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Sample records for sunflower quantitative genetics

  1. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of the Early Domestication of Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    David M Wills; Burke, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic analyses of the domestication syndrome have revealed that domestication-related traits typically have a very similar genetic architecture across most crops, being conditioned by a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL), each with a relatively large effect on the phenotype. To date, the domestication of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stands as the only counterexample to this pattern. In previous work involving a cross between wild sunflower (also H. annuus) and a highly improv...

  2. Evaluation and characterization of sunflower germplasm accessions for quantitative characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kulkarni, I.Shankegoud and M.R. Govindappa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower germplasm accessions (143 were evaluated for yield and yield contributing characters to study the extentof variation for different quantitative traits. The germplasm accessions were also characterized on qualitative traits. Highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for seed yield per plant (53.4 % and 46.9% respectively followed by head diameter, test weight, plant height,volume weight and oil content. High heritability was noticed for all the traits studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean has been recorded for seed yield per plant (77 and 65.1 followed by head diameter, test weight and plant height. It was noticed that sunflower germplasm accessions exhibited wide range of variability for all the morphological characters studied like leaf shape, leaf color, leaf serrations, leaf hairiness, stem hairiness, indicator leaf, petiole anthocyanin, branching, leaf angle, petiole length, stem pigmentation and pollen color.

  3. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). 2. Characterisation of QTL involved in developmental and agronomic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, P-F; Jouan, I; Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D; Serre, F; Philippon, J; Nicolas, P; Vear, F

    2003-06-01

    Seed weight and oil content are important properties of cultivated sunflower under complex genetic and environmental control, and associated with morphological and developmental characteristics such as plant height or flowering dates. Using a genetic map with 290 markers for a cross between two inbred sunflower lines and 2 years of observations on F3 families, QTL controlling seed weight, oil content, plant height, plant lodging, flowering dates, maturity dates and delay from flowering to maturity were detected. QTL detected were compared between the F2 and F3 generations and between the 2 years of testing for the F3 families in 1997 and 1999. Some of the QTL controlling seed weight overlapped with those controlling oil content. Several other co-localisations of QTL controlling developmental or morphological characteristics were observed and the relationships between the traits were also shown by correlation analyses. The relationships between all these traits and with resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi are discussed.

  4. The genetic architecture of UV floral patterning in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brook T; Owens, Gregory L; Baute, Gregory J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2017-07-01

    The patterning of floral ultraviolet (UV) pigmentation varies both intra- and interspecifically in sunflowers and many other plant species, impacts pollinator attraction, and can be critical to reproductive success and crop yields. However, the genetic basis for variation in UV patterning is largely unknown. This study examines the genetic architecture for proportional and absolute size of the UV bullseye in Helianthus argophyllus , a close relative of the domesticated sunflower. A camera modified to capture UV light (320-380 nm) was used to phenotype floral UV patterning in an F 2 mapping population, then quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing and linkage mapping. The ability of these QTL to predict the UV patterning of natural population individuals was also assessed. Proportional UV pigmentation is additively controlled by six moderate effect QTL that are predictive of this phenotype in natural populations. In contrast, UV bullseye size is controlled by a single large effect QTL that also controls flowerhead size and co-localizes with a major flowering time QTL in Helianthus . The co-localization of the UV bullseye size QTL, flowerhead size QTL and a previously known flowering time QTL may indicate a single highly pleiotropic locus or several closely linked loci, which could inhibit UV bullseye size from responding to selection without change in correlated characters. The genetic architecture of proportional UV pigmentation is relatively simple and different from that of UV bullseye size, and so should be able to respond to natural or artificial selection independently.

  5. Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a species native to North America. It is a relatively new crop in the USA with commercialization starting around 1970. The high oil content sunflower seed changed the economics of producing and crushing sunflower seed for oil, making it attractive for growers. A n...

  6. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Škorić Dragan; Kraljević-Balalić Marija

    2003-01-01

    The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean va...

  7. Disease Tolerance in Helianthus petiolaris: A Genetic Resource for Sunflower Breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutierrez, Agustina; Cantamutto, Miguel; Poverene, Monica

    2012-01-01

    .... Controlled crosses of this species with sunflower demonstrated that H. petiolaris constitutes a valuable genetic variability source for sunflower breeding to improve tolerance to rust (Puccinia helianthi), white rust (Albugo tragopogonis...

  8. Genetic impact on protein content and hullability of sunflower seeds, and on the quality of sunflower meal

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    Dauguet Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed quality, in particular the characteristics of hullability and protein content, has a significant impact on the protein content of the resulting meal. Seeds dehulled before crushing produce a meal with a protein content of approximately 36%; without dehulling, the protein content is typically in the range of 27–29%. This study seeks to assess the effect of sunflower variety on hullability and protein content. Genetic effects were studied by means of seed samples obtained from a network of variety evaluation trials undertaken across the production area in France for sunflowers. For both characteristics, significant differences between cultivars were observed; as a consequence, the potential protein content of their dehulled meals also ranged widely (34–44%. Genetic selection, which provides substantial improvements in both oil content and fatty acid composition, should therefore be expected to enhance the quality of sunflower meal.

  9. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

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    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean values of all the traits were found in the F1 and F2 generations. Additive gene effects were more important in the inheritance of total leaf number per plant and plant height, while in the case of total leaf area per plant the nonadditive ones were more important looking at all the combinations in the F1 and F2 generations. The average degree of dominance (Hi/D1/2 was lower than one for total leaf number per plant and plant height, so the mode of inheritance was partial dominance, while with total leaf area the value was higher than one, indicating super dominance as the mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlation was found: between total leaf area per plant and total leaf number per plant (0.285* and plant height (0.278*. The results of the study are of importance for further sunflower breeding work.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  11. Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Macrophomina phaseolina Strains Causing Pathogenicity on Sunflower and Chickpea

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    Ali N. Khan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophomina phaseolina is the most devastating pathogen which causes charcoal rot and root rot diseases in various economically important crops. Three strains M. phaseolina 1156, M. phaseolina 1160, and M. phaseolina PCMC/F1 were tested for their virulence on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.. The strains showed high virulence on both hosts with a disease score of 2 on chickpea and sunflower. The strains also increased the hydrogen per oxide (H2O2 content by 1.4- to 1.6-fold in root as well as shoot of chickpea and sunflower. A significant increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed in fungal infected plants which indicated prevalence of oxidative stress during pathogen propagation. The M. phaseolina strains also produced hydrolytic enzymes such as lipase, amylase, and protease with solubilization zone of 5–43 mm, 5–45 mm, and 12–35 mm, respectively. The M. phaseolina strains were identified by 18S rRNA and analyzed for genetic diversity by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The findings based on RAPD markers and 18S rRNA sequence analysis clearly indicate genetic variation among the strains collected from different hosts. The genetically diverse strains were found to be pathogenic to sunflower and chickpea.

  12. Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Macrophomina phaseolina Strains Causing Pathogenicity on Sunflower and Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ali N; Shair, Faluk; Malik, Kamran; Hayat, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Ayub; Hafeez, Fauzia Yusuf; Hassan, Muhammad Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina is the most devastating pathogen which causes charcoal rot and root rot diseases in various economically important crops. Three strains M. phaseolina 1156, M. phaseolina 1160, and M. phaseolina PCMC/F1 were tested for their virulence on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The strains showed high virulence on both hosts with a disease score of 2 on chickpea and sunflower. The strains also increased the hydrogen per oxide (H2O2) content by 1.4- to 1.6-fold in root as well as shoot of chickpea and sunflower. A significant increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed in fungal infected plants which indicated prevalence of oxidative stress during pathogen propagation. The M. phaseolina strains also produced hydrolytic enzymes such as lipase, amylase, and protease with solubilization zone of 5-43 mm, 5-45 mm, and 12-35 mm, respectively. The M. phaseolina strains were identified by 18S rRNA and analyzed for genetic diversity by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The findings based on RAPD markers and 18S rRNA sequence analysis clearly indicate genetic variation among the strains collected from different hosts. The genetically diverse strains were found to be pathogenic to sunflower and chickpea.

  13. Genetic possibilities for altering sunflower oil quality to obtain novel oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorić, Dragan; Jocić, Sinisa; Sakac, Zvonimir; Lecić, Nada

    2008-04-01

    The sunflower is one of the four most important oilseed crops in the world, and the nutritional quality of its edible oil ranks among the best vegetable oils in cultivation. Typically up to 90% of the fatty acids in conventional sunflower oil are unsaturated, namely oleic (C 18:1, 16%-19%) and linoleic (C 18:2, 68%-72%) fatty acids. Palmitic (C 16:0, 6%), stearic (C 18:0, 5%), and minor amounts of myristic (C 14:0), myristoleic (C 14:1), palmitoleic (C 16:1), arachidic (C 20:0), behenic (C 22:0), and other fatty acids account for the remaining 10%. Advances in modern genetics, most importantly induced mutations, have altered the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil to a significant extent. Treating sunflower seeds with gamma- and X-rays has produced mutants with 25%-30% palmitic acid. Sunflower seed treatment with X-rays has also resulted in mutants having 30% palmitoleic acid, while treatments with mutagenic sodium azide have produced seeds containing 35% stearic acid. The most important mutations have been obtained by treatment with dimethyl sulfate, which produced genotypes with more than 90% oleic acid. Mutants have also been obtained that have a high linoleic acid content (>80%) by treating seeds with X-rays and ethyl methanesulfonate. Of the vitamin E family of compounds, sunflower oil is known to predominantly contain alpha-tocopherol (>90%). Spontaneous mutations controlled by recessive genes have been discovered that significantly alter tocopherol forms and levels. The genes in question are tph(1) (50% alpha- and 50% beta-tocopherol), tph(2) (0%-5% alpha- and 95%-100% gamma-tocopherol), and tph(1)tph(2) (8%-40% alpha-, 0%-25% beta-, 25%-84% gamma-, and 8%-50% delta-tocopherol). The existence of (mutant) genes for increased levels of individual fatty acids and for different forms and levels of tocopherol enables the development of sunflower hybrids with different oil quality. The greatest progress has been made in developing high-oleic hybrids (>90

  14. Development of an ultra-dense genetic map of the sunflower genome based on single-feature polymorphisms.

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    John E Bowers

    Full Text Available The development of ultra-dense genetic maps has the potential to facilitate detailed comparative genomic analyses and whole genome sequence assemblies. Here we describe the use of a custom Affymetrix GeneChip containing nearly 2.4 million features (25 bp sequences targeting 86,023 unigenes from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and related species to test for single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs in a recombinant inbred line (RIL mapping population derived from a cross between confectionery and oilseed sunflower lines (RHA280×RHA801. We then employed an existing genetic map derived from this same population to rigorously filter out low quality data and place 67,486 features corresponding to 22,481 unigenes on the sunflower genetic map. The resulting map contains a substantial fraction of all sunflower genes and will thus facilitate a number of downstream applications, including genome assembly and the identification of candidate genes underlying QTL or traits of interest.

  15. Genetic analysis of agro-morphological traits in promising hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

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    Maryam GOLABADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective underlying sunflower breeding programs is to develop high-yielding productive F1 hybrid cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic control of some agro-morphological traits of new sunflower F1 hybrids. For this purpose, fourteen inbred lines of sunflower were crossed with three male sterile inbred lines. Their hybrids (14 hybrids were then evaluated against three control cultivars. The data thus obtained were analyzed using the nested model (North Carolina Design І as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four replications. Analysis of variance showed that the hybrids were significantly different in all the traits studied, except for head and stem diameters. From among the hybrids evaluated, Cms19 × Rn1-81 was found to have the highest seed yield and oil content. Cluster analysis classified the hybrids into four different groups. Genetic analysis showed that days to maturity, seed weight, and oil content (% were under the additive gene action. Breeding strategies based on selection could be suggested for the improvement of these traits. Head angle, head diameter, seed yield, and oil yield were under the dominance gene action; breeding based on hybridization methods is, therefore, proposed for these traits. Finally, both additive and dominance gene actions were observed to play important roles in the genetic control of plant height and stem diameter.

  16. Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

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    Amouzadeh Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is one of the major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs implicated in partial resistance to basal stem rot disease were identified using 99 recombinant inbred lines (RILs from the cross between sunflower parental lines PAC2 and RHA266. The study was undertaken in a completely randomized design with three replications under controlled conditions. The RILs and their parental lines were inoculated with a moderately aggressive isolate of S. sclerotiorum (SSKH41. Resistance to disease was evaluated by measuring the percentage of necrosis area three days after inoculation. QTLs were mapped using an updated high-density SSR and SNP linkage map. ANOVA showed significant differences among sunflower lines for resistance to basal stem rot (P≤0.05. The frequency distribution of lines for susceptibility to disease showed a continuous pattern. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed 5 QTLs for percentage of necrotic area, localized on linkage groups 1, 3, 8, 10 and 17. The sign of additive effect was positive in 5 QTLs, suggesting that the additive allele for partial resistance to basal stem rot came from the paternal line (RHA266. The phenotypic variance explained by QTLs (R2 ranged from 0.5 to 3.16%. Identified genes (HUCL02246_1, GST and POD, and SSR markers (ORS338, and SSL3 encompassing the QTLs for partial resistance to basal stem rot could be good candidates for marker assisted selection.

  17. Quantitative genetics of disease traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M

    2015-04-01

    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics.

  18. Genetic variability and correlation studies in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

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    Sheshaiah and Shankergoud I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to investigate genetic variability and to understand the relationship and contribution of characters towards total dry matter and root length. The investigation was carried out at Main Agricultural Research Station, UAS, Raichur during Rabi 2012-13, 32 genotypes were evaluated in RBD fashion under root structures. At flowering stage all morphological and root characters were scored. The total dry matter content was assessed after drying the root, stem, leaf, petiole and flower of the plant at 70 0C in an oven.. High GCV coupled with high PCV recorded for most of the characters except stem girth, SPAD reading and number of leaves, indicating more variability for these traits and are less influenced by the environment. High heritability coupled with high GAM reported for all the traits under study suggested for the greater effectiveness for selection and improvement expected for these traits in future generations. The total dry matter and root length had very highly significant positive association with plant height, root volume, fresh root weight, dry root weight, fresh stem weight, dry stem weight, fresh leaf weight and dry leaf weight indicating the importance of root characters in determining the moisture stress tolerance and putforthing the total dry matter content of the plant.

  19. Wild helianthus species used for broadening the genetic base of cultivated sunflower in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha M

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation has been undertaken to introgress desirable traits from wild sunflowers to cultivated sunflower. Using conventional methods of crossing, backcrossing and selection, several pre-bred lines with altered plant architecture, high yield and oil content, maturity duration and inbuilt tolerance to major biotic stresses have been developed from crosses involving diploid annuals. These recombinant interspecific inbred lines are being utilized in the national sunflower network...

  20. Visual definition of physiological maturity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is associated with receptacle quantitative color parameters

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    L. F. Hernandez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying physiological maturity (PM in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. by visual methods is subjective. The present study was conducted during two years in two short season sunflower hybrids (Macón and MG60 to determine the relationship between quantitative color parameters in the receptacle and physiological markers such as fruit dry weight (FDW and fruit water content (FWC from flowering to PM. Fruits from the external 25% of the capitulum radius were sampled at 3-5-day intervals from first anthesis until harvest maturity. Fruit and receptacle fresh and dry weight were calculated, and color changes of the receptacle base were followed over time using a spectrophotometer. Comparison of colorimetric coordinates a* and b*, defined by the CIELAB color space enabled quantitative correlation of color changes in the receptacle with the maturation stage of the fruits and their moisture content. In both hybrids and years, fruits attained maximum dry weight when the receptacle color turned from dark green to buttery-yellow. Strong correlations were found between FWC and a* for Macón the first (r=-0.877 and second year (r=-0.934 and for MG60, (r=-0.912 and r=-0.891 the first and second year, respectively. The same results were found for b* for Macón (r=-0.901 and r=-0.829 and for MG60 (r=-0.898 and r= -0.863 for the first and second year respectively. Maximum b* at FWC between 40 to 41% had the highest correlation with maximum fruit dry weight for both hybrids and years, and was a good indicator for identifying the attainment of PM. This work represents an original contribution and a first step towards the development of a model for predicting PM in sunflower by using colorimetric measurements.

  1. Heritable tissue culture induced genetic variation in sunflower (helianthus annuus l) as a tool for crop improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Encheva Julia; Tsvetkova F.; Ivanov Petar

    2004-01-01

    Immature zygotic embryos from the Bulgarian fertility restorer line R 147 (male component of the commercial hybrid Albena) were used as donor material for induction of direct organogenesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L). Range of spontaneous somaclonal variation among the progenies of regenerants has been assessed. Genetic modifications observed in the regenerants included agronomic traits such as oil content in seed, 1000-seed weight, plant height petiole length, internode length, number...

  2. Theory and Practice in Quantitative Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posthuma, Daniëlle; Beem, A Leo; de Geus, Eco J C

    2003-01-01

    With the rapid advances in molecular biology, the near completion of the human genome, the development of appropriate statistical genetic methods and the availability of the necessary computing power, the identification of quantitative trait loci has now become a realistic prospect for quantitative...... geneticists. We briefly describe the theoretical biometrical foundations underlying quantitative genetics. These theoretical underpinnings are translated into mathematical equations that allow the assessment of the contribution of observed (using DNA samples) and unobserved (using known genetic relationships......) genetic variation to population variance in quantitative traits. Several statistical models for quantitative genetic analyses are described, such as models for the classical twin design, multivariate and longitudinal genetic analyses, extended twin analyses, and linkage and association analyses. For each...

  3. Quantitative genetic studies of antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi; Larsson, Henrik; Jones, Alice P

    2008-08-12

    This paper will broadly review the currently available twin and adoption data on antisocial behaviour (AB). It is argued that quantitative genetic research can make a significant contribution to further the understanding of how AB develops. Genetically informative study designs are particularly useful for investigating several important questions such as whether: the heritability estimates vary as a function of assessment method or gender; the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences varies for different types of AB; the environmental risk factors are truly environmental; and genetic vulnerability influences susceptibility to environmental risk. While the current data are not yet directly translatable for prevention and treatment programmes, quantitative genetic research has concrete translational potential. Quantitative genetic research can supplement neuroscience research in informing about different subtypes of AB, such as AB coupled with callous-unemotional traits. Quantitative genetic research is also important in advancing the understanding of the mechanisms by which environmental risk operates.

  4. Strategies for MCMC computation in quantitative genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Ibánez, N.; Sorensen, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Given observations of a trait and a pedigree for a group of animals, the basic model in quantitative genetics is a linear mixed model with genetic random effects. The correlation matrix of the genetic random effects is determined by the pedigree and is typically very highdimensional...

  5. Genetic control of water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope discrimination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) subjected to two drought scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Muños, Stephane; Langlade, Nicolas B; Lamaze, Thierry; Grieu, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    High water use efficiency (WUE) can be achieved by coordination of biomass accumulation and water consumption. WUE is physiologically and genetically linked to carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in leaves of plants. A population of 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower derived from a cross between XRQ and PSC8 lines was studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling WUE and CID, and to compare QTL associated with these traits in different drought scenarios. We conducted greenhouse experiments in 2011 and 2012 by using 100 balances which provided a daily measurement of water transpired, and we determined WUE, CID, biomass and cumulative water transpired by plants. Wide phenotypic variability, significant genotypic effects, and significant negative correlations between WUE and CID were observed in both experiments. A total of nine QTL controlling WUE and eight controlling CID were identified across the two experiments. A QTL for phenotypic response controlling WUE and CID was also significantly identified. The QTL for WUE were specific to the drought scenarios, whereas the QTL for CID were independent of the drought scenarios and could be found in all the experiments. Our results showed that the stable genomic regions controlling CID were located on the linkage groups 06 and 13 (LG06 and LG13). Three QTL for CID were co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. We found that CID and WUE are highly correlated and have common genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic control of these traits showed an interaction with the environment (between the two drought scenarios and control conditions). Our results open a way for breeding higher WUE by using CID and marker-assisted approaches and therefore help to maintain the stability of sunflower crop production.

  6. Genetic analysis of floral symmetry in Van Gogh's sunflowers reveals independent recruitment of CYCLOIDEA genes in the Asteraceae.

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    Mark A Chapman

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of floral symmetry is a topic of great interest because of its effect on pollinator behavior and, consequently, plant diversification. The Asteraceae, which is the largest family of flowering plants, is an ideal system in which to study this trait, as many species within the family exhibit a compound inflorescence containing both bilaterally symmetric (i.e., zygomorphic and radially symmetric (i.e., actinomorphic florets. In sunflower and related species, the inflorescence is composed of a single whorl of ray florets surrounding multiple whorls of disc florets. We show that in double-flowered (dbl sunflower mutants (in which disc florets develop bilateral symmetry, such as those captured by Vincent van Gogh in his famous nineteenth-century sunflower paintings, an insertion into the promoter region of a CYCLOIDEA (CYC-like gene (HaCYC2c that is normally expressed specifically in WT rays is instead expressed throughout the inflorescence, presumably resulting in the observed loss of actinomorphy. This same gene is mutated in two independent tubular-rayed (tub mutants, though these mutations involve apparently recent transposon insertions, resulting in little or no expression and radialization of the normally zygomorphic ray florets. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis of CYC-like genes from across the family suggests that different paralogs of this fascinating gene family have been independently recruited to specify zygomorphy in different species within the Asteraceae.

