summers are defined by increased layer widths and higher trace element contents relative to winter layers. In palaeoclimate studies, where such annual variations can be used to construct time-lines, we suggest that, ideally, the outside surface of the straw be analysed where the trace element content difference is greatest and layering is widest.The terminal phase of one straw (FC-02 shows decreasing layer widths and increased trace element contents. These features may also be representative of soda-straw responses to drought-induced decreases in percolation water.

  19. Possible involvement of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (SodA) as a radical scavenger in poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Carina; Arenskötter, Matthias; Berekaa, Mahmoud M; Arenskötter, Quyen; Priefert, Horst; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2008-12-01

    Gordonia westfalica Kb1 and Gordonia polyisoprenivorans VH2 induce the formation of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) during poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) degradation. To investigate the function of this enzyme in G. polyisoprenivorans VH2, the sodA gene was disrupted. The mutants exhibited reduced growth in liquid mineral salt media containing poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) as the sole carbon and energy source, and no SOD activity was detectable in the supernatants of the cultures. Growth experiments revealed that SodA activity is required for optimal growth on poly(cis-1,4-isoprene), whereas this enzyme has no effect on aerobic growth in the presence of water-soluble substrates like succinate, acetate, and propionate. This was detected by activity staining, and proof of expression was by antibody detection of SOD. When SodA from G. westfalica Kb1 was heterologously expressed in the sodA sodB double mutant Escherichia coli QC779, the recombinant mutant exhibited increased resistance to paraquat, thereby indicating the functionality of the G. westfalica Kb1 SodA and indirectly protection of G. westfalica cells by SodA from oxidative damage. Both sodA from G. polyisoprenivorans VH2 and sodA from G. westfalica Kb1 coded for polypeptides comprising 209 amino acids and having approximately 90% and 70% identical amino acids, respectively, to the SodA from Mycobacterium smegmatis strain MC(2) 155 and Micrococcus luteus NCTC 2665. As revealed by activity staining experiments with the wild type and the disruption mutant of G. polyisoprenivorans, this bacterium harbors only one active SOD belonging to the manganese family. The N-terminal sequences of the extracellular SodA proteins of both Gordonia species showed no evidence of leader peptides for the mature proteins, like the intracellular SodA protein of G. polyisoprenivorans VH2, which was purified under native conditions from the cells. In G. westfalica Kb1 and G. polyisoprenivorans VH2, SodA probably provides protection

  20. Kehidupan Wayang Orang Sriwedari dalam Perspektif Determinasi Penari Rol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hersapandi Hersapandi

    2013-11-01

    Sriwedari Wayang Orang Performance. The term “rol” dancer or star dancer refers to the main dancer who becomes the star in wayang orang. It has an excellent qualifi cation in performing his/her role, an excellent mastery of knowledge and skills, and capability of developing the characters of the role that s/he performs. His/her superior competitive skills certainly become an icon for absorbing the audiens’ attention. Since the icon role lies on the audience, a star dancer needs to have such skills to motivate the life of the wayang orang group. As an agent, his/her acting skills have refl ected a totality of the actor’s artistry in his/her private life, i.e. to keep professional dancer’s quality stronger as a whole.The agent has as individudal and inttelectual integrity as a professional actor. The actor often seems to protect his charisma. S/he always tries to perform as many times as possible, so s/he does not need other new dancers to replace him/her. The reason is that the new dancers are considered as competitors who may replace his/her position and certainly his/her economic potentials as well. The spirit of wayang orang performance is the star dancer’s artistic quality expressing the symbols and artistic values needed by the audience. Key words: wayang orang, art management, star dancer.

  1. Investigation of Optical and Luminescence Properties of Soda Lime Borate Glasses Doped with Sm3+ Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FALAK; Zaman; GUL; Rooh; NATTAPON; Srisittipokakun; JACKRAPONG; Kaewkhao

    2016-01-01

    This paper was to investigate the optical and luminescence properties of Sm3+ doped SLB glasses by a melt quenching technique. The optical and luminescence properties of the prepared glass samples were investigated via absorption and photoluminescence spectra, respectively. The related physical and optical parameters were also calculated. From optical absorption measurements, the transition 6H5/2 → 6P3/2 at 403 nm has a higher spectral intensity and is a hypersensitive transition. From photoluminescence spectra, four prominent emission spectra appear. The most intense band is located at 4G5/2 →6H9/2(599 nm), which is the characteristic emission range of Sm3+ ions with the reddish orange color. The experimental decay time of the 4G5/2 level of Sm3+ SLB glasses was determined. The decay time decreases from 1.367 to 0.333 ms with increasing the content of Sm3+. The color coordinates(x, y) of the prepared glasses passes through the reddish-orange region in the CIE 1931 diagram and are suitable for orange LEDs, optoelectronics, and solidstate lighting. The further investigation on the optimization of the dopant content in the SLB glasses was suggested.

  2. A Study of Regional Brand Positioning Strategy for Linhai Orange Based on Soft Laddering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; TAO; Yueli; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,Means-End Chain Theory is used for the positioning strategy study on regional brand of Linhai Orange,and based on soft laddering method,33 Linhai Orange consumers are interviewed. By understanding the individual needs of Linhai Orange consumers,this paper establishes the " Attributes-Consequences-Value" matrix and hierarchical value map. This study aims to explore the regional brand positioning strategy of Linhai Orange,in order to promote the regional brand building and extension of Linhai Orange and enhance the sustained regional brand development of Linhai Orange.

  3. PRof ILE of ORANGE CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMER ATTITUDES TO MINIMALLY PROCESSED ‘PERA’ ORANGE IN MUNICIPALITIES of THE STATE of SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda PALHARINI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the prof ile of orange consumption and consumer attitude to minimally processed orange. Seven hundred and seventeen questionnaires were applied in commercial establishments in three municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Main results of this research are: orange is a highly appreciated fruit, being consumed in natura and also as its natural juice, moreover orange is purchased weekly at hypermarkets, the purchase intent for minimally processed orange was low and the likely consumers’ willingness of paying for that product would be near 200% over the ‘in natura’ fruit. Considering the high consume of ‘in natura’ orange and the increasing need for convenience and practicality, it is possible to affirm that there is a potential for commercializing minimally processed orange.

  4. Clinical results with acridine orange using a novel confocal laparoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2009-02-01

    We previously reported on the development of a multi-spectral confocal laparoscope for clinical imaging. In this paper we present current results using the system to image ovaries with a new laparoscope design using the contrast agent acridine orange. This new laparoscope integrates computer controlled systems for focus, depth scans, and localized contrast agent delivery. Precise axial position control is accomplished with tiny stepper motors integrated inside the laparoscope handle. Ergonomic handle controls allow for data acquisition, deliver of contrast agents, and adjustment of imaging depth during procedures by the surgeon. We have approval to use acridine orange in our clinical trials to image ovaries in vivo during oophorectomies. We present in vivo results using both acridine orange and fluorescein as the topically administered contrast agent.

  5. Semangat Islam Dalam Kebudayaan Orang Bugis-Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hamid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pembahasan masalah semangat dan etos sosial tidak terlepas dari jangkauan sistem budaya masyarakat. Sistem budaya adalah abstrak, tak dapat dilihat dan diraba, ia identik pada komunitas, berada di kepala dan sukma tiap orang dalam komunitas tersebut, terdiri atas konsep-konsep, gagasan ide-ide dan kepercayaan yang diterima setiap orang dari hasil perkembangan kebudayaannya. Sadar atau tidak sadar, manusia terpengaruh dan menerima berbagai warisan, ajaran, kepercayaan dan ideologi tertentu dan hasil kerja komunitasnya melalui internalisasi sejak ia lahir dari dalam rumah tangga serta pengeruh dari lingkungan hidupnya tempat manusia tersebut bertumbuh. Kalau tradisi budaya masyarakat telah diserapi oleh setiap orang, maka perilakunya hampir menjadi otomatis, tanpa disadari perilakunya itu sudah diterima secara sosial.

  6. Can a soda-lime glass be used to demonstrate how patterns of strength dependence are influenced by pre-cementation and resin-cementation variables?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine how the variability in biaxial flexure strength of a soda-lime glass analogue for a PLV and DBC material was influenced by precementation operative variables and following resin-cement coating.

  7. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  8. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium-benzotriazole orange-red and fluorescent blue emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan, E-mail: xiazhenyuan@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Su, Jian-Hua [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)

    2013-03-15

    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange-red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N{sup 1},C{sup 3}] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1 Prime ;4 Prime ,1 Double-Prime ]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N Prime -(4,4 Prime -(1E,1 Prime E)-2,2 Prime -(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange-red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3} ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An iridium-based orange-red phosphor Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  9. A randomized crossover clinical study showing that methylphenidate-SODAS improves attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Szobot

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (MPH-SODAS on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms in an outpatient sample of adolescents with ADHD and substance use disorders (SUD. Secondary goals were to evaluate the tolerability and impact on drug use of MPH-SODAS. This was a 6-week, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study assessing efficacy of escalated doses of MPH-SODAS on ADHD symptoms in 16 adolescents with ADHD/SUD. Participants were randomly allocated to either group A (weeks 1-3 on MPH-SODAS, weeks 4-6 on placebo or group B (reverse order. The primary outcome measures were the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale, version IV (SNAP-IV and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI. We also evaluated the adverse effects of MPH-SODAS using the Barkley Side Effect Rating Scale and subject reports of drug use during the study. The sample consisted of marijuana (N = 16; 100% and cocaine users (N = 7; 43.8%. Subjects had a significantly greater reduction in SNAP-IV and CGI scores (P < 0.001 for all analyses during MPH-SODAS treatment compared to placebo. No significant effects for period or sequence were found in analyses with the SNAP-IV and CGI scales. There was no significant effect on drug use. MPH-SODAS was well tolerated but was associated with more severe appetite reduction than placebo (P < 0.001. MPH-SODAS was more effective than placebo in reducing ADHD symptoms in a non-abstinent outpatient sample of adolescents with comorbid SUD. Randomized clinical trials, with larger samples and SUD intervention, are recommended.

  10. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Renee Vuillaume; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods: Data on school vending machine access and student diet we...

  11. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia; Norma Güemes Vera

    2010-01-01

    Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour) and samples with this functional ingredient. ...

  12. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda consumption and the 7-year risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, M; Nakamura, K; Miura, K; Takamura, T; Yoshita, K; Nagasawa, S Y; Morikawa, Y; Ishizaki, M; Kido, T; Naruse, Y; Suwazono, Y; Sasaki, S; Nakagawa, H

    2014-02-01

    This cohort study investigated the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and diet soda consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. The participants were 2,037 employees of a factory in Japan. We measured consumption of SSB and diet soda using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The incidence of diabetes was determined in annual medical examinations over a 7-year period. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetes were estimated after adjusting for age, body mass index, family history, and dietary and other lifestyle factors. During the study, 170 participants developed diabetes. The crude incidence rates (/1,000 person-years) across participants who were rare/never SSB consumers, Diet soda consumption was significantly associated with the incident risk of diabetes (P for trend = 0.013), and multivariate-adjusted HRs compared to rare/never diet soda consumers were 1.05 (0.62-1.78) and 1.70 (1.13-2.55), respectively, for participants who consumed diet soda was significantly associated with an increased risk for diabetes in Japanese men. Diet soda is not always effective at preventing type 2 diabetes even though it is a zero-calorie drink.

  13. Demographic and behavioral factors associated with daily sugar-sweetened soda consumption in New York City adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Matte, Thomas D; Van Wye, Gretchen; Young, Candace; Frieden, Thomas R

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the relations of socioeconomic and behavioral factors to frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soda among New York City (NYC) adults and the relation of frequent consumption to body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). Data from the 2005 NYC Community Health Survey, a population-based telephone survey, were analyzed. Frequent consumption was defined as drinking one or more 12-oz servings of sugar-sweetened soda on an average day; 9,865 adults, aged 18 years and older, provided valid responses. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with frequent consumption, and linear regression models were used to assess the relation of frequent consumption to BMI. An estimated 27.5% of NYC adults are frequent sugar-sweetened soda consumers. Frequent consumption is independently associated with low household income (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-2.1 for or =600% federal poverty level) and with ethnic group and nativity (e.g., OR = 3.1, 95% CI 2.6-3.7 for U.S.-born blacks vs. whites). Men report more consumption then women, but an association of less education with frequent consumption is stronger among women. Adjusting for demographics, frequent consumption is associated with more television viewing and with less physical activity. Adjusting for demographics and behaviors, frequent consumption was associated with higher BMI among women (0.7 BMI units, 95% CI 0.1-1.2) but not among men. Disparities in sugar-sweetened soda consumption mirror obesity disparities. Improved surveillance and interventions are needed to better quantify and reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, especially in groups most impacted by obesity.

  14. Sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation under extremely natron-alkaline conditions by syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorokin, D. Y.; Abbas, B; Tourova, T.P.; Bumazhkin, B. K.; Kolganova, T. V.; Muyzer, G

    2014-01-01

    So far, anaerobic sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation at high pH has only been demonstrated for a low-salt-tolerant syntrophic association of a clostridium ‘Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum’ and its hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing partner Desulfonatronum cooperativum. Anaerobic enrichments at pH 10 inoculated with sediments from hypersaline soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) demonstrated the possibility of sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation at much higher salt concentra...

  15. 77 FR 75550 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle... in Miami, FL during the 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship. The event will take place on January 13... Paddle Championship. C. Discussion of the Final Rule On January 13, 2013, the Orange Bowl Committee...

  16. 78 FR 50023 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... fly (Bactrocera zonata) and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in oranges and tangerines... effective against B. zonata in oranges and tangerines. In addition to B. zonata, Ceratitis capitata (Medfly... for C. capitata and B. zonata; and The oranges and tangerines must be accompanied by a phytosanitary...

  17. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29,...

  18. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... are any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is... the percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in container sizes that are...

  19. Two Lesser Dystopias: "We" and "A Clockwork Orange."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnsley, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Both the Russian novel "We" and the Anthony Burgess novel "A Clockwork Orange" offer frightening glimpses of a future society. But the contrast between these visions is striking. "We" is concerned with the misuse of technology, Burgess's book with the misuse of psychology. Both warn about the misuse of state power.…

  20. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  1. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... establish a temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine... Sabine River during the Thunder on the Sabine boat races. This Special Local Regulation is necessary...

  2. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... establish a temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine... vessels from portions of the Sabine River during the annual S.P.O.R.T boat races. This Special...

  3. POSITRON ELECTRON PAIR SPECTROMETRY WITH SELECTIVE MINI-ORANGE DEVICES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKLINKEN, J; BALANDA, A; HOOGDUIN, JM; KAPER, H; MEIRING, WJ; BOKEMEYER, H; DEBOER, FWN; KRAFT, D; STIEBING, KE

    1992-01-01

    Pair spectrometers have been developed with mini-orange filters and adapted Si(Li) detectors. They have been employed in searches for resonant Bhabha scattering and viable axions. They are of implicit value for studies of pair creation with the high resolution of solid state detectors, with the high

  4. Phospholipids of marine origin: the orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Koning, AJ

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Fillets of deep-skinned orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) were found to contain 5.46% total lipids consisting of as much as 93% non-digestible wax esters. The fillets therefore act as a mild laxative, which probably contributes...

  5. Fertilization and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the application of foliar fertilization and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using 1H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertilizer and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, am...

  6. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  7. Nutrition Program Boosts Dental Health of Orange County Migrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Anne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In Orange County, California, 76 migrant preschool children and 45 parents participated in a 7-week pilot program concerned with preventing dental disease by encouraging good dental habits and healthy food choices. Parent questionnaires revealed that the most remarkable program-related change was a decrease in consumption of sugary foods for over…

  8. Formation, structural and optical characterization of neodymium doped-zinc soda lime silica based glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamratul, M. I. M.; Zaidan, A. W.; Khamirul, A. M.; Nurzilla, M.; Halim, S. A.

    New glass system of neodymium - doped zinc soda lime silica glass has been synthesized for the first time by melt-quenching of glass waste soda lime silica (SLS) with zinc oxide (ZnO) as precursor glass and Nd2O3 as dopant. In order to examine the effect of Nd3+ on the structural and optical properties, the prepared sample of structure [(ZnO)0.5(SLS)0.5](Nd2O3)x (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt%) was characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and the photoluminescence (PL). XRD pattern justifies the amorphous nature of synthesized glasses. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to observe the structural evolution of ZnO4 and SiO4 groups. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra reveals seven peaks centered at excitation of electron from ground state 4I9/2 to 4D3/2 + 4D5/2 (∼360 nm), 2G9/2 + 2D3/2 + 2P3/2(∼470 nm), 2K13/2 + 4G7/2 + 4G9/2 (∼523 nm), 4G5/2 + 2G7/2 (∼583 nm), 4F9/2 (∼678 nm), 4S3/2 + 4F7/2 (∼748 nm) and 4F5/2 + 2H9/2 (∼801 nm). PL spectra under the excitation of 800 nm display four emission bands centered at 531 nm, 598 nm, 637 nm and 671 nm corresponding to 4G7/2 → 4I9/2, (4G7/2 → 4I11/2, 4G5/2 → 4I9/2), (4G5/2 → 4I11/2) and (4G7/2 → 4I13/2, 4G5/2 → 4I11/2) respectively.

  9. Interaction of erythromycin and clarithromycin with orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Setiawati

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant administration of orange juice with fexofenadine has been found to decrease the bioavailability of fenofenadine to less than 30% via inhibition of organic-anion transporting polypeptide (OATP, a drug uptake transporter expressed in organs such as liver, kidney and intestine. Erythromycin and clarithromycin are substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, a drug metabolizing enzyme in the liver and enterocytes, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a drug efflux transporter expressed in the same organs as OATP. Since an extensive overlap exists between substrates and inhibitors of CYP3A4, P-gp and OATP transporters, we want to study the effect of coadministration of our local orange (Siam orange juice on the bioavailability of the above antibacterials. We conducted two 2-way cross-over randomized studies, one study for each antibacterial (500 mg, crossed between administration with orange juice (200 ml and with water, in 12-13 healthy subjects per study. The serum concentrations of the antibacterials were assayed by microbiological method. The mean (range ratio of AUC0-t with orange juice/with water were as follows : erythromycin : total (n=13 81.7 (9.7-193.8%, unchanged (n=4 96.4 (80.5-107.9%, decreased (n=6 31.9 (9.7-49.0%, increased (n=3 161.8 (134.6-193.8%; clarithromycin : total (n=12 91.4 (20.6-158.3%, unchanged (n=5 103.1 (80.9-123.0%, decreased (n=4 34.8 (20.6-64.3%, increased (n=3 147.2 (132.9-158.3%. It was concluded that coadministration of Siam orange juice with erythromycin or clarithromycin produced unpredictable effects on the bioavailability of these antibacterials in individual subjects, with marked decreases in almost half of the subjects, although in totals the effects were not statistically significant. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 78-86Keywords: interaction, erythromycin, clarithromycin, orange juice.

