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Sample records for sunflower seeds helianthus

  1. Changes in mass and dimensions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes and seeds due to carbonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.; Wright, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    When analyzing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) remains, which are often carbonized, archaeobotanists commonly differentiate between wild and domesticated achenes and seeds based on the measured length (L) and width (W) or the calculated index L*W. Carbonization reduces the dimensions. To compensate

  2. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  3. Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase activity from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Force, E; Cantisán, S; Serrano-Vega, M J; Garcés, R

    2000-10-01

    During sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed formation there was an active period of lipid biosynthesis between 12 and 28 days after flowering (DAF). The maximum in-vitro acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase activities (EC 3.1.2.14) were found at 15 DAF, preceding the largest accumulation of lipid in the seed. Data from the apparent kinetic parameters, Vmax and Km, from seeds of 15 and 30 DAF, showed that changes in acyl-ACP thioesterase activity are not only quantitative, but also qualitative, since, although the preferred substrate was always oleoyl-ACP, the affinity for palmitoyl-ACP decreased, whereas that for stearoyl-ACP increased with seed maturation. Bisubstrate assays carried out at 30 DAF seemed to indicate that the total activity found in mature seeds is due to a single enzyme with 100/75/15 affinity for oleoyl-ACP/stearoyl-ACP/ palmitoyl-ACP. In contrast, at 15 DAF, enzymatic data together with partial sequences from cDNAs indicated the presence of at least two enzymes with different properties, a FatA-like thioesterase, with a high affinity for oleoyl-ACP, plus a FatB-like enzyme, with preference for long-chain saturated fatty acids, both being expressed during the active lipid biosynthesis period. Competition assays carried out with CAS-5, a mutant with a higher content of palmitic acid in the seed oil, indicated that a modified FatA-type thioesterase is involved in the mutant phenotype.

  4. Isolation and functional characterization of two novel seed-specific promoters from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavallo, Diego; Lopez Bilbao, Marisa; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth

    2010-03-01

    The promoter region of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. HA89 genotype) seed specifically expressed genes, coding for an oleate desaturase (HaFAD2-1) and a lipid transfer protein (HaAP10), were cloned and in silico characterized. The isolated fragments are 867 and 964 bp long, respectively, and contain several seed-specific motifs, such as AACA motif, ACGT element, E-Boxes, SEF binding sites and GCN4 motif. Functional analysis of these promoters in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was investigated after fusing them with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. None of the promoters triggered GUS activity in any vegetative tissue, with the exception of early seedling cotyledons. HaFAD2-1 and HaAP10 promoters were tested along seed development from globular stage to mature seeds. GUS staining was restricted to embryonic tissue and quantitative fluorometric assays showed high activity values at the later stages of development. In this work we demonstrate that HaFAD2-1 promoter is as strong as 35S promoter even though it is a tissue-specific promoter and its activity derived just from the embryo, thus confirming that it can be considered a strong highly specific seed promoter useful for biotechnology applications.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON CRUDE OIL YIELD AND GERMINATION OF SUNFLOWER-TANAY VARIETY (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. SEEDS

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    H. E. VAİZOĞULLAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma rays on crude oil yield, seedling growth, germination and antimicrobial activity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus. As plant materials, sunflower variety Tanay seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological.To determine seed viability, tetrazolium chloride (TTC test was performed. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts and seeds were subjected to germination tests. The seeds were treated with 100 ppm doses of GA3 for 24 hours (GA, soaking for 24 hours (SB, preheating for 24 hours in a week (PH and precooling for 24 hours in a week (PC for optimization of germination.The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy. As a result of testing of seed viability, 95% viability in seeds was determined. In 12L/12D light photoperiod, 25% germination in seeds was detected at GA application the highest, the lowest 5% germination in seeds was determined in PC application. It was found that minimum and maximum values ranged between 5.72and 10.81% for humidity rate.Extraction of the seed of Sunflower-Tanay was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours. Antimicrobial activity of Sunflower-Tanay extract were tested by a disk diffusion method. Extracts of the H.annuus L.(sunflower-Tanay showed no antimicrobial activity against M.luteus NCIMB 13267 and E. coli ATCC 25922.

  6. Effect on germination and early growth characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds exposed to static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Ananta; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2010-01-15

    Seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were exposed in batches to static magnetic fields of strength from 0 to 250mT in steps of 50mT for 1-4h in steps of 1h. Treatment of sunflower seeds in these magnetic fields increased the speed of germination, seedling length and seedling dry weight under laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 50 and 200mT for 2h yielded the peak performance. Exposure of seeds to magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity and reduced the cellular leakage and electrical conductivity. Treated seeds planted in soil resulted in statistically higher seedling dry weight, root length, root surface area and root volume in 1-month-old seedlings. In germinating seeds, enzyme activities of alpha-amylase, dehydrogenase and protease were significantly higher in treated seeds in contrast to controls. The higher enzyme activity in magnetic-field-treated sunflower seeds could be triggering the fast germination and early vigor of seedlings.

  7. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

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    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  8. Development and standardization of a simple technique for breaking seed dormancy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maiti R.K.; Vidyasagar P; Shahapur S.C.; Ghosh S.K.; Seiler G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Seed dormancy causes a great problem in efficient seed production of sunflower. Attempts have been made to develop simple techniques for breaking seed dormancy. In the first experiment, different techniques were evaluated using treatments such as a growth regulator, Ethrel, priming (water soaking followed by 2-3 days drying in shade), chemicals such as acetone (CH3COCH3), and potassium nitrate (KNO3) which showed the most promise. To confirm these findings, several treatments (25% acetone, 0....

  9. A study on correlation and path analysis for seed yield and yield components in sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.

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    M.M.Pandya, P.B.Patel, A.V. Narwade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path coefficient analysis was carried out in 40 genotypes of sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.]. Association analysis between seed yield per plant and other 14 characters revealed that seed yield per plant showed highly significant and positive correlation with head diameter, number of seeds per capitula, number of filled seeds per capitula and 100 seed weight at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. These seed yield per plant also possessed positive association with days to maturity, stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, leaf area at flowering, plant height, oil content and vacant inner diameter. The characters days to 50 per cent flowering, days to initiation of flower and number of unfilled seeds per capitula exhibited negative correlation with seed yield per plant. Path analysis indicated that days to 50 per cent flowering had highest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant followed by number of leaves per plant. The character days to initiation of flower exhibited high negative direct effects.

  10. Class FH sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus) as an energy/protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestible energy (DE) content of milled and whole class FH sunflower seed (SS) was determined in a digestion trial and ... that SS can be used effectively as a protein/energy source in diets for early weaned piglets. ..... Supplement 4.

  11. Characterization of partially purified milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Assia I A M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Hamid, Omer I A

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to extract milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower seeds and to determine its potentiality for manufacturing white soft cheese from cows and goats milk. The seeds were blended and extracted using two types of buffers and milk-clotting and proteolytic activities were evaluated. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation techniques. Results indicated that sunflower seeds extracted with 5% NaCl in 50 mmol/L acetate buffer, pH 5.0, had the highest milk-clotting activity (MCA) and lowest coagulation time compared to that extracted with only acetate buffer (pH 5.0). Ammonium sulfate at 30-50% saturation purified the enzyme to 4.3 folds with MCA of 241.0 U/mL and final enzyme yield of 10.9%. The partially purified enzyme was characterized by SDS-PAGE that showed two bands with molecular weight of 120 and 62 kDa. When compared with other plant enzymes, the partially purified sunflower enzyme was found to have higher milk-clotting activity and lower proteolytic activity. Also, both milk sources and enzyme types significantly affected the cheese yield and curd formation time. The cheese made from cow milk using sunflower enzyme had higher yield compared to that obtained using commercial rennet, whereas the opposite was observed when using goat milk.

  12. Secondary structure of oleosins in oil bodies isolated from seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

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    Lacey, D J; Wellner, N; Beaudoin, F; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R

    1998-09-01

    Oil bodies were isolated from mature seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Oil body preparations containing only oleosin proteins could be obtained from safflower seeds by salt-washing followed by centrifugation on discontinuous sucrose density gradients. However, it was necessary to treat sunflower oil bodies with urea to obtain preparations of similar purity. Incubation of the oil bodies with proteinases gave two fragments with molecular masses of 6 and 8 kDa which were protected from digestion. These fragments represented the hydrophobic domain of the oleosins, as determined by N-terminal sequencing. Intact and proteinase-treated oil bodies of both species were analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, as dry films and in aqueous medium, the spectra being compared with those obtained for pure oil samples in order to identify the bands resulting from the oleosin proteins and protected peptides. This investigation showed that the hydrophobic domain of the oleosins in intact oil bodies is predominantly alpha-helical in structure and that the conformation was not greatly affected by washing the oil bodies with urea during preparation.

  13. Effect of Irrigation with Contaminated Water by Cloth Detergent on Seed Germination Traits and Early Growth of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

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    Hassan HEIDARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the sources for irrigation is sewage. Contaminated water may affect seed germination and plant growth. A laboratory experiment and a pot experiment were conducted in 2012 to determine the effect of different doses of detergent on seed germination traits and early growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. The experiments included eight doses of cloth detergent (0, 0.00002, 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 g/L. Results showed that 20 and 2 g/L of detergent severely reduced seed germination, plant height, leaf number per plant, total biomass and stem weight. 20 g/L of detergent reduced shoot length, root length, seedling weight and seed vigor. Seed germination stage was more sensitive to contaminated water than early growth stage. The results demonstrated that irrigating sunflower by contaminated water with household cleaning products at high concentration should be avoided.

  14. Translatome profiling in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds highlights post-transcriptional regulation of germination.

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    Layat, Elodie; Leymarie, Juliette; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Caius, José; Langlade, Nicolas; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    Seed dormancy, which blocks germination in apparently favourable conditions, is a key regulatory control point of plant population establishment. As germination requires de novo translation, its regulation by dormancy is likely to be related to the association of individual transcripts to polysomes. Here, the polysome-associated mRNAs, that is, the translatome, were fractionated and characterized with microarrays in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) embryos during their imbibition at 10°C, a temperature preventing germination of dormant embryos. Profiling of mRNAs in polysomal complexes revealed that the translatome differs between germinating and nongerminating embryos. Association of transcripts with polysomes reached a maximum after 15 h of imbibition; at this time-point 194 polysome-associated transcripts were specifically found in nondormant embryos and 47 in dormant embryos only. The proteins corresponding to the polysomal mRNAs in nondormant embryos appeared to be very pertinent for germination and were involved mainly in transport, regulation of transcription or cell wall modifications. This work demonstrates that seed germination results from a timely regulated and selective recruitment of mRNAs to polysomes, thus opening novel fields of investigation for the understanding of this developmental process. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of three phosphoglycerate kinase isoforms from developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds.

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    Troncoso-Ponce, M A; Rivoal, J; Venegas-Calerón, M; Dorion, S; Sánchez, R; Cejudo, F J; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2012-07-01

    Three cDNAs encoding different phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK, EC 2.7.2.3) isoforms, two cytosolic (HacPGK1 and HacPGK2) and one plastidic (HapPGK), were cloned and characterized from developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. The expression profiles of these genes showed differences in heterotrophic tissues, such as developing seeds and roots, where HacPGK1 was predominant, while HapPGK was highly expressed in photosynthetic tissues. The cDNAs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding proteins purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and biochemically characterized. Despite the high level of identity between sequences, the HacPGK1 isoform showed strong differences in terms of specific activity, temperature stability and pH sensitivity in comparison to HacPGK2 and HapPGK. A polyclonal immune serum was raised against the purified HacPGK1 isoform, which showed cross-immunoreactivity with the other PGK isoforms. This serum allowed the localization of high expression levels of PGK isozymes in embryo tissues.

  16. Physico-chemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants

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    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water deficit conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sunflower seed and seed oils were assessed. Two sunflower cultivars (Gulshan-98 and Suncross were sown in the field. The water stress treatment was applied at the vegetative or the reproductive stage. Analysis of the sunflower seed showed that the oil content decreased (a decline of 10.52% relative to the control significantly (p ≤ 0.05 due to water stress when imposed at either of the growth stages. Both of the sunflower cultivars studied showed differential responses to water stress with respect to oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. A significant negative correlation in oil oleic and linoleic acid was observed in cv. Gulshan-98 under water deficit conditions as compared to Suncross in which no such effect of water stress on oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Water deficit conditions caused a reduction in linolenic acid in Gulshan-98, whereas it remained unaffected in Suncross. The stearic acid content increased in cv. Gulshan-98 due to drought, whereas no effect due to water stress was observed on oil palmitic acid content in either sunflower cultivar. Overall, oil unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged in the drought stressed or normally irrigated plants of both cultivars but saturated fatty acid increased in Gulshan-98. Individual (α, γ, and δ and total tocopherol contents in the seed oil increased significantly with the application of water stress in both cultivars. An assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of the oils of both sunflower cultivars revealed that drought stress caused a marked increase in the content of un-saponifiable matter (18.75% with respect to the control and a decrease in iodine value (5.87% with respect to the control, but saponifcation value, density, specific gravity and refractive index remained unchanged.El efecto de las condiciones de déficit de agua sobre las caracter

  17. Physical behavior of purified and crude wax obtained from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed oil refineries and seed hulls.

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    Kanya, T C Sindhu; Sankar, K Udaya; Sastry, M C Shamnathaka

    2003-01-01

    The sunflower seed waxes obtained from two sources (i) seed hull as a standard and (ii) crude wax from oil refineries were studied for their crystallization, melting characteristics and morphology of crystals. The results of differential scanning calorimetry of wax obtained from seed hulls showed the melting temperature range of 13.18 degrees C with the onset at 62.32 degrees C, for purified wax, compared to the melting range of 24.73 degrees C with the onset at 42.3 degrees C. for crude wax. The enthalpy of fusion for both waxes were 57.55 mcal/mg and 7.63 mcal/mg, respectively. The DSC melt crystallization temperature range was 15.79 degrees C with the onset of 64.58 degrees C for purified wax and temperature range of 31.45 degrees C with an onset of 57.76 degrees C for crude wax. A similar pattern was observed of wax obtained from the crude wax of oil refineries. The enthalpy of crystallization was -64.27 mcal/mg and -7.67 mcal/mg, respectively. The purified wax obtained from the two sources (i) and (ii) were comparable with completion temperatures of 75.5 degrees C and 75.1 degrees C, respectively. The effect of inhibitor (lecithin) on crystallization of purified wax under light microscope and surface structure by scanning electron microscope were observed. Lecithin at 0.2% inhibited the crystallization but nucleation was unaltered. The wax crystal was inhibited to around 60% of the original size with 0.2% lecithin. It is concluded that the sunflower waxes studied were not comparable in their crystal properties of crude and purified states. Lecithin inhibited the crystallization of sunflower seed wax.

  18. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

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    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  19. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

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    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils.

  20. Mycoflora and mycotoxins of sunflower(helianthus annuus l.) Seeds in egypt 1. Sugar fungi and natural occurrence of mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    El Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed [سعد شحاتة محمد المراغي; El-Maghraby, O. M. O.

    1986-01-01

    Eighteen genera and sixty-three species, in addition to three varieties were isolated from thirty six samples of sunflower seeds collected from different places in Egypt. Aspergillus and Penicillium followed by Rhizopus and Fusarium were the most frequent genera. A. niger, A. flaws, A. jumigatus, A. terreus and P. chrysogenum were the most common species. Samples 11,4 and 8 of 36 sunflower samples were of high, moderate and low toxicity, respectively, to brine shrimp larvae and were naturally...

  1. Characterization and partial purification of acyl-CoA:glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) developing seeds.

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    Ruiz-López, Noemí; Garcés, Rafael; Harwood, John L; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.1.15) from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) microsomes has been characterised and partially purified. The in vitro determination of activity was optimized, and the maximum value for GPAT activity identified between 15 and 20 days after flowering. The apparent Michaelis-Menten K(m) for the glycerol 3-phosphate was 354 muM. The preferred substrates were palmitoyl-CoA = linoleoyl-CoA > oleoyl-CoA with the lowest activity using stearoyl-CoA. High solubilisation was achieved using 0.75% Tween80 and the solubilised GPAT was partially purified by ion-exchange chromatography using a Hi-Trap DEAE FF column, followed by gel filtration chromatography using a Superose 12 HR column. The fraction containing the GPAT activity was analysed by SDS-PAGE and contained a major band of 60.1 kDa. Finally, evidence is provided which shows the role of GPAT in the asymmetrical distribution, between positions sn-1 and sn-3, of saturated fatty acids in highly saturated sunflower triacylglycerols. This work provides background information on the sunflower endoplasmic reticulum GPAT which may prove valuable for future modification of oil deposition in this important crop.

  2. Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a species native to North America. It is a relatively new crop in the USA with commercialization starting around 1970. The high oil content sunflower seed changed the economics of producing and crushing sunflower seed for oil, making it attractive for growers. A n...

  3. Efficacy of honeybees (Apis mellifera on the production of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. seeds in the Sudan

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    Osman Abd Elmhmoud Altayeb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted to test the efficacy of the honeybees in the production of sunflower seeds. This experiment was conducted in Complete Randomized Block Design in the cropping season of 2011- 2012 at Sinnar region, Sudan. Three different patterns of pollination i.e. pollination with honey bee (H, open pollination (O and control without pollination (C were tested for the seed set in sun flower. Each treatments contains twenty (20 plants. Results of study revealed significant differences among the tested pollination pattern. Among these highest seed set ratios (80% and 79% were obtained in the open (O and honey bee (H pollination system. While only 45.2% seed set was reported in the control (C where plants kept in closed system and away from insect pollination. Furthermore, the mean seeds weights per head (27.65g and 26.88g were also reported higher in open and honey bee pollinated system and it was 162.3% and 155% higher than the control respectively. Similar types of trends was reported in the weight parameters of hundred seeds, the superiority was shown by open and honey bee pollination. This weight was 52% and 45% higher than the control treatment (C respectively. Therefore, the results of the study revealed that use of honeybees as pollinator for sunflower can contribute in hybrid seed production in better manner.

  4. Study of qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in response of seed inoculation with PGPR in various levels of nitrogen fertilizer

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    H. Nazarly

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in response to seed inoculation with PGPR under various levels of nitrogen fertilizer, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in field experimental University of Mohaghegh Ardabili during growing season of 2009-2010. Factors were nitrogen fertilizer in three levels (0, 80 and 160 kg N ha-1 as urea and seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in four levels containing, without inoculation (as control, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5, Azospirillum lipoferum strain OF, Psedomunas strain 186. Results indicated that nitrogen levels and seed inoculation with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR had significant effects on all of characteristics studied (except grain 1000 weight and stem diameter. Grain yield, plant height, head diameter, seed number per head, , yield and oil percentage, yield and protein percentage increased with increasing of nitrogen fertilizer and application of seed inoculation with PGPR. Response of grain yield wasn't the same for various levels of nitrogen fertilizer and seed inoculation with PGPR. The highest grain yield belonged to application of 160 kg N ha-1 and seed inoculation with Azotobacter. Means comparison showed that treatment compounds N160 × without inoculation with PGPR and N80 × seed inoculation with PGPR Azotobacter had similar grain yields. Thus, it can be suggested that in order to increasing of grain yield seed should be inoculated with Azotobacter bacteria × 80 kg N/ha in conditions of Ardabil region.

  5. Toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on growth and metabolism in germinating seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

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    Ashraf, Muhammad Yasin; Sadiq, Rumana; Hussain, Mumtaz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, M Sajid Aqeel

    2011-12-01

    To assess the toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on the growth and some key metabolic processes in sunflower, varying levels of Ni as Ni(NO(3))(2) up to 60 mg L(-1) were applied once to sunflower cultivars SF-187 and Hysun-33 at sowing time in sand culture. An increase in Ni in the growth medium adversely affected growth parameters, sugar concentration (both reducing and non-reducing), as well as the activities of α-amylase and protease. It also slowed down mobilization of stored proteins and amino acids in the germinating seeds. However, an increase in the activities of α-amylase and protease was observed over time from 24 to 120 h after sowing. Cultivar Hysun-33 showed better performance than SF-187 in the presence of excess Ni. Overall, Ni-induced reduction in germination of sunflower seed appeared to be due to disturbance in biochemical metabolism as the availability of sugars for the synthesis of metabolic energy as well as necessary amino acids for the synthesis of proteins and enzymes essential for the growing embryo are generally reduced due to suppression in α-amylase and protease activities.

  6. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

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    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota.

  7. In vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test and phytochemical characterization of seeds oil of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma de Mello Silva Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the genotoxic potential of the oil of H. annuus L. (sunflower seeds via the Ames test as well as its oxidative properties and lipid composition. The pre-incubation method, system metabolic activation (S9 fraction and five S. typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA102 were employed for the Ames test. The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were analyzed by standard methods and gas chromatography. A revertant analysis showed no significant differences between the treatment doses (10–200 μl/plate and the negative controls, regardless of S9+ and S9−, and included all of the S. typhimurium strains. Chromatographic analysis showed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated, saturated and total trans-isomers. Among the polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids predominated. The results suggest that the sunflower oil is not genotoxic as indicated by frameshift mutations and base pair substitutions regardless of the treatment dose, but shows dose-dependent toxicity. The oxidative properties of the sunflower oil were consistent with the requirements of national and international standards. However, its composition could also indicate phytotherapeutic properties.

  8. Cloning, biochemical characterization and expression of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hexokinase associated with seed storage compounds accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Ponce, M A; Rivoal, J; Dorion, S; Moisan, M-C; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2011-03-01

    A full-length hexokinase cDNA, HaHXK1, was cloned and characterized from Helianthus annuus L. developing seeds. Based on its sequence and phylogenetic relationships, HaHXK1 is a membrane-associated (type-B) hexokinase. The predicted structural model resembles known hexokinase structures, folding into two domains of unequal size: a large and a small one separated by a deep cleft containing the residues involved in the enzyme active site. A truncated version, without the 24 N-terminal residues, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and biochemically characterized. The purified enzyme behaved as a monomer on size exclusion chromatography and had a specific activity of 19.3 μmol/min/mg protein, the highest specific activity ever reported for a plant hexokinase. The enzyme had higher affinity for glucose and mannose relative to fructose, but the enzymatic efficiency was higher with glucose. Recombinant HaHXK1 was inhibited by ADP and was insensitive either to glucose-6-phosphate or to trehalose-6-phosphate. Its expression profile showed higher levels in heterotrophic tissues, developing seeds and roots, than in photosynthetic ones. A time course of HXK activity and expression in seeds showed that the highest HXK levels are found at the early stages of reserve compounds, lipids and proteins accumulation.

  9. Glycolytic enzymatic activities in developing seeds involved in the differences between standard and low oil content sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Ponce, M Adrián; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-12-01

    As opposed to other oilseeds, developing sunflower seeds do not accumulate starch initially. They rely on the sucrose that comes from the mother plant to synthesise lipid precursors. Glycolysis is the principal source of carbon skeletons and reducing power for lipid biosynthesis. In this work, glycolytic initial metabolites and enzyme activities from developing seed of two different sunflower lines, of high and low oil content, were compared during storage lipid synthesis. These two lines showed different kinetic lipid accumulation in the developing embryos. Fatty acids levels during the initial and final stage of lipid synthesis were higher in CAS-6 than in ZEN-8. The analysis of the photosynthate and sugars content suggests that, although the hexoses levels were quite similar in both lines, the amount of sucrose produced by the mother plant and available for lipid synthesis was higher in CAS-6. Although, a smaller amount of sucrose is available in the ZEN-8 line, its seeds maintain the levels of intermediate sugars in the initial steps of glycolysis due to an increase in the levels of the invertase, hexokinase and phosphoglucose isomerase activities in ZEN-8, with respect to CAS-6. Also, a readjustment in the final part of this metabolic route took place, with the activities of phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase in CAS-6 being higher, allowing increased synthesis of phosphoenolpiruvate, the intermediate carbon donor for fatty acid synthesis. In addition, recently, it has been shown that Arabidopsis mutants with a lower fat content in their seeds have a higher amount of sucrose. These data together point to these last two enzymatic activities, phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase, as being responsible for the lower fat content in the ZEN-8 line.

  10. Final Critical Habitat for the Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) occur. The geographic extent includes...

  11. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  12. Determination of Copper, Iron, Cadmium and Lead Contents of the Oils from Sunflower Seeds (Helianthus annus L. Grown Trakya Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Gecgel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the copper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb contents of the oils from sunflower seeds which were grown in the Trakya region, Turkey. For this reason, the samples of sunflower seed were collected from three different provinces (Tekirdag, Edirne and Kirklareli which are located on the Trakya region. A total of 90 sunflower seed samples from 2007 harvest seasons were collected from these different provinces. The contents of these metals in the crude oils obtained by soxhlet extraction with n-hexane from sunflower seed samples were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method. Preparing sample stage was made by using microwave analyze system in close container. According to the analysis results, the average amounts in the oil samples from three different provinces (Tekirdag, Edirne and Kirklareli were for Cd 0.11, 0.23 and 0.12 ppm; for Cu 0.12, 0.15 and 0.11 ppm; for Pb 0.23, 0.15 and 0.24 ppm; for Fe 4.83, 4.30 and 4.27 ppm, respectively. According to the analysis of variance, the differences among the provinces were statistically significant (P<0.01 with respect to Cd and Fe contents. The obtained these results were compared between the values reported in literatures. Potential sources of metal contamination of the oils from sunflower seeds were also discussed.

  13. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  14. Phototropism in seedlings of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this thesis the phototropic bending of hypocotyls of sunflower seedlings, Helianthus annuus L., is investigated.

    Chapter 1 gives the reasons for this project. Although phototropism has been studied extensively over the past 100 years, the understanding of

  15. Transport of glutamine into the xylem of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Findenegg, G.R.; Plaisier, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Melger, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were grown on nutrient solution with ammonium nitrogen. After 12 days of growth the ammonium in the nutrient solution was labeled with N (99%). Three hours later glutamine-N in the xylem exudate was labeled for 56% as shown by GC-MS; this percentage increased

  16. Phototropism in seedlings of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this thesis the phototropic bending of hypocotyls of sunflower seedlings, Helianthus annuus L., is investigated.Chapter 1 gives the reasons for this project. Although phototropism has been studied extensively over the past 100 years, the understanding of the mechanism is far from clear. During th

  17. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet si

  18. Heritable tissue culture induced genetic variation in sunflower (helianthus annuus l) as a tool for crop improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Encheva Julia; Tsvetkova F.; Ivanov Petar

    2004-01-01

    Immature zygotic embryos from the Bulgarian fertility restorer line R 147 (male component of the commercial hybrid Albena) were used as donor material for induction of direct organogenesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L). Range of spontaneous somaclonal variation among the progenies of regenerants has been assessed. Genetic modifications observed in the regenerants included agronomic traits such as oil content in seed, 1000-seed weight, plant height petiole length, internode length, number...

  19. Thiamethoxam seed treatments hav no impact on pest numbers or yield in cultivated sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of neonicotinoid seed treatments is a nearly ubiquitous practice in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pest management. Sunflowers have a speciose pest complex, but also harbor a diverse and abundant community of beneficial, non-target organisms which may be negatively affected by pest management...

  20. Molecular mapping of R11, a novel rust resistance gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an ‘HA 89’ backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), was identified a...

  1. Influência da localização da semente na porcentagem de óleo e no teor de umidade em capítulos de girassol Influence of the seed position on the oil percentage and moisture content in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Ferraz Matthes

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment we tried checked if there was variation in the oil percentage and moisture content in sunflower seed localized in different parts of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. head. Twenty heads from 'Record' variety, and ten from 'URL III' variety, both open-pollinated materials, were sampled. Each head was divided into three concentric ring-shaped zones and four samples were taken from each head, i. e., one from the central zone, one from the perimeter, and one from the intermediate zone. A fourth sample was taken from the mixture of the seeds from the hole head. The results obtained with these materials showed that the samples must be taken from the intermediate zone, if the results are to be used for selection of plants of better oil quantity. To analyze the moisture content, the seed sample should be taken from the hole head.

  2. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-11-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation.

  3. Helianthus Porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing the Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  4. Helianthus porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  5. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-09-01

    Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the observed potential negative effect in this trial, future randomized clinical trials may base their design on randomly assigning the exposed patients to give up use of sunflower seed intake.

  6. Effects of different doses of low power continuous wave he-ne laser radiation on some seed thermodynamic and germination parameters, and potential enzymes involved in seed germination of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Rashida; Ali, Qasim; Ashraf, Muhammad; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Jamil, Yasir; Raza Ahmad, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    In this study, water-soaked seeds of sunflower were exposed to He-Ne laser irradiation of different energies to determine whether or not He-Ne laser irradiation caused changes to seed thermodynamic and germination parameters as well as effects on the activities of germination enzymes. The experiment comprised four energy levels: 0 (control), 100, 300 and 500mJ of laser energy and each treatment replicated four times arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimentation was performed under the greenhouse conditions in the net-house of the Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The seed thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to seed germination thermograms determined with a calorimeter at 25.8°C for 72h. Various thermodynamic parameters of seed (ΔH, (ΔS)(e), (ΔS)(c), (ΔS)(e) /Δt and (ΔS)(c) /Δt) were affected significantly due to presowing laser treatment. Significant changes in seed germination parameters and enzyme activities were observed in seeds treated with He-Ne laser. The He-Ne laser seed treatment resulted in increased activities of amylase and protease. These results indicate that the low power continuous wave He-Ne laser light seed treatment has considerable biological effects on seed metabolism. This seed treatment technique can be potentially employed to enhance agricultural productivity.

  7. Estimation of mating system parameters in an evolving gynodioecous population of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumet, M; Ostrowski, M-F; David, J; Tollon, C; Muller, M-H

    2012-04-01

    Cultivated plants have been molded by human-induced selection, including manipulations of the mating system in the twentieth century. How these manipulations have affected realized parameters of the mating system in freely evolving cultivated populations is of interest for optimizing the management of breeding populations, predicting the fate of escaped populations and providing material for experimental evolution studies. To produce modern varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), self-incompatibility has been broken, recurrent generations of selfing have been performed and male sterility has been introduced. Populations deriving from hybrid-F1 varieties are gynodioecious because of the segregation of a nuclear restorer of male fertility. Using both phenotypic and genotypic data at 11 microsatellite loci, we analyzed the consanguinity status of plants of the first three generations of such a population and estimated parameters related to the mating system. We showed that the resource reallocation to seed in male-sterile individuals was not significant, that inbreeding depression on seed production averaged 15-20% and that cultivated sunflower had acquired a mixed-mating system, with ∼50% of selfing among the hermaphrodites. According to theoretical models, the female advantage and the inbreeding depression at the seed production stage were too low to allow the persistence of male sterility. We discuss our methods of parameter estimation and the potential of such study system in evolutionary biology.

  8. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl18, introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower downy mildew is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflowe...

  9. Seed moisture at physiological maturity in oilseed and confectionary sunflower hybrids in the Northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiccating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to hasten harvest has become a common practice in the northern U.S. and can aid in reducing yield loss associated with severe weather and bird predation. Currently, it is recommended to apply desiccants to sunflower at 35% or less seed moisture correspond...

  10. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R(12) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Hulke, B S; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is resistant to both of the most predominant and most virulent rust races identified in the Northern Great Plains of the USA. The gene conditioning rust resistance in RHA 464 originated from wild Helianthus annuus L., but has not been molecularly marked or determined to be independent from other rust loci. The objectives of this study are to identify molecular markers linked to the rust resistance gene and to investigate the allelism of this gene with the unmapped rust resistance genes present in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397. Virulence phenotypes of seedlings for the F(2) population and F(2:3) families suggested that a single dominant gene confers rust resistance in RHA 464, and this gene was designated as R(12). Bulked segregant analysis identified ten markers polymorphic between resistant and susceptible bulks. In subsequent genetic mapping, the ten markers covered 33.4 cM of genetic distance on linkage group 11 of sunflower. A co-dominant marker CRT275-11 is the closest marker distal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 1.0 cM, while ZVG53, a dominant marker linked in the repulsion phase, is proximal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 9.6 cM. The allelism test demonstrated that R(12) is not allelic to the rust resistance genes in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397, and it is also not linked to any previously mapped rust resistance genes. Discovery of the R(12) novel rust resistance locus in sunflower and associated markers will potentially support the molecular marker-assisted introgression and pyramiding of R(12) into sunflower breeding lines.

  11. Evaluation of germination capacity and selected biometric parameters (length and dry weight of roots and coleoptile of sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus after application of preparations containing effective microorganisms (EM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SEKUTOWSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and early growth microbiotest PhytotoxkitTM was used in the experiment, which consisted of 3 independent laboratory experimental series with one month intervals each and 3 replications. The aim of this study was to evaluate germination dynamics and capacity as well as selected biometric parameters after seed treatment with two preparations containing effective microorganisms: EM Farma (EMF and EM Farma Plus (EMFP. Sunflower seeds (H. annuus were chosen as the experimental material. Seeds soaked in distilled water were control objects (K in these experiment. Apart from control (K, reference material was prepared in the form of two biostimulants: Kelpak SL (KSL and gibberellic acid (GA3. The effect of the two biopreparations EM Farma (EMF and EM Farma Plus (EMFP was beneficial related to germination capacity and biometric parameters of sunflower (H. annuus.

  12. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  13. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  14. Phomopsis stem canker: a re-emerging threat to sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis stem canker frequently causes yield reductions on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Russia, Europe and North America. Between 2001 and 2012, the incidence of Phomopsis stem canker has increased 16 fold in the Northern Great Plains of the United...

  15. Is The Boron Uptake Affected When Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Grown At Poly Culture Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZTEKİN, Mahmut; TUNA, Atilla Levent

    2015-01-01

    n this study, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was growth alone and with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and clover plants (Medicago sativa L.). Boron at 25-50-75 mg L-1 concentrations was applied by the foliarly in the forms of Boric

  16. Investigation on The Effect of Some Plant Growth Regulators on Sunflower ( Helianthus Annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kolev

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available With a view to establish the effect of some plant growth regulators on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.production and oil content was made an experiment. The agricultural test was carried out in the experimentalbase of Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria in 2001- 2003.The investigation was pulled out byblock design with four replications with crop plot size 20 m2, previously sowed with wheat. The testedchemicals are as follows plant growth regulators: “H- 40’’ (alfanaftilvinegar acid, “M-2’’ (amid ofdicarbonovy acids of benzolovid number, “31’’(derivate of naphthalene with auxin efficacy, “XP’’(ftalaminova acid content micro and macro elements, synthesised in Research Institute of Cryobiology andFood Technology, Sofia in dose 1 cm3 / l water and Agat 25 EK- 2.5 g/da (Too bio biz Ltd..The investigation was made on Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Super Start, treated during pinhead andflowering. The effect of the tested plant growth regulators on the quantity of yield and some structuralelements (sunflower heads number, seeds number, seeds mass, mass/ 1000 seeds, oil content and oil yieldwas reported in the process of investigation. The effect grade of growth regulators is fixed due to non-treatedcontrol.By the dispersal analysis method, it is made a mathematics processing of the values of received data. Theresults of investigation showed that there is no significantly difference between the seed yield kg/da and oilcontent l/da in pinhead period by the use of plant growth regulators - ‘‘31’’ (1cm3/l water and ‘’Agat 25EK’’ (2.5 g/ da. In the flowering period when treated with the same plant growth regulators, the seed yield isincreased as of 15.3 % and the oil content increased as of 16.4% (with Agat 25 EK but it is decreased as of18.6% by the application of “31”.

  17. Triploid Production from Interspecific Crosses of Two Diploid Perennial Helianthus with Diploid Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Seiler, Gerald J.; Gulya, Thomas J.; Feng, Jiuhuan; Rashid, Khalid Y.; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2017-01-01

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. & G. and H. maximiliani Schr. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses indicated that the triploid F1s had two genomes from the wild pollen sources and one from the cultivated line. Mitotic chromosome analyses indicated that the frequency of triploid progenies from the crosses of cultivated lines × H. nuttallii accession 102 (N102) was significantly higher than those of unexpected polyploid progenies from the crosses of wild perennial species × N102, and no unexpected polyploids were obtained from the reverse crosses. Pollen stainability analysis suggested the existence of a low percentage of unreduced (2n) male gametes in some accessions, especially N102 and H. maximiliani accession 1113 (M1113), which were generated at the telophase II and tetrad stages of meiosis. The triploid F1s could be the results of preferred fertilization of the low frequency of 2n male gametes with the female gametes of the cultivated sunflower, due to the dosage factors related to recognition and rejection of foreign pollen during fertilization. The triploids have been used to produce amphiploids and aneuploids. Future studies of the male gametes’ fate from pollination through fertilization will further uncover the mechanism of this whole genome transmission. Studies of the genetic control of this trait will facilitate research on sunflower polyploidy speciation and evolution, and the utilization of this trait in sunflower breeding. PMID:28179393

  18. Triploid Production from Interspecific Crosses of Two Diploid Perennial Helianthus with Diploid Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Seiler, Gerald J; Gulya, Thomas J; Feng, Jiuhuan; Rashid, Khalid Y; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2017-02-07

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. &. G. and H. maximiliani Schr. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses indicated that the triploid F1s had two genomes from the wild pollen sources and one from the cultivated line. Mitotic chromosome analyses indicated that the frequency of triploid progenies from the crosses of cultivated lines × H. nuttallii accession 102 (N102) was significantly higher than those of unexpected polyploid progenies from the crosses of wild perennial species × N102, and no unexpected polyploids were obtained from the reverse crosses. Pollen stainability analysis suggested the existence of a low percentage of unreduced (2n) male gametes in some accessions, especially N102 and H. maximiliani accession 1113 (M1113), which were generated at the telophase II and tetrad stages of meiosis. The triploid F1s could be the results of preferred fertilization of the low frequency of 2n male gametes with the female gametes of the cultivated sunflower, due to the dosage factors related to recognition and rejection of foreign pollen during fertilization. The triploids have been used to produce amphiploids and aneuploids. Future studies of the male gametes' fate from pollination through fertilization will further uncover the mechanism of this whole genome transmission. Studies of the genetic control of this trait will facilitate research on sunflower polyploidy speciation and evolution, and the utilization of this trait in sunflower breeding.

  19. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R12 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is r...

  20. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Michael B; Sosa, Chrystian C; Khoury, Colin K; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation.

  1. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benjamin Kantar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives (CWR are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap and asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L. were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups, geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation.

  2. Effects of Exogenous Vc on Seed Germination and Physiological Properties of Oil Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) under Salt Stress%外源Vc对盐胁迫下油葵种子萌发和幼苗生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢精林; 高彦娟; 常玉娇

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to provide the theoretical and technical basis for al eviating salt damages in production practice of oil sunflower (Helianthus annu-us). [Method] Seeds of oil sunflower were used as experimental materials and treat-ed with 120 mmol/L NaCl solution and 0-200 mg/L Vc solution during the germina-tion process, to investigate the effects of exogenous Vc on seed germination and physiological properties of oil sunflower under salt stress. [Result] Under salt stress, with the increase of Vc concentration, germination potential and germination rate of oil sunflower seeds, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities and proline (Pro) content of oil sunflower seedlings increased first and then de-clined, which reached the maixmum in 80 mg/L Vc treatment, 120 mg/L Vc treat-ment and 80 mg/L Vc treatment, respectively; malondialdehyde (MDA) content of oil sunflower seedlings declined first and then increased, which reached the minimum in 160 mg/L Vc treatment. [Conclusion] To varying degrees, Vc could improve ger-mination potential and germination rate of oil sunflower seeds and promote seedling growth under salt stress, thus al eviating the damages of salt stress to seed germi-nation and seedling growth of oil sunflower.%[目的]为实际生产中缓解油葵盐害提供理论和技术依据。[方法]以油葵种子为试验材料,在种子萌发过程中选用120mmol/L NaCl盐胁迫和0~200 mg/L Vc 溶液进行处理,研究外源 Vc对盐胁迫下油葵种子萌发指标和幼苗生理特性的影响。[结果]在盐胁迫下,随着 Vc溶液浓度的增加,油葵种子发芽势和发芽率、幼苗超氧化物岐化酶( SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性、脯氨酸(Pro)含量均呈现先升高后降低的趋势,分别以80 mg/L、120 mg/L、80 mg/L的 Vc处理达到最大值;幼苗丙二醛(MDA)含量呈现先降后升的趋势,以160 mg/L Vc处理达到最小值。[结论] Vc能不同程度地提高

  3. Genotoxic effects of the insecticide cypermethrin on the root meristem cells of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inceer, Huseyin; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ozcan, Melahat

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the genotoxic effects of the insecticide cypermethrin on the root meristem cells of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) were investigated. The roots were treated with 10- 25- 50- and 100-ppm concentrations of cypermethrin for 6, 12 and 24 h. The mitotic index and mitotic abnormalities were determined in both control and test groups. The cypermethrin showed a marked mitodepressive action on mitosis. The types of mitotic abnormalities included disturbed metaphase, c-mitosis, stickiness, laggards and chromatid bridges. A pronounced toxic effect was observed at the 50-ppm concentration. Cypermethrin may have genotoxic effects on sunflowers.

  4. Analysis of transposons and repeat composition of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia; Zuccolo, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Jurman, Irena; Ferrillo, Veronica; Vitacolonna, Nicola; Sarri, Vania; Cattonaro, Federica; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cionini, Pier Giorgio; Morgante, Michele

    2010-02-01

    A sample-sequencing strategy combined with slot-blot hybridization and FISH was used to study the composition of the repetitive component of the sunflower genome. One thousand six hundred thirty-eight sequences for a total of 954,517 bp were analyzed. The fraction of sequences that can be classified as repetitive using computational and hybridization approaches amounts to 62% in total. Almost two thirds remain as yet uncharacterized in nature. Of those characterized, most belong to the gypsy superfamily of LTR-retrotransposons. Unlike in other species, where single families can account for large fractions of the genome, it appears that no transposon family has been amplified to very high levels in sunflower. All other known classes of transposable elements were also found. One family of unknown nature (contig 61) was the most repeated in the sunflower genome. The evolution of the repetitive component in the Helianthus genus and in other Asteraceae was studied by comparative analysis of the hybridization of total genomic DNAs from these species to the sunflower small-insert library and compared to gene-based phylogeny. Very little similarity is observed between Helianthus species and two related Asteraceae species outside of the genus. Most repetitive elements are similar in annual and perennial Helianthus species indicating that sequence amplification largely predates such divergence. Gypsy-like elements are more represented in the annuals than in the perennials, while copia-like elements are similarly represented, attesting a different amplification history of the two superfamilies of LTR-retrotransposons in the Helianthus genus.

  5. Thiamethoxam Seed Treatments Have No Impact on Pest Numbers or Yield in Cultivated Sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeson, Michael M; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2015-12-01

    The use of neonicotinoid seed treatments is a nearly ubiquitous practice in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pest management. Sunflowers have a speciose pest complex, but also harbor a diverse and abundant community of beneficial, nontarget organisms which may be negatively affected by pest management practices. Here, we investigate how the foliar and subterranean arthropod pest communities in sunflower fields were affected by a thiamethoxam seed treatment over three site years (two years on one farm, and another year at an additional field in the second year). Thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in leaf tissue were quantified throughout the growing season, and yield differences between treatments were measured. Across site years, foliar herbivores and key pests of sunflowers were unaffected by the seed treatment. Likewise, subterranean herbivores were unaffected. Thiamethoxam was measurable in leaf tissue through the R1 plant stage, while its metabolite clothianidin was detected throughout flowering (R6). No difference in sunflower yield was observed between treatments across site years. This research suggests that neonicotinoid seed treatments in sunflowers do not always provide economic benefits to farmers in the form of pest reductions or yield improvements. Future research should focus on sunflower integrated pest management strategies that limit nontarget effects of agrochemicals, while providing greater economic returns to farmers.

  6. Seed size variation and predation of seeds produced by wild and crop-wild sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H M; Cummings, C L; Kahn, L; Snow, A A

    2001-04-01

    The movement of pollen between crop and wild sunflowers (both Helianthus annuus) has led to concerns about the possible introduction of crop transgenes into wild populations. The persistence of crop traits in wild populations will depend in part on the relative fitness of crop-wild hybrid vs. wild plants. Using seeds from two large experimental field plots, we found that seeds produced by crop-wild plants were twice the size of wild seeds and differed in coloration. Head diameter, date of flowering, identity of mother plant, and levels of predispersal predation explained some variation in mean seed size. We hypothesized that postdispersal vertebrate seed predation would be affected by seed size, with hybrid seeds preferentially eaten. In each of three field trials, significantly more hybrid seeds were eaten (62% of hybrid seed; 42% of wild seed). Within the category of wild seeds, larger seeds were preferentially eaten; however among hybrid seeds, predation was not significantly related to seed size. In this study, differential predation thus reduces hybrid fitness and would presumably slow the spread of transgenes into wild populations.

  7. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  8. Breeding sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for drought tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Rauf

    2008-01-01

    Productivity of sunflower is strongly regulated by the availability of water and greatest yield losses occur when water shortage occurs at flowering. Therefore, it is critical to manage the deleterious effect of drought stress at this stage. Evolving crop genotypes which have enhanced drought tolerance are the most successful and cheapest strategy to cope with drought. However, progress in drought tolerance breeding is slow due to inappropriate selection criteria and faulty breeding strategie...

  9. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent...

  10. Data on mass spectrometry based identification of allergens from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. pollen proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergy is a type of abnormal immune reactions, which is triggered by environmental antigens or allergens and mediated by IgE antibodies. Now-a-days mass spectrometry is the method of choice for allergen identification based on homology searching. Here, we provide the mass spectrometry dataset associated with our previously published research article on identification of sunflower pollen allergens (Ghosh et al., 2015 [1]. In this study allergenicity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus pollen grains were primarily investigated by clinical studies followed by detailed immunobiochemical and immunoproteomic analyses. The mass spectrometry data for the identification of allergens were deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002397.

  11. A time-series phytoremediation experiment with sunflowers (Helianthus annuus on a former uranium mining site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kötschau A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On a test field situated at a former uranium mining site near Ronneburg (Thuringia, Germany a small scale time-series field experiment with sunflowers (Helianthus annuus was carried out. This area ghas elevated contents for the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn including the radionuclides U and Th. Over a time period of 24 weeks the sunflowers were cultivated on homogenized soil substrate and regularly harvested. The aim was to find the ideal moment to harvest the sunflowers, being defined as having the best balance between the extraction of the contaminants and a high biomass produced. The contents of the elements were determined in soil, roots and above-ground plant parts. The contents in the above-ground plant showed no clear increasing or decreasing trend over time, so they were not the appropriate values to determine the best moment to harvest. Instead the total extracted masses (content in μg/g x biomass in g of the contaminants in the above-ground plant parts were calculated. According to this the best moment to harvest the sunflower plants was reached after 24 weeks of vegetation, because the highest extracted masses for all contaminants were calculated to this time. Additionally the biomass, which could be used e.g. for bio-fuel production, was highest at this time.

  12. Organization of lipid reserves in cotyledons of primed and aged sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Christina; Landré, Pierre; Hill, Lisa; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe

    2005-10-01

    Imbibing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Briosol) seeds at water potentials between -2 MPa and -5 MPa leads to faster (priming) or slower (accelerated ageing) germination depending on the temperature and duration of treatment. Mobilization of food reserves may be associated with the changes in seed vigor. To study this, morphological, biochemical and phase properties of lipid, the major food reserve in sunflower, were compared in freshly harvested (i.e., control), primed and aged sunflower cotyledons using electron microscopy, biochemical analyses and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Lipid bodies became smaller and more dispersed throughout the cytoplasm during priming and ageing. Despite ultrastructural changes, there were few measured changes in biochemistry of the neutral lipid component; lipid content, proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and level of free fatty acids were unchanged in primed and slightly aged seeds, with only severely aged seeds showing a net decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids and an increase in free fatty acids. Subtle changes in the calorimetric behavior of lipids within sunflower cotyledons were observed. Sunflower lipids exhibited polymorphic crystalline and amorphous solid phases when cooled to priming decreased the rate of crystallization in vivo and ageing increased the rate of crystallization, but decreased percentage crystallinity. The observed changes in thermal behavior in vivo are consistent with losses and gains, respectively, of interacting non-lipid moieties in the triacylglycerol matrix.