  7. Genetic analysis of floral symmetry in Van Gogh's sunflowers reveals independent recruitment of CYCLOIDEA genes in the Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mark A; Tang, Shunxue; Draeger, Dörthe; Nambeesan, Savithri; Shaffer, Hunter; Barb, Jessica G; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis of floral symmetry is a topic of great interest because of its effect on pollinator behavior and, consequently, plant diversification. The Asteraceae, which is the largest family of flowering plants, is an ideal system in which to study this trait, as many species within the family exhibit a compound inflorescence containing both bilaterally symmetric (i.e., zygomorphic) and radially symmetric (i.e., actinomorphic) florets. In sunflower and related species, the inflorescence is composed of a single whorl of ray florets surrounding multiple whorls of disc florets. We show that in double-flowered (dbl) sunflower mutants (in which disc florets develop bilateral symmetry), such as those captured by Vincent van Gogh in his famous nineteenth-century sunflower paintings, an insertion into the promoter region of a CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like gene (HaCYC2c) that is normally expressed specifically in WT rays is instead expressed throughout the inflorescence, presumably resulting in the observed loss of actinomorphy. This same gene is mutated in two independent tubular-rayed (tub) mutants, though these mutations involve apparently recent transposon insertions, resulting in little or no expression and radialization of the normally zygomorphic ray florets. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis of CYC-like genes from across the family suggests that different paralogs of this fascinating gene family have been independently recruited to specify zygomorphy in different species within the Asteraceae.

  8. Theory and practice in quantitative genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma, Daniëlle; Beem, A Leo; de Geus, Eco J C; van Baal, G Caroline M; von Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Iachine, Ivan; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2003-10-01

    With the rapid advances in molecular biology, the near completion of the human genome, the development of appropriate statistical genetic methods and the availability of the necessary computing power, the identification of quantitative trait loci has now become a realistic prospect for quantitative geneticists. We briefly describe the theoretical biometrical foundations underlying quantitative genetics. These theoretical underpinnings are translated into mathematical equations that allow the assessment of the contribution of observed (using DNA samples) and unobserved (using known genetic relationships) genetic variation to population variance in quantitative traits. Several statistical models for quantitative genetic analyses are described, such as models for the classical twin design, multivariate and longitudinal genetic analyses, extended twin analyses, and linkage and association analyses. For each, we show how the theoretical biometrical model can be translated into algebraic equations that may be used to generate scripts for statistical genetic software packages, such as Mx, Lisrel, SOLAR, or MERLIN. For using the former program a web-library (available from http://www.psy.vu.nl/mxbib) has been developed of freely available scripts that can be used to conduct all genetic analyses described in this paper.

  9. The Comparison of Rumen Fungi Quantification in the Medium Containing Sunflower Meal Treated with Formaldehyde and or Sodium Hydroxide by Using Quantitative Competitive PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mohammadabadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR was conducted to compare the number of rumen anaerobic fungi in pure culture of fungi containing high fat sunflower meal (165 g fat/kg DM processed with formaldehyde and NaOH. Twenty one multiparous early lactating Holstein cows (30±5 days of lactation selected and fed experimental diets for 7 weaks. The diets were including untreated sunflower meal (control, n=3 and treated 4 % sodium hydroxide (n=3 and treated with 0.3 and 0.6 % formaldehyde (n=3. Competitive PCR technique was used to evaluate quantitative difference of anaerobic fungal population in the rumen under the dietary treatments. Standard control DNA was constructed from lambda phage for use in the competitive PCR and was shown to amplify under the same reaction condition and with the same amplification efficiency as the target DNA. The relative intensities of PCR products were used to evaluate variety of fungal population under fed treatments. The analysis of data of present study showed that NaOH treated sunflower meal increased and formaldehyde treated sunflower meal decreased number of fungi in medium compared to control. Therefore it seems that QC-PCR method has appropriate efficacy for enumerating rumen fungal population under the effect of dietary treatments.

  10. Development of a 10,000 locus genetic map of the sunflower genome based on multiple crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, John E; Bachlava, Eleni; Brunick, Robert L; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2012-07-01

    Genetic linkage maps have the potential to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits and comparative analyses of genome structure, as well as molecular breeding efforts in species of agronomic importance. Until recently, the majority of such maps was based on relatively low-throughput marker technologies, which limited marker density across the genome. The availability of high-throughput genotyping technologies has, however, made possible the efficient development of high-density genetic maps. Here, we describe the analysis and integration of genotypic data from four sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mapping populations to produce a consensus linkage map of the sunflower genome. Although the individual maps (which contained 3500-5500 loci each) were highly colinear, we observed localized variation in recombination rates in several genomic regions. We also observed several gaps up to 26 cM in length that completely lacked mappable markers in individual crosses, presumably due to regions of identity by descent in the mapping parents. Because these regions differed by cross, the consensus map of 10,080 loci contained no such gaps, clearly illustrating the value of simultaneously analyzing multiple mapping populations.

  11. Genetic mapping, marker assisted selection and allelic relationships for the Pu 6 gene conferring rust resistance in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, Mariano; Vergani, Pablo Nicolas; Altieri, Emiliano

    2014-09-01

    Rust resistance in the sunflower line P386 is controlled by Pu 6 , a gene which was reported to segregate independently from other rust resistant genes, such as R 4 . The objectives of this work were to map Pu 6 , to provide and validate molecular tools for its identification, and to determine the linkage relationship of Pu 6 and R 4 . Genetic mapping of Pu 6 with six markers covered 24.8 cM of genetic distance on the lower end of linkage Group 13 of the sunflower consensus map. The marker most closely linked to Pu 6 was ORS316 at 2.5 cM in the distal position. ORS316 presented five alleles when was assayed with a representative set of resistant and susceptible lines. Allelism test between Pu 6 and R 4 indicated that both genes are linked at a genetic distance of 6.25 cM. This is the first confirmation based on an allelism test that at least two members of the R adv /R 4 /R 11 / R 13a /R 13b /Pu 6 cluster of genes are at different loci. A fine elucidation of the architecture of this complex locus will allow designing and constructing completely new genomic regions combining genes from different resistant sources and the elimination of the linkage drag around each resistant gene.

  12. Quantitative genetic studies of antisocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Viding, Essi; Larsson, Henrik; Jones, Alice P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will broadly review the currently available twin and adoption data on antisocial behaviour (AB). It is argued that quantitative genetic research can make a significant contribution to further the understanding of how AB develops. Genetically informative study designs are particularly useful for investigating several important questions such as whether: the heritability estimates vary as a function of assessment method or gender; the relative importance of genetic and environmental ...

  13. Streets of Paris, sunflower seeds, and Nobel prizes. Reflections on the quantitative paradigm of public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractQuantitative methods are central to public health and public health research. The historical roots and philosophical foundations of this predilection for the quantitative, however, are little known and seldom discussed.

  14. A quantitative approach for Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn through laser ablation imaging for evaluating the translocation and accumulation of metals in sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Gustavo de S; Lopes Júnior, Cícero A; Madrid, Katherine C; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2017-05-15

    The uptake and accumulation of Cd in sunflower seeds represents an important pathway for imputing potentially toxic metals into human and animal food. In this way, bioimaging of Cd and micronutrients (Cu, Fe and Mn) in the seeds of sunflower grown in soil contaminated with Cd are performed. For this task, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is used in quantitative approach, considering four groups: precursor, control, Cd-low (50mg) and Cd-high (700mg). For attaining our proposals, ICP-MS (nebulizer and auxiliary flow rates and radiofrequency power) and LA (laser intensity, frequency and spot size) parameters were optimized, and the analytical signal improved to 197%, 217%, 232%, and 283%, for (57)Fe, (112)Cd, (55)Mn and (63)Cu, respectively. The accuracy of proposed method using LA-ICP-MS is evaluated comparing the CRM results (Tomato leaves, NIST SRM 1573a). No difference is found at 95% confidence level. Regarding Cd accumulation in sunflower seeds, the results indicated that cadmium is translocated to seeds, and the cotyledons showed the highest concentration (Cd-high group), ranging from 10 to 20µgg(-1). Considering both total concentration and the distribution in the seeds, Cd uptake is responsible to the homeostasis misbalance of micronutrients, which play an essential role in the sunflower metabolism. Such results highlight the importance of bioimaging evaluation, in the translocation and accumulation of metals, contributing to expand the information available of this culture.

  15. Evolutionary quantitative genetics of nonlinear developmental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael B

    2015-08-01

    In quantitative genetics, the effects of developmental relationships among traits on microevolution are generally represented by the contribution of pleiotropy to additive genetic covariances. Pleiotropic additive genetic covariances arise only from the average effects of alleles on multiple traits, and therefore the evolutionary importance of nonlinearities in development is generally neglected in quantitative genetic views on evolution. However, nonlinearities in relationships among traits at the level of whole organisms are undeniably important to biology in general, and therefore critical to understanding evolution. I outline a system for characterizing key quantitative parameters in nonlinear developmental systems, which yields expressions for quantities such as trait means and phenotypic and genetic covariance matrices. I then develop a system for quantitative prediction of evolution in nonlinear developmental systems. I apply the system to generating a new hypothesis for why direct stabilizing selection is rarely observed. Other uses will include separation of purely correlative from direct and indirect causal effects in studying mechanisms of selection, generation of predictions of medium-term evolutionary trajectories rather than immediate predictions of evolutionary change over single generation time-steps, and the development of efficient and biologically motivated models for separating additive from epistatic genetic variances and covariances.

  16. Genetic mapping of rust resistance genes in confection sunflower line HA-R6 and oilseed line RHA 397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few widely effective resistance sources to sunflower rust, incited by Puccinia helianthi Schwein., have been identified in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The USDA inbred line HA-R6 is one of the few confection sunflower lines resistant to rust. A previous allelism test indicated that r...

  17. Whole genome approaches to quantitative genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Peter M

    2009-06-01

    Apart from parent-offspring pairs and clones, relative pairs vary in the proportion of the genome that they share identical by descent. In the past, quantitative geneticists have used the expected value of sharing genes by descent to estimate genetic parameters and predict breeding values. With the possibility to genotype individuals for many markers across the genome it is now possible to empirically estimate the actual relationship between relatives. We review some of the theory underlying the variation in genetic identity, show applications to estimating genetic variance for height in humans and discuss other applications.

  18. Divergência genética em genótipos de girassol Genetic divergence in sunflower genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perito Amorim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma investigação sobre a diversidade genética entre 15 genótipos de girassol, por meio de 12 características agronômicas, foi implementada no Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, Brasil. Análises de variância univariada e multivariada revelaram diferenças entre os genótipos. A distância generalizada de Mahalanobis indicou um alto grau de divergência genética. Os genótipos foram agrupados em três grupos. As características início do florescimento, 50% do florescimento, número de folhas e altura da inserção do capítulo contribuíram com grande parte da divergência genética observada. Por meio desses resultados, é possível identificar materiais divergentes e com características agronômicas complementares para o desenvolvimento de novos cultivares superiores.An investigation about the genetical diversity among fifteen sunflower genotypes using twelve agronomical characteristics was implanted at the Agronomic Institute, Campinas Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance revealed the presence of differences among the genotypes. The generalized distance of Mahalanobis indicated the presence of genetic diversity. The genotypes were grouped into tree clusters. Among the investigated characteristics, the beginning of flowering, 50% flowering, leaf number and head height of chapter insertion exhibited high contribution towards genetic divergence. Through these studies it is possible to identify divergent material with further agronomical features for the development of new superior sunflower cultivars.

  19. Next generation quantitative genetics in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2011-01-01

    Most characteristics in living organisms show continuous variation, which suggests that they are controlled by multiple genes. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis can identify the genes underlying continuous traits by establishing associations between genetic markers and observed phenotypic variation in a segregating population. The new high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies greatly facilitate QTL analysis by providing genetic markers at genome-wide resolution in any species without previous knowledge of its genome. In addition HTS serves to quantify molecular phenotypes, which aids to identify the loci responsible for QTLs and to understand the mechanisms underlying diversity. The constant improvements in price, experimental protocols, computational pipelines, and statistical frameworks are making feasible the use of HTS for any research group interested in quantitative genetics. In this review I discuss the application of HTS for molecular marker discovery, population genotyping, and expression profiling in QTL analysis.

  20. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... clusters/plant, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, yield/plant and 100 seed weight of black gram in M2 ... Key words: Genetic variability, gamma rays, quantitative traits, black gram. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  1. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  2. The quantitative genetics of phenotypic robustness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter B Fraser

    Full Text Available Phenotypic robustness, or canalization, has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically. However, it remains unknown to what extent robustness varies between individuals, and whether factors buffering environmental variation also buffer genetic variation. Here we introduce a quantitative genetic approach to these issues, and apply this approach to data from three species. In mice, we find suggestive evidence that for hundreds of gene expression traits, robustness is polymorphic and can be genetically mapped to discrete genomic loci. Moreover, we find that the polymorphisms buffering genetic variation are distinct from those buffering environmental variation. In fact, these two classes have quite distinct mechanistic bases: environmental buffers of gene expression are predominantly sex-specific and trans-acting, whereas genetic buffers are not sex-specific and often cis-acting. Data from studies of morphological and life-history traits in plants and yeast support the distinction between polymorphisms buffering genetic and environmental variation, and further suggest that loci buffering different types of environmental variation do overlap with one another. These preliminary results suggest that naturally occurring polymorphisms affecting phenotypic robustness could be abundant, and that these polymorphisms may generally buffer either genetic or environmental variation, but not both.

  3. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  4. Integration of molecular genetic technology with quantitative genetic technology for maximizing the speed of genetic improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack; C.M.; DEKKERS

    2005-01-01

    To date,most genetic progress for quantita-tive traits in livestock has been made by selec-tion on phenotype or on estimates of breedingvalues(BBV)derived from phenotype,withoutknowledge of the number of genes that affect thetrait or the effects of each gene.In this quantita-tive genetic approach to genetic improvement,the genetic architecture of traits of interest hasessentially been treated as a‘black box’.De-spite this,the substantial rates of genetic im-provement that have been and continue to be a-chie...

  5. 向日葵基因工程研究进展%Research Progress on Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司立平; 李联社; 吴燕民

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L. ) is one of the 4 major oil crops in the world, and has good adaptability, high aridity tolerance and other excellent characteristics. With the effect of global environment and climate changes on agro-ecosystems, the daily increasing usage of sunflower is expanding. The breeding of sunflower is aiming at drought and salt tolerance, insect and disease resistance and superior quality. But these higher breeding objectives are difficult to achieve through conventional breeding method in a short period of time, while the molecular breeding has provided a convenient and practical way to culture and improve new varieties of sunflower. This paper reviewed and summarized the progress made during the past over 20 years in sunflower in vitro regeneration, genetic transformation and transgenic researches. It also analyzed the existing problems in sunflower genetic engineering research, and prospected the development trends of this research.%向日葵作为世界四大主要油料作物之一,具有适应性强、耐贫瘠等优良特性.随着全球环境与气候变化对农业生态系统的影响及向日葵用途的日益扩大,耐旱耐盐、抗虫抗病、提高品质已成为向日葵育种的更高目标,但这些目标通过传统育种难以在短时间内实现,而以现代生物技术为手段的分子育种,为培育和改良向日葵新品种提供了一条便捷和实用的途径.对过去20多年来,向日葵的体外再生、遗传转化、转基因研究等方面的进展进行了全面总结和综述,分析了目前向日葵基因工程研究中存在的问题,就发展前景进行了展望.

  6. Interacting personalities: behavioural ecology meets quantitative genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemanse, Niels J; Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G

    2015-02-01

    Behavioural ecologists increasingly study behavioural variation within and among individuals in conjunction, thereby integrating research on phenotypic plasticity and animal personality within a single adaptive framework. Interactions between individuals (cf. social environments) constitute a major causative factor of behavioural variation at both of these hierarchical levels. Social interactions give rise to complex 'interactive phenotypes' and group-level emergent properties. This type of phenotype has intriguing evolutionary implications, warranting a cohesive framework for its study. We detail here how a reaction-norm framework might be applied to usefully integrate social environment theory developed in behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics. The proposed emergent framework facilitates firm integration of social environments in adaptive research on phenotypic characters that vary within and among individuals.

  7. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  8. Apparent Catalase Synthesis in Sunflower Cotyledons during the Change in Microbody Function: A Mathematical Approach for the Quantitative Evaluation of Density-labeling Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsche, T; Gerhardt, B

    1978-10-01

    Density-labeling with 10 mm K(15)NO(3)/70% (2)H(2)O has been used to investigate catalase synthesis in different developmental stages of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cotyledons. A mathematical approach is introduced for the quantitative evaluation of the density-labeling data. The method allows, in the presence of preexisting enzyme activity, calculation of this synthesized activity (apparent enzyme synthesis) which results from the balance between actual enzyme synthesis and the degradation of newly synthesized enzyme at a given time. During greening of the cotyledons, when the catalase activity declines and the population of leaf peroxisomes is formed, the apparent catalase synthesis is lower than, or at best equal to, that occurring during a developmental stage when the leaf peroxisome population is established and catalase synthesis and degradation of total catalase are in equilibrium. This result suggests a formation, in fatty cotyledons, of the leaf peroxisomes by transformation of the glyoxysomes rather than by de novo synthesis.

  9. Genetic analysis of yield and yield related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under well-watered and water-stressed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darvishzadeh Reza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the factors which influence sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production. Breeding for tolerance to drought stress has become a major focus. In the present investigation, combining ability, gene action and genetic analysis of several characteristics were studied in six pure lines of sunflower and their 15 hybrids. The materials were evaluated in two separate experiments using a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in two states (well-watered and water-stressed under controlled conditions. Comparison of mean values exhibited that under water- stressed condition the average performance of sunflower genotypes were decreased for all studied traits. In well-watered condition the highest value for seed yield per plant (SY was observed in the cross 'LR4´LR25', whereas in water-stressed condition the highest value for this trait was observed in the hybrid 'C104´LR25'. Combining ability analysis revealed that most of agronomical traits such as head diameter, number of achene per head, head weight and seed yield inherited differently in stressed and non-stressed conditions. In water-stressed conditions, the non-additive effects played a more important role for controlling the number of achene per head (NA, seed yield per plant (SY, head diameter (HD, and days from flowering to physiological maturity (DFM than additive. Based on results yield improvement for water-stressed conditions requires selection under drought conditions. In well-watered condition, the cross 'LR4´C10' showed the best SCA value for seed yield per plant (SY. In water-stressed conditions, 'RHA266´C100' had the highest SCA for seed yield per plant (SY and number of achene (NA per head.

  10. Developments in statistical analysis in quantitative genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable research impetus has taken place in statistical genetics since the last World Conference. This has been stimulated by breakthroughs in molecular genetics, automated data-recording devices and computer-intensive statistical methods. The latter were revolutionized by the bootstrap and ...

  11. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl18, introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower downy mildew is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflowe...

  12. Genetics and mapping of the R11 gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes a 20% yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in Nor...

  13. Event History Analysis in Quantitative Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Rafael Pimentel

    Event history analysis is a clas of statistical methods specially designed to analyze time-to-event characteristics, e.g. the time until death. The aim of the thesis was to present adequate multivariate versions of mixed survival models that properly represent the genetic aspects related to a given...... time-to-event characteristic of interest. Real genetic longevity studies based on female animals of different species (sows, dairy cows, and sheep) exemplifies the use of the methods. Moreover these studies allow to understand som genetic mechanisms related to the lenght of the productive life...

  14. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  15. The quantitative genetics of disgust sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, James M; Zietsch, Brendan P; Tybur, Joshua M; Jern, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 16(1) of Emotion (see record 2015-57029-001). In the article, the name of author Joshua M. Tybur was misspelled as Joshua M. Tyber. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Response sensitivity to common disgust elicitors varies considerably among individuals. The sources of these individual differences are largely unknown. In the current study, we use a large sample of female identical and nonidentical twins (N = 1,041 individuals) and their siblings (N = 170) to estimate the proportion of variation due to genetic effects, the shared environment, and other (residual) sources across multiple domains of disgust sensitivity. We also investigate the genetic and environmental influences on the covariation between the different disgust domains. Twin modeling revealed that approximately half of the variation in pathogen, sexual, and moral disgust is due to genetic effects. An independent pathways twin model also revealed that sexual and pathogen disgust sensitivity were influenced by unique sources of genetic variation, while also being significantly affected by a general genetic factor underlying all 3 disgust domains. Moral disgust sensitivity, in contrast, did not exhibit domain-specific genetic variation. These findings are discussed in light of contemporary evolutionary approaches to disgust sensitivity.

  16. Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci for grain oil content and agronomic traits using AFLP and SSR in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, L; Gentzbittel, L; Azanza, F; Fitamant, L; Al-Chaarani, G; Sarrafi, A

    2002-12-01

    Crosses were made between two inbred lines of sunflower. Parents and 118 F(3) families were planted in the field in a randomized complete block design in two replications. Genetic control for some agronomical traits: grain weight by plant (GWP), 1,000-grain weight (TGW), percentage of oil in grain (POG) and sowing to flowering date (STF) was investigated in F(3) families and their parents. Genetic variability was observed among the 118 F(3) families for all the traits studied. Genetic gain was obtained when the best F(3) family, or the mean of 10% of the selected families was compared with the best parent for GWP, TWG and POG. Heritability was 0.23 for GWP, 0.55 for TGW, 0.57 for POG and 0.32 for STF. A set of 244 F(3) families from the same cross, including the above 118 mentioned families and their two parents, were screened with 276 AFLP and microsatellite markers and a linkage map was constructed based on 170 markers. Two putative QTLs for the GWP trait ( gmp), one QTL for TGW ( tgw), six QTLs for POG ( pog) and two for STF ( stf) were detected. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by each QTL ranged from 2.6% to 70.9%. The percentage of total phenotypic variance explained was 50.7% for GWP, 5.4% for TGW, 90.4% for POG and 89.3% for STF. Although these regions need to be more-precisely mapped, the information obtained should help in marker-assisted selection.