  10. Syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes converting organic acids and alcohols to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2016-09-01

    Until now anaerobic oxidation of VFA at high salt-pH has been demonstrated only at sulfate-reducing conditions. Here, we present results of a microbiological investigation of anaerobic conversion of organic acids and alcohols at methanogenic conditions by syntrophic associations enriched from hypersaline soda lakes in Central Asia. Sediment incubation experiments showed active, albeit very slow, methane formation from acetate, propionate, butyrate and C2 C4 alcohols at pH 10 and various levels of salinity. Enrichments of syntrophic associations using hydrogenotrophic members of the genus Methanocalculus from soda lakes as partners resulted in several highly enriched cultures converting acetate, propionate, butyrate, benzoate and EtOH to methane. Most syntrophs belonged to Firmicutes, while the propionate-oxidizer formed a novel lineage within the family Syntrophobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The acetate-oxidizing syntroph was identified as 'Ca. Syntrophonatronum acetioxidans' previously found to oxidize acetate at sulfate-reducing conditions up to salt-saturating concentrations. Butyrate and a benzoate-degrading syntrophs represent novel genus-level lineages in Syntrophomonadales which are proposed as Candidatus taxons 'Syntrophobaca', 'Syntrophocurvum' and 'Syntropholuna'. Overall, despite very slow growth, the results indicated the presence of a functionally competent syntrophic community in hypersaline soda lakes, capable of efficient oxidation of fermentation products to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

  11. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  12. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.

  13. Reliability of acridine orange fluorescence microscopy in oral cytodiagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aims: The oral cavity is the most predominant location in the head and neck region for primary malignant epithelial tumors. Oral cancer is estimated to be the sixth most common malignancy. Early recognition is imperative for successful treatment and good prognosis. Exfoliative cytology is a simple and reasonably effective technique for rapid initial evaluation of a suspicious oral lesion. The present study was conducted to determine the reliability of acridine orange fluorescence microscopy for cytodiagnosis as a more rapid and easier method for the final evaluation of the cytological specimen. Materials and Methods: Smears were collected from 20 individuals with oral lesions suspicious of malignancy, oral lesions not suggestive of malignancy and normal buccal mucosa. One smear was stained with Papanicolaou stain and another one with acridine orange stain. The differences in the study group and control group were compared by means of the χ2 (Chi-square test. The results were considered statistically significant whenever P was <0.05. Results: The acridine orange fluorescence stain reliably demonstrated malignant cells based on the differential fluorescence - a cytochemical criterion. The efficacy of the stain was higher than the conventional Papanicolaou stain in screening of oral lesions suspicious of malignancy. However, the acridine orange fluorescence stain did not differentiate effectively between malignant cells and rapidly proliferating cells, as the technique is based on the nucleic acid content. Conclusion: The fluorescent acridine orange method can be used reliably for the screening of carcinomas and it is especially helpful in the follow-up detection of recurrent carcinoma in previously treated cases.

  14. Rapid biodegradation and decolorization of Direct Orange 39 (Orange TGLL) by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Jyoti P; Phugare, Swapnil S; Dhanve, Rhishikesh S; Jadhav, Shekhar B

    2010-06-01

    A newly isolated novel bacterium from sediments contaminated with dyestuff was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BCH by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterium was extraordinarily active and operative over a wide rage of temperature (10-60 degrees C) and salinity (5-6%), for decolorization of Direct Orange 39 (Orange TGLL) at optimum pH 7. This strain was capable of decolorizing Direct Orange 39; 50 mg l(-1) within 45 +/- 5 min, with 93.06% decolorization, while maximally it could decolorize 1.5 g l(-1) of dye within 48 h with 60% decolorization. Analytical studies as, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, HPLC were employed to confirm the biodegradation of dye and formation of new metabolites. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidases, DCIP reductase as well as tyrosinase was observed, indicating the significant role of these enzymes in biodegradation of Direct Orange 39. Toxicity studies with Phaseolus mungo and Triticum aestivum revealed the non-toxic nature of degraded metabolites.

  15. SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULP FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF FOR LINERBOARD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to prepare soda- anthraquinone pulp from kenaf whole stem and to compare the resultant core and bast pulps for linerboard production. Pulping was done under mild cooking conditions (active alkali 12-15% with a cooking time of 30-90 min and a temperature of 160ºC. During the pulping process, kappa numbers ranged from 56.0 to 20.6, while total yields varied from 58.4 to 54.2% with a rejection rate of 2.3 to 0.1%. Based on the quality of pulp produced, kappa numbers 49.4 and 25.4 was selected as symbolic of high and low pulps respectively. The results of the study revealed significant difference between the properties of core, whole stem (KHK and KLK, and bast pulps. Core pulps with low freeness and high drainage time the study found produced sheets with greater density, tensile index, burst index and RCT, with lower light scattering coefficient and tear index than bast pulp. Whole stem pulps showed properties between those of core and bast pulps. Moreover, KLK with high drainage time produced papers with significantly higher strength properties than KHK.

  16. Bacillus bogoriensis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic, halotolerant bacterium isolated from a Kenyan soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Virginia A; Delgado, Osvaldo D; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2005-03-01

    Strain LBB3(T) isolated from Bogoria soda lake in Kenya is an alkaliphilic, Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, spore-forming bacterium. It was identified as a member of the genus Bacillus on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The organism grows optimally at 37 degrees C and pH 10. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 37.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 95 and 96 % sequence similarity with Bacillus pseudofirmus (DSM 8715(T)) and Bacillus alcalophilus (DSM 485(T)), respectively. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization against these two Bacillus species showed 39.0 and 55.5 % similarity, respectively. Based on our observations, strain LBB3(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus bogoriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of B. bogoriensis is LBB3(T) (=ATCC BAA-922(T)=LMG 22234(T)).

  17. Bogoriella caseilytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic actinomycete from a soda lake in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, I; Schumann, P; Rajney, F A; Martin, K; Schuetze, B; Augsten, K

    1997-07-01

    A new gram-positive, alkaliphilic, nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacterium is described. The organism was isolated from soda soil (Lake Bogoria, Kenya) and has the following characteristics. It is nonmotile, not acid fast, halotolerant, and microaerophilic, and optimal growth occurs at pH values between 9 and 10. The peptidoglycan type is of type A4 alpha, with lysine as the characteristic diamino acid and glutamic acid as a component of the interpeptide bridge. The major menaquinone is MK-8(H4). The polar lipids are phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and an unknown phospholipid. 12-Methyltetradecanoic acid is the predominant fatty acid. The G + C content of the DNA is 70 mol%. The results of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons revealed that strain HKI 0088T represents a new lineage in the order Actinomycetales. Therefore, we concluded that strain HKI 0088T should be assigned to a new genus and species, for which we propose the name Bogoriella caseilytica gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain and only strain of this genus and species is HKI 0088 (= DSM 11294).

  18. Streptomyces alkalithermotolerans sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic and thermotolerant actinomycete isolated from a soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanpuram, Vishnuvardhan Reddy; Mothe, Thirumala; Mohammed, Farooq

    2015-02-01

    An alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain AC3(T), was isolated from Lonar soda lake, in India. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis it was identified that the strain belongs to the class Actinobacteria and was most closely related to Streptomyces sodiiphilus JCM 13581(T) (96.4 % sequence similarity), Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii DSM 42122(T) (96.1 %), Streptomyces albus NRRL B-2365(T) (96.1 %), Streptomyces panacagri Gsoil 519(T) (96.0 %), Streptomyces fimbriatus NBRC 15411(T) (95.9 %) and other members of the genus Streptomyces (cream substrate and white aerial mycelia on most tested media. The optimum pH for growth was determined to be 9.5-10.0 with no growth at pH 7.0. The DNA G+C content of strain AC3(T) was determined to be 71.2 mol %. The results of the polyphasic analysis allowed a clear differentiation of strain AC3(T) from all other members of the genus Streptomyces. Strain AC3(T) is thus considered to represent a novel member of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alkalithermotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AC3(T) (=KCTC 29497(T) = JCM 30167(T)).

  19. Condensation of Si-rich region inside soda-lime glass by parallel femtosecond laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Masaaki; Yoshimura, Kouhei; Kurita, Torataro; Shimizu, Masahiro; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Naoaki; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2014-06-30

    Local melting and modulation of elemental distributions can be induced inside a glass by focusing femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at high repetition rate (>100 kHz). Using only a single beam of fs laser pulses, the shape of the molten region is ellipsoidal, so the induced elemental distributions are often circular and elongate in the laser propagation direction. In this study, we show that the elongation of the fs laser-induced elemental distributions inside a soda-lime glass could be suppressed by parallel fsing of 250 kHz and 1 kHz fs laser pulses. The thickness of a Si-rich region became about twice thinner than that of a single 250 kHz laser irradiation. Interestingly, the position of the Si-rich region depended on the relative positions between 1 kHz and 250 kHz photoexcited regions. The observation of glass melt during laser exposure showed that the vortex flow of glass melt occurred and it induced the formation of a Si-rich region. Based on the simulation of the transient temperature and viscosity distributions during laser exposure, we temporally interpreted the origin of the vortex flow of glass melt and the mechanism of the formation of the Si-rich region.

  20. Fabrication of microlens arrays on soda-lima glasses with a Nd:YVO4laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Daniel; Flores-Arias, M. Teresa; O'Connor, Gerard M.; Gómez-Reino, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We present a laser direct-write technique that is capable of providing microlens arrays on soda-lime glass substrate from one step ablation process, permitting one to shorten the typical times of microlens fabrication with other direct-writing techniques. The technique is based on the combination of a Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser and a galvanometer system for addressing the output beam laser. The geometrical and optical parameters of the microlenses have been measured to characterize the microlens arrays produced on an area of 2 mm×2 mm. Focal length values around 118 μm have been obtained by measuring the sag and the diameter of the microlens with a confocal microscope (nondirect method) or directly, using a microscope objective with a CCD camera. The practicality of both methods is shown in the good agreement between the obtained results for the focal length of microlenses. By using a noncontact profilometer, the surface roughness of the microlens has been measured and compared with that of a glass substrate.

  1. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

    2015-02-01

    The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor.

  2. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

  3. Bleaching of soda pulp of fibres of Musa textilis nee (abaca) with peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, L; Ramos, E; De la Torre, M J; Pérez, I; Ferrer, J L

    2008-03-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of operational variables in the bleaching of soda pulp of Musa textilis nee (abaca) [viz. temperature (55-85 degrees C), bleaching time (30-150 min) and peracetic acid concentration oven dry pulp (0.5-4.5%)] on the kappa number and viscosity of the bleached pulp, as well as on the breaking length, burst index and brightness of paper sheets made from it. For this purpose, we used a central composite factorial design in order to identify the optimum operating conditions. In this way equations relating the dependent variables to the operational variables of the bleaching process were derived. These equations reproduce the dependent variables with errors less than 12% for all, except the viscosity which was predicted with errors less than 18%. Obtaining bleached pulp with the highest possible viscosity (1519 ml/g), and paper sheets with the maximum possible breaking length (6547 m) and burst index (5.00 kN/g), entails using a temperature of 55 degrees C, a peracetic acid concentration of 4.5% and a bleaching time of 150 min. This provides a brightness of 79.90%, which is only 6.53% lower than the maximum possible value (85.48%).

  4. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesser Lenard I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on adults, aged 18–98, collected from 220 census tracts in Los Angeles and Louisiana. We linked self-reported information on BMI and soda consumption with a database of directly observed outdoor advertisements. Results The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents, controlling for age, race and educational status. For every 10% increase in food advertising, there was a 1.05 (95% CI 1.003 - 1.093, p Conclusions There is a relationship between the percentage of outdoor food advertising and overweight/obesity.

  5. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oikonomopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency level. Undeniably, the oxymoron ‘transparency and strength’ remains the prime concern in such applications. In this paper, a new, innovative structural system for glass block facades is described, which demonstrably meets both criteria. The structure is exclusively constructed by monolithic glass blocks, bonded with a colourless, UV-curing adhesive, obtaining thus a maximum transparency. In addition, the desired structural performance is achieved solely through the masonry system, without any opaque substructure. Differing from previous realized projects, solid soda-lime glass blocks are used rather than borosilicate ones. This article provides an overview of the integrated architectural and structural design and discusses the choice of materials. The structural verification of the system is demonstrated. The results show that the adhesively bonded glass block structure has the required self-structural behaviour, but only if strict tolerances are met in the geometry of the glass blocks.

  6. Gold nanoparticles on the surface of soda-lime glass: morphological, linear and nonlinear optical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, E C; Vitoreti, Douglas; Gouvêa, Paula M P; Caldas, P G; Prioli, R; Paciornik, S; Fokine, Michael; Braga, Arthur M B; Gomes, Anderson S L; Carvalho, Isabel C S

    2012-02-27

    Materials presenting high optical nonlinearity, such as materials containing metal nanoparticles (NPs), can be used in various applications in photonics. This motivated the research presented in this paper, where morphological, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of gold NPs on the surface of bulk soda-lime glass substrates were investigated as a function of nanoparticle height. The NPs were obtained by annealing gold (Au) thin films previously deposited on the substrates. Pixel intensity histogram fitting on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images was performed to obtain the thickness of the deposited film. Image analysis was employed to obtain the statistical distribution of the average height of the NPs. In addition, absorbance spectra of the samples before and after annealing were measured. Finally, the nonlinear refractive index (n2) and the nonlinear absorption index (α2) at 800 nm were obtained before and after annealing by using the thermally managed eclipse Z-scan (TM-EZ) technique with a Ti:Sapphire laser (150 fs pulses). Results show that both n2 and α2 at this wavelength change signs after the annealing and that the samples presented a high nonlinear refractive index.

  7. Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-Exchange Strengthening of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Karlsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Monovalent cations enable efficient ion-exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical, or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda-lime-silicates (SLS such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+, and Cs+ by drawing relations to physicochemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion-exchange rate.

  8. Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-exchange Strengthening of Soda Lime Silicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Stefan; Wondraczek, Lothar; Ali, Sharafat; Jonson, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Monovalent cations enable efficient ion exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda lime silicates (SLS) such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by drawing relations to physico-chemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  9. Studies on the Potential of Waste Soda Lime Silica Glass in Glass Ionomer Cement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. W. Francis Thoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are produced through acid base reaction between calcium-fluoroaluminosilicate glass powder and polyacrylic acid (PAA. Soda lime silica glasses (SLS, mainly composed of silica (SiO2, have been utilized in this study as the source of SiO2 for synthesis of Ca-fluoroaluminosilicate glass. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of SLS waste glass in producing GIC. Two glasses, GWX 1 (analytical grade SiO2 and GWX 2 (replacing SiO2 with waste SLS, were synthesized and then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX. Synthesized glasses were then used to produce GIC, in which the properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and compressive test (from 1 to 28 days. XRD results showed that amorphous glass was produced by using SLS waste glass (GWX 2, which is similar to glass produced using analytical grade SiO2 (GWX 1. Results from FT-IR showed that the setting reaction of GWX 2 cements is slower compared to cement GWX 1. Compressive strengths for GWX 1 cements reached up to 76 MPa at 28 days, whereas GWX 2 cements showed a slightly higher value, which is 80 MPa.

  10. Iron oxide coating films in soda-lime glass by triboadhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J. O.; Arjona, M. J. [Boulevard Bahia s/n esq. Ignacio Comonfort, Chetumal (Mexico); Rodriguez-Lelis, J. M. [Interior Internado Palmira s/n, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    In the triboadhesion process the coating material is passed through a rotating cotton mop and the substrate to be coated. The cotton mop rotates at high velocity and exerts pressure on the surface of the substrate. The combined effect of pressure and velocity of the coating mop on the substrate increases its temperature close to the melting point, allowing deposition and diffusion of the coating material within the substrate. After it is deposited, its particles are embedded within the base material forming a thin film composite. The amount of the coating material deposited on the substrate has its maximum at the surface and then decreases as a function of the local temperature within the base material. Bearing this in mind, in the present work, triboadhesion is employed to deposit iron oxide in a substrate of soda-lime glass, with the purpose of determining the feasibility of using this technique for solar control coatings. It was found, through electronic scan microscopy, that a composite material film is formed following the coating direction. Reflectance and transmittance tests were carried out on the glass samples. A 20% difference was found in the visible spectral region (VIS), and a reduction between 10 and 20% in the Near Infrared Region (NIR). These results showed that the triboadhesion is a promising technique for the application of thin films for solar control or solar cells

  11. An Introduction to Symbolic data Analysis and its Application to the Sodas Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Diday

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Las descripciones de los datos de las unidades se llaman "simbólicas" cuando son más complejas que las estándar debido al hecho que contienen variación interna y están estructuradas. Los datos simbólicos aparecen a través de diversas fuentes, por ejemplo para resummir grandes Bases de Datos Relacionales por sus conceptos fundamentales."Extracción del conocimiento" significa la obtención de resultados explicativos, por lo que se introducen los "objetos simbólicos" y se estudian en este artículo. Ellos modelan conceptos y constituyen una salida explicativa para el análisis de datos. Es más, pueden ser usados para definir consultas a una Base de Datos Relacional y propagar conceptos entre Bases de Datos. Definimos el "Análisis de Datos Simbólico" (SDA como una extensión del Análisis de Datos estándar a tablas de datos simbólicos como entrada, con el fin de encontrar objetos simbólicos como salida. En este artículo damos un panorama de desarrollos recientes en SDA. Presentamos herramientas y métodos de SDA, e introducimos el prototipo de software SODAS (resultado del trabajo conjunto de 17 equipos de nueve países que participan en un proyecto europeo de EUROSTAT.

  12. Computational study on the color change of 3‧-hydroxyechinenone in the orange carotenoid protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yukie

    2016-05-01

    The orange carotenoid protein, which contains 3‧-hydroxyechinenone (hECN), changes color from orange to red when irradiated with blue-green light. In this study, the origins of the color change have been investigated. The conformation of hECN in the red form is more planar than that in the orange form; consequently, the absorption band is red-shifted on conversion from the orange form to the red form. Another source of the red shift is that the electrostatic field generated by the protein in the red form stabilizes the excited state better than that generated by the protein in the orange form.