  13. Identification of molecular markers linked to a new nuclear male-sterility gene ms7 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear male sterility (NMS) is an important alternative system to the cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding programs because of its stable male sterility and abundant available restorer resources. For sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), NMS 89-552, a nuclear male-sterile mutant induced by...

  14. Effect of antioxidant butylated hydroxyl anisole on the thermal or oxidative stability of sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus) by ultrasonic

    OpenAIRE

    Murari, Satish Kumar; Shwetha, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) as an antioxidant in sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus). The oxidation stability of sunflower oil have been investigated by the effects of varying amounts of BHA. The antioxidant incorporated sunflower oil system and control edible oil were subjected to heating at 180 ± 5 °C continuously for a period of 4 h per day for consecutive 4 days. The parameters used to assess the thermal degradation...

  15. Correlation and path coefficient analysis for protein yield in confectionary sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Miklič Vladimir; Mijić Anto; Jocić Siniša; Miladinović Dragana

    2015-01-01

    The most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into the production is high protein yield. Path coefficient analysis was used to obtain information on direct and indirect effects of studied traits (seed oil content, kernel oil content, seed yield, kernel protein content, mass of 1000 seeds, kernel ratio and hull ratio) on protein yield. The research was conducted during three vegetation seasons, on 22 experimental confectionary sunflow...

  16. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower...... sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  17. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Bakken, Bradley H; Blackman, Benjamin K; Chapman, Mark A; Kane, Nolan C; Tang, Shunxue; Ungerer, Mark C; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2012-10-01

    Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well-documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence reads and assembled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, we show that it is composed of over 81% transposable elements, 77% of which are long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Moreover, the LTR retrotransposon fraction in BAC clones harboring genes is disproportionately composed of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons ('chromoviruses'), and the majority of the intact chromoviruses contain tandem chromodomain duplications. We show that there is a bias in the efficacy of homologous recombination in removing LTR retrotransposon DNA, thereby providing insight into the mechanisms associated with transposable element (TE) composition in the sunflower genome. We also show that the vast majority of observed LTR retrotransposon insertions have likely occurred since the origin of this species, providing further evidence that biased LTR retrotransposon activity has played a major role in shaping the chromatin and DNA landscape of the sunflower genome. Although our findings on LTR retrotransposon age and structure could be influenced by the selection of the BAC clones analyzed, a global analysis of random sequence reads indicates that the evolutionary patterns described herein apply to the sunflower genome as a whole.

  18. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferase from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Ouyang, Chao; Kou, Shanglong; Wang, Shenghua; Yao, Yunyi; Peng, Tong; Xu, Ying; Tang, Lin; Chen, Fang

    2011-01-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a putative diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT; EC 2.3.1.20) was obtained from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. The 1524-bp open reading frame of this cDNA, designated as HaDGAT1, encodes a protein of 507 amino acids with a molecular mass of 58.5 kDa showing high homology to DGAT1 enzymes of other plants. The protein characters, such as a predicted structure with a long N-terminal hydrophilic domain followed by 9 transmembrane domains, acyl-CoA-binding signature, diacylglycerol (DAG)-binding and putative endoplasmic reticulum retrieval motifs (ER-DIR), also indicated that HaDGAT belongs to the DGAT1 family. HaDGAT1 is expressed in all plant tissues especially in developing seeds. Expression of recombinant HaDGAT1 in yeast showed an 1.76-fold increase of total fatty acids, especially unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitoleic acid (enhanced by 86.6%) and oleic acid (enhanced by 81.6%).

  19. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, David L; Pohl, Mary DeLand; Alvarado, José Luis; Tarighat, Somayeh; Bye, Robert

    2008-04-29

    Mexico has long been recognized as one of the world's cradles of domestication with evidence for squash (Cucurbita pepo) cultivation appearing as early as 8,000 cal B.C. followed by many other plants, such as maize (Zea mays), peppers (Capsicum annuum), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We present archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric data demonstrating that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) had entered the repertoire of Mexican domesticates by ca. 2600 cal B.C., that its cultivation was widespread in Mexico and extended as far south as El Salvador by the first millennium B.C., that it was well known to the Aztecs, and that it is still in use by traditional Mesoamerican cultures today. The sunflower's association with indigenous solar religion and warfare in Mexico may have led to its suppression after the Spanish Conquest. The discovery of ancient sunflower in Mexico refines our knowledge of domesticated Mesoamerican plants and adds complexity to our understanding of cultural evolution.

  20. Rhizopus oryzae associated with Melanagromyza splendida and stem disease of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2012, a female parental line in a Yolo, CA in sunflower seed-production field began displaying external stem symptoms that could not be attributed to any known disease. Symptoms appeared to be associated with tunneling caused by an un-identified insect. Stems were collected and Rhizopu...

  1. Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild Helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Sreten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotype, chromosomes pairing and pollen vitality were compared between parental populations and F1 hybrids of interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus L. and cultivated sunflower. The investigation of the simple sequence repeats (SSR polymorphism was also used to test the hybrid nature of F1 populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid plants were either closer to the wild species or intermediate. Irregular chromosome pairing was found in only 0 to 10% of meiocytes in the meiosis of F1 hybrid plants. Interspecific crosses were confirmed with SSR markers in all hybrid combinations. Alleles that were not present in parental DNA were frequently observed in F1 hybrids. That is additional evidence that those hybrid combinations were not produced by self-fertilization. The results suggest that SSR markers can be efficiently used for the F1 hybrid characterization in crosses between closely related species, in which, the changes of phenotype, meiosis and pollen vitality are not always significant.

  2. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  3. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C Rowe

    Full Text Available Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL, a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  4. HACRE1, a recently inserted copia-like retrotransposon of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, M; Giordani, T; Vukich, M; Gentzbittel, L; Pistelli, L; Cattonaro, F; Morgante, M; Cavallini, A; Natali, L

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we report on the isolation and characterization, for the first time, of a complete 6511 bp retrotransposon of sunflower. Considering its protein domain order and sequence similarity to other copia elements of dicotyledons, this retrotransposon was assigned to the copia retrotransposon superfamily and named HACRE1 (Helianthus annuus copia-like retroelement 1). HACRE1 carries 5' and 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs) flanking an internal region of 4661 bp. The LTRs are identical in their sequence except for two deletions of 7 and 5 nucleotides in the 5' LTR. Based on the sequence identity of the LTRs, HACRE1 was estimated to have inserted within the last approximately 84 000 years. The isolated sequence contains a complete open reading frame with only one complete reading frame. The absence of nonsense mutations agrees with the very high sequence identity between LTRs, confirming that HACRE1 insertion is recent. The haploid genome of sunflower (inbred line HCM) contains about 160 copies of HACRE1. This retrotransposon is expressed in leaflets from 7-day-old plantlets under different light conditions, probably in relation to the occurrence of many putative light-related regulatory cis-elements in the LTRs. However, sequenced cDNAs show less variability than HACRE1 genomic sequences, indicating that only a subset of this family is expressed under these conditions.

  5. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Febina M; Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Jordahl, James G; Meyer, Scott M; Castlebury, Lisa A; Gulya, Thomas J; Markell, Samuel G

    2015-07-01

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe helianthi was assumed to be the sole causal agent in the United States, a newly described species, D. gulyae, was found to be the primary cause of Phomopsis stem canker in Australia. To determine the identity of Diaporthe spp. causing Phomopsis stem canker in the Northern Great Plains, 275 infected stems were collected between 2010 and 2012. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, elongation factor subunit 1-α, and actin gene regions of representative isolates, in comparison with those of type specimens, confirmed two species (D. helianthi and D. gulyae) in the United States. Differences in aggressiveness between the two species were determined using the stem-wound method in the greenhouse; overall, D. helianthi and D. gulyae did not vary significantly (P≤0.05) in their aggressiveness at 10 and 14 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that both Diaporthe spp. have emerged as sunflower pathogens in the United States, and have implications on the management of this disease.

  6. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  8. Metal accumulation by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and the efficacy of its biomass in enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jinglin; Kim, Dongwook; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil). The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4%) was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt), whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt) was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (%) as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7%) from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production.

  9. Physiology and proteomics of drought stress acclimation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulda, S; Mikkat, S; Stegmann, H; Horn, R

    2011-07-01

    An easy and manageable in vitro screening system for drought tolerance of sunflower seedlings based on MS media supplemented with polyethylene glycol 6000 was evaluated. Morphological and physiological parameters were compared between control (-0.05 MPa) and drought-stressed (-0.6 MPa) seedlings of Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovick. There was a significant growth deficit in drought-stressed plants compared to control plants in terms of hypocotyl length, and shoot and root fresh mass. Shoot growth was more restricted than root growth, resulting in an increased root/shoot ratio of drought-stressed plants. Accumulation of osmolytes such as inositol (65-fold), glucose (58-fold), proline (55-fold), fructose (11-fold) and sucrose (eightfold), in leaves of drought-stressed plants could be demonstrated by gas-liquid chromatography. Soluble protein patterns of leaves were analysed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A set of 46 protein spots allowed identification of 19 marker proteins. Quantitative changes in protein expression of drought-stressed versus control plants were detected. In leaves of drought-stressed sunflower seedlings six proteins were significantly up-regulated more than twofold: a putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (4.5-fold), a fructokinase 3 (3.3-fold), a vegetative storage protein (2.5-fold), a glycine-rich RNA binding protein (2.2-fold), a CuZn-superoxide dismutase (2.1-fold) and an unknown low molecular weight protein (2.3-fold). These proteins represent general stress proteins induced under drought conditions or proteins contributing to basic carbon metabolism. The up-regulated proteins are interesting candidates for further physiological and molecular investigations regarding drought tolerance in sunflower.

  10. Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspacesolid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. α-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives.

  11. Identification of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschen, Sebastian; Bengoa Luoni, Sofia; Paniego, Norma B; Hopp, H Esteban; Dosio, Guillermo A A; Fernandez, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs) identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ethylene insensitive 2) previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1) and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could play important

  12. Genetic analysis of yield and yield related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under well-watered and water-stressed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darvishzadeh Reza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the factors which influence sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production. Breeding for tolerance to drought stress has become a major focus. In the present investigation, combining ability, gene action and genetic analysis of several characteristics were studied in six pure lines of sunflower and their 15 hybrids. The materials were evaluated in two separate experiments using a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in two states (well-watered and water-stressed under controlled conditions. Comparison of mean values exhibited that under water- stressed condition the average performance of sunflower genotypes were decreased for all studied traits. In well-watered condition the highest value for seed yield per plant (SY was observed in the cross 'LR4´LR25', whereas in water-stressed condition the highest value for this trait was observed in the hybrid 'C104´LR25'. Combining ability analysis revealed that most of agronomical traits such as head diameter, number of achene per head, head weight and seed yield inherited differently in stressed and non-stressed conditions. In water-stressed conditions, the non-additive effects played a more important role for controlling the number of achene per head (NA, seed yield per plant (SY, head diameter (HD, and days from flowering to physiological maturity (DFM than additive. Based on results yield improvement for water-stressed conditions requires selection under drought conditions. In well-watered condition, the cross 'LR4´C10' showed the best SCA value for seed yield per plant (SY. In water-stressed conditions, 'RHA266´C100' had the highest SCA for seed yield per plant (SY and number of achene (NA per head.

  13. Genetic variability in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and in the Helianthus genus as assessed by retrotransposon-based molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukich, M; Schulman, A H; Giordani, T; Natali, L; Kalendar, R; Cavallini, A

    2009-10-01

    The inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) protocol was applied for the first time within the genus Helianthus to assess intraspecific variability based on retrotransposon sequences among 36 wild accessions and 26 cultivars of Helianthus annuus L., and interspecific variability among 39 species of Helianthus. Two groups of LTRs, one belonging to a Copia-like retroelement and the other to a putative retrotransposon of unknown nature (SURE) have been isolated, sequenced and primers were designed to obtain IRAP fingerprints. The number of polymorphic bands in H. annuus wild accessions is as high as in Helianthus species. If we assume that a polymorphic band can be related to a retrotransposon insertion, this result suggests that retrotransposon activity continued after Helianthus speciation. Calculation of similarity indices from binary matrices (Shannon's and Jaccard's indices) show that variability is reduced among domesticated H. annuus. On the contrary, similarity indices among Helianthus species were as large as those observed among wild H. annuus accessions, probably related to their scattered geographic distribution. Principal component analysis of IRAP fingerprints allows the distinction between perennial and annual Helianthus species especially when the SURE element is concerned.

  14. Growth, Cadmium and Zinc Accumulation of Ornamental Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Contaminated Soil with Different Amendments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiu-Zhen; ZHOU Dong-Mei; LI Dan-Dan; JIANG Ping

    2012-01-01

    Use of ornamental plants for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil is a new option.A pot experiment was carried out to assess the effect of application of amendments,i.e.,swine manure,salicylic acid (SA) and potassium chloride (KCl),on the growth,uptake and translocation of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) of ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on a contaminated soil.The three amendments increased sunflower height,flower diameter,and biomass.Manure significantly decreased Cd and Zn concentrations in sunflower,and thus decreased the bioaccumulation coefficient (BCF) of Cd and Zn.However,using of KCI markedly increased Cd concentrations in sunflower and the BCF of Cd.Additionally,both swine manure and KCl application increased Cd and Zn translocation from root to aboveground part.Swine manure and salicylic acid reduced the Cd/Zn ratios in flower of sunflower,while KCl significantly increased the Cd/Zn ratios.Correlation analysis demonstrated that the Cd/Zn ratio in the root of sunflower was affected by K/Na ratio in root and soil available potassium (K) concentration.Ornamental sunflower could be grown as an alternative plant in the Cd- and Zn-contaminated soil with KCl application to get the balance between environmental and economic interests.

  15. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  16. Genetic analysis of agro-morphological traits in promising hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam GOLABADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective underlying sunflower breeding programs is to develop high-yielding productive F1 hybrid cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic control of some agro-morphological traits of new sunflower F1 hybrids. For this purpose, fourteen inbred lines of sunflower were crossed with three male sterile inbred lines. Their hybrids (14 hybrids were then evaluated against three control cultivars. The data thus obtained were analyzed using the nested model (North Carolina Design І as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four replications. Analysis of variance showed that the hybrids were significantly different in all the traits studied, except for head and stem diameters. From among the hybrids evaluated, Cms19 × Rn1-81 was found to have the highest seed yield and oil content. Cluster analysis classified the hybrids into four different groups. Genetic analysis showed that days to maturity, seed weight, and oil content (% were under the additive gene action. Breeding strategies based on selection could be suggested for the improvement of these traits. Head angle, head diameter, seed yield, and oil yield were under the dominance gene action; breeding based on hybridization methods is, therefore, proposed for these traits. Finally, both additive and dominance gene actions were observed to play important roles in the genetic control of plant height and stem diameter.

  17. Correlation and path coefficient analysis for protein yield in confectionary sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into the production is high protein yield. Path coefficient analysis was used to obtain information on direct and indirect effects of studied traits (seed oil content, kernel oil content, seed yield, kernel protein content, mass of 1000 seeds, kernel ratio and hull ratio on protein yield. The research was conducted during three vegetation seasons, on 22 experimental confectionary sunflower hybrids created in the breeding program at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops. Strong and very strong correlations were found among the largest number of examined traits. A weak negative interdependence was determined between kernel oil content, kernel protein content, mass of 1000 seeds, hull ratio, and protein yield using the analysis of simple correlation coefficients. Positive but weak correlation was determined between protein yield and seed oil content, and kernel ratio. Very strong positive correlation was determined between protein yield and seed yield (0.468**. The seed oil content had a very strong direct negative effect on protein yield (DE=-0.734**. The mass of 1000 seeds had a weak negative direct effect on protein yield. Kernel protein content and kernel oil content demonstrated a weak direct positive effect on protein yield. Path coefficient analysis of protein yield showed a very strong positive direct effect of kernel ratio (DE=1.340**, seed yield (DE=0.657** and hull ratio (DE=0.992*. These findings confirm the effect of seed yield, kernel ratio, and hull ratio on protein yield, and their importance as the selection criteria in confectionary sunflower breeding. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31025: Development of new varieties and production technology improvement of oil crops for different purposes

  18. cDNA cloning, expression levels and gene mapping of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic ferredoxin genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-Calerón, M; Zambelli, A; Ruiz-López, N; Youssar, L; León, A; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acid desaturation in plastids and chloroplasts depends on the electron-donor activity of ferredoxins. Using degenerate oligonucleotides designed from known photosynthetic and heterotrophic plant ferredoxin sequences, two full-length ferredoxin cDNAs were cloned from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves and developing seeds, HaFd1 and HaFd2, homologous to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic ferredoxins, respectively. Based on these cDNAs, the respective genomic sequences were obtained and the presence of DNA polymorphisms was investigated. Complete sequencing of the HaFd1 and HaFd2 genes in different lines indicated the presence of two haplotypes for HaFd2 and their alignment showed that sequence polymorphisms are restricted to the 5'-NTR intron. In addition, specific DNA markers for the HaFd1 and HaFd2 genes were developed that enabled the genes to be mapped. Accordingly, the HaFd1 locus maps to linkage group 10 of the public sunflower map, while the HaFd2 locus maps to linkage group 11. Both ferredoxins display different spatial-temporal patterns of expression. While HaFd2 is expressed at similar levels in all tissues tested (leaves, stem, roots, cotyledons and developing seeds), HaFd1 is more strongly expressed in green tissues than in all the other tissues tested. Both photosynthetic- and heterotrophic-ferredoxins are present in sunflower seeds and may contribute to fatty acid desaturation during oil accumulation. Nevertheless, the levels of HaFd2 expression during seed formation are distinct in lines that only varied in the HaFd2 haplotypes they expressed.

  19. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide.

  20. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  1. Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bogatek, Renata; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 degrees C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dormancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible role of cyanide, which is produced by the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, in this process. The aims of this work were to investigate whether exogenous cyanide could improve the germination of dormant sunflower seeds and to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Naked dormant seeds became able to germinate at 10 degrees C when they were incubated in the presence of 1 mM gaseous cyanide. Other respiratory inhibitors showed that this effect did not result from an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway or the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Cyanide stimulated germination of dormant seeds in the presence of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, but its improving effect required functional ethylene receptors. It did not significantly affect ethylene production and the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis or in the first steps of ethylene signalling pathway. However, the expression of the transcription factor Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1) was markedly stimulated in the presence of gaseous cyanide. It is proposed that the mode of action of cyanide in sunflower seed dormancy alleviation does not involve ethylene production and that ERF1 is a common component of the ethylene and cyanide signalling pathways.

  2. Reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid and ethylene interact to regulate sunflower seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Sajjad, Yasar; Bazin, Jérémie; Langlade, Nicolas; Cristescu, Simona M; Balzergue, Sandrine; Baudouin, Emmanuel; Bailly, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed dormancy is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can be alleviated by incubating dormant embryos in the presence of methylviologen (MV), a ROS-generating compound. Ethylene alleviates sunflower seed dormancy whereas abscisic acid (ABA) represses germination. The purposes of this study were to identify the molecular basis of ROS effect on seed germination and to investigate their possible relationship with hormone signalling pathways. Ethylene treatment provoked ROS generation in embryonic axis whereas ABA had no effect on their production. The beneficial effect of ethylene on germination was lowered in the presence of antioxidant compounds, and MV suppressed the inhibitory effect of ABA. MV treatment did not alter significantly ethylene nor ABA production during seed imbibition. Microarray analysis showed that MV treatment triggered differential expression of 120 probe sets (59 more abundant and 61 less abundant genes), and most of the identified transcripts were related to cell signalling components. Many transcripts less represented in MV-treated seeds were involved in ABA signalling, thus suggesting an interaction between ROS and ABA signalling pathways at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results shed new light on the crosstalk between ROS and plant hormones in seed germination.

  3. INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON SUNFLOWER ( HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Tahsin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available With a view to establish the effect of some plant growth regulators on sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus L. production and oil content was made an experiment. The investigation was made on Bulgarian sunfl ower hybrid Super Start, treated during pinhead and fl owering stages. The effect of the tested plant growth regulators on the quantity of yield and some structural elements (sunfl ower heads number, seeds number, seeds mass, mass/ 1000 seeds, oil content % and oil yield kg/da was reported in the process of investigation. The effect grade of growth regulators is fi xed due to non-treated control. By the dispersal analysis method it is made mathematics processing of the values of received data. The investigation showed that there is not mathematically proved difference between the seed yield kg/da and oil content l/da in pinhead period by the use of plant growth regulators - ‘‘31’’ (1cm3/l water and ‘’Agat 25 EK’’ (2.5 g/ da. In the fl owering period when treated with the same plant growth regulators seed yield is 15.3 % increased and the oil content -18.6 % (with “31’’ and 16.4 % (with’’Agat 25 EK’’.

  4. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols.

  5. Combined linkage and association mapping of flowering time in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadic, Elena; Coque, Marie; Vear, Felicity; Grezes-Besset, Bruno; Pauquet, Jerôme; Piquemal, Joël; Lippi, Yannick; Blanchard, Philippe; Romestant, Michel; Pouilly, Nicolas; Rengel, David; Gouzy, Jerôme; Langlade, Nicolas; Mangin, Brigitte; Vincourt, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Association mapping and linkage mapping were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and/or causative mutations involved in the control of flowering time in cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus. A panel of 384 inbred lines was phenotyped through testcrosses with two tester inbred lines across 15 location × year combinations. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising 273 lines was phenotyped both per se and through testcrosses with one or two testers in 16 location × year combinations. In the association mapping approach, kinship estimation using 5,923 single nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be the best covariate to correct for effects of panel structure. Linkage disequilibrium decay ranged from 0.08 to 0.26 cM for a threshold of 0.20, after correcting for structure effects, depending on the linkage group (LG) and the ancestry of inbred lines. A possible hitchhiking effect is hypothesized for LG10 and LG08. A total of 11 regions across 10 LGs were found to be associated with flowering time, and QTLs were mapped on 11 LGs in the RIL population. Whereas eight regions were demonstrated to be common between the two approaches, the linkage disequilibrium approach did not detect a documented QTL that was confirmed using the linkage mapping approach.

  6. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  7. Effects of copper on chlorophyll, proline, protein and abscisic acid level of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Fikriye Kirbag; Kirbag, Sevda

    2007-07-01

    The effect of copperchloride (CuCl2) on the level of chlorophyll (a+b), proline, protein and abscisic acid in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings were investigated Control and copper treated (0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mM) seedlings were grown for ten days in Hoagland solution. Abscisic acid content was determined in root, shoot and leaf tissues of seedlings by HPLC. Copper stress caused significant increase of the abscisic acid contents in roots, shoots and leaves of seedlings. The increase was dependent on the copper salt concentration. Enhanced accumulation of proline in the leaves of seedlings exposed to copper was determined, as well as a decrease of chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein (p Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Thus, we assumed that copper levels increase above some critical points seedling growth get negative effects. This assumption is in line with previous findings.

  8. RESPONSE OF TWO SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. GENOTYPES TO VA-MYCORRHIZAL INOCULATION AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. CHANDRASHEKARA, V.C. PATIL

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of two sunflower genotypes (Morden and MSFH-8 with and without VA-mycorrhizal fungi at three P levels (38, 56 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1 in vertisol of Dharwad was studied to determine the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on plant growth, yield and P uptake. The results showed that the VAM inoculation increased sunflower yield (14%, total biomass (16%, oil content (3.1% and P uptake (30.5% over uninoculated control. The percent root colonization and chlamydo-spore count decreased with increasing P levels. The total biomass production, seed yield and P uptake of mycorrhizal plants at 38 kg P2O5 ha-1 more than the non-mycorrhizal plants at 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. The biomass and seed yield of mycorrhizal plants at same P level were more than the non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal plants of Morden at 38 kg P2O5 ha-1 and MSFH-8 at 56 kg P2O5 ha-1 produced higher seed yield, oil content and total biomass than non-mycorrhizal plants supplied with 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. The results indicated that, VA-mycorrhizal inoculation helps in saving 25 and 50 percent of recommended dose of phosphatic fertilizer (75 kg P2O5 ha-1 in MSFH-8 (single cross hybrid and Morden (open pollinated variety, respectively.

  9. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Diurnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Torretta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus L. es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o morfoespecies, de las cuales 32 fueron abejas (Apoidea. Las familias de abejas más representadas fueron Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 y Halictidae (7. La abeja doméstica (Apis mellifera L. realizó el 93% de las visitas. La composición del elenco de visitantes no mostró un patrón de variación identificable a lo largo del día, ni con respecto a la distancia al borde del cultivo, pero varió entre sitios de muestreo. Se concluye que la abeja doméstica es el principal polinizador del girasol en la Argentina, aunque varias especies nativas de abejas (Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, y Megachile spp. podrían ser consideradas como potenciales polinizadores del cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an important oilseed crop in Argentina. During three agricultural years, the diversity and abundance of diurnal floral visitors of sunflower heads were determined in eight sites spanning much of this crop's cultivation area in Argentina. Seventysix morpho-species of floral visitors, belonging to eight orders, were captured on sunflower. The principal order was Hymenoptera, with 37 species or morpho-species, of which 32 were bees (Apoidea. The most represented bee families were Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 and Halictidae (7. The domestic bee (Apis mellifera L. accounted for 93% of the visits. Floral visitor composition did not show an identifiable variation pattern either throughout the day or

  10. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  11. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase.

  12. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  13. Effects of drought stress and various levels of potassium fertilizer on yield and yield component of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L. cultivar Armaviresky in Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Salati Momeni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of drought stress and various levels of potassium fertilizer on yield and yield component of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L. cultivarArmaviresky in Ardabil a randomized complete block design experiment factorial the four replications in 1394. The amount of potassium factor of 3 K1= 0kg/h, K2= 50kg/h and K3= 100kg/h, respectively. And the second factor consisted of drought stress levels D1=70mm evaporation, D2=140mm evaporation and the D3 =210 mm evaporation. Was used in this experiment was Armawireski. Overall, it was concluded that water stress, yield in oil yield significantly reduced. In this experiment, the highest grain yield D1= 70mm treatments, respectively (5021kg/h (5631/4 kg/h and the lowest yield of treatments and treatments D3=210 mm K1=0 kg/h, respectively (2481/3 kg/h and (2996/9 kg/h. The results suggest that treatment D1=70 mm increased number of seeds per heah was.The higher leaf area during this stage of growth. Environmental stress by limiting the supply of assimilates for grain filling, the number of seeds per head is affected. So the highest seed weight, number of seeds per head and oil yield, respectively (74/51gr, (938/26 number and (2457 kg/h from D1=70mm treatment and lowest seed weight, number of seeds per head and oil yield, respectively (50/29 gr, (number 628/60 and (1631 kg g/h of treatment K1=0 kg/h, respectively. If the highest oil percent (%59/74 of treatment K3=100 kg/h, respectively.

  14. Disease Tolerance in Helianthus petiolaris: A Genetic Resource for Sunflower Breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutierrez, Agustina; Cantamutto, Miguel; Poverene, Monica

    2012-01-01

    .... Controlled crosses of this species with sunflower demonstrated that H. petiolaris constitutes a valuable genetic variability source for sunflower breeding to improve tolerance to rust (Puccinia helianthi), white rust (Albugo tragopogonis...

  15. Targeted mRNA oxidation regulates sunflower seed dormancy alleviation during dry after-ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Jérémie; Langlade, Nicolas; Vincourt, Patrick; Arribat, Sandrine; Balzergue, Sandrine; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bailly, Christophe

    2011-06-01

    After-ripening is the mechanism by which dormant seeds become nondormant during their dry storage after harvest. The absence of free water in mature seeds does not allow detectable metabolism; thus, the processes associated with dormancy release under these conditions are largely unknown. We show here that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed alleviation of dormancy during after-ripening is associated with mRNA oxidation and that this oxidation is prevented when seeds are maintained dormant. In vitro approaches demonstrate that mRNA oxidation results in artifacts in cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphim analysis and alters protein translation. The oxidation of transcripts is not random but selective, and, using microarrays, we identified 24 stored mRNAs that became highly oxidized during after-ripening. Oxidized transcripts mainly correspond to genes involved in responses to stress and in cell signaling. Among them, protein phosphatase 2C PPH1, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1, and phenyl ammonia lyase 1 were identified. We propose that targeted mRNA oxidation during dry after-ripening of dormant seeds could be a process that governs cell signaling toward germination in the early steps of seed imbibition.

  16. Influence of temperature and moisture conditions of locality on the yield formation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Černý

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Field polyfactorial experiments were realized on fields of the Agricultural Co-operative in Nitrianska Blatnica in years 2007−2009. Experimental field is located in the maize production area (climatic region: warm; climatic sub region dry; climatic zone: warm, dry with mild winter and long sunshine in altitude 250 m above sea level, with brown soil. We observed the influence of both temperature and moisture conditions of experimental area on sunflower yield of achenes (conventional, medium-late hybrids: NK Brio, NK Armoni. Preceding crop of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. every experimental year was wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Technological system of sunflower cultivation was realized in accordance with conventional technology of cultivation. The basic fertilization was made by balance method on the base of agrochemical soil analysis for expected yield 3 t.ha−1. The meteorological data were got out from agrometeorological station of the Central Controlling and Testing Institute in Agriculture in Veľké Ripňany. During every experimental year the change of inner energy (ΔU was evaluated for thermodynamic characteristic analysis (security of the temperature and moisture and the impact of changes on yield forming with maximal yield (Ymax in 2008 and minimal yield (Ymin in 2009. Achieved value of yield from thermal and precipitation energy introduces concrete energy amount, which is available in given period for concrete height of yield. From the results follow, the sunflower has got critical thermodynamic phase in the period of months from July to August. For the yield formation is requirement, that input power of precipitation prevailed over the thermal during moths July to August. Achieved results confirmed statistically high significant dependence of the yield on weather conditions and for high annual variations in climatic characteristics the consideration is needed about potential changes some agrotechnological measures of

  17. Effect of antioxidant butylated hydroxyl anisole on the thermal or oxidative stability of sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus) by ultrasonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Satish Kumar; Shwetha, M V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) as an antioxidant in sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus). The oxidation stability of sunflower oil have been investigated by the effects of varying amounts of BHA. The antioxidant incorporated sunflower oil system and control edible oil were subjected to heating at 180 ± 5 °C continuously for a period of 4 h per day for consecutive 4 days. The parameters used to assess the thermal degradation and oxidation properties of the oils include ultrasonic velocity, viscosity, density and peroxide value. The fatty acid compositions of the oils were measured by gas chromatography. Adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relaxation time and acoustic impedance have been calculated from experimental data. Viscosity, density and ultrasonic velocity change in control oil is from 3.72 × 10(-2) to 13.2 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 918 to 994 kg/m3 and 1412 to 1484 m/s respectively and in sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA is from 3.88 × 10(-2) to 7.52 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 926 to 962 kg/m3 and 1418 to 1463 m/s respectively for 16 h of heat treated oil. The ultrasonic results obtained have shown reduction in thermal degradation and improvement in oxidation stability of antioxidant loaded oil in comparison to base oil. Hence, it can be recommended that sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA can be used for frying without adverse effect on physical properties. The ultrasonic velocity can be used for assessment of stability of frying oil.

  18. Agronomic performance and chemical response of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) to some organic nitrogen sources and conventional nitrogen fertilizers under sandy soil conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmy, A. M.; Fawzy Ramadan, M. F.

    2009-07-01

    Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) is an option for oilseed production, particularly in dry land areas due to good root system development. In this study, two field experiments were performed in the El-Khattara region (Sharkia Governorate, Egypt) during the 2005 season. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of organic nitrogen (ON) sources and their combinations as well as to compare the effect of ON and ammonium sulfate (AS) as a conventional fertilizer added individually or in combination on growth, yield components, oil percentage and the uptake of some macro nutrients by sunflowers grown on sandy soil.The treatments of chicken manure (CM) and a mixture of farmyard manure (FYM) with CM were superior to the other treatments and gave the highest yield, dry matter yield, NPK uptake by plants at all growth stages along with seed yield at the mature stage. The effect of the different ON on crop yield and its components may follow the order; CM> palma residues (PR)> FYM. This was more emphasized when the materials were mixed with AS at a ratio of 3:1 and 1:1. The uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) by plants was affected by the addition of different N sources and treatments. The highest nutrient content and uptake by straw were obtained when treated with CM followed by PR at all growth stages, while it was PR followed by CM for seeds. Oil recovery was shown to respond to the N supply and the changes in individual fatty acids were not statistically different. However, it seems that the application of organic fertilizers resulted in an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids compared to the control. (Author) 58 refs.

  19. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress.

  20. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  1. Carbon conversion efficiency and central metabolic fluxes in developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ana P; Goffman, Fernando D; Ohlrogge, John B; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2007-10-01

    The efficiency with which developing sunflower embryos convert substrates into seed storage reserves was determined by labeling embryos with [U-(14)C6]glucose or [U-(14)C5]glutamine and measuring their conversion to CO2, oil, protein and other biomass compounds. The average carbon conversion efficiency was 50%, which contrasts with a value of over 80% previously observed in Brassica napus embryos (Goffman et al., 2005), in which light and the RuBisCO bypass pathway allow more efficient conversion of hexose to oil. Labeling levels after incubating sunflower embryos with [U-(14)C4]malate indicated that some carbon from malate enters the plastidic compartment and contributes to oil synthesis. To test this and to map the underlying pattern of metabolic fluxes, separate experiments were carried out in which embryos were labeled to isotopic steady state using [1-(13)C1]glucose, [2-(13)C1]glucose, or [U-(13)C5]glutamine. The resultant labeling in sugars, starch, fatty acids and amino acids was analyzed by NMR and GC-MS. The fluxes through intermediary metabolism were then quantified by computer-aided modeling. The resulting flux map accounted well for the labeling data, was in good agreement with the observed carbon efficiency, and was further validated by testing for agreement with gas exchange measurements. The map shows that the influx of malate into oil is low and that flux through futile cycles (wasting ATP) is low, which contrasts with the high rates previously determined for growing root tips and heterotrophic cell cultures.

  2. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  3. Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein.

  4. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Torretta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus is an oilseed crop pollinated by Apis mellifera L. and other diurnal bees in different regions of the world. However, their flowers are also visited by insects active at night. During three agricultural years, the diversity of nocturnal visitors to sunflower heads was assessed in five different sites in Argentina. The foraging behavior of the main visitors as well as the stigmatic receptivity variations along

  5. Crop-weed competition between sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and Convolvulus arvensis L. in substitutive experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinczi, G; Takács, A; Horváth, J

    2006-01-01

    The main characteristics of a substitutive experiment is that the proportions of two species in the mixtures are varied while the overall density of the two species is maintained constant - a replacement series. In our experiments early competition between sunflower and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) was studied in a replacement studies under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were set up with the following treatments: 1, sunflower 100% (6 plants pot(-1)); 2, sunflower 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)); 3, sunflower 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)); 4, C. arvensis 100% (6 plants pot(-1)). Sixty eight days after sowing dry weight of shoots and roots were measured and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content was also determined. Dry biomass production of sunflower was almost twice higher as compared to that of C. arvensis without interspecific competition. Dry weight of sunflower and C. arvensis shoots and roots for a plant continuously decreased by reducing their proportion in the mixtures. Higher biomass production of sunflower suggests, that its development is faster at the beginning of vegetation penod, therefore sunflower has better competitive ability in sunflower--C. arvensis mixtures in the early competition as compared to C. arvensis. Shoot:root ratio of plants did not change considerably in mixtures, but generally was ten times higher in sunflower plants, as compared to that of C. arvensis. Shoots generally contained macro elements at higher concentration as compared to those of roots. Total NPK content of sunflower was reduced by 53 and 82% for a pot, as its proportion decreased in the mixtures. More severe reduction in NPK content was observed in case of C. arvensis, which also proves stronger competitive ability of sunflower in the early vegetation.

  6. Wild helianthus species used for broadening the genetic base of cultivated sunflower in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha M

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation has been undertaken to introgress desirable traits from wild sunflowers to cultivated sunflower. Using conventional methods of crossing, backcrossing and selection, several pre-bred lines with altered plant architecture, high yield and oil content, maturity duration and inbuilt tolerance to major biotic stresses have been developed from crosses involving diploid annuals. These recombinant interspecific inbred lines are being utilized in the national sunflower network...

  7. QTL mapping of protein content and seed characteristics under water-stress conditions in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, A; Maury, P; Berger, M; Calmon, A; Grieu, P; Sarrafi, A

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify genomic regions controlling seed protein content, kernel and hull weights, and seed density in water-stress conditions in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The experiments consisted of a split-plot design (water treatment and recombinant inbred lines) with three blocks in two environments (greenhouse and field). High significant variation was observed between genotypes for all traits as well as for water treatment x genotype interaction. Several specific and nonspecific QTLs were detected for all traits under well-watered and water-stress conditions. Two SSR markers, ORS671_2 and HA2714, linked to protein content were identified that have no interaction with water treatments in greenhouse conditions. We also detected the E35M60_4 marker associated with kernel weight that had no interaction with water treatments. A specific QTL for protein content was detected with important phenotypic variance (17%) under water-stress conditions. Overlapping QTLs for protein content and seed density were identified in linkage group 15. This region probably has a peliotropic effect on protein content and seed density. QTLs for protein content colocated with grain weight traits were also identified.

  8. Anti-Gouty Arthritis and Antihyperuricemia Effects of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus Head Extract in Gouty and Hyperuricemia Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanzhou Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the therapeutic effects and possible mechanisms of sunflower (Helianthus annuus head extract (SHE on gout. First, the components of sunflower head powder and SHE were analyzed systematically. SHE, especially SHEB (extracted with 20% ethanol and 80% double-distilled water, strongly suppressed the swelling of the ankles in rats with acute gout induced by monosodium urate (MSU crystals and reduced the levels of uric acid and xanthine oxidase (XO in mice with hyperuricemia induced by oteracil potassium and yeast extract powder. Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that SHEB reduced inflammation cells and increased the joint space in the ankle compared with the control rats with MSU-induced gout. In the rats with acute gout, among 13 detected inflammatory cytokines, SHEB significantly enhanced the serum levels of interleukin-10 and the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1α. In the mice with hyperuricemia, SHEB reduced the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and nitrogen monoxide in liver tissues. The potential therapeutic effects of SHE on gout are probably due to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the suppression of XO activity via the modulation of oxidative stress status.

  9. Cell wall water content has a direct effect on extensibility in growing hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evered, Carol; Majevadia, Bhavita; Thompson, David Stuart

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that spacing between cellulose microfibrils within plant cell walls may be an important determinant of their mechanical properties. A consequence of this hypothesis is that the water content of cell walls may alter their extensibility and that low water potentials may directly reduce growth rates by reducing cell wall spacing. This paper describes a number of experiments in which the water potential of frozen and thawed growing hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were altered using solutions of high molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) or Dextran while their extension under constant stress was monitored using a creep extensiometer (frozen and thawed tissue was used to avoid confounding effects of turgor or active responses to the treatments). Clear reductions in extensibility were observed using both PEG and Dextran, with effects observed in hypocotyl segments treated with PEG 35 000 solutions with osmotic pressures of > or =0.21 MPa suggesting that the relatively mild stresses required to reduce water potentials of plants in vivo by 0.21 MPa may be sufficient to reduce growth rates via a direct effect on wall extensibility. It is noted, therefore, that the water binding capacity of plant cell walls may be of ecophysiological importance. Measurements of cell walls of sunflower hypocotyls using scanning electron microscopy confirmed that treatment of hypocotyls with PEG solutions reduced wall thickness, supporting the hypothesis that the spatial constraint of movement of cellulose microfibrils affects the mechanical properties of the cell wall.

  10. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  11. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 microg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  12. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de. The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons. The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0 was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01 allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  13. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01) allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  14. Visual definition of physiological maturity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is associated with receptacle quantitative color parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Hernandez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying physiological maturity (PM in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. by visual methods is subjective. The present study was conducted during two years in two short season sunflower hybrids (Macón and MG60 to determine the relationship between quantitative color parameters in the receptacle and physiological markers such as fruit dry weight (FDW and fruit water content (FWC from flowering to PM. Fruits from the external 25% of the capitulum radius were sampled at 3-5-day intervals from first anthesis until harvest maturity. Fruit and receptacle fresh and dry weight were calculated, and color changes of the receptacle base were followed over time using a spectrophotometer. Comparison of colorimetric coordinates a* and b*, defined by the CIELAB color space enabled quantitative correlation of color changes in the receptacle with the maturation stage of the fruits and their moisture content. In both hybrids and years, fruits attained maximum dry weight when the receptacle color turned from dark green to buttery-yellow. Strong correlations were found between FWC and a* for Macón the first (r=-0.877 and second year (r=-0.934 and for MG60, (r=-0.912 and r=-0.891 the first and second year, respectively. The same results were found for b* for Macón (r=-0.901 and r=-0.829 and for MG60 (r=-0.898 and r= -0.863 for the first and second year respectively. Maximum b* at FWC between 40 to 41% had the highest correlation with maximum fruit dry weight for both hybrids and years, and was a good indicator for identifying the attainment of PM. This work represents an original contribution and a first step towards the development of a model for predicting PM in sunflower by using colorimetric measurements.

  15. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) in vivo assay for screening imidazolinone-resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, T; Breccia, G; Gil, M; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L; Nestares, G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity response to imidazolinones and its possible use as a selection method for evaluating AHAS inhibitor resistance. In vivo AHAS assay and the comparison of parameters from dose-response curves have been used as a valid tool for comparing sunflower lines and hybrids differing in imidazolinone resistance. The sunflower resistant genotypes evaluated here were 100-fold and 20-fold more resistant compared with the susceptible line for imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. This assay also allowed discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous genotypes for I(mr1) locus that codify for the catalytic subunit of AHAS. The in vivo AHAS assay described in this study was useful for the selection of sunflower genotypes differing in herbicide resistance and could be a useful tool when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in sunflower.

  16. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to sowing date and plant density under Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, José; Carvalho, Mário; Basch, G.

    2004-01-01

    The productivity of rainfed sunflower under Mediterranean conditions depends strongly on the water availability and the efficiency of its utilisation by the crop. Amongst other factors, sowing date and plant density may interact decisively with water supply. Two field trials were conducted in the South of Portugal on a Vertisol to evaluate the effect of these two factors on the productivity of several sunflower cultivars with different growth cycle. The study of the effect of the ...

  17. Components of phenotypic variability for head diameter in sunflower - Helianthus annuus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Škorić Dragan; Kraljević-Balalić Marija

    2003-01-01

    Sunflower is the main crop species for the production of edible oil in many countries of the world, including ours. Plant height and head size, form and position on the stem as well as the number of leaves, their size, duration and distribution on the plant all play an important role in defining optimal plant architecture in sunflower hybrids (Škorić, 1975, 1989, 2002). In order to monitor the mode of inheritance and gene effects for head diameter in the F1 and F2 generations, half diallel cr...

  18. The Effects of Sowing Date and Sowing Density on Birds Damage in the Cultivars of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Onemli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A research in Barbaros city belong to Tekirdag centre county as farmer condition was carried outdetermination of bird damage ratio on the sown fields. The demonstration used three sunflower varieties(Super 25, Pioneer 6482, Sunbred 281, two sowing dates (16.04.1997 and 14.05.1997 and four sowing densities(20, 30, 40 and 50x70cm was established according to split-split plot design. The determination characters areseed yield per decare unless bird damage, bird damage ratio, plant height, stem diameter, circumference, plantseed yield, 1000 seed weight, protein ratio and oil ratio. Variety, sowing date, sowing density and theirinteractions effected significantly, on the bird damage ratio. Early sowing in Sunbred 281 on 20 x 70 cmincreased the seed yield per decare as 59.91 % according to later sowing. This variety in early sowing on 50 x70 cm and 20 x 70 cm sowing density exposed to bird damage with 37.79 and 34.80 % respectively. Earlysowing together with all varieties and sowing densities increased yield as 31.72 % according to later sowingdate. It was exposed to 18.27 % bird damage while later s owing had 2.49 % damage ratio. In addition, it isdetermined that varieties which have upright sunflower tray and early maturing were exposed to more birddamage according to the variety Pioneer with downright sunflower tray and later maturing 20 x 70 cm sowingdensity exposing upright tray had the most bird damage.

  19. He-Ne laser-induced improvement in biochemical, physiological, growth and yield characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Rashida; Jamil, Yasir; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ali, Qasim; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza

    2011-01-01

    The water-soaked seeds of sunflower were exposed to low power continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation of energies 0, 100, 300 and 500 mJ to evaluate the effect on various biochemical, physiological, growth and yield parameters of sunflower. The experiments which consisted of four replicates arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) were carried out under the greenhouse conditions. The physiological attributes like, photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), intrinsic CO(2) concentration (C(i) ), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll a and b contents, relative membrane permeability and leaf water (ψ(w)), osmotic (ψ(s)) and turgor (ψ(p)) potentials, relative water contents and leaf area increased significantly as compared to control due to He-Ne treatment of seeds. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalases and contents of total soluble proteins, malondialdehyde, proline and leaf total phenolic also increased due to laser treatment. Significant increase in growth parameters of sunflower like shoot fresh and dry masses, root fresh and dry masses, root and shoot lengths, number of leaves per plant and stem diameter has also been observed. The contents of K, Ca and Mg in shoot and root were also increased and an overall increase of up to 28.12% was observed due to laser treatment.

  20. Structure of the stigma and style in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotelli, M M; Galati, B G; Medan, D

    2010-12-01

    This is the first report of the ultrastructure of the stigma and style during and after anthesis in Helianthus annuus L. using light and transmission electron microscopy. The stigma is bifid with unicellular papillae. There is no secretion of lipids, carbohydrates or proteins at anthesis. The style is semisolid in the upper portion, closer to the stigma, and becomes solid below. Ultrastructural changes on cells of the stigma and the style are described. The transmitting tissue of the ovule is first evident 40 minutes after pollination and persists during the first stages of embryogenesis. Only one pollen tube per micropyle was observed growing through this tissue.

  1. Components of phenotypic variability for head diameter in sunflower - Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the main crop species for the production of edible oil in many countries of the world, including ours. Plant height and head size, form and position on the stem as well as the number of leaves, their size, duration and distribution on the plant all play an important role in defining optimal plant architecture in sunflower hybrids (Škorić, 1975, 1989, 2002. In order to monitor the mode of inheritance and gene effects for head diameter in the F1 and F2 generations, half diallel crosses were made in six genetically divergent sunflower inbreds. The mean values of the trait in question differed significantly. The mode of inheritance of head diameter in the F1 generation was superdominance in all but four crosses, which had dominance instead. In the F2 generation, on the other hand, the prevailing mode was dominance, while superdominance was recorded in four cases. The dominant component accounted for the bulk of genetic variance, and the mode of inheritance of head diameter taking into account both the F1 and F2 generations was superdominance. These findings may prove valuable for developing high-yielding sunflower genotypes.

  2. Isolation and characterization of undenatured chlorogenic acid free sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales-Perez, S.; Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for obtaining sunflower protein (SFP) isolate, nondenatured and free of chlorogenic acid (CGA), has been developed. During the isolating procedure, the extent of CGA removal and protein denaturation was monitored. The defatted flour contained 2.5 percent CGA as the main phenolic compound. P

  3. A unified SNP map of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) derived from current genomic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dense genetic maps are critical tools for plant breeders and geneticists. While many maps have been developed for sunflower in the last few decades, most have been based on low-throughput technologies and include markers numbers in the hundreds. However, two maps with reasonably dense coverage of a...