  17. Data-driven encoding for quantitative genetic trait prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Wang, Zhanyong; Parida, Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Given a set of biallelic molecular markers, such as SNPs, with genotype values on a collection of plant, animal or human samples, the goal of quantitative genetic trait prediction is to predict the quantitative trait values by simultaneously modeling all marker effects. Quantitative genetic trait prediction is usually represented as linear regression models which require quantitative encodings for the genotypes: the three distinct genotype values, corresponding to one heterozygous and two homozygous alleles, are usually coded as integers, and manipulated algebraically in the model. Further, epistasis between multiple markers is modeled as multiplication between the markers: it is unclear that the regression model continues to be effective under this. In this work we investigate the effects of encodings to the quantitative genetic trait prediction problem. We first showed that different encodings lead to different prediction accuracies, in many test cases. We then proposed a data-driven encoding strategy, where we encode the genotypes according to their distribution in the phenotypes and we allow each marker to have different encodings. We show in our experiments that this encoding strategy is able to improve the performance of the genetic trait prediction method and it is more helpful for the oligogenic traits, whose values rely on a relatively small set of markers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that discusses the effects of encodings to the genetic trait prediction problem.

  18. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  19. Study of qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in response of seed inoculation with PGPR in various levels of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nazarly

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in response to seed inoculation with PGPR under various levels of nitrogen fertilizer, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in field experimental University of Mohaghegh Ardabili during growing season of 2009-2010. Factors were nitrogen fertilizer in three levels (0, 80 and 160 kg N ha-1 as urea and seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in four levels containing, without inoculation (as control, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5, Azospirillum lipoferum strain OF, Psedomunas strain 186. Results indicated that nitrogen levels and seed inoculation with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR had significant effects on all of characteristics studied (except grain 1000 weight and stem diameter. Grain yield, plant height, head diameter, seed number per head, , yield and oil percentage, yield and protein percentage increased with increasing of nitrogen fertilizer and application of seed inoculation with PGPR. Response of grain yield wasn't the same for various levels of nitrogen fertilizer and seed inoculation with PGPR. The highest grain yield belonged to application of 160 kg N ha-1 and seed inoculation with Azotobacter. Means comparison showed that treatment compounds N160 × without inoculation with PGPR and N80 × seed inoculation with PGPR Azotobacter had similar grain yields. Thus, it can be suggested that in order to increasing of grain yield seed should be inoculated with Azotobacter bacteria × 80 kg N/ha in conditions of Ardabil region.

  20. Genetic architecture of quantitative traits and complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenqing; O'Connor, Timothy D; Akey, Joshua M

    2013-12-01

    More than 150 years after Mendel discovered the laws of heredity, the genetic architecture of phenotypic variation remains elusive. Here, we discuss recent progress in deciphering how genotypes map onto phenotypes, sources of genetic complexity, and how model organisms are illuminating general principles about the relationship between genetic and phenotypic variation. Moreover, we highlight insights gleaned from large-scale sequencing studies in humans, and how this knowledge informs outstanding questions about the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and complex diseases. Finally, we articulate how the confluence of technologies enabling whole-genome sequencing, comprehensive phenotyping, and high-throughput functional assays of polymorphisms will facilitate a more principled and mechanistic understanding of the genetic architecture of phenotypic variation.

  1. Complex genetic interactions in a quantitative trait locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Sinha

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Whether in natural populations or between two unrelated members of a species, most phenotypic variation is quantitative. To analyze such quantitative traits, one must first map the underlying quantitative trait loci. Next, and far more difficult, one must identify the quantitative trait genes (QTGs, characterize QTG interactions, and identify the phenotypically relevant polymorphisms to determine how QTGs contribute to phenotype. In this work, we analyzed three Saccharomyces cerevisiae high-temperature growth (Htg QTGs (MKT1, END3, and RHO2. We observed a high level of genetic interactions among QTGs and strain background. Interestingly, while the MKT1 and END3 coding polymorphisms contribute to phenotype, it is the RHO2 3'UTR polymorphisms that are phenotypically relevant. Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis of the Htg QTGs in hybrids between S288c and ten unrelated S. cerevisiae strains reveals that the contributions of the Htg QTGs are not conserved in nine other hybrids, which has implications for QTG identification by marker-trait association. Our findings demonstrate the variety and complexity of QTG contributions to phenotype, the impact of genetic background, and the value of quantitative genetic studies in S. cerevisiae.

  2. Genetic mapping of quantitative phenotypic traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Thevelein, Johan M; Nevoigt, Elke

    2012-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a favorite production organism in industrial biotechnology presenting new challenges to yeast engineers in terms of introducing advantageous traits such as stress tolerances. Exploring subspecies diversity of S. cerevisiae has identified strains that bear industrially relevant phenotypic traits. Provided that the genetic basis of such phenotypic traits can be identified inverse engineering allows the targeted modification of production strains. Most phenotypic traits of interest in S. cerevisiae strains are quantitative, meaning that they are controlled by multiple genetic loci referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL). A straightforward approach to identify the genetic basis of quantitative traits is QTL mapping which aims at the allocation of the genetic determinants to regions in the genome. The application of high-density oligonucleotide arrays and whole-genome re-sequencing to detect genetic variations between strains has facilitated the detection of large numbers of molecular markers thus allowing high-resolution QTL mapping over the entire genome. This review focuses on the basic principle and state of the art of QTL mapping in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore we discuss several approaches developed during the last decade that allow down-scaling of the regions identified by QTL mapping to the gene level. We also emphasize the particular challenges of QTL mapping in nonlaboratory strains of S. cerevisiae.

  3. Segregation Analysis on Genetic System of Quantitative Traits in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gai Junyi

    2006-01-01

    Based on the traditional polygene inheritance model of quantitative traits,the author suggests the major gene and polygene mixed inheritance model.The model was considered as a general one,while the pure major gene and pure polygene inheritance model was a specific case of the general model.Based on the proposed theory,the author established the segregation analysis procedure to study the genetic system of quantitative traits of plants.At present,this procedure can be used to evaluate the genetic effect of individual major genes (up to two to three major genes),the collective genetic effect of polygene,and their heritability value.This paper introduces how to establish the procedure,its main achievements,and its applications.An example is given to illustrate the steps,methods,and effectiveness of the procedure.

  4. Quantitative Genetics in the Era of Molecular Genetics: Learning Abilities and Disabilities as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To consider recent findings from quantitative genetic research in the context of molecular genetic research, especially genome-wide association studies. We focus on findings that go beyond merely estimating heritability. We use learning abilities and disabilities as examples. Method: Recent twin research in the area of learning…

  5. The nature of quantitative genetic variation for Drosophila longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Trudy F C

    2002-01-01

    Longevity is a typical quantitative trait: the continuous variation in life span observed in natural populations is attributable to genetic variation at multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL), environmental sensitivity of QTL alleles, and truly continuous environmental variation. To begin to understand the genetic architecture of longevity at the level of individual QTL, we have mapped QTL for Drosophila life span that segregate between two inbred strains that were not selected for longevity. A mapping population of 98 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was derived from these strains, and life span of virgin male and female flies measured under control culture conditions, chronic heat and cold stress, heat shock and starvation stress, and high and low density larval environments. The genotypes of the RIL were determined for polymorphic roo transposable element insertion sites, and life span QTL were mapped using composite interval mapping methods. A minimum of 19 life span QTL were detected by recombination mapping. The life span QTL exhibited strong genotype by sex, genotype by environment, and genotype by genotype (epistatic) interactions. These interactions complicate mapping efforts, but evolutionary theory predicts such properties of segregating QTL alleles. Quantitative deficiency mapping of four longevity QTL detected in the control environment by recombination mapping revealed a minimum of 11 QTL in these regions. Clearly, longevity is a complex quantitative trait. In the future, linkage disequilibrium mapping can be used to determine which candidate genes in a QTL region correspond to the genetic loci affecting variation in life span, and define the QTL alleles at the molecular level.

  6. Quantitative genetic analysis of injury liability in infants and toddlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, K.; Matheny, A.P. Jr. [Univ. of Louisville Medical School, KY (United States)

    1995-02-27

    A threshold model of latent liability was applied to infant and toddler twin data on total count of injuries sustained during the interval from birth to 36 months of age. A quantitative genetic analysis of estimated twin correlations in injury liability indicated strong genetic dominance effects, but no additive genetic variance was detected. Because interpretations involving overdominance have little research support, the results may be due to low order epistasis or other interaction effects. Boys had more injuries than girls, but this effect was found only for groups whose parents were prompted and questioned in detail about their children`s injuries. Activity and impulsivity are two behavioral predictors of childhood injury, and the results are discussed in relation to animal research on infant and adult activity levels, and impulsivity in adult humans. Genetic epidemiological approaches to childhood injury should aid in targeting higher risk children for preventive intervention. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Evaluating perennial sunflower for wildlife and food uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to use current genetics and plant breeding techniques to introgress genes for perennial habit from Helianthus tuberosus L. (2n=6x=102) into domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=2x=34). H. tuberosusis part of the secondary gene pool of sunflower and has b...

  8. [Possible uses of sunflower in proper human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorić, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    The sunflower is the main oil crop in Serbia and one of the four major oil crops on the global scale. The seed of commercial sunflower crops being grown today consists most commonly of 45-53% oil and 15-18% protein. Unfortunately, sunflower seed protein has traditionally been underused in the human diet in Serbia. The amino acid composition of sunflower protein is quite favorable. In addition to oil and protein, sunflower kernels contain tocopherols, minerals, and vitamins. The sunflower is also a major honey plant, as sunflower plants produce over 40 kg of nectar and over 80 kg of pollen per area unit (hectare) under normal circumstances. Standard sunflower oil is linoleic in character, but induced mutations have been used to obtain genotypes with a high-oleic acid content of the oil (> 85%), thus enabling the development of high-oleic sunflower hybrids. Induced mutations have also been used to obtain genotypes with high levels of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. The predominant tocopherol in standard sunflower oil is the alpha one, but sunflower genotypes have now been developed using spontaneous and induced mutations that predominantly contain beta, gamma, and delta tocopherols. Various developments in the field of genetics have made it possible to develop sunflower hybrids with different oil profiles in terms of fatty acid composition and tocopherol type and amount. The thermo-oxidative stability of the new types of sunflower oil is significantly higher than that of standard sunflower oil. Of the new types of sunflower, it is the high-oleic hybrids that have found the widest application in commercial production. It is expected that the future sunflower hybrids combining high levels of oleic and stearic acids with gamma tocopherol will become a major component of a healthy human diet. The development of new consumption sunflower hybrids with an increased protein content and altered oil quality will lead to the development of a large number of novel final

  9. Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, M.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A. [Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Genetic Architectures of Quantitative Variation in RNA Editing Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tongjun; Gatti, Daniel M; Srivastava, Anuj; Snyder, Elizabeth M; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Simecek, Petr; Svenson, Karen L; Dotu, Ivan; Chuang, Jeffrey H; Keller, Mark P; Attie, Alan D; Braun, Robert E; Churchill, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    RNA editing refers to post-transcriptional processes that alter the base sequence of RNA. Recently, hundreds of new RNA editing targets have been reported. However, the mechanisms that determine the specificity and degree of editing are not well understood. We examined quantitative variation of site-specific editing in a genetically diverse multiparent population, Diversity Outbred mice, and mapped polymorphic loci that alter editing ratios globally for C-to-U editing and at specific sites for A-to-I editing. An allelic series in the C-to-U editing enzyme Apobec1 influences the editing efficiency of Apob and 58 additional C-to-U editing targets. We identified 49 A-to-I editing sites with polymorphisms in the edited transcript that alter editing efficiency. In contrast to the shared genetic control of C-to-U editing, most of the variable A-to-I editing sites were determined by local nucleotide polymorphisms in proximity to the editing site in the RNA secondary structure. Our results indicate that RNA editing is a quantitative trait subject to genetic variation and that evolutionary constraints have given rise to distinct genetic architectures in the two canonical types of RNA editing.

  11. Introduction to Focus Issue: Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Réka; Collins, James J.; Glass, Leon

    2013-06-01

    All cells of living organisms contain similar genetic instructions encoded in the organism's DNA. In any particular cell, the control of the expression of each different gene is regulated, in part, by binding of molecular complexes to specific regions of the DNA. The molecular complexes are composed of protein molecules, called transcription factors, combined with various other molecules such as hormones and drugs. Since transcription factors are coded by genes, cellular function is partially determined by genetic networks. Recent research is making large strides to understand both the structure and the function of these networks. Further, the emerging discipline of synthetic biology is engineering novel gene circuits with specific dynamic properties to advance both basic science and potential practical applications. Although there is not yet a universally accepted mathematical framework for studying the properties of genetic networks, the strong analogies between the activation and inhibition of gene expression and electric circuits suggest frameworks based on logical switching circuits. This focus issue provides a selection of papers reflecting current research directions in the quantitative analysis of genetic networks. The work extends from molecular models for the binding of proteins, to realistic detailed models of cellular metabolism. Between these extremes are simplified models in which genetic dynamics are modeled using classical methods of systems engineering, Boolean switching networks, differential equations that are continuous analogues of Boolean switching networks, and differential equations in which control is based on power law functions. The mathematical techniques are applied to study: (i) naturally occurring gene networks in living organisms including: cyanobacteria, Mycoplasma genitalium, fruit flies, immune cells in mammals; (ii) synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli and yeast; and (iii) electronic circuits modeling genetic networks

  12. Genetic, molecular and expression features of the Pervenets mutant leading to high oleic acid content of seed oil in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacombe Séverine

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervenets is a sunflower population that displays seed oil with a high oleic acid content [HOAC]. Our aim is to reconcile all the data gathered on this mutant in a unique explanatory mechanism. All Pervenets-derived [HOAC] lines display no accumulation or a very reduced accumulation of the DELTA12-desaturase transcript in the embryos during the stages for oil accumulation. They also carry oleHOS specific RFLP markers revealed by an DELTA12-desaturase cDNA used as a probe. The linoleic or [LO] genotypes do not carry this RFLP marker, but another allele: oleLOR (oleHL locus. Linkage disequilibrium between the oleHOS allele and [HOAC] was verified. We studied the mode of inheritance of [HOAC] in two segregating populations. A F2 progenies revealed one dominant allele for [HOAC] that co-segregated with the oleHOS allele showing that the Pervenets mutation and oleHOS were closely linked. F6 recombinant inbred lines, showed the [HOAC] trait due to two independent loci: the locus carrying the oleHOS allele and another locus sup. One allele, supole, at this second locus may suppress the effect of the oleHOS allele on the [HOAC] trait. Northern analyses performed on [HOAC] lines and F1 ([HOAC] x [LO] hybrids revealed under-accumulation of DELTA12-desaturase transcript. Thus Pervenets mutation acts in trans. The oleHOS genomic region that may carry the Pervenets mutation was cloned. A genomic library was constructed in lambdafixII with the DNA from the RHA345 [HOAC] line and screened with a DELTA12-desaturase cDNA as a probe. Two overlapping clones were entirely sequenced and revealed carrying a gene for an DELTA12-desaturase probably located in the RE. This corresponds to the invariant part of the oleHL locus. Another clone (11.1 probably carries DELTA12-desaturase repeated sequences that cause instability of the clone. We showed that the 11.1 clone carries most of cDNA sequence, but due to its organization it is not yet sequenced. A mutation mechanism

  13. A comparison of strategies for Markov chain Monte Carlo computation in quantitative genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Ibánez-Escriche, Noelia; Sorensen, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In quantitative genetics, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are indispensable for statistical inference in non-standard models like generalized linear models with genetic random effects or models with genetically structured variance heterogeneity. A particular challenge for MCMC applications...

  14. Automated identification of pathways from quantitative genetic interaction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Alexis; Jonikas, Martin C; Walter, Peter; Weissman, Jonathan S; Koller, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput quantitative genetic interaction (GI) measurements provide detailed information regarding the structure of the underlying biological pathways by reporting on functional dependencies between genes. However, the analytical tools for fully exploiting such information lag behind the ability to collect these data. We present a novel Bayesian learning method that uses quantitative phenotypes of double knockout organisms to automatically reconstruct detailed pathway structures. We applied our method to a recent data set that measures GIs for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) genes, using the unfolded protein response as a quantitative phenotype. The results provided reconstructions of known functional pathways including N-linked glycosylation and ER-associated protein degradation. It also contained novel relationships, such as the placement of SGT2 in the tail-anchored biogenesis pathway, a finding that we experimentally validated. Our approach should be readily applicable to the next generation of quantitative GI data sets, as assays become available for additional phenotypes and eventually higher-level organisms. PMID:20531408

  15. Quantitative genetic-interaction mapping in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguev, Assen; Talbot, Dale; Negri, Gian Luca; Shales, Michael; Cagney, Gerard; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Panning, Barbara; Krogan, Nevan J

    2013-01-01

    Mapping genetic interactions (GIs) by simultaneously perturbing pairs of genes is a powerful tool for understanding complex biological phenomena. Here we describe an experimental platform for generating quantitative GI maps in mammalian cells using a combinatorial RNA interference strategy. We performed ~11,000 pairwise knockdowns in mouse fibroblasts, focusing on 130 factors involved in chromatin regulation to create a GI map. Comparison of the GI and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data revealed that pairs of genes exhibiting positive GIs and/or similar genetic profiles were predictive of the corresponding proteins being physically associated. The mammalian GI map identified pathways and complexes but also resolved functionally distinct submodules within larger protein complexes. By integrating GI and PPI data, we created a functional map of chromatin complexes in mouse fibroblasts, revealing that the PAF complex is a central player in the mammalian chromatin landscape. PMID:23407553

  16. Quantitative Genetic Interactions Reveal Layers of Biological Modularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrao, Pedro; Cagney, Gerard; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2010-01-01

    In the past, biomedical research has embraced a reductionist approach, primarily focused on characterizing the individual components that comprise a system of interest. Recent technical developments have significantly increased the size and scope of data describing biological systems. At the same time, advances in the field of systems biology have evoked a broader view of how the underlying components are interconnected. In this essay, we discuss how quantitative genetic interaction mapping has enhanced our view of biological systems, allowing a deeper functional interrogation at different biological scales. PMID:20510918

  17. Mutation breeding in sunflower for resistance to alternaria leaf spot

    OpenAIRE

    de Marcelo Oliveira F.; Tulmann Augusto Neto; Regina Leite M.V.B.C.; Vania Castiglioni B.R.; Arias C.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic variability for resistance to Alternarla leaf spot disease (Alternaria helianthi) can be induced by radiation or chemical mutagens. The objectives of this study were to create genetic variability in cultivated sunflower and to select lines resistant to Alternaria leaf spot. In the first experiment, sunflower seeds of the genotype HA BR 104 were irradiated with 150 and 165 Gy of gamma rays. Seeds were sown in the field at the Embrapa Soybean experimental station, in Londrina, PR, Brazi...

  18. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  19. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  20. From classical genetics to quantitative genetics to systems biology: modeling epistasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Aylor

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression data has been used in lieu of phenotype in both classical and quantitative genetic settings. These two disciplines have separate approaches to measuring and interpreting epistasis, which is the interaction between alleles at different loci. We propose a framework for estimating and interpreting epistasis from a classical experiment that combines the strengths of each approach. A regression analysis step accommodates the quantitative nature of expression measurements by estimating the effect of gene deletions plus any interaction. Effects are selected by significance such that a reduced model describes each expression trait. We show how the resulting models correspond to specific hierarchical relationships between two regulator genes and a target gene. These relationships are the basic units of genetic pathways and genomic system diagrams. Our approach can be extended to analyze data from a variety of experiments, multiple loci, and multiple environments.

  1. A census of cells in time: quantitative genetics meets developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, Daniel H; Sinha, Neelima R

    2013-02-01

    Quantitative genetics has become a popular method for determining the genetic basis of natural variation. Combined with genomic methods, it provides a tool for discerning the genetic basis of gene expression. So-called genetical genomics approaches yield a wealth of genomic information, but by necessity, because of cost and time, fail to resolve the differences between organs, tissues, and/or cell types. Similarly, quantitative approaches in development that might potentially address these issues are seldom applied to quantitative genetics. We discuss recent advances in cell type-specific isolation methods, the quantitative analysis of phenotype, and developmental modeling that are compatible with quantitative genetics and, with time, promise to bridge the gap between these two powerful disciplines yielding unprecedented biological insight.

  2. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  3. A comparison of strategies for Markov chain Monte Carlo computation in quantitative genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Ibánez-Escriche, Noelia; Sorensen, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In quantitative genetics, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are indispensable for statistical inference in non-standard models like generalized linear models with genetic random effects or models with genetically structured variance heterogeneity. A particular challenge for MCMC applications...... in quantitative genetics is to obtain efficient updates of the high-dimensional vectors of genetic random effects and the associated covariance parameters. We discuss various strategies to approach this problem including reparameterization, Langevin-Hastings updates, and updates based on normal approximations....... The methods are compared in applications to Bayesian inference for three data sets using a model with genetically structured variance heterogeneity...

  4. Remarkable life history polymorphism may be evolving under divergent selection in the silverleaf sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brook T; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Substantial intraspecific variation in life history is rare and potentially a signal of incipient ecological speciation, if variation is driven by geographically heterogenous natural selection. We present the first report of extensive life history polymorphism in Helianthus argophyllus, the silverleaf sunflower, and examine evidence for its evolution by divergent selection. In 18 populations sampled from across the species range and grown in a common garden, most quantitative traits covaried such that individuals could be assigned to two distinct life history syndromes: tall and late flowering with small initial flowerheads, or short and early flowering with larger initial flowerheads. Helianthus argophyllus exhibits regional genetic structure, but this population structure does not closely correspond with patterns of phenotypic variation. The early-flowering syndrome is primarily observed in populations from coastal barrier islands, while populations from the nearby mainland coast, although geographically and genetically close, are primarily late flowering. Additionally, several traits are more differentiated among regions than expected based on neutral genetic divergence (QST  > FST ), including the first principal component score corresponding with life history syndrome. This discordance between patterns of phenotypic and genetic variation suggests that divergent selection is driving genetic differences in life history across the species range. If so, the silverleaf sunflower may be in early stages of ecological speciation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. MICROELEMENTS IN SUNFLOWER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldykova I. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The obtained experimental data show that the incorporation of trace elements into the system of the sunflower crop has a positive impact on the mineral nutrition of plants, the number and quality of the crop. Foliar feeding of sunflower crops with micronutrients improves nutrition of plants with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, thus creating the preconditions for the formation of highly agrocenosis. The seed yield of sunflower increased by variants with application of micronutrients 1.2-3.5 t/ha or 4.4-12.9 percent. The greatest impact of treatment with boron and copper, exceeding the background option 3.1-3.5 t/ha or 11.5-12.9% respectively. The crop is least influenced by manganese and molybdenum. The examined elements positively influenced the structure of the sunflower crop. The greatest influence on the diameter of the basket, the number of seeds, weight of seeds in the basket, the weight of 1000 seeds was provided by the zinc and copper. Trace elements contributed to the improvement of quality indicators of sunflower. For husk content, the greatest positive effect was cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper, increasing the background option 10.1, 10.4, 10.5 and 10, and 6%, respectively, on the oil content of sunflower seeds had cobalt, copper and zinc. The oil content on these options amounted 55,0, with 55.1 and 55.2%, respectively, increasing this figure by 1.5 to 1.7 %. The acid number at variants with boron, manganese and zinc was the same with the background option and amounted to 1.8. The greatest influence on iodine number provided molybdenum, zinc and copper, which accounted for 170,5, 171,2 and 171,4, exceeding the background option 10.2 and 11.1

  6. Entering the second century of maize quantitative genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize is the most widely grown cereal in the world. In addition to its role in global agriculture, it has also long served as a model organism for genetic research. Maize stands at a genetic crossroads, as it has access to all the tools available for plant genetics but exhibits a genetic architectur...