  13. [Commercial orange juice beverages detection by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PCA-ED and PLSR methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-jun; Zhu, Chun; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Fan-biao; Li, Run; Zhu, Zhuo-wei; Wang, Xu; Gao, Shu-mei

    2014-08-01

    In order to classify the orange juiice beverages effectively, the fluorescence character differences of two kinds of orange juice beverages including 100% orange juice and orange drink were analyzed and compared, principal component analysis combined with Euclidean distance was adopted to classify two kinds of orange juice beverages, and ideal classification results were obtained. Meanwhile, the orange juice content estimation model was established by using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression method, and the correlation coefficient R, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP were 0.997, 0.87% and 2.05%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the calibration model offers comparatively accurate content estimation, which reflect the actual orange juice content in the commercial orange juice beverages. The exploration to classify orange juice beverages was carried out from two aspects of qualitative and quantitative analysis by employing fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method, which can provide a new idea for the classification and adulteration detection of commercial orange juice beverages, and also can give certain reference basis for the quality control of orange juice raw material.

  14. Degradation of methyl orange through synergistic effect of zirconia nanotubes and ultrasonic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianling; Wang, Xixin; Zhang, Libin; Hou, Xiaorui; Li, Ying; Tang, Chengchun

    2011-04-15

    Zirconia nanotubes with a length of 25 μm, inner diameter of 80 nm, and wall thickness of 35 nm were prepared by anodization method in mixture of formamide and glycerol (volume ratio = 1:1) containing 1 wt% NH(4)F and 1 wt% H(2)O. Experiments showed that zirconia nanotubes and ultrasonic wave had synergistic degradation effect for methyl orange and the efficiency of ultrasonic wave increased by more than 7 times. The decolorization percentage was influenced by pH value of the solution. Methyl orange was easy to be degraded in acidic solution. The decolorization percentage of methyl orange reached 97.6% when degraded for 8h in 20mg/L methyl orange solution with optimal pH value 2. The reason of synergistic degradation effect for methyl orange might be that adsorption of methyl orange onto zirconia nanotubes resulted in the easy degradation of the methyl orange through ultrasonic wave.

  15. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  16. ORANG BUANGAN (BANNELINGEN PADA PERKEBUNAN PALA DI KEPULAUAN BANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Barjiyah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Placement of the exiles who run the nutmeg plantations on the Banda Islands is another way to run the economic system. Empowerment of the exiles as labor becomes a distinct advantage for the government or plantation owners. Economically exiles cannot be sold, but they can be used as production workers in the plantation or for those who have skills they can be employed to build and create a variety of facilities on the estate. Disposal of this person basically is never lost from time to time. In modern reign, the removal of human rights is often done just that with the term and a more subtle treatment of exiled. In the old order and the new order, areas such as Maluku Seram, Banda, Buru Island, Masohi, Namlea still just be a dumping ground for people who are considered guilty, and they are now more famous by the term political prisoners or prisoners. In the subsequent exiles are then settled and have contributed to the progress of his new country such as introducing rice cultivation and irrigation, but this needs further research. Keywords: an exile, plantation of pala, Banda   Penempatan orang buangan yang menjalankan perkebunan pala di Kepulauan Banda adalah cara lain untuk menjalankan sistem ekonomi. Pemberdayaan orang buangan sebagai tenaga kerja menjadi keuntungan tersendiri bagi pemerintah atau pemilik perkebunan. Secara ekonomis, orang buangan tidak dapat dijual, tetapi mereka dapat digunakan sebagai pekerja produksi di perkebunan atau bagi mereka yang memiliki keterampilan mereka bisa digunakan untuk membangun dan menciptakan berbagai fasilitas di perumahan. Pembuangan dari orang ini pada dasarnya tidak pernah hilang dari waktu ke waktu. Dalam pemerintahan modern, pemindahan hak asasi manusia sering melakukan hal itu dengan istilah dan pengobatan yang lebih halus diasingkan. Dalam orde lama dan orde baru, beberapa kawasan seperti Maluku Seram, Banda, Pulau Buru, Masohi, Namlea masih saja menjadi tempat pembuangan bagi

  17. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  18. The Doppler paradigm and the APEX-EPOS-ORANGE quandary

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, J J

    1996-01-01

    The experimental detection of the sharp lines of the \\ee Puzzle is viewed as a struggle against Doppler broadening. Gedanken experiments which are realistic in zeroth order of detail are analyzed to show that the ORANGE and EPOS/I geometries select narrower slices of a Doppler broadened line than spherically inclusive (APEX and EPOS/II --like) apparati. Roughly speaking, the latter require event-by-event Doppler reconstruction simply to regain an even footing with the former. This suggests that APEX' or EPOS/II's coincident pair distributions must be statistically superior to those of EPOS/I or ORANGE in order to support a comparable inference about sharp structure. Under present circumstances, independent alternative data is invaluable. Therefore, a corroboration of Sakai's 330.1 keV (< 3 keV wide) electron line in few MeV e^+ or e^- bombardments of U and Th targets could prove crucial.

  19. Exposure to pesticides residues from consumption of Italian blood oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, B; D'Urso, M G; Chiappara, E

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a 5-year study to evaluate pesticide levels, derived from orchard activities, on Italy's most common orange cultivar (Citrus sinensis, L. Osbeck, cv. Tarocco). Using a Bayesian approach, the study allowed both the qualitative (number) and quantitative distributions (amount) of pesticides to be determined with its own probability value. Multi-residue analyses of 460 samples highlighted the presence of ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, dicofol, etofenprox, fenazaquin, fenitrothion, imazalil, malathion and metalaxil-m. A total of 30.5% of samples contained just one pesticide, 2.16% two pesticides and 0.65% of samples had three pesticides present simultaneously. The most common residue was ethyl chlorpyrifos followed by methyl chlorpyrifos. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values for ethyl and methyl chlorpyrifos, as well as the distance from the safety level (non-observed adverse effect level, NOAEL), were calculated. The risk was differentiated (1) to take account of the period of actual citrus consumption (180 days) and (2) to discriminate the risk derived from eating oranges containing a certain level of chlorpyrifos from unspecified pesticides. The most likely EDI values for ethyl chlorpyrifos derived from Italian blood orange consumption are 0.01 and 0.006 mg/day calculated for 180 and 365 days, respectively. Considering the probability of the occurrence of ethyl chlorpyrifos, these EDI values are reduced to 2.6 x 10(-3) and 1.3 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. For methyl chlorpyrifos, the most likely EDI values are 0.09 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively; considering the probability of its occurrence, the EDI values decrease to 6.7 x 10(-3) and 3.4 x 10(-3) mg/day, respectively. The results confirmed that levels of pesticides in Italian Tarocco oranges derived from a known controlled chain of production are safe.

  20. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Bergamot orange in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karaca, Mehmet; İLHAN, Fatma; Altan, Hasan; Him, Aydın; TÜTÜNCÜ, Mehmet; Özbek, Hanefi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Essential oil extract of Bergamot orange (BO) was investigated for its hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Six different groups were established. Silibinin was used as the reference agent. BO significantly reduced the serum ALT level when compared to CCl4 group while it did not affect the serum AST level. The histopathological findings did not show any significant difference between the BO and CCl4 groups. The results suggest that BO has a...

  1. The curious case of the orange coloured tonsils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravesloot, M J L; Bril, H; Braamskamp, M J; Wiegman, A; Wong Chung, R P

    2014-12-01

    Tangier disease is an extremely rare and severe form of high density lipoprotein deficiency. Even though there is no specific therapy for patients with Tangier disease, it is important to recognize the clinical presentation as patients are at an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and subsequent CVD. The case discussed in this report, illustrates the importance of recognizing that orange discoloured tonsils are an indication that the patient could be suffering from Tangier's disease.

  2. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  3. Tunable surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoclusters in ion exchanged soda lime glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, Satyabrata, E-mail: smiuac@gmail.com

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • Ag-glass nanocomposites were synthesized by silver ion exchange and annealing. • SPR of Ag-glass nanocomposites was tuned from 420 to 596 nm by annealing in air. • Subsequent annealing of nanocomposites in Ar + H{sub 2} reversed back SPR to 398 nm. • Formation/dissolution of Ag{sub 2}O nanoshells around Ag nanoclusters lead to tunable SPR. - Abstract: Silver (Ag) nanoclusters embedded in soda lime glass were synthesized by Ag ion exchange followed by thermal annealing. The effects of annealing temperature, time and atmosphere on the plasmonic response, structural and optical properties of silver-glass nanocomposites have been investigated using UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As exchanged sample exhibits surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band around 420 nm which showed regular red shift with increase in annealing temperature. A significant red shift of 176 nm (from 420 to 596 nm) and broadening of the SPR peak was observed for annealing in air at 450 °C. XPS studies on air annealed samples confirmed the presence of Ag{sub 2}O in addition to Ag. Subsequent annealing at 250 °C in reducing atmosphere resulted in increase in intensity, narrowing and blue shift of the SPR peak to 398 nm. Our observations suggest that SPR tunability is mainly due to the formation and dissolution of Ag{sub 2}O nanoshells around Ag nanoclusters in the near-surface region of glass during annealing in oxidizing and reducing atmosphere, respectively.

  4. Thermal modeling of step-out targets at the Soda Lake geothermal field, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Ryan Kenneth

    Temperature data at the Soda Lake geothermal field in the southeastern Carson Sink, Nevada, highlight an intense thermal anomaly. The geothermal field produces roughly 11 MWe from two power producing facilities which are rated to 23 MWe. The low output is attributed to the inability to locate and produce sufficient volumes of fluid at adequate temperature. Additionally, the current producing area has experienced declining production temperatures over its 40 year history. Two step-out targets adjacent to the main field have been identified that have the potential to increase production and extend the life of the field. Though shallow temperatures in the two subsidiary areas are significantly less than those found within the main anomaly, measurements in deeper wells (>1,000 m) show that temperatures viable for utilization are present. High-pass filtering of the available complete Bouguer gravity data indicates that geothermal flow is present within the shallow sediments of the two subsidiary areas. Significant faulting is observed in the seismic data in both of the subsidiary areas. These structures are highlighted in the seismic similarity attribute calculated as part of this study. One possible conceptual model for the geothermal system(s) at the step-out targets indicated upflow along these faults from depth. In order to test this hypothesis, three-dimensional computer models were constructed in order to observe the temperatures that would result from geothermal flow along the observed fault planes. Results indicate that the observed faults are viable hosts for the geothermal system(s) in the step-out areas. Subsequently, these faults are proposed as targets for future exploration focus and step-out drilling.

  5. Three novel bacteriophages isolated from the East African Rift Valley soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Leonardo Joaquim; Nemavhulani, Shonisani; Cass, James; Cowan, Donald Arthur; Trindade, Marla

    2016-12-03

    Soda lakes are unique environments in terms of their physical characteristics and the biology they harbour. Although well studied with respect to their microbial composition, their viral compositions have not, and consequently few bacteriophages that infect bacteria from haloalkaline environments have been described. Bacteria were isolated from sediment samples of lakes Magadi and Shala. Three phages were isolated on two different Bacillus species and one Paracoccus species using agar overlays. The growth characteristics of each phage in its host was investigated and the genome sequences determined and analysed by comparison with known phages. Phage Shbh1 belongs to the family Myoviridae while Mgbh1 and Shpa belong to the Siphoviridae family. Tetranucleotide usage frequencies and G + C content suggests that Shbh1 and Mgbh1 do not regularly infect, and have therefore not evolved with, the hosts they were isolated on here. Shbh1 was shown capable of infecting two different Bacillus species from the two different lakes demonstrating its potential broad-host range. Comparative analysis of their genome sequence with known phages revealed that, although novel, Shbh1 does share substantial amino acid similarity with previously described Bacillus infecting phages (Grass, phiNIT1 and phiAGATE) and belongs to the Bastille group, while Mgbh1 and Shpa are highly novel. The addition of these phages to current databases should help with metagenome/metavirome annotation efforts. We describe a highly novel Paracoccus infecting virus (Shpa) which together with NgoΦ6 and vB_PmaS_IMEP1 is one of only three phages known to infect Paracoccus species but does not show similarity to these phages.

  6. Penetration experiments in aluminum 1100 targets using soda-lime glass projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark J.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William E.; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry L.

    1995-01-01

    The cratering and penetration behavior of annealed aluminum 1100 targets, with thickness varied from several centimeters to ultra-thin foils less than 1 micrometer thick, were experimentally investigated using 3.2 mm diameter spherical soda-lime glass projectiles at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s. The objective was to establish quantitative, dimensional relationships between initial impact conditions (impact velocity, projectile diameter, and target thickness) and the diameter of the resulting crater or penetration hole. Such dimensional relationships and calibration experiments are needed to extract the diameters and fluxes of hypervelocity particles from space-exposed surfaces and to predict the performance of certain collisional shields. The cratering behavior of aluminum 1100 is fairly well predicted. However, crater depth is modestly deeper for our silicate impactors than the canonical value based on aluminum projectiles and aluminum 6061-T6 targets. The ballistic-limit thickness was also different. These differences attest to the great sensitivity of detailed crater geometry and penetration behavior on the physical properties of both the target and impactor. Each penetration experiment was equipped with a witness plate to monitor the nature of the debris plume emanating from the rear of the target. This plume consists of both projectile fragments and target debris. Both penetration hole and witness-plate spray patterns systematically evolve in response to projectile diameter/target thickness. The relative dimensions of the projectile and target totally dominate the experimental products documented in this report; impact velocity is an important contributor as well to the evolution of penetration holes, but is of subordinate significance for the witness-plate spray patterns.

  7. EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORANGE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical characterization of orange fruits using applications of nutrition minerals and growth substance during at private farm in wadi el-netron , ELbehari governorate, Egypt during in December2011. The results showed during maturity time increasing the total soluble solid (TSS, pH, percentage of liquid, (TSS/acidityand carotenoids while chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and acidity were decreased.With one application of nutrition minerals and with growth substance were the lowest value of chlorophyll, a (chl,a and chlorophyll, b (chl,b as follow 0.42 and 0.45 (mg/100g while with control management were the highest value to total soluble solid (Tss and carotenoids (car. as follow 10.07(Brix,% and 15.77 (mg/100g. The pattern of changes was clearly observed from the absorption spectra of the green and orange When orange is fully ripe, chlorophyll would be greatly reduced or may disappear completely and carotenoids becomes the dominant pigment in the fruit surface.

  8. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis, as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg, total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg, α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal to 70.2% (Pera-rio. According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  9. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egyptian orange exports has just a statistically signified market power by SUR and 3-SLS and has a negative sign, which may gain monopolistic profits by the relative mark-up over its marginal cost by about 63.7% without losing any of its market share. The source of Egyptian orange exports market power is due to: 1- product differentiation where Egypt exports navel orange most its export season compared with sweet orange which exported from other competitors. 2- Saudi Arabia Market demand characteristics which reflect on the consumers preference for Egyptian oranges.

  10. Treatment of methyl orange dye wastewater by cooperative electrochemical oxidation in anodic-cathodic compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, L; Wang, H; Bian, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of methyl orange wastewater was studied using Ti/IrO(2)/RuO(2) anode and a self-made Pd/C O(2)-fed cathode in the divided cell with a terylene diaphragm. The result indicated that the appropriate rate of feeding air improved the methyl orange removal efficiency. The discoloration efficiency of methyl orange in the divided cell increased with increasing current density. The initial pH value had some effect on the discoloration of methyl orange, which became not obvious when the pH ranged from 2 to 10. However, the average removal efficiency of methyl orange wastewater in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) can reach 89.3%. The methyl orange structure had changed in the electrolytic process, and the characteristic absorption peak of methyl orange was about 470 nm. With the extension of electrolysis time, the concentration of methyl orange gradually reduced; wastewater discoloration rate increased gradually. The degradation of methyl orange was assumed to be cooperative oxidation by direct or indirect electrochemical oxidation at the anode and H(2)O(2), ·OH, O(2)(-)· produced by oxygen reduction at the cathode in the divided cell. Therefore, the cooperative electrochemical oxidation of methyl orange wastewater in the anodic-cathodic compartment had better degradation effects.

  11. Very bright orange fluorescent plants: endoplasmic reticulum targeting of orange fluorescent proteins as visual reporters in transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann David GJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of fluorescent protein (FP genes as real-time visual markers, both transiently and stably, has revolutionized plant biotechnology. A palette of colors of FPs is now available for use, but the diversity has generally been underutilized in plant biotechnology. Because of the green and far-red autofluorescent properties of many plant tissues and the FPs themselves, red and orange FPs (RFPs, and OFPs, respectfully appear to be the colors with maximum utility in plant biotechnology. Within the color palette OFPs have emerged as the brightest FP markers in the visible spectra. This study compares several native, near-native and modified OFPs for their “brightness” and fluorescence, therefore, their usability as marker genes in transgenic plant tissues. Results The OFPs DsRed2, tdTomato, mOrange and pporRFP were all expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in agroinfiltration-mediated transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana. Each of these, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER-targeted versions, were stably expressed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Congruent results were observed between transient and stable assays. Our results demonstrated that there are several adequate OFP genes available for plant transformation, including the new pporRFP, an unaltered tetramer from the hard coral Porites porites. When the tandem dimer tdTomato and the monomeric mOrange were targeted to the ER, dramatic, ca. 3-fold, increase in plant fluorescence was observed. Conclusions From our empirical data, and a search of the literature, it appears that tdTomato-ER and mOrange-ER are the two highest fluorescing FPs available as reporters for transgenic plants. The pporRFP is a brightly fluorescing tetramer, but all tetramer FPs are far less bright than the ER-targeted monomers we report here.

  12. PROPOSAL OF BROWNFIELD LAND DEVELOPMENT ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LANDFILLS OF FORMER KRAKOW SODA WORKS „SOLVAY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Gliniak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal for the development of soda industry landfills on the example of a former Cracow Soda Works "Solvay". The area is located in close proximity to the center of Krakow and is surrounded by places of worship. The analyzed area is characterized by specific physical and chemical properties of the substrate (soda production waste that manifest themselves e.g. in very high salinity and the presence of numerous processes of water erosion. The former landfill covers an area of 1 km2 and is a natural link between the two large settlements in the southern part of Krakow, namely Kurdwanów and Borek Fałęcki. The developed landscape concept is based on a detailed analysis of the physicochemical substrate and the conditions necessary for the foundation of buildings and civil engineering. In the research phase, the technical and natural inventory was made, and a detailed review of the literature in the field of land use with similar properties was performed. The designing process was guided by the information contained in the available planning documents and the needs of the local community, which presented in the literature of other scientists. As a result of the research, the concept of omni-zoning area landfills was established. The main assumptions are based on the concept of the nineteenth-century idea of the garden city, consisting in dividing the area into 6 main thematic areas, i.e. parks, which are described in detail in the article. The main functions (leisure and recreation have been supplemented with historical and touristic elements.

  13. Carbon implanted waveguides in soda lime glass doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ for visible light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, G. V.; Valiente, R.; Gómez-Salces, S.; Flores-Romero, E.; Rickards, J.; Trejo-Luna, R.