  4. Growth under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration accelerates leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, Lourdes; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación; Agüera, Eloísa

    2012-09-15

    Some morphogenetic and metabolic processes were sensitive to a high atmospheric CO(2) concentration during sunflower primary leaf ontogeny. Young leaves of sunflower plants growing under elevated CO(2) concentration exhibited increased growth, as reflected by the high specific leaf mass referred to as dry weight in young leaves (16 days). The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased with leaf development, especially in plants grown under elevated CO(2) concentrations, suggesting that high CO(2) accelerates chlorophyll degradation, and also possibly leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased the oxidative stress in sunflower plants by increasing H(2)O(2) levels and decreasing activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The loss of plant defenses probably increases the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast, decreasing the photosynthetic pigment content as a result. Elevated CO(2) concentration was found to boost photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, especially in young leaves. High CO(2) also increased the starch and soluble sugar contents (glucose and fructose) and the C/N ratio during sunflower primary leaf development. At the beginning of senescence, we observed a strong increase in the hexoses to sucrose ratio that was especially marked at high CO(2) concentration. These results indicate that elevated CO(2) concentration could promote leaf senescence in sunflower plants by affecting the soluble sugar levels, the C/N ratio and the oxidative status during leaf ontogeny. It is likely that systemic signals produced in plants grown with elevated CO(2), lead to early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves.

  5. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  6. Aseptic hydroponics to assess rhamnolipid-Cd and rhamnolipid-Zn bioavailability for sunflower (Helianthus annuus): a phytoextraction mechanism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stacey, Samuel P; Kirby, Jason K

    2016-11-01

    The availability of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) to sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated in rhamnolipid- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-buffered solutions in order to evaluate the influence of aqueous speciation of the metals on their uptake by the plant, in relation to predictions of uptake by the free ion activity model (FIAM). Free metal ion activity was estimated using the chemical equilibrium program MINTEQ or measured by Donnan dialysis. The uptake of Cd followed the FIAM for the EDTA-buffered solution at EDTA concentrations below 0.4 μM; for the rhamnolipid-buffered solution, the uptake of both metals in roots was not markedly affected by increasing rhamnolipid concentrations in solution. This suggests rhamnolipid enhanced metal accumulation in plant roots (per unit free metal in solution) possibly through formation and uptake of lipophilic complexes. The addition of normal Ca concentrations (low millimetre range) to the rhamnolipid uptake solutions reduced Cd accumulation in shoots by inhibiting Cd translocation, whereas it significantly increased Zn accumulation in shoots. This study confirms that although rhamnolipid could enhance accumulation of Cd in plants roots at low Ca supply, it is not suitable for Cd phytoextraction in contaminated soil environments where Ca concentrations in soil solution are orders of magnitude greater than those of Cd.

  7. Ammonium improves iron nutrition by decreasing leaf apoplastic pH of sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Frankasol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Chunqin; ZHANG Fusuo

    2003-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen form on pH and concentration of soluble iron (Fe) in leaf apoplast was investigated in hydrophonically grown sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Frankasol), and the mechanism underlying the improved Fe nutrition by ammonium (NH4) supply was also elucidated. Ammonium supply ameliorated Fe nutrition of plants grown without Fe through decreasing apoplastic pH and increasing soluble Fe concentration in apoplastic fluid of young leaves. The soluble Fe concentration in apoplastic fluid and cell sap of young leaves, and xylem exudates of NH4 fed-plants was higher than that of nitrate (NO3) fed-plants, and no typical Fe-deficiency chlorosis in young leaves was observed in NH4 fed plant without Fe supply. The apoplastic pH was 6.15 and 5.94 in young leaves of Fe-deficient plants fed respectively with NO3 and NH4, while in Fe-sufficient plants, the apoplastic pH was 6.43 with NO3, and 5.50 with NH4 supply. In primary leaves, the apoplastic pH was around 6.25 irrespective of nitrogen form and Fe supply. The pH of xylem exudate was 5.72 in Fe-deficient plants fed with NO3 and 5.49 with NH4. Iron nutrition increased the pH of xylem exudate by 0.27 and 0.16 unit under NO3 and NH4 supply respectively.

  8. EDTA-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles: a Novel Biocompatible Fertilizer for Improving Agronomic Traits of Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahrekizad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a set of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of EDTA-grafted iron oxide nanoparticles exposure on agronomic traits of sunflower (Helianthus annuus plants. The experiment was implemented by applying Nano-Fe3O4-EDTA and Fe-EDTA fertilizers applied through spray or soil amendment. A variety of parameters including Aerial organ biomass, Number of leaves, Plant height, Chlorophyll content as well as elemental quantities of the plants were investigated. The results demonstrated considerably dominant effect of Nano-Fe3O4-EDTA fertilizer on many of the studied factors. The dramatically increased Fe content of plants (137% relative to the control by using nano-Fe-EDTA, makes this novel fertilizer a promising candidate to obviate iron deficiency problem in plants. Moreover, it was clearly observed that more pronounced positive effects is obtained through soil amendment than by foliar application of fertilizers and only in some cases such as aerial organ biomasses and Fe content, the foliar treatment has turned out to be more effective.

  9. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR.

  10. Dyella thiooxydans sp. nov., a facultatively chemolithotrophic, thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Indira Gandhi, Pandiyan; Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Yi-Seul; Sa, Tong-Min; Kim, Yong-Ki; Jee, Hyeong-Jin

    2011-02-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium, designated ATSB10(T), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain ATSB10(T) was closely related to members of the genera Dyella (96.4-98.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Luteibacter (96.4-97.0 %) and Fulvimonas soli LMG 19981(T) (96.7 %) and Frateuria aurantia IFO 3245(T) (97.8 %). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c and iso-C(15 : 0). The major quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.0 mol%. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, an unknown phospholipid, unknown aminophospholipids and an unknown aminolipid. On the basis of phenotypic properties, phylogenetic distinctiveness and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain ATSB10(T) represents a novel species in the genus Dyella, for which the name Dyella thiooxydans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ATSB10(T) (=KACC 12756(T) =LMG 24673(T)).

  11. The Effectof Temperature on the Dynmaic Viscosity of Acetone Sunflower-Seed Oil Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    TOPALLAR, Hüseyin; BAYRAK, Yüksel

    1998-01-01

    The effect of acetone on the dynamic viscosity of sunflower-seed oil was studied under a dynamic heating regime at temeparuters ranging from 25oC to 50oC at 5oC intervals. Acetone dramatically reduced the viscosity of sunflower-seed oil. The reduction of viscosity was far less with further addition of acetone. A linear relationship was found between the density of sunflower-seed oil and temperature. The influence of a solvent on the density of the sunflower-seed oil/acetone solution can be ac...

  12. The Flying Sunflower: A Seed Dispersal Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buege, Douglas J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an open-ended activity in which students build a "plant" that launches its seeds as far as possible to study the dispersal strategies of various plants. Recommends extension activities for elementary- and secondary-level students. (WRM)

  13. Genetic impact on protein content and hullability of sunflower seeds, and on the quality of sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauguet Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed quality, in particular the characteristics of hullability and protein content, has a significant impact on the protein content of the resulting meal. Seeds dehulled before crushing produce a meal with a protein content of approximately 36%; without dehulling, the protein content is typically in the range of 27–29%. This study seeks to assess the effect of sunflower variety on hullability and protein content. Genetic effects were studied by means of seed samples obtained from a network of variety evaluation trials undertaken across the production area in France for sunflowers. For both characteristics, significant differences between cultivars were observed; as a consequence, the potential protein content of their dehulled meals also ranged widely (34–44%. Genetic selection, which provides substantial improvements in both oil content and fatty acid composition, should therefore be expected to enhance the quality of sunflower meal.

  14. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengke eTian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied Zn formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by ICP-MS, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower pertioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant GroZyme resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using µ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.

  15. Analysis and modelling of the factors controlling seed oil concentration in sunflower: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianasolo Fety Nambinina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower appears as a potentially highly competitive crop, thanks to the diversification of its market and the richness of its oil. However, seed oil concentration (OC – a commercial criterion for crushing industry – is subjected to genotypic and environmental effects that make it sometimes hardly predictable. It is assumed that more understanding of oil physiology combined with the use of crop models should permit to improve prediction and management of grain quality for various end-users. Main effects of temperature, water, nitrogen, plant density and fungal diseases were reviewed in this paper. Current generic and specific crop models which simulate oil concentration were found to be empirical and to lack of proper evaluation processes. Recently two modeling approaches integrating ecophysiological knowledge were developed by Andrianasolo (2014, Statistical and dynamic modelling of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grain composition as a function of agronomic and environmental factors, Ph.D. Thesis, INP Toulouse: (i a statistical approach relating OC to a range of explanatory variables (potential OC, temperature, water and nitrogen stress indices, intercepted radiation, plant density which resulted in prediction quality from 1.9 to 2.5 oil points depending on the nature of the models; (ii a dynamic approach, based on “source-sink” relationships involving leaves, stems, receptacles (as sources and hulls, proteins and oil (as sinks and using priority rules for carbon and nitrogen allocation. The latter model reproduced dynamic patterns of all source and sink components faithfully, but tended to overestimate OC. A better description of photosynthesis and nitrogen uptake, as well as genotypic parameters is expected to improve its performance.

  16. Cell lineage patterns in the shoot meristem of the sunflower embryo in the dry seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegla, D.E.; Sussex, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    We mapped the fate of cells in the shoot meristem of the dry-seed embryo of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovic, using irradiation-induced somatic sectors. We analyzed 249 chlorophyll-deficient or glabrous (hairless) sectors generated in 236 plants. Most sectors observed in the inflorescence extended into vegetative nodes. Thus cell lineages that ultimately gave rise to reproductive structures also contributed to vegetative structures. No single sector extended the entire length of the shoot. Thus the shoot is not derived from one or a few apical initials. Rather, the position, vertical extent, and width of the sectors at different levels of the shoot suggest that the shoot is derived from three to four circumferential populations of cells in each of three cell layers of the embryo meristem. Sectors had no common boundaries even in plants with two or three independent sectors, but varied in extent and overlapped along the length of the shoot. Thus individual cells in a single circumferential population behaved independently to contribute lineages of different vertical extents to the growing shoot. The predicted number of circumferential populations of cells as well as the apparent cell number in each population was consistent with the actual number of cells in the embryo meristem observed in histological sections.

  17. Evaluation of proteome alterations induced by cadmium stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Júnior, Cícero Alves; Barbosa, Herbert de Sousa; Moretto Galazzi, Rodrigo; Ferreira Koolen, Hector Henrique; Gozzo, Fábio Cesar; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluates, at a proteomic level, changes in protein abundance in sunflower leaves in the absence or presence (at 50 or 700mg) of cadmium (as CdCl2). At the end of the cultivation period (45 days), proteins are extracted from leaves with phenol, separated by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), and excised from the gels. The differential protein abundances (for proteins differing by more than 1.8 fold, which corresponds to 90% variation) are characterized using nESI-LC-MS/MS. The protein content decreases by approximately 41% in plants treated with 700mg Cd compared with control plants. By comparing all groups of plants evaluated in this study (Control vs. Cd-lower, Control vs. Cd-higher and Cd-lower vs. Cd-higher), 39 proteins are found differential and 18 accurately identified; the control vs. Cd-higher treatment is that presenting the most differential proteins. From identified proteins, those involved in energy and disease/defense (including stress), are the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain, transketolase, and heat shock proteins are the most differential abundant proteins. Thus, at the present study, photosynthesis is the main process affected by Cd in sunflowers, although these plants are highly tolerant to Cd.

  18. Uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L.): dependence on stomatal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, A.; Kley, D.; Wildt, J.; Segschneider, H. J.; Förstel, H.

    The uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers ( Helianthus annuus L. var. giganteus) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Bel W3), using concentrations representative for moderately polluted air, has been determined by gas exchange experiments. Conductivities for these trace gases were measured at different light fluxes ranging from 820 μEm -2s -1 to darkness. The conductivities to water vapor and the trace gases are highly correlated. It is concluded that the uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers and tobacco plants is linearly dependent on stomatal opening. While the uptake of NO is limited by the mesophyll resistance, the uptake of NO 2 is only by diffusion through the stomata. Loss processes by deposition to the leaf surfaces are more pronounced for O 3 than for NO and NO 2.

  19. Foliar-applied glyphosate substantially reduced uptake and transport of iron and manganese in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Selim; Ozturk, Levent; Yazici, Atilla; Erenoglu, Bulent; Romheld, Volker; Cakmak, Ismail

    2006-12-27

    Evidence clearly shows that cationic micronutrients in spray solutions reduce the herbicidal effectiveness of glyphosate for weed control due to the formation of metal-glyphosate complexes. The formation of these glyphosate-metal complexes in plant tissue may also impair micronutrient nutrition of nontarget plants when exposed to glyphosate drift or glyphosate residues in soil. In the present study, the effects of simulated glyphosate drift on plant growth and uptake, translocation, and accumulation (tissue concentration) of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were investigated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants grown in nutrient solution under controlled environmental conditions. Glyphosate was sprayed on plant shoots at different rates between 1.25 and 6.0% of the recommended dosage (i.e., 0.39 and 1.89 mM glyphosate isopropylamine salt). Glyphosate applications significantly decreased root and shoot dry matter production and chlorophyll concentrations of young leaves and shoot tips. The basal parts of the youngest leaves and shoot tips were severely chlorotic. These effects became apparent within 48 h after the glyphosate spray. Glyphosate also caused substantial decreases in leaf concentration of Fe and Mn while the concentration of Zn and Cu was less affected. In short-term uptake experiments with radiolabeled Fe (59Fe), Mn (54Mn), and Zn (65Zn), root uptake of 59Fe and 54Mn was significantly reduced in 12 and 24 h after application of 6% of the recommended dosage of glyphosate, respectively. Glyphosate resulted in almost complete inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of 59Fe within 12 h and 54Mn within 24 h after application. These results suggest that glyphosate residues or drift may result in severe impairments in Fe and Mn nutrition of nontarget plants, possibly due to the formation of poorly soluble glyphosate-metal complexes in plant tissues and/or rhizosphere interactions.

  20. Biological seed priming mitigates the effects of water stress in sunflower seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Narsingh Bahadur; Singh, Deepmala; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. PAC 36) seedlings were inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), viz. Azotobacter chroococcum (A+), Bacillus polymyxa (B+), separately and in combination of the two (AB+). Relative water content and seedling growth were maximum in AB+ seedlings under control. Water stress significantly decreased the RWC, growth and dry mass of non-inoculated seedlings. However, inoculated seedlings maintained higher growth even under water stress. Pig...

  1. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage.

  2. Relationships between xanthoxin, phototropism, and elongation growth in the sunflower seedling Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, J M; Bruinsma, J

    1981-04-01

    For phototropic curvature of a green sunflower seedling, only the hypocotyl has to be illuminated; the tip and cotyledons are not involved in stimulus perception. The etiolated seedling is phototropically insensitive, illumination of only the hypocotyl renders it sensitive. It is concluded that the photoreceptor is located within the responding organ. In curving seedlings, the endogenous indoleacetic acid (IAA) remains evenly distributed. However, the inhibitor, xanthoxin (Xa), accumulates on the illuminated side. The degree of phototropic response is generally related to the concentration of Xa. The amount of phototropic curvature is independent of the rate of elongation growth, the former can be changed without affecting the latter, and vice versa. The data conflict with the Cholodny-Went theory, whereas they support the hypothesis of Blaauw that the phototropic reaction is caused by the local accumulation of a growth-inhibiting substance on the irradiated side.

  3. Influence of some chosen morphactins on tissue formation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tomaszewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two morphactins (IT 3233 and IT 3456 on the formation of tissues in sunflower leaves was investigated. The leaves were usually smaller, they had plicate laminae and rolled up edges. The different influence of morphactins in dependence on the position of the leaves on the stem and on the kind of tissues was confirmed. Leaves growing from the first node had the thickest laminae, main ribs and the longest cells of palisade parenchyma. The values contrasted with those in the leaves from the third node. An increase of the number of epidermis cells and stomata in leaves from the first and second node and a decrease in those from the third node were observed. Additional layers (1-2 of palisade parenchyma in leaves of the second and third node were formed. Mesophyll was very compact. Xylem consisted of a greater number of elements, arranged compactly and of much lower diameter.

  4. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Krizmanić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  5. Comparative study of SOS2 and a novel PMP3-1 gene expression in two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines differing in salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadia, Mubshara; Jamil, Amer; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2013-06-01

    Gene expression pattern of two important regulatory proteins, salt overly sensitive 2 (SOS2) and plasma membrane protein 3-1 (PMP3-1), involved in ion homeostasis, was analyzed in two salinity-contrasting sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines, Hysun-38 (salt tolerant) and S-278 (moderately salt tolerant). The pattern was studied at selected time intervals (24 h) under 150 mM NaCl treatment. Using reverse transcription PCR, SOS2 gene fragment was obtained from young leaf and root tissues of opposing lines while that for PMP3-1 was obtained only from young root tissues. Both tolerant and moderately tolerant lines showed a gradual increase in SOS2 expression in sunflower root tissues. Leaf tissues showed the gradually increasing pattern of SOS2 expression in tolerant plants as compared to that for moderately tolerant ones that showed a relatively lower level of expression for this gene. We found the highest level of PMP 3-1 expression in the roots of tolerant sunflower line at 6 and 12 h postsalinity treatment. The moderately tolerant line showed higher expression of PMP3-1 at 12 and 24 h after salt treatment. Overall, the expression of genes for both the regulator proteins varied significantly in the two sunflower lines differing in salinity tolerance.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  7. Seed priming with antioxidants improves sunflower seed germination and seedling growth under unfavorable germination conditions

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGANIC, Ivana; LEKIC, Slavoljub

    2014-01-01

    The results of studying the effects of sunflower seed priming with an aqueous solution of ascorbic acid (A), tocopherol (T), and glutathione (G) performed prior to accelerated ageing and a cold test are presented in this paper. Germination, the percentage of abnormal seedlings, and the lengths of both roots and shoots were monitored. The results showed that the cold test caused a drastic drop in germination, an adverse effect on the shoot length, an increase in the percentage of abnormal seed...

  8. Sowing quality of seeds sunflower, depending on the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants

    OpenAIRE

    Буряк, Ю. І.; Огурцов, Ю. Є.; Чернобаб, О. В.; Клименко, І. І.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this work was to study the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants on the sowing quality of seeds parental forms and hybrids of sunflower.Methodology and materials. Research conducted in the Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya. Yuriev NAAS. The predecessor of sunflower – winter wheat. Sunflower seeds parent lines Сх1010А, Х720В, Х526В and hybrids F1 Romance and Maximus were sown in optimal terms with the seeding norm of 57 thousand pieces of viable seeds p...

  9. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiñas, Hillary S; Tom, Kathleen; Ponisio, Lauren Catherine; Rominger, Andrew; Kremen, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination coverage in agricultural regions utilize landscape-level estimates of floral availability and nesting incidence inferred from expert opinion, rather than direct assessments. Foraging distance is often derived from proxies of bee body size, rather than direct measurements of foraging that account for behavioral responses to floral resource type and distribution. The lack of direct measurements of nesting incidence and foraging distances may lead to inaccurate mapping of pollination services. We examined the role of local-scale floral resource presence from hedgerow plantings on nest incidence of ground-nesting bees in field margins and within monoculture, conventionally managed sunflower fields in California's Central Valley. We tracked bee movement into fields using fluorescent powder. We then used these data to simulate the distribution of pollination services within a crop field. Contrary to expert opinion, we found that ground-nesting native bees nested both in fields and edges, though nesting rates declined with distance into field. Further, we detected no effect of field-margin floral enhancements on nesting. We found evidence of an exponential decay rate of bee movement into fields, indicating that foraging predominantly occurred in less than 1% of medium-sized bees' predicted typical foraging range. Although we found native bees nesting within agricultural fields, their restricted foraging movements likely centralize pollination near nest sites. Our data thus predict a heterogeneous distribution of pollination services

  10. Induction of leaf senescence by low nitrogen nutrition in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Eloísa; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación

    2010-03-01

    Different parameters which vary during the leaf development in sunflower plants grown with nitrate (2 or 20 mM) for a 42-day period have been determined. The plants grown with 20 mM nitrate (N+) showed greater leaf area and specific leaf mass than the plants grown with 2 mM nitrate (N-). The total chlorophyll content decreased with leaf senescence, like the photosynthetic rate. This decline of photosynthetic activity was greater in plants grown with low nitrogen level (N-), showing more pronounced senescence symptoms than with high nitrogen (N+). In both treatments, soluble sugars increased with aging, while starch content decreased. A significant increase of hexose to sucrose ratio was observed at the beginning of senescence, and this raise was higher in N- plants than in N+ plants. These results show that sugar senescence regulation is dependent on nitrogen, supporting the hypothesis that leaf senescence is regulated by the C/N balance. In N+ and N- plants, ammonium and free amino acid concentrations were high in young leaves and decreased progressively in the senescent leaves. In both treatments, asparagine, and in a lower extent glutamine, increased after senescence start. The drop in the (Glu+Asp)/(Gln+Asn) ratio associated with the leaf development level suggests a greater nitrogen mobilization. Besides, the decline in this ratio occurred earlier and more rapidly in N- plants than in N+ plants, suggesting that the N- remobilization rate correlates with leaf senescence severity. In both N+ and N- plants, an important oxidative stress was generated in vivo during sunflower leaf senescence, as revealed by lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. In senescent leaves, the increase in hydrogen peroxide levels occurred in parallel with a decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In N+ plants, the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased to reach their highest values at 28 days, and later decreased during senescence, whereas

  11. Phytoaccumulation of lead by sunflower (Helianthus annuus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyapookana, Benjaporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Techapinyawat, Sombun; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2005-01-01

    The ability of three plant species: Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum, and Vetiveria zizanioides for phytoaccumulation of Pb was studied. Plants were grown in hydroponic solution containing Pb(NO3)2 at concentration of 0.25 and 2.5 mM Pb in the presence or absence of chelating agents (EDTA or DTPA). Lead (Pb) transport and localization within the tissues of the plant species was determined using scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM-EDS). The addition of chelators increased Pb uptake as compared to plants grown in solution containing Pb alone. Lead taken up by the plant species were concentrated in both leaf and stem at the region of vascular bundles with greater amounts in the leaf portion. Lead granules were also found in the H. annuus root tissue from the epidermis layer to the central axis. After four weeks of growth a 23-fold increase in shoot Pb content for H. annuus and N. tabacum and 17-fold increase in shoot Pb for V. zizanioides resulted from plants grown in the 2.5 mM Pb-EDTA treatment. The higher Pb treatment (2.5 mM Pb containing EDTA) resulted in higher concentrations of Pb in plant tissue at the fourth week of exposure as compared to Pb treatment containing DTPA. Overall, Pb accumulation potential of H. annuus was greater than that of N. tabacum and V. zizanioides as indicated by the bioconcentration factor (171, 70, and 88, respectively). The highest measured Pb concentrations were found in H. annuus roots, stems, and leaves (2668, 843, and 3611 microg/g DW, respectively) grown in the 2.5 mM Pb-EDTA treatment. The addition of chelators caused some reduction in plant growth and biomass. Results showed that the three plant species tested have potential for use in phytoaccumulation of Pb since the Pb was concentrated in leaf and stem as compared to control plants. H. annuus however best meet the prerequisites for a hyperaccumulator plant and would have the potential for use in the restoration of

  12. The physiological and biochemical effects of salicylic acid on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) exposed to flurochloridone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Armagan; Yigit, Emel

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of the flurochloridone as well as flurochloridone and exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) on Helianthus annuus L. to find out herbicide-induced toxicity reducing influence of SA. We examined and compared the physiological and biochemical effects of different concentrations of flurochloridone (11, 32 and 72 mM) in both the SA pre-treated and non-treated plants. The plants treated with flurochloridone exhibited reduced total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and relative water content compared to the control group, whereas the plants that were pre-treated with SA exhibited relatively higher values for the same physiological parameters. In the SA non-treated plants, the superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were increased in the treatment groups compared to the control group. In the treatment groups, these enzyme activities were decreased in the SA-pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. Ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in the flurochloridone-treated plants compared to the control plants. The ascorbate peroxidase activity increased in the control groups but decreased in the treatment groups in the SA pre-treated plants compared to the non-treated plants. However, SA treatment decreased the activity of catalase in the control and treatment groups compared to the plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased the malondialdehyde content in the treated groups compared to the control groups, whereas SA-pretreatment decreased malondialdehyde content compared to plants that were not treated with SA. Flurochloridone treatment increased endogenous SA content compared to the control. Although the residual levels of herbicide in the plants increased proportionately with increasing herbicide concentrations, the SA-pre-treated plants exhibited reduced residual herbicide levels compared to the plants that were not treated

  13. Interactive effect of salinity and boron application on growth and physiological traits of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Atif Riaz, Muhammad Saqib, Javaid Akhtar and Riaz Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major problem of agriculture in Pakistan. Permanent solution of salinity problem is removal of salts by leaching and drainage whic is expensive. So research efforts should involve profitable utilization of these lands through biological approaches. Considering these observations, this study was designed with the objectives to explore changes in growth and physiological attributes of different sunflower genotypes under interactive effect of salinity and boron. Vigorous seeds of selected genotypes (two tolerant, two sensitive were sown in gravels. One week old seedlings were transplanted to ½ strength Hoagland’s nutrients solution. Three days after transplantation the requisite salinity (control and 100 mM NaCl and boron levels (0.05 mM B, 0.5 mM B and 1.0 mM B as H3BO3 were established in three installments. The arrangement of the experiment was split plot with three replications. The data regarding shoot and root fresh weights, relative water contents (RWC, membrane stability index (MSI, and leaf area (LA were recorded. The results revealed that salinity and boron adversely affected the growth and physiology of sunflower genotypes with a higher effect in the case of combined stress. This study also showed that the growth reduction was more in the salt susceptible genotypes (Hysun-33, Hysun-38 than in the salt tolerant genotypes (SF-187, S-278.

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus management strategy for better growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed Ali and Ijaz Rasool Noorka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted during autumn season, 2010 investigated the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on sunflower hybrid Hysun-33. The experiment was planned in randomized complete block design (factorial arrangement, with three replication, having net plot size of 3 x 7 m. The experiment comprised of 9 treatments, three levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, viz., 85, 135, 185 kg N ha-1, and 50, 75, 85 kg P ha-1. Nitrogen affected all estimated characters significantly, except plant population, while, phosphorus did not show significant effect on plant population and plant height. All other parameters, as leaf area plant-1, head diameter, 1000- achene weight and achene yield were affected significantly by different nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Interactive effects of nitrogen and phosphorus were significant in all these cases. The highest achene’s yield (2584 kg ha-1 was obtained with the application of 135-75 kg NP ha-1as against the lowest (1491kg ha-1 at 85-50 kg NP ha-1.

  15. Physiological and gene expression responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants differ according to irrigation placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Ana; Capote, Nieves; Romero, Fernando; Dodd, Ian C; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate effects of soil moisture heterogeneity on plant physiology and gene expression in roots and leaves, three treatments were implemented in sunflower plants growing with roots split between two compartments: a control (C) treatment supplying 100% of plant evapotranspiration, and two treatments receiving 50% of plant evapotranspiration, either evenly distributed to both compartments (deficit irrigation - DI) or unevenly distributed to ensure distinct wet and dry compartments (partial rootzone drying - PRD). Plants receiving the same amount of water responded differently under the two irrigation systems. After 3 days, evapotranspiration was similar in C and DI, but 20% less in PRD, concomitant with decreased leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and increased leaf xylem ABA concentration. Six water-stress responsive genes were highly induced in roots growing in the drying soil compartment of PRD plants, and their expression was best correlated with local soil water content. On the other hand, foliar gene expression differed significantly from that of the root and correlated better with xylem ABA concentration and Ψleaf. While the PRD irrigation strategy triggered stronger physiological and molecular responses, suggesting a more intense and systemic stress reaction due to local dehydration of the dry compartment of PRD plants, the DI strategy resulted in similar water savings without strongly inducing these responses. Correlating physiological and molecular responses in PRD/DI plants may provide insights into the severity and location of water deficits and may enable a better understanding of long-distance signalling mechanisms.

  16. Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmongoyo, Juma A; Wu, Felicia; Linz, John E; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Mugula, Jovin K; Tempelman, Robert J; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania. Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across two years, and analyzed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Mbeya (2.8-97.7 ng/g), Dodoma (1.9-88.2 ng/g), and Singida (2.0-34.3 ng/g). For seed samples collected August-October 2015, the highest concentrations were from Morogoro (2.8-662.7 ng/g), Singida (1.6-217.6 ng/g) and Mbeya (1.4-174.2 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Morogoro (2.7-536.0 ng/g), Dodoma (1.4-598.4 ng/g) and Singida (3.2-52.8 ng/g). In summary, humans and animals are potentially at high risk of exposure to aflatoxins through sunflower seeds and cakes from micro-scale millers in Tanzania; and location influences risk.

  17. Development of insect resistant sunflowers: Updates and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. is one of the major oil seed crops grown in the USA. with a highest estimated cultivated acreage of 975,000 acres in North Dakota. Besides diseases and weeds, insects are one of the major causes for yield losses. An average of 9-10% yield losses was attributed to insec...

  18. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant "GroZyme" resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.

  19. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Navdeep Gill; Matteo Buti; Nolan Kane; Arnaud Bellec; Nicolas Helmstetter; Hélène Berges; Loren H. Rieseberg

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the g...

  20. Honey bee visitation to sunflower: effects on pollination and plant genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Dechechi Chambó; Regina Conceição Garcia; Newton Tavares Escocard de Oliveira; José Barbosa Duarte-Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an allogamic plant, which needs insects on flowering, especially the honeybees for seed production. Collecting nectar and pollen by honeybees in agricultural crops is essential to apiculture, as well as a better understanding of plant biology. The foraging behavior of Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) and its efficiency of pollination on seed yield of sunflower genotypes (open pollination and restricted pollination) were evaluated. There w...

  1. Interrelationship of pollination conditions, fertilization and sunflower seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four commercially important sunflower hybrids (NS-H-45, NS-H-l 11, NS-H-702 and Velja and their parental components (Ha-74B, Ha-98B, CMS-3-8B, Ha-26B, RHA-583, RHA-R-PI-2/1 and RHA-113N were used over a period of two years to study the following traits: disk flower corolla length, nectar content, pollen viability, bee visitation, fertilization percentage and seed yield. Relations among the traits were determined by path coefficient analysis. The simple correlation coefficients showed that fertilization percentage and bee visitation had a highly significant influence on seed yield. The corolla length had a positive effect on nectar content, while nectar content had a significant negative influence on pollen viability. The highest significant direct influence on seed yield was that of fertilization percentage, while the effect on nectar content on seed yield was negative but not significant. The coefficient of determination was 0.8071.

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNFLOWER OPEN-POLLINATED VARIETIES FOR MAIN SEED TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigay K. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of confectionery sunflower openpollinated varieties (OP-varieties is a prospect direction in sunflower breeding. High price level for confectionery sunflower seeds pushes forward the breeding program. Contrary, it is necessary to offer product, meeting consumer’s expectation for large seeds, good dehulling rate, proper oil and husk content. The aim of our work is to study morphometric peculiarities of seed structure for sunflower OP-varieties of different types – oil and confectionery, and to identify the best samples for using in the breeding program as an initial material. The study was done at All-Russia Oil Crops Research Institute (VNIIMK named by V.S. Pustovoit (Krasnodar in 2014 and 2015. Seeds of 6 OP sunflower varieties of VNIIMK breeding were used as a material (confectionery type – Dzhinn, SPK, Lakomka, Oreshek, Borodinskiy and oil-type – Muster. OP-varieties were sown by randomized blocks with 3 replications. Every plot had 4 rows. It was shown that seeds of confectionery sunflower OP-varieties had higher values of main traits (length, width and thickness in comparison with oil-type sunflower. Seed traits analyses allowed identifying the best confectionery samples (Dzhinn and Oreshek for future breeding

  3. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20-30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20-30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development.

  4. High trees increase sunflower seed predation by birds in an agricultural landscape of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eSchäckermann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural habitats in agricultural landscapes promote agro-ecosystem services but little is known about negative effects (dis-services derived by natural habitats such as crop seed predation. Birds are important seed predators and use high landscape structures to perch and hide. High trees in agricultural landscapes may therefore drive seed predation. We examined if the presence, the distance and the percentages of high trees (tree height >5 m and the percentages of natural habitat surrounding sunflower fields, increased seed predation by birds in Israel. At the field scale, we assessed seed predation across a sample grid of an entire field. At the landscape scale, we assessed seed predation at the field margins and interiors of 20 sunflower fields. Seed predation was estimated as the percentage of removed seeds from sunflower heads. Distances of sample points to the closest high tree and percentage of natural habitat and of high trees in a 1km radius surrounding the fields were measured.We found that seed predation increased with decreasing distance to the closest high tree at the field and landscape scale. At the landscape scale, the percentage of high trees and natural habitat did not increase seed predation. Seed predation in the fields increased by 37 %, with a maximum seed predation of 92 %, when a high tree was available within zero to 50 m to the sunflower fields. If the closest high tree was further away, seed predation was less than 5 %. Sunflower seed predation by birds can be reduced, when avoiding sowing sunflowers within a radius of 50 m to high trees. Farmers should plan to grow crops, not sensitive to bird seed predation, closer to trees to eventually benefit from ecosystem services provided by birds, such as predation of pest insects, while avoiding these locations for growing crops sensitive to bird seed predation. Such management recommendations are directing towards sustainable agricultural landscapes.

  5. Expression of cholera toxin B subunit-lumbrokinase in edible sunflower seeds-the use of transmucosal carrier to enhance its fusion protein's effect on protection of rats and mice against thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Jin, Chao; Wang, Gang; Li, Xiaozhou; Guan, Wenzhu

    2014-01-01

    Lumbrokinase (LK) is a group of serine proteases with strong fibrinolytic and thrombolytic activities and is useful for treating diseases caused by thrombus. Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been widely used to facilitate antigen delivery by serving as an effective mucosal carrier molecule for the induction of oral tolerance. We investigate here the application of CTB as a transmucosal carrier in enhancing its fusion protein-LKs effect to protect rats against thrombosis. Thus, in this study, CTB-LK fusion gene separated by a furin cleavage site was expressed in seeds of Helianthus annuus L. The activity of recombinant protein in seeds of transgenic sunflower was confirmed by Western blot analysis, fibrin plate assays and GM1 -ganglioside ELISA. The thrombosis model of rats and mice revealed that the oral administration of peeled seeds of sunflower expressing CTB-LK had a more significant anti-thrombotic effect on animals compared with that administration of peeled seeds of sunflower expressing LK. It is possible to conclude that CTB can successfully enhance its fusion protein to be absorbed in rats or mice thrombosis model. The use of CTB as a transmucosal carrier in the delivery of transgenic plant-derived oral therapeutic proteins was supported. In addition, for the purpose of that recombinant CTB-LK was designed for oral administration, thus the expression of CTB-LK in edible sunflower seeds eliminated the need for downstream processing of proteins.

  6. Agronomic performance and chemical response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. to some organic nitrogen sources and conventional nitrogen fertilizers under sandy soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an option for oilseed production, particularly in dry land areas due to good root system development. In this study, two field experiments were performed in the El-Khattara region (Sharkia Governorate, Egypt during the 2005 season. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of organicnitrogen (ON sources and their combinations as well as to compare the effect of ON and ammonium sulfate (AS as a conventional fertilizer added individually or in combination on growth, yield components, oil percentage and the uptake of some macronutrients by sunflowers grown on sandy soil. The treatments of chicken manure (CM and a mixture of farmyard manure (FYM with CM were superior to the other treatments and gave the highest yield, dry matter yield, NPK uptake by plants at all growth stages along with seed yield at the mature stage. The effect of the different ON on crop yield and its components may follow the order; CM> palma residues (PR> FYM. This was more emphasized when the materials were mixed with AS at a ratio of 3:1 and 1:1. The uptake of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K by plants was affected by the addition of different N sources and treatments. The highest nutrient content and uptake by straw were obtained when treated with CM followed by PR at all growth stages, while it was PR followed by CM for seeds. Oil recovery was shown to respond to the N supply and the changes in individual fatty acids were not statistically different. However, it seems that the application of organic fertilizers resulted in an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids compared to the control.El girasol (Helianthus annuus es una opción para la producción de semillas oleaginosas, en particular en terrenos arenosos debido al buen desarrollo de sus raíces. En este trabajo, dos estudios de campo fueron realizados en la región de El-Ishattara (Sharkia Governorate, Egypt durante la estación 2005. El efecto de

  7. Effects of High Temperature and Water Stress on Seed Germination of the Invasive Species Mexican Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Mexican sunflower is native to Mexico and Central America and was introduced into China early last century. Now it has widely naturalized and is exhibiting increasing invasiveness in South China. As this species often dominates bare ground, a habitat characterized by extreme fluctuation in temperature and water, it is reasonable to hypothesize that it has special adaptations to high temperature and water stress. Using laboratory experiments to simulate these stresses, this study investigated the response of Mexican sunflower seed germination to temperature and water stress, and compared these responses with those previously reported for another invasive, bamboo piper, which is confined to relatively cool and moist habitats in Xishuangbanna. As expected, Mexican sunflower seeds exhibited higher tolerance to these stresses than bamboo piper. Germination of Mexican sunflower seeds was highest at 15–30°C, but significant numbers of seeds germinated and formed seedlings at 10°C and 35°C, at which no bamboo piper seeds formed seedlings, indicating a wider temperature range for germination than the latter. Roughly half the seeds survived 240 h continuous heat treatment and up to 15 h daily periodical heat treatment at 40°C, while bamboo piper seeds were mostly killed by these treatments. About 20% of Mexican sunflower but no bamboo piper seeds germinated after heat treatment for 30 min at 80°C. Germination was completely inhibited in bamboo piper seeds at -0.6 mPa, while 20–60% of Mexican sunflower seeds germinated depending on PEG or NaCl as osmoticum. This higher tolerance in Mexican sunflower seeds accords with its stronger invasiveness in this area. This comparison between two plant invaders demonstrates that invasiveness is not an all-or-nothing situation, and that adaptation to local habitats is a critical determinant of successful invasiveness for an alien plant. PMID:26509675

  8. Effects of High Temperature and Water Stress on Seed Germination of the Invasive Species Mexican Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Mexican sunflower is native to Mexico and Central America and was introduced into China early last century. Now it has widely naturalized and is exhibiting increasing invasiveness in South China. As this species often dominates bare ground, a habitat characterized by extreme fluctuation in temperature and water, it is reasonable to hypothesize that it has special adaptations to high temperature and water stress. Using laboratory experiments to simulate these stresses, this study investigated the response of Mexican sunflower seed germination to temperature and water stress, and compared these responses with those previously reported for another invasive, bamboo piper, which is confined to relatively cool and moist habitats in Xishuangbanna. As expected, Mexican sunflower seeds exhibited higher tolerance to these stresses than bamboo piper. Germination of Mexican sunflower seeds was highest at 15-30°C, but significant numbers of seeds germinated and formed seedlings at 10°C and 35°C, at which no bamboo piper seeds formed seedlings, indicating a wider temperature range for germination than the latter. Roughly half the seeds survived 240 h continuous heat treatment and up to 15 h daily periodical heat treatment at 40°C, while bamboo piper seeds were mostly killed by these treatments. About 20% of Mexican sunflower but no bamboo piper seeds germinated after heat treatment for 30 min at 80°C. Germination was completely inhibited in bamboo piper seeds at -0.6 mPa, while 20-60% of Mexican sunflower seeds germinated depending on PEG or NaCl as osmoticum. This higher tolerance in Mexican sunflower seeds accords with its stronger invasiveness in this area. This comparison between two plant invaders demonstrates that invasiveness is not an all-or-nothing situation, and that adaptation to local habitats is a critical determinant of successful invasiveness for an alien plant.

  9. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Valdez, F., E-mail: flopez2072@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, F. [Natural and Energetic Resources, Cinvestav-Saltillo, C.P. 25900, Coahuila (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Luna-Suarez, S. [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Dendooven, L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions but not CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  11. Physiological and biochemical responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) exposed to nano-CeO2 and excess boron: Modulation of boron phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, E; Giorgetti, L; Morelli, E; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L; Barbafieri, M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with soil constituents and their effects in plants. Boron (B), an essential micronutrient that reduces crop production at both deficiency and excess, has not been investigated with respect to its interaction with cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO2). Considering conflicting results on the nano-CeO2 toxicity and protective role as antioxidant, their possible modulation on B toxicity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was investigated. Sunflower was cultivated for 30 days in garden pots containing original or B-spiked soil amended with nano-CeO2 at 0-800 mg kg(-1). At harvest, Ce and B concentrations in tissues, biomass, and activities of stress enzymes in leaves were determined. Results showed that in the original soil, Ce accumulated mainly in roots, with little translocation to stems and leaves, while reduced root Ce was observed in plants from B-spiked soil. In the original soil, higher levels of nano-CeO2 reduced plant B concentration. Although morphological effects were not visible, changes in biomass and oxidative stress response were observed. Sunflower leaves from B-spiked soil showed visible symptoms of B toxicity, such as necrosis and chlorosis in old leaves, as well as an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. However, at high nano-CeO2 level, SOD activity decreased reaching values similar to that of the control. This study has shown that nano-CeO2 reduced both the B nutritional status of sunflower in original soil and the B phytotoxicity in B-spiked soil.

  12. Post-anthesis development of oil content and composition with respect to seed moisture in two high-oleic sunflower hybrids in the northern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiccating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) at physiological maturity (PM) or as early as possible can be used to hasten harvest and thus, reduce yield loss associated with severe weather, plant degradation, and bird predation. Previous work showed that two modern oilseed sunflower hybrids studied ...

  13. Computational Identification of Conserved MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes in Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus)%向日葵保守性microRNA的预测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向红; 易乐飞; 王萍

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of conserved non-protein-coding small ENAs. MicroRNAs can regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by degrading target mRNAs or repressing mRNA translation. In order to mine the information about microRNAs and their target genes in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) , we identified the conserved sunflower microRNAs and their target genes using a computational homology search approach. Based on the conserved sequences of microRNAs and the conserved stem-loop structure of microRNA precursors ,7 conserved microRNAs were detected from the sunflower nucleic acids database. The mature microRNAs were 18 - 21nt in length,and the microRNA precursors were 72 -148nt in length. The minimal free energy indexes of the microRNA precursors were 0.90 -1.19. A total of 16 potential target genes for the microRNAs were predicted. Most of the target genes were involved in sunflower regulation of transcription,regulation of vegetative phase change,regulation of seed germination, regulation of flower development, signal transduction and stress response.%microRNA是一类非编码的小分子RNA,通过与靶mRNA的互补来抑制靶mRNA的翻译或者降解靶mRNA,从而在转录后水平对基因表达发挥调控作用.为了快速挖掘向日葵microRNA及其靶基因的相关信息,根据microRNA序列及其前体结构的保守性,在向日葵核酸数据库中预测并分析了向日葵microRNA及其靶基因.经过筛选最终获得了7个向日葵microRNA,其成熟microRNA的长度为18 ~ 21nt,前体长度为72~148nt,最小折叠自由能系数为0.90 ~ 1.19.获得了向日葵microRNA的靶基因16条,这些靶基因参与了转录调控、营养阶段转换调控、种子萌发调控、花发育调控、信号传递以及环境刺激的响应等过程.

  14. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  15. 向日葵基因工程研究进展%Research Progress on Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司立平; 李联社; 吴燕民

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L. ) is one of the 4 major oil crops in the world, and has good adaptability, high aridity tolerance and other excellent characteristics. With the effect of global environment and climate changes on agro-ecosystems, the daily increasing usage of sunflower is expanding. The breeding of sunflower is aiming at drought and salt tolerance, insect and disease resistance and superior quality. But these higher breeding objectives are difficult to achieve through conventional breeding method in a short period of time, while the molecular breeding has provided a convenient and practical way to culture and improve new varieties of sunflower. This paper reviewed and summarized the progress made during the past over 20 years in sunflower in vitro regeneration, genetic transformation and transgenic researches. It also analyzed the existing problems in sunflower genetic engineering research, and prospected the development trends of this research.%向日葵作为世界四大主要油料作物之一,具有适应性强、耐贫瘠等优良特性.随着全球环境与气候变化对农业生态系统的影响及向日葵用途的日益扩大,耐旱耐盐、抗虫抗病、提高品质已成为向日葵育种的更高目标,但这些目标通过传统育种难以在短时间内实现,而以现代生物技术为手段的分子育种,为培育和改良向日葵新品种提供了一条便捷和实用的途径.对过去20多年来,向日葵的体外再生、遗传转化、转基因研究等方面的进展进行了全面总结和综述,分析了目前向日葵基因工程研究中存在的问题,就发展前景进行了展望.

  16. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Gill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence.

  17. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Navdeep; Buti, Matteo; Kane, Nolan; Bellec, Arnaud; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Berges, Hélène; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-04-16

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are "novel" to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence.

  18. Row and plant spacing effects on agronomic performance of sunflower in warm and semi-cold areas of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Beg A.; Pourdad S.S.; Alipour S.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important oilseed crop. It was grown on more than 20 million hectares in the world in 1997, of which 60,000 ha were in Iran. There is a potential for substantial increase in sunflower acreage and production on dry land in Iran by applying optimum management practices. Two important management considerations are selecting row and plant spacings able to provide adequate plant density that will maximize seed yields and minimize seeding costs. This study con...

  19. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. for production of silage of the entire plant Girassol (Helianthus annuus L. para produção de silagem de planta inteira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of the work was to describe the quantitative and qualitative characteristics referring to sunflower cultive (Helianthus annuus L. with the purpose of silage of the entire plant. The providence of conserved roughages is one strategy that can develop the productives and reproductives index of flocks in period of scarcity food, usually determinant by the low availability of pastures. The advantages of sunflower silage in comparison with the maize and sorghum is in the larger tolerance to drought, lower temperatures in the germination period (until 5 °C, smaller vegetative cycle, favoring more than one cultivation in summer with other culture and desired quality of the ensiled product. The lower content of dry matter (20 - 25% and the high content of ether extract (10 - 18% had been indicated as the main restrictions for sunflower silage, due to higher storage losses. Concerning the chemical composition of sunflower silage, contrasting with the maize, it is usual to meet larger levels of the crude protein (12% versus 9%, ether extract (14% versus 3%, acid detergent fiber (43 versus 32% and lesser levels of neutral detergent fiber (47% versus 56% and dry matter digestibility (49 versus 65%. The sunflower silage must not substitute totally the maize silage in ruminant diet, but it outstands as one forage plant option as source of energy and protein at situations of culture rotation, drought season and in the fall.

    Objetivou-se descrever as características quantitativas e qualitativas referentes à cultura do girassol (Helianthus annuus L., com a finalidade de silagem de planta inteira. O fornecimento de volumosos conservados é uma estratégia que pode incrementar os índices produtivos e reprodutivos de rebanhos. As vantagens da silagem de girassol em comparação a de gramíneas como o milho e sorgo está na maior tolerância ao déficit hídrico, a menores temperaturas na fase de germinação (até 5 °C, menor

  20. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile ba

  1. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile ba

  2. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). 2. Characterisation of QTL involved in developmental and agronomic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, P-F; Jouan, I; Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D; Serre, F; Philippon, J; Nicolas, P; Vear, F

    2003-06-01

    Seed weight and oil content are important properties of cultivated sunflower under complex genetic and environmental control, and associated with morphological and developmental characteristics such as plant height or flowering dates. Using a genetic map with 290 markers for a cross between two inbred sunflower lines and 2 years of observations on F3 families, QTL controlling seed weight, oil content, plant height, plant lodging, flowering dates, maturity dates and delay from flowering to maturity were detected. QTL detected were compared between the F2 and F3 generations and between the 2 years of testing for the F3 families in 1997 and 1999. Some of the QTL controlling seed weight overlapped with those controlling oil content. Several other co-localisations of QTL controlling developmental or morphological characteristics were observed and the relationships between the traits were also shown by correlation analyses. The relationships between all these traits and with resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi are discussed.

  3. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvey, Bassie B.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported. PMID:19325810

  4. Bio-priming of seeds: A potential tool in the integrated management of alternaria blight of sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Rao M.S.L.; Kulkarni S; Lingaraju S.; Nadaf H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Of the different integrated seed treatment options tested for the management of Alternaria blight of sunflower, highest benefit was obtained in the seed treatment with Carbendazim+Iprodione (Quintal) at 0.3% in water along with hexaconazole foliar spray (0.1%) followed by seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens (0.8%) in jelly+hexaconazole foliar spray. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed dresser can be enhanced by bio-priming the sunflower seeds for the effective and eco-friendly...