  7. Advancing genetic theory and application by metabolic quantitative trait loci analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliebenstein, Danielj

    2009-06-01

    This review describes recent advances in the analysis of metabolism using quantitative genetics. It focuses on how recent metabolic quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture underlying naturally variable phenotypes and the impact of this fundamental research on agriculture, specifically crop breeding. In particular, the role of whole-genome duplications in generating quantitative genetic variation within a species is highlighted and the potential uses of this phenomenon presented. Additionally, the review describes how new observations from metabolic QTL mapping analyses are helping to shape and expand the concepts of genetic epistasis.

  8. The Genetic Architecture of Quantitative Traits Cannot Be Inferred from Variance Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2016-01-01

    Classical quantitative genetic analyses estimate additive and non-additive genetic and environmental components of variance from phenotypes of related individuals without knowing the identities of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Many studies have found a large proportion of quantitative trait variation can be attributed to the additive genetic variance (VA), providing the basis for claims that non-additive gene actions are unimportant. In this study, we show that arbitrarily defined parameterizations of genetic effects seemingly consistent with non-additive gene actions can also capture the majority of genetic variation. This reveals a logical flaw in using the relative magnitudes of variance components to indicate the relative importance of additive and non-additive gene actions. We discuss the implications and propose that variance component analyses should not be used to infer the genetic architecture of quantitative traits. PMID:27812106

  9. The Genetic Architecture of Quantitative Traits Cannot Be Inferred from Variance Component Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical quantitative genetic analyses estimate additive and non-additive genetic and environmental components of variance from phenotypes of related individuals without knowing the identities of quantitative trait loci (QTLs. Many studies have found a large proportion of quantitative trait variation can be attributed to the additive genetic variance (VA, providing the basis for claims that non-additive gene actions are unimportant. In this study, we show that arbitrarily defined parameterizations of genetic effects seemingly consistent with non-additive gene actions can also capture the majority of genetic variation. This reveals a logical flaw in using the relative magnitudes of variance components to indicate the relative importance of additive and non-additive gene actions. We discuss the implications and propose that variance component analyses should not be used to infer the genetic architecture of quantitative traits.

  10. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the non-carcass components and the meat of lambs fed sunflower seeds and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ludmila Lins Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the weight and percentage of the non-carcass components and the mineral content (macro minerals and trace minerals, crude protein, ether extract, moisture and vitamin E of the heart, liver, tongue, lungs, reticulum, kidneys and meat from the longissimus dorsi of lambs in feedlot finishing. Thirty-two non-castrated Ile de France male lambs, fed diets containing sunflower seeds and vitamin E from 15 to 32 kg of body weight were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The weight of the gastrointestinal tract was higher in the lambs fed diets containing vitamin E (10%. No difference was observed in the liver as to the mineral matter, crude protein, ether extract, moisture (2.01; 20.03; 2.39 and 74.78 g/100 g, respectively, the macro minerals and trace minerals, except iron. In the tongue, lungs, reticulum, kidneys and meat there was no in fluence of diets in the studied variables. The liver and the meat presented different values of crude protein (20.01 and 18.34 g/100 g, respectively, and the heart (1.03 mg/100 g showed a higher content of vitamin E. High contents of manganese, zinc and copper were observed in the liver. The evaluated non-carcass components were nutritionally equal to the sheep meat, once, in addition to their high yield in relation to the body weight at slaughter, the non-carcass components are sources of nutrients.

  11. Multiple mating but not recombination causes quantitative increase in offspring genetic diversity for varying genetic architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Rueppell

    Full Text Available Explaining the evolution of sex and recombination is particularly intriguing for some species of eusocial insects because they display exceptionally high mating frequencies and genomic recombination rates. Explanations for both phenomena are based on the notion that both increase colony genetic diversity, with demonstrated benefits for colony disease resistance and division of labor. However, the relative contributions of mating number and recombination rate to colony genetic diversity have never been simultaneously assessed. Our study simulates colonies, assuming different mating numbers, recombination rates, and genetic architectures, to assess their worker genotypic diversity. The number of loci has a strong negative effect on genotypic diversity when the allelic effects are inversely scaled to locus number. In contrast, dominance, epistasis, lethal effects, or limiting the allelic diversity at each locus does not significantly affect the model outcomes. Mating number increases colony genotypic variance and lowers variation among colonies with quickly diminishing returns. Genomic recombination rate does not affect intra- and inter-colonial genotypic variance, regardless of mating frequency and genetic architecture. Recombination slightly increases the genotypic range of colonies and more strongly the number of workers with unique allele combinations across all loci. Overall, our study contradicts the argument that the exceptionally high recombination rates cause a quantitative increase in offspring genotypic diversity across one generation. Alternative explanations for the evolution of high recombination rates in social insects are therefore needed. Short-term benefits are central to most explanations of the evolution of multiple mating and high recombination rates in social insects but our results also apply to other species.

  12. Functional genomics bridges the gap between quantitative genetics and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-10-01

    Deep characterization of molecular function of genetic variants in the human genome is becoming increasingly important for understanding genetic associations to disease and for learning to read the regulatory code of the genome. In this paper, I discuss how recent advances in both quantitative genetics and molecular biology have contributed to understanding functional effects of genetic variants, lessons learned from eQTL studies, and future challenges in this field.

  13. Simple sequence repeat map of the sunflower genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S.; Yu, J.-K.; Slabaugh, B.; Shintani, K.; Knapp, J.

    2002-12-01

    Several independent molecular genetic linkage maps of varying density and completeness have been constructed for cultivated sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.). Because of the dearth of sequence and probe-specific DNA markers in the public domain, the various genetic maps of sunflower have not been integrated and a single reference map has not emerged. Moreover, comparisons between maps have been confounded by multiple linkage group nomenclatures and the lack of common DNA markers. The goal of the present research was to construct a dense molecular genetic linkage map for sunflower using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, 879 SSR markers were developed by identifying 1,093 unique SSR sequences in the DNA sequences of 2,033 clones isolated from genomic DNA libraries enriched for (AC)(n) or (AG)(n) and screening 1,000 SSR primer pairs; 579 of the newly developed SSR markers (65.9% of the total) were polymorphic among four elite inbred lines (RHA280, RHA801, PHA and PHB). The genetic map was constructed using 94 RHA280 x RHA801 F(7) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and 408 polymorphic SSR markers (462 SSR marker loci segregated in the mapping population). Of the latter, 459 coalesced into 17 linkage groups presumably corresponding to the 17 chromosomes in the haploid sunflower genome ( x = 17). The map was 1,368.3-cM long and had a mean density of 3.1 cM per locus. The SSR markers described herein supply a critical mass of DNA markers for constructing genetic maps of sunflower and create the basis for unifying and cross-referencing the multitude of genetic maps developed for wild and cultivated sunflowers.

  14. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  15. [The study of tomato fruit weight quantitative trait locus and its application in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan

    2015-08-01

    The classical research cases, which have greatly promoted the development of genetics in history, can be combined with the content of courses in genetics teaching to train students' ability of scientific thinking and genetic analysis. The localization and clone of gene controlling tomato fruit weight is a pioneer work in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies and represents a complete process of QTL research in plants. Application of this integrated case in genetics teaching, which showed a wonderful process of scientific discovery and the fascination of genetic research, has inspired students' interest in genetics and achieved a good teaching effect.

  16. A quantitative genetic analysis of intermediate asthma phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S.F.; Ferreira, M.A.R.; Kyvik, K.O.

    2009-01-01

    to the observed data using maximum likelihood methods. RESULTS: Additive genetic factors explained 67% of the variation in FeNO, 43% in airway responsiveness, 22% in airway obstruction, and 81% in serum total IgE. In general, traits had genetically and environmentally distinct variance structures. The most...

  17. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  18. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  19. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  20. A century after Fisher: time for a new paradigm in quantitative genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ronald M; Pettersson, Mats E; Carlborg, Örjan

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative genetics traces its roots back through more than a century of theory, largely formed in the absence of directly observable genotype data, and has remained essentially unchanged for decades. By contrast, molecular genetics arose from direct observations and is currently undergoing rapid changes, making the amount of available data ever greater. Thus, the two disciplines are disparate both in their origins and their current states, yet they address the same fundamental question: how does the genotype affect the phenotype? The rapidly accumulating genomic data necessitate sophisticated analysis, but many of the current tools are adaptations of methods designed during the early days of quantitative genetics. We argue here that the present analysis paradigm in quantitative genetics is at its limits in regards to unraveling complex traits and it is necessary to re-evaluate the direction that genetic research is taking for the field to realize its full potential.

  1. Gustav klimt's "sunflower" impact on Schiller "sunflower" Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯新

    2016-01-01

    gustav klimt and Schiller as a master of expressionism, same to the entire world's art has a great influence. But klimt's landscape painting had a huge impact on Schiller's landscape paintings, the most typical example is Schiller's already watched the klimt's "sunflower"exhibition, to create a picture composition and theme is very similar to the sunflower Ⅱ, thus klimt for Schiller's influence.

  2. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  3. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  4. Genotype-by-environment interaction in genetic mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.; Ooijen, J.W. van; Stam, P.; Lister, C.; Dean, C.

    1995-01-01

    The interval mapping method is widely used for the genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), though true resolution of quantitative variation into QTLs is hampered with this method. Separation of QTLs is troublesome, because single-QTL is models are fitted. Further, genotype-by-environment

  5. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci in plants - a novel statistical approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative variation is a feature of many important traits such as yield, quality and disease resistance in crop plants and farm animals, and diseases in humans. The genetic mapping, understanding and manipulation of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are therefore of prime importance. Only by using g

  6. Integrating Quantitative Genetics and Practical Aspects in a Fish Breeding Network in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kristian; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise;

    simulations are given to show how different practical aspects of a breeding plan can be optimized. By combining quantitative genetic theory with current breeding practice we are able to optimize different breeding plans increasing genetic gain while controlling the level of inbreeding and building up...

  7. Contribution and perspectives of quantitative genetics to plant breeding in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Ribeiro Barrozo Toledo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how quantitative genetics has contributed to the huge genetic progress obtained inplant breeding in Brazil in the last forty years. The information obtained through quantitative genetics has given Brazilian breedersthe possibility of responding to innumerable questions in their work in a much more informative way, such as the use or not of hybridcultivars, which segregating population to use, which breeding method to employ, alternatives for improving the efficiency of selectionprograms, and how to handle the data of progeny and/or cultivars evaluations to identify the most stable ones and thus improverecommendations.

  8. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... 2Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, ... identify genetic loci associated with the expression of resistance to FTh. ... indicated that resistance to FTh may be controlled by ... population or to pyramid resistance into new populations. .... environment and human health (Eigenbrode and.

  9. Genetic toxicology at the crossroads-from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul A; Johnson, George E

    2016-05-01

    Applied genetic toxicology is undergoing a transition from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative dose-response analysis and risk assessment. To facilitate this change, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) sponsored a workshop held in Lancaster, UK on July 10-11, 2014. The event included invited speakers from several institutions and the contents was divided into three themes-1: Point-of-departure Metrics for Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis in Genetic Toxicology; 2: Measurement and Estimation of Exposures for Better Extrapolation to Humans and 3: The Use of Quantitative Approaches in Genetic Toxicology for human health risk assessment (HHRA). A host of pertinent issues were discussed relating to the use of in vitro and in vivo dose-response data, the development of methods for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and approaches to use in vivo dose-response data to determine human exposure limits for regulatory evaluations and decision-making. This Special Issue, which was inspired by the workshop, contains a series of papers that collectively address topics related to the aforementioned themes. The Issue includes contributions that collectively evaluate, describe and discuss in silico, in vitro, in vivo and statistical approaches that are facilitating the shift from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment. The use and application of the benchmark dose approach was a central theme in many of the workshop presentations and discussions, and the Special Issue includes several contributions that outline novel applications for the analysis and interpretation of genetic toxicity data. Although the contents of the Special Issue constitutes an important step towards the adoption of quantitative methods for regulatory assessment of genetic toxicity, formal acceptance of quantitative methods for HHRA and regulatory decision-making will require consensus regarding the

  10. Functional Maps of Protein Complexes from Quantitative Genetic Interaction Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sourav Bandyopadhyay; Ryan Kelley; Krogan, Nevan J.; Trey Ideker

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a number of advanced screening technologies have allowed for the comprehensive quantification of aggravating and alleviating genetic interactions among gene pairs. In parallel, TAP-MS studies (tandem affinity purification followed by mass spectroscopy) have been successful at identifying physical protein interactions that can indicate proteins participating in the same molecular complex. Here, we propose a method for the joint learning of protein complexes and their functional relat...

  11. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D; W. Dale Plummer Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventio...

  12. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  13. Developmental quantitative genetic analysis of body weights and morphological traits in the turbot, Scophthalmusmaximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinan; MA Aijun; MA Deyou

    2015-01-01

    In order to elucidate the genetic mechanism of growth traits in turbot during ontogeny, developmental genetic analysis of the body weights, total lengths, standard lengths and body heights of turbots was conducted by mixed genetic models with additive-dominance effects, based on complete diallel crosses with four different strains of Scophthalmus maximus from Denmark, Norway, Britain, and France. Unconditional genetic analysis revealed that the unconditional additive effects for the four traits were more significant than unconditional dominance effects, meanwhile, the alternative expressions were also observed between the additive and dominant effects for body weights, total lengths and standard lengths. Conditional analysis showed that the developmental periods with active gene expression for body weights, total lengths, standard lengths and body heights were 15–18, 15 and 21–24, 15 and 24, and 21 and 27 months of age, respectively. The proportions of unconditional/conditional variances indicated that the narrow-sense heritabilities of body weights, total lengths and standard lengths were all increased systematically. The accumulative effects of genes controlling the four quantitative traits were mainly additive effects, suggesting that the selection is more efficient for the genetic improvement of turbots. The conditional genetic procedure is a useful tool to understand the expression of genes controlling developmental quantitative traits at a specific developmental period (t-1→t) during ontogeny. It is also important to determine the appropriate developmental period (t-1→t) for trait measurement in developmental quantitative genetic analysis in fish.

  14. SNP discovery and QTL mapping of Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a serious disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbr...

  15. Evolution of oxidation during storage of crisps and french fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Polvillo, M.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Storage studies were carried out to define the behaviour of both conventional and high oleic sunflower oils in the industrial preparation of crisps and prefried french fries. Samples of crisps and prefried french fries were stored during 6 and 21 months, respectively, and evolution of oxidation was compared with that of the more saturated fats normally used for the preparation of both products, i.e., palm olein and hydrogenated rapeseed/palm oil mixture. Total oxidation compounds, α-tocopherol content, as well as monomeric and dimeric triglycerides, were quantitated in lipids from fried products after different time periods. Results obtained for crisps at room temperature indicated that only conventional sunflower oil underwent significant oxidation after 6 months. In the case of prefried french fries, maintained at freezer temperatures, no appreciable changes were found after 21 months storage, thus indicating that both sunflower oils can be good alternatives to saturated fats.

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M; Berry, Simon T; Leon, Alberto J; Slabaugh, Mary B; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K; Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J

    2007-09-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression(-)the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines ( = 0.0094) than wild populations ( = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome ( approximately 3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping.

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M.; Berry, Simon T.; Leon, Alberto J.; Slabaugh, Mary B.; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K.; Burke, John M.; Knapp, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression−the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines (θ = 0.0094) than wild populations (θ = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome (∼3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping. PMID:17660563

  18. Quantitative trait locus mapping reveals complex genetic architecture of quantitative virulence in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ethan L; Croll, Daniel; Lendenmann, Mark H; Sanchez-Vallet, Andrea; Hartmann, Fanny E; Palma-Guerrero, Javier; Ma, Xin; McDonald, Bruce A

    2016-11-21

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of virulence in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. High-throughput phenotyping based on automated image analysis allowed the measurement of pathogen virulence on a scale and with a precision that was not previously possible. Across two mapping populations encompassing more than 520 progeny, 540 710 pycnidia were counted and their sizes and grey values were measured. A significant correlation was found between pycnidia size and both spore size and number. Precise measurements of percentage leaf area covered by lesions provided a quantitative measure of host damage. Combining these large and accurate phenotypic datasets with a dense panel of restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) genetic markers enabled us to genetically dissect pathogen virulence into components related to host damage and those related to pathogen reproduction. We showed that different components of virulence can be under separate genetic control. Large- and small-effect QTLs were identified for all traits, with some QTLs specific to mapping populations, cultivars and traits and other QTLs shared among traits within the same mapping population. We associated the presence of four accessory chromosomes with small, but significant, increases in several virulence traits, providing the first evidence for a meaningful function associated with accessory chromosomes in this organism. A large-effect QTL involved in host specialization was identified on chromosome 7, leading to the identification of candidate genes having a large effect on virulence.

  19. Parent-offspring conflict and co-adaptation: behavioural ecology meets quantitative genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiseth, Per T; Wright, Jonathan; Kölliker, Mathias

    2008-08-22

    The evolution of the complex and dynamic behavioural interactions between caring parents and their dependent offspring is a major area of research in behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics. While behavioural ecologists examine the evolution of interactions between parents and offspring in the light of parent-offspring conflict and its resolution, quantitative geneticists explore the evolution of such interactions in the light of parent-offspring co-adaptation due to combined effects of parental and offspring behaviours on fitness. To date, there is little interaction or integration between these two fields. Here, we first review the merits and limitations of each of these two approaches and show that they provide important complementary insights into the evolution of strategies for offspring begging and parental resource provisioning. We then outline how central ideas from behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics can be combined within a framework based on the concept of behavioural reaction norms, which provides a common basis for behavioural ecologists and quantitative geneticists to study the evolution of parent-offspring interactions. Finally, we discuss how the behavioural reaction norm approach can be used to advance our understanding of parent-offspring conflict by combining information about the genetic basis of traits from quantitative genetics with key insights regarding the adaptive function and dynamic nature of parental and offspring behaviours from behavioural ecology.

  20. Genetic influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms from age 2 to 3: A quantitative and molecular genetic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudino Kimberly J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A twin study design was used to assess the degree to which additive genetic variance influences ADHD symptom scores across two ages during infancy. A further objective in the study was to observe whether genetic association with a number of candidate markers reflects results from the quantitative genetic analysis. Method We have studied 312 twin pairs at two time-points, age 2 and age 3. A composite measure of ADHD symptoms from two parent-rating scales: The Child Behavior Checklist/1.5 - 5 years (CBCL hyperactivity scale and the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (RRPSPC was used for both quantitative and molecular genetic analyses. Results At ages 2 and 3 ADHD symptoms are highly heritable (h2 = 0.79 and 0.78, respectively with a high level of genetic stability across these ages. However, we also observe a significant level of genetic change from age 2 to age 3. There are modest influences of non-shared environment at each age independently (e2 = 0.22 and 0.21, respectively, with these influences being largely age-specific. In addition, we find modest association signals in DAT1 and NET1 at both ages, along with suggestive specific effects of 5-HTT and DRD4 at age 3. Conclusions ADHD symptoms are heritable at ages 2 and 3. Additive genetic variance is largely shared across these ages, although there are significant new effects emerging at age 3. Results from our genetic association analysis reflect these levels of stability and change and, more generally, suggest a requirement for consideration of age-specific genotypic effects in future molecular studies.

  1. Preventing Rancidity in sunflower Oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used in turn to extract the polar flavonoids, while chilled acetone and petroleum ether ... sunflower oil was measured using changes in peroxide values and the UV absorbances (Conjugated diene) .... metal ions and metalloprotein catalysts.

  2. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-09-01

    Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the observed potential negative effect in this trial, future randomized clinical trials may base their design on randomly assigning the exposed patients to give up use of sunflower seed intake.