    2016-05-01

    Channel waveguides were fabricated by carbon implantation in soda lime glass samples doped with Er3+ and Yb3+, exhibiting good confinement and both monomode and multimode behaviour at 633 nm. Excitation at near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectral ranges were used in order to obtain anti-Stokes (upconversion) and Stokes (downshift) emission in the visible range, respectively. The characteristic green and red bands of Er3+ transitions were observed, showing the potential of Yb3+ and Er3+ co-doping for the generation of visible guided emission under NIR excitation.

  14. Accelerated formation of sodium depletion layer on soda lime glass surface by corona discharge treatment in hydrogen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

    2014-05-01

    Formation of a sodium depletion layer on a soda lime glass surface was accelerated efficiently using a corona discharge treatment in H2 atmosphere. One origin of such acceleration was the preferential generation of H+ with a larger mobility at an anode needle end with a lower applied voltage than that in air. The second origin was the applied voltage across the glass plate during the corona discharge treatment, which was estimated theoretically as 2.7 times higher than that in air. These two effects doubled the depletion layer thickness compared with that in air.

  15. 离子膜法烧碱工艺改进%Process improvement of exchange membrane caustic soda production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琼武

    2012-01-01

    Through addition of titanium heat exchanger, the steam condensed water recovery and utilization, vacuum dechlorination pipe renovation measures,the ionic membrane caustic soda device stable operation. Reduces energy consumption, improves the economic benefit.%通过新增钛换热器、蒸汽冷凝水回收利用、真空脱氯氯水管改造等措施,保证了离子膜烧碱生产装置的平稳运行,降低了能耗,提高了经济效益。

  16. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560012 (India)

    2013-06-15

    ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  17. Production process for 200kt/a heavy soda with low-salt%200kt/a低盐重质纯碱生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清菊; 李振宁

    2001-01-01

    介绍了200kt/a“固体进料离心分离一水碱法”低盐重质纯碱的生产工艺及其特点,并对该装置主要设备与控制要点进行了分析。原料一水碱水分含量要求为18%~22%,成品盐份控制在0.3%以下。%The production process and characteristics of 200kt/a heavy soda with low-salt by solid feeding and centrifuge separation of monhydrate soda were introduced, and the main equipment and controlling main point of the installation were analysed. Water content of material monohydrate soda was 18%~19%,and salt content of product was controlled to lower than 0.3%.

  18. Self-reported use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits to purchase soda in a public health center population: Los Angeles County, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel; Gase, Lauren; Butler, Rebecca; Smith, Lisa; Simon, Paul; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To better inform local program planning for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health used self-reported data from a public health center population to examine the prevalence of benefits used to purchase soda. We performed statistical analyses, including multivariable regression modeling, using data from a local health and nutrition examination survey. The survey response rate was 69% (n=1,503). More than one-third of survey participants reported receiving, or living in a household where someone receives, nutrition assistance benefits. When asked, 33% (n=170) reported using these benefits to purchase soda "sometimes" and 18% (n=91) reported "often" or "always," suggesting that the use of program benefits to purchase soda was not uncommon in this subpopulation. These findings have meaningful policy and planning implications, as they contribute to ongoing dialogue about strategies for optimizing nutrition among SNAP recipients.

  19. Characterization of waste of soda-lime glass generated from lapping process to reuse as filler in composite materials as thermal insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. P. Galvão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe beneficiation plate process by soda-lime glass lapping in the glass industry generates, an untapped residue (waste. The waste of this material is sent to landfills, causing impact on the environment. This work aimed to characterize and evaluate the waste of soda-lime glass (GP lapping. After its acquisition, the GP was processed by grinding and sieving and further characterized by the chemical/mineralogical analysis (XRF, EDS and XRD, SEM morphology, particle size by laser diffraction, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA and DSC and thermophysical analyses. It was observed that the GP particles are irregular and micrometric with the predominant presence of Na, Si and Ca elements characteristic of amorphous soda-lime glass. The assessment of the chemical/mineralogical, morphological, thermophysical and thermal gravimetric characteristics of GP suggest its reuse as reinforcing fillers or filler in composite materials to obtain thermal insulation.

  20. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  1. Electrolytic treatment of methyl orange in aqueous solution using three-dimensional electrode reactor coupling ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pingting; Wang, Ling; Xue, Jianjun; Cao, Zhibin

    2010-04-01

    The treatment of wastewater containing methyl orange was investigated experimentally using a three-dimensional electrode reactor coupling ultrasonics and the effect of ultrasonics on the degradation was studied. The effects of cell voltage, original concentration of methyl orange, pH value and the concentration of electrolyte on the removal efficiency were considered. The experimental results indicated that the removal rate of methyl orange exceeded 99% and the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) approached 84% under the optimum conditions. Using ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis, a general degradation pathway for methyl orange was proposed based on the analysis of intermediate compounds. According to the ultraviolet-visible spectral changes during degradation of methyl orange, it can be presumed that the removal of COD(Cr) lags behind the removal of methyl orange because the structure of the benzene ring was more difficult to destroy compared with the azo double bonds.

  2. World largest KAWASAKI KJ type soda recovery boiler, generating high pressure and high temperature steam. For the Iwakuni mill of Nippon Paper Industries Co. Ltd.; Sekai saidaikyu no koatsu koon soda kaishu boiler. Nippon seishi (kabu) Iwakuni kojo dono muke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirokawa, M.; Matsuda, T.; Masuda, T.; Suemitsu, N.; Makito, Y.; Tanihara, T.; Asada, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-15

    This paper presents the important notices in design and issues on the large KAWASAKI KJ type soda recovery boiler under construction for the Iwakuni mill of Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd. This soda recovery boiler is the largest one in volume in Japan, and the highest one in pressure and temperature in the world. Since saturation temperature rises with steam pressure, corrosion resistance of the water cooling wall of a combustion chamber should be considered enough. This boiler thus adopts the double contact tube with an outer tube of SUS310 most superior in corrosion resistance. Alkaline molten salt corrosion of a superheater is one of the most severe problems on steam temperature rise. This boiler thus adopts SUS309J2TB superior in alkaline molten salt corrosion resistance for the highest-temperature portion of a superheater and the lower U bent subjected to radiant heat from a combustion chamber. Flow in a furnace and stress of a superheater were analyzed using computer for scale-up of boiler and preliminary verification. 1 ref., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Phototoxic and contact toxic reactions of the exocarp of sweet oranges: a common cause of cheilitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, G; Krokan, H; Kavli, G; Midelfart, K

    1983-05-01

    Irritant skin reactions were produced within 1 h after application of the exocarp of sweet oranges or alcoholic extracts therefrom. Such reactions faded within 48 h. The exocarp, or extracts thereof, induced phototoxic reactions which were strongest at 72 h after exposure. The phototoxic reactions were only induced in natural blondes and only with some oranges. The in vivo phototoxic reactions were confirmed in vitro, causing a slight but clear photo-inhibition of Candida albicans. Only some oranges inhibited growth.

  4. Integrated removal of inorganic contaminants from acid mine drainage using BOF slag, lime, soda ash and reverse osmosis (RO): Implication for the production of drinking water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available , Finland IMWA 2017Mine Water and Circular Economy Wolkersdorfer C, Sartz L, Sillanpää M, Häkkinen A (Editors) Integrated removal of inorganic contaminants from Acid Mine Drainage using BOF Slag, Lime, Soda ash and Reverse Osmosis (RO): Implication... was reduced from 18000 to 4000 mg/L hence requiring another purification technology. Hardness was reduced using lime and soda ash. Reverse Osmosis (RO) was used to further clean the water to drinking standard. A single pass two element RO system...

  5. Comparative Genome Analysis of Three Thiocyanate Oxidizing Thioalkalivibrio Species Isolated from Soda Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berben, Tom; Overmars, Lex; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thiocyanate is a C1 compound containing carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. It is a (by)product in a number of natural and industrial processes. Because thiocyanate is toxic to many organisms, including humans, its removal from industrial waste streams is an important problem. Although a number of bacteria can use thiocyanate as a nitrogen source, only a few can use it as an electron donor. There are two distinct pathways to use thiocyanate: (i) the “carbonyl sulfide pathway,” which has been extensively studied, and (ii) the “cyanate pathway,” whose key enzyme, thiocyanate dehydrogenase, was recently purified and studied. Three species of Thioalkalivibrio, a group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from soda lakes, have been described as thiocyanate oxidizers: (i) Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus (“cyanate pathway”), (ii) Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanoxidans (“cyanate pathway”) and (iii) Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanodenitrificans (“carbonyl sulfide pathway”). In this study we provide a comparative genome analysis of these described thiocyanate oxidizers, with genomes ranging in size from 2.5 to 3.8 million base pairs. While focusing on thiocyanate degradation, we also analyzed the differences in sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen metabolism. We found that the thiocyanate dehydrogenase gene is present in 10 different Thioalkalivibrio strains, in two distinct genomic contexts/genotypes. The first genotype is defined by having genes for flavocytochrome c sulfide dehydrogenase upstream from the thiocyanate dehydrogenase operon (present in two strains including the type strain of Tv. paradoxus), whereas in the second genotype these genes are located downstream, together with two additional genes of unknown function (present in eight strains, including the type strains of Tv. thiocyanoxidans). Additionally, we found differences in the presence/absence of genes for various sulfur oxidation pathways, such as sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, dissimilatory

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF RECLAMATION OF SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO USING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous reclamation technologies based on sewage sludge treatment, however, one that is most purposeful consists in applying the sludge in order to achieve green cover (bioremediation with plants on fine grained waste disposal sites which have a high potential for soil formation on the one hand, but on the other, are highly vulnerable to erosive action of wind and atmospheric precipitation. The technological waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant has liquid consistence, contains fine-grained (dust-like and water soluble calcium compounds, and is highly alkaline and saline. The waste was disposed and dehydrated in the large-area earthen ponds elevated beyond the ground level. The combined surface of all the exploited settling ponds (with roads and escarpments jointly exceeds 105 ha. Dehydration by infiltration and evaporation was a source of unrestricted dust emissions from the drying and dry surfaces of the waste site. Urgent action was then deemed necessary to manage the high risk of nuisance dust to the local population, technical infrastructure, engines and cars. Consequently, it was decided that the best way to manage nuisance dust would be to create a thick and permanent vegetal cover on the waste site. The vegetal cover would also limit salt infiltration from the disposal site to groundwater and to adjacent agricultural land, and contribute to improving the local landscape values. Treatment with adequately high (appropriate for reclamation purposes doses of sewage sludge and sowing of plants which have a high growth potential and nutrient demand resulted in the quick establishment of green cover on the waste disposal site. The contents of mineral elements in plants and in the top layer of the ground reclaimed were analyzed starting from the year 2000 onwards until the year 2013. The chemical composition of sewage sludge was systematically analyzed as well. No excessive contents were found of main elements neither of heavy metals in

  7. Beyond baking soda: Demonstrating the link between volcanic eruptions and viscosity to all ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithka, I. N.; Walters, R. L.; Harpp, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Public interest in volcanic eruptions and societal relevance of volcanic hazards provide an excellent basis for successful earth science outreach. During a museum-based earth science outreach event free and open to the public, we used two new interactive experiments to illustrate the relationship between gas content, magma viscosity, and eruption style. Learning objectives for visitors are to understand: how gas drives volcanic eruptions, the differences between effusive and explosive eruption styles, viscosity's control on gas pressure within a magma reservoir, and the role of gas pressure on eruption style. Visitors apply the scientific method by asking research questions and testing hypotheses by conducting the experiments. The demonstrations are framed with real life examples of volcanic eruptions (e.g., Mt. St. Helens eruption in 1980), providing context for the scientific concepts. The first activity demonstrates the concept of fluid viscosity and how gas interacts with fluids of different viscosities. Visitors blow bubbles into water and corn syrup. The corn syrup is so viscous that bubbles are trapped, showing how a more viscous material builds up higher gas pressure. Visitors are asked which kind of magma (high or low viscosity) will produce an explosive eruption. To demonstrate an explosive eruption, visitors add an Alka-Seltzer tablet to water in a snap-top film canister. The reaction rapidly produces carbon dioxide gas, increasing pressure in the canister until the lid pops off and the canister launches a few meters into the air (tinyurl.com/nzsgfoe). Increasing gas pressure in the canister is analogous to gas pressure building within a magma reservoir beneath a volcano. The lid represents high-viscosity magma that prevents degassing, causing gas pressure to reach explosive levels. This interactive activity is combined with a display of an effusive eruption: add vinegar to baking soda in a model volcano to produce a quick-flowing eruption. These

  8. Testing Novel CR-39 Detector Deployment System For Identification of Subsurface Fractures, Soda Springs, ID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carpenter, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brandon, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zavala, Bernie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has teamed with Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to facilitate further testing of geologic-fracture-identification methodology at a field site near the Monsanto Superfund Site located in Soda Springs, Idaho. INL has the necessary testing and technological expertise to perform this work. Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) has engaged INL to perform this work through a Work for Others (WFO) Agreement. This study continues a multi-year collaborative effort between INL and EPA to test the efficacy of using field deployed Cr-39 radon in soil portals. This research enables identification of active fractures capable of transporting contaminants at sites where fractures are suspected pathways into the subsurface. Current state of the art methods for mapping fracture networks are exceedingly expensive and notoriously inaccurate. The proposed WFO will evaluate the applicability of using cheap, readily available, passive radon detectors to identify conductive geologic structures (i.e. fractures, and fracture networks) in the subsurface that control the transport of contaminants at fracture-dominated sites. The proposed WFO utilizes proven off-the-shelf technology in the form of CR-39 radon detectors, which have been widely deployed to detect radon levels in homes and businesses. In an existing collaborative EPA/INL study outside of this workscope,. CR-39 detectors are being utilized to determine the location of active transport fractures in a fractured granitic upland adjacent to a landfill site at the Fort Devens, MA that EPA-designated as National Priorities List (NPL) site. The innovative concept of using an easily deployed port that allows the CR-39 to measure the Rn-222 in the soil or alluvium above the fractured rock, while restricting atmospheric Rn-222 and soil sourced Ra from contaminating the detector is unique to INL and EPA approach previously developed. By deploying a series of these

  9. Interactions of hypericin with a model mutagen - Acridine orange analyzed by light absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Monika; Szabelski, Mariusz; Kasparek, Adam; Wieczorek, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to estimate the ability of hypericin to interact with a model mutagen - acridine orange. The hetero-association of hypericin and acridine orange was investigated with absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy methods in aqueous solution of DMSO. The data indicate that hypericin forms complexes with acridine orange and that the association constants are relatively high and depend on DMSO concentration. The absorption spectra of the hypericin - acridine orange complexes were examined as well. Owing to its ability to interact with flat aromatic compounds, hypericin may potentially be used as an interceptor molecule.

  10. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC; ice cream with fiber (F1 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB; ice cream with fiber (F2 from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD; ice cream with fiber (F3 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF; and ice cream with fiber (F4 from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH.The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 % and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %. The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids.

  11. Development of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on leaves and fruit of orange trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

    2006-08-01

    Development of Epipyas postvittna (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on leaves and fruit of 'Valencia', 'Washington navel', and 'Navelina' orange trees was studied under constant and fluctuating temperatures. E. postvittna was able to complete its life cycle feeding exclusively on leaves or fruit of orange trees. However, larval survival rate was very low (types of orange tissues, young orange leaves and fruit afforded larvae higher survival rates than mature orange leaves and fruit. Fruit (young or mature) produced heavier pupae than leaves (young or mature). Larvae developed more slowly on mature orange fruit than on other orange materials and more slowly on orange leaves than on leaves of most noncitrus hosts. Degree-day accumulations based on the fastest developmental rates obtained in this study suggested that E. postvittna is capable of completing 4.4-4.7 generations per year in orange orchards in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Implications of the results in the management of the insect in citrus are discussed.

  12. The pathogenesis of the fundus peau d'orange and salmon spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, G

    1987-01-01

    The fundus of the eye of a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum showed angioid streaks, fundus peau d'orange and salmon spots, these latter unusually located in the macula. The fluorescein angiography revealed, in the arterial phase, a reticular hyperfluorescence in the areas of fundus peau d'orange and salmon spots. In the venous phase the fluorescence of the fundus peau d'orange was even, while the salmon spots showed staining and hyperfluorescent borders. These findings support the hypothesis that the fundus peau d'orange is due to degeneration of Bruch's membrane and the salmon spots are deiscences of this membrane.

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF WOODY VEGETATION ON SODA WASTE DUMPS IN RELATION TO SPATIAL VARIATION IN SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE MINERAL COVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Zając

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of woody plants in the course of succession on reclaimed soda waste dumps by use of mineral cover was analyzed. The spatial variation in the thickness and granulometric composition of the mineral cover was analysed by the Kriging method. The statistical measurements and geostatistical analysis were used to create maps showing areal variability for the parameters analysed. Analysis of the development of woody vegetation was based on field work and raster layers created on the basis of aerial photographs. No link was found between the parameters of the mineral cover and the distribution and development of spontaneous woody vegetation. The species composition in the study area is limited, and dominated by pioneer species, mainly the expansive black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia. Given that the soda waste disposal site is to be used as urban green spaces, the target ecosystem structure must be considered and a suitable course of action selected: further reclamation procedures improving substrate quality and enrichment of the species composition of the tree stand, or management involving sustaining the current state while controlling the course of natural succession of vegetation.

  14. Data on optimized production and characterization of alkaline proteases from newly isolated alkaliphiles from Lonar soda lake, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundraj Govindrao Rathod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline proteases are one of the industrially important enzymes and generally preferred from alkaliphilic sources. Here we have provided the data on optimized production and characterization of alkaline proteases from five newly isolated and identified alkaliphiles from Lonar soda lake, India. The data provided for optimization of physicochemical parameters for maximum alkaline proteases production is based on OVAT (one variable at a time approach. Alkaline protease production (U/mL recorded by using different agro industrial residues is included in the given data. Further readers can find more information in our previously published research article where we have already described about the methods used and comparative analysis of the data recorded regarding optimized production, characterization and application of alkaline proteases isolated from Lonar soda lake isolates (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2016.06.002 [1]. The data provided here by us is useful to other researchers for setting up various suitable statistical models to perform optimization studies other than OVAT approach.

  15. Links between purchase location and stable isotope ratios of bottled water, soda, and beer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Lesley A; Valenzuela, Luciano O; O'Grady, Shannon P; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2010-06-23

    This study investigated the impact of purchase location on the stable isotope ratios of beverages by measuring the delta(2)H and delta(18)O values of bottled water, soda, beer, and tap water collected across the contiguous United States. Measured beverage delta(2)H and delta(18)O values generally fit the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL), suggesting region-of-origin information is recorded in beverage water. Tap water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were strongly correlated with the stable isotope ratios of bottled water and soda purchased in the same location. Beer water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were also correlated with tap water, although not as strongly. Variability in delta(2)H and delta(18)O values among beverages purchased at a single location ranged from 2 to 41 per thousand and from 0.3 to 5.2 per thousand, respectively, but was generally moderate in most locations. It was concluded that the isotopic composition of local tap water is a reasonable proxy for consumers' fluid intake in most U.S. cities.