  5. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.: A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Ghosh

    Full Text Available Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools.Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry.Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease.Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level, which substantiated the

  6. A laboratory simulation of the carbonization of sunflower achenes and seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.; Wright, P.J.; Horst, J. van der; Boon, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The current project describes physical and chemical alterations that result from the thermal exposure of sunflower achenes and seeds. Specifically, achenes and seeds were heated at temperatures ranging from 130 to 600 °C under anoxic conditions for 60 min. Changes were measured in mass, relative per

  7. A laboratory simulation of the carbonization of sunflower achenes and seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.; Wright, P.J.; Horst, J. van der; Boon, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The current project describes physical and chemical alterations that result from the thermal exposure of sunflower achenes and seeds. Specifically, achenes and seeds were heated at temperatures ranging from 130 to 600 °C under anoxic conditions for 60 min. Changes were measured in mass, relative per

  8. Pollen production in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is affected by air temperature and relative humidity during early reproductive growth

    OpenAIRE

    Astiz, V.; Hernández, Luis Francisco

    2013-01-01

    During microsporogenesis, sunflower florets might be exposed to episodes of day- and night-time temperatures exceeding 30 and 20 °C, respectively, that can affect pollen availability and consequently plant’s yield. The relationship between air temperature and relative humidity during the meiotic phase of microsporogenesis, and the quantity and quality of pollen produced by the flowers, were studied in two sunflower hybrids during two years. The hybrids were grown on irrigated plots in Bahía B...

  9. Effects of External Vc on Seed Germination, Seedling Physiological Properties of Oil Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) under Salt Stress%外源Vc对盐胁迫下油葵种子萌发和幼苗生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢精林; 高彦娟; 常玉娇

    2014-01-01

    [目的]为实际生产中缓解油葵(Helianthus annuus)盐害提供理论和技术依据.[方法]以油葵种子为试验材料,在种子萌发过程中用120mmol/L NaCl溶液和0~200 mg/L Vc溶液进行处理,研究外源Vc对盐胁迫下油葵种子萌发指标和幼苗生理特性的影响.[结果]在盐胁迫下,随着Vc溶液浓度的增加,油葵种子发芽势和发芽率、幼苗超氧化物歧化酶-(SOD)和超氧化物酶(POD)活性、脯氨酸(Pro)含量均呈现先升高后降低的趋势,分别在80、12、80 mg/L Vc处理下达到最大值;幼苗MDA含量呈现先降后升的趋势,在160mg/L Vc处理下达到最小值.[结论]Vc能不同程度地提高盐胁迫下油葵种子发芽率、发芽势,促进幼苗生长,缓解盐胁迫对油葵种子萌发和幼苗生长的危害.

  10. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds.

  11. Influence of Storage Condition on Seed Oil Content of Maize, Soybean and Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the changes in seed oil content in different genotypes of maize, soybean and sunflower from 2002 to 2006, in two types of storage conditions which differ in air temperature and humidity: 25°C/75% and 12°C/60%, respectively. Aff ected by storage longevity, in average, seed oil content decreased by 0.82% in maize, 2.19% in soybean and 8.53% in sunflower. Differences in oil content affected by storage longevity were significant among tested crops and genotypes within crops. Storage longevity was negatively associated with oil content. At storage conditions at 12°C/60%, decreasing of seed oil content was less by 0.55% (maize, 1.30% (soybean and 1.75% (sunflower than in storage conditions at 25°C/75%. In summary, the lowest seed quality losses were in maize, then in soybean and the highest losses were in sunflower. Decreasing of seed quality losses is possible with suitable storage conditions, particularly for soybean and sunflower.

  12. Interactive effect of salinity and boron application on growth and physiological traits of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Atif Riaz, Muhammad Saqib, Javaid Akhtar and Riaz Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major problem of agriculture in Pakistan. Permanent solution of salinity problem is removal of salts by leaching and drainage whic is expensive. So research efforts should involve profitable utilization of these lands through biological approaches. Considering these observations, this study was designed with the objectives to explore changes in growth and physiological attributes of different sunflower genotypes under interactive effect of salinity and boron. Vigorous seeds...

  13. Thermal decomposition analysis of coal-waste sludge and coal-sunflower seed husk blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-yan; LI Xiao-qi; LIU Wen-tie; SONG Cheng-yi; WANG Chun-sheng; DONG Qun

    2010-01-01

    The thermal decomposition analysis of coal-pharmaceutical waste sludge,coal-sewage waste sludge blends and coal-sunflower seed husk blends are studied by TG dynamic runs at the heating rate of 20 ℃/min within the temperature range of 25 ℃-900℃.The effect of different kinetic models on the determination of kinetic parameters of thermal decompesition has been investigated.Results show that for coal-pharmaceutical sludge blend,coal-sewage sludge blend and coal-sunflower seed husk blend the optimal model functions are the three-dimensional diffusion reaction,2-dimensional and 3-diemensional nucleation and growth reactions,respectively.The Arrhenius kinetic parameters of the pre-exponential factor and activation energy of blends,as well waste sludge and sunflower seed husk only are proposed.

  14. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-08-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile bacterium, producing 4.5 μg mL(-1) indole acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium. It utilized 27 out of 95 substrates in BIOLOG GN2 micro plate system. It was able to convert insoluble tri-calcium phosphate to soluble phosphorus up to 43.5 μg mL(-1) with decrease in pH of the medium up to 4.5 after 10 days incubation at 28 ± 2 °C in the Pikovskaya's broth. High performance liquid chromatography of cell free supernatant showed that Fs-11 produced malic acid and gluconic acid (2.43 and 16.64 μg mL(-1), respectively) in Pikovskaya's broth. Analysis of 900 bp fragment of pyrroloquinoline quinine pqqE gene sequence showed 98 % homology with that of E. cloacae pqqE gene. Confocal laser scanning microscope revealed strong colonization of fluorescently labeled Fs-11 with sunflower roots. Sunflower inoculation with Fs-11 and its rifampicin resistant derivative in sterile sand and natural soil showed that Fs-11 colonized sunflower roots up to 30 days after transplanting in both sterile sand as well as natural soil. Moreover, Fs-11 inoculation resulted in increased plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and total phosphorus contents as compared to un-inoculated plants. The data showed that Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 is an efficient phosphate solubilizing and plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and has great potential to be used as bio-inoculant for sunflower under phosphorus deficient conditions.

  15. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaadawi,I.S; KHALIQ,A.; A.A Al-Temimi; Matloob,A

    2011-01-01

    Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba) fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin) at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was ...

  16. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7.

  17. Pl17 is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of...

  18. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables.

  19. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  20. A laboratory simulation of the carbonization of sunflower achenes and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braadbaart, F. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Earth Sciences-Geochemistry, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80021, 3058 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Wright, P.J. [Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Horst, J. van der; Boon, J.J. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    The current project describes physical and chemical alterations that result from the thermal exposure of sunflower achenes and seeds. Specifically, achenes and seeds were heated at temperatures ranging from 130 to 600 C under anoxic conditions for 60 min. Changes were measured in mass, relative percentages of C and N, internal and external morphology, molecular composition by direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry (DTMS) under EI conditions, and the reflectance on polished specimens. The main constituents of sunflower seeds are lipids and protein, while the pericarps or hulls enclosing the seeds have a ligno-cellulosic structure. The morphology of achenes and seeds remains intact following exposure which makes the identification of the residues possible. The results of the sunflower experiments were compared to previous experiments conducted with peas and wheat grains. Up to approximately 340 C, the molecular conversion of polysaccharide and protein rich peas and wheat grains follow similar pathways, while the lignin present in sunflower achenes follows its own unique pathway, resulting in a different molecular composition. At higher temperatures the molecular composition of the three propagules becomes identical. In addition the reflectance of the three propagules is identical confirming the similarity in molecular composition. Lipids show a different behaviour compared to the other three biopolymers; from 370 C no oils are observed in the heated specimens and the DTMS-EI measurements show no lipid markers. Apart from evaporation of the triacylglycerides it is suggested that steroids have a high resistance against thermal degradation and are converted into aromatic moieties. (author)

  1. SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. AS AFFECTED BY THE APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND INOCULATION WITH ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolino José Nogueira da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizers and the inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi in the cultivation of oil crops is essential to reduce production costs and minimize negative impacts on natural resources. A field experiment was conducted in an Argissolo Amarelo (Ultisol with the aim of evaluating the effects of fertilizer application and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth attributes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and on soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replicates in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of four treatments in regard to application of organic fertilizer (liquid biofertilizer, cow urine, mineral fertilizer, and unfertilized control and two treatments in regard to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (with and without mycorrhizal fungi. The results showed that the physiological attributes of relative growth rate and leaf weight ratio were positively influenced by fertilization, compared to the control treatment, likely brought about by the supply of nutrients from the fertilizers applied. The growth and productivity attributes were positively affected by mycorrhization.

  2. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs.

  3. Comparative effect of biofertilizers with chemical fertilizers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. growth, yield and oil percentage in different drought stress levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pirasteh Anosheh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, environment protection and safe crop production are very important. The management of soil elements by bio-fertilizers is considered as important point for sustainable agriculture. Mode of action of fertilizers is very different in drought stress conditions. To evaluate biological fertilizers (agrohumic, nitroxin, superabsorbent and vermicompost and compare them with current chemical fertilizers (N, P and K in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. at different drought stress levels (100% as control, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with 20 treatments and 3 replications at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University in 2010. Results showed that drought stress effect was significant on plant height, head diameter, biological yield (BY, grain yield (GY, and harvest index (HI; however, it did not affect oil percentage. Highest HI was obtained at 50% F.C, Also the highest grain yield and plant height were observed in bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizer, respectively. The most grain yield achieved under control and severe drought stress conditions were found in nitroxin and superabsorbent, respectively. Fertilizers had significant effect on plant height and grain yield. Generally, bio-fertilizers particularly superabsorbent and vermicompost had better responses to drought stress, compared to chemical fertilizers, which was due to higher ability of them in water maintenance. According to results of this investigation, bio-fertilizers seem to be useful under limited moisture conditions to alleviate water deficit effects.

  4. [Analysis of mineral elements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on saline land in Hetao Irrigation District by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Jie; Chen, Fu; Wen, Xin-Ya

    2014-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of ten mineral elements in four kinds of organs (root, steam, leaf and flower disc) in Helianthus annuus L. plants cultured in Hetao Irrigation District under different level of salinity stress were determined by ICP-AES with wet digestion (HNO3 + HClO4). The results showed that: (1) The contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Na were highest in roots, so was K in stems, B and Mg in leaves and P in flower discs, while no significant difference was detected in the content of Cu among these organs; (2) The cumulants of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, B and Zn were highest in flower discs, so were Na, Fe and Mn in roots and K in stems; (3) In sunflower plants, the proportion of mineral element cumulant for K : Ca : Mg : P : Na was 16.71 : 5.23 : 3.86 : 1.23 : 1.00, and for Zn : Fe : B : Mn: Cu was 56.28 : 27.75 : 1.93 : 1.17 : 1.00, respectively; (4) The effect of salinity stress on absorption of mineral elements differed according to the kind of organ and element, root was the most sensitive to soil salt content, followed by stem and leaf, and the effect on flower disc seemed complex.

  5. Marcha de absorção de macronutrientes na cultura do girassol Macronutrient uptake of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

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    Luiz Henrique Saes Zobiole

    2010-04-01

    of Paraná. The plots consisted of 14 25 m long rows spaced 0.70 m apart, resulting in a total area of 245 m², with four replications. Prior to sowing a fertilization seeding of 300 kg ha-1 of 05-20-20 NPK fertilizer was applied. Fertilization was split in two applications of 25 + 1 kg ha-1 N and B, which were applied 21 and 35 days after sowing, respectively. The hybrid BRS 191 and a final plant density of 40,000 plants ha-1 were used. Plant samples were collected every two weeks after emergence and separated in the different parts (petioles, leaves, stems and, when applicable, capitula and achenes. After drying, each plant part was weighed and ground to determine the N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S content. From the contents of these nutrients and dry mass of each plant, the accumulation curve was obtained. It was found that for yields > 3,000 kg ha-1, BRS 191 extracted about 150, 24, 286, 116, 42, and 24 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, respectively, in the following order of extraction: K> N> Ca> P = S. In addition to the relation to exportation, the nutrient order was: N> P = K> S = Mg> Ca. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the maintenance of an adequate supply of N, K and Ca, due to the high demand of sunflower.

  6. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression patterns of LATERAL SUPPRESSOR-LIKE and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION-LIKE genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2016-12-29

    The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively. Typical amino acid residues and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL are the orthologs of the branching regulator LS and ROX/LAX1, involved in the growth habit of both dicot and monocot species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed a high accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts in roots, vegetative shoots, and inflorescence shoots. By contrast, in internodal stems and young leaves, a lower amount of Ha-LSL transcripts was observed. A comparison of transcription patterns between Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL revealed some analogies but also remarkable differences; in fact, the gene Ha-ROXL displayed a low expression level in all organs analyzed. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that Ha-ROXL transcription was strongly restricted to a small domain within the boundary zone separating the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia and in restricted regions of the inflorescence meristem, beforehand the separation of floral bracts from disc flower primordia. These results suggested that Ha-ROXL may be involved to establish a cell niche for the initiation of AMs as well as flower primordia. The accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts was not restricted to the boundary zones in vegetative and inflorescence shoots, but the mRNA activity was expanded in other cellular domains of primary shoot apical meristem as well as AMs. In addition, Ha

  7. Interspecific amphiploid-derived alloplasmic male sterility with defective anthers, narrow disk florets, and small ray flowers in sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS)/fertility-restoration system is important for hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed production. Two novel alloplasmic CMSs, designated CMS GRO1 and CMS MAX3 with defective anthers, narrow disk florets with no swollen corolla, and short, narrow ray flowers,...

  8. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  9. Rhizosphere colonization and arsenic translocation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by arsenate reducing Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, Lucia; Corsini, Anna; Bachate, Sachin Prabhakar; Andreoni, Vincenza

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, six arsenic-resistant strains previously isolated were tested for their plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, in order to choose one model strain as an inoculum for sunflower plants in pot experiments. The aim was to investigate the effect of arsenic-resistant strain on sunflower growth and on arsenic uptake from arsenic contaminated soil. Based on plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L was chosen as an inoculum. Beside the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite via an Ars operon, the strain exhibited 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity and it was also able to produce siderophore and indole acetic acid. Pot experiments were conducted with an agricultural soil contaminated with arsenic (214 mg kg⁻¹). A real time PCR method was set up based on the quantification of ACR3(2) type of arsenite efflux pump carried by Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L, in order to monitor presence and colonisation of the strain in the bulk and rhizospheric soil. As a result of strain inoculation, arsenic uptake by plants was increased by 53 %, whereas ACR3(2) gene copy number in rhizospheric soil was 100 times higher in inoculated than in control pots, indicating the colonisation of strain. The results indicated that the presence of arsenate reducing strains in the rhizosphere of sunflower influences arsenic mobilization and promotes arsenic uptake by plant.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF MICROWAVE HEATING OF FRESHLY HARVESTED SUNFLOWER SEEDS BEFORE CONVECTIVE DRYING ON OUTPUT AND QUALITY OF OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafayev S. K.; Smychagin E. O.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the influence of various methods of thermal, acoustic and electromagnetic exposure on free lipid content, acid and peroxidation number of oil in sunflower seeds during their after harvesting ripening. We have investigated the influence of traditional and microwave heating on lipase activity of seeds. We have also founded the most efficient conditions for the rate and the temperature of microwave heating of freshly harvested sunflower seeds and determined their effect on t...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF MICROWAVE HEATING OF FRESHLY HARVESTED SUNFLOWER SEEDS BEFORE CONVECTIVE DRYING ON OUTPUT AND QUALITY OF OIL

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    Mustafayev S. K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the influence of various methods of thermal, acoustic and electromagnetic exposure on free lipid content, acid and peroxidation number of oil in sunflower seeds during their after harvesting ripening. We have investigated the influence of traditional and microwave heating on lipase activity of seeds. We have also founded the most efficient conditions for the rate and the temperature of microwave heating of freshly harvested sunflower seeds and determined their effect on the rate of drying

  12. Development of sunflower oil and composition with respect to seed moisture and physiological maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiccants/harvest aids are becoming more commonly used to hasten sunflower harvest. The current recommendation is to apply a desiccant (e.g., glyphosate and paraquat) at 35% or less seed moisture at physiological maturity (PM). Desiccating as early as possible without sacrificing yield may be a des...

  13. The effects of topical application of sunflower-seed oil on open wound healing in lambs

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    Marques Silvio Romero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effects of the use of sunflower seed oil on the treatment of skin wounds. METHODS: Eighteen male Saint Inês lambs were divided in 3 groups according to the pos-operative (7, 14 and 21 days. After antisepsis and local anestesia, two 4cm² wounds on each side of the thoracic region, close to the scapule were surgically produced. The experimental wounds were treated with sunflower seed oil, with high concentration of linoleic acid (LA, and the control ones with sterilized Vaseline. Biopsies of the pos-operative wounds tissue were performed on the 7th, 14th, 21st days and histologically evaluated. RESULTS: Topic application of sunflower seed oil accelerated healing process at the 7th and 21st days, reducing wound area and increasing wound contraction. Granulation tissue increased faster on treated wounds. The epidermis of the treated wounds was completely recovered when compared to control wounds. CONCLUSION: The topic use of sunflower seed oil accelerated the healing process, and it can be used as an alternative therapy on second intention wound healing.

  14. Comparison of germination and seed vigor of sunflower in two contaminated soils of different texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Han, Jaemaro; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-05-01

    Phytoremediation as an emerging low-cost and ecologically friendly alternative to the conventional soil remediation technologies has gained a great deal of attention and into lots of research. As a kind of the methods that use of green plants to remediate heavy metals contaminated soils, the early growth status of plant seeds in the contaminated environmental directly affects the effect of phytoremediation. Germination test in the water (aqueous solution of heavy metal) is generally used for assessing heavy metal phytotoxicity and possibility of plant growth, but there is a limit. Because soil is commonly main target of phytoremediation, not the water. The bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil also depends on the texture. So soil texture is an important factor of phytoremediation effect. Sunflower is the representative species which have good tolerance to various heavy metals; furthermore, the seeds of sunflower can be used as the raw-material for producing bio-diesel. The objectives of this research were to investigate germination rate of sunflowers in various heavy metal contaminated soils and to compare the seedling vigor index (SVI) of sunflower in two contaminated soils of different texture. Sunflower (Helianthusannuus L.) seeds were obtained from a commercial market. In order to prove the soil texture effect on heavy metal contaminated soil, germination tests in soil were conducted with two different types of soil texture (i.e., loam soil and sandy loam soil) classified by soil textural triangle (defined by USDA) including representative soil texture of Korea. Germination tests in soil were conducted using KS I ISO 11260-1 (2005) for reference that sunflower seeds were incubated for 7 days in dark at 25 ± 1 Celsius degree. The target heavy metals are Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). The Ni and Zn concentrations were 0, 10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 mg-Ni/kg-dry soil, and 0, 10, 50, 100, 300, 500, 900 mg-Zn/kg-dry soil, respectively. After germination test for 7

  15. Influence of thiourea application on some physiological and molecular criteria of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants under conditions of heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladious, Samia Ageeb

    2014-05-01

    High temperature is a major factor limiting the growth of plant species during summer. Understanding the mechanisms of plant tolerance to high temperature would help in developing effective management practices and heat-tolerant cultivars through breeding or biotechnology. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of thiourea in enhancing the tolerance of sunflower plants to heat stress. Sunflower plants were subjected to temperature stress by exposing plants to 35 or 45 °C for 12 h. Two levels of thiourea (10 and 20 mM) were applied before sowing (seed treatment). The results indicated that the plants exposed to temperature stress exhibited a significant decline in growth parameters, chlorophylls, relative leaf water content, oil content, leaf nutrient status, and nitrate reductase activity. Treatment with thiourea, especially when applied at 10 mM, improved the above parameters and induced non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants responsible for antioxidation. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that high-temperature treatments alone or in combination with thiourea were associated with the disappearance of some bands or the appearance of unique ones. The result of RAPD analysis using five primers showed variable qualitative and quantitative changes. These findings confirm the effectiveness of applying thiourea on alleviating heat injuries in sunflower plants.

  16. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  17. Effects of nitrogen and plant density on dwarf sunflower hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Süzer S.

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the seed yield and some yield components of two dwarf hybrids as compared to one standard-height sunflower hybrid (Helianthus annuus L.) at different nitrogen rates and planting densities. The study was carried out under natural rainfed conditions at the Thrace Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne-Turkey between 1999 and 2001. The experiments were set up in split-split plots in a randomized complete block desi...

  18. The Effects of Sowing Date and Sowing Density on Birds Damage in the Cultivars of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    F. Onemli; A. C. Saglam

    2005-01-01

    A research in Barbaros city belong to Tekirdag centre county as farmer condition was carried outdetermination of bird damage ratio on the sown fields. The demonstration used three sunflower varieties(Super 25, Pioneer 6482, Sunbred 281), two sowing dates (16.04.1997 and 14.05.1997) and four sowing densities(20, 30, 40 and 50x70cm) was established according to split-split plot design. The determination characters areseed yield per decare unless bird damage, bird damage ratio, plant height, ste...

  19. Engineering properties of sunflower seed: Effect of dehulling and moisture content

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    Mudasir Ahmad Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study diagnosed engineering properties on varying moisture content of sunflower seed and kernel from 7.6 to 25% (wet basis. On increasing moisture, dimensional values increased for both seed and kernel. Bulk density, true density and porosity were found higher for kernel as compared to seed at each moisture content. On increasing the moisture content from 7.6 to 25%, true density, porosity and thousand kernel weight increased. Coefficient of static friction on plywood was found maximum for kernel at 25% moisture content, while it was minimum for seed on glass at 7.6% moisture content. The angle of repose was maximum for kernel as compared to seed. Initial cracking force, average rupture force and average rupture energy for seed and kernel decreased with an increase in the moisture content. The kernel was found to be more resistant to initial cracking than seed.

  20. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

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    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  1. Growth, yield and ionic concentration of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. genotypes exposed to brackish water irrigation

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    Syed Azhar Hussain*, Javaid Akhtar, Muhammad Anwar-ul-haq and Rashid Ahmad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of brackish water application were assessed on the growth, uptake of sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, waterrelations, membrane stability index, proline accumulation, and yield of two sunflower genotypes (SF-187 and hysun-33. Treatments of irrigation water with different ECiw, SAR and RSC were T1, control; T2, EC: 8 dS m-1; T3, SAR: 16(mmol L-11/2; T4, RSC: 4 meq L-1, and T5, EC: 8 dS m-1 + SAR 16 (mmol L-11/2 + RSC 4 meq L-1. Genotypesdisplayed a substantial variability for salinity and/or sodicity tolerance and salt tolerant behavior of SF-187regarding, high K:Na ratio, increased water contents, higher membrane stability index and higher yield ascompared to Hysun-33, was confirmed under various treatments. Saline-sodic water caused maximum reductionin plant growth and yield in both sunflower genotypes followed by saline water treatment. However, no significantdifferences were noted between high SAR (T3 and high RSC (T4 treatments. In conclusion, SF-187 exhibited someimportant features of salt tolerance that can be successfully exploited under brackish water irrigation.

  2. Protein and peroxidase modulations in sunflower seedlings (Helianthus annuus L.) treated with a toxic amount of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouili, Hager; Bouazizi, Houda; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of aluminium treatment on peroxidases activities and protein content in both soluble and cell-wall-bound fractions of sunflower leaves, stems and roots. Fourteen-day-old seedlings, grown in a nutrient solution, were exposed to a toxic amount of aluminium (500 μM AlNO(3)) for 72 h. Under stress conditions, biomass production, root length and leaf expansion were significantly reduced. Also, our results showed modulations on soluble and ionically cell-wall-bound peroxidases activities. In soluble fraction, peroxidases activities were enhanced in all investigated organs. This stimulation was also observed in ionically cell-wall-bound fraction in leaves and stems. Roots showed a differential behaviour: peroxidase activity was severely reduced. Lignifying peroxidases activities assayed using coniferyl alcohol and H(2)O(2) as substrates were also modulated. Significant stimulation was shown on soluble fraction in leaves, stems and roots. In ionically cell-wall-bound fraction lignifying peroxidases were enhanced only in stems but severely inhibited in roots. Also, aluminium toxicity caused significant increase on cell wall protein content in sunflower roots.

  3. Impact of pedoclimatic and agricultural conditions on sunflower seeds characteristics in relation to the dehulling process

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    Dauguet Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dehulling sunflower seeds can increase meal protein content by up to 35–36%. However, high variability in seed quality constitutes an obstacle to optimizing the dehulling process. This study has sought to identify the parameters that influence the protein content of sunflower seeds and the ease with which they can be dehulled. Genetic, climatic and crop management effects were studied using seed samples taken from farmers’ fields in south-west France. Soil and climatic effects were revealed to be important for protein content and ease of dehulling (hullability. Some cultivars were found to be significantly more difficult to dehull than others. No relationship was observed between oil content and protein content expressed as a proportion of DDM (defatted dry matter, but there was a significant negative linear relationship between hullability and oil content. Due to the wide range of locations and agricultural practices encountered in the farmers’ fields, it was not possible to verify with confidence the influence of other interactions such as nitrogen fertilization and the potential fertility of the fields. This work nevertheless showed that locality and growing conditions affect the quality of sunflower seeds. This variability in quality could be measured by crushers in order to optimize the dehulling process and thereby produce a meal of consistent quality, with a guaranteed protein content.

  4. Phoma Macdonaldi on seed and its importance in etiology of Phoma black stem in sunflower

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    Maširević Stevan N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phoma macdonaldi Boerema, teleomorph Leptosphaeria lindquistii Frezzi, is a widespread pathogen of sunflower. The aim of this research was to identify the presence of fungus P. macdonaldi in seed of different sunflower hybrids, as well as the correlation between seed and field infection. Phoma black stem assessment was performed on three hybrids grown in six localities in Serbia. Untreated and processed seeds of these hybrids were used in the seed health test. Severity of the disease did not differ between localities. Average disease index for hybrids H7, H9 and H19 was 14.01%, 13.25% and 11.83% respectively, and it shows that there are no significant differences in hybrid susceptibility. The index of disease indicates tolerance of these hybrids to Phoma black stem. Seed analysis showed the presence of fungi from the following genera: Phoma, Alternaria, Botrytis, Sclerotinia, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Seed infection with Phoma (of the untreated seeds per hybrid ranged from 1.2-3.5%. There is no significant correlation between stem and seed infection.

  5. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus, Indian mustard (Brassica juncea and sunflower (Helianthus annuus.

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    Motior M Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil contamination by copper (Cu and lead (Pb is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF, translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹ in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54% and Cu (34-38% followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3-4.3 and 1.8-3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. CONCLUSIONS: Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  6. TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF PROTEIN-CONTAINING RAW MATERIALS FROM THE PRODUCTS OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS

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    Shchekoldina T. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, secondary resources of vegetable raw materials are widely used in solving the food, environmental and energy issues, as well as an additional source of substances of natural origin. A significant amount of secondary resources is produced during the processing of sunflower seeds - the main oilseed Kuban. Fats industry, while processing seeds, mainly extracts only one component - vegetable oil and is having a huge amount of meal, which is mainly used for agricultural purposes. Valuable property of sunflower meal is that it is high in protein, low cost and lack of toxic and anti-nutrients. Favorable amino acid composition determines the viability of recovering proteins from sunflower meal. Proteins were extracted from sunflower meal with a dispersing agent which may be water, sodium salts, alkalis, acids, or any organic solvent, followed by precipitation of the protein at the isoelectric point with hydrochloric acid. However, this protein has a high content of phenolic compounds, which gives it a dark color. The high concentration of chlorogenic acid in sunflower meal and its ability to form a dark colored complex with proteins limits the use of sunflower proteins in the food industry. All known methods of protein purification products from phenolic compounds, in particular chlorogenic acids, are mainly aimed at reducing the use of solvents and washing using membrane technology. However, in most cases, their use is either inadequate due to removal of phenolic compounds or decreasing the nutritional and biological value of the obtained product due to the toxicity of the solvent used, and an inability to completely remove it from the protein

  7. Determination of Growth Stage-Specific Crop Coefficients (Kc of Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L. under Salt Stress

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    Minghai Hong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop coefficients (Kc are important for the development of irrigation schedules, but few studies on Kc focus on saline soils. To propose the growth-stage-specific Kc values for sunflowers in saline soils, a two-year micro-plot experiment was conducted in Yichang Experimental Station, Hetao Irrigation District. Four salinity levels including non-salinized (ECe = 3.4–4.1 dS·m–1, low (ECe = 5.5–8.2 dS·m–1, moderate (ECe = 12.1–14.5 dS·m–1, and high (ECe = 18.3–18.5 dS·m–1 levels were arranged in 12 micro-plots. Based on the soil moisture observations, Vensim software was used to establish and develop a physically-based water flow in the soil-plant system (WFSP model. Observations in 2012 were used to calibrate the WFSP model and acceptable accuracy was obtained, especially for soil moisture simulation below 5 cm (R2 > 0.6. The locally-based Kc values (LKc of sunflowers in saline soils were presented according to the WFSP calibration results. To be specific, LKc for initial stages (Kc1 could be expressed as a function of soil salinity (R2 = 0.86, while R2 of LKc for rapid growth (Kc2, middle (Kc3, and mature (Kc4 stages were 0.659, 1.156, and 0.324, respectively. The proposed LKc values were also evaluated by observations in 2013 and the R2 for initial, rapid growth, middle, and mature stages were 0.66, 0.68, 0.56 and 0.58, respectively. It is expected that the LKc would be of great value in irrigation management and provide precise water application values for salt-affected regions.

  8. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance.

  9. Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarková, Veronika; Hiller, Edgar; Vaculík, Marek

    2013-06-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils might increase the sorption of herbicides, and therefore, affect other sorption-related processes such as leaching, dissipation and toxicity for plants. In this study, the impact of wheat straw biochar on the sorption, leaching and dissipation in a soil, and toxicity for sunflower of (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), a commonly used ionizable herbicide, was investigated. The results showed that MCPA sorption by biochar and biochar-amended soil (1.0wt% biochar) was 82 and 2.53 times higher than that by the non-amended soil, respectively. However, desorption of MCPA from biochar-amended soil was only 1.17 times lower than its desorption in non-amended soil. Biochar addition to soil reduced both MCPA leaching and dissipation. About 35% of the applied MCPA was transported through biochar-amended soil, while up to 56% was recovered in the leachates transported through non-amended soil. The half-life value of MCPA increased from 5.2d in non-amended soil to 21.5 d in biochar-amended soil. Pot experiments with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown in MCPA-free, but biochar-amended soil showed no positive effect of biochar on the growth of sunflower in comparison to the non-amended soil. However, biochar itself significantly reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) in sunflower. There was no significant difference in the phytotoxic effects of MCPA on sunflowers between the biochar-amended soil and the non-amended soil. Furthermore, MCPA had no effect on the photosynthetic pigment contents in sunflower.

  10. Effect of dried sunflower seeds on incisal edge abrasion: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Avita; Ramamurthy, Priyadarshini H; Fernandes, Bennete Aloysius; Sidhu, Preena

    2017-01-01

    Tooth surface loss (TSL) is a complex phenomenon characterized by the loss of hard tooth structure at various locations of the teeth, usually due to more than one factor. TSL due to abrasion can be significant in patients consuming coarse, abrasive diet. The present case reports an interesting incisal edge abrasion in a female patient, attributed to a particular dietary behavior of long-term consumption of sunflower seeds. All her family members and most of the people from her native place were also reported to have similar lesions by the patient. Larger epidemiological studies to assess the prevalence and severity of such abrasive lesions in geographic areas with this particular dietary habit need to be carried out so that people may be made aware and educated about alternative ways of eating sunflower seeds that will not cause any form of tooth wear.

  11. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohy, M. Z.; Badr, E. H.; Perifanova-Nemska, M.; Khadjiski, T. S.

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  12. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  13. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martin, I.; Vilaescusa-Garcia, V.; Lopez-Gonzalez, F.; Oiz-Jimenez, C.; Lobos-Ortega, I. A.; Gordillo, B.; Hernandez-Hierro, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low) oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation. (Author) 23 refs.

  14. Impact of the seed storage time on the quality of cold-pressed sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premović Tamara Đ.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of seed storage time on the quality of cold-pressed sunflower oil. The quality and oxidative stability of oil was determined in samples of domestic varieties of sunflower hybrid, linoleic type seeds, obtained from fresh seeds and from seeds stored in silo cell for 6 and 12 months at temperature below 30oC and in good ventilation conditions. It was found that the longer storage time of seeds had a negative impact on many quality aspects of the oil, such as flavor, odor and aroma, primarily on the sensory profile. Chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of oil were also influenced by the storage time, which was confirmed by increased values of the acid value (AV and peroxide value (PV of the oil samples. Fresh seed oil had an AV of 0.49±0.01 mgKOH/g, while oils that were obtained from one-year old seeds had an AV of 1.95±0.02 mgKOH/g. Content of the primary oxidation products in the oil obtained by cold-pressing of the fresh seeds was 1.73±0.02 mmol/kg (measured as PV, and 2.22±0.07 mmol/kg in that from the seeds stored for 12 months. The anisidine value for the oil obtained from the seeds stored for 12 months was 0.86±0.04 (100A1% 350nm.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  15. The analysis of proteome changes in sunflower seeds induced by N+ implantation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dong Guijun; Pan Weidong; Liu Gongshe

    2006-06-01

    In this work, the proteomic changes induced by N+ ion implantation were investigated using a sunflower seed model by a two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis. To further understand the changes of total protein irradiated with N+ ion, a proteomic analysis of N+ ion implantation seeds was developed. Among approximately 369 total protein spots displayed in 2-D gels, eight specific proteins were found in non-implanted seeds while four proteins were found in implanted seeds. Six proteins were used for MALDI-TOF MS analysis, of which only two had been reported before. The proteins designated as No. 29 showed 23.4% homology to MADS-box transcriptional factor HAM59, while No. 279 protein had 23.20% identity to homeobox-leucine zipper protein HAHB-4. The analysis of proteome changes induced by N+ implantation could provid a new clue to studing mutation mechanism of ion implantation. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the analysis of proteome changes induced by N+ implantation in sunflower seeds.

  16. An analysis of sequence variability in eight genes putatively involved in drought response in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, T; Buti, M; Natali, L; Pugliesi, C; Cattonaro, F; Morgante, M; Cavallini, A

    2011-04-01

    With the aim to study variability in genes involved in ecological adaptations, we have analysed sequence polymorphisms of eight unique genes putatively involved in drought response by isolation and analysis of allelic sequences in eight inbred lines of sunflower of different origin and phenotypic characters and showing different drought response in terms of leaf relative water content (RWC). First, gene sequences were amplified by PCR on genomic DNA from a highly inbred line and their products were directly sequenced. In the absence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, the gene was considered as unique. Then, the same PCR reaction was performed on genomic DNAs of eight inbred lines to isolate allelic variants to be compared. The eight selected genes encode a dehydrin, a heat shock protein, a non-specific lipid transfer protein, a z-carotene desaturase, a drought-responsive-element-binding protein, a NAC-domain transcription regulator, an auxin-binding protein, and an ABA responsive-C5 protein. Nucleotide diversity per synonymous and non-synonymous sites was calculated for each gene sequence. The π (a)/π (s) ratio range was usually very low, indicating strong purifying selection, though with locus-to-locus differences. As far as non-coding regions, the intron showed a larger variability than the other regions only in the case of the dehydrin gene. In the other genes tested, in which one or more introns occur, variability in the introns was similar or even lower than in the other regions. On the contrary, 3'-UTRs were usually more variable than the coding regions. Linkage disequilibrium in the selected genes decayed on average within 1,000 bp, with large variation among genes. A pairwise comparison between genetic distances calculated on the eight genes and the difference in RWC showed a significant correlation in the first phases of drought stress. The results are discussed in relation to the function of analysed genes, i.e. involved in gene regulation and signal

  17. A sunflower WRKY transcription factor stimulates the mobilization of seed-stored reserves during germination and post-germination growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineri, Jesica; Hartman, Matías D; Chan, Raquel L; Iglesias, Alberto A; Ribichich, Karina F

    2016-09-01

    The sunflower transcription factor HaWRKY10 stimulates reserves mobilization in Arabidopsis. Gene expression and enzymes activity assays indicated that lipolysis and gluconeogenesis were increased. Microarray results suggested a parallelism in sunflower. Germinating oilseeds converts stored lipids into sugars, and thereafter in metabolic energy that is used in seedling growth and establishment. During germination, the induced lipolysis linked to the glyoxylate pathway and gluconeogenesis produces sucrose, which is then transported to the embryo and driven through catabolic routes. Herein, we report that the sunflower transcription factor HaWRKY10 regulates carbon partitioning by reducing carbohydrate catabolism and increasing lipolysis and gluconeogenesis. HaWRKY10 was regulated by abscisic acid and gibberellins in the embryo leaves 48 h after seed imbibition and highly expressed during sunflower seed germination and seedling growth, concomitantly with lipid mobilization. Sunflower leaf disks overexpressing HaWRKY10 showed repressed expression of genes related to sucrose cleavage and glycolysis compared with controls. Moreover, HaWRKY10 constitutive expression in Arabidopsis seeds produced higher decrease in lipid reserves, whereas starch and sucrose were more preserved compared with wild type. Gene transcripts abundance and enzyme activities involved in stored lipid mobilization and gluconeogenesis increased more in transgenic than in wild type seeds 36 h after imbibition, whereas the negative regulator of lipid mobilization, ABI4, was repressed. Altogether, the results point out a functional parallelism between tissues and plant species, and reveal HaWRKY10 as a positive regulator of storage reserve mobilization in sunflower.

  18. Genetics and mapping of the R11 gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes a 20% yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in Nor...

  19. Biological seed priming mitigates the effects of water stress in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narsingh Bahadur; Singh, Deepmala; Singh, Amit

    2015-04-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. PAC 36) seedlings were inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), viz. Azotobacter chroococcum (A+), Bacillus polymyxa (B+), separately and in combination of the two (AB+). Relative water content and seedling growth were maximum in AB+ seedlings under control. Water stress significantly decreased the RWC, growth and dry mass of non-inoculated seedlings. However, inoculated seedlings maintained higher growth even under water stress. Pigments and protein contents decreased under water stress, but higher amount of the same was observed in stressed AB+ seedlings. Enhanced activity of nitrate reductase was recorded in AB+ seedlings with maximum in control. Water stress significantly decreased the nitrate reductase activity. A significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in leaves was recorded under water stress except in B+ with maximum increase in non-inoculated seedlings. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased in stressed non-inoculated seedlings while increased in the leaves of A+ and AB+ seedlings. Almost similar trends were recorded for both leaves and cotyledons. PGPR improved the water status in stressed seedlings and thereby physiological and biochemical parameters and thus ameliorated the severe effects of water stress.

  20. Hazards of imidacloprid seed coating to Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when applied to sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasei, J N; Ripault, G; Rivault, E

    2001-06-01

    Seed coating treatments of sunflower by the systemic insecticide imidacloprid was suspected of affecting honey bees and bumblebees. The hypothesis raised was whether imidacloprid could migrate into nectar and pollen, then modify flower attractiveness, homing behavior, and colony development. Our greenhouse and field experiments with Bombus terrestris L. were aimed at the following: the behavior of workers foraging on treated and control plants blooming in a greenhouse, the homing rate of colonies placed for 9 d in a treated field compared with colonies in a control field, and the development of these 20 colonies under laboratory conditions when removed from the fields. In the greenhouse, workers visited blooming heads of treated and control plants at the same rate and the mean duration of their visits was similar. In field colonies, analysis of pollen in hairs and pellets of workers showed that in both fields 98% of nectar foragers visited exclusively sunflowers, whereas only 25% of pollen gatherers collected sunflower pollen. After 9 d, in the control and treated field, 23 and 33% of the marked foragers, respectively, did not return to hives. In both fields, workers significantly drifted from the center to the sides of colony rows. During the 26-d period under field and laboratory conditions, the population increase rate of the 20 colonies was 3.3 and 3.0 workers/d in hives of the control and treated field, respectively. This difference was not significant. New queens were produced in eight colonies in either field. The mean number of new queens per hive was 17 and 24 in the control and treated field, respectively. Their mating rate was the same. It was concluded that applying imidacloprid at the registered dose, as a seed coating of sunflowers cultivated in greenhouse or in field, did not significantly affect the foraging and homing behavior of B. terestris and its colony development.

  1. TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, L. EMERGENCE, YIELD, QUALITY, AND FUEL CONSUMPTION IN DOUBLE CROPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH SESSIZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between crop growing and soil tillage treatment are play important role in agricultural production. Soils under conventional tillage (CT generally have lower bulk density and associated higher total porosity within the plough layer than under no tillage (NT. No-till farming can reduce soil erosion, conserve soil moisture and minimize labor and fuel consumption. The aim of this study were to investigate the effects of conventional, reduced and notillage methods on soil physical properties, sunfl ower yield and yield components, protein and oil content and fuel consumption in Southeastern of Turkey. Six tillage methods for the second crop sunfl ower were tested and compared each other within after lentil harvesting at 2003 and 2004 years in a clay loam soil. According to results, the fi rst year, the bulk density had decreased from 1.29 to 1.09 g cm-3, the second year the δb had decreased from 1.41 to 1.23 g cm-3. Differences between years and tillage methods in terms of yield were found signifi cant (p<0.05. However, no differences were found between the NT and CT. There were also no signifi cance differences in content of protein, oil and ash among six tillage methods. The highest fuel consumption was measured in conventional method (CT whereas the lowest value was found in direct seeding method as 33.48 L ha-1 and 6.6 L ha-1, respectively.

  2. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  3. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  4. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sunflower seed oil residue via microwave assisted K2CO3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2011-10-01

    Sunflower seed oil residue, a by-product of sunflower seed oil refining, was utilized as a feedstock for preparation of activated carbon (SSHAC) via microwave induced K(2)CO(3) chemical activation. SSHAC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and elemental analysis. Surface acidity/basicity was examined with acid-base titration, while the adsorptive properties of SSHAC were quantified using methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 15 (AB). The monolayer adsorption capacities of MB and AB were 473.44 and 430.37 mg/g, while the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, Langmuir surface area and total pore volume were 1411.55 m(2)/g, 2137.72 m(2)/g and 0.836 cm(3)/g, respectively. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high surface area activated carbon from sunflower seed oil residue by microwave irradiation.

  5. Solution structure of a methionine-rich 2S albumin from sunflower seeds: relationship to its allergenic and emulsifying properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Shewry, Peter R; Bruix, Marta; Tatham, Arthur S; Santoro, Jorge; Rico, Manuel

    2004-06-01

    The three-dimensional structure in aqueous solution of SFA-8, a 2S albumin 103-residue protein from seeds of sunflower (Helianthus anuus L.), has been determined by NMR methods. An almost complete (1)H resonance assignment was accomplished from analysis of two-dimensional (2D) COSY and 2D TOCSY spectra, and the structure was computed by using restrained molecular dynamics on the basis of 1393 upper limit distance constraints derived from NOE cross-correlation intensities measured in 2D NOESY spectra. In contrast with most other 2S albumins, SFA-8 consists of a single polypeptide chain without any cleavage in the segment of residues 30-46. The computed structures exhibited an rmsd radius of 0.52 A for the backbone structural core (residues 11-30 and 46-101) and 1.01 A for the side chain heavy atoms. The resulting structure consists of five amphipathic helices arranged in a right-handed superhelix, a folding motif first observed in nonspecific lipid transfer (nsLTP) proteins, and common to other 2S albumins. In contrast to nsLTP proteins, neither SFA-8 nor RicC3 (a 2S albumin from castor bean) has an internal cavity that is able to host a lipid molecule, which results from an exchange in the pairing of disulfide bridges in the CXC segment. Both 2S albumins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins belong to the prolamin superfamily, which includes a number of important food allergens. Differences in the extension and solvent exposition of the so-called "hypervariable loop" (which connects helices III and IV) in SFA-8 and RicC3 may be responsible for the different allergenic properties of the two proteins. SFA-8 has been shown to form highly stable emulsions with oil/water mixtures. We propose that these properties may be determined partly by a hydrophobic patch at the surface of the protein which consists of five methionines that partially hide the Trp76 residue. The flexibility of the loop which contains Trp76 and the hydrophobicity of the whole environment may favor

  6. Deformation Curve Characteristics of Rapeseeds and Sunflower Seeds Under Compression Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divišová M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deformation curve characteristics of rapeseeds and sunflower seeds compressed using the equipment ZDM 50-2313/56/18 and varying vessel diameters (40, 60, 80, and 100 mm were investigated. Maximum compressive force of 100 kN was applied on bulk oilseeds of rape and sunflower of measured height 20-80 mm and deformed at a speed of 60 mm∙min-1. The compression test using the vessel diameters of 40 and 60 mm showed a serration effect while the vessel diameters of 80 and 100 mm indicated an increasing function effect on the force-deformation characteristic curves. Clearly, the increasing function effect described the region with oil flow and that of serration effect described the region without any oil flow. However, it was observed that the serration effect could be due to the higher compressive stress inside the smaller vessel diameters (40 and 60 mm compared to those with bigger vessel diameters (80 and 100 mm. Parameters such as deformation, deformation energy, and energy density were determined from the force-deformation curves dependency showing both increasing function and serration effect. The findings of the study provide useful information for the determination of specific compressive force and energy requirements for extracting maximum oil from oilseed crops such as rape and sunflower.

  7. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Martín, I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the classification of sunflower seeds with high or low oleic acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation.

    En este trabajo se evalúa la espectroscopía de infrarrojo cercano para su uso en el control de calidad y almacenamiento de semillas de girasol. Los resultados indican que el método analítico empleado puede utilizarse como método de determinación rápida de humedad, grasa y contenidos altos/bajos de ácido oleico. Los rangos de aplicación son comparables con los valores que se han determinado mediante métodos clásicos de análisis, encontrándose entre 4.6-21.4% la humedad, 38.4-49.6% la grasa y 60.0- 93.1% de ácido oleico del total de los ácidos grasos. Además se ha utilizado un análisis discriminarte lineal por pasos determinando las longitudes de onda más adecuadas para la clasificación de semillas de girasol en los grupos alto/bajo oleico. El modelo generado permitió la clasificación de semillas de girasol en los grupos alto y bajo oleico con unos porcentajes de muestras correctamente clasificadas de un 90.5% en validación interna y de un 89.4% en

  8. Effect of hybrid, storage conditions and seed protection on sunflower field emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed emergence under field conditions decisively and directly determines the number of plants per hectare, which is one of three basic components of yield in the plant world. Influence of chemical treatment on field emergence of three commercial sunflower hybrids stored in different conditions was tested in 2007 and 2008 on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. On average, hybrid H1 had the highest value of field emergence (88.79% and for chemical treatment fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (87.71%. Seed kept in common storage had the highest emergence value in fi eld (87.92%. Seed treated with fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid and stored for one year in common storage had the highest field emergence (90.18%. Considering interaction between storage conditions and genotype, hybrid H1 seed sown after chemical treatment had the highest field emergence (91.82% and seed kept in common storage (90.48%. Hybrid H1 seed compared with other two had the highest field emergence treated with fludioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (91.84%.

  9. Map saturation and SNP marker development for the rust resistance genes (R4, R5, R13a, and R13b) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower rust, which is incited by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein., is the most common disease in Australia, Argentina, South Africa, and North America. Three independent genes, R5, R4, and R13 with two alleles R13a and R13b, were discovered in sunflower and are promising sources of resistan...

  10. Performance of some sunflower genotypes grown under dry weather conditions in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Tahsin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on yield and agricultural performance of new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrids grown under dry weather conditions in South Bulgaria is limited. The objectives of this field study is to acquire information on seed yield and other agricultural characteristics of five sunflower hybrids and their parental lines in South Bulgaria. This research was carried out on the Experimental farm at the Agricultural University in Plovdiv, Bulgaria in the seasons of 2008 and 2009. Statistical analysis revealed that the differences among genotypes for all studied characters were significant in both seasons as well as in the combined one.