  3. Estimating quantitative genetic parameters in wild populations: a comparison of pedigree and genomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérénos, Camillo; Ellis, Philip A; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2014-07-01

    The estimation of quantitative genetic parameters in wild populations is generally limited by the accuracy and completeness of the available pedigree information. Using relatedness at genomewide markers can potentially remove this limitation and lead to less biased and more precise estimates. We estimated heritability, maternal genetic effects and genetic correlations for body size traits in an unmanaged long-term study population of Soay sheep on St Kilda using three increasingly complete and accurate estimates of relatedness: (i) Pedigree 1, using observation-derived maternal links and microsatellite-derived paternal links; (ii) Pedigree 2, using SNP-derived assignment of both maternity and paternity; and (iii) whole-genome relatedness at 37 037 autosomal SNPs. In initial analyses, heritability estimates were strikingly similar for all three methods, while standard errors were systematically lower in analyses based on Pedigree 2 and genomic relatedness. Genetic correlations were generally strong, differed little between the three estimates of relatedness and the standard errors declined only very slightly with improved relatedness information. When partitioning maternal effects into separate genetic and environmental components, maternal genetic effects found in juvenile traits increased substantially across the three relatedness estimates. Heritability declined compared to parallel models where only a maternal environment effect was fitted, suggesting that maternal genetic effects are confounded with direct genetic effects and that more accurate estimates of relatedness were better able to separate maternal genetic effects from direct genetic effects. We found that the heritability captured by SNP markers asymptoted at about half the SNPs available, suggesting that denser marker panels are not necessarily required for precise and unbiased heritability estimates. Finally, we present guidelines for the use of genomic relatedness in future quantitative genetics

  4. The Quantitative Basis of the Arabidopsis Innate Immune System to Endemic Pathogens Depends on Pathogen Genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Corwin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most established model of the eukaryotic innate immune system is derived from examples of large effect monogenic quantitative resistance to pathogens. However, many host-pathogen interactions involve many genes of small to medium effect and exhibit quantitative resistance. We used the Arabidopsis-Botrytis pathosystem to explore the quantitative genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana. By infecting a diverse panel of Arabidopsis accessions with four phenotypically and genotypically distinct isolates of the fungal necrotroph B. cinerea, we identified a total of 2,982 genes associated with quantitative resistance using lesion area and 3,354 genes associated with camalexin production as measures of the interaction. Most genes were associated with resistance to a specific Botrytis isolate, which demonstrates the influence of pathogen genetic variation in analyzing host quantitative resistance. While known resistance genes, such as receptor-like kinases (RLKs and nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs, were found to be enriched among associated genes, they only account for a small fraction of the total genes associated with quantitative resistance. Using publically available co-expression data, we condensed the quantitative resistance associated genes into co-expressed gene networks. GO analysis of these networks implicated several biological processes commonly connected to disease resistance, including defense hormone signaling and ROS production, as well as novel processes, such as leaf development. Validation of single gene T-DNA knockouts in a Col-0 background demonstrate a high success rate (60% when accounting for differences in environmental and Botrytis genetic variation. This study shows that the genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system is extremely complex and is likely able to sense and respond to differential virulence among pathogen

  5. The current and future use of ridge regression for prediction in quantitative genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Vlaming (Ronald); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been a considerable amount of research on the use of regularization methods for inference and prediction in quantitative genetics. Such research mostly focuses on selection of markers and shrinkage of their effects. In this review paper, the use of ridge

  6. Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described cow feces-spec...

  7. Multilevel selection 1: Quantitative genetics of inheritance and response to selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, P.; Muir, W.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Interaction among individuals is universal, both in animals and in plants, and substantially affects evolution of natural populations and responses to artificial selection in agriculture. Although quantitative genetics has successfully been applied to many traits, it does not provide a general theor

  8. Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that

  9. Prediction of quantitative phenotypes based on genetic networks: a case study in yeast sporulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Li

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exciting application of genetic network is to predict phenotypic consequences for environmental cues or genetic perturbations. However, de novo prediction for quantitative phenotypes based on network topology is always a challenging task. Results Using yeast sporulation as a model system, we have assembled a genetic network from literature and exploited Boolean network to predict sporulation efficiency change upon deleting individual genes. We observe that predictions based on the curated network correlate well with the experimentally measured values. In addition, computational analysis reveals the robustness and hysteresis of the yeast sporulation network and uncovers several patterns of sporulation efficiency change caused by double gene deletion. These discoveries may guide future investigation of underlying mechanisms. We have also shown that a hybridized genetic network reconstructed from both temporal microarray data and literature is able to achieve a satisfactory prediction accuracy of the same quantitative phenotypes. Conclusions This case study illustrates the value of predicting quantitative phenotypes based on genetic network and provides a generic approach.

  10. Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Biomass and Wood Chemistry of Populus under Different Nitrogen Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novaes, E.; Osorio, L.; Drost, D. R.; Miles, B. L.; Boaventura-Novaes, C. R. D.; Benedict, C.; Dervinis, C.; Yu, Q.; Sykes, R.; Davis, M.; Martin, T. A.; Peter, G. F.; Kirst, M.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration, biofuels and other wood-based industries. It is also unclear how environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability, impact the genes that regulate growth, biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. We phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above- and below-ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Sixty-three quantitative trait loci were identified for the 20 traits analyzed. The majority of quantitative trait loci are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and quantitative trait loci co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Pleiotropic loci linking higher growth rates to wood with less lignin are excellent targets to engineer tree germplasm improved for pulp, paper and cellulosic ethanol production. The causative genes are being identified with a genetical genomics approach.

  11. Investigation of the genetic association between quantitative measures of psychosis and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derks, Eske M; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Ripke, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The presence of subclinical levels of psychosis in the general population may imply that schizophrenia is the extreme expression of more or less continuously distributed traits in the population. In a previous study, we identified five quantitative measures of schizophrenia (positive, negative......, disorganisation, mania, and depression scores). The aim of this study is to examine the association between a direct measure of genetic risk of schizophrenia and the five quantitative measures of psychosis. Estimates of the log of the odds ratios of case/control allelic association tests were obtained from...... the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC) (minus our sample) which included genome-wide genotype data of 8,690 schizophrenia cases and 11,831 controls. These data were used to calculate genetic risk scores in 314 schizophrenia cases and 148 controls from the Netherlands for whom genotype data and quantitative symptom...

  12. Spontaneous mutations and the origin and maintenance of quantitative genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Lyman, Richard F; Lyman, Rachel A; Carbone, Mary Anna; Harbison, Susan T; Magwire, Michael M; Mackay, Trudy Fc

    2016-05-23

    Mutation and natural selection shape the genetic variation in natural populations. Here, we directly estimated the spontaneous mutation rate by sequencing new Drosophila mutation accumulation lines maintained with minimal natural selection. We inferred strong stabilizing natural selection on quantitative traits because genetic variation among wild-derived inbred lines was much lower than predicted from a neutral model and the mutational effects were much larger than allelic effects of standing polymorphisms. Stabilizing selection could act directly on the traits, or indirectly from pleiotropic effects on fitness. However, our data are not consistent with simple models of mutation-stabilizing selection balance; therefore, further empirical work is needed to assess the balance of evolutionary forces responsible for quantitative genetic variation.

  13. The quantitative basis of the Arabidopsis innate immune system to endemic pathogens depends on pathogen genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corwin, Jason A; Copeland, Daniel; Feusier, Julie

    2016-01-01

    the Arabidopsis-Botrytis pathosystem to explore the quantitative genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana. By infecting a diverse panel of Arabidopsis accessions with four phenotypically and genotypically distinct isolates of the fungal necrotroph B...... of pathogen genetic variation in analyzing host quantitative resistance. While known resistance genes, such as receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs), were found to be enriched among associated genes, they only account for a small fraction of the total......, including defense hormone signaling and ROS production, as well as novel processes, such as leaf development. Validation of single gene T-DNA knockouts in a Col-0 background demonstrate a high success rate (60%) when accounting for differences in environmental and Botrytis genetic variation. This study...

  14. The quantitative genetic basis of polyandry in the parasitoid wasp, Nasonia vitripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuker, D M; Phillimore, A J; Burton-Chellew, M N; Hodge, S E; West, S A

    2007-02-01

    Understanding the evolution of female multiple mating (polyandry) is crucial for understanding sexual selection and sexual conflict. Despite this interest, little is known about its genetic basis or whether genetics influences the evolutionary origin or maintenance of polyandry. Here, we explore the quantitative genetic basis of polyandry in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis, a species in which female re-mating has been observed to evolve in the laboratory. We performed a quantitative genetic experiment on a recently collected population of wasps. We found low heritabilities of female polyandry (re-mating frequency after 18 h), low heritability of courtship duration and a slightly higher heritability of copulation duration. However, the coefficients of additive genetic variance for these traits were all reasonably large (CV(A)>7.0). We also found considerable dam effects for all traits after controlling for common environment, suggesting either dominance or maternal effects. Our work adds to the evidence that nonadditive genetic effects may influence the evolution of mating behaviour in Nasonia vitripennis, and the evolution of polyandry more generally.

  15. Quantitative genetics of shape in cricket wings: developmental integration in a functional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter; Debat, Vincent; Roff, Derek A

    2010-10-01

    The role of developmental and genetic integration for evolution is contentious. One hypothesis states that integration acts as a constraint on evolution, whereas an alternative is that developmental and genetic systems evolve to match the functional modularity of organisms. This study examined a morphological structure, the cricket wing, where developmental and functional modules are discordant, making it possible to distinguish the two alternatives. Wing shape was characterized with geometric morphometrics, quantitative genetic information was extracted using a full-sibling breeding design, and patterns of developmental integration were inferred from fluctuating asymmetry of wing shape. The patterns of genetic, phenotypic, and developmental integration were clearly similar, but not identical. Heritabilities for different shape variables varied widely, but no shape variables were devoid of genetic variation. Simulated selection for specific shape changes produced predicted responses with marked deflections due to the genetic covariance structure. Three hypotheses of modularity according to the wing structures involved in sound production were inconsistent with the genetic, phenotypic, or developmental covariance structure. Instead, there appears to be strong integration throughout the wing. The hypothesis that genetic and developmental integration evolve to match functional modularity can therefore be rejected for this example.

  16. The quantitative basis of the Arabidopsis innate immune system to endemic pathogens depends on pathogen genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corwin, Jason A; Copeland, Daniel; Feusier, Julie;

    2016-01-01

    The most established model of the eukaryotic innate immune system is derived from examples of large effect monogenic quantitative resistance to pathogens. However, many host-pathogen interactions involve many genes of small to medium effect and exhibit quantitative resistance. We used...... the Arabidopsis-Botrytis pathosystem to explore the quantitative genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana. By infecting a diverse panel of Arabidopsis accessions with four phenotypically and genotypically distinct isolates of the fungal necrotroph B....... cinerea, we identified a total of 2,982 genes associated with quantitative resistance using lesion area and 3,354 genes associated with camalexin production as measures of the interaction. Most genes were associated with resistance to a specific Botrytis isolate, which demonstrates the influence...

  17. Compendium of sunflower disease and insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Compendium of Sunflower Diseases and Pests is a new addition to the popular APS Press series of plant disease compendia. This will be the most comprehensive guide to sunflower diseases and pests in the world. The introduction contains brief histories of sunflower use and production, botany of th...

  18. Are Genetically Informed Designs Genetically Informative?: Comment on McGue, Elkins, Walden, and Iacono (2005) and Quantitative Behavioral Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ty

    2005-01-01

    M. McGue, I. Elkins, B. Walden, and W. G. Iacono (see record 2005-14938-011) presented the findings from a twin study examining the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the developmental trajectories of parent-adolescent relationships. From a behavioral genetics perspective, this study is well conceptualized, is well…

  19. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  20. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, Nuno D.; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M.; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can

  1. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  2. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  3. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  4. The quantitative genetics of indirect genetic effects: a selective review of modelling issues : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGE) occur when the genotype of an individual affects the phenotypic trait value of another conspecific individual. IGEs can have profound effects on both the magnitude and the direction of response to selection. Models of inheritance and response to selection in traits sub

  5. The quantitative genetic architecture of the bold-shy continuum in zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Oswald

    Full Text Available In studies of consistent individual differences (personality along the bold-shy continuum, a pattern of behavioral correlations frequently emerges: individuals towards the bold end of the continuum are more likely to utilize risky habitat, approach potential predators, and feed under risky conditions. Here, we address the hypothesis that observed phenotypic correlations among component behaviors of the bold-shy continuum are a result of underlying genetic correlations (quantitative genetic architecture. We used a replicated three-generation pedigree of zebrafish (Danio rerio to study three putative components of the bold-shy continuum: horizontal position, swim level, and feeding latency. We detected significant narrow-sense heritabilities as well as significant genetic and phenotypic correlations among all three behaviors, such that fish selected for swimming at the front of the tank swam closer to the observer, swam higher in the water column, and fed more quickly than fish selected for swimming at the back of the tank. Further, the lines varied in their initial open field behavior (swim level and activity level. The quantitative genetic architecture of the bold-shy continuum indicates that the multivariate behavioral phenotype characteristic of a "bold" personality type may be a result of correlated evolution via underlying genetic correlations.

  6. Genetic diversity and effect of temperature and pH on the growth of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates from sunflower fields in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöndes, Izabella; Cseh, András; Taller, János; Poczai, Péter

    2012-03-01

    The effects of temperature and pH on the growth of 45 Hungarian Macrophomina phaseolina isolates from different locations and hosts were compared on the basis of their genetic diversity. One Spanish and two Serbian isolates were also included in the experiment. The most favourable temperature regimes for the development of the isolates ranged between 25 and 35 °C. The optimal pH for the pathogen varied between 4.0 and 6.0, but growth was observed on potato dextrose agar even at pH values of 3.0, 7.0 and 8.0. RAPD analysis with 13 different primer pairs generated 148 unambiguous bands. RFLP analysis involving 8 different restriction endonucleases was performed on a 1550 bp fragment of the rDNA region containing internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2), the 5.8S rDNA and part of the 25S rDNA. The greatest genetic distance values were obtained for three isolates, two from Hungary and one from Spain, which had similar values, but were quite distinct from all the others. A strong positive correlation was observed between the genetic distances and the growth parameters measured at various temperatures, and between the geographical data and the growth data sets at different pH values, but the correlation was less strong in the latter case. While Hungarian M. phaseolina populations are thought to reproduce clonally, the present results indicate the coexistence of different haplotypes in this area, and besides the geographical dominance of a given haplotype it was found that a closer genetic relationship might exist between spatially distinct haplotypes.

  7. Association mapping and the genomic consequences of selection in sunflower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Mandel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM, indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval.

  8. Association mapping and the genomic consequences of selection in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R; Nambeesan, Savithri; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2013-03-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching) and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM), indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval.

  9. A consensus map of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) based on diversity array technology markers: applications in genetic dissection of qualitative and quantitative traits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Kilian, Andrzej; Detering, Frank; Long, Yan; Edwards, David; Parkin, Isobel A P; Sharpe, Andrew G; Nelson, Matthew N; Larkan, Nick; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Aslam, M Naveed; Batley, Jacqueline; Cowling, Wallace A; Lydiate, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Dense consensus genetic maps based on high-throughput genotyping platforms are valuable for making genetic gains in Brassica napus through quantitative trait locus identification, efficient predictive...

  10. Quantitative autistic trait measurements index background genetic risk for ASD in Hispanic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Joshua; Constantino, John Nicholas; Zambrana, Katherine; Martin, Eden; Tunc, Ilker; Zhang, Yi; Abbacchi, Anna; Messinger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that quantitative autistic traits (QATs) of parents reflect inherited liabilities that may index background genetic risk for clinical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their offspring. Moreover, preferential mating for QATs has been observed as a potential factor in concentrating autistic liabilities in some families across generations. Heretofore, intergenerational studies of QATs have focused almost exclusively on Caucasian populations-the present study explored these phenomena in a well-characterized Hispanic population. The present study examined QAT scores in siblings and parents of 83 Hispanic probands meeting research diagnostic criteria for ASD, and 64 non-ASD controls, using the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2). Ancestry of the probands was characterized by genotype, using information from 541,929 single nucleotide polymorphic markers. In families of Hispanic children with an ASD diagnosis, the pattern of quantitative trait correlations observed between ASD-affected children and their first-degree relatives (ICCs on the order of 0.20), between unaffected first-degree relatives in ASD-affected families (sibling/mother ICC = 0.36; sibling/father ICC = 0.53), and between spouses (mother/father ICC = 0.48) were in keeping with the influence of transmitted background genetic risk and strong preferential mating for variation in quantitative autistic trait burden. Results from analysis of ancestry-informative genetic markers among probands in this sample were consistent with that from other Hispanic populations. Quantitative autistic traits represent measurable indices of inherited liability to ASD in Hispanic families. The accumulation of autistic traits occurs within generations, between spouses, and across generations, among Hispanic families affected by ASD. The occurrence of preferential mating for QATs-the magnitude of which may vary across cultures-constitutes a mechanism by which background genetic liability

  11. Quantitative Chemical-Genetic Interaction Map Connects Gene Alterations to Drug Responses | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a recent Cancer Discovery report, CTD2 researchers at the University of California in San Francisco developed a new quantitative chemical-genetic interaction mapping approach to evaluate drug sensitivity or resistance in isogenic cell lines. Performing a high-throughput screen with isogenic cell lines allowed the researchers to explore the impact of a panel of emerging and established drugs on cells overexpressing a single cancer-associated gene in isolation.

  12. SNP Discovery and QTL Mapping of Sclerotinia Basal Stalk Rot Resistance in Sunflower using Genotyping-by-Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Zahirul I; Seiler, Gerald J; Song, Qijian; Ma, Guojia; Qi, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Basal stalk rot (BSR), caused by the ascomycete fungus (Lib.) de Bary, is a serious disease of sunflower ( L.) in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross HA 441 × RHA 439. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was adapted to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A genetic linkage map was developed comprised of 1053 SNP markers on 17 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 1401.36 cM. The RILs were tested in five environments (locations and years) for resistance to BSR. Quantitative trait loci were identified in each environment separately and also with integrated data across environments. A total of six QTL were identified in all five environments: one of each on LGs 4, 9, 10, 11, 16, and 17. The most significant QTL, and , were identified at multiple environments on LGs 10 and 17, explaining 31.6 and 20.2% of the observed phenotypic variance, respectively. The remaining four QTL, , , , and , were detected in only one environment on LGs 4, 9, 11, and 16, respectively. Each of these QTL explains between 6.4 and 10.5% of the observed phenotypic variation in the RIL population. Alleles conferring increased resistance were contributed by both parents. The potential of the and in marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  13. SNP Discovery and QTL Mapping of Sclerotinia Basal Stalk Rot Resistance in Sunflower using Genotyping-by-Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahirul I. Talukder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Basal stalk rot (BSR, caused by the ascomycete fungus (Lib. de Bary, is a serious disease of sunflower ( L. in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from the cross HA 441 × RHA 439. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approach was adapted to discover single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. A genetic linkage map was developed comprised of 1053 SNP markers on 17 linkage groups (LGs spanning 1401.36 cM. The RILs were tested in five environments (locations and years for resistance to BSR. Quantitative trait loci were identified in each environment separately and also with integrated data across environments. A total of six QTL were identified in all five environments: one of each on LGs 4, 9, 10, 11, 16, and 17. The most significant QTL, and , were identified at multiple environments on LGs 10 and 17, explaining 31.6 and 20.2% of the observed phenotypic variance, respectively. The remaining four QTL, , , , and , were detected in only one environment on LGs 4, 9, 11, and 16, respectively. Each of these QTL explains between 6.4 and 10.5% of the observed phenotypic variation in the RIL population. Alleles conferring increased resistance were contributed by both parents. The potential of the and in marker-assisted selection (MAS breeding are discussed.

  14. Genetic diversity among exotic cotton accessions as for qualitative and quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, L P; Farias, F J C; Rodrigues, J I S; Suassuna, N D; Teodoro, P E

    2017-02-08

    Studying genetic diversity among a group of genotypes is important in genetic breeding because identifying hybrid combinations of greater heterotic effect also increases the chance of obtaining plants with favorable allele combinations in an intra-population selection program. The objective of this study was to compare different types of long and extra-long staple cotton and their genetic diversity in relation to the fiber traits and some agronomic traits in order to grant breeding programs. Diversity analysis among 29 cotton accessions based on qualitative and quantitative traits and joint including qualitative and quantitative traits was performed. Analysis based on qualitative and quantitative traits and joint met the accessions in three, two, and three groups, respectively. The cross between genotypes Giza 59 and Pima unknown was the most promising to generate segregating populations, comprising simultaneously resistance (based on molecular markers) to blue disease and bacterial blight, partial resistance to root-knot nematode, smaller size, in addition to good fiber characteristics. These populations can be used in recurrent selection programs as donors of alleles for development of long-staple cotton genotypes.

  15. Uncovering the genetic signature of quantitative trait evolution with replicated time series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, S U; Kofler, R; Schlötterer, C

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of adaptation in natural populations has not yet been resolved: it is not clear to what extent the spread of beneficial mutations (selective sweeps) or the response of many quantitative trait loci drive adaptation to environmental changes. Although much attention has been given to the genomic footprint of selective sweeps, the importance of selection on quantitative traits is still not well studied, as the associated genomic signature is extremely difficult to detect. We propose 'Evolve and Resequence' as a promising tool, to study polygenic adaptation of quantitative traits in evolving populations. Simulating replicated time series data we show that adaptation to a new intermediate trait optimum has three characteristic phases that are reflected on the genomic level: (1) directional frequency changes towards the new trait optimum, (2) plateauing of allele frequencies when the new trait optimum has been reached and (3) subsequent divergence between replicated trajectories ultimately leading to the loss or fixation of alleles while the trait value does not change. We explore these 3 phase characteristics for relevant population genetic parameters to provide expectations for various experimental evolution designs. Remarkably, over a broad range of parameters the trajectories of selected alleles display a pattern across replicates, which differs both from neutrality and directional selection. We conclude that replicated time series data from experimental evolution studies provide a promising framework to study polygenic adaptation from whole-genome population genetics data.

  16. Multilevel selection 1: Quantitative genetics of inheritance and response to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijma, Piter; Muir, William M; Van Arendonk, Johan A M

    2007-01-01

    Interaction among individuals is universal, both in animals and in plants, and substantially affects evolution of natural populations and responses to artificial selection in agriculture. Although quantitative genetics has successfully been applied to many traits, it does not provide a general theory accounting for interaction among individuals and selection acting on multiple levels. Consequently, current quantitative genetic theory fails to explain why some traits do not respond to selection among individuals, but respond greatly to selection among groups. Understanding the full impacts of heritable interactions on the outcomes of selection requires a quantitative genetic framework including all levels of selection and relatedness. Here we present such a framework and provide expressions for the response to selection. Results show that interaction among individuals may create substantial heritable variation, which is hidden to classical analyses. Selection acting on higher levels of organization captures this hidden variation and therefore always yields positive response, whereas individual selection may yield response in the opposite direction. Our work provides testable predictions of response to multilevel selection and reduces to classical theory in the absence of interaction. Statistical methodology provided elsewhere enables empirical application of our work to both natural and domestic populations.