  16. ANUITAS LAST SURVIVOR UNTUK KASUS TIGA ORANG TERTANGGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Sari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pada asuransi multiple life, terdapat dua istilah berdasarkan status kematian dari kumpulan tertanggung yaitu joint life dan last survivor. Perbedaan status multiple life ini pada asuransi adalah waktu pemberian uang pertanggungannya. Suatu status dikatakan joint life jika pemberian uang pertanggungan dilakukan pada saat orang pertama meninggal dan status dikatakan life survivor jika pemberian uang pertanggungan dilakukan pada saat semuanya telah meninggal. Untuk mendapatkan uang pertanggungan, tertanggung haruslah membayarkan sejumlah premi. Jika ingin mengkonversikan premi tunggal menjadi premi berkala diperlukan anuitas. Untuk kasus asuransi last survivor kita akan menggunakan anuitas last survivor. Hasil akhir dari proses penelitian penulis akan menghasilkan rumusan matematika nilai sekarang anuitas awal dan anuitas akhir  untuk kasus dua orang dan tiga orang pada status last survivor.In multiple life insurance, there are two terms based on the status of the death of the insured is a collection of joint life and last survivor. The difference is in the status of multiple life insurance is the timing of cash coverage. A status is said to be a joint life insurance money if provision was made during the first die and life survivor status if the provision of insurance money made at the time are all dead. To get the sum insured, the insured must pay a premium. If you want to convert into a single premium be regular premium, annuity required. For the last survivor insurance cases we will use the last survivor annuity. The end result of the research process will generate mathematical formulas of present value due annuity and immediate annuity for the case of two and three people in the last survivor status.

  17. Orange oil effect in the control of fennel aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the properties where fennel is grown, in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco and Paraiba, at the Northeast of Brazil, a high rate of usage of pesticides in the crop, aiming to control the aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of orange oil Prev-Am (sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate, in the control of H. foeniculi aphid of the fennel crop. The trial was conducted in a fennel field located in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, belonging to the EMEPA-PB. Forty-eight hours after the product has been sprayed, one flower of the umbel was collected and removed her aphids, which were placed in a "petri" plate from 9cm in diameter. As a following step, the insects were counted as part of two groups, considering the number of insects dead and alive, being tabulated for later analysis. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, using the experimental design of randomized blocks composed of six treatments (doses of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7% of orange oil (Prev-am and pure water as check, with five repetitions. The data were submitted to the regression analysis. The orange oil (Prev-am controls effectively H. foeniculi at the concentration of 0.3%, increasing the control up to concentrations of 0.6 and 0.7%. The product does not kill ladybugs (Cycloneda sanguinea and can be used in programs for integrated pest management.Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare, aphid, vegetable oil, ladybug, umbel.

  18. Orange oil effect in the control of fennel aphid

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque; Luciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito; Carlos Henrique de Brito; Edson Batista Lopes; Jacinto de Luna Batista

    2009-01-01

    In the properties where fennel is grown, in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco and Paraiba, at the Northeast of Brazil, a high rate of usage of pesticides in the crop, aiming to control the aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of orange oil Prev-Am (sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate), in the control of H. foeniculi aphid of the fennel crop. The trial was conducted in a fennel field located in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, belonging to the ...

  19. Obtaining lipases from byproducts of orange juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino-Delgado, Clarissa Hamaio; Fleuri, Luciana Francisco

    2014-11-15

    The presence of lipases was observed in three byproducts of orange juice processing: peel, core and frit. The enzymes were characterised biochemically over a wide pH range from neutral (6-7) to alkaline (8-9). The optimal temperature for the activity of these byproducts showed wide range at 20°C to 70°C, indicating fairly high thermostability. The activities were monitored on p-NP-butyrate, p-NP-laurate and p-NP-palmitate. For the first time, lipase activity was detected in these residues, reaching 68.5 lipase U/g for the crude extract from fractions called frit.

  20. Preparation of carbon monoliths from orange peel for NOx retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of monoliths are prepared from orange peels and chemically activated with H3PO4, KOH, ZnCl2, and water vapor without a binder. The monoliths were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77 K, Boehm titrations and XPS. Thereafter, monoliths were tested for their ability to establish NOx retention. The results show that the retention capacities of NOx were a function of the textural properties and chemistries. The carbons synthesized with ZnCl2 and KOH retained similar amounts of NOx.

  1. Amylases from orange leaves. Characterization and relation to starch breakdown.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Grau, Amparo; Guardiola Bárcena, José Luis

    1988-01-01

    Starch content in adult orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) leaves was highest at the end of the winter rest period and decreased during flowering and fruit set. Young inflorescence leaves accumulated starch until the June drop period to decrease to a low value at the end of it. Both, α- and ß-amylase activities were found in the leaves and the enzymes separated through Sephadex G100 filtration. By electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels with 0.25 % amylopectine, α-amylase was resolved in 5 ba...

  2. Metal loading in Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park, Montana and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis of previous research; and quantification of metal loading, August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acid drainage from historic mining activities has affected the water quality and aquatic biota of Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park. Numerous investigations focusing on metals contamination have been conducted in the Soda Butte Creek basin, but interpretations of how metals contamination is currently impacting Soda Butte Creek differ greatly. A retrospective analysis of previous research on metal loading in Soda Butte Creek was completed to provide summaries of studies pertinent to metal loading in Soda Butte Creek and to identify data gaps warranting further investigation. Identification and quantification of the sources of metal loading to Soda Butte Creek was recognized as a significant data gap. The McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site has long been identified as a source of metals but its contribution relative to the total metal load entering Yellowstone National Park was unknown. A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was designed to determine metal loads upstream of Yellowstone National Park.A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was conducted on an 8,511-meter reach of Soda Butte Creek from upstream of the McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site downstream to the Yellowstone National Park boundary in August 1999. Synoptic-sampling sites were selected to divide the creek into discrete segments. A lithium bromide tracer was injected continuously into Soda Butte Creek for 24.5 hours. Downstream dilution of the tracer and current-meter measurements were used to calculate the stream discharge. Stream discharge values, combined with constituent concentrations obtained by synoptic sampling, were used to quantify constituent loading in each segment of Soda Butte Creek.Loads were calculated for dissolved calcium, silica, and sulfate, as well as for dissolved and total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese. Loads were not calculated for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc because these elements were infrequently

  3. Extraction of orange peel's essential oil by solvent-free microwave extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadariyah, Lailatul; Amelia, Prilia Dwi; Admiralia, Cininta; Bhuana, Donny S.; Mahfud, Mahfud

    2017-05-01

    Sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis) is part of orange plant that contains essential oils. Generally, taking essential oil from orange peel is still using hydrodistillation and steam-hydrodistillation method which still needs solvent and takes a long time to produce high quality essential oil. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment are to study the process of orange peel's essential oil extraction using Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) and to study the operating condition that effect an optimum yield and quality of the essential oil. In this experiment, extraction process with SFME method goes for 60 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Variables for SFME are: variation of orange peel condition (fresh and dry), ratio orange peel mass to distiller volume (0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 g/mL), orange peel size (±0,5; ±2; ±3,5 cm width), and microwave power (100, 264, 400 Watt). Moisture content of fresh peel is 71,4% and for dry peel is 17,37% which is obtained by sun drying. The result of this experiment will be analyzed with GC-MS, SEM, density, and miscibility in ethanol 90%. The optimum result obtained from this experiment based on the number of the yield under condition of fresh orange peel is at peel mass/distiller volume 0,1 g/mL, orange peel size ±3,5 cm width, and microwave power 400 Watt, results 1,6738% yield. The result of GC-MS for fresh orange peel shows that the dominant compound is Limonene 54,140% and for dry orange peel is Limonene 59,705%. The density obtained is around 0,8282-0,8530 g/mL and miscibility in ethanol 90% is 1:5.

  4. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. It is widely enjoyed because it shows visually how chemistry - or more precisely, electrochemistry - is responsible for the very common phenomenon of a clock ticking. The chemistry of the process can also be understood on a variety of levels, from middle school (simple electron flow in a circuit, Ohm's law) and high school (reduction/oxidation and standard cell potentials) to first-year college (cell potential at nonideal conditions) and graduate school courses (overpotential and charge transfer across interfaces.) The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration. The History The demonstration was devised by one of us (PK) in 1986, after reading an activity in Hubert Alyea's 1947 compendium of chemical demonstrations from this Journal (1). In that activity, Alyea hooked a magnesium strip to the negative battery terminal of an electric bell and hooked a copper strip to the positive terminal. He placed the loose ends of the strips into a 1M 2SO4 solution and the bell rang. After trying the demonstration, it seemed to make sense to modify the electrolyte to orange juice because it is safe, readily available, and would be a mixture in which the magnesium would oxidize more slowly than in sulfuric acid. Further, a clock was substituted for the bell because a clock is easier on the ears than a bell. A video of the orange-juice clock setup is given as Figure 1. Figure 1.The orange juice clock set up. Video of orange juice clock was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The apparatus was presented in 1987 as part of a teacher workshop led by Irwin Talesnick, then of Queen's University in Canada. Talesnick, whose distinguished career has been

  5. Mycorrhiza alters the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, De-Jian; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua; Wu, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Root hairs and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) coexist in root systems for nutrient and water absorption, but the relation between AM and root hairs is poorly known. A pot study was performed to evaluate the effects of four different AM fungi (AMF), namely, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora versiformis, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices on root hair development in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings grown in sand. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed significantly higher root hair density than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, irrespective of AMF species. AMF inoculation generally significantly decreased root hair length in the first- and second-order lateral roots but increased it in the third- and fourth-order lateral roots. AMF colonization induced diverse responses in root hair diameter of different order lateral roots. Considerably greater concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitric oxide (NO), glucose, sucrose, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found in roots of AM seedlings than in non-AM seedlings. Levels of P, NO, carbohydrates, IAA, and MeJA in roots were correlated with AM formation and root hair development. These results suggest that AMF could alter the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange through modulation of physiological activities. F. mosseae, which had the greatest positive effects, could represent an efficient AM fungus for increasing fruit yields or decreasing fertilizer inputs in citrus production.

  6. Genetic Signature of Anthropogenic Population Collapse in Orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  7. Genetic signature of anthropogenic population collapse in orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Goossens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  8. Fermented orange juice: source of higher carotenoid and flavanone contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Hornero-Méndez, Damaso; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Berná, Genoveva; Martín, Francisco; Fernández-Pachón, Maria-Soledad

    2013-09-18

    The intake of bioactive compounds and moderate alcohol decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. These effects could be joined in a beverage created by a controlled alcoholic fermentation of orange juice. The influence of controlled alcoholic fermentation on the bioactive compound profile of orange juice has not been previously evaluated, and this is the purpose of the present study. Total and individual flavanones and carotenoids significantly increased throughout the fermentation. The reason for this was an enhanced extraction of these compounds from the pulp. Besides, the potential bioavailability of flavanones increased due to a higher content of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (2-fold higher at the end of the fermentation process). Ascorbic acid did not undergo a significant change, and only total phenolics decreased. Antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. TEAC and FRAP values remained constant throughout the process. However, ORAC and DPPH values significantly increased. Correlation analysis concluded that the increase in ORAC and DPPH values could be due to enhancement of flavanones.

  9. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  10. Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-03-15

    The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), ΔE(∗), Cab(∗) and hab were significantly changed during storage (pcolour parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of β-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage.

  11. Effects of light intensity on Tropical Soda Apple and the consequences for performance of its biological control agent, Gratiana boliviana (Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current research was directed at determining the impact of light intensity on the architecture, amino acid content and trichome density and characteristics of Tropical Soda Apple (TSA), Solanum viarum (Solanaceae). TSA plants were grown in a greenhouse either covered with a shade cloth (75% bloc...

  12. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...

  13. Evaluation of mortality factors using life table analysis of Gratiana boliviana, a biological control agent of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (TSA), Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae), has invaded many pastures and natural areas in Florida. The biological control agent Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is providing adequate control of TSA stands in South and Central Florida. However, poor or no es...

  14. Influence of sun and shade conditions on Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) abundance and feeding activity on tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a perennial invasive weed species which has become a serious problem in both agricultural and natural areas of the southeastern United States. A field survey was conducted at a ranch in Madison County, Florida, to assess the effect of sun and shade condi...

  15. Preparation of soda-lime glass using rock wool waste; Preparacao de vidros sodo-calcicos utilizando residuo de la de rocha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, F.C.; Della, V.P. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ballmann, T.J.S.; Folgueras, M.V. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil); Junkes, J.A., E-mail: janajunkes@gmail.com [Centro Universitario Tiradentes, Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Discarded by the mining industry during the maintenance stoppages of pelletizing furnaces, rock wool has in its composition SiO{sub 2} (56%), Na{sub 2} O (12%) and CaO (7%) propitious for obtaining soda-lime glasses. Under this focus, this work developed soda-lime glasses formulations, using as main raw-material rock wool waste in proportions from 50 to 100% by adjusting the chemical composition of the formulations with sand, sodium and calcium carbonates, as silica, soda and lime sources, respectively. In some formulations the sodium carbonate was replaced by sodium sulfate, which acts as a refining agent, improving homogenization and reducing the bubble formation during the melting. Initially, the raw-materials were evaluated by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The tests showed that the rock wool waste has potential to be used in soda-lime glasses production, however, the chemical composition must be corrected. After knowing the waste potential, seven mixtures were prepared and molten at 1550 °C for 1 to 2 h. It has been found that the maximum rock wool waste percentage that can be used is between 60 and 80%, and that the 2 h melting time resulted in more homogeneous glasses and fewer bubbles according to the addition of sodium sulfate which is efficient for bubbles removal. (author)

  16. Rectifying systems of ionic membrane caustic soda synchronized debugging%离子膜烧碱整流系统同步调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琦; 孔强; 王小红

    2011-01-01

    论述了离子膜烧碱整流系统同步调试的原理、步骤和注意事项。%Discusses of rectifying systems for ionic membrane caustic soda synchronized debugging principles, steps and considerations.

  17. 一种低盐重质纯碱生产的新工艺%A New Technology of Manufacturing Heavy Soda with Low Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝莉; 殷俊

    2016-01-01

    This paper, combining the merits of ammonia-soda process, combined-soda process, caustic-soda carbonization method and trona monohydrate process in the process of making sodium carbonate, presents a method of production which combines the constitutional features of Honghua products to manufacture heavy soda with low salt. It is hoped that it can satisfy the requirements of sodium carbonate products in Honghua from the perspectives of structural adjustment of raw material, economizing expenditure, enhancing the quality of production and environmental friendly.%文章结合氨碱法、联碱法、烧碱碳化法、天然碱一水碱法生产纯碱各自的优点提出一种结合鸿化产品构成特点的低盐重质纯碱的生产方法,以希望从原料结构调整、节约投资、提高产品质量和环保的角度来满足鸿化对纯碱产品的要求。

  18. Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

  19. Analysis of community composition of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in hypersaline and soda lakes using soxB as a functional molecular marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tourova, T.P.; Slobodova, N.V.; Bumazhkin, B.K.; Kolganova, T.V.; Muijzer, G.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of soxB gene encoding a key enzyme of the Sox pathway sulfate thiohydrolase has been investigated in pure cultures of various halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and in salt and soda lakes in southwestern Siberia and Egypt. The gene was detected in the

  20. Photoactivity and pH sensitivity of methyl orange functionalized poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, A.; Zuidema, E.; Williams, R.M.; De Cola, L.; Kauffmann, C.; Vögtle, F.; Roque, A.; Pina, F.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time a pH indicator that responds to two different external stimuli, i.e. pH and light, namely methyl orange, has been implemented in a dendrimer. Six generations (G0-G5) of methyl orange-functionalized poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers ("MO dendrimers") have been synthesized and

  1. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced...

  2. Application of ultraviolet-C light on oranges for the inactivation of postharvest wound pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germicidal effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on the postharvest wound pathogens of citrus fruits namely Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum were investigated. P. digitatum and P. italicum spores were inoculated (4.00 – 4.50 log cfu/ orange) onto Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinens...

  3. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... duty order on OJ from Brazil. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 5563 (Feb. 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012) (ITC... Orange Juice From Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). \\4\\ The Department preliminarily found that...

  4. The vitamin C content of orange juice packed in an oxygen scavenger material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerdin, K.; Rooney, M.L.; Vermuë, J.

    2003-01-01

    A storage study of orange juice packed in oxygen scavenging (OS) film and oxygen barrier film was conducted to determine the extent of ascorbic acid loss due to oxygen as a function of time and temperature. The initial concentration of ascorbic acid in the orange juice was 374 mg/l and this was foun

  5. RANCANG BANGUN PROTOTIPE PENGHITUNG JUMLAH ORANG DALAM RUANGAN TERPADU BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER ATMEGA328P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Agung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya permintaan energi dunia akhir-akhir ini dan makin mahalnya harga minyak dunia menyebabkan makin tingginya harga energi listrik (TDL dari PLN. Hal ini secara langsung menyebabkan biaya operasional sebuah gedung atau ruangan semakin meningkat karena pemakaian KWH energi yang harus dibayar setiap bulan. Untuk mengurangi permasalahan  ini akan dibuat prototipe  penghitung jumlah orang dalam ruangan terpadu berbasis Mikrokontroler ATMega328P. Sistem ini adalah menghitung jumlah orang yang masuk dan keluar pada sebuah ruangan menggunakan sensor infrared dengan mikrokontroler ATMega 328P sebagai pengendalinya. Peralatan ini akan memadukan kehadiran atau jumlah orang dalam ruangan dengan hidup matinya lampu penerangan dan pengkondisi udara ruangan (AC  sehingga ruangan tetap layak digunakan dan pemakaian energinya  bisa dikurangi. Jumlah orang yang ada dalam ruangan didapat dengan mengurangi jumlah orang yang masuk dengan jumlah orang  yang ke luar dari ruangan tersebut. Jumlah orang yang ada dalam ruangan dan waktu saat itu  ditampilkan pada layar LCD.  Sistem ini juga dilengkapi rangkaian pengendali  hidup matinya lampu penerangan di depan ruangan (di luar ruangan dengan menggunakan RTC DS 1307. Dengan pengendalian ini lampu penerangan  dapat menyala otomatis pada sore hari dan mati  saat pagi hari pada waktu yang sudah diset sebelumnya. Prototipe sistem yang dibuat sudah mampu menghitung  jumlah orang yang berada dalam suatu ruangan dan mengatur hidup mati lampu penerangan dan pengkondisi udara ruangan tersebut.

  6. The vitamin C content of orange juice packed in an oxygen scavenger material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerdin, K.; Rooney, M.L.; Vermuë, J.