  11. Evaluating perennial sunflower for wildlife and food uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to use current genetics and plant breeding techniques to introgress genes for perennial habit from Helianthus tuberosus L. (2n=6x=102) into domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=2x=34). H. tuberosusis part of the secondary gene pool of sunflower and has b...

  12. Energy utilisation of biowaste - Sunflower-seed hulls for co-firing with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raclavska, Helena; Juchelkova, Dagmar; Roubicek, Vaclav; Matysek, Dalibor [VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, CZ-70833 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    Sunflower-seed hulls (SSH) represent a source of combustible biomass characterised by high contents of potassium and phosphorus and a low silica content. The relatively high net calorific value of 20 MJ/kg d.m. is mainly influenced by the lignin content. Potassium and phosphorus are very important elements in biomass combustion for fuel, influencing slagging and fouling problems. Mixtures with different ratios of brown coal and sunflower-seed hulls (0-22% SSH) were co-fired in the Olomouc power plant. The behaviour of elements in the fly ash and the bottom ash (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Zn, Cu and Cd) varied in relation to the amount of SSH added to the coal. The fly ash from the co-firing of 20% SSH with coal had a high content of water-leachable sulphates and total dissolved solids. The utilisation of fly ash in civil engineering (land reclamation) should fulfil criteria established by the Council Decision 2003/33/EC for non-hazardous waste. To ensure that the required water-leachable sulphate concentrations are within regulatory limits the fuel may contain a maximum of 14% SSH. (author)

  13. Effect of seed quality on oxidative stability of cold-pressed sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the storage time, content of the husk and impurities in the seed mass on the oxidative stability of the cold pressed sunflower oil. The oxidative stability of oil was analyzed by the RSM (Response Surface Methodology, where the response value (output of the model was the content of oxidation products measured via specific absorbance at 232 nm for conjugated dienes and 270 nm for conjugated trienes. Analyses were performed on the fresh oil samples and oil samples tempered under the Schaal-Oven’s test conditions (96 h at 63±2ºC. It was concluded that the seed storage time had significant impact on the primary (A1%232nm and secondary (A1%270nm oil oxidation products, both before (b1-p<0,001; b1-p=0,021 and after (b1-p=0,048; b1-p=0,033 the heating of oil. The content of impurities and husks in the seeds used for pressing also had an influence of the conjugated dienes and trienes contents in both, fresh and heated oil samples. However, their impact was not statistically significant. Interaction of seed storage time, the content of impurities and husks also exert some effect on the values of these quality parameters in the fresh oil as well as in the oil after the heat treatment, even though their influence is not significant. The obtained results have shown that the cold pressed sunflower oil had a good oxidative stability at temperatures up to 63±2ºC.

  14. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassie B. Marvey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported.

  15. Effects of Saline and Sodic Stress on Yield and Fatty Acid Profile in Sunflower Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Tarantino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the objectives concerned in this research, much importance has been attached to the assessment of the influence of soil type, irrigation water quality and leaching requirement on the production and composition in fatty acids of sunflower oil. The trial was run in 2001 on a sunflower crop (cv. HS 90 grown in cylindrical pots at the Campus of Bari University (Italy. 36 treatments obtained from the factorial combination of two clay soils with nine types of brackish water and two leaching fractions (10 and 20% were compared. The nine types of irrigation water were obtained by dissolving the proper amounts of NaCl and CaCl2 in de-ionized water, according to the factorial combination of three salt concentration levels (0.01, 0.032 and 0.064 M with three sodium levels (SAR = 5, 15 and 45. At ripening the main yield traits, oil yield and acid composition of seeds were analysed. At the highest salinity level about 70% yield reduction, in terms of seeds per plant was observed. The oil yield and the final acid composition of seeds were significantly affected by soil type, leaching requirement, salinity and the SAR levels of irrigation water. A progressive decline in oil yield was recorded as the salt concentration and sodium level of irrigation solutions increased. As to the fatty acid composition, a gradual increase in oleic and linolenic acid content and a corresponding decrease in the other fatty acids were found as the salinity and sodium levels of irrigation water increased. The oleic/linoleic acid ratio too increased as the salinity increased. The salt and sodium-induced stresses of irrigation water reduced the seed and oil yields while still favouring a progressive increase in the oleic acid content and a slight decrease of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids, thus improving oil quality. The results point out both the influence of the soil and the positive effect of sodium and salt stress and of the leaching fraction on the food quality of

  16. Production responses by early lactation cows to whole sunflower seed or tallow supplementation of a diet based on barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, S B; Wittenberg, K M; Ingalls, J R; Undi, M

    1996-10-01

    A 2-yr study to evaluate the effectiveness of whole sunflower seed as a source of fat was conducted with 18 primiparous and 31 multiparous Holstein cows. The three diets evaluated were a basal diet based on barley (control), a basal diet supplemented with 2.7% tallow, and a basal diet supplemented with 7.1% whole sunflower seeds. The DMI of lactating cows during the 16-wk test period was not influenced by supplementation with either sunflower seeds or tallow. Milk production was 34.4, 34.6, and 35.5 kg/d for cows fed the control diet or the diets supplemented with sunflower or tallow, respectively, and was not influenced by diet. The production and concentrations of milk protein, fat, and SNF also were not influenced by diet. The concentrations of C6:0 to C14:1 fatty acids were highest in the milk of cows fed the control diet. The concentrations of C10:0 to C16:1 were higher when cows were fed the diet with the tallow supplement than when they were fed the diet with the sunflower supplement. However, the concentrations of C18:0 to C18:2 and C20:0 were higher in the milk of cows that were fed the sunflower supplement than in the milk of cows that were fed the tallow supplement or the control diet. Concentrations of individual VFA and the ratio of acetate to propionate were not influenced by diet. Body weight, body condition score, and reproduction parameters were similar for all diets, suggesting that there were no effects on subsequent production. The performance of cows fed whole sunflower seeds as a source of energy appeared to be similar to the performance of cows fed traditional high energy diets based on barley. The fatty acid profile of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds was more favorable than that of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with tallow.

  17. Shrinkage and growth compensation in common sunflowers: refining estimates of damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, James A.; Oldemeye, John L.; Swenson, Elizabeth L.

    1986-01-01

    Shrinkage and growth compensation of artificially damaged common sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) were studied in central North Dakota during 1981-1982 in an effort to increase accuracy of estimates of blackbird damage to sunflowers. In both years, as plants matured damaged areas on seedheads shrank at a greater rate than the sunflower heads themselves. This differential shrinkage resulted in an underestimation of the area damaged. Sunflower head and damaged-area shrinkage varied widely by time and degree of damage and by size of the seedhead damaged. Because variation in shrinkage by time of damage was so large, predicting when blackbird damage occurs may be the most important factor in estimating seed loss. Yield'occupied seed area was greater (P < 0.05) for damaged than undamaged heads and tended to increase as degree of damage inflicted increased, indicating growth compensation was occurring in response to lost seeds. Yields of undamaged seeds in seedheads damaged during early seed development were higher than those of heads damaged later. This suggested that there was a period of maximal response to damage when plants were best able to redirect growth to seeds remaining in the head. Sunflowers appear to be able to compensate for damage of ≤ 15% of the total hear area. Estimates of damage can be improved by applying empirical results of differential shrinkage and growth compensations.

  18. Allelopathic potential of Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) on the early growth of maize (Zea mays L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zvonko Pacanoski; Vesna Velkoska; tefan; Tom Vere

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and glasshouse experiments were carried out to investigate the allelopathic potential of different plant parts of D. stramonium on maize and sunflower on early growth stages. The aqueous leachates of D. stramonium roots and shoot did not produc a significant effect on germination and shoot length of maize, but root length of maize was significantly reduced at the highest (1/1) D. stramonium roots leachate compared to control. From the other side, germination of sunflower was signif...

  19. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  20. Enhancing oxidative stability of sunflower oil during convective and microwave heating using grape seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  1. Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ≥100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation.

  2. Allelopathic potential of Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. on the early growth of maize (Zea mays L. and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and glasshouse experiments were carried out to investigate the allelopathic potential of different plant parts of D. stramonium on maize and sunflower on early growth stages. The aqueous leachates of D. stramonium roots and shoot did not produc a significant effect on germination and shoot length of maize, but root length of maize was significantly reduced at the highest (1/1 D. stramonium roots leachate compared to control. From the other side, germination of sunflower was significantly reduced at the highest (1/1 D. stramonium shoot leachate concentration, but lower (1/5 and 1/2 D. stramonium roots leachate concentrations significantly increased root and shoot length of sunflower compared to control. In glasshouse experiment, no one treatment with different D. stramonium plant residues significantly affected density, height and fresh weight of maize plants compared to control. Contrary, D. stramonium mixtures with 1/1 root and shoot residues significantly reduced plants density and fresh weight of sunflower plants compared to control. Lower (1/2 and 1/5 mixtures of D. stramonium roots residues and mixture with 1/5 D. stramonium shoot residues significantly increased the height of the sunflower plants.

  3. Quality characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork fat replaced by sunflower seed oils and dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Park, Kwaon-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Min-Sung; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-03-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20% by partially substituting pork fat with a mix of sunflower seed oil (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) and makgeolli lees fiber (2%) were investigated based on physicochemical properties, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters. The moisture and ash content, and lightness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurter samples containing sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber than in the control. The results showed that reduced-fat frankfurter samples with higher sunflower seed oil levels had lower redness and yellowness values, as well as less cooking loss, emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that incorporating sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber into the formulation successfully reduced animal fat in frankfurters, while improving quality characteristics.

  4. Analytical importance of determination of lipase activity for the express analysis of contamination by heavy metals of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Dyachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades becoming more sharply there is a problem of chemical and environmental monitoring and industrial inspection the content of toxic elements in food raw materials and foodstuff. At the same time there is a need to develop rapid methods, informative, integral, reflecting not only the safety but also the ecological purity of food raw materials. The method of determination of content of toxic elements on activity of its own lipase of in situ (AОL-method in seeds of oil-bearing crops, on the example of sunflower is offered. The system of mathematical assessment of analytical criteria of laboratory test used in clinical laboratory diagnostics was for this purpose adapted. Sunflower seeds in which established the maintenance of toxiferous elements served as an object of a research: Cd, Pb, As, Hg, by atomic absorption method on the KVANT-Z.ETA device. Further tests divided on clear, including high-quality and pollution-free, and polluted - naturally containing toxiferous elements and which are artificially contaminated. Definition of activity of a lipase of seeds was carried out by the standard titrimetric method. Decrease of the activity of enzyme was connected with the maintenance of toxiferous elements. Proceeding from the received results counted an analytical significance (sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of descriptiveness the positive and negative results of determination of level of maintenance of toxiferous elements in sunflower seeds by the AОL-method. The set values of analytical specificity of a method and predictive value of a positive take at the level of 77.3% and 71.4% respectively, do not allow to use the offered method for the quantitative analysis, however, analytical sensitivity at the level of 86.2% and the predictive value of the negative result at the level of 89.5%, allow to recommend the AOL-method for screening programs of chemical environmental monitoring and technological monitoring of a

  5. ISOLATION OF ENT-KAUR-16-EN-19-OIC AND ENT-TRACHILOBAN-19-OIC ACIDS FROM THE SUNFLOWER HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.DRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicon Ungur

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple method for isolation of the mixture of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic (1 and ent-trachiloban-19-oic (2 acids from dry waste of sunflower processing has been elaborated, and it has been shown that the waste can serve as an accessible source of ent-kauranic and ent-trachilobanic diterpenoids.

  6. Evaluation of suitability of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. in phytoextraction of nickel from contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bosiacki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine the suitability of sunflower (He­lianthus annuus L. ‘Choco Sun’ and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. ‘Sanguineus Apache’ to phytoextraction of nickel from the soil, as well as evaluation of the tolerance of these species to the increasing concentration of the metal. Potential for phytoextraction of ornamental plants has been studied in two years, pot experiment in the plastic greenhouse when they were grown in mineral soil (which was slightly loamy sand with four levels of nickel: control (native nickel content, 50 mg·dm-3 – increased content, 75 mg·dm-3 – low contamination, and 150 mg·dm-3 – medium contamination. Both species of ornamental plants were tolerant to applied concentrations of nickel, with the exception of sunflower grown in medium contaminated soil by this metal. Sunflower and castor bean are not nickel hyperaccumulators. Assessing their potential for nickel phytoextraction from the soil, it was found that it is not significant. Castor bean produces a greater aboveground mass and as a result uptake of nickel is greater compared to sunflower.

  7. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  8. Uptake and Distribution of 133 Cs and 88 Sr in sunflower(Helianthus annuus L.)%向日葵(Helianthus annuus L.)对133 Cs、88 Sr的吸收和分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻方平; 王丹; 徐长合; 徐凤亭; 张志伟; 张晓雪

    2009-01-01

    在向日葵体内的分布与目前对放射性137 Cs和90 Sr的研究结果相似,所以133Cs和88Sr可分别预测137 Cs和90 Sr的运转.向日葵是治理大面积低放核素污染土壤的较佳植物种类.%Sr.133 Cs and 88Sr could be useful to understand and predict the long-term movements of 137 Cs and 90 Sr,respectively.Sunflower is the acceptable plants for phytoremediation to the low-level radioactive soil.

  9. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research.

  10. Registration of a male fertility restorer oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-R9 resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm HA-R9 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 667595) was developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the Agricultural Experiment Station of North Dakota State University and released in January, 2013. Sunflower rust (caused by P...

  11. [Study on the determination of 28 inorganic elements in sunflower seeds by ICP-OES/ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Qin, Zong-Hui; Xie, Hua-Lin; Cao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes a simple method for the determination of trace elements in sunflower seeds by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS). HNO3 + H2O2 were used to achieve the complete decomposition of the organic matrix in a closed-vessel microwave oven. The contents of 10 trace elements (Al, B, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, P and S) in sunflower seeds were determined by ICP-OES while 18 trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Sn, Sb, Ti, V and Zn) were determined by ICP-MS. The rice reference material (GBW10045) was used as standard reference materials. The results showed a good agreement between measured and certified values for all analytes. The concentrations of necessary micro elements Ca, K, Mg, P and S were higher. This method was simple, sensitive and precise and can perform simultaneous multi-elements determination of sunflower seeds.

  12. Agaricus blazei production on non-composted substrates based on sunflower seed hulls and spent oyster mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Matute, R; Figlas, D; Curvetto, N

    2011-06-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is usually cultivated using the same biphasic composting method employed for A. bisporus. Because cultivation of A. blazei on traditional A. bisporus composts poses some disadvantages, non-composted substrates were studied for A. blazei cultivation. Mycelial growth rate and productive performance of A. blazei were evaluated on substrates containing sunflower seed hulls, Pleurotus spp. spent mushroom substrate, or their combination, in the absence or in the presence of different supplements (vermicompost, peat or brewery residues). Substrates were prepared by initially soaking them and then they were sterilized (1 atm for 120 min). In addition, each substrate's degradation was measured after cultivation by obtaining the lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, organic matter, total fiber, ash, carbon and nitrogen contents before spawn-run and at the end of two flushes of A. blazei. The cultivation of A. blazei on non-composted substrates is possible and with a low rate of contamination when using the spent mushroom substrate as the main component or combined 50:50 with sunflower seed hulls. In addition, the best yields were obtained on those substrates containing spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate with supplements and those mixtures with sunflower seed hulls and vermicompost. These yields were similar to those reported on composted substrates. Substrate changes in composition measured at the end of two flushes indicate that the lignin-hemicellulose fraction was preferentially used and that the substrates exhibiting the best yield showed greater biodegradation of lignin-hemicellulose fraction than the others did.

  13. Protection of sunflower seed and sunflower meal protein with malic acid and heat: effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Jorge Leonardo; Carro, Maria Dolores; Alvir, Maria Remedios; González, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Combined malic acid-heat treatments of protein supplements have been shown to reduce ruminal protein degradation, but there is no information on their possible influence on ruminal fermentation and methane emissions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the treatment of sunflower meal (SM) and sunflower seed (SS) with malic acid and subsequent drying at 150°C for 1 (MAL1) or 3 h (MAL3) on in vitro rumen fermentation and methane emission using ruminal fluid from sheep as inoculum. Compared with untreated samples, the MAL3 treatment reduced (P 0.05) total volatile fatty acid production for any feed. This treatment also increased (P production (by 15.5% and 11.3%, respectively) and ammonia-N concentrations (by 26.5% and 14.5%, respectively). The MAL1 treatment was effective in reducing both ammonia-N concentrations and methane emissions without depressing SS and SM fermentation, but more research is needed to formulate environmentally cleaner diets for ruminants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Nutritive value of full-fat sunflower seeds in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, R K; Purushothaman, M R

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive value and inclusion level of sunflower seed (SFS) in broiler diets. SFS contained 38.7% ether extract (EE), 16.9% CP, 14.9% crude fiber (CF), 3.5% ash, 0.57% lysine, and 0.46% methionine (89.2% DM basis). The AME (kcal/ kg) content of SFS in roosters was 5,225 and in broilers at 4, 18, and 35 d of age was 3,493, 5,132, and 5,162, respectively. The CP, EE, and CF digestibilities were 80.4, 71.2, and 11.4%, respectively. In an isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet containing SFS at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%, SFS up to 20% did not affect weight gain and feed consumption, but the feed conversion ratio was improved (P density lipoprotein cholesterol content, muscle cholesterol content, dressing percentage, liver weight, and giblet weight (as % live weight) were comparable among all treatment groups. Abdominal fat was increased in birds fed 20% SFS. Percentage skin was decreased in broilers fed > or = 10% SFS.

  15. Characterization of the emulsification properties of 2S albumins from sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Gary R; Rigby, Neil M; Mills, E N Clare; Belton, Peter S; Fido, Roger J; Tatham, Arthur S; Shewry, Peter R

    2002-03-01

    The ability of 2S albumins from sunflower seeds to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions has been investigated, demonstrating that one of the proteins (SFA8) effectively stabilizes emulsions, while another (SF-LTP) does not stabilize emulsions. The surface tension and surface dilation viscosity of these two proteins were measured, rationalizing the emulsifying ability of SFA8 in terms of its ability to form a strongly elastic monolayer at interfaces. The secondary structure changes that occur upon adsorption of SFA8 to the oil/water interface have also been studied by fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. It was found that the beta-sheet content of the protein increased upon adsorption at the expense of alpha-helix and random structure. Moreover, FT-IR measurements indicate the presence of intermolecular beta-sheet formation upon adsorption. Fluorescence studies with an oil-soluble fluorescence quencher indicate that the single tryptophan residue present in SFA8 may become located in the oil-phase of the emulsion. This residue is thought to be partially buried in the native protein, and these data suggest that changes in the polypeptide region flanking this residue may play an important role in the molecular rearrangement that occur on or following adsorption to the oil/water interface.

  16. Silos experimentais para avaliação da silagem de três genótipos de girassol (Helianthus annuus L. Evaluation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. silage of three genotypes as affected by experimental silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.R. Pereira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Três tipos de silos experimentais foram utilizados para a avaliação das silagens de três genótipos de girassol: A silo padrão com válvula de Bunsen; B silo dotado de compartimento para efluentes e C silo com válvula de Bunsen e compartimento para efluentes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3×3 (genótipos × tipos de silos com três repetições. As características avaliadas foram: matéria seca (MS, densidade, proteína bruta (PB, nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3/N-T, pH, carboidratos solúveis (CHO, ácidos orgânicos, constituintes da parede celular, extrato etéreo (EE e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. As silagens obtidas nos silos B e C apresentaram os maiores valores de MS e menores de NH3/N-T. Os valores de pH se equivaleram nos três tipos de silos, enquanto os teores de CHO foram menores para as silagens obtidas nos silos B e C. Os silos dotados de compartimento para efluentes apresentaram os maiores valores de ácido láctico. As frações fibrosas, EE e DIVMS não sofreram influência dos tipos de silos. A presença ou ausência da válvula de Bunsen não influenciou os parâmetros avaliados. A presença do compartimento para efluentes afetou a qualidade e o valor nutritivo da silagem de girassol.A completely randomized design in a 3×3 factorial scheme was used to evaluate the effect of three genotypes and three types of silos on sunflower silage. The silos were: A- silo with Bunsen valve; B- silo with effluent-collecting equipment; and C- silo with both Bunsen valve and effluent-collecting equipment. The parameters evaluated were: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3/T-N, pH, soluble carbohydrates (CHO, organic acids, cell wall constituents, ether extract and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. The silage from silos B and C had higher values of DM and lower levels of N-NH3/T-N. The pH value was the same for all silos, while the CHO was the

  17. Germination energy as a parameter of seed quality in different sunflower genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the standard method, we studied the germination energy of seed of seven different sunflower genotypes (five hybrids and two cytoplasmically male sterile female lines developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The seed was treated with the fungicides benomil, metalaxyl and fludioxonil and the insecticides thiamethoxam and imidacloprid and kept for a year in a storage facility. Analysis of variance showed that there were highly significant differences among the genotypes, chemical treatments, and storage periods. Highly significant differences were also recorded for all the interactions among the factors studied. On average, the highest germination energy was found in the hybrid H2 (93.45%, whose values of this parameter were highly significantly higher than those of the rest of the genotypes, except for the hybrid H1. Also, each of the hybrids had highly significantly higher germination energy than either of the two lines, and the differences among the hybrids themselves were highly significant. Looking at the chemical treatments, the control had the highest germination energy by a highly significant margin (80.39%. The largest difference was observed in relation to the treatments with insecticides (5.48 and 9.56%. These treatments had highly significantly lower values of germination energy than those involving fungicides. Germination energy increased in the first nine months of storage, peaking at 81.29%. After that, there was a sharp drop to 68.94% after 12 months of storing. Differences among the different storage periods were all highly significant except for that between six and nine months of storage, which was not statistically significant.

  18. [Polymorphism among RFL-PPR homologs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines with varying ability for the suppression of the cytoplasmic male sterility phenotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, I N; Alpatieva, N V; Rozhkova, V T; Kuznetsova, E B; Pinaev, A G; Gavrilova, V A

    2014-07-01

    A complex comparative genetic approach was used for the investigation of the structural and functional diversity of genes for the restoration of sunflower pollen fertility. It includes (i) hybridological analysis; (ii) analysis of polymorphism among EST fragments.homologous to the known Rf genes that contain repeated motives of 35 amino acids (RFL-PPR); (iii) the development of molecular markers. Monogenic segregation in three interline cross combinations and the results of molecular marker analysis confirmed the allelic differences of parental lines in the Mendelian locus for CMS PET1 pollen fertility restoration. Introns were found in two RFL-PPR fragments. Two allelic variants of the QHL12D20 fragment were detected among the sixty lines of the sunflower genetic collection. An intron of QHL12D20 fragment was homologous to an intron of the AHBP-1B gene; the product of this gene-has a similarity with the transcription factor of the bZIP-family of Arabidopsis. A relationship between the QHL12D20 polymorphism and the functional state of the Rfl locus was revealed.

  19. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  20. Significance of cytogenetic research in sunflower and rapeseed breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atlagić Jovanka; Terzić Sreten; Marjanović-Jeromela Ana; Marinković Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetic research of sunflower and rapeseed has a century long tradition. Chromosome number and morphology were studied at first in species from the Helianthus and Brassica genera, and than their cytotaxonomy and phylogenesis...

  1. Genetic control of water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope discrimination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) subjected to two drought scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Muños, Stephane; Langlade, Nicolas B; Lamaze, Thierry; Grieu, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    High water use efficiency (WUE) can be achieved by coordination of biomass accumulation and water consumption. WUE is physiologically and genetically linked to carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in leaves of plants. A population of 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower derived from a cross between XRQ and PSC8 lines was studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling WUE and CID, and to compare QTL associated with these traits in different drought scenarios. We conducted greenhouse experiments in 2011 and 2012 by using 100 balances which provided a daily measurement of water transpired, and we determined WUE, CID, biomass and cumulative water transpired by plants. Wide phenotypic variability, significant genotypic effects, and significant negative correlations between WUE and CID were observed in both experiments. A total of nine QTL controlling WUE and eight controlling CID were identified across the two experiments. A QTL for phenotypic response controlling WUE and CID was also significantly identified. The QTL for WUE were specific to the drought scenarios, whereas the QTL for CID were independent of the drought scenarios and could be found in all the experiments. Our results showed that the stable genomic regions controlling CID were located on the linkage groups 06 and 13 (LG06 and LG13). Three QTL for CID were co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. We found that CID and WUE are highly correlated and have common genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic control of these traits showed an interaction with the environment (between the two drought scenarios and control conditions). Our results open a way for breeding higher WUE by using CID and marker-assisted approaches and therefore help to maintain the stability of sunflower crop production.

  2. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  3. Tocopherols and phytosterols in sunflower seeds for the human food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Cuesta, A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seeds for the human food market are derived from both oilseed-type cultivars, with black achenes and low hull proportion, and confectionery-type cultivars, with striped achenes and high hull proportion. The objective of this research was to evaluate tocopherol and phytosterol contents in the seeds of both types of cultivars. Five oilseed-type and seven confectionery-type cultivars were evaluated in replicated field trials in two locations of Morocco and Spain. Large variations were found in hundred-kernel weight (2.6 to 5.5 g, kernel oil content (42.7 to 67.5%, tocopherol content (203 to 397 mg kg–1 kernel, and phytosterol content (2179 to 3555 mg kg–1 kernel. Both types of cultivars did not differ for kernel weight, kernel oil content, or tocopherol and phytosterol profiles. However, oilseed-type cultivars had significantly greater average tocopherol and phytosterol contents, though confectionery-type cultivars with levels of tocopherols and phytosterols similar to the best oilseed-type cultivars were identified. The large variations in kernel tocopherol and phytosterol contents found in this research suggest that there is room for breeding for increased levels of these compounds in order to develop healthier sunflower cultivars for the human food market.

    Las semillas de girasol para consumo directo proceden tanto de cultivares oleaginosos, con aquenios negros y baja proporción de cáscara, como de cultivares de consumo directo, con aquenios de colores claros o rayados y elevada proporción de cáscara. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el contenido en tocoferoles y fitoesteroles en semillas de ambos tipos de cultivares. Se evaluaron cinco cultivares oleaginosos y siete cultivares de consumo directo en ensayos de campo replicados en dos localidades de Marruecos y España. Se identificó gran variación para peso de 100 semillas (aquenios descascarillados; 2.6 a 5.5 g, contenido en aceite en la

  4. Effects of dietary flax seed and sunflower seed supplementation on normal canine serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and skin and hair coat condition scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, C A; Bauer, J E; Burkholder, W J; Kennis, R A; Dunbar, B L; Bigley, K E

    2001-04-01

    This prospective study involved supplementing 18 normal dogs with flax seed (FLX) and sunflower seed (SUN) and evaluating their effects on skin and hair coat condition scores and serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations. Skin and hair coat were evaluated in a double-blinded fashion using a numeric scoring system and serum PUFA concentrations were determined. Our hypothesis was that changes in serum PUFA concentrations are associated with improvements in skin and hair coat and that serum PUFA would provide an objective method for making dietary fatty acid supplement recommendations. Although a numerical improvement was found in hair coat quality in both groups, this improvement was not sustained beyond 28 days. The relative per cent of 18:3n-3 concentrations in serum phospholipids increased in the FLX treated dogs but these concentrations remained unchanged in the SUN treated dogs. Also, elevations in relative per cent of 18:2n-6 concentrations in serum phospholipids were seen in the FLX group. The ratio of serum polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids also showed a transient increase. These increases preceded the peak skin condition score peak value by approximately 14 days. It was concluded that a 1-month supplementation with either flax seed or sunflower seed in dogs provides temporary improvement in skin and hair coat. These changes appeared to be associated with increased serum 18 carbon PUFA.

  5. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Morsy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5 fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA, and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017 ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001 and acetate (p = 0.034 concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013 in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007 and milk fat content (p = 0.002. Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048 and feed efficiency (p = 0.046 compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05 milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021 C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3, without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  6. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  7. The Influence of Increased Moisture on the Velocity of Drying, Dynamic Properties and Fluidization of Sunflower Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Krička

    1998-09-01

    The results of the research have shown a decrease in the volume of sunflower seed which can be expressed as ?V = 15.98%, with the minimum reduction of 8.91% and the maximum one of 22.90%. As a result of this, the pressure drops in the dryer varied a lot, from 300 to 400 Pa; in other words, the velocity of airflow during the period of fluidization differed from 1.61 m/s to 2.96 m/s.

  8. Impact of irrigation on larval density of stem-infesting pests of cultivated sunflower in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Meyer, Ron F; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa

    2007-10-01

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers, chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The incidence of a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also has increased. Experiments were conducted in Kansas during 2000-2001 to investigate the effect of irrigation timing and intensity on densities of C. adspersus, D. texanus, and P. womonana larvae within cultivated sunflower stalks. Supplemental soil moisture provided by irrigation during the growing season increased both seed yield and oil content, and it reduced insect densities of the sunflower stem weevil and P. womonana in the sunflower stalk. Results showed that ensuring adequate moisture during the growing season can assist in reducing stem-infesting insect densities, revealing an additional advantage of crop irrigation beyond improved sunflower productivity.

  9. HS-SPME-GC-MS分析冷榨和热榨葵花籽油的挥发性物质%Volatile compounds in cold-pressed sunflower seed oil and hot-pressed sunflower seed oil by HS-SPME-GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪振童; 陈洁; 范璐; 刘国琴

    2015-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法( HS-SPME-GC-MS)对冷榨葵花籽油和不同炒籽温度下的热榨葵花籽油的挥发性物质进行分析。结果表明:葵花籽油样品中共检测出59种挥发性物质,主要是萜烯类、醛酮类、烷烃类、杂环类及羧酸类物质;冷榨葵花籽油的挥发性物质主要是萜烯类、烷烃类及醛酮类物质,含量分别为38.96%、16.19%和12.20%;炒籽温度110、130、150℃下的热榨葵花籽油的主要挥发性物质的种类与冷榨葵花籽油的相似,但含量有很大区别,而170℃和190℃下的热榨葵花籽油的主要挥发性物质是吡嗪等杂环类物质和醛酮类物质。%The volatile compounds in cold-pressed sunflower see d oil and hot-pressed sunflower seed oils from sunflower seeds cooked at different temperatures were analyzed by headspace solid phase micro-extraction - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( HS - SPME - GC - MS ) . The results showed that 59 volatile compounds were detected in sunflower seed oils samples, which mainly were ter-penes, ketones and aldehydes, alkanes, heterocyclic and carboxylic acids. Terpenes, alkanes and ke-tones and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds in cold -pressed sunflower seed oil, and their contents were 38 . 96%, 16 . 19% and 12 . 20% respectively; the kinds of volatile compounds in hot-pressed sunflower seed oils from sunflower seeds cooked at 110 , 130℃ and 150℃ were similar to that in cold-pressed sunflower seed oil, while the contents were very different;the main volatile compounds in hot-pressed sunflower seed oils from sunflower seeds cooked at 170℃ and 190℃ were pyrazines, alde-hydes and ketones.

  10. Influence of substituting dietary soybean for air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal on egg production and steroid hormones in early-phase laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Nahashon, S N; Introna, M; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-02-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least-cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air-classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20-week-old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air-classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air-classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p hormones levels were affected by dietary treatment (p < 0.01). From our findings, it could be effective to include air-classified SFM in early-phase laying hen diets as an alternative protein source substituting SBM, without negative influence on productive performance and egg traits, reducing also the production costs.

  11. A quantitative approach for Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn through laser ablation imaging for evaluating the translocation and accumulation of metals in sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Gustavo de S; Lopes Júnior, Cícero A; Madrid, Katherine C; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2017-05-15

    The uptake and accumulation of Cd in sunflower seeds represents an important pathway for imputing potentially toxic metals into human and animal food. In this way, bioimaging of Cd and micronutrients (Cu, Fe and Mn) in the seeds of sunflower grown in soil contaminated with Cd are performed. For this task, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is used in quantitative approach, considering four groups: precursor, control, Cd-low (50mg) and Cd-high (700mg). For attaining our proposals, ICP-MS (nebulizer and auxiliary flow rates and radiofrequency power) and LA (laser intensity, frequency and spot size) parameters were optimized, and the analytical signal improved to 197%, 217%, 232%, and 283%, for (57)Fe, (112)Cd, (55)Mn and (63)Cu, respectively. The accuracy of proposed method using LA-ICP-MS is evaluated comparing the CRM results (Tomato leaves, NIST SRM 1573a). No difference is found at 95% confidence level. Regarding Cd accumulation in sunflower seeds, the results indicated that cadmium is translocated to seeds, and the cotyledons showed the highest concentration (Cd-high group), ranging from 10 to 20µgg(-1). Considering both total concentration and the distribution in the seeds, Cd uptake is responsible to the homeostasis misbalance of micronutrients, which play an essential role in the sunflower metabolism. Such results highlight the importance of bioimaging evaluation, in the translocation and accumulation of metals, contributing to expand the information available of this culture.

  12. Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci for grain oil content and agronomic traits using AFLP and SSR in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, L; Gentzbittel, L; Azanza, F; Fitamant, L; Al-Chaarani, G; Sarrafi, A

    2002-12-01

    Crosses were made between two inbred lines of sunflower. Parents and 118 F(3) families were planted in the field in a randomized complete block design in two replications. Genetic control for some agronomical traits: grain weight by plant (GWP), 1,000-grain weight (TGW), percentage of oil in grain (POG) and sowing to flowering date (STF) was investigated in F(3) families and their parents. Genetic variability was observed among the 118 F(3) families for all the traits studied. Genetic gain was obtained when the best F(3) family, or the mean of 10% of the selected families was compared with the best parent for GWP, TWG and POG. Heritability was 0.23 for GWP, 0.55 for TGW, 0.57 for POG and 0.32 for STF. A set of 244 F(3) families from the same cross, including the above 118 mentioned families and their two parents, were screened with 276 AFLP and microsatellite markers and a linkage map was constructed based on 170 markers. Two putative QTLs for the GWP trait ( gmp), one QTL for TGW ( tgw), six QTLs for POG ( pog) and two for STF ( stf) were detected. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by each QTL ranged from 2.6% to 70.9%. The percentage of total phenotypic variance explained was 50.7% for GWP, 5.4% for TGW, 90.4% for POG and 89.3% for STF. Although these regions need to be more-precisely mapped, the information obtained should help in marker-assisted selection.

  13. Effects of storage and industrial oilseed extraction methods on the quality and stability characteristics of crude sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of industrial oilseed extraction methods on the quality and stability of crude sunflower oil (pre-pressed, solvent-extracted, full-pressed and mixed oils was studied by means of the determination of free fatty acids, peroxide value, color value, iron, phosphorus, total and individual tocopherol contents, their stability against oxidation (Rancimat induction time and the fatty acid composition with special emphasis on trans fatty acids. In addition, these crude oils were stored for a period of four months at 40 ± 2°C and analyzed at monthly intervals for free fatty acids, peroxide value, and Rancimat induction time to evaluate their storage stability. The results revealed that the crude sunflower oils obtained by the full-pressed extraction method had worse quality and stability parameters than the crude oils obtained by other extraction methods. Tocopherol content showed a drastic decrease with full-pressed extraction. Also, the crude sunflower oils obtained by the full-pressed extraction presented a higher total trans fatty acid content than the others. On the contrary, the solvent extraction method influenced the phosphorus and iron contents more than the others. The results indicated, however, that pre-pressing the oil appeared to be better than other methods. This study suggests that it is absolutely necessary for the vegetable oil industry to reevaluate the full pressing method as well as the solvent extraction conditions used for sunflowerseeds in order to retain both nutritive value and oxidative stability.La influencia de los métodos industriales de extracción de semillas oleaginosas sobre la calidad y la estabilidad de aceites crudos de girasol (pre-prensado, extraídos con disolventes, prensado completo y mezclas de aceites se ha estudiado mediante la determinación de los ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxidos, valor del color, hierro, fósforo, contenido de tocoferoles totales e individuales, así como su

  14. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  15. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  16. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  17. Evaluation of rare Helianthus eggertii achenes for oil concentration and fatty acid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil has the potential to be improved for nutritional and industrial purposes through selection and breeding. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from wild species, resulting in a continuous improvement in agrono...

  18. Consumptive Water Use and Crop Coefficients of Irrigated Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    In semi-arid environments, the use of irrigation is necessary for sunflower production to reach its maximum potential. The aim of this study was to quantify the consumptive water use and crop coefficients of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) without soil water limitations during two growing...

  19. Sunflower water productivity in four Great Plains soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a drought-adapted crop whose short growing season reduces irrigation requirements, makes it ideal for regions with limited irrigation water supplies. Our objectives were to a) evaluate the yield (Y) potential of sunflower under full and deficit irrigation (IR) b)...

  20. Effect of asymmetric auxin application on Helianthus hypocotyl curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, F.; Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid was applied asymmetrically to the hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. After 5 hours on a clinostat, auxin gradients as small as 1 to 1.3 produced substantial (more than 60 degrees) hypocotyl curvature. This result suggests the asymmetric growth underlying hypocotyl gravitropism can be explained by lateral auxin redistribution.

  1. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  2. Antioxidant activities of different varieties of sunflower seed oils%不同品种葵花籽油抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚玲; 李光跃; 赵媛媛; 陈贵林

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower seed oils were extracted from the seeds of five sunflower varieties by ultrasound method.Accelerated oxidation of sunflower seed oils were studied by Schaal oven method.The effects of accelerated oxidation on peroxide value,acid value,iodine value and contents of conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes produced by oxidation in sunflower seed oils were compared to screen sunflower variety with high antioxidant activity.The results revealed that the variation of peroxide value during the accelerated oxidation and the contents of conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes after oxidation in the oil extracted from S-31 variety were significantly lower than the other four varieties (P < 0.05)and the variation of acid value of S-31 sunflower seed oil was markedly lower than that of Neikuiza 3,T526 and Baikuiza 9 sunflower seed oils,which indicated that the antioxidant activity of the S-3 1 variety was better than that of the other four varieties.%用超声波法提取S-31、MGS、内葵杂3号、T526、白葵杂9号5个品种葵花籽油,采用Schaal烘箱法加速氧化,比较加速氧化对不同品种葵花籽油过氧化值、酸值、碘值以及氧化后产生的共轭二烯与共轭三烯含量的影响,综合筛选出具有高抗氧化性的油葵品种.结果显示,S-31葵花籽油在氧化过程中过氧化值的变化量以及氧化后产生的共轭二烯与共轭三烯含量显著低于其余各品种(P<0.05),且酸值的变化量显著低于内葵杂3号、T526、白葵杂9号,表明S-31品种抗氧化性较好.

  3. sunTILL: a TILLING resource for gene function analysis in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabetta Wilma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annus L. is a globally important oilseed crop, subjected to intensive genetic and genomic studies. Although classical mutagenesis has successfully been applied to Helianthus genus in the past, we have developed the first sunflower TILLING resource. Results To balance the maximum mutation density with an acceptable plant survival rate, a 'kill curve' analysis was first conducted with different ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS dosages and different exposure times. According to the germination rate, a treatment with 0.7% EMS for 6 h was chosen. An M2 progeny of 3,651 fertile plants was obtained. Totally, 4.79% of the whole population showed clear aberrant phenotypes. A microsatellite analysis on a representative sample of the original seed stock and mutant lines confirmed the uniformity of the genetic background of plant material. The TILLING procedure was successfully applied to sunflower genome, initially by a CelI-nuclease mismatch cleavage assay coupled with a DNA-pooling level test. To investigate the efficiency of the mutagenic treatment, a pilot screening was carried out on 1,152 M2 lines focusing on four genes, three involved in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway and one for downy mildew resistance. A total of 9 mutant lines were identified and confirmed by sequencing; thereby, the estimated overall mutation frequency for the pilot assay resulted to be 1/475 kb. Conclusion A first TILLING population for a high throughput identification of EMS-induced point mutations in sunflower genome has been successfully obtained. This represents a powerful tool to a better understanding of gene function in sunflower.

  4. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of sunflower seeds oil%葵花籽油酶法提取的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 毛波; 王聪; 杨青; 万端极

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous enzymatic method was employed to extract oil from sunflower seed. The optimal enzyme was determined by the contrast experiment. The effects of baking time, neutral protease dose, hydrolysis time, feed/liquid ratio on the oil extraction efficiency were investigated by single factor and orthogonal experiments. And the verification test of orthogonal experiment results are verified by the verification test. Results: The test effect of neutral protease is best. The optimum process parameters what aqueous enzymatic extract sunflower seed oil is baking time of 16 h, neutral protease dose of 1%, hydrolysis time of 4 h, feed/liquid ratio of 1:5(w/v). Verification results: free oil yield of 80.94%, protein content in slag of 3.36%, peroxide value of 4.57 mmol/kg.%采用水酶法从葵花籽中提取葵花籽油。通过对比试验确定最佳用酶,利用单因素和正交试验探讨原料烘烤时间、酶用量、酶解时间以及料液比对提油效果的影响,并通过验证试验对正交试验结果进行了验证。结果表明:中性蛋白酶试验效果最好;水酶法提取葵花籽油的最佳工艺参数为:烘烤时间16h,酶用量1%,酶解时间4h,料液比1:5(w/v)。验证试验结果表明葵花籽游离油得率80.94%,过氧化值4.57mmol/kg,渣中蛋白含量3.36%。

  5. Pengaruh Penambahan Minyak Kelapa, Minyak Biji Bunga Matahari, dan Minyak Kelapa Sawit terhadap Penurunan Produksi Metan di dalam Rumen secara in Vitro (The Effect of Addition Coconut Oil, Sunflower Seed Oil, and Palm Olein on Reducing Ruminal Methane Pro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Diah Sitoresmi

    2012-02-01

    protozoa growth and addition oil up to 5.0% reduced methane production as much as 15.80%. (Key words : Coconut oil, Sunflower seed oil, Palm olein, Methane production, Protozoa count, In vitro fermentation

  6. Effect of deodorization process on the quality of sunflower seed oil%脱臭工艺对葵花籽油品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴杰; 薛雅琳; 金青哲; 张东

    2016-01-01

    研究脱臭工艺对葵花籽油品质的影响,分析在不同脱臭温度、脱臭时间条件下,葵花籽油酸值、过氧化值、生育酚、角鲨烯、甾醇和反式脂肪酸的变化情况。结果表明:随脱臭温度升高,脱臭时间的延长,酸值、过氧化值逐渐降低,生育酚、甾醇、角鲨烯含量显著减少,反式脂肪酸含量增加。通过研究葵花籽油在不同脱臭工艺条件下的品质变化情况,以期为葵花籽油实际脱臭工艺提供数据支持。%The effect of deodorization process on the quality of sunflower see d oil was studied,the sunflow-er seed oil was deodorized for different time at different temperatures,the changes of acid value,peroxide value,the content of tocopherol,squalene,sterol and trans fatty acid were analysed.The results showed that with the deodorization temperature and time increased,acid value and peroxide value decreased grad-ually,the content of tocopherols,squalene,sterols significantly reduced,the content of trans fatty acid increased.According to the study on the quality of deodorized sunflower seed oil which was deodorized for different time at different temperatures,we hope to provide the data support for the actual deodorization process of sunflower seed oil.

  7. Growth, fecundity and competitive ability of transgenic Trifolium subterraneum subsp. subterraneum cv. Leura expressing a sunflower seed albumin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfree, Robert C; Woods, Matthew J; Young, Andrew G; Burdon, Jeremy J; Higgins, T J V

    2004-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is an important step in the production and commercialisation of transgenic plants. To date, however, most risk assessment studies have been performed on crop plants, and few have considered the ecological consequences associated with genetic modification of pasture species. In this study we compared the growth, yield, population dynamics and competitive ability of transgenic Trifolium subterraneum subsp. subterraneum cv. Leura (subclover) expressing a nutritive sunflower seed albumin (ssa) gene with the equivalent non-transgenic commercial line in a glasshouse competition trial. Plants were grown in low-fertility soil typical of unimproved native southeastern Australian grasslands. We measured survivorship, seed production rate, seed germination rate, seed weight, dry weight yield and the intrinsic rate of population increase (lambda) of plants grown in mixtures and monocultures over a range of densities (250 to 2000 plants m(-2)), and also determined intragenotypic and intergenotypic competition coefficients for each line. There were no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic plants in any of the measured variables except survivorship; transgenic plants had a significantly lower survival rate than non-transgenic plants when grown at high densities (pdensity-dependent effects were observed for all measured variables, and in all models plant density affected the response variables more than the presence of the transgene. Based on these results, we conclude that the ssa gene construct appears to confer no advantage to transgenic T. s. subterraneum cv. Leura growing in mixed or pure swards under the fertility and density regimes examined in the trial. Our data also suggest that transgenic subterranean clover expressing the ssa gene is unlikely to exhibit a competitive advantage over associated non-transgenic commercial cultivars when grown in dense swards in low-fertility pastures.

  8. Genetic mapping of rust resistance genes in confection sunflower line HA-R6 and oilseed line RHA 397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few widely effective resistance sources to sunflower rust, incited by Puccinia helianthi Schwein., have been identified in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The USDA inbred line HA-R6 is one of the few confection sunflower lines resistant to rust. A previous allelism test indicated that r...

  9. Indication of Genetic Linkage Map for Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by SSR Markers%转Bt基因水稻与非转基因水稻在虫压下的适合度差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富丽; 雷绍荣; 刘勇; 郭灵安; 尹全; 宋君; 王东; 常丽娟; 刘文娟; 周西全

    2012-01-01

    以转胁抗虫水稻Bt63、R1、R2和非转基因常规水稻Ⅱ优838为试材,采用高、低两个不同虫害胁迫水平和转基因与非转基凶水稻相间种植方式,通过观察水稻植株营养生长、结实以及对螟虫危害的抗性表现等差异,研究比较晚外源基因插入后对水稻植株适合度的影响,以解转基因水稻的基因扩散效率和潜在生态风险。结果表明:在低虫害胁迫条件下,转胁基因水稻在植株分蘖数、生物量鲜重等营养生长指标方面与非转基因对照品系间无明显差异,但株高、穗长、穗重等指标不及对照,且R2和Bt63与对照间差异显著;在高虫害胁迫条件下,3个转胁基凶水稻品系的分蘖数、穗长、穗重等指标明显高于对照。而不同转基因品系株高适合度效应不同,这可能与受体品系本身的特性相关。3种转基因水稻的单株结实粒数、千粒重与对照在两种虫害胁迫条件下均无显著性差异,Bt基因对受体植株的结实影响不明显。在高虫害胁迫条件下,3种转&基因水稻的抗虫能力均显著优于非转基因水稻,表明髓基因对受体植株的抗虫性影响显著。本研究结果还表明转Bt基因水稻的适合度代价较小,预示了抗虫转基因水稻外源胁基因在一定环境条件下具有逃逸的可能,但这种风险比较小。%[Objective] This study aimed to improve density and practicality of the ge- netic map of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by adding some SSR markers. [Method] A total of 123 F8 RILs populations derived from a cross between PAC-2 and RHA-266 were selected as the materials, and a total of 300 pairs of SSR primers were used to screen polymorphic markers between the parents and some of their RILs, and finally 51 pairs of the primers producing polymorphic patterns were selected to construct the genetic map of the RILs populations. [Result] Nineteen pairs of SSR primers did not generate

  10. Honey bee visitation to sunflower: effects on pollination and plant genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Dechechi Chambó

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an allogamic plant, which needs insects on flowering, especially the honeybees for seed production. Collecting nectar and pollen by honeybees in agricultural crops is essential to apiculture, as well as a better understanding of plant biology. The foraging behavior of Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae and its efficiency of pollination on seed yield of sunflower genotypes (open pollination and restricted pollination were evaluated. There were peaks of visits by A. mellifera for nectar collection on the 2nd and 3rd flowering days between 7h00 and 8h30. The average density of A. mellifera during increased visitation ranged from 2.27 to 2.94 bees per capitulum. Nectar collecting bees were more frequent (2.28 bees per capitulum than pollen collecting (0.40 bees per capitulum. On the 3rd flowering day, Helio 360 and Aguará hybrids had higher (p ≤ 0.05 number of bee visits per flower head than the other genotypes. Seed yield was 43 % higher (p ≤ 0.05 from sunflower plants that were visited by pollinator-insects compared with plants restricted to pollinators.