  17. Detecting Genetic Interactions for Quantitative Traits Using m-Spacing Entropy Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Yee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of statistical methods for detecting gene-gene interactions have been developed in genetic association studies with binary traits. However, many phenotype measures are intrinsically quantitative and categorizing continuous traits may not always be straightforward and meaningful. Association of gene-gene interactions with an observed distribution of such phenotypes needs to be investigated directly without categorization. Information gain based on entropy measure has previously been successful in identifying genetic associations with binary traits. We extend the usefulness of this information gain by proposing a nonparametric evaluation method of conditional entropy of a quantitative phenotype associated with a given genotype. Hence, the information gain can be obtained for any phenotype distribution. Because any functional form, such as Gaussian, is not assumed for the entire distribution of a trait or a given genotype, this method is expected to be robust enough to be applied to any phenotypic association data. Here, we show its use to successfully identify the main effect, as well as the genetic interactions, associated with a quantitative trait.

  18. EVOLUTION AND EXTINCTION IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT: A QUANTITATIVE-GENETIC ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Reinhard; Lynch, Michael

    1995-02-01

    Because of the ubiquity of genetic variation for quantitative traits, virtually all populations have some capacity to respond evolutionarily to selective challenges. However, natural selection imposes demographic costs on a population, and if these costs are sufficiently large, the likelihood of extinction will be high. We consider how the mean time to extinction depends on selective pressures (rate and stochasticity of environmental change, and strength of selection), population parameters (carrying capacity, and reproductive capacity), and genetics (rate of polygenic mutation). We assume that in a randomly mating, finite population subject to density-dependent population growth, individual fitness is determined by a single quantitative-genetic character under Gaussian stabilizing selection with the optimum phenotype exhibiting directional change, or random fluctuations, or both. The quantitative trait is determined by a finite number of freely recombining, mutationally equivalent, additive loci. The dynamics of evolution and extinction are investigated, assuming that the population is initially under mutation-selection-drift balance. Under this model, in a directionally changing environment, the mean phenotype lags behind the optimum, but on the average evolves parallel to it. The magnitude of the lag determines the vulnerability to extinction. In finite populations, stochastic variation in the genetic variance can be quite pronounced, and bottlenecks in the genetic variance temporarily can impair the population's adaptive capacity enough to cause extinction when it would otherwise be unlikely in an effectively infinite population. We find that maximum sustainable rates of evolution or, equivalently, critical rates of environmental change, may be considerably less than 10% of a phenotypic standard deviation per generation. © 1995 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damgaard Lars

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the increasing use of survival models in animal breeding to address the genetic aspects of mainly longevity of livestock but also disease traits, the need for methods to infer genetic correlations and to do multivariate evaluations of survival traits and other types of traits has become increasingly important. In this study we derived and implemented a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted. Model parameters were inferred from their marginal posterior distributions. The required fully conditional posterior distributions were derived and issues on implementation are discussed. The twoWeibull baseline parameters were updated jointly using a Metropolis-Hastingstep. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. Simulation results showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true parameter values used in the simulation of data. In conclusion, the proposed method allows inferring additive genetic and environmental correlations, and doing multivariate genetic evaluation of a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.

  20. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing use of survival models in animal breeding to address the genetic aspects of mainly longevity of livestock but also disease traits, the need for methods to infer genetic correlations and to do multivariate evaluations of survival traits and other types of traits has become increasingly important. In this study we derived and implemented a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted. Model parameters were inferred from their marginal posterior distributions. The required fully conditional posterior distributions were derived and issues on implementation are discussed. The two Weibull baseline parameters were updated jointly using a Metropolis-Hasting step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. Simulation results showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true parameter values used in the simulation of data. In conclusion, the proposed method allows inferring additive genetic and environmental correlations, and doing multivariate genetic evaluation of a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.

  1. Modeling development and quantitative trait mapping reveal independent genetic modules for leaf size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert L; Leong, Wen Fung; Brock, Marcus T; Markelz, R J Cody; Covington, Michael F; Devisetty, Upendra K; Edwards, Christine E; Maloof, Julin; Welch, Stephen; Weinig, Cynthia

    2015-10-01

    Improved predictions of fitness and yield may be obtained by characterizing the genetic controls and environmental dependencies of organismal ontogeny. Elucidating the shape of growth curves may reveal novel genetic controls that single-time-point (STP) analyses do not because, in theory, infinite numbers of growth curves can result in the same final measurement. We measured leaf lengths and widths in Brassica rapa recombinant inbred lines (RILs) throughout ontogeny. We modeled leaf growth and allometry as function valued traits (FVT), and examined genetic correlations between these traits and aspects of phenology, physiology, circadian rhythms and fitness. We used RNA-seq to construct a SNP linkage map and mapped trait quantitative trait loci (QTL). We found genetic trade-offs between leaf size and growth rate FVT and uncovered differences in genotypic and QTL correlations involving FVT vs STPs. We identified leaf shape (allometry) as a genetic module independent of length and width and identified selection on FVT parameters of development. Leaf shape is associated with venation features that affect desiccation resistance. The genetic independence of leaf shape from other leaf traits may therefore enable crop optimization in leaf shape without negative effects on traits such as size, growth rate, duration or gas exchange.

  2. WOMBAT: a tool for mixed model analyses in quantitative genetics by restricted maximum likelihood (REML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Karin

    2007-11-01

    WOMBAT is a software package for quantitative genetic analyses of continuous traits, fitting a linear, mixed model; estimates of covariance components and the resulting genetic parameters are obtained by restricted maximum likelihood. A wide range of models, comprising numerous traits, multiple fixed and random effects, selected genetic covariance structures, random regression models and reduced rank estimation are accommodated. WOMBAT employs up-to-date numerical and computational methods. Together with the use of efficient compilers, this generates fast executable programs, suitable for large scale analyses. Use of WOMBAT is illustrated for a bivariate analysis. The package consists of the executable program, available for LINUX and WINDOWS environments, manual and a set of worked example, and can be downloaded free of charge from (http://agbu. une.edu.au/~kmeyer/wombat.html).

  3. Genetic algorithm based image binarization approach and its quantitative evaluation via pooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huijun; Liu, Ya; Liu, Maofu

    2015-12-01

    The binarized image is very critical to image visual feature extraction, especially shape feature, and the image binarization approaches have been attracted more attentions in the past decades. In this paper, the genetic algorithm is applied to optimizing the binarization threshold of the strip steel defect image. In order to evaluate our genetic algorithm based image binarization approach in terms of quantity, we propose the novel pooling based evaluation metric, motivated by information retrieval community, to avoid the lack of ground-truth binary image. Experimental results show that our genetic algorithm based binarization approach is effective and efficiency in the strip steel defect images and our quantitative evaluation metric on image binarization via pooling is also feasible and practical.

  4. Validation of PCR methods for quantitation of genetically modified plants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, P; Waiblinger, H U; Pietsch, K; Brodmann, P

    2001-01-01

    For enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients, quantitative detection methods such as quantitative competitive (QC-PCR) and real-time PCR are applied by official food control laboratories. The experiences of 3 European food control laboratories in validating such methods were compared to describe realistic performance characteristics of quantitative PCR detection methods. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of GMO-specific, real-time PCR was experimentally determined to reach 30-50 target molecules, which is close to theoretical prediction. Starting PCR with 200 ng genomic plant DNA, the LOQ depends primarily on the genome size of the target plant and ranges from 0.02% for rice to 0.7% for wheat. The precision of quantitative PCR detection methods, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), varied from 10 to 30%. Using Bt176 corn containing test samples and applying Bt176 specific QC-PCR, mean values deviated from true values by -7to 18%, with an average of 2+/-10%. Ruggedness of real-time PCR detection methods was assessed in an interlaboratory study analyzing commercial, homogeneous food samples. Roundup Ready soybean DNA contents were determined in the range of 0.3 to 36%, relative to soybean DNA, with RSDs of about 25%. Taking the precision of quantitative PCR detection methods into account, suitable sample plans and sample sizes for GMO analysis are suggested. Because quantitative GMO detection methods measure GMO contents of samples in relation to reference material (calibrants), high priority must be given to international agreements and standardization on certified reference materials.

  5. A Novel Approach for Discovery Quantitative Fuzzy Multi-Level Association Rules Mining Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Darwish

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative multilevel association rules mining is a central field to realize motivating associations among data components with multiple levels abstractions. The problem of expanding procedures to handle quantitative data has been attracting the attention of many researchers. The algorithms regularly discretize the attribute fields into sharp intervals, and then implement uncomplicated algorithms established for Boolean attributes. Fuzzy association rules mining approaches are intended to defeat such shortcomings based on the fuzzy set theory. Furthermore, most of the current algorithms in the direction of this topic are based on very tiring search methods to govern the ideal support and confidence thresholds that agonize from risky computational cost in searching association rules. To accelerate quantitative multilevel association rules searching and escape the extreme computation, in this paper, we propose a new genetic-based method with significant innovation to determine threshold values for frequent item sets. In this approach, a sophisticated coding method is settled, and the qualified confidence is employed as the fitness function. With the genetic algorithm, a comprehensive search can be achieved and system automation is applied, because our model does not need the user-specified threshold of minimum support. Experiment results indicate that the recommended algorithm can powerfully generate non-redundant fuzzy multilevel association rules.

  6. The Current and Future Use of Ridge Regression for Prediction in Quantitative Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald de Vlaming

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a considerable amount of research on the use of regularization methods for inference and prediction in quantitative genetics. Such research mostly focuses on selection of markers and shrinkage of their effects. In this review paper, the use of ridge regression for prediction in quantitative genetics using single-nucleotide polymorphism data is discussed. In particular, we consider (i the theoretical foundations of ridge regression, (ii its link to commonly used methods in animal breeding, (iii the computational feasibility, and (iv the scope for constructing prediction models with nonlinear effects (e.g., dominance and epistasis. Based on a simulation study we gauge the current and future potential of ridge regression for prediction of human traits using genome-wide SNP data. We conclude that, for outcomes with a relatively simple genetic architecture, given current sample sizes in most cohorts (i.e., N<10,000 the predictive accuracy of ridge regression is slightly higher than the classical genome-wide association study approach of repeated simple regression (i.e., one regression per SNP. However, both capture only a small proportion of the heritability. Nevertheless, we find evidence that for large-scale initiatives, such as biobanks, sample sizes can be achieved where ridge regression compared to the classical approach improves predictive accuracy substantially.

  7. The Current and Future Use of Ridge Regression for Prediction in Quantitative Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vlaming, Ronald; Groenen, Patrick J F

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable amount of research on the use of regularization methods for inference and prediction in quantitative genetics. Such research mostly focuses on selection of markers and shrinkage of their effects. In this review paper, the use of ridge regression for prediction in quantitative genetics using single-nucleotide polymorphism data is discussed. In particular, we consider (i) the theoretical foundations of ridge regression, (ii) its link to commonly used methods in animal breeding, (iii) the computational feasibility, and (iv) the scope for constructing prediction models with nonlinear effects (e.g., dominance and epistasis). Based on a simulation study we gauge the current and future potential of ridge regression for prediction of human traits using genome-wide SNP data. We conclude that, for outcomes with a relatively simple genetic architecture, given current sample sizes in most cohorts (i.e., N < 10,000) the predictive accuracy of ridge regression is slightly higher than the classical genome-wide association study approach of repeated simple regression (i.e., one regression per SNP). However, both capture only a small proportion of the heritability. Nevertheless, we find evidence that for large-scale initiatives, such as biobanks, sample sizes can be achieved where ridge regression compared to the classical approach improves predictive accuracy substantially.

  8. 59. Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology: Molecular genetics of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Investigation of the mechanistic aspects of cancer has its roots in the studies on tumor viruses and their effects on cell proliferation, function, and growth. This outstanding progress was well documented in previous Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. In the early to mid 1980s, progress on the development of chromosome mapping strategies and the accumulation of DNA probes that identified polymorphisms, encouraged by the international Human Genome Project, enabled the identification of other genes that contributed to familial inheritance of high susceptibility to specific cancers. This approach was very successful and led to a degree of optimism that one aspect of cancer, the multistep genetic process from early neoplasia to metastatic tumors, was beginning to be understood. It therefore seemed appropriate that the 59th Symposium on Quantitative Biology focus attention on the Molecular Genetics of Cancer. The concept was to combine the exciting progress on the identification of new genetic alterations in human tumor cells with studies on the function of the cancer gene products and how they go awry in tumor cells.

  9. Indication of Genetic Linkage Map for Sunflower by SSR Markers%SSR分子标记丰富向日葵(Helianthus annuus L.)遗传图谱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄先群; Genzbitelle L.; Fabre F.; Saraffi A.

    2012-01-01

    为了提高向日葵遗传图谱的密度和实用性,以125个来源于PAC-2和RHA-266杂交的F(8)代重组自交系(RIIs)群体为材料,利用筒单序列重复(Simple sequence repeat,SSR)标记,采用MAPMARKER软件对向日英遗传图谱进行标注,并从300对SSR引物中筛选出51对多态性引物对群体进行标记.结果表明:①51对多态性引物中有19对引物无多态性或条带不清晰,32对引物表现多态性;②共检测到35个多态性位点,分布在图谱的15条连锁群上.③标记后的图谱总长度为2914.5 Cm,比原来的图谱增长7.5 Cm.④标记间平均距离由9.0 Cm缩短为8.1 Cm.%This study aimed to improve density and practicality of the genetic map of sunflower baaed on a 125 Fs RILa population derived from a cross between PAC-2 and RHA-266 by adding some SSR markers. A total of 300 pairs of SSR primers were used to screen polymorphic markers between the parents and some of their RILs, of which 51 pain of the primers showed polymorphism. The results of screening the RILs population revealed that 19 SSR primer without polymorphism or non-reading, 32 SSR pairs showed polymorphism with 35 alleles added into the map. They were distributed in the 15 linkage groups of the maps. The new map covered a total length of 2914.5 cM, 7.5 cM longer than the original map. The average distance between adjacent markers was 8.1 cM instead of original 9.0 cM.

  10. Quantitative analysis of terahertz spectra for illicit drugs using adaptive-range micro-genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Ma, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Peng, Bei; Chen, Qin

    2011-08-01

    In the field of anti-illicit drug applications, many suspicious mixture samples might consist of various drug components—for example, a mixture of methamphetamine, heroin, and amoxicillin—which makes spectral identification very difficult. A terahertz spectroscopic quantitative analysis method using an adaptive range micro-genetic algorithm with a variable internal population (ARVIPɛμGA) has been proposed. Five mixture cases are discussed using ARVIPɛμGA driven quantitative terahertz spectroscopic analysis in this paper. The devised simulation results show agreement with the previous experimental results, which suggested that the proposed technique has potential applications for terahertz spectral identifications of drug mixture components. The results show agreement with the results obtained using other experimental and numerical techniques.

  11. Sunflower domestication alleles support single domestication center in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Benjamin K; Scascitelli, Moira; Kane, Nolan C; Luton, Harry H; Rasmussen, David A; Bye, Robert A; Lentz, David L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-08-23

    Phylogenetic analyses of genes with demonstrated involvement in evolutionary transitions can be an important means of resolving conflicting hypotheses about evolutionary history or process. In sunflower, two genes have previously been shown to have experienced selective sweeps during its early domestication. In the present study, we identified a third candidate early domestication gene and conducted haplotype analyses of all three genes to address a recent, controversial hypothesis about the origin of cultivated sunflower. Although the scientific consensus had long been that sunflower was domesticated once in eastern North America, the discovery of pre-Columbian sunflower remains at archaeological sites in Mexico led to the proposal of a second domestication center in southern Mexico. Previous molecular studies with neutral markers were consistent with the former hypothesis. However, only two indigenous Mexican cultivars were included in these studies, and their provenance and genetic purity have been questioned. Therefore, we sequenced regions of the three candidate domestication genes containing SNPs diagnostic for domestication from large, newly collected samples of Mexican sunflower landraces and Mexican wild populations from a broad geographic range. The new germplasm also was genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci. Our evidence from multiple evolutionarily important loci and from neutral markers supports a single domestication event for extant cultivated sunflower in eastern North America.

  12. Quantitative estimation of activity and quality for collections of functional genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalik, Vivek K; Guimaraes, Joao C; Cambray, Guillaume; Mai, Quynh-Anh; Christoffersen, Marc Juul; Martin, Lance; Yu, Ayumi; Lam, Colin; Rodriguez, Cesar; Bennett, Gaymon; Keasling, Jay D; Endy, Drew; Arkin, Adam P

    2013-04-01

    The practice of engineering biology now depends on the ad hoc reuse of genetic elements whose precise activities vary across changing contexts. Methods are lacking for researchers to affordably coordinate the quantification and analysis of part performance across varied environments, as needed to identify, evaluate and improve problematic part types. We developed an easy-to-use analysis of variance (ANOVA) framework for quantifying the performance of genetic elements. For proof of concept, we assembled and analyzed combinations of prokaryotic transcription and translation initiation elements in Escherichia coli. We determined how estimation of part activity relates to the number of unique element combinations tested, and we show how to estimate expected ensemble-wide part activity from just one or two measurements. We propose a new statistic, biomolecular part 'quality', for tracking quantitative variation in part performance across changing contexts.

  13. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  14. Genes and quantitative genetic variation involved with senescence in cells, organs and the whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit ePujol

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Senescence, the deterioration of morphological, physiological and reproductive functions with age that ends with the death of the organism, was widely studied in plants. Genes were identified that are linked to the deterioration of cells, organs and the whole plant. It is however unclear whether those genes are the source of age dependent deterioration or get activated to regulate such deterioration. Furthermore, it is also unclear whether such genes are active as a direct consequence of age or because they are specifically involved in some developmental stages. At the individual level, it is the relationship between quantitative genetic variation and age that can be used to detect the genetic signature of senescence. Surprisingly, the latter approach was only scarcely applied to plants. This may be the consequence of the demanding requirements for such approaches and/or the fact that most research interest was directed towards plants that avoid senescence. Here, I review those aspects in turn and call for an integrative genetic theory of senescence in plants. Such conceptual development would have implications for the management of plant genetic resources and generate progress on fundamental questions raised by ageing research.

  15. Quantitative genetics of functional characters in Drosophila melanogaster populations subjected to laboratory selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Henrique Teotónio; Margarida Matos; Michael R. Rose

    2004-12-01

    What are the genetics of phenotypes other than fitness, in outbred populations? To answer this question, the quantitative-genetic basis of divergence was characterized for outbred Drosophila melanogaster populations that had previously undergone selection to enhance characters related to fitness. Line-cross analysis using first-generation and second-generation hybrids from reciprocal crosses was conducted for two types of cross, each replicated fivefold. One type of cross was between representatives of the ancestral population, a set of five populations maintained for several hundred generations on a two-week discrete-generation life cycle and a set of five populations adapted to starvation stress. The other type of cross was between the same set of ancestral-representative populations and another set of five populations selected for accelerated development from egg to egg. Developmental time from egg to eclosion, starvation resistance, dry body weight and fecundity at day 14 from egg were fit to regression models estimating single-locus additive and dominant effects, maternal and paternal effects, and digenic additive and dominance epistatic effects. Additive genetic variation explained most of the differences between populations, with additive maternal and cytoplasmic effects also commonly found. Both within-locus and between-locus dominance effects were inferred in some cases, as well as one instance of additive epistasis. Some of these effects may have been caused by linkage disequilibrium. We conclude with a brief discussion concerning the relationship of the genetics of population differentiation to adaptation.