    2003-01-01

    A storage study of orange juice packed in oxygen scavenging (OS) film and oxygen barrier film was conducted to determine the extent of ascorbic acid loss due to oxygen as a function of time and temperature. The initial concentration of ascorbic acid in the orange juice was 374 mg/l and this was

  7. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... fly (Ceratitis capitata); however, imports of oranges from Egypt were suspended in July 2002 due to... with 7 CFR part 305 for C. capitata and B. zonata; and The oranges and tangerines must be accompanied... has undergone treatment for C. capitata and B. zonata in accordance with 7 CFR part 305, with an...

  8. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Quanling

    2014-05-01

    Catalytic ultrasonic degradation of aqueous methyl orange was studied in this paper. Heterogeneous catalyst MnO2/CeO2 was prepared by impregnation of manganese oxide on cerium oxide. Morphology and specific surface area of MnO2/CeO2 catalyst were characterized and its composition was determined. Results showed big differences between fresh and used catalyst. The removal efficiency of methyl orange by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process was investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic process could remove 3.5% of methyl orange while catalytic ultrasonic process could remove 85% of methyl orange in 10 min. The effects of free radical scavengers were studied to determine the role of hydroxyl free radical in catalytic ultrasonic process. Results showed that methyl orange degradation efficiency declined after adding free radical scavengers, illustrating that hydroxyl free radical played an important role in degrading methyl orange. Theoretic analysis showed that the resonance size of cavitation bubbles was comparable with the size of catalyst particles. Thus, catalyst particles might act as cavitation nucleus and enhance ultrasonic cavitation effects. Measurement of H2O2 concentration in catalytic ultrasonic process confirmed this hypothesis. Effects of pre-adsorption on catalytic ultrasonic process were examined. Pre-adsorption significantly improved methyl orange removal. The potential explanation was that methyl orange molecules adsorbed on catalysts could enter cavitation bubbles and undergo stronger cavitation.

  9. Photoactivity and pH sensitivity of methyl orange functionalized poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, A.; Zuidema, E.; Williams, R.M.; De Cola, L.; Kauffmann, C.; Vögtle, F.; Roque, A.; Pina, F.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time a pH indicator that responds to two different external stimuli, i.e. pH and light, namely methyl orange, has been implemented in a dendrimer. Six generations (G0-G5) of methyl orange-functionalized poly(propyleneamine) dendrimers ("MO dendrimers") have been synthesized and charact

  10. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  11. APLIKASI BERBAKTI: PERANCANGAN ARSITEKTUR PERANGKAT LUNAK PENGHUBUNG ANAK DENGAN ORANG TUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Agus Santoso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan perawatan kondisi orang tua sangat perlu dilakukan seiring dengan berjalannya waktu. Hambatan mulai terjadi jika antara orang tua dan anak terpisah dalam kondisi yang cukup jauh sehingga anak sebagai pihak perawat orang tua tidak dapat maksimal dalam memberikan pemantauan dan perawatan secara intens, terlebih lagi perkembangan teknologi membuat orang tua pun kesulitan dalam menggunakan teknologi terkini. Untuk mengakomodasi dan memberikan solusi atas permasalahan tersebut maka perlu pengembangan perangkat lunak yang memudahkan anak dalam memantau dan merawat orang tua secara intens. Perangkat lunak yang dikembangkan terdiri dari dua buah perangkat lunak yang saling terhubung yaitu caregiver app yang digunakan oleh anak dan elder app yang digunakan oleh orang tua. Oleh karena dalam hal ini orang tua juga menggunakan perangkat lunak aplikasi tersebut, maka elder app dikembangkan secara khusus supaya mudh digunakan oleh orang tua. Tidak hanya pada elder app, desain sistem pada perangkat lunak ini dimodelkan secara khusus dan menjadi pembahasan dalam paper ini. Kata Kunci: caregiving, orangtua, anak, perkuat jalinan hubungan

  12. GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

  13. Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, W.H.; Miller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents. Th...

  14. Exploring Antagonistic Candidate Fungi for Controling Pathogenic Fungi (Colletotricum gloeosporioides) Causing Anthracnose Disease in Kintamani Siam Orange Plants (Citrus Nobillis Lour Var. Hass)

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Nyoman Darsini; I Made Sudana; I Dewa Ngurah Suprapta; Dewa Nyoman Nyana

    2017-01-01

    Orange plantation center in Bali are located in Bangli Regency, Kintamani District. Kintamani orange plantations cultivated three types of oranges: tangerine, selayer, and mandarin oranges. The famous orange in Bali today is Kintamani orange,  tangerine type.  The typical flavor and aroma of Kintamani tangerine make it is favored by consumers from various regions. Based on the information from Bangli District Agriculture Office and the results of field surveys in the last two years (in 2013 a...

  15. Study on Processing Technology of Moringa oleiferaSoda Cracker%辣木苏打饼干的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡钰; 史文斌; 苏琳琳; 李守岭; 林兴文

    2016-01-01

    [目的]确定辣木苏打饼干最佳工艺配方。[方法]以辣木粉为主要原料,通过单因素和正交试验研究辣木粉、酵母、食用油、NaH-CO34种物质添加量对辣木苏打饼干品质的影响。[结果]各因素对辣木苏打饼干品质影响大小依次为辣木粉添加量、食用油添加量、NaHCO3添加量、酵母添加量,得出辣木苏打饼干最佳配方为辣木粉添加量350 g/kg,酵母添加量18 g/kg,食用油添加量170 g/kg,NaH-CO3添加量6 g/kg,制作出的辣木苏打饼干口感酥脆,具有辣木的特征香味。[结论]该试验所得工艺配方可为辣木苏打饼干的工业化生产提供理论指导。%Objective] The optimal preparation technique for Moringa oleifera soda biscuit was determined.[Method] With Moringa oleifera powder as main material,based on the single-factor and orthogonal test,effects of the amount of Moringa oleifera powder,yeast,edible oil,NaHCO3 on soda biscuit taste were studied.[Result] The order of factors influencing sensory evaluation was Moringa oleifera powder,edible oil,NaHCO3 , yeast.The optimum conditions were as follows:the amount of Moringa oleifera powder 350 g/kg,yeast 18 g/kg,edible oil 170 g/kg and NaHCO3 6 g/kg.Under the above conditions,the crackers were obtained with crisp taste and unique flavor.[Conclusion] The study can provide theoretical guidance for the industrial processing of Moringa oleifera soda biscuit.

  16. Isolation and properties of obligately chemolithoautotrophic and extremely alkali-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from Mongolian soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, D; Tourova, T; Schmid, M C; Wagner, M; Koops, H P; Kuenen, J G; Jetten, M

    2001-09-01

    Five mixed samples prepared from the surface sediments of 20 north-east Mongolian soda lakes with total salt contents from 5 to 360 g/l and pH values from 9.7 to 10.5 were used to enrich for alkaliphilic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Successful enrichments at pH 10 were achieved on carbonate mineral medium containing 0.6 M total Na(+) and < or =4 mM NH(4)Cl. Five isolates (ANs1-ANs5) of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria capable of growth at pH 10 were obtained from the colonies developed on bilayered gradient plates. The cells were motile and coccoid, with well-developed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICPM) and carboxysomes. At pH 10.0, ammonia was toxic for growth at concentrations higher than 5 mM NH(4)Cl. The bacteria were able to grow within the salinity range of 0.1-1.0 M of total Na+ (optimum 0.3 M). In media containing 0.3-0.6 M total Na(+), optimal growth in batch cultures occurred in the presence of a bicarbonate/carbonate buffer system within the pH range 8.5-9.5, with the highest pH limit at pH 10.5. At pH lower than 8.0, growth was slower, most probably due to decreasing free ammonia. The pH profile of the respiratory activity was broader, with limits at 6.5-7.0 and 11.0 and an optimum at 9.5-10.0. In pH-controlled, NH(3)-limited continuous culture, isolate ANs5 grew up to pH 11.3, which is the highest pH limit known for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria so far. This showed the existence of extremely alkali-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the soda lakes. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis of the five isolates demonstrated that they possess identical 16S rDNA genes and that they are closely related to Nitrosomonas halophila (sequence similarity 99.3%), a member of the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. This affiliation was confirmed by comparative sequence analysis of the amoA gene, encoding the active-site subunit of the ammonia-monoxygenase, of one of the isolates. DNA-DNA hybridization data further supported that the soda lake isolates are very similar to

  17. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method; Preparazione intestinale per clisma del colon mediante fosfo-soda fleet: studio comparativo con il sistema tradizionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchioli Caldazza, A.; Celi, G.; De Franco, A.; Parrella, A.; Minordi, L.M.; Marano, P. [Rome Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy). Ist. di radiologia

    1999-05-01

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters. [Italian] Lo studio si propone di valutare la possibilita' di ottimizzare una tecnica di preparazione intestinale estremamente tollerabile e versatile che permetta di ottenere l'adeguata liberazione del lume del contenuto con conseguente miglioramento del risultato diagnostico e riduzione del rischio del prolungamento della durata dell'ospedalizzazione dei pazienti non idoneamente preparati. Sono stati valuati 40 pazienti, 20 maschi e 20 femmine, afferenti alla struttura dell'Istituto di radiologia dell'Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore-Unita' apparato gastrointestinale, per essere sottoposti a clisma del colon con doppio mdc. Tutti i dati sono stati valutati statisticamente mediante test di Wilcoxon. La preparazione intestinale effettuata somministrando fosfo-soda fleet si e' dimostrata superiore rispetto a quella tradizionale per la variabile tollerabilita', fornendo contemporaneamente dati sovrapponibili a quelli del sistema tradizionale, soddisfacenti in assoluto, riguardo agli altri parametri esaminati.

  18. Microwave-assisted extraction and determination of citrus red 2 dye in oranges and orange juice by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Zhenou; Huang, Fuzhen; Chen, Xiangzhun; Shen, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A fast, simple, low cost, and high-throughput method has been developed for the determination of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples. The procedure is based on microwave-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The method was optimized, and the analyte was efficiently extracted from the samples in 30 min using hexane/acetone (v/v, 3 : 1). The method was validated and showed good linearity and selectivity. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 5 μg/kg (sample size of 2 g) for both orange and orange juice samples. The average recoveries, measured at 3 concentration levels (5, 10, and 20 μg/kg), were in the range 77.5% to 87.6% for the compound tested with relative standard deviations below 7.3%. The proposed method is rapid, accurate, and could be utilized for the routine analysis of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples.

  19. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamin C from differently processed oranges and orange juices [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschoff, Julian K; Kaufmann, Sabrina; Kalkan, Onur; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-01-21

    Carotenoid, flavonoid, and vitamin C concentrations were determined in fresh orange segments and a puree-like homogenate derived thereof, as well as freshly squeezed, flash-pasteurized, and pasteurized juices. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were slightly degraded during dejuicing, whereas β-carotene levels were retained. Vitamin C levels remained unaffected, whereas flavonoid levels decreased 8-fold upon juice extraction, most likely due to the removal of flavonoid-rich albedo and juice vesicles. Likewise, the presence of such fibrous matrix compounds during in vitro digestion was assumed to significantly lower the total bioaccessibility (BA) of all carotenoids from fresh fruit segments (12%) as compared to juices (29-30%). Mechanical disruption of orange segments prior to digestion did not alter carotenoid BA, whereas pasteurization of the freshly squeezed juice slightly increased BA by 9-11%. In addition to carotenoid BA, the stabilities of hesperidin, narirutin, and vitamin C including dehydroascorbic acid during in vitro digestion were monitored, and applied analytical methods were briefly validated.

  20. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  1. Effect of anionic surfactants on the process of Fenton degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    Fenton process has been shown to be very successful to remove dyes from water. However, the influence of other constituents in dyeing industry wastewater, such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) surfactants, has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of SDS surfactant on the kinetics of Methyl Orange degradation undergoing Fenton process was investigated. Results show that Methyl Orange degradation rate decreased as SDS concentration increased, which was attributed to the consumption of hydroxyl radicals (OH) by surfactants and the formation of Methyl Orange-SDS complex. No evidence was found that the Methyl Orange degradation pathway was affected by the presence of SDS. The kinetics modelling indicates the reaction was the first-order reaction to Methyl Orange.

  2. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Anatum infection associated with unpasteurized orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G; Terzagian, R; Hammond, R

    2001-12-01

    In March 1999, a patient was infected with Salmonella serotype Anatum after having consumed unpasteurized orange juice from a manufacturer in Florida. We conducted a cohort study among customers of the manufacturer, performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on isolates, and inspected the manufacturing plant. Surveillance data identified three additional patients infected with Salmonella Anatum showing indistinguishable or closely related PFGE patterns. Three of the four patients had consumed orange juice from the same manufacturer. In the cohort study, 6 of 68 persons (9%) who consumed orange juice and/or orange ice cream from the manufacturer were ill, compared with 1 of 47 (2%) who did not. A positive antigen test for Salmonella species and coliform growth in juice samples taken from the production line suggested contamination during the manufacturing process. Commercially produced orange juice should be pasteurized or otherwise processed to achieve equivalent reduction of pathogens.

  3. A role for the deep orange and carnation eye color genes in lysosomal delivery in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevrioukov, E A; He, J P; Moghrabi, N; Sunio, A; Krämer, H

    1999-10-01

    Deep orange and carnation are two of the classic eye color genes in Drosophila. Here, we demonstrate that Deep orange is part of a protein complex that localizes to endosomal compartments. A second component of this complex is Carnation, a homolog of Sec1p-like regulators of membrane fusion. Because complete loss of deep orange function is lethal, the role of this complex in intracellular trafficking was analyzed in deep orange mutant clones. Retinal cells devoid of deep orange function completely lacked pigmentation and exhibited exaggerated multivesicular structures. Furthermore, a defect in endocytic trafficking was visualized in developing photoreceptor cells. These results provide direct evidence that eye color mutations of the granule group also disrupt vesicular trafficking to lysosomes.

  4. Soda-lime glass microlens arrays fabricated by laser: Comparison between a nanosecond and a femtosecond IR pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Tamara; Nieto, Daniel; Flores-Arias, María Teresa

    2016-11-01

    We present the manufacturing of microlens arrays on soda-lime glass substrates by using two different IR pulsed lasers: a nanosecond Nd:YVO4 laser (1064 nm) and a femtosecond laser based on Ytterbium crystal technology (1030 nm). In both cases, the fabrication technique consists of the combination of a direct-write laser process, followed by a post-thermal treatment assisted by a CO2 laser. Through the analysis of the morphological characteristics of the generated microlenses, the different physical mechanisms involved in the glass ablation process with a nanosecond and a femtosecond laser are studied. In addition, by analyzing the optical features of the microlenses, a better result in terms of the homogeneity and quality of the spot focuses are observed for those microlenses fabricated with the Nd:YVO4 nanosecond laser. Microlens arrays with a diameter of 80 and 90 μm were fabricated.

  5. Selective Deposition of SiO2 on Ion Conductive Area of Soda-lime Glass Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Harada, Kenji; Hara, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Ikutame, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Keiga; Kaiju, Hideo; Nishii, Junji

    2016-06-01

    Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 μm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns.

  6. Effect of ZnO on the Physical Properties and Optical Band Gap of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabri Mohd Ghazali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased.

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNIN REACTIONS IN SODA COOKING OF WHEAT STRAW——PART 1 REACTION OF UNCONDENSED LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaminZhai; YuanzongLai

    2004-01-01

    Characteristics of uncondensed lignin reactions in soda cooking of wheat straw were studied. Mild and intense cooking conditions were used to get the pulp sample in which lignin was dissolved physically and the pulp sample in which lignin was dissolved chemically respectively. The pulp samples were analyzed by phenolic group determination, alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation and ozonation method. The results indicated that around 90% of lignin in wheat straw is alkali-soluble at the mild conditions, is basically dissolved physically without chemical change. The phenolic group content was not changed greatly, the nitrobenzene oxidation yield only changed slightly during the mild cooking. The phenolic group content was increased obviously and uncondensed lignin content was decreased very much when the intense cooking conditions were applied and the delignification was over 90%. The lignin structure was changed greatly during this period.

  8. Radio-frequency-magnetron-sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells on soda-lime glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, M.; Fischer, A.; Grecu, D.; Jayamaha, U.; Bykov, E.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Bohn, R.G.; Compaan, A.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    1996-11-01

    We report the fabrication of an 11.6{percent} efficient, polycrystalline thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cell in which both semiconductor layers were deposited by planar-magnetron-radio-frequency sputtering at 380{degree}C on commercially available soda-lime float-glass substrates coated with SnO{sub 2}:F. We show that the magnetron magnetic field is critical to obtaining high cell efficiency. Much stronger photoluminescence and higher electrical conductivity are found in films and cells grown with unbalanced-field magnetrons. The magnetic field dependence is interpreted as arising from the enhanced electron and ion bombardment of the film growth interface when unbalanced magnetrons are used. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Effect of ZnO on the physical properties and optical band gap of soda lime silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Aziz, Sidek Hj Abdul; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased.

  10. Hot Water Extraction of Corn Stover: Hemicellulose Fractionation and its Effect on Subsequent Soda-AQ Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass is an important process in producing biofuels. In this study, hot water extraction of corn stover hemicellulose was carried out at 150, 160, and 170 °C. Variations of sugar content in the hydrolysate under different holding time were detected. The contents of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde generated during the extraction were also determined. Results showed that the main composition of the hydrolysate was xylo-oligosaccharide; the yield of oligosaccharides first increased as holding time was prolonged. After extraction at 160 °C for 210 min, 70.2% of the total xylan was dissolved, with the generation of furfural (0.90 g/L and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (0.10 g/L. The effects of extraction on alkali pulping and bleaching were also investigated. Results indicated that soda-AQ pulp obtained from the extracted material had poorer tensile and burst strengths but better tear strength.