  11. Heliolactone, a non-sesquiterpene lactone germination stimulant for root parasitic weeds from sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kotomi; Furumoto, Toshio; Umeda, Shuhei; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Batchvarova, Rossitza; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2014-12-01

    Root exudates of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) line 2607A induced germination of seeds of root parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche minor, Orobanche crenata, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of a germination stimulant designated as heliolactone. FT-MS analysis indicated a molecular formula of C20H24O6. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies established a methylfuranone group, a common structural component of strigolactones connected to a methyl ester of a C14 carboxylic acid via an enol ether bridge. The cyclohexenone ring is identical to that of 3-oxo-α-ionol and the other part of the molecule corresponds to an oxidized carlactone at C-19. It is a carlactone-type molecule and functions as a germination stimulant for seeds of root parasitic weeds. Heliolactone induced seed germination of the above mentioned root parasitic weeds, while dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide, sesquiterpene lactones isolated from sunflower root exudates, were effective only on O. cumana and O. minor. Heliolactone production in aquacultures increased when sunflower seedlings were grown hydroponically in tap water and decreased on supplementation of the culture with either phosphorus or nitrogen. Costunolide, on the other hand, was detected at a higher concentration in well-nourished medium as opposed to nutrient-deficient media, thus suggesting a contrasting contribution of heliolactone and the sesquiterpene lactone to the germination of O. cumana under different soil fertility levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth and productivity of different Pleuritus ostreatus strains on sunflower seed hulls supplemented with N-NH{sub 4}{sup +} and/or Mn(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curvetto, N.R.; Figlas, D.; Devalis, R.; Delmastro, S. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Departamento de Agronomia

    2002-09-01

    The mycelial growth rates in lineal growth assay, yield, and production rate of five Pleurotus ostreatus strains were evaluated in response to different levels of Mn(II) and/or NH{sub 4}{sup +} in a substrate containing sunflower seed hulls as a main energy and nutritional component. Each strain showed different basal values for mycelial growth rate and biological efficiency on sunflower seed-hull substrate. Adding growth limiting mineral nutrients increased the mycelial growth rate by 13-25%. Primordia initiation for the first flush appeared between day 24 and 28 and days to the second crop ranged from 39 to 51. Biological efficiency increased over control values and reached 60-112%, depending on the strain and the concentration of Mn(II) and NH{sub 4}{sup +}. This study demonstrated the advantage of selecting the most productive P. ostreatus strains in a substrate formulated with sunflower seed hulls to provide the main energy and nutritional ingredients and supplemented with Mn(II) and/or NH{sub 4}{sup +}. (author)

  13. Growth and productivity of different Pleurotus ostreatus strains on sunflower seed hulls supplemented with N-NH4+ and/or Mn(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvetto, N R; Figlas, D; Devalis, R; Delmastro, S

    2002-09-01

    The mycelial growth rates in lineal growth assay, yield, and production rate of five Pleurotus ostreatus strains were evaluated in response to different levels of Mn(II) and/or NH4+ in a substrate containing sunflower seed hulls as a main energy and nutritional component. Each strain showed different basal values for mycelial growth rate and biological efficiency on sunflower seed-hull substrate. Adding growth limiting mineral nutrients increased the mycelial growth rate by 13-25%. Primordia initiation for the first flush appeared between day 24 and 28 and days to the second crop ranged from 39 to 51. Biological efficiency increased over control values and reached 60-112%, depending on the strain and the concentration of Mn(II) and NH4+. This study demonstrated the advantage of selecting the most productive P. ostreatus strains in a substrate formulated with sunflower seed hulls to provide the main energy and nutritional ingredients and supplemented with Mn(II) and/or NH4+.

  14. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dohme-Meier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5. Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP. The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S, 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-oil (C or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC. All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1 or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments

  15. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohme-Meier, F; Bee, G

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP). The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S), 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-oil (C) or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC). All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1) or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments implies that

  16. Cicatrizing and antimicrobial properties of an ozonised oil from sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Kamila Leite; Cardoso, Claudia Catellani; Caputo, Lucelia Regina; Carvalho, Jose Carlos Tavares; Fiorini, Joao Evangelista; Schneedorf, Jose Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    The ozonised sunflower oil, Bioperoxoil, was tested for its antimicrobial activity against some pathological strains in vitro together with its healing potential against Staphylococcus aureus in vivo. Bioperoxoil was tested against S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Candida albicans, S. typhimurium and Escherichia coli suspensions using the agar diffusion method. Healing experiments were carried out with Wistar rats through topical application of 3.5 mg/ml of the ozonised oil up to the 7th day after inoculation with S. aureus. Bioperoxoil showed anti-inflammatory effects against all strains tested, with MIC values ranging from 2.0 to 3.5 mg/ml. Bioperoxoil also demonstrated protective effects on skin connective tissue and to enhance wound healing during the treatment, as compared to a neomycin-clostebol association used as a positive control. The overall results indicated a significant antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties for Bioperoxoil, as compared to other antimicrobial agents commercially available.

  17. Plant population and weeds influence stalk insects, soil moisture, and yield in rainfed sunflowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAWWAD A. QURESHI; PHILLIP W. STAHLMAN; J. P. MICHAUD

    2007-01-01

    Insect infestation, soil moisture, and yield were examined in populations of≈ 33 140 plants/ha (low) and ≈ 40 340 plants/ha (high) of an oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L, cv. ' Triumph 660CL' with two levels of weediness. Less weedy plots resulted from the application of herbicide combination of S-metolachlor and sulfentrazone, whereas more weedy plots resulted from application of sulfentrazone alone. Among the 12 weed species recorded, neither plant numbers nor biomass differed between crop plant densities.Larvae of the stalk-boring insects Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae) were less abundant in high density sunflowers, ostensibly due to reduced plant size. However, the same effect was not observed for Dectes texanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) or Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), two other stalk-boring insects. Soil moisture was highest in low density and lowest in the high density sunflowers that were less weedy. Stalk circumference, head diameter, and seed weight were reduced for sunflower plants with short interplant distances (mean = 20 cm apart) compared to plants with long interplant distances (mean = 46 cm apart).These three variables were greater in less weedy plots compared with more weedy plots and positively correlated with interplant distance. Yields on a per-hectare basis paralleled those on a per-plant basis but were not different among treatments. The agronomic implications of planting density are discussed in the context of weed and insect management.

  18. Oil bodies: An insight on their microstructure - maize germ vs sunflower seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiforidis, K.; Kiosseoglou, V.; Scholten, E.

    2013-01-01

    Storage triacylglycerols in oleaginous seeds are surrounded by a layer that consists of phospholipids and proteins, mainly oleosins. These entities are intracellular organelles, known as oil bodies. It is often reported that they have a spherical shape, but imaging using cryo-SEM analysis showed tha

  19. Copper phytoextraction in tandem with oilseed production using commercial cultivars and mutant lines of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbas, A; Mench, M; Herzig, R; Nehnevajova, E; Bes, C M

    2011-01-01

    Use of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Cu phytoextraction and oilseed production on Cu-contaminated topsoils was investigated in afield trial at a former wood preservation site. Six commercial cultivars and two mutant lines were cultivated in plots with and without the addition of compost (5% w/w) and dolomitic limestone (0.2% w/w). Total soil Cu ranged from 163 to 1170 mg kg(-1). In soil solutions, Cu concentration varied between 0.16-0.93 mg L(-1). The amendment increased soil pH, reduced Cu exposure and promoted sunflower growth. Stem length, shoot and capitulum biomasses, seed yield, and shoot and leaf Cu concentrations were measured. At low total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass was higher in commercial cultivars, Le., Salut, Energic, and Countri, whereas competition and shading affected morphological traits of mutants. Based on shoot yield (7 Mg DW ha(-1)) and Cu concentration, the highest removal was 59 g Cu ha(-1). At high total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass peaked for mutants (e.g., 52 g Cu ha(-1) for Mutant 1 line) and cultivars Energic and Countri. Energic seed yield (3.9 Mg air-DW ha(-1)) would be sufficient to produce oil Phenotype traits and shoot Cu removal depended on sunflower types and Cu exposure.

  20. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes Pl Arg and Pl 8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Talukder, Z I; Hulke, B S; Foley, M E

    2017-02-03

    Diagnostic DNA markers are an invaluable resource in breeding programs for successful introgression and pyramiding of disease resistance genes. Resistance to downy mildew (DM) disease in sunflower is mediated by Pl genes which are known to be effective against the causal fungus, Plasmopara halstedii. Two DM resistance genes, Pl Arg and Pl 8 , are highly effective against P. halstedii races in the USA, and have been previously mapped to the sunflower linkage groups (LGs) 1 and 13, respectively, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In this study, we developed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps encompassing the Pl arg and Pl 8 genes and identified diagnostic SNP markers closely linked to these genes. The specificity of the diagnostic markers was validated in a highly diverse panel of 548 sunflower lines. Dissection of a large marker cluster co-segregated with Pl Arg revealed that the closest SNP markers NSA_007595 and NSA_001835 delimited Pl Arg to an interval of 2.83 Mb on the LG1 physical map. The SNP markers SFW01497 and SFW06597 delimited Pl 8 to an interval of 2.85 Mb on the LG13 physical map. We also developed sunflower lines with homozygous, three gene pyramids carrying Pl Arg , Pl 8 , and the sunflower rust resistance gene R 12 using the linked SNP markers from a segregating F2 population of RHA 340 (carrying Pl 8 )/RHA 464 (carrying Pl Arg and R 12 ). The high-throughput diagnostic SNP markers developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding, and the pyramided sunflower lines will provide durable resistance to downy mildew and rust diseases.

  1. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  2. MICROELEMENTS IN SUNFLOWER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldykova I. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The obtained experimental data show that the incorporation of trace elements into the system of the sunflower crop has a positive impact on the mineral nutrition of plants, the number and quality of the crop. Foliar feeding of sunflower crops with micronutrients improves nutrition of plants with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, thus creating the preconditions for the formation of highly agrocenosis. The seed yield of sunflower increased by variants with application of micronutrients 1.2-3.5 t/ha or 4.4-12.9 percent. The greatest impact of treatment with boron and copper, exceeding the background option 3.1-3.5 t/ha or 11.5-12.9% respectively. The crop is least influenced by manganese and molybdenum. The examined elements positively influenced the structure of the sunflower crop. The greatest influence on the diameter of the basket, the number of seeds, weight of seeds in the basket, the weight of 1000 seeds was provided by the zinc and copper. Trace elements contributed to the improvement of quality indicators of sunflower. For husk content, the greatest positive effect was cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper, increasing the background option 10.1, 10.4, 10.5 and 10, and 6%, respectively, on the oil content of sunflower seeds had cobalt, copper and zinc. The oil content on these options amounted 55,0, with 55.1 and 55.2%, respectively, increasing this figure by 1.5 to 1.7 %. The acid number at variants with boron, manganese and zinc was the same with the background option and amounted to 1.8. The greatest influence on iodine number provided molybdenum, zinc and copper, which accounted for 170,5, 171,2 and 171,4, exceeding the background option 10.2 and 11.1

  3. THE EFFECT OF SPRUCE BARK POLYPHENOLS EXTRACT IN COMBINATION WITH DEUTERIUM DEPLETED WATER (DDW ON GLYCINE MAX L. AND HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Tanase

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spruce bark aqueous extract and deuterium depleted water (DDW as bioregulators on the plant growth Glycine max L. and Helianthus annuus. The following specific parameteres were closely monitorised: germination energy and germination capacity, plants vegetative organelles growth and development and photoassimilatory pigments concentrations. The results have shown that DDW presents different effects depending on tested plant species. In the case of soybean, DDW presented stimulatory effects on both germination energy and capacity, radicles elongation, primary leaves growth and development but inhibitory effects on photoassimilatory pigments. Spruce bark extract reduced the germination capacity of soybean seeds, but accelerated the germination process of sunflower seeds and present stimulatory effects on plantlets biomass accumulation. The combination of DDW with Picea abies polyphenolic extract promoted soybean plantlet elongation, especially the rootlets ones and stimulated green biomass accumulation for both soybean and sunflower plantlets. Analyzing the photoassimilatory pigments concentration for sunflower, it can be observed an increasing trend (almost 100% comparing with control when introduce into the growth medium DDW and P. abies polyphenolic extract. DDW and P. abies bark extract have shown an important role in plant growth and development, improving photoassimiliation process.

  4. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

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    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  5. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes PlArg and Pl8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy mildew, which is caused by fungus Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese & de Toni, is one of the most important diseases that affect sunflower production globally. Two downy mildew resistance genes, PlArg and Pl8, were discovered in the late 1980s. Over two decades, PlArg is still effective aga...

  6. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of fasting and non-fasting triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) as well as oxidative changes of lipoproteins may increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease. To compare the effects of different diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids on the concentrations and in vitro...... oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  7. Qualidade de sementes de Helianthus annuus L. em função da adubação fosfatada e da localização na inflorescência Quality of Helianthus annuus L. seeds as a function of phosphate and location in the inflorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Pereira da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a expansão da cultura do girassol promoveu uma busca por material genético mais competitivo, além de sementes com uma máxima qualidade física, fisiológica e sanitária. No campo, a época de colheita e a nutrição das plantas são de fundamental importância na expressão dessas qualidades. Com isso, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a qualidade física e fisiológica das sementes de girassol submetidas a diferentes doses de fósforo e suas localizações dentro da inflorescência. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (3x2, sendo o primeiro fator a localização da semente na inflorescência (periferia, meio e centro e, o segundo, doses de fósforo (zero e 70kg ha-1 de super-simples, sendo sua aplicação realizada durante a implantação da cultura. As sementes foram submetidas à determinação do teor de água, peso de mil sementes, peso das sementes por localização na inflorescência e a testes de germinação e vigor (primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação. A adubação fosfatada proporciona aumento na qualidade física e fisiológica das sementes de girassol. A região da periferia junto com o meio contribui em maior parte para a obtenção de uma melhor qualidade física e fisiológica das sementes de girassol. A qualidade física é afetada pela localização das sementes na inflorescência, cujas mais pesadas se encontram na periferia, seguidas das do meio e tendo o centro com as sementes mais leves.In recent years, the expansion of sunflower promoted a search for genetic material more competitive, and for seeds with a maximum physical, physiological and health quality. In the field, harvesting time and plant nutrition are essential in the expression of these qualities. With this objective, this research aimed to evaluate the physical and physiological quality of sunflower seeds under different phosphorus levels and locations within the same

  8. Association Mapping and the Genomic Consequences of Selection in Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Savithri Nambeesan; Bowers, John E; Laura F Marek; Daniel Ebert; Loren H. Rieseberg; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall ...

  9. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of the Early Domestication of Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    David M Wills; Burke, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic analyses of the domestication syndrome have revealed that domestication-related traits typically have a very similar genetic architecture across most crops, being conditioned by a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL), each with a relatively large effect on the phenotype. To date, the domestication of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stands as the only counterexample to this pattern. In previous work involving a cross between wild sunflower (also H. annuus) and a highly improv...

  10. Genetic, molecular and expression features of the Pervenets mutant leading to high oleic acid content of seed oil in sunflower

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    Lacombe Séverine

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervenets is a sunflower population that displays seed oil with a high oleic acid content [HOAC]. Our aim is to reconcile all the data gathered on this mutant in a unique explanatory mechanism. All Pervenets-derived [HOAC] lines display no accumulation or a very reduced accumulation of the DELTA12-desaturase transcript in the embryos during the stages for oil accumulation. They also carry oleHOS specific RFLP markers revealed by an DELTA12-desaturase cDNA used as a probe. The linoleic or [LO] genotypes do not carry this RFLP marker, but another allele: oleLOR (oleHL locus. Linkage disequilibrium between the oleHOS allele and [HOAC] was verified. We studied the mode of inheritance of [HOAC] in two segregating populations. A F2 progenies revealed one dominant allele for [HOAC] that co-segregated with the oleHOS allele showing that the Pervenets mutation and oleHOS were closely linked. F6 recombinant inbred lines, showed the [HOAC] trait due to two independent loci: the locus carrying the oleHOS allele and another locus sup. One allele, supole, at this second locus may suppress the effect of the oleHOS allele on the [HOAC] trait. Northern analyses performed on [HOAC] lines and F1 ([HOAC] x [LO] hybrids revealed under-accumulation of DELTA12-desaturase transcript. Thus Pervenets mutation acts in trans. The oleHOS genomic region that may carry the Pervenets mutation was cloned. A genomic library was constructed in lambdafixII with the DNA from the RHA345 [HOAC] line and screened with a DELTA12-desaturase cDNA as a probe. Two overlapping clones were entirely sequenced and revealed carrying a gene for an DELTA12-desaturase probably located in the RE. This corresponds to the invariant part of the oleHL locus. Another clone (11.1 probably carries DELTA12-desaturase repeated sequences that cause instability of the clone. We showed that the 11.1 clone carries most of cDNA sequence, but due to its organization it is not yet sequenced. A mutation mechanism

  11. Analysis of oil content in sunflower seeds with nuclear magnetic ressonance and `SOXHLET` methods; Determinacao do teor de oleo em sementes de girassol pelos metodos de ressonancia magnetica nuclear e soxhlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Oleaginosas; Toledo, Nilva Maria Prestes de [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao Tecnica Experimental e Calculo; Teixeira, Joao Paulo Feijao [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fitoquimica; Suassuna Filho, Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept.de Fisica

    1992-12-31

    Individual and group of seeds of some sunflower populations were utilized in order to evaluate the feasibility of oil content evaluations by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method (NMR). Correlation analysis with the extractive method (Soxhlet) was performed. The results showed that: the oil in the seeds behaved like a liquid in the NMR analysis; there was a high and positive correlation (r = 0,93) between NMR and Soxhlet; there was no correlation between seed weight and oil content; the observed variability in oil content among seeds of a plant were higher than between plants of a population; these values indicate the importance of making individual analysis of oil content by the NMR method for the sunflower breeding for oil content. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. SNP discovery and QTL mapping of Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a serious disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbr...

  13. Registration of two double rust resistant germplasms, HA-R12 and HA-R13 for confection sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms HA-R12 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673104) and HA-R13 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673105) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and released in Jul...

  14. Studies on changes in patterns of fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols of oil during seed maturation of oil crops. Part I. Sunflower seeds

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    El-Shami, S. M.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The variation of lipid constituents in maturing sunflower oil seeds has been investigated with the aim of determination of the proper harvesting time as well as the oil quality. Marked variations in fatty acid, sterol and tocopherol constituents of the oil were observed. Capillary gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used in the analysis which enabled the determination of major as well as minor constituents in the oil. In addition, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to confirm the structure of cycloartenol sterol. Postulations on the key compounds of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols were proposed in the frame of the main biosynthetic pathways. The proper harvesting time was found to be 118 days after plantation since the oil content was high and the constituents of the oil were balanced.

    Se ha investigado la variación de los constituyentes lipídicos en aceites de semillas de girasol en distintos estados de maduración, con el objetivo de determinar el tiempo de recolección apropiado así como la calidad del aceite. Se observaron variaciones apreciables en los ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles del aceite. La cromatografía gaseosa capilar y la cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia se usó en el análisis que permitió la determinación tanto de los componentes mayoritarios como minoritarios en el aceite. Además, se utilizó la cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a la espectrometría de masas para confirmar la estructura del esterol cicloartenol. Se han propuesto en el marco de la ruta biosintética principal postulados sobre los compuestos clave de ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles. Se encontró como tiempo de recolección apropiado el de 118 días después de la plantación, ya que el contenido de aceite fue elevado y los constituyentes fueron equilibrados.

  15. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Alsaadawi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was even better than herbicide used alone. Integration of recommended dose of Treflan with sunflower residue at 1,400 g m-² produced maximum (987.5 g m-2 aboveground biomass of broad bean, which was 74 and 36% higher than control and recommended herbicide dose applied alone, respectively. Combination of herbicide and sunflower residue appeared to better enhance pod number and yield per unit area than herbicide alone. Application of 50% dose of Treflan in plots amended with sunflower residue resulted in similar yield advantage as was noticed with 100% herbicide dose. Chromatographic analysis of residue-infested field soil indicated the presence of several phytotoxic compounds of phenolic nature. Periodic data revealed that maximum suppression in weed density and dry weight synchronized with peak values of phytotoxins observed 4 weeks after incorporation of sunflower residues. Integration of sunflower residues with lower herbicide rates can produce effective weed suppression without compromising yield as a feasible and environmentally sound approach in broad bean fields.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar resíduos agrícolas com potencial alelopático para reduzir o uso de herbicidas sintéticos em fava (Vicia faba. Resíduos de girassol (600 e 1,400 g m-2 e Treflan (50, 75 e 100% da dose recomendada foram incorporados ao solo isoladamente ou em combinação uns com os outros. Parcelas não tratadas foram mantidas como controle. A aplicação de

  16. 葵花籽油的氧化稳定性研究%Research on the oxidative stability of sunflower seed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文婷; 蒲传奋

    2011-01-01

    The factors which affect the stability of sunflower seed oil such as temperature, light, metal ions, oxygen and moisture were studied with acid value and peroxide value as indexes. The results showed that temperature, light, metal ions, oxygen and moisture could increase acid value and peroxide value of sunflower seed oil. Among them temperature and moisture were the most critical factors. The acid value and peroxide value of sunflower seed oil increased to 1.03 mgKOH/g and 19.2 meq/kg at 40 ℃ for 24 d. The effects of Cu2+ on peroxide value was greater than Fe2+ ,while oxygen did not increase the acid value in short - term. The acid value was a bit higher with addition of 1% and 2% of water than that of original oil, and the higher the moisture content was, the faster the peroxide value increased.%以葵花籽油的酸值和过氧化值为评价指标,考察了温度、光照、金属离子、氧气、水分对葵花籽油氧化稳定性的影响。结果表明:温度、光照、金属离子、氧气、水分均会引起储藏过程中葵花籽油的酸值和过氧化值的升高,且温度和水分影响较明显;40℃下试样放置24 d后的酸值和过氧化值分别达到1.03 mgKOH/g和19.2 meq/kg;Cu2+对于葵花籽油过氧化值的影响大于Fe2+;氧气短期内不会促进葵花籽油酸值的上升;添加了1%和2%水分的葵花籽油的酸值相差不大,均大于未加水样品,且水分含量越高,过氧化值增加越快。

  17. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from the sunflower (Helianthus annus L. rhizosphere according to their capacity to hydrolyse inulin Identificação e caracterização de fungos filamentosos isolados de rizosfera de girassol (Helianthus annus L. de acordo com a capacidade de hidrolisar inulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi able to hydrolyse inulin have been isolated from the rhizosphere of plants whose roots contain this polysaccharide. This study reports results concerning the isolation and identification of filamentous fungi from the soil used for sunflower cultivation and from the sunflower rhizosphere cultivated in field and in greenhouse. Fungi were evaluated according to their capacity to hydrolyse inulin and the variation in the diversity of these fungi during the plant's life cycle was also accessed. Forty-nine species of filamentous fungi were isolated. Penicillium and Aspergillus were the genera that presented higher number of species, nine and seven, respectively. At the end of the sunflower life cycle, cultivated both in field and in the greenhouse, a lower numbers of species were isolated. One hundred and fifty nine strains of filamentous fungi were isolated from soil and from the sunflower rhizosphere; from these, 79 (49.7% were able to hydrolyse inulin. There was not significant difference in the proportion of species able to hydrolyse this polysaccharide during the sunflower's life cycle, in plants cultivated in field or in greenhouse. Although the sunflower's rhizosphere is a source of filamentous fungi able to hydrolyse inulin, that might be used in biotechnological processes. This system does not present a higher density of such microorganisms. Species of Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Cunninghamella, Emericela, Eupenicillium, Fusarium, Myrothecium, Neosartorya, Neocosmospora, Penicillium and Thielavia are being related by first time as inulinase producers.Fungos filamentosos capazes de hidrolisar inulina tem sido isolados de rizosfera de plantas que acumulam esse polissacarídeo nas raízes. Este estudo compreendeu o isolamento e identificação de fungos filamentosos do solo utilizado para o cultivo do girassol e da rizosfera de girassol cultivado em campo e em casa de vegetação, a fim de verificar se há variação na

  18. Effect of sunflower-seed oil or linseed oil on milk fatty acid secretion and lipogenic gene expression in goats fed hay-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Leroux, Christine; Faulconnier, Yannick; Durand, Denys; Shingfield, Kevin J; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-05-01

    Plant oils in the diet are known to alter milk fat composition owing to changes in the supply of fatty acid precursors and/or activity of lipogenic enzymes in the mammary gland. Thirteen mid-lactating Alpine goats were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods to evaluate possible mechanisms regulating milk fat synthesis and fatty acid composition on grass hay-based diets containing none (H) or 55 g/kg diet dry matter of sunflower-seed oil (HSO) or linseed oil (HLO). Inclusion of oils in the diet had no effect on milk yield but enhanced (Pdiet enhance milk fat synthesis, alter milk fatty acid composition and specifically inhibit mammary SCD activity in the goat. Furthermore, the results suggest that the regulation of mammary lipogenesis in response to plant oils appears related to factors other than altered mammary gene expression or potential lipogenic enzyme activity.

  19. FRACTIONATION OF UFA OF SUNFLOWER SEED OIL%葵花油中不饱和脂肪酸的富集工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小泓; 潘成杰; 王超; 张恩华; 刘昌伟; 刘文涛; 狄强

    2001-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid, especially linoleic are enriched in sunflower seed oil .The fractionation with urea is used to collect unsaturated fatty acids from sunflower seed oil .A concentration range of unsaturated fatty acids from 71.3% to 95.6% and linoleic from 71.3% to 92.7% by urea fractionation. During the research, we find optimum experiment condition is: methanol serve as solvent, fatty/urea/methanol=1:3:8,the inclusion temperature is - 10℃ for 12 hours%葵花油中富含不饱和脂肪酸,尤其是亚油酸。采用尿素包合法对葵花油中的不饱和脂肪酸进行富集,一次富集产品使不饱和脂肪酸含量由 71.3%提高到 95.6%,亚油酸含量从 71.3%提高到 92.7%,从而使脂肪酸的质量有了进一步提高。从研究过程中得到最佳实验条件为:以甲醇作溶剂,脂肪酸,尿素,甲醇比为 1: 3: 8,包和温度为- 10℃,时间为 12h。

  20. Efeito da mistura da planta de girassol (Helianthus annuus L., durante a ensilagem do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. no valor nutritivo da silagem Effect of the mixture of the sunflower plant (Helianthus annuus L. during the ensiling with the elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Shum. on nutritive value of silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela Rezende

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O girassol foi misturado ao capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum na ensilagem. A colheita do capim-elefante foi realizada manualmente após 70 dias do corte de uniformização, à altura de 10 cm da superfície do solo. Para confecção da silagem, foram utilizados os híbridos de girassol M-742 e M-92007. As misturas capim-elefante e girassol foram feitas nas seguintes proporções de matéria verde: 100 e 0%, 75 e 25%; 50 e 50%; 25 e 75%; 0 e 100% de capim e girassol, respectivamente. As plantas foram picadas mecanicamente em partículas de 2,0 a 3,0 cm de tamanho, ensiladas por 30 dias, em silos de "PVC" de dez centímetros de diâmetro e quarenta centímetros de altura. Foram avaliadas as porcentagens de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e valores de pH das silagens. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que as silagens de capim-elefante com mistura da planta de girassol apresentaram maiores porcentagens de MS, PB, EE e valores de pH, aumentos na DIVMS e menor porcentagem de FDN na matéria seca com o aumento dos níveis de substituição.A mixture sunflower and elephant grass has been used for ensiling. Elephant grass was harvested manually 70 days after a plot leveling a height of 10cm from soil surface. For silage making, the sunflower hybrids M-742 and M-92007 were utilized. The mixtures of sunflower and elephantgrass were done at the following ratios of green matter 100 and 0%; 75 and 25%; 50 and 50%; 25% and 75%;0 and 100%, of grass and sunflower, respectively. Plants were chopped mechanically in particles of 2.0 to 3.0 cm in size, ensiled for 30 days in PVC silos 10 centimeters in diameter and 40 centimeter height. The evaluated variables were as follow: Percentages of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF in

  1. Effect of a mutagenized acyl-ACP thioesterase FATA allele from sunflower with improved activity in tobacco leaves and Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio Javier; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Vaistij, Fabián E; Salas, Joaquin J; Larson, Tony R; Garcés, Rafael; Graham, Ian A; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The substrate specificity of the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases significantly determines the type of fatty acids that are exported from plastids. Thus, designing acyl-ACP thioesterases with different substrate specificities or kinetic properties would be of interest for plant lipid biotechnology to produce oils enriched in specialty fatty acids. In the present work, the FatA thioesterase from Helianthus annuus was used to test the impact of changes in the amino acids present in the binding pocket on substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency. Amongst all the mutated enzymes studied, Q215W was especially interesting as it had higher specificity towards saturated acyl-ACP substrates and higher catalytic efficiency compared to wild-type H. annuus FatA. Null, wild type and high-efficiency alleles were transiently expressed in tobacco leaves to check their effect on lipid biosynthesis. Expression of active FatA thioesterases altered the composition of leaf triacylglycerols but did not alter total lipid content. However, the expression of the wild type and the high-efficiency alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic seeds resulted in a strong reduction in oil content and an increase in total saturated fatty acid content. The role and influence of acyl-ACP thioesterases in plant metabolism and their possible applications in lipid biotechnology are discussed.

  2. Rapid analytical method for the determination of pesticide residues in sunflower seeds based on focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction prior to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados-Rosales, R C; Luque García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2003-04-18

    A rapid analytical method for determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in sunflower seeds based on focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction has been developed. The main factors affecting the extraction efficiency--namely microwave power, irradiation time, volume of extractant and number of cycles--were optimized by a two-level factorial fractional design. After extraction, a liquid-liquid extraction and a clean-up step including the use of Florisil macrocolumns were required prior to injection of the extracts into the chromatograph in order to isolate the pesticide residues from the lipid fraction of the original extract. The MS-MS ion preparation mode was selected due to the high sensitivity and selectivity it provides. Seed samples were used collected near a crop subjected to aerial pesticide application. Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and endosulfan were found in the seeds although they were not subjected to pesticide application, thus showing the spray-drift contamination. The validation of the proposed approach was carried out by comparison with the ISO 659-1988 reference extraction method obtaining similar, or even better efficiencies by the proposed approach.

  3. Effects of the Soil Incorporation of Increasing Amounts of Non-Fermented Wet Pomace on the Oil Yield and Acid Profile of Sunflower Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Di Caterina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of olive processing waste is a strategic resource in the integrated management of the agricultural system as it satisfies the two objectives of evacuating the olive-processing residue and using it beneficially for agricultural purposes. For such aims, a research was conducted in Bari (South of Italy to study the effects of the incorporation into the soil of increasing amounts of non-fermented wet pomace (WP (0, 17.5, 35, 70, 105, 140, 175, 210 Mg ha-1 on the oil yield and acid profile of sunflower seeds. The results obtained point out that the seed yield was negatively affected by the application of WP starting from 70 Mg ha-1; an opposite trend was observed for the seed oil yield. The incorporation of WP has also affected the oil fatty acids’ composition. Oleic and linoleic acids, the principal fatty acids (beyond 90% of total fatty acids, showed significant variations: from the control treatment to the one receiving the maximum application of waste, oleic acid decreased (-5.4%, linoleic acid increased (+ 6.6%, and the saturated fatty acids fraction decreased (-7.6%.

  4. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  5. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  6. Influence of canola and sunflower diet amendments on cattle feedlot manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Mir, Priya S; Shah, Mohammad A; Travis, Greg R

    2005-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) producers can replace a part of the traditional diet of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain/silage with sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seeds or canola meal (Brassica napus L.)/oil to enhance conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) content in milk and meat for its positive health benefits. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding sunflower or canola to finishing steers on cattle manure chemical properties and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The control diet contained 84% rolled barley and 15% barley silage, which provided only 2.6% lipid. The other six treatments had 6.6 to 8.6% lipid delivered from sources such as hay, sunflower seed (SS), canola meal/oil, and SS forage pellets. Manure samples (a mixture of cattle urine, feces, and woodchip bedding materials) were collected and analyzed after cattle had been on these diets for 113 d. The dietary source and level of lipid had no effect on organic N and nitrate N content in manure, but significantly affected ammonia N and VFA. Inclusion of SS forage pellets, hay, or canola meal/oil in cattle diets had no significant impact on manure characteristics, but SS significantly reduced the pH and increased propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric content. In addition, N loss after excretion (mainly from urine N) increases with the pH and N levels in both feed and manure. The combination of SS with barley silage resulted in a lower VFA and NH3 content in manure and should be a more attractive option. To better manage N nutrient cycles and reduce NH3 related odor problems, feed and manure pH should be one of the factors to consider when determining feed mix rations.

  7. Crescimento, desenvolvimento e retardamento da senescência foliar em girassol de vaso (Helianthus annuus L.: fontes e doses de nitrogênio Growth, development and delay of leaf senescence in pot-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.: sources and rates of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O girassol é a quarta oleaginosa em produção de grãos no mundo e alguns genótipos são usados com finalidade ornamental para flor de corte e de vaso (girassol de vaso. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes e doses de nitrogênio sobre alguns parâmetros de crescimento, desenvolvimento e no retardamento da senescência das folhas basais em girassol de vaso. Um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos foram: uréia, nitrato de amônio e nitrato de cálcio nas doses de 0, 50, 100 e 150mg L-1 de N na solução de fertirrigação, com duas aplicações semanais. O experimento foi um bi-fatorial (fontes e doses de N no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições. Cada repetição foi um vaso no 15 (1,3L, 15cm de altura com uma planta por vaso. As variáveis analisadas foram: número final de folhas, altura final de plantas, porcentagem de folhas senescentes no ponto de venda, porcentagem de folhas senescentes no final de vida de vaso, área foliar total da planta, filocrono e a soma térmica acumulada da emergência ao botão visível e da emergência ao ponto de venda. A fonte de N tem influência sobre a área foliar do girassol de vaso, sendo a uréia recomendável para o maior crescimento das folhas. A dose de N em torno de 100mg L-1 aplicada duas vezes por semana via fertirrigação favorece características desejáveis para a comercialização, como precocidade e retardamento da senescência das folhas.Sunflower is the fourth oil grain crop grown worldwide and some genotypes are used with ornamental purpose as cut and pot-grown flower. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sources and rates of nitrogen on some growth and developmental parameters, and on the delay of leaf senescence in pot-grown sunflower. An experiment was carried out inside a greenhouse in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Treatments were: urea, ammonium nitrate and

  8. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Bonnet, M; Chilliard, Y

    2012-04-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d experimental periods. Treatments were a grass hay-based diet with a high level of forage (F) or a high level of concentrate with either maize grain (CM) or flattened wheat (CW) as source of starch and supplemented with 130 g/d sunflower-seed oil. Milk yield was enhanced (Pdiets compared with the F diet, resulting in similar milk fat secretion. Both high-concentrate diets increased (Pdiet decreased (Pdiets differ between caprine and bovine ruminants.

  9. 向日葵病程相关蛋白 HaPR1基因的克隆与功能%Cloning and Function Analysis of Pathogenesis Related Protein Gene HaPR1 from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立功; 张匀华; 孟庆林; 石凤梅; 刘佳; 李易初; 王志英

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins are commonly used as markers of plant defense responses. The full-length cDNA of pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) named HaPR1 in Helianthus annuus was cloned based on the transcriptome of H. annuus induced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and its expression model and function were analyzed in this study. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA of HaPR1 (GenBank accession No. KR071874) contained a 489 bp ORF encoding a protein of 162 amino acids residues with the molecular mass of 17.52 kD and theoretical pI of 8.19, HaPR1 possessed six conserved cysteine and four con-served allergen V5/Tpx-1 related domain. The HaPR1 was highly homologous with PR1 in other species. Real-time PCR analysis showed that expression level of HaPR1 was the highest in leaf, and was significantly induced by drought, salt stress, oxalic acid, S. sclerotiorum and its metabolites. Then the HaPR1 gene was transformed into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens to further verify its function. The results showed that the expression of HaPR1 improved the resistance of transgenic lines, and significantly increased SOD, POD, and CAT activities and reduced the content of MDA. It suggested that HaPR1 has a function of resistance to S. sclerotiorum.%病程相关蛋白(pathogenesis-related proteins)经常被用作植物抗病反应的分子标记。本文在核盘菌诱导向日葵转录组文库的基础上克隆1个病程相关蛋白1基因 HaPR1的 cDNA 全长序列,并进行了表达模式和功能分析。结果表明,该基因 cDNA 全长开放阅读框为489 bp,编码162个氨基酸,分子量为17.52 kD,等电点为8.19,具有6个保守半胱氨酸,4个保守的 allergen V5/Tpx-1结构域, GenBank 登录号为 KR071874。经比较 HaPR1与多种物种 PR1高度同源。实时荧光定量 PCR 检测结果表明, HaPR1相对表达量在向日葵叶中最高,根中其次,茎中最低。干旱、盐、草酸、核盘菌及其代谢物均可显著诱导其表达。利用农

  10. 不同品种向日葵种子含油量和亚油酸含量的比较%Study on Oil and Octadecadienoic Acid Concentration in the Seeds of Different Sunflower Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    君睿红; 武岩; 李伟; 陈青; 陈贵林

    2012-01-01

    收集19个品种的向日葵,测定了不同品种向日葵种子千粒重和出仁率,采用超声波提取法从向日葵籽仁中提取籽油并计算其含量,用超高效液相色谱法测定籽油中亚油酸含量.结果表明:所测19份向日葵的籽仁含油量在36.89%~56.69%之间,向日葵籽油中主要不饱和脂肪酸亚油酸含量在39.95% ~ 66.49%之间.通过比较,初步筛选出2份高油高品质的向日葵品种,分别是食用向日葵青花和2份不同产地的油用向日葵T 562(美国)及T562(甘肃).%The seeds of 19 sunflower varieties collected from diffirent area were used for studying the oil and octadecadienoic acid content of different sunflower seeds using ultrasonic extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) Respectively. Results showed the oil concentration of seed kernels ranged from 36. 89% to 56. 69% ,the octadecadienoic acid concentration of seed oil ranged from 39. 95% to 66. 49% . It was preliminarily screened a confectionery sunflower Qinghua and oil sunflower T 652 (American) and T 562 (Gansu) as high oil and high quality varieties.

  11. 电场处理油葵种子对幼苗期生长的影响%Influence of the Electric Field Treatment of Oil sunflower Seed on the Growth of Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    征荣; 杨体强; 王海增; 李梦琏

    2001-01-01

    Oil sunflower seeds were treated in different electric field strength.The results are as follows,electric field influenced the germination of seeds and growth of seeding.Bomparison with check sample,the rate of germination of Oil sunflower seeds increased by 1.2%~10.8%,the rate of seed volume by 21.3%~150.96%,the rate of growth of seeding by 0.48%~23.30%,the rate of water potential and bound water by 7.51%~37.51% and 5.20%~35.58% respectively.%油葵种子经不同电场强度处理一定时间,实验结果表明,电场对种子萌发及幼苗生长均有一定的影响.与对照相比,电场作用后,油葵种子发芽率提高为1.2%~10.8%,根体积增长率为21.3%~150.96%,苗长的增长率为0.48%~23.3%,水势提高率为7.51%~37.51%,束缚水提高率为5.20%~35.58%.

  12. 葵花籽油中掺入少量地沟油的检测方法%Study of Determination for Hogwash Oil Mixed with Sunflower Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳鹏军

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry was successfully used to detect a spot of hogwash oil mixed in sunflower seed oil. Experiment results showed that the fluorescence intensity decreased from 7 673 to 3 555 in λex= 310 nm and λem = 345 nm respectively, when adding more than 10% of hogwash oil in fresh oil. The fluorescence intensity decreased nearly 4 118, which could be used as a criterion to verdict whether a fresh sunflower seed oil mixed with hogwash oil or not. This method is relatively sensitive, stable and suitable for detection of little hogwash oil mixed with fresh sunflower seed oil.%用三维荧光光谱法对葵花籽油中掺入少量地沟油进行了检测.结果表明,当加入地沟油的体积分数φ>10%时,在λex=310 nm,λem=345 nm处,葵花籽油相对荧光强度Ⅰ由7673迅速下降至3555,与新鲜葵花籽油相比,荧光强度下降了4118,由此可作为葵花籽油中是否掺入地沟油的判据.该方法灵敏、稳定,适合于葵花籽油中掺杂少量地沟油的测定.

  13. 影响葵花籽(仁)品质变化的因素及控制方法%Factors affected sunflower seeds (kernel) quality and control methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚云游; 姚玮

    2014-01-01

    Influencing factors of the quality changes of sunflower seeds ( kernel) during storage were re-searched. The effects of air, sunlight, temperature, moisture, impurity and sunflower seeds ( kernel) in-tact on quality changes of sunflower seeds ( kernel) during storage were studied. The method for control-ling or eliminating adverse influencing factors including the anti-sun, anti-moisture, moisture reduc-tion, improvement of intact rate, reductions of fragmentation rate and impurity content, plastic film sealed storage, short storage time were explored.%研究分析了葵花籽(仁)在储藏期间品质变化的影响因素。从空气、光照、温度、水分、杂质以及葵花籽(仁)完好程度6个方面对葵花籽(仁)在储藏期间品质变化的影响进行了研究。从防日晒、防潮湿、降低含水量、提高出成率、降低破碎率、降低杂质含量、采用塑料薄膜密闭储藏、缩短储藏时间方面探讨了控制或消除这些不利影响因素的方法。

  14. 不同储藏条件对油葵籽生理品质的影响研究%INFLUENCES OF STORAGE CONDITIONS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF OIL SUNFLOWER SEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 张来林; 顾祥明; 付刚

    2013-01-01

    We determined the physiological quality indicators of oil sunflower seeds under different storage conditions.The results showed that the color and smell of oil sunflower seeds changed abnormally,and the viability,germination rate and catalase activity deteriorated gradually as the storage time prolonged; and the deterioration degree was obvious when the temperature and moisture content increased.Therefore,low temperature and low moisture content are the key conditions for safe storage of oil sunflower seeds.%测定不同储藏条件下油葵籽生理指标的变化情况.结果表明:随着储藏时间的延长,油葵籽色泽、气味逐渐出现异常,生活力、发芽率和过氧化氢酶活度均呈逐渐下降的趋势,且温度和水分越高,下降趋势越明显.因此,低温、低水分是油葵籽安全储藏的主要条件.

  15. Indication of Genetic Linkage Map for Sunflower by SSR Markers%SSR分子标记丰富向日葵(Helianthus annuus L.)遗传图谱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄先群; Genzbitelle L.; Fabre F.; Saraffi A.

    2012-01-01

    为了提高向日葵遗传图谱的密度和实用性,以125个来源于PAC-2和RHA-266杂交的F(8)代重组自交系(RIIs)群体为材料,利用筒单序列重复(Simple sequence repeat,SSR)标记,采用MAPMARKER软件对向日英遗传图谱进行标注,并从300对SSR引物中筛选出51对多态性引物对群体进行标记.结果表明:①51对多态性引物中有19对引物无多态性或条带不清晰,32对引物表现多态性;②共检测到35个多态性位点,分布在图谱的15条连锁群上.③标记后的图谱总长度为2914.5 Cm,比原来的图谱增长7.5 Cm.④标记间平均距离由9.0 Cm缩短为8.1 Cm.%This study aimed to improve density and practicality of the genetic map of sunflower baaed on a 125 Fs RILa population derived from a cross between PAC-2 and RHA-266 by adding some SSR markers. A total of 300 pairs of SSR primers were used to screen polymorphic markers between the parents and some of their RILs, of which 51 pain of the primers showed polymorphism. The results of screening the RILs population revealed that 19 SSR primer without polymorphism or non-reading, 32 SSR pairs showed polymorphism with 35 alleles added into the map. They were distributed in the 15 linkage groups of the maps. The new map covered a total length of 2914.5 cM, 7.5 cM longer than the original map. The average distance between adjacent markers was 8.1 cM instead of original 9.0 cM.

  16. 香瓜子汤料水用香辛料煮制特性研究%Cooking Characteristics of Soup Water of Sunflower Seed Cooked with Spices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 宋宗庆; 李春保; 沈旭; 孙艳艳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究香瓜子汤料水用香辛料煮制特性,确定多种料包的配比及更换频次.[方法]采用分先光度法对8种香辛料煮制后溶液的吸光度进行了检测,并采用挥发油残留测定法对煮制后的香辛料挥发油残留进行了测定.[结果]枸杞子和花椒的利用限制为2锅(4 h);金银花、胡椒、干姜、八角和丁香限制在3锅(6 h)以内;而甘草可在3~4锅范围内(6~10 h)进行调整.枸杞子和花椒可混合,更换频次为1次/2锅;胡椒、金银花、干姜、八角和丁香可混合,更换频次为1次/3锅;甘草不宣与其他香料混合,更换频次为1次/4锅.[结论]为香瓜子煮制工艺研究提供了理论依据.%[ Objective ] Cooking characteristics of soup water of sunflower seed cooked with spices were studied in order to make sure the proportion and changing frequency of different spices. [ Method] Absorbances of soup water of 8 spices were determined by spectrophotometric method,and volatile oil residues of 2 spices were determined. [ Result] Wolfoerry fruit and Chinese prickly ash could be cooked for 2 pots (4 h);honeysuckle, pepper, dried ginger, aniseed and clove should be limited in 3 pots (6 h) ;while glycyrrhiza could be cooked within 3 ~4 pots (6 ~ 10 h). Wolfberry fruit and Chinese prickly ash could be mixed, with changing frequency of 1 time/2 pots;honeysuckle, pepper, dried ginger, aniseed and clove could be mixed, with changing frequency of 1 time/3 pots;while glycyrrhiza shouldn' t be mixed with the other spices, with changing frequency of 1 time/4 pots. [ Conclusion] The research provides theoretical basis for studies on cooking technology of sunflower seed.