  16. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal S. Borja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

  17. Indication of Genetic Linkage Map for Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by SSR Markers%转Bt基因水稻与非转基因水稻在虫压下的适合度差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富丽; 雷绍荣; 刘勇; 郭灵安; 尹全; 宋君; 王东; 常丽娟; 刘文娟; 周西全

    2012-01-01

    以转胁抗虫水稻Bt63、R1、R2和非转基因常规水稻Ⅱ优838为试材,采用高、低两个不同虫害胁迫水平和转基因与非转基凶水稻相间种植方式,通过观察水稻植株营养生长、结实以及对螟虫危害的抗性表现等差异,研究比较晚外源基因插入后对水稻植株适合度的影响,以解转基因水稻的基因扩散效率和潜在生态风险。结果表明:在低虫害胁迫条件下,转胁基因水稻在植株分蘖数、生物量鲜重等营养生长指标方面与非转基因对照品系间无明显差异,但株高、穗长、穗重等指标不及对照,且R2和Bt63与对照间差异显著;在高虫害胁迫条件下,3个转胁基凶水稻品系的分蘖数、穗长、穗重等指标明显高于对照。而不同转基因品系株高适合度效应不同,这可能与受体品系本身的特性相关。3种转基因水稻的单株结实粒数、千粒重与对照在两种虫害胁迫条件下均无显著性差异,Bt基因对受体植株的结实影响不明显。在高虫害胁迫条件下,3种转&基因水稻的抗虫能力均显著优于非转基因水稻,表明髓基因对受体植株的抗虫性影响显著。本研究结果还表明转Bt基因水稻的适合度代价较小,预示了抗虫转基因水稻外源胁基因在一定环境条件下具有逃逸的可能,但这种风险比较小。%[Objective] This study aimed to improve density and practicality of the ge- netic map of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by adding some SSR markers. [Method] A total of 123 F8 RILs populations derived from a cross between PAC-2 and RHA-266 were selected as the materials, and a total of 300 pairs of SSR primers were used to screen polymorphic markers between the parents and some of their RILs, and finally 51 pairs of the primers producing polymorphic patterns were selected to construct the genetic map of the RILs populations. [Result] Nineteen pairs of SSR primers did not generate

  18. Determination of Mycotoxin Production of Fusarium Species in Genetically Modified Maize Varieties by Quantitative Flow Immunocytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánáti, Hajnalka; Darvas, Béla; Fehér-Tóth, Szilvia; Czéh, Árpád; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Levels of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in genetically modified (GM) and near-isogenic maize, were determined using multi-analyte, microbead-based flow immunocytometry with fluorescence detection, for the parallel quantitative determination of fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, ochratoxin A, and aflatoxin B1. Maize varieties included the genetic events MON 810 and DAS-59122-7, and their isogenic counterparts. Cobs were artificially infested by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum conidia, and contained F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides natural infestation. The production of fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol was substantially affected in GM maize lines: F. verticillioides, with the addition of F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides, produced significantly lower levels of fumonisin B1 (~300 mg·kg−1) in DAS-59122-7 than in its isogenic line (~580 mg·kg−1), while F. proliferatum, in addition to F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides, produced significantly higher levels of deoxynivalenol (~18 mg·kg−1) in MON 810 than in its isogenic line (~5 mg·kg−1). Fusarium verticillioides, with F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides, produced lower amounts of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone than F. proliferatum, with F. graminearum and F. sporotrichoides. T-2 toxin production remained unchanged when considering the maize variety. The results demonstrate the utility of the Fungi-Plex™ quantitative flow immunocytometry method, applied for the high throughput parallel determination of the target mycotoxins. PMID:28241411

  19. The genetic architecture of heterochronsy as a quantitative trait: lessons from a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidan; Sang, Mengmeng; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Dongyang; Shi, Hexin; Liu, Kaiyue; Guo, Yanfang; Cheng, Tangren; Zhang, Qixiang; Wu, Rongling

    2017-05-30

    Heterochrony is known as a developmental change in the timing or rate of ontogenetic events across phylogenetic lineages. It is a key concept synthesizing development into ecology and evolution to explore the mechanisms of how developmental processes impact on phenotypic novelties. A number of molecular experiments using contrasting organisms in developmental timing have identified specific genes involved in heterochronic variation. Beyond these classic approaches that can only identify single genes or pathways, quantitative models derived from current next-generation sequencing data serve as a more powerful tool to precisely capture heterochronic variation and systematically map a complete set of genes that contribute to heterochronic processes. In this opinion note, we discuss a computational framework of genetic mapping that can characterize heterochronic quantitative trait loci that determine the pattern and process of development. We propose a unifying model that charts the genetic architecture of heterochrony that perceives and responds to environmental perturbations and evolves over geologic time. The new model may potentially enhance our understanding of the adaptive value of heterochrony and its evolutionary origins, providing a useful context for designing new organisms that can best use future resources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. FRET-based genetically-encoded sensors for quantitative monitoring of metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    Neighboring cells in the same tissue can exist in different states of dynamic activities. After genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, fluxomics is now equally important for generating accurate quantitative information on the cellular and sub-cellular dynamics of ions and metabolite, which is critical for functional understanding of organisms. Various spectrometry techniques are used for monitoring ions and metabolites, although their temporal and spatial resolutions are limited. Discovery of the fluorescent proteins and their variants has revolutionized cell biology. Therefore, novel tools and methods targeting sub-cellular compartments need to be deployed in specific cells and targeted to sub-cellular compartments in order to quantify the target-molecule dynamics directly. We require tools that can measure cellular activities and protein dynamics with sub-cellular resolution. Biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are genetically encoded and hence can specifically target sub-cellular organelles by fusion to proteins or targetted sequences. Since last decade, FRET-based genetically encoded sensors for molecules involved in energy production, reactive oxygen species and secondary messengers have helped to unravel key aspects of cellular physiology. This review, describing the design and principles of sensors, presents a database of sensors for different analytes/processes, and illustrate examples of application in quantitative live cell imaging.

  1. Quantitative genetics theory for non-inbred populations in linkage disequilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although linkage disequilibrium, epistasis and inbreeding are common phenomena in genetic systems that control quantitative traits, theory development and analysis are very complex, especially when they are considered together. The objective of this study is to offer additional quantitative genetics theory to define and analyze, in relation to non-inbred cross pollinating populations, components of genotypic variance, heritabilities and predicted gains, assuming linkage disequilibrium and absence of epistasis. The genotypic variance and its components, additive and due to dominance genetic variances, are invariant over the generations only in regard to completely linked genes and to those in equilibrium. When the population is structured in half-sib families, the additive variance in the parents' generation and the genotypic variance in the population can be estimated. When the population is structured in full-sib families, none of the components of genotypic variance can be estimated. The narrow sense heritability level at plant level can be estimated from the parent-offspring or mid parent-offspring regression. When there is dominance, the narrow sense heritability estimate in the in F2 is biased due to linkage disequilibrium when estimated by the Warner method, but not when estimated by means of the plant F2-family F3 regression. The bias is proportional to the number of pairs of linked genes, without independent assortment, and to the degree of dominance, and tends to be positive when genes in the coupling phase predominate or negative and of higher value when genes in the repulsion phase predominate. Linkage disequilibrium is also cause of bias in estimates of the narrow sense heritabilities at full-sib family mean and at plant within half-sib and full-sib families levels. Generally, the magnitude of the bias is proportional to the number of pairs of genes in disequilibrium and to the frequency of recombining gametes.

  2. Quantitative Assessment of Eye Phenotypes for Functional Genetic Studies Using Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Janani; Wang, Qingyu; Le, Thanh; Pizzo, Lucilla; Grönke, Sebastian; Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Imai, Yuzuru; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Troisí, Beatriz Llamusí; Mardon, Graeme; Artero, Ruben; Jackson, George R.; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Partridge, Linda; Lu, Bingwei; Kumar, Justin P.; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    About two-thirds of the vital genes in the Drosophila genome are involved in eye development, making the fly eye an excellent genetic system to study cellular function and development, neurodevelopment/degeneration, and complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We developed a novel computational method, implemented as Flynotyper software (http://flynotyper.sourceforge.net), to quantitatively assess the morphological defects in the Drosophila eye resulting from genetic alterations affecting basic cellular and developmental processes. Flynotyper utilizes a series of image processing operations to automatically detect the fly eye and the individual ommatidium, and calculates a phenotypic score as a measure of the disorderliness of ommatidial arrangement in the fly eye. As a proof of principle, we tested our method by analyzing the defects due to eye-specific knockdown of Drosophila orthologs of 12 neurodevelopmental genes to accurately document differential sensitivities of these genes to dosage alteration. We also evaluated eye images from six independent studies assessing the effect of overexpression of repeats, candidates from peptide library screens, and modifiers of neurotoxicity and developmental processes on eye morphology, and show strong concordance with the original assessment. We further demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing 16 modifiers of sine oculis obtained from two genome-wide deficiency screens of Drosophila and accurately quantifying the effect of its enhancers and suppressors during eye development. Our method will complement existing assays for eye phenotypes, and increase the accuracy of studies that use fly eyes for functional evaluation of genes and genetic interactions. PMID:26994292

  3. Quantitative resistance against Bemisia tabaci in Solanum pennellii:Genetics and metabolomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alejandro F Lucatti; Sjaak van Heusden; Colette Broekgaarden; Roland Mumm; Marcel Dicke; Ben Vosman

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious threat in tomato cultivation worldwide as all varieties grown today are highly susceptible to this devastating herbivorous insect. Many accessions of the tomato wild relative Solanum pennellii show a high resistance towards B. tabaci. A mapping approach was used to elucidate the genetic background of whitefly-resistance related traits and associated biochemical traits in this species. Minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for whitefly adult survival (AS) and oviposition rate (OR) were identified and some were confirmed in an F2BC1 population, where they showed increased percentages of explained variance (more than 30%). Bulked segregant analyses on pools of whitefly-resistant and-susceptible F2 plants enabled the identification of metabolites that correlate either with resistance or susceptibility. Genetic mapping of these metabolites showed that a large number of them co-localize with whitefly-resistance QTLs. Some of these whitefly-resistance QTLs are hotspots for metabolite QTLs. Although a large number of metabolite QTLs correlated to whitefly resistance or suscepti-bility, most of them are yet unknown compounds and further studies are needed to identify the metabolic pathways and genes involved. The results indicate a direct genetic correla-tion between biochemical-based resistance characteristics and reduced whitefly incidence in S. pennellii.

  4. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet si

  5. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  6. Impact of measurement error on testing genetic association with quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemin Liao

    Full Text Available Measurement error of a phenotypic trait reduces the power to detect genetic associations. We examined the impact of sample size, allele frequency and effect size in presence of measurement error for quantitative traits. The statistical power to detect genetic association with phenotype mean and variability was investigated analytically. The non-centrality parameter for a non-central F distribution was derived and verified using computer simulations. We obtained equivalent formulas for the cost of phenotype measurement error. Effects of differences in measurements were examined in a genome-wide association study (GWAS of two grading scales for cataract and a replication study of genetic variants influencing blood pressure. The mean absolute difference between the analytic power and simulation power for comparison of phenotypic means and variances was less than 0.005, and the absolute difference did not exceed 0.02. To maintain the same power, a one standard deviation (SD in measurement error of a standard normal distributed trait required a one-fold increase in sample size for comparison of means, and a three-fold increase in sample size for comparison of variances. GWAS results revealed almost no overlap in the significant SNPs (p<10(-5 for the two cataract grading scales while replication results in genetic variants of blood pressure displayed no significant differences between averaged blood pressure measurements and single blood pressure measurements. We have developed a framework for researchers to quantify power in the presence of measurement error, which will be applicable to studies of phenotypes in which the measurement is highly variable.

  7. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold trait and a survival trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damgaard Lars

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many of the functional traits considered in animal breeding can be analyzed as threshold traits or survival traits with examples including disease traits, conformation scores, calving difficulty and longevity. In this paper we derive and implement a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold character and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted in which model parameters were augmented with unobserved liabilities associated with the threshold trait. The fully conditional posterior distributions associated with parameters of the threshold trait reduced to well known distributions. For the survival trait the two baseline Weibull parameters were updated jointly by a Metropolis-Hastings step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. The Gibbs sampler was tested in a simulation study and illustrated in a joint analysis of calving difficulty and longevity of dairy cattle. The simulation study showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true values used in the simulation of data. The data analysis of calving difficulty and longevity showed that genetic variation exists for both traits. The additive genetic correlation was moderately favorable with marginal posterior mean equal to 0.37 and 95% central posterior credibility interval ranging between 0.11 and 0.61. Therefore, this study suggests that selection for improving one of the two traits will be beneficial for the other trait as well.

  8. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold trait and a survival trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis

    2006-01-01

    Many of the functional traits considered in animal breeding can be analyzed as threshold traits or survival traits with examples including disease traits, conformation scores, calving difficulty and longevity. In this paper we derive and implement a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold character and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted in which model parameters were augmented with unobserved liabilities associated with the threshold trait. The fully conditional posterior distributions associated with parameters of the threshold trait reduced to well known distributions. For the survival trait the two baseline Weibull parameters were updated jointly by a Metropolis-Hastings step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. The Gibbs sampler was tested in a simulation study and illustrated in a joint analysis of calving difficulty and longevity of dairy cattle. The simulation study showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true values used in the simulation of data. The data analysis of calving difficulty and longevity showed that genetic variation exists for both traits. The additive genetic correlation was moderately favorable with marginal posterior mean equal to 0.37 and 95% central posterior credibility interval ranging between 0.11 and 0.61. Therefore, this study suggests that selection for improving one of the two traits will be beneficial for the other trait as well.

  9. Estimation of genetic parameters and their sampling variances for quantitative traits in the type 2 modified augmented design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank M. You; Qijian Song; Gaofeng Jia; Yanzhao Cheng; Scott Duguid; Helen Booker; Sylvie Cloutier

    2016-01-01

    The type 2 modified augmented design (MAD2) is an efficient unreplicated experimental design used for evaluating large numbers of lines in plant breeding and for assessing genetic variation in a population. Statistical methods and data adjustment for soil heterogeneity have been previously described for this design. In the absence of replicated test genotypes in MAD2, their total variance cannot be partitioned into genetic and error components as required to estimate heritability and genetic correlation of quantitative traits, the two conventional genetic parameters used for breeding selection. We propose a method of estimating the error variance of unreplicated genotypes that uses replicated controls, and then of estimating the genetic parameters. Using the Delta method, we also derived formulas for estimating the sampling variances of the genetic parameters. Computer simulations indicated that the proposed method for estimating genetic parameters and their sampling variances was feasible and the reliability of the estimates was positively associated with the level of heritability of the trait. A case study of estimating the genetic parameters of three quantitative traits, iodine value, oil content, and linolenic acid content, in a biparental recombinant inbred line population of flax with 243 individuals, was conducted using our statistical models. A joint analysis of data over multiple years and sites was suggested for genetic parameter estimation. A pipeline module using SAS and Perl was developed to facilitate data analysis and appended to the previously developed MAD data analysis pipeline (http://probes.pw.usda.gov/bioinformatics_ tools/MADPipeline/index.html).

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters and their sampling variances for quantitative traits in the type 2 modified augmented design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank M.You; Qijian Song; Gaofeng Jia; Yanzhao Cheng; Scott Duguid; Helen Booker; Sylvie Cloutier

    2016-01-01

    The type 2 modified augmented design(MAD2) is an efficient unreplicated experimental design used for evaluating large numbers of lines in plant breeding and for assessing genetic variation in a population. Statistical methods and data adjustment for soil heterogeneity have been previously described for this design. In the absence of replicated test genotypes in MAD2, their total variance cannot be partitioned into genetic and error components as required to estimate heritability and genetic correlation of quantitative traits, the two conventional genetic parameters used for breeding selection. We propose a method of estimating the error variance of unreplicated genotypes that uses replicated controls, and then of estimating the genetic parameters. Using the Delta method, we also derived formulas for estimating the sampling variances of the genetic parameters.Computer simulations indicated that the proposed method for estimating genetic parameters and their sampling variances was feasible and the reliability of the estimates was positively associated with the level of heritability of the trait. A case study of estimating the genetic parameters of three quantitative traits, iodine value, oil content, and linolenic acid content, in a biparental recombinant inbred line population of flax with 243 individuals, was conducted using our statistical models. A joint analysis of data over multiple years and sites was suggested for genetic parameter estimation. A pipeline module using SAS and Perl was developed to facilitate data analysis and appended to the previously developed MAD data analysis pipeline(http://probes.pw.usda.gov/bioinformatics_ tools/MADPipeline/index.html).

  11. Estimation of genetic parameters and their sampling variances for quantitative traits in the type 2 modified augmented design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. You

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The type 2 modified augmented design (MAD2 is an efficient unreplicated experimental design used for evaluating large numbers of lines in plant breeding and for assessing genetic variation in a population. Statistical methods and data adjustment for soil heterogeneity have been previously described for this design. In the absence of replicated test genotypes in MAD2, their total variance cannot be partitioned into genetic and error components as required to estimate heritability and genetic correlation of quantitative traits, the two conventional genetic parameters used for breeding selection. We propose a method of estimating the error variance of unreplicated genotypes that uses replicated controls, and then of estimating the genetic parameters. Using the Delta method, we also derived formulas for estimating the sampling variances of the genetic parameters. Computer simulations indicated that the proposed method for estimating genetic parameters and their sampling variances was feasible and the reliability of the estimates was positively associated with the level of heritability of the trait. A case study of estimating the genetic parameters of three quantitative traits, iodine value, oil content, and linolenic acid content, in a biparental recombinant inbred line population of flax with 243 individuals, was conducted using our statistical models. A joint analysis of data over multiple years and sites was suggested for genetic parameter estimation. A pipeline module using SAS and Perl was developed to facilitate data analysis and appended to the previously developed MAD data analysis pipeline (http://probes.pw.usda.gov/bioinformatics_ tools/MADPipeline/index.html.

  12. Genetic programming:  a novel method for the quantitative analysis of pyrolysis mass spectral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, R J; Goodacre, R; Woodward, A M; Kell, D B

    1997-11-01

    A technique for the analysis of multivariate data by genetic programming (GP) is described, with particular reference to the quantitative analysis of orange juice adulteration data collected by pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PyMS). The dimensionality of the input space was reduced by ranking variables according to product moment correlation or mutual information with the outputs. The GP technique as described gives predictive errors equivalent to, if not better than, more widespread methods such as partial least squares and artificial neural networks but additionally can provide a means for easing the interpretation of the correlation between input and output variables. The described application demonstrates that by using the GP method for analyzing PyMS data the adulteration of orange juice with 10% sucrose solution can be quantified reliably over a 0-20% range with an RMS error in the estimate of ∼1%.

  13. Parameter estimation using the genetic algorithm and its impact on quantitative precipitation forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimal parameter estimations are performed for both physical and computational parameters in a mesoscale meteorological model, and their impacts on the quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF are assessed for a heavy rainfall case occurred at the Korean Peninsula in June 2005. Experiments are carried out using the PSU/NCAR MM5 model and the genetic algorithm (GA for two parameters: the reduction rate of the convective available potential energy in the Kain-Fritsch (KF scheme for cumulus parameterization, and the Asselin filter parameter for numerical stability. The fitness function is defined based on a QPF skill score. It turns out that each optimized parameter significantly improves the QPF skill. Such improvement is maximized when the two optimized parameters are used simultaneously. Our results indicate that optimizations of computational parameters as well as physical parameters and their adequate applications are essential in improving model performance.

  14. Developmental Patterning as a Quantitative Trait: Genetic Modulation of the Hoxb6 Mutant Skeletal Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kappen

    Full Text Available The process of patterning along the anterior-posterior axis in vertebrates is highly conserved. The function of Hox genes in the axis patterning process is particularly well documented for bone development in the vertebral column and the limbs. We here show that Hoxb6, in skeletal elements at the cervico-thoracic junction, controls multiple independent aspects of skeletal pattern, implicating discrete developmental pathways as substrates for this transcription factor. In addition, we demonstrate that Hoxb6 function is subject to modulation by genetic factors. These results establish Hox-controlled skeletal pattern as a quantitative trait modulated by gene-gene interactions, and provide evidence that distinct modifiers influence the function of conserved developmental genes in fundamental patterning processes.

  15. Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for metabolites in Danish Holstein milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Sundekilde, Ulrik; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard;

    2013-01-01

    Small components and metabolites in milk are significant for the utilization of milk, not only in dairy food production but also as disease predictors in dairy cattle. This study focused on estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for metabolites in bovine milk....... For this purpose, milk samples were collected in mid lactation from 371 Danish Holstein cows in first to third parity. A total of 31 metabolites were detected and identified in bovine milk by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cows were genotyped using a bovine high-density single nucleotide...... polymorphism (SNP) chip. Based on the SNP data, a genomic relationship matrix was calculated and used as a random factor in a model together with 2 fixed factors (herd and lactation stage) to estimate the heritability and breeding value for individual metabolites in the milk. Heritability was in the range of 0...

  16. Partial least squares modeling and genetic algorithm optimization in quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, K; Funatsu, K

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies based on chemometric techniques are reviewed. Partial least squares (PLS) is introduced as a novel robust method to replace classical methods such as multiple linear regression (MLR). Advantages of PLS compared to MLR are illustrated with typical applications. Genetic algorithm (GA) is a novel optimization technique which can be used as a search engine in variable selection. A novel hybrid approach comprising GA and PLS for variable selection developed in our group (GAPLS) is described. The more advanced method for comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) modeling called GA-based region selection (GARGS) is described as well. Applications of GAPLS and GARGS to QSAR and 3D-QSAR problems are shown with some representative examples. GA can be hybridized with nonlinear modeling methods such as artificial neural networks (ANN) for providing useful tools in chemometric and QSAR.

  17. Quantitative Recognizing Dissolved Hydrocarbons with Genetic Algorithm-Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Online monitoring of dissolved fault characteristic hydrocarbon gases, such as methane, ethane, ethylene and acetylene in power transformer oil has significant meaning for condition assessment of transformer. Recently, semiconductor tin oxide based gas sensor array has been widely applied in online monitoring apparatus, while cross sensitivity of the gas sensor array is inevitable due to same compositions and similar structures among the four hydrocarbon gases. Based on support vector regression (SVR with genetic algorithm (GA, a new pattern recognition method was proposed to reduce the cross sensitivity of the gas sensor array and further quantitatively recognize the concentration of dissolved hydrocarbon gases. The experimental data from a certain online monitoring device in China is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed GA-SVR model. Experimental results indicate that the GA-SVR method can effectively decrease the cross sensitivity and the regressed data is much more closed to the real values.

  18. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  19. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  20. A unified SNP map of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) derived from current genomic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dense genetic maps are critical tools for plant breeders and geneticists. While many maps have been developed for sunflower in the last few decades, most have been based on low-throughput technologies and include markers numbers in the hundreds. However, two maps with reasonably dense coverage of a...

  1. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  2. Quantitative genetic analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in maize in the field environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Domagojimi; Hrvoje Lepedu; Vlatka Jurkovi; Jasenka Antunovi; Vera Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophyl fluorescence transient from initial to maximum fluorescence (“P”step) throughout two intermedi-ate steps (“J”and“I”) (JIP-test) is considered a reliable early quantitative indicator of stress in plants. The JIP-test is particularly useful for crop plants when applied in variable field environments. The aim of the present study was to conduct a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for nine JIP-test parameters in maize during flowering in four field environ-ments differing in weather conditions. QTL analysis and identification of putative candidate genes might help to explain the genetic relationship between photosynthesis and different field scenarios in maize plants. The JIP-test param-eters were analyzed in the intermated B73 ? Mo17 (IBM) maize population of 205 recombinant inbred lines. A set of 2,178 molecular markers across the whole maize genome was used for QTL analysis revealing 10 significant QTLs for seven JIP-test parameters, of which five were co-localized when combined over the four environments indicating polygenic inheritance and pleiotropy. Our results demonstrate that QTL analysis of chlorophyl fluorescence parameters was capable of detecting one pleiotropic locus on chromosome 7, coinciding with the gene gst23 that may be associated with efficient photosynthe-sis under different field scenarios.