  11. Molecular analyses of microbial diversity associated with the Lonar soda lake in India: an impact crater in a basalt area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Aijaz Ahmad; Surakasi, Venkata Prasad; Siddharth, Jay; Raghavan, Raamesh Gowri; Patole, Milind S; Ranade, Dilip; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2006-12-01

    The prokaryotic diversity associated with an Indian soda lake (Lonar Crater Lake) located in a basaltic soil area was investigated using a culture-independent approach. Community DNA was extracted directly from four sediment samples obtained by coring to depths of 10-20 cm. Small subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) were amplified by PCR using primers specific to the domains Bacteria and Archaea. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. For the bacterial rDNA clone library, 500 clones were randomly selected for further analysis. After restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and subsequent sequencing, a total of 44 unique phylotypes were obtained. These phylotypes spanned a wide range within the domain Bacteria, occupying eight major lineages/phyla. 34% of the clones were classified as firmicutes. The other clones were grouped into proteobacteria (29.5%), actinobacteria (6.8%), deinococcus-thermus (4.5%), cytophages-flavobacterium-bacteroidetes (13.3%), planctomycetes (6.8%), cyanobacteria (4.5%) and spirochetes (2.27%). In the case of the archaeal 16S rDNA library, analysis of 250 randomly selected clones revealed the presence of 13 distinct phylotypes; 5 phylotypes were associated with Crenarchaeota and 8 with Euryarchaeota. Most of the euryarchaeota sequences were related to methanogens. Findings from this molecular study of a site investigated for the first time have revealed the presence of a highly diverse bacterial population and a comparatively less diverse archaeal population. The majority ( approximately 80%) of the cloned sequences show little affiliation with known taxa (<97% sequence similarity) and may represent novel taxa/sequences and organisms specifically adapted to this basaltic soda lake environment. Diversity analyses demonstrate greater diversity and evenness of bacterial species compared to a skewed representation of species for Archaea.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF VEGETATION COVER ON SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO, FOLLOWING 13-YEAR-LONG RECLAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Henryk Dyguś

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented of vegetation survey on the alkaline and saline soda waste disposal site at Janikowo Soda Plant near Toruń (central Poland. The site was subject to reclamation using diverse techniques including sewage sludge and ash, starting from the year 2000 onwards. The survey was made to evaluate the status of plant succession as well as stability and diversity of vegetation cover. The vegetation was inventoried using the cover-frequency method, on a 10 x 10 m quadrat samples randomly distributed over the reclaimed area. Communities were classified using the Central-European approach by Braun-Blanquet (1964. In 2013, the vegetation was well established and provided a dense cover of the substrate. 108 plant species were found compared to some 5–8 plants which arrived spontaneously until the year 2000. Species richness increased 15 fold since the year when reclamation started. Species of graminoid and Asteraceae families prevailed in most patches of local vegetation. The vegetation cover on sites treated with a mixt of power plant ash and sewage sludge was less stable and less diverse than that on sites where sewage sludge only was applied. Annuals and biennials dominated in the vegetation on ash grounds while more competitive perennials prevailed on sewage sludge substrates. On the latter substrates there develop plant communities classified as an association of smooth meadow grass and common yarrow Poa pratensis-Achillea millefolium, whose species combination closely resembles that of seminatural fresh meadows. On the ash grounds, a variety of associations of ruderal plants were found with dominating Loesel mustard and common mugwort Sisymbrium loeselii-Artemisia vulgaris. Phytoindicatory methods using Ellenberg values have shown that waste substrates contained increased salt concentrations, however, there was no indication of increased heavy metal contents, as no plants tolerating excessive amounts of heavy metals were

  13. 76 FR 43344 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead...

  14. 76 FR 30197 - Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orderon Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade... whether revocation of the antidumping duty orderon orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead...

  15. Orange Is The New Black: um mosaico de identidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tancy, Costa Mavignier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Percebe-se um aumento de protagonistas femininas nas produções audiovisuais. Somado a esse fato novas histórias baseadas em personagens complexos surgem nas séries produzidas pelo Netflix, pensadas para diferentes públicos. Esse artigo pretende descobrir de que forma as personagens femininas na série Orange is the new black subvertem as identidades. Desse modo, deseja-se perceber de que modo a sexualidade atravessa as diferentes identidades étnicas e sociais, focando nas personagens Piper, Boo, Sophia, Taystee e Poussay. Utiliza-se como metodologia a análise das três temporadas da série à luz dos conceitos da subversão das identidades de Judith Butler, da mídia como retrato da sociedade de Douglas Kellner, identidades na pós-modernidade de Stuart Hall e personagem esférico de Edward Morgan Foster.

  16. A Study of Interaction of Methyl Orange with Some Polycations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nandini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an anionic dye methyl orange and three poly cations namely, poly (N-methy-4-vinylpyridinium iodide (PM4VPI, poly (vinylbenzyltriphenyl phosphonium chloride (PVBTPPC and poly (N-methy-4-vinylpyridinium iodide (PM2VPI has been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The polymers were observed to induce metachromasy in the dye as evidenced from the considerable blue shift in the absorption maxima of the dye. The interaction constant and thermodynamic parameters of interaction have been determined by absorbance measurements at the metachromatic band. The effect of additives such as ionic salts, alcohols, urea and polyelectrolytes on the reversal of metachromasy has been studied and used to determine the stability of the metachromatic complex and to understand the nature of binding.

  17. Sonochemical Decolorization of Methyl Orange in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Tie-ling; Chu K.H.; CHEN Guo-qiang

    2006-01-01

    The sonochemical decolorization of Methylene Orange was studied using a 24 kHz Ultrasound device with a 1.4 cm diameter horn. pH, power density, the effects of pH and power density on decolorization were discussed. The combined effect of radiate time, the initial concentration of dyes and the addition of Fe2+ on the decolorization was studied using response surface methodology. The results showed that the factorial central composite design was successfully employed for experimental design and predication of the results. AtpH = 2.8, T=30℃, power denstity= 300 W/L and Fe2+ of 2 mg/L, the decolorization percentage of 5 mg/L dye solution reached 96% after 60 min ultrasound treatment.The rate of decolorization of the dye was greatly improved in the presence of Fe2+. The sonolysis of the dye followed first-order kinetics.

  18. Encapsulation of orange terpenes investigating a plasticisation extrusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackenberg, Markus W; Krauss, Ralph; Schuchmann, Heike P; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Extrusion is widely used for flavour encapsulation. However, there is a lack of process understanding. This study is aimed at improving the understanding of a counter rotating twin screw extrusion process. Orange terpenes as model flavour, maltodextrin and sucrose as matrix materials, and a water feed rate between 4.0% and 5.7% were applied. Product temperatures < 80 °C and specific mechanical energy inputs <260 Wh/kg resulted. Amorphous and partly crystalline samples were obtained. The loss of crystalline sucrose was linked to a dissolution process of the sugar in the available water amount. Melting of the excipients did not arise, resulting in a plasticisation extrusion process. Maximally 67% of the flavour was retained (corresponding to a 4.1% product flavour load). The flavour loss correlated with insufficient mixing during the process and flavour evaporation after extrusion. Based on these results, recommendations for an improved encapsulation process are given.

  19. Wild and Valuable? Tourist Values for Orang-utan Conservation in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K Zander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluffy, orange and endearing, orang-utans have won the hearts of people all over the world. However, all sub-species are endangered in the wild with the Bornean orang-utan population having declined by more than 50% over the past 60 years. Fewer than 2,000 wild orang-utans remain in Sarawak with nearly all truly wild ones confined to a remote site on the Indonesian border. Yet each year thousands of tourists and local Sarawak people see orang-utans semi-wild in a reserve or captive in a rehabilitation centre. We investigated the attitudes of such tourists towards the conservation of the remaining wild populations by means of questionnaires, including a choice experiment. Sixty percent of the respondents were, in principle, willing to pay to ensure survival of a wild orang-utan population. International tourists tended to regard wild survival as being more important than having a high probability of seeing orang-utans personally-indeed they preferred wild orang-utans to be hard to find. Malaysian tourists were more inclined to favour investment in the small number of captive or semi-wild animals. Using conservative judgements of the difference between stated and real willingness-to-pay, we estimated that about USD 6.6 million per year could be made available to wild orang-utan conservation from voluntary contributions by visitors to the semi-wild animals. We also estimated that the 40% of visitors to these facilities who come to Sarawak primarily because of the apes, bring between USD 13 and USD 23 million into the local economy each year through their expenditure on local businesses, about 0.6% of the income earned by Sarawak from timber products. Our results suggest that far fewer would come if there were no wild orang-utans in Sarawak. Thus the value of wild orang-utans in Sarawak can be delivered through the captive facilities but the economic benefits from orang-utans require both captive and wild orang-utans.

  20. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  1. Optimization of the Enzymatic Saccharification Process of Milled Orange Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Velasco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice production generates a very high quantity of residues (Orange Peel Waste or OPW-50–60% of total weight that can be used for cattle feed as well as feedstock for the extraction or production of essential oils, pectin and nutraceutics and several monosaccharides by saccharification, inversion and enzyme-aided extraction. As in all solid wastes, simple pretreatments can enhance these processes. In this study, hydrothermal pretreatments and knife milling have been analyzed with enzyme saccharification at different dry solid contents as the selection test: simple knife milling seemed more appropriate, as no added pretreatment resulted in better final glucose yields. A Taguchi optimization study on dry solid to liquid content and the composition of the enzymatic cocktail was undertaken. The amounts of enzymatic preparations were set to reduce their impact on the economy of the process; however, as expected, the highest amounts resulted in the best yields to glucose and other monomers. Interestingly, the highest content in solid to liquid (11.5% on dry basis rendered the best yields. Additionally, in search for process economy with high yields, operational conditions were set: medium amounts of hemicellulases, polygalacturonases and β-glucosidases. Finally, a fractal kinetic modelling of results for all products from the saccharification process indicated very high activities resulting in the liberation of glucose, fructose and xylose, and very low activities to arabinose and galactose. High activity on pectin was also observed, but, for all monomers liberated initially at a fast rate, high hindrances appeared during the saccharification process.

  2. [Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ren-Dong; Chen, Meng-Lan; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Xing-Yue; Wang, Le-Xin; Liu, Quan-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues.

  3. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  4. A Novel Orange-Red Emitting ZnB4O7:Eu3+ Phosphor with Urchin-Like Nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom Nath Luitel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel phosphor, ZnB4O7:Eu3+, with urchin-like structure consisting of radially arranged high density nanorods was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150°C for 24 h. The nanorods were measured from 200 to 400 nm in diameter and several µm in length. The urchins were few µm to 40 µm in diameter. The ZnB4O7:Eu3+ phosphors were efficiently excited by ultraviolet (UV ~ 254 nm to visible light of ~ 220 to 450 nm and exhibited intense orange-red emission consisting of main peaks at 590, 615, and 695 nm due to the charge transfer in the host and f→f transitions (5D0 to 7F1,2,4 of the Eu3+ ions. Effect of the Eu3+ ions concentration on the photoluminescence (PL emission intensity was investigated and it was found that 5 at% Eu3+ is the optimum concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration quenching mechanism was discussed. The key parameters, such as temperature dependent PL and CIE values of ZnB4O7:Eu3+ phosphors, were studied. The ZnB4O7:Eu3+ phosphor exhibited good thermal stability and better absorption cross section compared to the commercial Y2O2S:Eu3+ phosphor. All these characteristics indicate that the phosphor will be a potential candidate for the UV based white LEDs.

  5. Tracking the degradation of fresh orange juice and discrimination of orange varieties: an example of NMR in coordination with chemometrics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Clayton R; Carneiro, Renato L; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is currently the largest exporter of concentrated orange juice and, unlike the other exporter countries, the domestic consumption is mainly based on the fresh orange juice. The quality control by evaluating the major chemical constituents under the influence of the most important factors, such as temperature and storage time of the product, is very important in this context. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and time on the degradation of fresh orange juice for 24h, by using (1)H NMR technique and chemometric tools for data mining. The storage conditions at 24h led to the production of the formic, fumaric and acetic acids; and an increase of succinic and lactic acids and ethanol, which were observed at low concentration at the initial time. Furthermore, analysis by PCA has successfully distinguished the juice of different species/varieties as well as the metabolites responsible for their separation.

  6. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  7. Decolorization of Orange Ⅱ using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with and without co-substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soon-An Ong; Eiichi Toorisaka; Makoto Hirata; Tadashi Hano

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the decolorization of Orange Ⅱ with and without the addition of co-substrates and nutrients under an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).The increase in COD concentrations from 900 to 1750 to 3730 mg/L in the system treating 100 mg/L of Orange H-containing wastewater enhanced color removal from 27% to 81% to 89%,respectively.In the absence of co-substrates and nutrients,more than 95% of decolorization was achieved by the acclimatized anaerobic microbes in the bioreactor treating 600 mg/L of Orange Ⅱ.The decrease in mixed liquor suspended solids concentration by endogenous lysis of biomass preserved a high reducing environment in the ASBR,which was important for the reduction of the Orange Ⅱ azo bond that caused decolorization.The maximum decolorization rate in the ASBR was approximately 0.17 g/hr in the absence of co-substrates and nutrients.

  8. 77 FR 73961 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Redistricting and Reapportionment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... production area. District One includes the counties of Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernando, Citrus..., Clay, Columbia, Duval, Flagler, Gilchrist, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Levy, Marion, Nassau, Orange..., Clay, Columbia, Duval, Flagler, Gilchrist, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Levy, Marion, Nassau,...

  9. Environmental fate of TCDD and Agent Orange and bioavailability to troops in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karch, N.J.; Watkins, D.K.; Ginevan, M.E. [Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Young, A.L. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)

    2004-09-15

    This paper reviews the environmental fate of Agent Orange and the contaminant, 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and discusses how this affects the bioavailability of TCDD for ground troops in Vietnam.

  10. Comparison of carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression between Valencia and Rohde Red Valencia sweet oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression levels during fruit maturation were compared between ordinary Valencia (VAL) and its more deeply colored mutant Rohde Red Valencia orange (RRV). The two cultivars exhibited different carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms in flavedo and...

  11. Optimization of ohmic heating applications for pectin methylesterase inactivation in orange juice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirdöven, Aslıhan; Baysal, Taner

    Ohmic heating (OH) which is among to electro-thermal methods and helps to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes was used in this study as thermal treatment on orange juice production for pectin methylesterase (PME) inactivation...

  12. Double-burden of malnutrition among the indigenous peoples (Orang Asli) of Peninsular Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, C Y; Zalilah, M S; Chua, E Y; Norhasmah, S; Chin, Y S; Siti Nur'Asyura, A

    2015-01-01

    ...) of Peninsular Malaysia. This study aimed to identify the presence of DBM at the community and household levels in Orang Asli population and its associated demographic and socio-economic factors...

  13. EFFECT OF USING NUTRITION MINERALS AND GROWTH SUBSTANCE ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORANGE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried to investigate the characterization of orange fruits under using applications of nutrition minerals and one application of growth substance on physical properties of orange fruits at private farm in wadi el-netron, ELbehari governorate, Egypt during winter 2011to predict maturity stage of orange fruits . The physical properties including aspect ratio(AR, Area of flat surface(Af, Area of transverse surface (At, Arithmetic diameter (Da, Density (ρ, Geometric diameter (Dg, surface area (Sa, sphericity, Volume (V and weight and the results revealed that, the high increasing percentage of orange fruits were considered as follows 9.24, 17.08, 22.65, 9.70, 27.16, 9.70, 20.45, 6.38, 24.07 and 28.84 %

  14. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita, S; Zahir, W M; Sa'iah, A; Rahimah, M A; Sha'ari, B N

    2007-08-01

    Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.

  15. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of BEAUMONT, ORANGE, PORT AUTHUR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of BEAUMONT, ORANGE,...

  16. The vegetation of the north-western Orange Free State, South Africa. 1. Physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kooij

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil, land types and climate of the north-western Orange Free State are described. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  17. Characterization of paprika (Capsicum annuum) extract in orange juices by liquid chromatography of carotenoid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, P P; Gaydou, E M; Corsetti, J

    1999-03-01

    The carotenoid pigment profiles of authentic pure orange juices from Spain and Florida and an industrial paprika (Capsicum annuum) extract used for food coloring were obtained using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 packed column and an acetone/methanol/water eluent system. The procedure involving the carotenoid extraction is described. Both retention times and spectral properties using photodiode array detection for characterization of the major carotenoids at 430 and 519 nm are given. The influence of external addition of tangerine juice and/or paprika extract on orange juice color is described using the U.S. Department of Agriculture scale and adulterated orange juice. The procedure for quantitation of externally added paprika extract to orange juice is investigated, and the limit of quantitation, coefficient of variation, and recoveries are determined.

  18. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

  19. Power and selection of contract terms: The case from the Brazilian orange juice sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuiuki Costa Ito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We propose a model to explain how contract terms are selected in the presence of a form of economic power: contract power. The orange juice sector is used to illustrate an analysis that demonstrates the effects of contract power on the economic organization of the sector. We define contract power as the ability to exploit contractual gaps or failures of contractual provisions, which are strategically left incomplete. Empirical evidence from content analysis of antitrust documents supports the logic of contract power in the orange juice sector in three forms: avoiding changes to payment methods from weight to solid contents (quality; using information asymmetries to manipulate indexes that calculate the formula of orange prices; and deliberately harvesting oranges late in order to dehydrate the fruit, which consequently reduces weight and price. The paper contributes to understanding the selection of contract terms and the debate about how antitrust offices can deal with this issue.

  20. Meat-eating by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Benjamin J W; Dench, Rosalie J; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Bustani, Unyil; Chivers, David J

    2015-10-01

    We present the first evidence for consumption of meat by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Meat-eating has been reported in Sumatran orang-utans, specifically the hunting and consumption of slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), but loris-hunting behaviour has not been observed in the Bornean species and meat of any species is essentially absent from their diet, with only two anecdotal reports of vertebrate meat consumption prior to this current finding in over 40 years of study. In August 2012 an unhabituated adult flanged male orang-utan was observed eating an adult horse-tailed squirrel (Sundasciurus hippurus) carcass in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. We suspect this to be a case of scavenging, never reported previously in a Bornean orang-utan.

  1. Origin of orange color in nominally undoped HVPE GaN crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Beyer, F. C.; Gärtner, G.; Röder, C.; Son, N. T.; Janzén, E.; Veselá, D.; Lorinčík, J.; Hofmann, P.; Krupinski, M.; Mikolajick, T.; Habel, F.; Leibiger, G.; Heitmann, J.

    2017-08-01

    In this article we investigated unintentionally doped (UID) GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) with respect to point defects and impurity concentration. The samples were orange tinted to different extent. Optical analysis was performed by micro-photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy. Absorption measurements revealed an absorption peak at 1.5 eV related to an internal transition in Mn3+ impurities and a second band with low energy onset at 1.9 eV, both increasing with the extent of orange color. Electron paramagnetic resonance investigations showed the presence of Mn2+ and Fe3+ in the colored crystals. The overall impurity concentration was verified by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Orange tint is associated with an increase of transition metal contamination, especially Mn. Based on these observations we suggest that the orange coloring in the investigated UID HVPE GaN samples is caused by the presence of Mn impurities.