  17. The Effect of Water Stress and Polymer on Water Use Efficiency, Yield and several Morphological Traits of Sunflower under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein NAZARLI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In many part of Iran, the reproductive growth stages of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. are exposed to water deficit stress. Therefore, the investigation of irrigation management in the farm conditions is a necessary element for increasing irrigation efficiency and decreasing water losses. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of different rates of super absorbent polymer and levels of water stress on water use efficiency (WUE, yield and some morphological traits of sunflower (cultivar Master. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with 3 replications. Factors were water stress in three levels (irrigation in 0.75; 0.50 and 0.25% of field capacity and super absorbent polymer in five levels (0; 0.75; 0.150; 2.25; 3 g/kg of soil. Super absorbent polymer was added in eight leaves stage of sunflower to pots in deepness of roots development. Water stress treatment was also applied in this growth stage of sunflower. For stress application, pots were weighted every day and irrigated when soil water received to 0.75; 0.50 and 0.25 of field capacity, respectively. The results of ANOVA indicated that the effect of different rates of super absorbent polymer and different rates of consumed water in all traits were significant. ANOVA also revealed that the interactive effects of two mentioned factors were significant except for seed yield trait. Polynomial model based on the ANOVA results was fitted for each trait. The results indicated that water stress significantly convert in decreasing the number of leaves per plant, chlorophyll content, 100 weight of seeds, seed yield and WUE in sunflower, whereas the application of super absorbent polymer moderated the negative effect of deficit irrigation, especially in high rates of polymer (2.25 and 3 g/kg of soil. The above mentioned rates of polymer have the best effect to all characteristics of sunflower in all levels of water stress treatment. The findings

  18. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the U.S. Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Paul J; Charlet, Laurence D; Seiler, Gerald J

    2011-02-01

    Classical biological control programs often target a pest's region of origin as a likely source for new biological control agents. Here, we use this approach to search for biological control agents of the sunflower stem weevil (Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte), an economically important pest of commercial sunflower. We conducted surveys of weevil natural enemy diversity and abundance across a transect running from the northern Great Plains to the southwestern U.S. (the presumed area of endemism of annual sunflower species in the genus Helianthus). Accordingly, natural enemy diversity and abundance were expected to be greater in the southwestern U.S. C. adspersus and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states. Native H. annuus constituted the majority of the sunflower populations. Mean weevil densities were significantly higher in sunflower stalks that were larger in diameter. Mean weevil densities within sites did not differ across the range of longitudes and latitudes sampled. After accounting for the effects of stalk diameter and location, weevil densities did not differ among the four sunflower species nor did they differ as a function of elevation. C. adspersus in H. annuus and H. petiolaris were attacked by seven species of parasitoids. No parasitoids were found attacking C. adspersus in H. nuttallii or H. pauciflorus stalks. C. adspersus were twice as likely to be attacked by a parasitoid when feeding on H. petiolaris than H. annuus. Furthermore, the likelihood that C. adspersus would be parasitized decreased with increasing elevation and increasing stem diameters. All parasitoid species have been previously reported attacking C. adspersus larvae in cultivated sunflower. Species richness was less diverse in these collections than from previous studies of cultivated sunflower. Our findings suggest that the species

  19. Effect of Particle Size and Geometry on the Performance of Single-layer and Three-layer Particleboard Made from Sunflower Seed Husks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia N. Cosereanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of particle size and geometry on the physical (density, water absorption, and thickness swelling, thermal, and mechanical (modulus of elasticity, bending strength, internal bond strength, and screw holding strength properties of single-layer and three-layer particleboards made from sunflower seed husks were investigated. Panels manufactured from particles with various sizes using a urea-formaldehyde adhesive had densities ranging from 535 to 682 kg/m3. The adhesive ratio was at a level of 16% for the single-layer mat configuration; for the three-layer structure, levels of 14% for the core and 16% for the faces were used, based on the weight of particles. The best results occurred in single-layer particleboard made from fine particles, which nearly met the general purpose requirements of the EN 312 Standard. Determination of the thermal conductivity coefficient demonstrated good insulation properties of all panels and their potential use for different structural configurations which are not subjected to strong stresses, suitable for interior design.

  20. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of liver from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves/sunflower seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, B; Oyedemi, S; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2012-08-01

    The study investigated antioxidant potency of Moringa oleifera leaves in different in vitro systems using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidative effect on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were investigated in goats supplemented with M. oleifera (MOL) or sunflower seed cake (SC). The acetone extract had higher concentrations of total flavonoids (295.01 ± 1.89 QE/g) followed by flavonols (132.74 ± 0.83 QE/g), phenolics (120.33 ± 0.76 TE/g) and then proanthocyanidins (32.59 ± 0.50 CE/g) than the aqueous extract. The reducing power of both solvent extracts showed strong antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner. The acetone extract depicted higher percentage inhibition against DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals which were comparable with reference standard antioxidants (vitamin C and BHT). MOL increased the antioxidant activity of GSH (186%), SOD (97.8%) and catalase (0.177%). Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by MOL. The present study suggests that M. oleifera could be a potential source of compounds with strong antioxidant potential.

  1. Impact of combining planting date and chemical control to reduce larval densities of stem-infesting pests of sunflower in the central plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Meyer, Ron F; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa

    2007-08-01

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The incidence of a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also has increased. Experiments were conducted in three locations in Colorado and Kansas during 2001-2003 to investigate the potential of combining planting date and foliar and seed treatment insecticide applications to lower insect stalk densities of these three pests. The impact of these strategies on weevil larval parasitoids also was studied. Eight sunflower stem weevil larval parasitoid species were identified. All were Hymenoptera and included the following (relative composition in parentheses): Nealiolus curculionis (Fitch) (42.6%), Nealiolus collaris (Brues) (3.2%) (Braconidae), Quadrastichus ainsliei Gahan (4.2%) (Eulophidae), Eurytoma tylodermatis Ashmead (13.1%) (Eurytomidae), Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead) (33.7%), Chlorocytus sp. (1.6%), Pteromalus sp. (0.5%) (Pteromalidae), and Eupelmus sp. (1.0%) (Eupelmidae). The results from this 3-yr study revealed that chemical control was often reliable in protecting the sunflower crop from stem pests and was relatively insensitive to application timing. Although results in some cases were mixed, overall, delayed planting can be a reliable and effective management tool for growers in the central Plains to use in reducing stem-infesting pest densities in sunflower stalks. Chemical control and planting date were compatible with natural mortality contributed by C. adspersus larval parasitoids.

  2. Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Christov, Michail; Bohorova, Natasha; Petrov, Peter; Dudov, Kalin; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jaques

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in

  3. Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Christov, Michail; Bohorova, Natasha; Petrov, Peter; Dudov, Kalin; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jaques

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in

  4. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficients for irrigated sunflower in the southern high plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is diverse crop grown for oil or confectionary uses in the Southern High Plains often under irrigation. Crop water use (evapotranspiration or ET) was measured in 2009 and 2011 in two 4-ha fields using two precision 9 m**2 weighing lysimeters containing 2.3-m deep mo...

  5. Sources of resistance to sunflower diseases in a global collection of domesticated USDA plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) and head rot (HR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary are traditionally major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the United States, while Phomopsis stem canker (PSC) caused by Phomopsis helianthi Munt.-Cvet. et. al. has increasingly become damaging in...

  6. Lipid characterization of seed oils from high-palmitic, low-palmitoleic, and very high-stearic acid sunflower lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Vega, María J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2005-04-01

    Information obtained in recent years regarding the enzymes involved in FA synthesis can now be applied to develop novel sunflower lines by incorporating enzymes with specific characteristics into lines with a defined background. We have generated three highly saturated mutant lines in this way and characterized their FA content. The new high-palmitic, low-palmitoleic lines CAS-18 and CAS-25, the latter on a high-oleic background, have been selected from the high-stearic mutant CAS-3 by introducing a deficient stearic acid desaturase in a high-palmitic background from the previously developed mutant lines CAS-5 and CAS-12, respectively. As such, the desaturation of palmitic acid and the synthesis of palmitoleic acid and its derivatives (asclepic and palmitolinoleic acids) were reduced in these high-palmitic lines, increasing the stearic acid content. Likewise, introducing a FA thioesterase from a high-palmitic line (e.g., CAS-5) into the high-stearic CAS-3 increased the stearic acid content from 27 to 32% in the new high-stearic line CAS-31. As previously described in high-palmitic lines, high growth temperatures did not reduce the linoleic acid content of the oil. Furthermore, the FA composition of TAG, DAG, and phospholipids was modified in these lines. Besides a high degree of saturation, the TAG from these new vegetable oils have a low content of saturated FA in the sn-2 position. The alpha asymmetric coefficient obtained also indicates that the saturated FA are asymmetrically distributed within the TAG molecules. Indeed, the disaturated TAG content rose from 31.8 to 48.2%. These values of disaturated TAG are the highest to date in a temperate oilseed.

  7. Design of Sunflower Seed Sorting System Based on Computer Vision Technology%基于计算机视觉技术的向日葵种子分选系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽娟

    2017-01-01

    As one of the four major oil crops in the world,A separation system for sunflower seed is designed based on computer vision technology combined with near infrared technology . This design consists of a computer vision system, an infrared generator, an image acquisition card, an black and white camera, 40 W ring light, white photographic paper , a X - ray image processing workstation, an Air supply system and a 2-DOF robot. The sunflower seeds with different oil content have some Characteristic difference in its image under near infrared light and this design can separates the seed based on the difference. The separation is verifies through chemical analysis method and The results showed that the sepa-ration made by the system design is accurate and effective. Based on precision agriculture,this sunflower seed separation system provide a convenient and efficient method to improve sunflower seed market prices and the efficiency.%针对世界四大主要油料作物之一的向日葵种子的分选问题,结合近红外技术和计算机视觉技术,进行了根据向日葵种子内部含油率高低不同的自动分选系统设计开发。依据不同含油率种子在近红外光下的成像特征,将向日葵种子区分为两个级别。该系统由 Labview 计算机视觉系统、红外光发生器、图像采集卡、黑白照相机、40 W 的环形灯、白色的照相纸及 X 射线图像处理工作站组成。运用所设计样机进行向日葵种子分选试验,结果表明:与化学分析方法相比较,本系统设计含油率分选准确,从而为满足不同市场需求的向日葵种子分选提供一种方便、快捷的方法,提高了向日葵种子的市场价格经济效益。

  8. Double fertilization in Helianthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Telżyńska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After controlled pollination of Helianthus annuus L. florets, the whole course of fertilization is described and documented on 24 microphotos. The timing of events is evaluated. The average cell cycle in the proembryo is 2 hours and the nuclear cycle in endosperm - 60 minutes.Plasmoptysis is suggested as the mechanism of pollen tube opening in the synergid. The structure of the thread-like sperm nucleus is interpreted as an end to end union of chromosomes, and the morphological changes of the sperm nuclei are explained as folding and coiling, based on a spiralization mechanism of chromosomes. Cytochemical observations indicating ribosome formation in the course of the nuclear cycles in the endosperm are described. The mechanisms accelerating nuclear cycles in the endosperm are discussed.

  9. Fresh and matured lamb meat quality fed with sunflower seeds and vitamin E Qualidade da carne in natura e maturada de cordeiros alimentados com grãos de girassol e vitamina E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Oliveira Sales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate meat quality from Ile de France lamb fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds and vitamin E. Thirty-two lamb weighing initially 15kg were housed in individual stalls and slaughtered when body weight reached 32kg. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets: D1 sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds; D2 sugarcane + concentrate with sunflower seeds; D3 sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds plus 1000mg vitamin E kg-1 diet dry matter (DM; and D4 sugarcane + concentrate with sunflower seeds and 1000mg vitamin E kg-1 diet DM. The parameters temperature, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force and water holding capacity were determined at maturation times of 0, 7 and 14 days on the Longissimus dorsi muscle. Qualitative characteristics of the meat were not affected by the sunflower seed combined with vitamin E diet; however, pH 24 hours was affected (P0.05 by diet or maturation times. On the other hand, shear force and water holding capacity were significantly affected (PO objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade da carne de cordeiros Ile de France alimentados com dietas contendo grãos de girassol e vitamina E. Trinta e dois cordeiros pesando inicialmente 15kg foram alojados em baias individuais e abatidos ao atingir 32kg de peso corporal. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dietas experimentais: D1 cana-de-açúcar + concentrado sem grãos de girassol; D2 cana-de-açúcar + concentrado com grãos de girassol; D3 cana-de-açúcar + concentrado grãos de girassol, mais 1000mg de vitamina E kg-1 de matéria seca (MS da dieta; e D4 cana-de-açúcar + concentrado com grãos de girassol e 1000mg de vitamina E dieta kg-1 de MS. Os parâmetros temperatura, pH, cor, perda de peso ao cozimento, força de cisalhamento e capacidade de retenção de água foram determinados nos tempos de maturação de 0, 7 e 14 dias no músculo Longissimus dorsi. As características qualitativas da carne n

  10. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the non-carcass components and the meat of lambs fed sunflower seeds and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ludmila Lins Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the weight and percentage of the non-carcass components and the mineral content (macro minerals and trace minerals, crude protein, ether extract, moisture and vitamin E of the heart, liver, tongue, lungs, reticulum, kidneys and meat from the longissimus dorsi of lambs in feedlot finishing. Thirty-two non-castrated Ile de France male lambs, fed diets containing sunflower seeds and vitamin E from 15 to 32 kg of body weight were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The weight of the gastrointestinal tract was higher in the lambs fed diets containing vitamin E (10%. No difference was observed in the liver as to the mineral matter, crude protein, ether extract, moisture (2.01; 20.03; 2.39 and 74.78 g/100 g, respectively, the macro minerals and trace minerals, except iron. In the tongue, lungs, reticulum, kidneys and meat there was no in fluence of diets in the studied variables. The liver and the meat presented different values of crude protein (20.01 and 18.34 g/100 g, respectively, and the heart (1.03 mg/100 g showed a higher content of vitamin E. High contents of manganese, zinc and copper were observed in the liver. The evaluated non-carcass components were nutritionally equal to the sheep meat, once, in addition to their high yield in relation to the body weight at slaughter, the non-carcass components are sources of nutrients.

  11. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  12. Subcutaneous adipose fatty acid profiles and related rumen bacterial populations of steers fed red clover or grass hay diets containing flax or sunflower-seed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee M Petri

    Full Text Available Steers were fed 70∶30 forage∶concentrate diets for 205 days, with either grass hay (GH or red clover silage (RC, and either sunflower-seed (SS or flaxseed (FS, providing 5.4% oil in the diets. Compared to diets containing SS, FS diets had elevated (P<0.05 subcutaneous trans (t-18:1 isomers, conjugated linoleic acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA. Forage and oilseed type influenced total n-3 PUFA, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA and total non-conjugated diene biohydrogenation (BH in subcutaneous fat with proportions being greater (P<0.05 for FS or GH as compared to SS or RC. Of the 25 bacterial genera impacted by diet, 19 correlated with fatty acids (FA profile. Clostridium were most abundant when levels of conjugated linolenic acids, and n-3 PUFA's were found to be the lowest in subcutaneous fat, suggestive of their role in BH. Anerophaga, Fibrobacter, Guggenheimella, Paludibacter and Pseudozobellia were more abundant in the rumen when the levels of VA in subcutaneous fat were low. This study clearly shows the impact of oilseeds and forage source on the deposition of subcutaneous FA in beef cattle. Significant correlations between rumen bacterial genera and the levels of specific FA in subcutaneous fat maybe indicative of their role in determining the FA profile of adipose tissue. However, despite numerous correlations, the dynamics of rumen bacteria in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid and synthesis of PUFA and FA tissue profiles require further experimentation to determine if these correlations are consistent over a range of diets of differing composition. Present results demonstrate that in order to achieve targeted FA profiles in beef, a multifactorial approach will be required that takes into consideration not only the PUFA profile of the diet, but also the non-oil fraction of the diet, type and level of feed processing, and the role of rumen microbes in the BH of unsaturated fatty acid.

  13. Catalase is a key enzyme in seed recovery from ageing during priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibinza, Serge; Bazin, Jérémie; Bailly, Christophe; Farrant, Jill M; Corbineau, Françoise; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2011-09-01

    Ageing induces seed deterioration expressed as the loss of seed vigour and/or viability. Priming treatment, which consists in soaking of seeds in a solution of low water potential, has been shown to reinvigorate aged seeds. We investigate the importance of catalase in oxidation protection during accelerated ageing and repair during subsequent priming treatment of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. Seeds equilibrated to 0.29g H2Og(-1) dry matter (DM) were aged at 35°C for different durations and then primed by incubation for 7 days at 15°C in a solution of polyethylene glycol 8000 at -2MPa. Accelerated ageing affected seed germination and priming treatment reversed partially the ageing effect. The inhibition of catalase by the addition of aminotriazol during priming treatment reduced seed repair indicating that catalase plays a key role in protection and repair systems during ageing. Ageing was associated with H2O2 accumulation as showed by biochemical quantification and CeCl3 staining. Catalase was reduced at the level of gene expression, protein content and affinity. Interestingly, priming induced catalase synthesis by activating expression and translation of the enzyme. Immunocytolocalization of catalase showed that the enzyme co-localized with H2O2 in the cytosol. These results clearly indicate that priming induce the synthesis of catalase which is involved in seed recovery during priming.

  14. Chromosomal evolution and patterns of introgression in helianthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb, Jessica G; Bowers, John E; Renaut, Sebastien; Rey, Juan I; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the nature and extent of karyotypic differences between species provides insight into the evolutionary history of the genomes in question and, in the case of closely related species, the potential for genetic exchange between taxa. We constructed high-density genetic maps of the silverleaf sunflower (Helianthus argophyllus) and Algodones Dune sunflower (H. niveus ssp. tephrodes) genomes and compared them to a consensus map of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus) to identify chromosomal rearrangements between species. The genetic maps of H. argophyllus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes included 17 linkage groups each and spanned 1337 and 1478 cM, respectively. Comparative analyses revealed greater divergence between H. annuus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes (13 inverted segments, 18 translocated segments) than between H. annuus and H. argophyllus (10 inverted segments, 8 translocated segments), consistent with their known phylogenetic relationships. Marker order was conserved across much of the genome, with 83 and 64% of the H. argophyllus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes genomes, respectively, being syntenic with H. annuus. Population genomic analyses between H. annuus and H. argophyllus, which are sympatric across a portion of the natural range of H. annuus, revealed significantly elevated genetic structure in rearranged portions of the genome, indicating that such rearrangements are associated with restricted gene flow between these two species.

  15. A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Sunflower Market in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Miran

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oil is the most preferred vegetable oil in Turkey. 35% of total consumption of vegetable oil issunflower oil. Sunflower seed import is approximately 500-650 thousand tons while sunflower seedproduction is 800-850 thousand tons in the last years. The main objective of this study is to determine thereasons of deficiency of vegetable oil in Turkey and to suggest some solutions. For this objective, theprospective situation and the market structure of sunflower seed in Turkey has estimated. “One productpartial equilibrium analysis” has been used to estimate the future market structure of sunflower seed. Asimulation model from 2003 to 2015 has been created with partial equilibrium analysis. Turkey is a netimporter of vegetable oils. Sunflower seed import is approximately 300 thousand tons while crude oil importis approximately 180 thousand tons in 2002. According to the results of simulation model, Turkey willcontinue to be a net importer for sunflower and other oil seeds. It has been estimated that the sunflower seedimport will be approximately 1 million tons and crude oil import will be approximately 400 thousand tons atend of the simulation period (2003-2015.

  16. 温度和盐胁迫对油葵种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响%Effect of temperature and salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth of oil-sunflower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉梁; 裴怀弟; 石有太; 陈炳东; 王蒂

    2011-01-01

    Effects of temperature and concentration of salt stress were studied on germination energy, germination rate and physiological - biochemical characteristics of the seedlings of oil - sunflowers. Experiment demonstrated that; under the same temperature, with increased salt concentration, germination energy and germination rate of oil - sunflowers were decreased; germination time was extended; growth of radicles was inhibited; length of young buds and fresh weight of seedlings were decreased. Relative seeping of electrolyte of leaves- and roots of seedlings and activities of SOD and POD increased initially and then decreased after that. Under the same concentration of salt stress, germination energy and germination rate of oil - sunflowers increased with the higher temperature, which showed the thermophilus characteristics of oil - sunflowers. This experiment demonstrated that during the germination of oil - sunflower seeds, the salt stress under high - temperature or mild - temperature was beneficial to seeds germination, and the seedlings adapted better to salt stress.%通过测定不同温度和盐胁迫浓度对油葵种子发芽势、发芽率和幼苗生理生化特性指标的影响,发现相同温度条件下,随着盐浓度的升高,油葵种子的发芽势、发芽率呈降低趋势,发芽时间延迟,胚根的生长受到抑制,胚根长、子叶鲜重均呈现下降的趋势;油葵幼苗的叶片和根系的电解质相对外渗率,SOD、POD活性均呈现先升后降的趋势.相同浓度盐胁迫下,油葵种子的发芽势和发芽率随温度的升高而升高,表现出喜温的特性,说明油葵种子在萌发阶段,适宜的高温条件有利于其种子发芽,幼苗对盐胁迫也有较强的适应能力.

  17. Genetic variability and correlation studies in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheshaiah and Shankergoud I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to investigate genetic variability and to understand the relationship and contribution of characters towards total dry matter and root length. The investigation was carried out at Main Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Raichur during Rabi 2012-13, 32 genotypes were evaluated in RBD fashion under root structures. At flowering stage all morphological and root characters were scored. The total dry matter content was assessed after drying the root, stem, leaf, petiole and flower of the plant at 70 0C in an oven.. High GCV coupled with high PCV recorded for most of the characters except stem girth, SPAD reading and number of leaves, indicating more variability for these traits and are less influenced by the environment. High heritability coupled with high GAM reported for all the traits under study suggested for the greater effectiveness for selection and improvement expected for these traits in future generations. The total dry matter and root length had very highly significant positive association with plant height, root volume, fresh root weight, dry root weight, fresh stem weight, dry stem weight, fresh leaf weight and dry leaf weight indicating the importance of root characters in determining the moisture stress tolerance and putforthing the total dry matter content of the plant.

  18. Linearity assumption in soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and radium in Helianthus annuus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P. Blanco [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Tome, F. Vera [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Fernandez, M. Perez [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Lozano, J.C. [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    The linearity assumption of the validation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) grown in a hydroponic medium. Transfer of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested in both the aerial fraction of plants and in the overall seedlings (roots and shoots). The results show that the linearity assumption can be considered valid in the hydroponic growth of sunflowers for the radionuclides studied. The ability of sunflowers to translocate uranium and {sup 226}Ra was also investigated, as well as the feasibility of using sunflower plants to remove uranium and radium from contaminated water, and by extension, their potential for phytoextraction. In this sense, the removal percentages obtained for natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra were 24% and 42%, respectively. Practically all the uranium is accumulated in the roots. However, 86% of the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration in roots was translocated to the aerial part.

  19. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanupat Mornkham

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011 yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides.

  20. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornkham, Tanupat; Wangsomnuk, Preeya Puangsomlee; Fu, Yong-Bi; Wangsomnuk, Pinich; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran

    2013-04-29

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011) yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides.

  1. Development of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Siniša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of tribenuron-methyl resistant wild Helianthus annuus L. population (ANN-KAN created an opportunity for expansion of sunflower herbicide resistance breeding program. The aim of this study was development of sunflower hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Creation of tribenuron-methyl resistant hybrids would enable the use of a wider palette of herbicides for sunflower, more efficient chemical control of Cirsium arvense and more economically profitable post-emergence control of some annual broad-leaves weeds in sunflower. Original populations SURES-1 and SURES-2 are homozygous for resistance to tribenuron-methyl. F1 generations produced from the crossings are completely resistant to tribenuron-methyl, pointing out to dominant way of inheritance of this trait. Studies on the exact number of genes controlling the resistance are in progress. Tribenuron-methyl resistance was transferred from original populations into a number of female and male inbred lines of cultivated sunflower. These inbred lines could enable creation of a number of hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Hybrids SUMO-1-PR, SUMO-2- OR and SUMO-3 are resistant to doubled application dose of tribenuron-methyl. Agronomical characteristics of these hybrids are on the level with the leading conventional sunflower hybrids.

  2. Evapotranspiration, water productivity and crop coefficients for irrigated sunflower in the U.S. Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is diverse crop grown for oil or confectionary uses in the Southern High Plains often under irrigation. Crop water use (evapotranspiration or ET) was measured in 2009 and 2011 in two 4-ha fields using two precision 9 m**2 weighing lysimeters containing 2.3-m deep mo...

  3. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  4. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados em comedouros privativos recebendo rações contendo semente de girassol Performance and carcass traits of lambs fed diets containing sunflower seed in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo Macedo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho e as características quali e quantitativas da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com ração contendo semente de girassol. Utilizaram-se 16 cordeiros distribuídos aleatoriamente em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0,00; 6,60; 13,20 ou 19,80% de semente de girassol na matéria natural, cada um com quatro repetições, totalizando 16 cordeiros. As dietas continham 2,65; 2,78; 2,89 e 2,93 Mcal/kg de energia metabolizável e 18,38; 18,75; 19,98 e 21,18% de proteína bruta, respectivamente, e foi fornecida ad libitum. Os cordeiros foram pesados a cada 14 dias e mantidos com as ovelhas até atingirem 28 kg, quando foram abatidos, após jejum de sólidos por 18 horas, para obtenção do peso vivo ao abate e registro do peso da carcaça quente e do conteúdo gastrintestinal, utilizados no cálculo do peso de corpo vazio. As carcaças foram mantidas por 24 horas em câmara frigorífica em temperatura de 5ºC para obtenção do peso de carcaça fria. Os níveis de semente de girassol na dieta não afetaram as características de desempenho dos cordeiros. No entanto, os pesos de carcaça quente e de carcaça fria; os pesos de pescoço, baixo, paleta, costela descoberta, costela, lombo; e os rendimentos comerciais de carcaça e costela descoberta, costela, lombo, paleta, pescoço e baixo sofreram efeito da adição da semente de girassol. O fornecimento de semente de girassol na dieta não influencia as características qualitativas e morfométricas da carcaça de cordeiros.Performance and quantitative and qualitative carcass traits of lambs fed with diets containing sunflower seed were evaluated. Sixteen lambs were randomly distributed to a completely randomized design with four diets (0.00, 6.60, 13.20 or 19.80% of sunflower seed, % as fed, with 4 replications. The diets contained 2.65, 2.78, 2.89 and 2.93 Mcal / kg of metabolize energy and 18.38, 18.75, 19.98 and 21.18% crude protein

  5. SUMO-Dependent Synergism Involving Heat Shock Transcription Factors with Functions Linked to Seed Longevity and Desiccation Tolerance

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    Raúl Carranco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptional synergism between HaHSFA9 (A9 and HaHSFA4a (A4a contributes to determining longevity and desiccation tolerance of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L. seeds. Potential lysine SUMOylation sites were identified in A9 and A4a and mutated to arginine. We show that A9 is SUMOylated in planta at K38. Although we did not directly detect SUMOylated A4a in planta, we provide indirect evidence from transient expression experiments indicating that A4a is SUMOylated at K172. Different combinations of wild type and SUMOylation site mutants of A9 and A4a were analyzed by transient expression in sunflower embryos and leaves. Although most of the precedents in literature link SUMOylation with repression, the A9 and A4a synergism was fully abolished when the mutant forms for both factors were combined. However, the combination of mutant forms of A9 and A4a did not affect the nuclear retention of A4a by A9; therefore, the analyzed mutations would affect the synergism after the mutual interaction and nuclear co-localization of A9 and A4a. Our results suggest a role for HSF SUMOylation during late, zygotic, embryogenesis. The SUMOylation of A9 (or A4a would allow a crucial, synergic, transcriptional effect that occurs in maturing sunflower seeds.

  6. The HaDREB2 transcription factor enhances basal thermotolerance and longevity of seeds through functional interaction with HaHSFA9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranco Raúl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factor HaDREB2 was identified in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. as a drought-responsive element-binding factor 2 (DREB2 with unique properties. HaDREB2 and the sunflower Heat Shock Factor A9 (HaHSFA9 co-activated the Hahsp17.6G1 promoter in sunflower embryos. Both factors could be involved in transcriptional co-activation of additional small heat stress protein (sHSP promoters, and thus contribute to the HaHSFA9-mediated enhancement of longevity and basal thermotolerance of seeds. Results We found that overexpression of HaDREB2 in seeds did not enhance longevity. This was deduced from assays of basal thermotolerance and controlled seed-deterioration, which were performed with transgenic tobacco. Furthermore, the constitutive overexpression of HaDREB2 did not increase thermotolerance in seedlings or result in the accumulation of HSPs at normal growth temperatures. In contrast, when HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 were conjointly overexpressed in seeds, we observed positive effects on seed longevity, beyond those observed with overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone. Such additional effects are accompanied by a subtle enhancement of the accumulation of subsets of sHSPs belonging to the CI and CII cytosolic classes. Conclusion Our results reveal the functional interdependency of HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 in seeds. HaDREB2 differs from other previously characterized DREB2 factors in plants in terms of its unique functional interaction with the seed-specific HaHSFA9 factor. No functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 was observed when both factors were conjointly overexpressed in vegetative tissues. We therefore suggest that additional, seed-specific factors, or protein modifications, could be required for the functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9.

  7. [Possible uses of sunflower in proper human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorić, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    The sunflower is the main oil crop in Serbia and one of the four major oil crops on the global scale. The seed of commercial sunflower crops being grown today consists most commonly of 45-53% oil and 15-18% protein. Unfortunately, sunflower seed protein has traditionally been underused in the human diet in Serbia. The amino acid composition of sunflower protein is quite favorable. In addition to oil and protein, sunflower kernels contain tocopherols, minerals, and vitamins. The sunflower is also a major honey plant, as sunflower plants produce over 40 kg of nectar and over 80 kg of pollen per area unit (hectare) under normal circumstances. Standard sunflower oil is linoleic in character, but induced mutations have been used to obtain genotypes with a high-oleic acid content of the oil (> 85%), thus enabling the development of high-oleic sunflower hybrids. Induced mutations have also been used to obtain genotypes with high levels of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. The predominant tocopherol in standard sunflower oil is the alpha one, but sunflower genotypes have now been developed using spontaneous and induced mutations that predominantly contain beta, gamma, and delta tocopherols. Various developments in the field of genetics have made it possible to develop sunflower hybrids with different oil profiles in terms of fatty acid composition and tocopherol type and amount. The thermo-oxidative stability of the new types of sunflower oil is significantly higher than that of standard sunflower oil. Of the new types of sunflower, it is the high-oleic hybrids that have found the widest application in commercial production. It is expected that the future sunflower hybrids combining high levels of oleic and stearic acids with gamma tocopherol will become a major component of a healthy human diet. The development of new consumption sunflower hybrids with an increased protein content and altered oil quality will lead to the development of a large number of novel final

  8. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  9. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Mercer

    Full Text Available Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking

  10. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  11. Mutation breeding in sunflower for resistance to alternaria leaf spot

    OpenAIRE

    de Marcelo Oliveira F.; Tulmann Augusto Neto; Regina Leite M.V.B.C.; Vania Castiglioni B.R.; Arias C.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic variability for resistance to Alternarla leaf spot disease (Alternaria helianthi) can be induced by radiation or chemical mutagens. The objectives of this study were to create genetic variability in cultivated sunflower and to select lines resistant to Alternaria leaf spot. In the first experiment, sunflower seeds of the genotype HA BR 104 were irradiated with 150 and 165 Gy of gamma rays. Seeds were sown in the field at the Embrapa Soybean experimental station, in Londrina, PR, Brazi...

  12. Co-localization of putative calcium channels (phenylalkylamine-binding sites) on oil bodies in protoplasts from dark-grown sunflower seedling cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana, Shweta; Bhatla, Satish C

    2009-07-01

    Oil bodies are spherical entities containing a triacylglycerol (TAG) matrix encased by a phospholipid monolayer, which is stabilized by oil body-specific proteins, principally oleosins. Biochemical investigations in the recent past have also demonstrated the expression of calcium-binding proteins, called caleosins, as a component of oil body membranes during seed germination. Using DM-Bodipy-phenylalkylamine (PAA; a fluorescent derivative of phenylalkylamine)-a fluorescent probe known to bind L-type calcium channel proteins, present investigations provide the first report on the localization and preferential accumulation of putative calcium channel proteins on/around oil bodies during peak lipolytic phase in protoplasts derived from dark-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Morden) seedling cotyledons. Specificity of DM-Bodipy-PAA labeling was confirmed by using bepridil, a non-fluorescent competitor of PAA while non-specific dye accumulation has been ruled out by using Bodipy-FL as control. Co-localization of fluorescence from DM-Bodipy-PAA binding sites (ex: 504 nm; em: 511 nm) and nile red fluorescing oil bodies (ex: 552 nm; em: 636 nm) has been undertaken by epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). It revealed the affinity of PAA-sensitive ion channels for the oil body surface. Findings from the current investigations highlight the significance of calcium and calcium channel proteins during oil body mobilization in sunflower.

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HETEROSIS AND GENETIC DISTANCES BASED ON SSR MARKERS IN HELIANTHUS ANNUUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Usatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the best inbred combinations for the development of commercial hybrid of sunflower remains the main challenge to sunflower breeders. In the present research the level of heterosis of F1 hybrids, genetic diversity of parental lines based on SSR markers, as well as its connection with specific combining ability of sunflower were studied. Ten sunflower elite inbred lines (3 restorer lines and 7 cytoplasmic male sterility lines and their hybrids were examined for plant height, seed yield, thousand seed mass, oil content and husk content. Field tests were carried out in 5-6 seasons. The level of heterosis was calculated using measurement of midparent heterosis. Genetic distance between pairs of tested sunflower inbred lines ranged from 0.45 to 0.74. Significant positive correlation was found between genetic distances among lines, measured using SSR markers and midparent heterosis for seed yield of hybrids (r = 0.79 p<0.05. The correlation between genetic distances and the level of midparent heterosis for other studied agronomic traits was not reliable. The dependence of seed yield of hybrids on genetic distances among parental lines may be used for planning of effective crossbreeding of sunflower. Further research is needed to determine the best inbred combinations for the development of commercial hybrid of sunflower.

  14. Characterization and modelling of the hydrophobic domain of a sunflower oleosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lucille G; Sessions, Richard B; Clarke, Anthony R; Tatham, Arthur S; Shewry, Peter R; Napier, Johnathan A

    2002-02-01

    The oleosins are a group of hydrophobic proteins present on the surface of oil bodies in seeds, where they are thought to prevent coalescence. They contain a central hydrophobic domain of 68-74 residues that is thought to form a loop into the triacylglycerol matrix of the oil body, but the conformation adopted by this sequence is uncertain. We have therefore expressed an oleosin cDNA from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Escherichia coli as a fusion with maltose-binding protein (MBP) and isolated a peptide corresponding to the hydrophobic domain by sequential digestion with factor Xa (to remove the MBP) followed by trypsin and Staphylococcus V8 protease to remove the N- and C-terminal domains of the oleosin. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of the peptide in two solvent systems chosen to mimic the environment within the oil body (trifluoroethanol and SDS) demonstrated high proportions of alpha-helical structure, with no beta-sheet. A model was therefore developed in which the domain forms an alpha-helical hairpin structure, the two helices being separated by a turn region. We consider that this model is consistent with our current knowledge of oleosin structure and properties.

  15. Control of Leaf Expansion by Nitrogen Nutrition in Sunflower Plants : ROLE OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND TURGOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, J W; Boyer, J S

    1982-04-01

    Nitrogen nutrition strongly affected the growth rate of young sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. When plants were grown from seed on either of two levels of N availability, a 33% decrease in tissue N of expanding leaves was associated with a 75% overall inhibition of leaf growth. Almost all of the growth inhibition resulted from a depression of the daytime growth rate. Measurements of pressure-induced water flux through roots showed that N deficiency decreased root hydraulic conductivity by about half. Thus, N deficiency lowered the steady-state water potential of expanding leaves during the daytime when transpiration was occurring. As a result, N-deficient leaves were unable to maintain adequate turgor for growth in the daytime. N deficiency also decreased the hydraulic conductivity for water movement into expanding leaf cells in the absence of transpiration, but growth inhibition at night was much less than in the daytime. N nutrition had no detectable effects on plastic extensibility or the threshold turgor for growth.

  16. 糖尿病患者应用葵花油预防皮肤感染的效果与机制研究%Effect and mechanism of sunflower seed oil for patients with diabetic dermopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炫谕; 栗东生; 敖丽丽; 安利平; 梁有稷

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究糖尿病患者应用葵花油预防皮肤感染的效果及相关机制,为临床治疗提供参考。方法对医院2011年4月-2014年4月诊治的120例糖尿病患者进行分析,随机分为两组:对照组、葵花油组,每组各60例,对照组患者不使用任何油剂,葵花油组患者皮肤表面涂抹葵花油,评估两组患者皮肤状态、病原菌分布以及血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、还原性谷胱甘肽(GSHpx)水平变化,针对患者皮肤干燥程度进行评分,采用世界卫生组织细菌耐药性监测网提供的WHONE5.5软件和SPSS20.0软件对数据进行统计分析。结果糖尿病患者应用葵花油第14天后皮肤评分明显降低,且应用葵花油第56天与第28天的效果明显好于第14天,而对照组患者皮肤评分无明显变化;糖尿病患者应用葵花油后病原菌的分布无明显变化,但是病原菌总数明显降低;糖尿病患者皮肤应用葵花油后血清中脂质过氧化物MDA水平明显降低,而SOD、CAT和GSHpx水平明显升高,与对照组患者比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论葵花油能有效改善糖尿病患者皮肤状态,抑制皮肤表面病原菌数量,其通过改善患者血清内氧化还原酶类发挥作用。%OBJECTIVE To explore the effect and mechanism of sunflower see d oil for patients with diabetic der-mopathy so as to provided reference for clinical treatment .METHODS Totally 120 cases of diabetic patients in our hospital during Apr .2011 to Apr .2014 were divided into two groups ,the control group ,the sunflower seed oil group ,with 60 cases in each ,the control group was not treated with any oil (n=60) ,and the sunflower seed oil group was treated with the sunflower seed oil .The skin conditions and distribution of pathogens as well as chan-ges in serum SOD ,MDA ,CAT and GSHpx were evaluated and the skin dryness was

  17. The Metabolism of Sunflower Phytoalexins Ayapin and Scopoletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Beni; Robeson, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The coumarin phytoalexins ayapin and scopoletin accumulate in longitudinal stem sections of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Compositae) following inoculation with fungi both pathogenic (Alternaria helianthi) and nonpathogenic (Helminthosporium carbonum) to this plant. Both compounds were induced more rapidly, and they attained higher levels in tissue inoculated with the heterologous pathogen H. carbonum as compared with the sunflower pathogen A. helianthi. Similarly, scopoletin and ayapin accumulated to comparatively low concentrations following inoculation with a second sunflower pathogen, Phoma macdonaldii. Scopoletin was biosynthesized de novo following inoculation, although levels of its glucoside scopolin exceeded those of the aglucone in both infected and control tissues. Both scopoletin and scopolin were routinely detected in trace amounts in uninoculated tissue. In contrast, ayapin was not detected as a component of uninfected plants. When [14C]scopoletin was supplied to induced sunflower stem sections about 36% of the recovered radioactivity was in the form of ayapin. In vitro studies demonstrated that A. helianthi possessed the ability to rapidly degrade both scopoletin and ayapin, whereas H. carbonum was much less efficient in these traits. The differential degradation of these compounds by phytopathogenic fungi which do not attack sunflower is also discussed. PMID:16664986

  18. Modeling and analysis of a density-dependent stochastic integral projection model for a disturbance specialist plant and its seed bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, Eric Alan; Rebarber, Richard; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    In many plant species dormant seeds can persist in the soil for one to several years. The formation of these seed banks is especially important for disturbance specialist plants, as seeds of these species germinate only in disturbed soil. Seed movement caused by disturbances affects the survival and germination probability of seeds in the seed bank, which subsequently affect population dynamics. In this paper, we develop a stochastic integral projection model for a general disturbance specialist plant-seed bank population that takes into account both the frequency and intensity of random disturbances, as well as vertical seed movement and density-dependent seedling establishment. We show that the probability measures associated with the plant-seed bank population converge weakly to a unique measure, independent of initial population. We also show that the population either persists with probability one or goes extinct with probability one, and provides a sharp criteria for this dichotomy. We apply our results to an example motivated by wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) populations, and explore how the presence or absence of a "storage effect" impacts how a population responds to different disturbance scenarios.

  19. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  20. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  1. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganó, M.C.; Toso, G.; Caille, G.; Mangenot, C.; Lager, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding spat

  2. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  3. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared.

  4. Whole Plant Utilization of Sunflowers as a Renewable Source of Strategic Materials (Rubber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-14

    a tetraploid . Both have a basic chromosome number of n-17. No reports of attempted hybridization with Helianthus are known (Heiser et al., 1969). A...genus includes both annuals and perennials, with considerable natural hybridization . Most species have a chromosome number of n-17. Tithonia (Mexican...domestic hybrid through hybridization with wild species. D. Breeding and Selection. Sunflowers are easily cross-bred, and hybridize so frequently in the

  5. Phylogeny of Helianthus and related genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Edward E.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular phylogenetic studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of Helianthus, although several problems remain to be resolved. Molecular data have resolved problems with the circumscription of Helianthus. Its sister group is Phoebanthus, a narrowly distributed genus of two species from the state of Florida. The sister group to the Helianthus-Phoebanthus clade is a diverse set of taxa that occurs in Mexico and South America. These include species now classified as part of the paraphyletic Viguiera as well as such distinctive genera as Tithonia, Simsia, Pappobolus, Scalesia, Lagascea, and Alvordia. Incongruence between results based on chloroplast and nuclear-based data sets suggests that hybridization has been involved in the evolutionary history of this group. The nearest outgroup to the clade containing Helianthus is composed of members of Viguiera sect. Maculatae, which are trees and shrubs of Mexico. Other basally diverging groups in the subtribe Helianthinae to which Helianthus belongs are primarily woody members now classified in Viguiera from Mexico and nearby areas. Within Helianthus, divergence appears to be recent, based on an overall lack of divergence between species. The chloroplast-based tree suggests that Helianthus includes four phylogenetic lineages, whereas the nuclear ITS sequence data suggests that the perennial species are paraphyletic relative to the rest of the genus, with basally diverging branches consisting of species confined to the southeastern US. Because there is a lack of divergence among many groups of species, more variable markers will be required to resolve fully relationships within Helianthus.

  6. Testes de envelhecimento acelerado e deterioração controlada na avaliação do vigor de aquênios de girassol Accelerated aging and controlled deterioration seeds vigour tests for sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon Rodrigues Sá Braz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os testes de vigor têm sido desenvolvidos para diferenciar os lotes de sementes devido às limitações impostas pelo teste de germinação. O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar a eficiência dos testes de envelhecimento acelerado e deterioração controlada na avaliação do vigor de lotes de aquênios de girassol. Para tanto, cinco lotes de aquênios (sementes com o pericarpo de girassol da cultivar "Catissol 01" foram submetidos à determinação do grau de umidade e à avaliação da qualidade fisiológica, empregando os testes de germinação e vigor (primeira contagem, teste de frio, condutividade elétrica, emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência, envelhecimento acelerado pelos sistemas tradicional e com solução saturada de NaCl a 42°C por 48, 72, 96 horas e deterioração controlada com teor inicial de água de 15, 20, 25% por 48, 72, 96 horas a 42°C. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o teste de envelhecimento acelerado com solução saturada de NaCl por 96 horas foi eficiente para classificar os lotes de aquênios de girassol. As combinações de 20% de água nos aquênios por 72 horas de exposição e de 25% de água nos aquênios por 48 e 72 horas de exposição permitem classificar os lotes de aquênios de girassol.The vigour tests were developed to detect differences of seeds lots owing to limitations the germination test. This study was conducted to compare different procedures of the accelerated aging and controlled deterioration tests to evaluate sunflowers seed vigour. Five lots of sunflower achenes (seeds with pericarp cv. Catissol 01 were submitted to the water content test and to the evaluation of physiological quality using by germination and vigour test (first count, cold test, electrical conductivity, seedling emergence and speed of emergence index, accelerated aging with tradicional system and satured solution of NaCl, at 42°C for 48, 72, 96 hours and controlled deterioration with 15, 20

  7. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  8. Chloroplast SSR polymorphisms in the Compositae and the mode of organellar inheritance in Helianthus annuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, David M; Hester, Melissa L; Liu, Aizhong; Burke, John M

    2005-03-01

    Because organellar genomes are often uniparentally inherited, chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymorphisms have become the markers of choice for investigating evolutionary issues such as sex-biased dispersal and the directionality of introgression. To the extent that organellar inheritance is strictly maternal, it has also been suggested that the insertion of transgenes into either the chloroplast or mitochondrial genomes would reduce the likelihood of gene escape via pollen flow from crop fields into wild plant populations. In this paper we describe the adaptation of chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) for use in the Compositae. This work resulted in the identification of 12 loci that are variable across the family, seven of which were further shown to be highly polymorphic within sunflower (Helianthus annuus). We then used these markers, along with a novel mtDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), to investigate the mode of organellar inheritance in a series of experimental crosses designed to mimic the initial stages of crop-wild hybridization in sunflower. Although we cannot rule out the possibility of extremely rare paternal transmission, our results provide the best evidence to date of strict maternal organellar inheritance in sunflower, suggesting that organellar gene containment may be a viable strategy in sunflower. Moreover, the portability of these markers suggests that they will provide a ready source of cpDNA polymorphisms for use in evolutionary studies across the Compositae.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M; Berry, Simon T; Leon, Alberto J; Slabaugh, Mary B; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K; Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J

    2007-09-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression(-)the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines ( = 0.0094) than wild populations ( = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome ( approximately 3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping.

  10. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  11. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves da Rocha-Filho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  12. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M.; Berry, Simon T.; Leon, Alberto J.; Slabaugh, Mary B.; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K.; Burke, John M.; Knapp, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression−the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines (θ = 0.0094) than wild populations (θ = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome (∼3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping. PMID:17660563

  13. Turning heads: the biology of solar tracking in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Brown, Evan A; Harmer, Stacey L; Blackman, Benjamin K

    2014-07-01

    Solar tracking in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, is a dramatic example of a diurnal rhythm in plants. During the day, the shoot apex continuously reorients, following the sun's relative position so that the developing heads track from east to west. At night, the reverse happens, and the heads return and face east in anticipation of dawn. This daily cycle dampens and eventually stops at anthesis, after which the sunflower head maintains an easterly orientation. Although shoot apical heliotropism has long been the subject of physiological studies in sunflower, the underlying developmental, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that drive the directional growth and curvature of the stem in response to extrinsic and perhaps intrinsic cues are not known. Furthermore, the ecological functions of solar tracking and the easterly orientation of mature heads have been the subject of significant but unresolved speculation. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge about this complex, dynamic trait. Candidate mechanisms that may contribute to daytime and nighttime movement are highlighted, including light signaling, hormonal action, and circadian regulation of growth pathways. The merits of the diverse hypotheses advanced to explain the adaptive significance of heliotropism in sunflower are also considered.

  14. Association mapping and the genomic consequences of selection in sunflower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Mandel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM, indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval.

  15. Association mapping and the genomic consequences of selection in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R; Nambeesan, Savithri; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2013-03-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching) and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM), indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval.

  16. Simple sequence repeat map of the sunflower genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S.; Yu, J.-K.; Slabaugh, B.; Shintani, K.; Knapp, J.

    2002-12-01

    Several independent molecular genetic linkage maps of varying density and completeness have been constructed for cultivated sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.). Because of the dearth of sequence and probe-specific DNA markers in the public domain, the various genetic maps of sunflower have not been integrated and a single reference map has not emerged. Moreover, comparisons between maps have been confounded by multiple linkage group nomenclatures and the lack of common DNA markers. The goal of the present research was to construct a dense molecular genetic linkage map for sunflower using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, 879 SSR markers were developed by identifying 1,093 unique SSR sequences in the DNA sequences of 2,033 clones isolated from genomic DNA libraries enriched for (AC)(n) or (AG)(n) and screening 1,000 SSR primer pairs; 579 of the newly developed SSR markers (65.9% of the total) were polymorphic among four elite inbred lines (RHA280, RHA801, PHA and PHB). The genetic map was constructed using 94 RHA280 x RHA801 F(7) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and 408 polymorphic SSR markers (462 SSR marker loci segregated in the mapping population). Of the latter, 459 coalesced into 17 linkage groups presumably corresponding to the 17 chromosomes in the haploid sunflower genome ( x = 17). The map was 1,368.3-cM long and had a mean density of 3.1 cM per locus. The SSR markers described herein supply a critical mass of DNA markers for constructing genetic maps of sunflower and create the basis for unifying and cross-referencing the multitude of genetic maps developed for wild and cultivated sunflowers.

  17. The genetic architecture of UV floral patterning in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brook T; Owens, Gregory L; Baute, Gregory J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2017-07-01

    The patterning of floral ultraviolet (UV) pigmentation varies both intra- and interspecifically in sunflowers and many other plant species, impacts pollinator attraction, and can be critical to reproductive success and crop yields. However, the genetic basis for variation in UV patterning is largely unknown. This study examines the genetic architecture for proportional and absolute size of the UV bullseye in Helianthus argophyllus , a close relative of the domesticated sunflower. A camera modified to capture UV light (320-380 nm) was used to phenotype floral UV patterning in an F 2 mapping population, then quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing and linkage mapping. The ability of these QTL to predict the UV patterning of natural population individuals was also assessed. Proportional UV pigmentation is additively controlled by six moderate effect QTL that are predictive of this phenotype in natural populations. In contrast, UV bullseye size is controlled by a single large effect QTL that also controls flowerhead size and co-localizes with a major flowering time QTL in Helianthus . The co-localization of the UV bullseye size QTL, flowerhead size QTL and a previously known flowering time QTL may indicate a single highly pleiotropic locus or several closely linked loci, which could inhibit UV bullseye size from responding to selection without change in correlated characters. The genetic architecture of proportional UV pigmentation is relatively simple and different from that of UV bullseye size, and so should be able to respond to natural or artificial selection independently.