  2. HUBUNGAN RASIO LINGKAR PERUT PANGGUL DENGAN RESIKO PENYAKIT KARDIOVASKULER PADA ORANG DEWASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Lamid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian hubungan antara rasio lingkar perut dan panggul (RLPP dengan resiko penyakit kardiovaskuler pada orang dewasa usia di atas 30 tahun telah dilaksanakan di kecamatan Bogor Barat, Kodya Bogor. Dari 1145 orang dewasa usia di atas 30 tahun yang telah diukur, diambil secara random 54 orang sebagai sampel yang mempunyai RLPP tinggi (>0.85 dan 54 orang pembanding dengan RLPP rendah (<0.05. Data yang dikumpulkan pada sampel dan pembanding meliputi antropometri, faktor resiko penyakit kardiovaskuler (lipida darah, gula darah dan tekanan darah, konsumsi makanan dan sosial ekonomi. Hasil uji khi kuadrat dan uji t antara kelompok RLPP tinggi dan RLPP rendah ditemukan hanya empat variabel yaitu hipertensi, trigliserida, body mass index dan persen lemak tubuh yang berbeda secara nyata (p<0.05. Walaupun uji t pada kadar kolesterol darah tidak berbeda secara nyata antara dua kelompok namun tampak ada kecenderungan meningkat pada kelompok RLPP tinggi.

  3. 2009 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Portions of Orange and Seminole Counties, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area covers 318 square miles in the eastern half of Seminole County plus portions of north central and northeast Orange County in the state of Florida....

  4. Investigating the effect of antioxidant extract from orange peel on lipids oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN*

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research involved investigation of the extraction yield and antioxidant property of orange peel on lipid oxidation. Orange peel was oven dried, grinded to powder and extraction procedure carried out using methanol as solvent in a soxhlet extractor. The effects of time and temperature on the extraction process were considered and results obtained showed an optimum extraction temperature and time of 50ºC and 120 minutes respectively. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the orange peel extract showed that potassium and calcium are the major elements by percentag mposition of 55.5 and 32.65 respectively. In studying the effects of oran eel extract on the melon oil sample, peroxide, free fatty acid and pH analysis were carried out for a period of 60 day. The result obtained confirmed the of ability orange peel extract as antioxidant agent.

  5. Genetic control of orange hilum corona of carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Pires Tomaz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to elucidate the genetic control of orange corona color in carioca common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. We made four crosses between carioca group cultivars that differed in respect to the presence or absence of an orange hilum corona color. The F2, F3, F1BC11, F1BC21, F2BC11 and F2BC21 phenotypic segregations were evaluated with a chi-square test which fitted with the hypothesis that one gene with a dominant allele is responsible for the orange corona color. All generations resulting from the four different crosses showed segregation patterns which agreed with the expected proportions. Our results show that the dominant G allele controls orange corona color in the carioca bean group.

  6. Effect of thermal treatments on sputtered silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on soda-lime glasses: ionic exchange and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, M.; Ferraris, S., E-mail: sara.ferraris@polito.it; Miola, M.; Perero, S.; Balagna, C.; Verne, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering (Italy); Gautier, G. [IMAMOTER Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (Italy); Manfredotti, Ch.; Battiato, A.; Vittone, E. [University of Torino, Physics Department, NIS Excellence Centre and CNISM (Italy); Speranza, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler FBK (Italy); Bogdanovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Experimental Physics Department (Croatia)

    2012-12-15

    Silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings were deposited on both soda-lime and silica glasses by radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering. The effect of thermal treatments on the microstructure in the range of 150-450 Degree-Sign C were examined by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Time of Flight-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. Sodium/silver ionic exchange was evidenced for coatings sputtered on soda-lime substrates after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C; presence of silver ions and/or silver nanoclusters, nanocluster size and their position inside the sputtered layers will be discussed for as-deposited and heated coatings on both substrates. The antibacterial activity of all coatings was determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by disk diffusion method and colonies forming units count; in agreement with microstructural results, the antibacterial activity present on all coatings was slightly reduced after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. All coatings have been submitted to humidity plus UV ageing and sterilization by autoclave, gamma ray and ethylene oxide gas. Tape resistance (ASTM D3359-97) tests have been done on each coating before and after ageing and sterilizations, revealing a good adhesion on soda-lime substrates, except for those aged in humidity plus UV and sterilized by autoclave. Scratch tests and nanoindentation tests have been done on each coating, as-deposited and after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. The coating hardness was improved by heating only when coatings were deposited on silica. The heating of coatings deposited on soda-lime substrates gave opposite effect on their hardness.

  7. Production of extracellular alkaline protease by new halotolerant alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 isolated from hyper saline soda lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnasser S.S. Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: A new halotolerant alkaliphilic alkaline protease producing Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 was isolated from soda lakes. Optimization of various fermentation parameters resulted in an increase of enzyme yield by 22.8 fold, indicating the significance of optimization of the fermentation parameters to obtain commercial yield of the enzyme. NPST-AK15 and its extracellular alkaline protease with salt tolerance signify their potential applicability in the laundry industry and other applications.

  8. Structural analysis and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kobzi, Balázs; Sinkó, Katalin; Homonnay, Zoltán [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Kuzmann, Ernő [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1512 (Hungary); Ristić, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, RuđerBošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 11-6 Kayanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan); Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Hematite was precipitated by heat treatment of iron aluminosilicate glass. • The hematite phase shows visible light photocatalytic activity. • We could prepare an effective photocatalyst from ‘ubiquitous elements’. - Abstract: A relationship between structure and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate (15Na{sub 2}O⋅15CaO⋅40Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅(30−x)SiO{sub 2}) glass (xNCFAS) was investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and UV–visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS). The {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectrum of 11NCFAS glass measured after heat-treatment at 1000 °C for 100 min was composed of a paramagnetic doublet due to Fe{sup III}(T{sub d}) and two magnetic sextets due to regular hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and hematite with larger internal magnetic field. X-ray diffraction patterns of heat-treated xNCFAS samples resulted in decrease of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increase of Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 22}O{sub 33} or CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with alumina content. A quick decrease in methylene blue (MB) concentration from 15.6 to 4.7 μmol L{sup −1} was observed in the photocatalytic reaction test with 40 mg of heat-treated 11NCFAS glass under visible light-exposure. The largest first-order rate constant of MB decomposition (k) was estimated to be 9.26 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}. Tauc’s plot yielded a band gap energy (E{sub g}) of 1.88 eV for heat-treated 11NCFAS glass, which is smaller than previously reported E{sub g} of 2.2 eV for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These results prove that addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into iron-containing soda lime silicate glass is favorable for the preparation of improved visible light-photocatalyst with ‘ubiquitous’ elements.

  9. REPLACING SODA ASH (NaOH WITH KALIUM HYDROXYDE (KOH IN DESTILATION OF BINARY ETHANOL-WATER MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ulfa Istiqomah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soda ash (NaOH has been used in bioethanol production in the second step destillation to increase the purity up to 90%. The destillation process will produce waste water with a high sodium content. The soda ash itself serve as an electrolyte to modify the colligative properties of the water-ethanol mixture allowing the disappearance of azeotropic point. This research aims to study the replacement of NaOH with KOH, in which the kalium is a nutrient to maintain soil fertility. This research study the thermodynamics properties, vapor-liquid equilibrium, colligative properties and also its azeotropic point in the destillation of water-ethanol mixture when KOH and NaOH were used as the additive. A model of water-ethanol mixture at a various composition of 0-100 weight % of ethanol was used. The electrolyte addition was 0.1 mol electrolyte/total weight of ethanol-water. The result shows that the addition of electrolyte into ethanol-water mixture eliminate the azeotropic point and allows the ethanol molecules to separate from water. The enthalpy of mixing between water-ethanol is 239.601 kJ/mol. It becomes 259.796 kJ/mol and 264.793 kJ/mol after the addition of NaOH and KOH, respectively. It confirming the endothermic mixing process due to different polarity between water and ethanol. The presence of electrolyte even reduce more their molecular interaction. However, the change to irregularity result a high positive entropy values that result the negative Gibbs free energy. It confirms the spontaneity of mixing. The vaporization enthalpy, Hvap, of water-ethanol mixture is 76.229 kJ/mol and it becomes 235.366 kJ/mol and 126.189 kJ/mol after the addition of NaOH and KOH. It indicates that the presence of electrolyte inhibites vaporization of water as the major component and allowing ethanol molecules to vapor producing more high purity ethanol.

  10. Achieving a balance between small singlet-triplet energy splitting and high fluorescence radiative rate in a quinoxaline-based orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Wu, Zhongbin; Xie, Guohua; Zhong, Cheng; Zhu, Zece; Cong, Hengjiang; Ma, Dongge; Yang, Chuluo

    2016-09-21

    A new orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter is designed and synthesized by incorporating a fluorine-substituted quinoxaline as an electron-acceptor and a phenoxazine as an electron-donor. The rational molecular design enables small singlet-triplet energy splitting (ΔEST) and high fluorescence radiative rate (k) for long-wavelength TADF emitters. The organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing the new TADF emitter achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 13.9% and 9.0% for the vacuum- and solution-processed OLEDs, respectively.

  11. Photoluminescence properties of a novel orange-red emitting Ba2CaZn2Si6O17:Sm3+ phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Annadurai; S Masilla Moses Kennedy; V Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Novel orange-red emitting Ba2Ca1–xZn2Si6O17:xSm3+(0.02≤x≤0.08) phosphors were synthesized using conventional solid-state reaction method under air atmosphere.The phase formation of the samples was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence properties were also investigated. The narrow excitation and emission spectra indicated the typical 4f-4f transitions of Sm3+. The dominant excitation line was around 405 nm attributed to6H5/2→4F7/2 and the emission spectrum consisted of four emission peaks at 562, 600, 647, and 708 nm corresponding to the various transi-tions4G5/2 to6HJ (J=5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2) of the Sm3+ ions in the same order. The strongest emission band located at 600 nm was at-tributed to4G5/2→6H7/2 transition of Sm3+, producing bright orange-red color emission. The optimal dopant concentration of Sm3+ ion in Ba2CaZn2Si6O17:xSm3+ phosphor was around 4 mol.% and the critical transfer distance (Rc) of Sm3+ was calculated to be 2.65 nm. Decay time varied with the Sm3+concentrations in Ba2CaZn2Si6O17 phosphors. In addition, the Commission International del’Eclairagethe (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of Ba2Ca0.96Zn2Si6O17:0.04Sm3+ phosphor was located in the orange-red region (0.547, 0.450) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) was 2543 K. The present results indicated that Sm3+ activated Ba2CaZn2Si6O17 phosphors may be used as an orange-red emitting phosphor for near-ultraviolet (n-UV) based white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) applications.

  12. Influence of crystal structure of nanosized ZrO2 on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    OpenAIRE

    Basahel, Sulaiman N; Ali, Tarek T; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Narasimharao, Katabathini

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized ZrO2 powders with near pure monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic structures synthesized by various methods were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The structural and textural properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption measurements. The performance of synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under UV light ...

  13. One-step green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles used to degrade Orange II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: zuliang.chen@newcastle.edu.au; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs was firstly reported using the one-step method. • 98.0% of Orange II was removed by Fe/Pd NPs, but only 16.0% by Fe NPs. • Fe/Pd NPs with a diameter ranging from 10 to 100 nm were observed. • Removing Orange II using Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic degradation. - Abstract: To reduce cost and enhance reactivity, bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly synthesized using grape leaf aqueous extract to remove Orange II. Green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs (98.0%) demonstrated a far higher ability to remove Orange II in 12 h compared to Fe NPs (16.0%). Meanwhile, all precursors, e.g., grape leaf extract, Fe{sup 2+} and Pd{sup 2+}, had no obvious effect on removing Orange II since less than 2.0% was removed. Kinetics study revealed that the removal rate fitted well to the pseudo-first-order reduction and pseudo-second-order adsorption model, meaning that removing Orange II via Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic reduction. The remarkable stability of Fe/Pd NPs showed the potential application for removing azo dyes. Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the changes in Fe/Pd NPs before and after reaction with Orange II. High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrum (HPLC–MS) identified the degraded products in the removal of Orange II, and finally a removal mechanism was proposed. This one-step strategy using grape leaf aqueous extract to synthesize Fe/Pd NPs is simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign, making possible the large-scale production of Fe/Pd NPs for field remediation.

  14. Promoting consumption of fruit in elementary school cafeterias. The effects of slicing apples and oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Branscum, Adam; Nakayima, Peace Julie

    2009-10-01

    We examined how slicing apples and oranges affected elementary students' selection and consumption of fruit. Slicing increased the percentage of children selecting and consuming oranges, while a similar effect was not found for apples. The impact of slicing fruit was greatest among younger students. These findings suggest that school cafeterias can increase accessibility and consumption of foods through simple, inexpensive food preparation techniques, with the impact of such measures varying by foods and student characteristics.

  15. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Torrado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA by solid-state fermentation (SSF of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599 in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume, and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel, corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

  16. Photoconvertible Behavior of LSSmOrange Applicable for Single Emission Band Optical Highlighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keersmaecker, Herlinde; Fron, Eduard; Rocha, Susana; Kogure, Takako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Hofkens, Johan; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent proteins are capable of changing their spectral properties upon light irradiation, thus allowing one to follow a chosen subpopulation of molecules in a biological system. Recently, we revealed a photoinduced absorption band shift of LSSmOrange, which was originally engineered to have a large energy gap between excitation and emission bands. Here, we evaluated the performance of LSSmOrange as a fluorescent tracer in living cells. The absorption maximum of LSSmOrange in HeLa cells shifted from 437 nm to 553 nm upon illumination with a 405-, 445-, 458-, or 488-nm laser on a laser-scanning microscope, whereas the emission band remained same (∼570 nm). LSSmOrange behaves as a freely diffusing protein in living cells, enabling the use of the protein as a fluorescence tag for studies of protein dynamics. By targeting LSSmOrange in mitochondria, we observed an exchange of soluble molecules between the matrices upon mitochondrial fusion. Since converted and unconverted LSSmOrange proteins have similar emission spectra, this tracer offers unique possibilities for multicolor imaging. The fluorescence emission from LSSmOrange was spectrally distinguishable from that of eYFP and mRFP, and could be separated completely by applying linear unmixing. Furthermore, by using a femtosecond laser at 850 nm, we showed that a two-photon process could evoke a light-induced red shift of the absorption band of LSSmOrange, providing a strict confinement of the conversion volume in a three-dimensional space.

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY ESSENTIALS OILS PONTIANAK ORANGE PEELS AGAINST Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Rafika; Mustari, F. Nour Aulia; Wahdaningsih, Sri

    2015-01-01

    The infectious diseases can be caused by the pathogenic bacteria among Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. One of the plants that can be used as antibacterial is essential oils from Pontianak orange peels (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. microcarpa). This research aims to determine the antibacterial activity essential oils Pontianak orange peels againts the pathogenic bacteria by disc diffusion method. This research carried out by using the experimental Completely Randomized Design (CRD) Fa...

  18. Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Romano, N; Colin, N; Chow, S C; Smith, H V

    2009-08-01

    Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of peninsular Malaysia. Despite proactive socioeconomic development initiated by the Malaysian Government in upgrading the quality of life of the Orang Asli communities since 1978, they still remained poor with a current poverty rate of 76.9%. Poverty exacerbates the health problems faced by these communities which include malnourishment, high incidences of infectious diseases (eg. tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria) and the perpetual problem with intestinal parasitic infections. Studies reported that the mean infection rate of intestinal parasitic infections in Orang Asli communities has reduced from 91.1% in 1978, to 64.1% in the subsequent years. Although the results was encouraging, it has to be interpreted with caution because nearly 80% of studies carried out after 1978 still reported high prevalence (i.e. >50%) of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) among Orang Asli communities. Prior to 1978, hookworm infection is the most predominant STH but today, trichuriasis is the most common STH infections. The risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections remained unchanged and studies conducted in recent years suggested that severe STH infections contributed to malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and low serum retinol in Orang Asli communities. In addition, STH may also contribute to poor cognitive functions and learning ability. Improvements in socioeconomic status in Malaysia have shown positive impact on the reduction of intestinal parasitic infections in other communities however, this positive impact is less significant in the Orang Asli communities. In view of this, a national parasitic infections baseline data on morbidity and mortality in the 18 subgroups of Orang Asli, will assist in identifying intervention programmes required by these communities. It is hope that the adoption of strategies highlighted in the World Health Organisation- Healthy Village Initiatives (WHO-HVI) into Orang Asli communities will

  19. The Vulnerability of Community Capitals as a Threat to Orang Kuala Community Development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Amir Zal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Community development emphasizes the utilization of community resources, also known as community capitals. However, it is often difficult for the community to access these resources; this difficulty retards development. Such is the predicament faced by the Orang Kuala, for whom coastal changes have resulted in greater difficulty in accessing their community resources. Nor is that the only threat that they face. For affirmation of these threats, this article lists two objectives, that is, to identify the accessibility of marine resources and to explain the types of threats faced by the Orang Kuala. To achieve these objectives, a study was conducted involving 51 household heads and 5 Orang Kuala informants, all of whom are residents of Sungai Layau village in Johor, Malaysia. This study uses a mixed-method approach, the concurrent embedded design, and also interview-based questionnaires and in-depth interviews simultaneously. For the first objective, the results show that the Orang Kuala can still attain community resources in the form of marine products. However, the Orang Kuala faced three types of threats: trends, shocks, and seasonal changes. The most significant threat to the Orang Kuala is the trend, that is, cost of living and social problems. These threats can reduce their chances of acquiring benefits from these community resources. This condition is called “vulnerability of community capitals.” The objective of this article is to put forth proposals on how to increase the capacity of community resources for the Orang Kuala so that their community can attain sustainable development. This proposal is based on the reality that the threats facing the Orang Kuala are at a critical level and that they are ready to accept changes.

  20. Arsenite as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis: Description of three strains of Ectothiorhodospria from Mono Lake, California, and Big Soda Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Shelley; Boren, Alison; Hernandez-Maldonado, Jaime; Stoneburner, Brendon; Saltikov, Chad W; Stolz, John F.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2017-01-01

    Three novel strains of photosynthetic bacteria from the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae were isolated from soda lakes of the Great Basin Desert, USA by employing arsenite (As(III)) as the sole electron donor in the enrichment/isolation process. Strain PHS-1 was previously isolated from a hot spring in Mono Lake, while strain MLW-1 was obtained from Mono Lake sediment, and strain BSL-9 was isolated from Big Soda Lake. Strains PHS-1, MLW-1, and BSL-9 were all capable of As(III)-dependent growth via anoxygenic photosynthesis and contained homologs of arxA, but displayed different phenotypes. Comparisons were made with three related species: Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii DSM 2111, Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii DSM 243T, and Halorhodospira halophila DSM 244. All three type cultures oxidized arsenite to arsenate but did not grow with As(III) as the sole electron donor. DNA–DNA hybridization indicated that strain PHS-1 belongs to the same species as Ect. shaposhnikovii DSM 2111 (81.1% sequence similarity), distinct from Ect. shaposhnikovii DSM 243T (58.1% sequence similarity). These results suggest that the capacity for light-driven As(III) oxidation is a common phenomenon among purple photosynthetic bacteria in soda lakes. However, the use of As(III) as a sole electron donor to sustain growth via anoxygenic photosynthesis is confined to novel isolates that were screened for by this selective cultivation criterion.