  18. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Škorić Dragan; Kraljević-Balalić Marija

    2003-01-01

    The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean va...

  19. Adaptação do teste de tetrazólio para avaliação da viabilidade e do vigor de sementes de girassol Adaptation of the tetrazolium test for assessment of sunflower seed viability and vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Carvalho da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar metodologias para realização do teste de tetrazólio, na avaliação da viabilidade e do vigor de sementes de girassol, e estabelecer classes de qualidade para interpretação do teste. Foram avaliadas diferentes formas de extração do pericarpo e do tegumento das sementes, além do pré-condicionamento em água por 16 e 18 horas (25°C e da coloração em solução de tetrazólio (30ºC, nas concentrações de 0,1 e 0,5%, por 2, 3 e 4 horas; e de 1,0%, por 1, 2 e 3 horas. Após a definição da metodologia mais adequada para realização do teste, classes de vigor foram estabelecidas de acordo com a emergência das plântulas no campo. Foram identificadas cinco classes, as quais apresentaram correlação perfeita com a emergência. Para avaliar a viabilidade das sementes de girassol, o pericarpo e o tegumento devem ser retirados após corte longitudinal com até 1/3 do comprimento da semente, o pré-condicionamento deve ser feito pela imersão em água por 16 horas, e a coloração deve ser realizada em solução de tetrazólio a 0,1%, durante 3 horas.The objective of this work was to evaluate methodologies for performing the tetrazolium test in the evaluation of the viability and vigor of sunflower seeds, and to establish seed quality classes for test interpretation. Different methodologies were evaluated for extracting the pericarp and seed coat, besides water priming for 16 and 18 hours (25°C, and staining with tetrazolium solution (30ºC at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5%, for 2, 3, and 4 hours; and of 1.0%, for 1, 2, and 3 hours. After the definition of the most adequate methodology for performing the test, vigor classes were established according to seedling emergence on field. Five vigor classes were established, which had perfect correlation with seedling emergence. For the viability assessment of sunflower seeds, the pericarp and the seed coat should be removed after a lengthwise cut of up

  20. Development of an ultra-dense genetic map of the sunflower genome based on single-feature polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Bowers

    Full Text Available The development of ultra-dense genetic maps has the potential to facilitate detailed comparative genomic analyses and whole genome sequence assemblies. Here we describe the use of a custom Affymetrix GeneChip containing nearly 2.4 million features (25 bp sequences targeting 86,023 unigenes from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and related species to test for single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs in a recombinant inbred line (RIL mapping population derived from a cross between confectionery and oilseed sunflower lines (RHA280×RHA801. We then employed an existing genetic map derived from this same population to rigorously filter out low quality data and place 67,486 features corresponding to 22,481 unigenes on the sunflower genetic map. The resulting map contains a substantial fraction of all sunflower genes and will thus facilitate a number of downstream applications, including genome assembly and the identification of candidate genes underlying QTL or traits of interest.

  1. Investigation of Correlation between Traits and Path Analysis of Confectionary Sunflower Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    SINCIK, Mehmet; Abdurrahim Tanju GOKSOY

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. This study examined the relationships between various traits associated with seed and crude protein yields of confectionary sunflower as well as the direct and indirect effects of these traits on crude protein yield. Eight open-pollinated confectionary sunflower populations and two open-pollinated confectionary sunflower cultivars used as control varieties were evaluated during two growing seasons (2009 and 2010). Certain agronomical and technological traits such as plant height, he...

  2. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  3. Changes in Cell Membrane Permeability in Sunflower Hypocotyls Infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, J G

    1972-03-01

    Influx and efflux of water and urea and electrolyte leakage are less for sunflower (Helianthus annuus) hypocotyl sections above lesions caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than for those from healthy plants. Urea uptake by sections above lesions is reduced (celery, squash, and tomato) or unchanged (bean) in other hosts after Sclerotinia infection. Efflux of urea from sunflower hypocotyls is biphasic, suggesting diffusion in series from two cellular compartments (cytoplasm and vacuole). Efflux during the fast phase was 7 to 20 times greater than that during the slow phase. No difference was noted in urea efflux from healthy and diseased tissues during the slow phase. However, efflux during the fast phase from diseased tissues was slower than from healthy tissues, suggesting that the increased resistance to diffusion of urea in host cells above lesions resides in the plasmalemma. Water movement across cell membranes of healthy and diseased sunflower hypocotyls was reduced when tissues were treated with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate.

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: sunflower [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thus_annuus_S.png Helianthus_annuus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Helianthus+annuu...s&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Helianthus+annuus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Helianthus+annuus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Helianthus+annuus&t=NS ...

  5. Influence of light on DNA content of Helianthus annuus Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H J; Johnston, J S

    1996-10-01

    Mean nuclear 2C DNA content (C equaling haploid DNA per nucleus) of the first leaf of the sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is influenced by the quality and the quantity of light. Seedlings of two inbred lines, RHA 299 and RHA 271 were germinated and grown in controlled environmental conditions. Lighting was adjusted to provide different combinations of photon flux densities and red to far red (R:FR) ratios. At R:FR = 5.8 and photon flux densities of 170 mumol.m-2.s-1, 200 mumol.m-2.s-1, and 230 mumol.m-2.s-1, DNA content remained high and relatively constant (x = 6.97 pg for RHA 271 and x = 7.32 pg for RHA 299). When the photon flux density range (R:FR = 5.8) was elevated to 350 mumol.m-2.s-1, 410 mumol.m-2.s-1, and 470 mumol.m-2.s-1, mean DNA content was reduced to 6.23 pg (RHA 271) and 6.46 pg (RHA 299). At R:FR = 1.5, mean DNA content was consistently high (7.2-7.9 pg) only at the lowest photon flux density of 170 mumol.m-2.s-1. Significant decreases in DNA content (densities of 200 mumol.m-2.s-1 and 230 mumol.m-2.s-1. At the higher photon flux densities (350 mumol.m-2.s-1, 410 mumol.m-2.s-1, and 470 mumol.m-2.s-1) and R:RF = 1.5, the plants had extremely low DNA contents (mean x = 3.36 pg for RHA 271 and 3.41 pg for RHA 299) and high between-plant variance. The instability of DNA content, particularly for plants grown under light that is far red rich, suggests that phytochromes may be involved in regulating DNA content of the sunflower.

  6. CASTOR BEAN AND SUNFLOWER INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN ROW ARRANGEMENT: BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Miranda Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment field was carried in the agricultural seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010, with aim of studying the response of castorbean (Ricinus communis L. intercropping with sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in row arrangement in the dryland farming conditions. In addition, it was evaluated the biological efficiency of plants in intercropping systems.The design used in the experiment was randomized block with seven treatement and four replications. The treatments were represented by rows of castor oil (Ma and sunflower (Gi listed below: 1Ma:1Gi; 1Ma:2Gi; 1Ma:3Gi; 2Ma:2Gi; 2Ma:3Gi; castor and sunflower in the monoculture. The efficiency of intercropping was measured by LER, ATER, LEC, average between LER and ATER, SPI and CoR. The grain yield of castor bean and sunflower were reduced in intercropped row arrangements. The row arrangement 1Ma:2Gi showed the smallest reduction of average productivity of castor beans and sunflower in the evaluation period of the experiment. The castor bean was the dominant crop in relation to sunflower.

  7. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carolina Viganó; Giovanni Toso; Gerard Caille; Cyril Mangenot; Lager, Ioan E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding spatial density fits a Taylor amplitude tapering law which guarantees the pattern requirements in terms of beamwidth and sidelobe level. Different configurations, based on a Voronoi cell spatial tessel...

  8. Biologically active antimicrobial and antioxidant substances in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatrcová-Šramková, Katarína; Nôžková, Janka; Máriássyová, Magda; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the content of flavonoids, polyphenols, and carotenoids in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen. It was also to evaluate the ability of the dried, frozen, and freeze-dried extracts of sunflower (H. annuus) pollen, its scavenged free radicals and reducing action. Another aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial in vitro action of the H. annuus pollen extracts against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. All pollen extracts showed medium antiradical activity and reductive ability. The most effective was the freeze-dried extract in both evaluation systems. The evaluation of the protective effects of DNA using a biosensor showed an opposite trending-frozen ˃ dried ˃ freeze-dried pollen. For the evaluation of antiradical activity, the DPPH method was used, and reductive ability was assessed by means of phosphomolybdic complex formation. The comparison of the polyphenols content shows higher values in freeze-dried bee pollen than in the dried and frozen pollen. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the frozen samples and the most carotenoids were present in the dried samples. In our study, the best antibacterial effects of the dried sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best inhibitory properties of the frozen sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paenibacillus larvae. Very good inhibitory effects of freeze-dried sunflower bee pollen were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Brochotrix thermosphacta, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best antifungal activity of the sunflower bee pollen was found in the frozen bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus ochraceus and freeze-dried bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus niger.

  9. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  10. Image Analysis of Geo-Induced Inhibition, Compression, and Promotion of Growth in an Inverted Helianthus annuus L. Seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D C; Macdonald, I R; Hart, J W; Berg, A

    1984-11-01

    The growth responses of a sunflower seedling (Helianthus annuus L.), subjected to repeated inversion, were characterized by time-lapse recording in conjunction with video image analysis. The investigation revealed a characteristic response pattern and established that the directional movement of the seedling is achieved by both inhibition and stimulation of growth in the normal growing regions. The complex growth changes in contiguous regions of the hypocotyl are such as seem to be inexplicable in terms of an environmentally imposed gradient of a single growth substance.

  11. Optimization of the Yield of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes), Cultivated on a Sunflower Seed Hull Substrate Produced in Argentina: Effect of Olive Oil and Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, Maximiliano A; Cubitto, Maria Amelia; Curvetto, Nestor Raul

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower seed hulls were used as the main component of a solid substrate for the cultivation of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. This study evaluated the effects of supplementing the substrate with olive oil and copper (II) on the mushroom production (MP) parameters and fruiting body total triterpenoid content. The addition of 1.5% olive oil increased total MP by 21.7% (dry basis) in 3 flushes. Copper (60 ppm) increased the daily productivity of the first flush (MP per day) by both reducing the time needed to harvest the crop and increasing the MP. However, the MP at the second and third flushes was reduced. When both supplements were combined, the MP at the first flush was 43% higher than with control treatment. No significant change in mushroom total triterpenoid content was observed by the addition of supplements to the substrate. An increase of 145-155% in the mushroom copper content was obtained by the addition of 60 ppm copper to the substrate. It is thus recommended to use substrate formulations containing both olive oil and copper (II) and harvest just the first flush.

  12. Study on Displacement Control of Flaveria bidentis Kuntze with Alfalfa and Sunflower%紫花苜蓿和向日葵对黄顶菊的替代控制机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞海; 付卫东; 张国良; 张衍雷

    2012-01-01

    黄顶菊是2001年新发现的外来入侵杂草,替代控制是控制其蔓延的主要途径之一.为探寻对黄顶菊有替代控制作用的植物,该研究通过室内和大田试验,分析了紫花苜蓿Medicago sativa和向日葵Helianthus annuus对黄顶菊Flaveria bidentis的竞争效应.结果表明:黄顶菊水浸提液对2种植物的种子萌发无抑制作用;而紫花苜蓿水浸提液对黄顶菊的种子萌发具有抑制作用,体积质量分数为0.1g/mL时,黄顶菊种子发芽率降低到32%;紫花苜蓿产生的化感物质主要抑制黄顶菊种子胚根的生长.向日葵水浸提液对黄顶菊种子萌发影响不明显.向日葵与低密度紫花苜蓿和黄顶菊混种,能够使黄顶菊株高、分枝数和生物量受到明显的抑制,并能使每平方米黄顶菊植株数量显著地降低.%Flaveria bidentis Kuntze is a new invasive weed discovered in 2001 in China, and displacement control is a main approach to checking its spread. In a study reported in this paper, the effect of competition between F. bidentis and alfalfa or sunflower was investigated in the lab and in the field. The results showed that the germination of alfalfa and sunflower seeds treated with the aqueous extract of F. bidentis was not inhibited, but the germination of F. bidentis seeds was suppressed by the extract of alfalfa. F. bidentis seeds treated with alfalfa extract at 0. lg/mL gave a germination rate of 32% only. Further investigation revealed that the allelopathic substance produced by alfalfa retarded the growth of the radicle of F. bidentis while the extract of sunflower had no such effect. Branch number, plant height, biomass and plant density of F. bidentis were markedly restrained by low density alfalfa and sunflower planted in the field.

  13. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  14. Technical Efficiency of Sunflower Production in Trakya Region by DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Unakitan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine how efficiently the resources are used in sunflowerproduction in Turkey. The data used in efficiency measurements covers the provinces Tekirdag, Kırklareliand Edirne in Trakya region which is the most important area of sunflower seed production. The productionarea of sunflower is about 307 thousand hectares, 57% of total sunflower sown area in Turkey and theamount of production is 498 thousand metric tons, 62% of the total sunflower production. 197 farmers wereinterviewed face to face to obtain the data. Efficiency measurements are made by means of the DataEnvelopment Analysis (DEA with respect to constant return to scale for each province. The Efficiencyscores is decomposed into pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency for getting more information fromthe measurements. Total sunflower production (kg is used as the output and land (decar; labour (hour,tractor use (hour, nitrogen fertilizer use (kg, seed use (kg and pesticide (kg are considered as the maininputs. Average technical efficiency score covering all the provinces is estimated as 0.672. Although none ofthe provinces produces sunflower efficiently, Tekirdag province is relatively more successful in input use.Tekirdag province has the highest pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency score. Considering all theregions, the reason for inefficiency is not optimal production but not producing a certain output withminimum input. Yield is a factor that increases efficiency.

  15. AVALIAÇÃO FENOLÓGICA DE CULTIVARES DE GIRASSOL (Helianthus annuus, L. EM UBERABA/MG – SAFRA 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES, Bernardo Melo Montes Nogueira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. can be used in manufacturing of ration, silage, oil for human consumption, in floriculture and feeding birds, as well as being excellent raw material for biodiesel production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of 18 sunflower genotypes during the second crop in Uberaba, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment was installed on March 10th 2009, using the 0.75 m spacing between rows. The trial was conducted in a randomized block design (RBD. The treatments consisted of 18 cultivars. There was a difference (p<0,05 in the yield of grain and only four cultivars shown higher yield than the overall average. Also, significant differences (p<0,05 were observed in relation to plant height and height of the chapter. Cultivar HLT 5004 was lower than all showing the lowest weight of 1,000 seeds. Cultivars ZENIT, EXP 1452 CL, AGROBEL 960 (T and M 734 (T were superior to others with higher rates of size chapters. Regarding the number of days after sowing in each cultivar entered the flowering and reached the reproductive stage, there were low averages are indicating that cultivars with a shorter cycle. The sunflower can be used as an off-season option in the crop rotation scheme in Uberaba/MG. O girassol (Helianthus annuus, L. pode ser utilizado na fabricação de ração, silagem, óleo para consumo humano, na floricultura e alimentação de pássaros, além de ser excelente matéria prima para produção de biodiesel. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as características agronômicas de 18 genótipos de girassol na época da safrinha em Uberaba, Minas Gerais. O experimento foi instalado no dia 10/03/2009, utilizando-se o espaçamento de 0,75 m entre linhas. O ensaio foi conduzido em delineamento em blocos ao acaso (DBC. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por 18 cultivares. Houve diferença significativa (p<0,05 em relação ao rendimento de aquênios, em que quatro

  16. 日粮添加油葵籽和亚麻籽对奶牛乳脂CLA和脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of the Sunflower Seed and the Flaxseed on Milk CLA and Composition of Milk Fatty Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉斌; 王强; 吴建平

    2013-01-01

    本文主要研究了奶牛日粮添加植物油籽引起原料乳脂肪酸组成情况及CLA含量变化的影响,初步探讨改善牛奶脂肪酸构成、提高乳脂中CLA含量的途径.选取45头泌乳期荷斯坦牛,分为3组,以不添加油籽为对照组,以添加油葵籽和亚麻籽作为两个试验处理组,采用完全随机试验设计,测定乳脂中脂肪酸含量.结果显示,日粮中添加油葵籽和亚麻籽实能显著提高乳脂中CLA、EPA、DHA和PUFA的含量(P<0.05),降低月桂酸(C12:0)、棕榈酸(C16:0)、硬酯酸(C18:0)等饱和脂肪酸水平,多不饱和与饱和脂肪酸(PUFA/SFA)之比显著高于对照组(P<0.05),分别提高92.32%和36.37%.乳脂中CLA(c9t11t,10t12c)比例油葵籽和亚麻籽两个处理组依次比对照组提高了161.01% (P<0.05)和53.18% (P<0.05);油葵籽组的EPA、DHA含量分别较对照组提高80.91%和196.20%,亚麻籽组的EPA、DHA含量分别较对照组提高143.32%和255.84%.日粮中添加植物油料籽实,优化了乳脂肪酸的构成,油葵籽对乳脂中CLA的提高效果比亚麻籽更好.%Forty-five Chinese Holstein lactating cows were used to study the effects of adding the sunflower seed and the flaxseed of oil plants on CLA content and composition of bovine milk fatty acids. Experimental design used a randomly design ( control group, sunflower seed group, and flaxseed group) . The results showed that, feeding oil seeds riched in linoleic or linolenic acids would alter the bovine milk fatty acids ratio, increased the content of CLA, EPA, DHA and PUFA significantly(P<0.05), and decreased concentration of C12:0, C16:Oand C18:0. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid(PUFA/SFA) was increased by 92.32% in oil sunflower seed group, and 36.37% in flaxseed group respectively, significantly higher than that in control group(P<0.05). Compared with the control group, CLA content in oil sunflower seed group was significantly increased by

  17. Confectionery products (halva type obtained from sunflower: production technology and quality alterations. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower "halva" is a popular and widely enjoyed confectionery product specific to the countries of Eastern Europe. Conventional halva has historically been produced from sesame seeds in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, in the production of halva in Eastern Europe, sesame seeds have been largely replaced by sunflower seeds, due to the high availability of sunflower in this region and the comparable taste of the final product. Due to the importance of the cost of raw materials in the food industry, utilization of sunflower seeds in halva production may be of great interest worldwide because it offers the possibility of significantly lowering production costs. Nevertheless, oil separation and storage techniques must be perfected if sunflower halva is to fulfill its promise of becoming a cost effective alternative to sesame seed halva on a worldwide scale. The aims of this review are firstly, to describe the current state of sunflower halva technology, secondly, to isolate the main problems affecting the quality of the final product, and thirdly, to suggest areas of further research necessary to move sunflower halva production closer to reaching its full potential on the world market.

  18. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  19. Residual nutational activity of the sunflower hypocotyl in simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity dependence of circumnutational activity in the sunflower hypocotyl is investigated under conditions of simulated weightlessness. Seedling cultures of the sunflower Helianthus annuus were placed four days after planting in clinostats rotating at a rate of 1.0 rpm in the horizontal or somersaulting configurations, and plant movements around their growth axes were recorded in infrared light by a time-lapse closed-circuit video system. The amplitudes and mean cycle durations of the plant nutations in the horizontal and tumbling clinostats are observed to be 20% and 72%, and 32% and 74%, respectively, of the values observed in stationary plants; extrapolations to a state of zero g by the imposition of small centripetal forces on horizontally clinostated plants also indicate some nutational motion in the absence of gravity. It is concluded that the results are incompatible with the model of Israelsson and Johnsson (1967) of geotropic response with overshoot for sunflower circumnutation; however, results of the Spacelab 1 mission experiment are needed to unambiguously define the role of gravitation.

  20. The catalytic properties of hybrid Rubisco comprising tobacco small and sunflower large subunits mirror the kinetically equivalent source Rubiscos and can support tobacco growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert Edward; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Maliga, Pal; Whitney, Spencer Michael

    2008-01-01

    Plastomic replacement of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Rubisco large subunit gene (rbcL) with that from sunflower (Helianthus annuus; rbcL(S)) produced tobacco(Rst) transformants that produced a hybrid Rubisco consisting of sunflower large and tobacco small subunits (L(s)S(t)). The tobacco(Rst) plants required CO(2) (0.5% v/v) supplementation to grow autotrophically from seed despite the substrate saturated carboxylation rate, K(m), for CO(2) and CO(2)/O(2) selectivity of the L(s)S(t) enzyme mirroring the kinetically equivalent tobacco and sunflower Rubiscos. Consequently, at the onset of exponential growth when the source strength and leaf L(s)S(t) content were sufficient, tobacco(Rst) plants grew to maturity without CO(2) supplementation. When grown under a high pCO(2), the tobacco(Rst) seedlings grew slower than tobacco and exhibited unique growth phenotypes: Juvenile plants formed clusters of 10 to 20 structurally simple oblanceolate leaves, developed multiple apical meristems, and the mature leaves displayed marginal curling and dimpling. Depending on developmental stage, the L(s)S(t) content in tobacco(Rst) leaves was 4- to 7-fold less than tobacco, and gas exchange coupled with chlorophyll fluorescence showed that at 2 mbar pCO(2) and growth illumination CO(2) assimilation in mature tobacco(Rst) leaves remained limited by Rubisco activity and its rate (approximately 11 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) was half that of tobacco controls. (35)S-methionine labeling showed the stability of assembled L(s)S(t) was similar to tobacco Rubisco and measurements of light transient CO(2) assimilation rates showed L(s)S(t) was adequately regulated by tobacco Rubisco activase. We conclude limitations to tobacco(Rst) growth primarily stem from reduced rbcL(S) mRNA levels and the translation and/or assembly of sunflower large with the tobacco small subunits that restricted L(s)S(t) synthesis.

  1. Heterologous expression of chloroplast-localized geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase confers fast plant growth, early flowering and increased seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Sandeep Kumar; Jung, Jihye; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Choi, Jun Young; Jung, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Ryu, Stephen Beungtae

    2016-01-01

    Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPS) is a key enzyme for a structurally diverse class of isoprenoid biosynthetic metabolites including gibberellins, carotenoids, chlorophylls and rubber. We expressed a chloroplast-targeted GGPS isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The resulting transgenic tobacco plants expressing heterologous GGPS showed remarkably enhanced growth (an increase in shoot and root biomass and height), early flowering, increased number of seed pods and greater seed yield compared with that of GUS-transgenic lines (control) or wild-type plants. The gibberellin levels in HaGGPS-transgenic plants were higher than those in control plants, indicating that the observed phenotype may result from increased gibberellin content. However, in HaGGPS-transformant tobacco plants, we did not observe the phenotypic defects such as reduced chlorophyll content and greater petiole and stalk length, which were previously reported for transgenic plants expressing gibberellin biosynthetic genes. Fast plant growth was also observed in HaGGPS-expressing Arabidopsis and dandelion plants. The results of this study suggest that GGPS expression in crop plants may yield desirable agronomic traits, including enhanced growth of shoots and roots, early flowering, greater numbers of seed pods and/or higher seed yield. This research has potential applications for fast production of plant biomass that provides commercially valuable biomaterials or bioenergy. © 2015 Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists.

  2. Avaliação nutricional de rações comerciais e semente de girassol para papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva Nutricional evaluation of commercial foods and sunflower seed for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo do Prado Saad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento utilizou-se de 12 papagaios adultos, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso em seis tratamentos (T1-Ração extrusada para psitacídeos - A, T2 -Ração peletizada para psitacídeos-B, T3 - Ração extrusada para psitacídeos-C, T4 - Ração para cães linha prêmio; T5- Ração para cães linha econômica e T6 - Semente de Girassol, durante três períodos de colheita, totalizando seis repetições por tratamento. Avaliaram-se os valores de energia metabolizável aparente e verdadeira (EMA e EMV e corrigidas pelo nitrogênio (EMAn e EMVn; coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes (energia bruta - EB, matéria seca - MS, matéria orgânica -MO, fibra bruta-FB e extrato etéreo - EE, balanço de nitrogênio e proteína metabolizável das dietas testadas. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste SNK. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que 1 os valores de EMA e EMV foram mais altos que EMAn e EMVn. 2 A semente de girassol apresentou a mais alta digestibilidade aparente e verdadeira da matéria seca e da matéria orgânica. 3 A digestibilidade dos lipídeos de todas as dietas foi alta (média de 92,62%. 4 O balanço de nitrogênio (aparente e verdadeiro foi positivo para todas as aves.In this experiment twelve adult parrots were used in a randomized block design distributed in six treatments (T1- Extruded food for psittacines-A, T2- Pellet food for psittacines-B, T3- Extruded food for psittacines-C, T4- Dog food premium line, T5- Dog food economic line and T6- Sunflower seed during three harvest periods, in six replication for treatment. The values of apparent and true metabolizable energy (AME and TME were determined and they were corrected by nitrogen (AMEn and TMEn, nutrients digestibility coefficients (GE-Gross Energy, OM-Organic Matter, CF-Crude Fiber and EE-Ether Extract, nitrogen balance and metabolizable protein. The data were analyzed by SNK test. The results allow to conclude that: 1 the values of AME e TME were

  3. Effect of sunflower-seed oil and linseed oil on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression, and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats fed maize silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Bonnet, M; Leroux, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-12-01

    Lipid in the diet is known to enhance milk fat secretion and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats. In the current experiment, the contribution of peripheral tissue and mammary gland lipid metabolism to changes in milk fat composition from plant oils was examined. Fourteen Alpine goats in midlactation were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d experimental periods. Treatments comprised maize silage-based diets containing no additional oil (M), sunflower-seed oil (MSO; 6.1% of diet DM), or linseed oil (MLO; 6.2% of diet DM). Compared with the control, milk yield was greater in goats fed MSO (3.37 and 3.62 kg/d, respectively), whereas MLO enhanced milk fat content (+3.9 g/kg), resulting in a 14% increase in milk fat secretion. Both MSO and MLO increased milk lactose secretion by 12 and 8%, respectively, compared with M. Relative to the control, plant oils decreased C10 to C16 secretion (32 and 24%, respectively, for MSO and MLO) and enhanced C18 output in milk (ca. 110%). Diets MSO and MLO increased cis-9 18:1 secretion in milk by 25 and 31%, respectively, compared with M. The outputs of trans-11 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 in milk were increased 8.34- and 6.02-fold for MSO and 5.58- and 3.71-fold for MLO compared with M, and MSO increased trans-10 18:1 and trans-10, cis-12 18:2 secretion. Plant oils decreased milk fat cis-9 14:1/14:0; cis-9 16:1/16:0; cis-9 18:1/18:0; and cis-9, trans-11 18:2/trans-11 18:1 concentration ratios but had no effect on mammary stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA or activity. Furthermore, changes in milk fatty acid secretion were not associated with alterations in mammary acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and activity, abundance of mRNA encoding for lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid synthase, or malic enzyme and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in mammary tissue. Mammary lipoprotein lipase activity was increased with MSO relative to MLO. Treatments had no effect on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme

  4. 向日葵仁中提取绿原酸正交优化工艺的研究%Research on Extracting Chlorogenic Acid from Sunflower Seed by Orthogonal Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟姣姣; 李万林

    2013-01-01

    本文研究了以微波辅助法提取向日葵仁中的绿原酸,在单因素的基础上,探究了料液比、乙醇体积分数、微波时间、微波温度、微波功率对绿原酸提取率的影响,并通过正交试验对影响绿原酸提取率的参数进行优化。在最佳条件下:料液比1∶20(g/mL)、乙醇体积分数70%、微波时间4 min、微波温度80℃、微波功率400 W,向日葵仁中绿原酸提取率可达到3.5764%。%Microwave-assisted extracting was used in extracting chlorogenic acid from sunflower seed kernel. The extraction technologies were optimized through orthogonal tests based on single factors. The five factors which influenced the rate of extracting chlorogenic acid were as follows:the ratio of sample to solvent,the ethanol volume fraction, the microwave time,the microwave temperature,the microwave power. The results showed that the optimum conditions were the ratio of solid to solvent 1∶20 (g/mL), ethanol volume fraction of 70%,microwave treatment of 4 min, microwave temperature of 80℃,microwave power of 400 W,and the extraction rate of chlorogenic acid was 3.5764%.

  5. Breaking tuber dormancy in Helianthus tuberosus L. and interspecific hybrids of Helianthus annuus L. x Helianthus tuberosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers are dormant from the late fall to the following spring. In the wild, tuber dormancy is broken after exposure to winter cold, resulting in sprouting and shoot development in the spring when environmental conditions are favorable. The dormancy period typically limits H. ...

  6. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-12-12

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  7. Plant growth regulating activity of three polyacetylenes from Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Si Won; Hasegawa, Koji; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    Three polyacetylenes, 8-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-hydroxy-1,9,14-pentadecatriene-4,6-diyne, termed "helian"(1), 8-acetoxy-3-hydroxy-1,9,14-pentadecatriene-4,6-diyne (2), and 3,8-dihydroxy-1,9,14-pentadecatriene-4,6-diyne (3) were isolated from seedlings of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. cv Russia. Compounds 1 and 2, having a beta-glucose and an acetoxy group at C-8, respectively, showed a weak effect on the growth of roots and shoots of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and cress (Lepidium sativum L.), while compound 3, having a free hydroxyl group at C-8, exhibited a growth promoting effect on the roots and shoots of rice and cress.

  8. Antimony uptake by Zea mays (L.) and Helianthus annuus (L.) from nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschan, Martin; Robinson, Brett; Schulin, Rainer

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the extent of Sb uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from nutrient solutions containing concentrations from 3 to 24 mg/L of potassium antimonate, with the aim of determining the potential of Sb to enter the food chain. The maximum shoot Sb concentrations in Z. mays and H. annuus were 41 mg/kg and 77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. There was no significant difference in Sb uptake between species. The average bioaccumulation coefficients (the plant/solution concentration quotients) were 1.02 and 1.93 for Z. mays and H. annuus, respectively. Phosphate addition did not affect plant growth or Sb uptake. Antimony uptake by both Z. mays and H. annuus is unlikely to pose a health risk to animals and humans.

  9. Growth responses of plants to various concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. [Helianthus annuus L. ; Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, K.; Totsuka, T.; Fukuzawa, T.; Tazaki, T.

    1985-01-01

    Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. and maize Zea mays L. plants in the vegetative phase were exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at 0.0 (control), 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm ( l liter ) for 2 weeks. The growth responses of the plants to NO2 were examined by the techniques of growth analysis. The sunflower plant was more susceptible to NO2 than the maize plant. Exposure to NO2 at 0.2 ppm slightly stimulated the growth of the sunflower plants. The net assimilation rate (NAR) was also significantly increased when the plants were exposed to 0.2 ppm NO2. Exposures to NO2 at 0.5 or more significantly reduced the dry weight of the sunflower plant. Of the component parts, the roots and stems were severely affected, while the leaves were less affected. This resulted in an elevated shoot/root ratio. The net assimilation rate of both species was reduced by the exposures to NO2 at 0.5 ppm or more, while, in contrast, the leaf area ratio (LAR) was increased. The relative growth rate (RGR), the product of the NAR and the LAR, was therefore less affected by NO2. The increase in the LAR was overwhelmingly the result of an increase in the leaf weight ratio (LWR). These results imply that a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency induced by NO2 could be, in part, compensated for by an increase in assimilatory area, suggesting an adaptive growth response of the plants to air pollutant stresses.

  10. Circumnutations of sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Lewis, R. F.; Venditti, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    The principal objective of the research reported here was to determine whether a plant's periodic growth oscillations, called circumnutations, would persist in the absence of a significant gravitational or inertial force. The definitive experiment was made possible by access to the condition of protracted near weightlessness in an earth satellite. The experiment, performed during the first flight of Spacelab on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shuttle, Columbia, in November and December, 1983, tested a biophysical model, proposed in 1967, that might account for circumnutation as a gravity-dependent growth response. However, circumnutations were observed in microgravity. They continued for many hours without stimulation by a significant g-force. Therefore, neither a gravitational nor an inertial g-force was an absolute requirement for initiation [correction of initation] or continuation of circumnutation. On average, circumnutation was significantly more vigorous in satellite orbit than on earth-based clinostats. Therefore, at least for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) circumnutation, clinostatting is not the functional equivalent of weightlessness.

  11. Ontogeny strongly and differentially alters leaf economic and other key traits in three diverse Helianthus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; McGaughey, Sarah E; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-10-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes large cross-species variation in suites of leaf functional traits ranging from resource-acquisitive to resource-conservative strategies. Such strategies have been integral in explaining plant adaptation to diverse environments, and have been linked to numerous ecosystem processes. The LES has previously been found to be significantly modulated by climate, soil fertility, biogeography, growth form, and life history. One largely unexplored aspect of LES variation, whole-plant ontogeny, is investigated here using multiple populations of three very different species of sunflower: Helianthus annuus, Helianthus mollis, and Helianthus radula. Plants were grown under environmentally controlled conditions and assessed for LES and related traits at four key developmental stages, using recently matured leaves to standardize for leaf age. Nearly every trait exhibited a significant ontogenetic shift in one or more species, with trait patterns differing among populations and species. Photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen concentration, and leaf mass per area exhibited surprisingly large changes, spanning over two-thirds of the original cross-species LES variation and shifting from resource-acquisitive to resource-conservative strategies as the plants matured. Other traits being investigated in relation to the LES, such as leaf water content, pH, and vein density, also showed large changes. The finding that ontogenetic variation in LES strategy can be substantial leads to a recommendation of standardization by developmental stage when assessing 'species values' of labile traits for comparative approaches. Additionally, the substantial ontogenetic trait shifts seen within single individuals provide an opportunity to uncover the contribution of gene regulatory changes to variation in LES traits.

  12. Full-length sequence analysis of a distinct isolate of Bidens mottle virus infecting sunflower in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J Y; Hu, Chung-Chi; Chen, C C; Chang, C H; Deng, T C

    2009-01-01

    The full-length genome of a potyvirus, previously known as sunflower chlorotic spot virus isolate SF-1 (SCSV-SF-1) which causes novel symptoms on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus), was sequenced and analyzed. The genome of SCSV-SF-1 is 9,741 nucleotides long, encoding a polyprotein of 3,071 amino acids containing the consensus motifs of potyviruses. Sequence comparison revealed that the 3'-terminus of SCSV-SF-1 shared over 96% similarities with isolates of Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV). However, SCSV-SF-1 has a very narrow host range, excluding the diagnostic host species for BiMoV, Bidens pilosa and Zinnia elegans. Therefore, SCSV-SF-1 is a distinct isolate of BiMoV. This is the first report of the full-length nucleotide sequence of BiMoV infecting sunflower in Taiwan.

  13. Sunflower proteins : overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Pérez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing worldwide demand for proteins of both animal and plant origin. However, animal proteins are expensive in terms of both market price and environmental impact. Among alternative plant proteins, sunflower seeds are particularly interesting in view of their widespread availability in

  14. Sunflower proteins : overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Pérez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing worldwide demand for proteins of both animal and plant origin. However, animal proteins are expensive in terms of both market price and environmental impact. Among alternative plant proteins, sunflower seeds are particularly interesting in view of their widespread availability in

  15. Chemical mutagenesis--a promising technique to increase metal concentration and extraction in sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Federer, Guido; Erismann, Karl-Hans; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Since most of the metal-hyperaccumulating wild plants only produce very low biomass and many high-yielding crops accumulate only moderate amounts of metals, the current research is mainly focused on overcoming these limitations and the optimization of metal phytoextraction. The main goal of the present study was the improvement of metal concentration and extraction properties of Helianthus annuus L by chemical mutagenesis (the non-GMO approach). Sunflowers--hybrid cultivar Salut and inbred lines-were treated with the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The effect of chemical mutagenesis on metal concentration in and extraction by new sunflower M1 and M2 mutants was directly assessed on a metal-contaminated field in Raft, Switzerland. Mutants of the M2 generation showed a 2-3 times higher metal shoot concentration than the control plants. The best M2 sunflower "giant mutant" 14/185/04 showed a significantly enhanced metal extraction ability: 7.5 times for Cd, 9.2 times for Zn, and 8.2 times for Pb in aboveground parts, as compared to the control plants. Theoretical calculations for the phytoextraction potential of new sunflower variants note that the best sunflower mutant can produce up to 26 t dry matter per hectare and remove 13.3 kg Zn per hectare and year at the sewage sludge contaminated site of Raft; that is a gain factor of 9 compared to Zn extraction by sunflower controls. Furthermore, the use of sunflower oil and biomass for technical purposes (lubricants, biodiesel, biogas) should produce an additional value and improve the economical balance of phytoextraction.

  16. The Effect of Water Stress and Polymer on Water Use Efficiency, Yield and several Morphological Traits of Sunflower under Greenhouse Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein NAZARLI; Mohammad Reza ZARDASHTI; Reza DARVISHZADEH; Solmaz NAJAFI

    2010-01-01

    In many part of Iran, the reproductive growth stages of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are exposed to water deficit stress. Therefore, the investigation of irrigation management in the farm conditions is a necessary element for increasing irrigation efficiency and decreasing water losses. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of different rates of super absorbent polymer and levels of water stress on water use efficiency (WUE), yield and some morphological traits of s...

  17. Arsenic-contaminated soils. Phytotoxicity studies with sunflower and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubun, Y.V.; Kosterin, P.V.; Zakharova, E.A.; Fedorov, E.E. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation); Shcherbakov, A.A. [Saratov Military Inst. of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Defence, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Aim and Scope. Environmental pollution caused by arsenic (As) is a major ecological problem. There has been intense worldwide effort to find As-hyperaccumulating plants that can be used in phytoremediation - the green-plant-assisted removal of chemical pollutants from soils. For phytoremediation, it is natural to prefer cultivated rather than wild plants, because their agriculture is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Pers.) for soil-As contents of 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, with sodium arsenite as a model contaminant. Methods. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days. Microfield experiments were conducted on experimental plots. To study the phytoremediation effect of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), we treated 1- and 3-day-old plant seedlings with water solutions of the auxins (concentrations of 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -7}, and 10{sup -9} g l{sup -1}). The soil and plant-biomass samples were analyzed for total As by using the color reaction of ammonium molybdate with As. Results and Discussion. Phytotoxicity studies showed that 100 mg as kg{sup -1} soil poisoned sunflower and sorghum growth by 50%. There was a linear correlation between soil-As content and As accumulation in the plants. Laboratory experiments showed that the soil-As content was reduced two- to threefold after sunflower had been grown with 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil for 30 days. Treatment of sunflower and sorghum seedlings with IAA and 2,4-D at a concentration of 10{sup -5} g l{sup -1} in microfield experiments enhanced the phytoremediation two- to fivefold as compared with untreated control plants. The best results were obtained with 3-day-old seedlings. Conclusion, Recommendation and Outlook. (a) Sunflower and sorghum are good candidates to remediate As-polluted soils. (b) Phytoremediation can be improved with IAA or 2

  18. Genome scans reveal candidate domestication and improvement genes in cultivated sunflower, as well as post-domestication introgression with wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baute, Gregory J; Kane, Nolan C; Grassa, Christopher J; Lai, Zhao; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-04-01

    The development of modern crops typically involves both selection and hybridization, but to date most studies have focused on the former. In the present study, we explore how both processes, and their interactions, have molded the genome of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus), a globally important oilseed. To identify genes targeted by selection during the domestication and improvement of sunflower, and to detect post-domestication hybridization with wild species, we analyzed transcriptome sequences of 80 genotypes, including wild, landrace, and modern lines of H. annuus, as well as two cross-compatible wild relatives, Helianthus argophyllus and Helianthus petiolaris. Outlier analyses identified 122 and 15 candidate genes associated with domestication and improvement, respectively. As in several previous studies, genes putatively involved in oil biosynthesis were the most extreme outliers. Additionally, several promising associations were observed with previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs), such as branching. Admixture analyses revealed that all the modern cultivar genomes we examined contained one or more introgressions from wild populations, with every chromosome having evidence of introgression in at least one modern line. Cumulatively, introgressions cover c. 10% of the cultivated sunflower genome. Surprisingly, introgressions do not avoid candidate domestication genes, probably because of the reintroduction of branching.

  19. Fast pyrolysis of sunflower-pressed bagasse: effects of sweeping gas flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F.; Putun, E.

    2002-05-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.85 wt% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere and a nitrogen flow rate of 50 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C and heating rate of 5{sup o}C s{sup -1}. The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (author)

  20. Production and characterization of pyrolysis liquids from sunflower-pressed bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu University (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-11-01

    Pyrolysis experiments on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.10 wt.% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere with flow rate of 50 ml min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C with a heating rate of 5{sup o}C s{sup -1}. The chemical characterization results showed that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks. (author)

  1. Heat shock transcription factors involved in seed desiccation tolerance and longevity retard vegetative senescence in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoguera, Concepción; Personat, José-María; Prieto-Dapena, Pilar; Jordano, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Transcription factors normally expressed in sunflower seeds delayed vegetative senescence induced by severe stress in transgenic tobacco. This revealed a novel connection between seed heat shock factors, desiccation tolerance and vegetative longevity. HaHSFA9 and HaHSFA4a coactivate a genetic program that, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), contributes to seed longevity and desiccation tolerance. We have shown that overexpression of HaHSFA9 in transgenic tobacco seedlings resulted in tolerance to drastic dehydration and oxidative stress. Overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone was linked to a remarkable protection of the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, the combined overexpression of HaHSFA9 and HaHSFA4a enhanced all these stress-resistance phenotypes. Here, we find that HaHSFA9 confers protection against damage induced by different stress conditions that accelerate vegetative senescence during different stages of development. Seedlings and plants that overexpress HaHSFA9 survived lethal treatments of dark-induced senescence. HaHSFA9 overexpression induced resistance to effects of culture under darkness for several weeks. Only some homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants are able to withstand this experimental severe stress condition. The combined overexpression of HaHSFA9 and HaHSFA4a did not result in further slowing of dark-induced seedling senescence. However, combined expression of the two transcription factors caused improved recovery of the photosynthetic organs of seedlings after lethal dark treatments. At later stages of vegetative development, HaHSFA9 delayed the appearance of senescence symptoms in leaves of plants grown under normal illumination. This delay was observed under either control or stress treatments. Thus, HaHSFA9 delayed both natural and stress-induced leaf senesce. These novel observations connect transcription factors involved in desiccation tolerance with leaf longevity.

  2. Expressed Sequence Tags from the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, an obligate parasite of the sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouzeyar Said

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sunflower downy mildew is a major disease caused by the obligatory biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenicity. In this study we used a genomics approach to gain a first insight into the transcriptome of P. halstedii. Results To identify genes from the obligatory biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii that are expressed during infection in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. we employed the suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH method from sunflower seedlings infected by P. halstedii. Using this method and random sequencing of clones, a total of 602 expressed sequence tags (ESTs corresponding to 230 unique sequence sets were identified. To determine the origin of the unisequences, PCR primers were designed to amplify these gene fragments from genomic DNA isolated either from P. halstedii sporangia or from Helianthus annuus. Only 145 nonredundant ESTs which correspond to a total of 373 ESTs (67.7% proved to be derived from P. halstedii genes and that are expressed during infection in sunflower. A set of 87 nonredundant sequences were identified as showing matches to sequences deposited in public databases. Nevertheless, about 7% of the ESTs seem to be unique to P. halstedii without any homolog in any public database. Conclusion A summary of the assignment of nonredundant ESTs to functional categories as well as their relative abundance is listed and discussed. Annotation of the ESTs revealed a number of genes that could function in virulence. We provide a first glimpse into the gene content of P. halstedii. These resources should accelerate research on this important pathogen.

  3. Sunflower seedlings dry matter content as affected by chemical treatment and storage length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical treatment of seed is a common crop protection measure. In the case of sunflower seed, fungicides are used regularly and insecticides at an increasing rate. In some cases, sunflower hybrid seed not planted in the first year is planted in the second or even third year after production. Seed vigour decreases gradually over time, which negatively affects seed emergence and subsequent plant growth and development. Seed with high vigour is expected to germinate quickly, producing seedlings that grow fast and uniformly. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of seed chemical treatment and storage length on seedling dry matter content in different sunflower hybrids. The study included several variants with fungicide and pesticide treatments and an untreated control. In the case of the hybrid NS-H-111, highest values of the studied characteristic were recorded in the control and directly after chemical treatment. In the case of the hybrid Sremac, the lowest value was recorded in seed treatment with benomyl+metalaxyl, highest in the treatments directly after chemical treatment and in seed stored for six months. In the case of the hybrid Šumadinac, highest values were recorded in the control and in seed treatment with fludioxonil+metalaxyl, the lowest in seed treatment with fludioxonil+metalaxyl+im idacloprid. Regarding the effect of different seed storage periods, highest values of the studied characteristic were recorded shortly after chemical treatment and in seed stored for six months.

  4. Study on Ultrasound-enhanced Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Sunflower Seed Oil%超声强化密相CO2萃取葵花籽油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭伟; 丘泰球; 范晓丹

    2007-01-01

    进行了超声强化密相CO2萃取葵花籽油的研究,探讨了萃取温度、压力、时间、CO2流速以及超声功率密度和频率对葵花籽油萃取率的影响.结果表明,附加20 kHz、100 W·L-1的超声波后,萃取压力、时间和CO2流速分别降低了5 MPa、0.5 h和0.5 L·h-1.超声对萃取的影响主要是由于超声的机械波动效应.采用了响应曲面法对超声强化萃取条件进行了优化,并得到优化后的萃取条件为:萃取温度28.3℃、压力28 MPa、时间178 min、CO2流速3.0 L·h-1、超声功率密度为100 W·L-1、超声频率为20 kHz.在优化条件下,UDCE与DCE相比能够提高19%的萃取率.%In this work, the effects of ultrasonic power density and frequency as well as extraction temperature, pressure, time and CO2 flow rate on the ultrasound-enhanced dense phase carbon dioxide extraction(UDCE) of sunflower seed oil are evaluated. Results show that extraction pressure, time and CO2 flow rate can be diminished by 5 MPa, 0.5 h and 0.5 L·h-1 with ultrasound. Effects of ultrasound on the extraction are due to the vibration. Response surface methodology is used to optimize the operating conditions, which are determined as follows: temperature 28.3℃, pressure 28 MPa, time 178 min,CO2 flow rate 3.0 L·h-1, ultrasonic power density 100 W·L-1 and ultrasonic frequency 20 kHz, respectively. Compared with DCE, UDCE can increase the extraction yield by 19% under optimum conditions.

  5. SNP discovery and development of a high-density genotyping array for sunflower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Bachlava

    Full Text Available Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have made possible the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms that allow for the simultaneous interrogation of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Such resources have the potential to facilitate the rapid development of high-density genetic maps, and to enable genome-wide association studies as well as molecular breeding approaches in a variety of taxa. Herein, we describe the development of a SNP genotyping resource for use in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. This work involved the development of a reference transcriptome assembly for sunflower, the discovery of thousands of high quality SNPs based on the generation and analysis of ca. 6 Gb of transcriptome re-sequencing data derived from multiple genotypes, the selection of 10,640 SNPs for inclusion in the genotyping array, and the use of the resulting array to screen a diverse panel of sunflower accessions as well as related wild species. The results of this work revealed a high frequency of polymorphic SNPs and relatively high level of cross-species transferability. Indeed, greater than 95% of successful SNP assays revealed polymorphism, and more than 90% of these assays could be successfully transferred to related wild species. Analysis of the polymorphism data revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that were largely congruent with the evolutionary history of sunflower, though the large number of markers allowed for finer resolution than has previously been possible.

  6. SNP discovery and development of a high-density genotyping array for sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlava, Eleni; Taylor, Christopher A; Tang, Shunxue; Bowers, John E; Mandel, Jennifer R; Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have made possible the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms that allow for the simultaneous interrogation of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Such resources have the potential to facilitate the rapid development of high-density genetic maps, and to enable genome-wide association studies as well as molecular breeding approaches in a variety of taxa. Herein, we describe the development of a SNP genotyping resource for use in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). This work involved the development of a reference transcriptome assembly for sunflower, the discovery of thousands of high quality SNPs based on the generation an