  3. Genetic heterogeneity, modifier genes, and quantitative phenotypes in psychiatric illness: searching for a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, A H; Kendler, K S

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia has long been thought to be clinically heterogeneous. A range of studies suggests that this is due to genetic heterogeneity. Some clinical features, such as negative symptoms, are associated with a greater risk of illness in relatives. Affected sibling pairs are correlated for clinical and course features as well as subforms of illness, and twin studies suggest that this is due to genetic factors. This is further supported by findings that subjects from families linked to some chromosomal regions may differ clinically from those from unlinked families. Moreover, some genes may affect clinical features without altering susceptibility (ie are modifier genes). High-risk genotypes may have quantitative, rather than categorical effects, and may influence milder or subclinical phenotypes. Another recent finding is that nonpsychotic relatives may have personality features that resemble those of their affected relatives. These findings taken together suggest that there may be several classes of gene action in schizophrenia: some genes may influence susceptibility only, others may influence clinical features only, and still others may have a mixed effect. Furthermore, subsets of these classes may affect personality and other traits in nonpsychotic relatives. Understanding these classes of gene action may help guide the design of linkage and association studies that have increased power. We describe five classes of genes and their predictions of the outcomes of family, twin, and several types of linkage studies. We go on to explore how these predictions can in turn be used to aid in the design of linkage studies.

  4. The Evaluation Criteria of Some Botanical Quantitative Characters of Peach Genetic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-rong; ZHU Geng-rui; FANG Wei-chao

    2006-01-01

    There were two peach descriptors systems: one from IPRGI in 1980 and the other from China in 1990. The former had only reference cultivars without quantity grades; the latter had only a list of some characteristics. This makes it difficult sharing of genetic resource information for breeders. To describe the main quantitative characteristics, a new system was established. Ten characteristics of 346-476 peach cultivars were investigated from 1986 to 2002 in the National Peach Genetic Collection in Zhengzhou City, China. These characteristics and their coefficients of variation were as follows: flower diameter 19.55%, vertical diameter of fruit 14.24%, cheek diameter of fruit 10.36%, suture diameter of fruit 11.44%, stone length 19.04%, stone width 10.86%, stone thickness 11.19%, leaf length 7.9%, leaf width 10.55%, and leaf stalk length 19.03%, respectively. Grade index and reference cultivars were given by statistical data for peach description.These grade indexes were recorded on 1-5 grades, and the third grade as a middle one occupied 39% or more of the distribution. In general, two reference cultivars for each grade were chosen, one is USA cultivar and the other is Chinese cultivar. This paper tried to use them as the reference cultivars, which are planted or used widely by Chinese breeders.

  5. EvolQG - An R package for evolutionary quantitative genetics [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Melo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an open source package for performing evolutionary quantitative genetics analyses in the R environment for statistical computing. Evolutionary theory shows that evolution depends critically on the available variation in a given population. When dealing with many quantitative traits this variation is expressed in the form of a covariance matrix, particularly the additive genetic covariance matrix or sometimes the phenotypic matrix, when the genetic matrix is unavailable and there is evidence the phenotypic matrix is sufficiently similar to the genetic matrix. Given this mathematical representation of available variation, the EvolQG package provides functions for calculation of relevant evolutionary statistics; estimation of sampling error; corrections for this error; matrix comparison via correlations, distances and matrix decomposition; analysis of modularity patterns; and functions for testing evolutionary hypotheses on taxa diversification.

  6. The quantitative genetic basis of adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis) and its implications for gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, S; Laurila, A; Räsänen, K

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on the relative contribution of direct genetic, maternal and environmental effects to adaptive divergence is important for understanding the drivers of biological diversification. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) shows adaptive divergence in embryonic and larval fitness traits along an acidification gradient in south-western Sweden. To understand the quantitative genetic basis of this divergence, we performed reciprocal crosses between three divergent population pairs and reared embryos and larvae at acid and neutral pH in the laboratory. Divergence in embryonic acid tolerance (survival) was mainly determined by maternal effects, whereas the relative contributions of maternal, additive and nonadditive genetic effects in larval life-history traits differed between traits, population pairs and rearing environments. These results emphasize the need to investigate the quantitative genetic basis of adaptive divergence in multiple populations and traits, as well as different environments. We discuss the implications of our findings for maintenance of local adaptation in the context of migrant and hybrid fitness.

  7. Genetic parameters and mapping quantitative trait loci associated with tibia traits in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragognetti, B N N; Stafuzza, N B; Silva, T B R; Chud, T C S; Grupioni, N V; Cruz, V A R; Peixoto, J O; Nones, K; Ledur, M C; Munari, D P

    2015-12-21

    Selection among broilers for performance traits is resulting in locomotion problems and bone disorders, once skeletal structure is not strong enough to support body weight in broilers with high growth rates. In this study, genetic parameters were estimated for body weight at 42 days of age (BW42), and tibia traits (length, width, and weight) in a population of broiler chickens. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for tibia traits to expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of the broiler population. Genetic correlations ranged from 0.56 ± 0.18 (between tibia length and BW42) to 0.89 ± 0.06 (between tibia width and weight), suggesting that these traits are either controlled by pleiotropic genes or by genes that are in linkage disequilibrium. For QTL mapping, the genome was scanned with 127 microsatellites, representing a coverage of 2630 cM. Eight QTL were mapped on Gallus gallus chromosomes (GGA): GGA1, GGA4, GGA6, GGA13, and GGA24. The QTL regions for tibia length and weight were mapped on GGA1, between LEI0079 and MCW145 markers. The gene DACH1 is located in this region; this gene acts to form the apical ectodermal ridge, responsible for limb development. Body weight at 42 days of age was included in the model as a covariate for selection effect of bone traits. Two QTL were found for tibia weight on GGA2 and GGA4, and one for tibia width on GGA3. Information originating from these QTL will assist in the search for candidate genes for these bone traits in future studies.

  8. Genetic Studies of Quantitative MCI and AD Phenotypes in ADNI: Progress, Opportunities, and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Yao, Xiaohui; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Risacher, Shannon L.; Ramanan, Vijay K.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Faber, Kelly M.; Sarwar, Nadeem; Munsie, Leanne M.; Hu, Xiaolan; Soares, Holly D.; Potkin, Steven G.; Thompson, Paul M.; Kauwe, John S.K.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Green, Robert C.; Toga, Arthur W.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Genetic data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has been crucial in advancing the understanding of AD pathophysiology. Here we provide an update on sample collection, scientific progress and opportunities, conceptual issues, and future plans. METHODS Lymphoblastoid cell lines and DNA and RNA samples from blood have been collected and banked, and data and biosamples have been widely disseminated. To date, APOE genotyping, genome-wide association study (GWAS), and whole exome and whole genome sequencing (WES, WGS) data have been obtained and disseminated. RESULTS ADNI genetic data have been downloaded thousands of times and over 300 publications have resulted, including reports of large scale GWAS by consortia to which ADNI contributed. Many of the first applications of quantitative endophenotype association studies employed ADNI data, including some of the earliest GWAS and pathway-based studies of biospecimen and imaging biomarkers, as well as memory and other clinical/cognitive variables. Other contributions include some of the first WES and WGS data sets and reports in healthy controls, MCI, and AD. DISCUSSION Numerous genetic susceptibility and protective markers for AD and disease biomarkers have been identified and replicated using ADNI data, and have heavily implicated immune, mitochondrial, cell cycle/fate, and other biological processes. Early sequencing studies suggest that rare and structural variants are likely to account for significant additional phenotypic variation. Longitudinal analyses of transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and epigenomic changes will also further elucidate dynamic processes underlying preclinical and prodromal stages of disease. Integration of this unique collection of multi-omics data within a systems biology framework will help to separate truly informative markers of early disease mechanisms and potential novel therapeutic targets from the vast background of less relevant biological

  9. Quantitative genetic analysis of retinal degeneration in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E O'Quin

    Full Text Available The retina is the light-sensitive tissue of the eye that facilitates vision. Mutations within genes affecting eye development and retinal function cause a host of degenerative visual diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa and anophthalmia/microphthalmia. The characin fish Astyanax mexicanus includes both eyed (surface fish and eyeless (cavefish morphs that initially develop eyes with normal retina; however, early in development, the eyes of cavefish degenerate. Since both surface and cave morphs are members of the same species, they serve as excellent evolutionary mutant models with which to identify genes causing retinal degeneration. In this study, we crossed the eyed and eyeless forms of A. mexicanus and quantified the thickness of individual retinal layers among 115 F(2 hybrid progeny. We used next generation sequencing (RAD-seq and microsatellite mapping to construct a dense genetic map of the Astyanax genome, scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting retinal thickness, and identify candidate genes within these QTL regions. The map we constructed for Astyanax includes nearly 700 markers assembled into 25 linkage groups. Based on our scans with this map, we identified four QTL, one each associated with the thickness of the ganglion, inner nuclear, outer plexiform, and outer nuclear layers of the retina. For all but one QTL, cavefish alleles resulted in a clear reduction in the thickness of the affected layer. Comparative mapping of genetic markers within each QTL revealed that each QTL corresponds to an approximately 35 Mb region of the zebrafish genome. Within each region, we identified several candidate genes associated with the function of each affected retinal layer. Our study is the first to examine Astyanax retinal degeneration in the context of QTL mapping. The regions we identify serve as a starting point for future studies on the genetics of retinal degeneration and eye disease using the evolutionary mutant model Astyanax.

  10. Quantitative Genetics and Functional-Structural Plant Growth Models: Simulation of Quantitative Trait Loci Detection for Model Parameters and Application to Potential Yield Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Letort, Veronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry; De Reffye, Philippe; Courtois, Brigitte; 10.1093/aob/mcm197

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: Prediction of phenotypic traits from new genotypes under untested environmental conditions is crucial to build simulations of breeding strategies to improve target traits. Although the plant response to environmental stresses is characterized by both architectural and functional plasticity, recent attempts to integrate biological knowledge into genetics models have mainly concerned specific physiological processes or crop models without architecture, and thus may prove limited when studying genotype x environment interactions. Consequently, this paper presents a simulation study introducing genetics into a functional-structural growth model, which gives access to more fundamental traits for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection and thus to promising tools for yield optimization. Methods: The GreenLab model was selected as a reasonable choice to link growth model parameters to QTL. Virtual genes and virtual chromosomes were defined to build a simple genetic model that drove the settings ...

  11. Effects of long-term averaging of quantitative blood pressure traits on the detection of genetic associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.G. Larson (Martin); X. Guo (Xiuqing); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); J.C. Bis (Joshua); X. Gu (Xiangjun); G.D. Smith; M.-L. Yang (Min-Lee); Y. Zhang (Yan); G.B. Ehret (Georg); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S.J. Hwang; G.J. Papanicolau (George); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); K. Rice (Kenneth); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Pihur (Vasyl); P.M. Ridker (Paul); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); N. Amin (Najaf); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); K. Liu (Kiang); L.J. Launer (Lenore); M. Xu (Ming); M. Caulfield (Mark); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); A. Dehghan (Abbas); G. Li (Guo); C. Bouchard (Claude); T.B. Harris (Tamara); H. Zhang (He); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.S. Siscovick (David); W. Gao (Wei); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Hofman (Albert); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Y. Huo (Yong); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); P. Munroe (Patricia); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); W. Palmas (Walter); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M. Fornage (Myriam); D. Levy (Daniel); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBlood pressure (BP) is a heritable, quantitative trait with intraindividual variability and susceptibility to measurement error. Genetic studies of BP generally use single-visit measurements and thus cannot remove variability occurring over months or years. We leveraged the idea that ave

  12. Study of quantitative genetics of gum arabic production complicated by variability in ploidy level of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Hansen, Jon Kehlet

    2015-01-01

    Gum arabic is an important international commodity produced by trees of Acacia senegal across Sahelian Africa, but documented results of breeding activities are limited. The objective of this study was to provide reliable estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in order to shed light...

  13. A Creative Helicobacter pylori Diagnosis Scheme Based on Multiple Genetic Analysis System: Qualification and Quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifang; Zhao, Fuju; Hu, Binjie; Fang, Yi; Miao, Yingxin; Huang, Yiqin; Ji, Da'nian; Zhang, Jinghao; Xu, Lingli; Zhang, Yanmei; Bao, Zhijun; Zhao, Hu

    2015-10-01

    Currently, several diagnostic assays for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are available, but each has some limitations. Further, a high-flux quantitative assay is required to assist clinical diagnosis and monitor the effectiveness of therapy and novel vaccine candidates. Three hundred and eighty-seven adult patients [nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) 295, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) 77, gastric cancer (GC) 15] were enrolled for gastrointestinal endoscopies. Three biopsy samples from gastric antrum were collected for the following tests: culture, rapid urease test (RUT), histopathology, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Multiple Genetic Analysis System (MGAS). The diagnostic capability of H. pylori for all methods was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Based on the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of MGAS were 92.9 and 92.4%, and positive predict value (PPV) and negative predict value (NPV) were 96.0 and 87.1%, respectively. All the above parameters of MGAS were higher than that of culture (except its specificity), RUT and histopathology, and nearly closed to that of conventional PCR. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.7575 (Culture), 0.8870 (RUT), 0.9000 (Histopathology), 0.9496 (Conventional PCR), and 0.9277 (MGAS). No significant statistical difference was observed for the H. pylori DNA load in different disease groups (p = .067). In contrast, a statistically significant difference in the H. pylori DNA copy number was observed based on age (p = .043) and gender (p = .021). The data showed that MGAS performed well in detecting H. pylori infection. Furthermore, the quantitative analysis showed that the load of H. pylori was significantly different within both age and gender groups. These results suggested that MGAS could be a potential alternative method for clinical detection and monitoring of the effectiveness of H. pylori therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genetic programming based quantitative structure-retention relationships for the prediction of Kovats retention indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Purva; Bapat, Sanket; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Amruta; Tambe, Sanjeev S

    2015-11-13

    The development of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) aims at constructing an appropriate linear/nonlinear model for the prediction of the retention behavior (such as Kovats retention index) of a solute on a chromatographic column. Commonly, multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks are used in the QSRR development in the gas chromatography (GC). In this study, an artificial intelligence based data-driven modeling formalism, namely genetic programming (GP), has been introduced for the development of quantitative structure based models predicting Kovats retention indices (KRI). The novelty of the GP formalism is that given an example dataset, it searches and optimizes both the form (structure) and the parameters of an appropriate linear/nonlinear data-fitting model. Thus, it is not necessary to pre-specify the form of the data-fitting model in the GP-based modeling. These models are also less complex, simple to understand, and easy to deploy. The effectiveness of GP in constructing QSRRs has been demonstrated by developing models predicting KRIs of light hydrocarbons (case study-I) and adamantane derivatives (case study-II). In each case study, two-, three- and four-descriptor models have been developed using the KRI data available in the literature. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the GP-based models possess an excellent KRI prediction accuracy and generalization capability. Specifically, the best performing four-descriptor models in both the case studies have yielded high (>0.9) values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) and low values of root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for training, test and validation set data. The characteristic feature of this study is that it introduces a practical and an effective GP-based method for developing QSRRs in gas chromatography that can be gainfully utilized for developing other types of data-driven models in chromatography science.

  15. Quantitative genetics approaches to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology; a perspective from research on the evolution of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, Paul L; Xie, Lingtian; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative genetic approaches are often used to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology. This paper focuses on the evolution of resistance to environmental contaminants-an important evolutionary process in ecotoxicology. Three approaches are commonly employed to study the evolution of resistance: (1) Assessing whether a contaminant-exposed population has an increased resistance relative to a control population, using either spatial or temporal comparisons. (2) Estimating a population's heritability of resistance. (3) Investigating responses in a laboratory selection experiment. All three approaches provide valuable information on the potential for contaminants to affect a population's evolutionary trajectory via natural selection. However, all three approaches have inherent limitations, including difficulty in separating the various genetic and environmental variance components, responses being dependent on specific population and testing conditions, and inability to fully capture natural conditions in the laboratory. In order to maximize insights into the long-term consequences of adaptation, it is important to not just look at resistance itself, but also at the fitness consequences and at correlated responses in characteristics other than resistance. The rapid development of molecular genetics has yielded alternatives to the "black box" approach of quantitative genetics, but the presence of different limitations and strengths in the two fields means that they should be viewed as complementary rather than exchangeable. Quantitative genetics is benefiting from the incorporation of molecular tools and remains an important field for studying evolutionary toxicology.

  16. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  17. Clarifying CLARITY: Quantitative Optimization of the Diffusion Based Delipidation Protocol for Genetically Labeled Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliaro, Chiara; Callara, Alejandro L; Mattei, Giorgio; Morcinelli, Marco; Viaggi, Cristina; Vaglini, Francesca; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clarification has been recently proposed to allow deep tissue imaging without light scattering. The clarification parameters are somewhat arbitrary and dependent on tissue type, source and dimension: every laboratory has its own protocol, but a quantitative approach to determine the optimum clearing time is still lacking. Since the use of transgenic mouse lines that express fluorescent proteins to visualize specific cell populations is widespread, a quantitative approach to determine the optimum clearing time for genetically labeled neurons from thick murine brain slices using CLARITY2 is described. In particular, as the main objective of the delipidation treatment is to clarify tissues, while limiting loss of fluorescent signal, the "goodness" of clarification was evaluated by considering the bulk tissue clarification index (BTCi) and the fraction of the fluorescent marker retained in the slice as easily quantifiable macroscale parameters. Here we describe the approach, illustrating an example of how it can be used to determine the optimum clearing time for 1 mm-thick cerebellar slice from transgenic L7GFP mice, in which Purkinje neurons express the GFP (green fluorescent protein) tag. To validate the method, we evaluated confocal stacks of our samples using standard image processing indices (i.e., the mean pixel intensity of neurons and the contrast-to-noise ratio) as figures of merit for image quality. The results show that detergent-based delipidation for more than 5 days does not increase tissue clarity but the fraction of GFP in the tissue continues to diminish. The optimum clearing time for 1 mm-thick slices was thus identified as 5 days, which is the best compromise between the increase in light penetration depth due to removal of lipids and a decrease in fluorescent signal as a consequence of protein loss: further clearing does not improve tissue transparency, but only leads to more protein removal or degradation. The rigorous quantitative approach

  18. Contribution of interspecific hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation is directed at improving sunflower using hybrid forms resulted from interspecific hybridization. The aim is to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific hybrid forms that are resistant to diseases, the parasite broomrape, herbicides, and other stress factors and are characterized with high combining ability and to obtain on this basis highly productive oilseed sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid composition of oil. The investigat...

  19. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for milk production in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, R G; Thonney, M L

    2010-10-01

    A backcross pedigree using dairy East Friesian rams and non-dairy Dorset ewes was established specifically to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production in sheep. Ninety nine microsatellite markers of an initial set of 120 were successfully genotyped and informative on 188 animals of this backcross pedigree. Test-day milk records on individual ewes were used to estimate several milk yield related traits, including peak milk yield and cumulative milk yield to 50 (MY50), 100 (MY100) and 250 days (MY250). These traits, as well as estimated breeding value of backcross ewes extracted from the genetic evaluation file of the entire flock, were used in interval mapping. Ovine chromosomes 2, 12, 18, 20 and 24 were identified to harbour putative QTL for different measures of milk production. The QTL on Ovis aries chromosomes (OAR) 2 and 20 mapped to locations where similar trait QTL have already been mapped in other studies, whereas QTL on OAR 12, 18 and 24 were unique to our backcross pedigree and have not been reported previously. In addition, all identified QTL regions were syntenic with bovine chromosomal segments revealed to harbour QTL affecting milk production traits, providing supporting evidence for the QTL identified here.

  20. Genetic modifier loci of mouse Mfrp(rd6) identified by quantitative trait locus analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jungyeon; Charette, Jeremy R; Philip, Vivek M; Stearns, Timothy M; Zhang, Weidong; Naggert, Jürgen K; Krebs, Mark P; Nishina, Patsy M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of genes that modify pathological ocular phenotypes in mouse models may improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and lead to new treatment strategies. Here, we identify modifier loci affecting photoreceptor cell loss in homozygous Mfrp(rd6) mice, which exhibit a slowly progressive photoreceptor degeneration. A cohort of 63 F2 homozygous Mfrp(rd6) mice from a (B6.C3Ga-Mfrp(rd6)/J × CAST/EiJ) F1 intercross exhibited a variable number of cell bodies in the retinal outer nuclear layer at 20 weeks of age. Mice were genotyped with a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and genotypes were correlated with phenotype by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to map modifier loci. A genome-wide scan revealed a statistically significant, protective candidate locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 and suggestive modifier loci on Chromosomes 6 and 11. Multiple regression analysis of a three-QTL model indicated that the modifier loci on Chromosomes 1 and 6 together account for 26% of the observed phenotypic variation, while the modifier locus on Chromosome 11 explains only an additional 4%. Our findings indicate that the severity of the Mfrp(rd6) retinal degenerative phenotype in mice depends on the strain genetic background and that a significant modifier locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 protects against Mfrp(rd6)-associated photoreceptor loss.

  1. The first genetic map of the American cranberry: exploration of synteny conservation and quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, Laura; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Honig, Josh; Das, Sushma Parankush; Rajah, Veeran D; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Bassil, Nahla; Rowland, Lisa J; Polashock, James; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2013-03-01

    The first genetic map of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has been constructed, comprising 14 linkage groups totaling 879.9 cM with an estimated coverage of 82.2 %. This map, based on four mapping populations segregating for field fruit-rot resistance, contains 136 distinct loci. Mapped markers include blueberry-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cranberry-derived sequence-characterized amplified region markers previously used for fingerprinting cranberry cultivars. In addition, SSR markers were developed near cranberry sequences resembling genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis or defense against necrotrophic pathogens, or conserved orthologous set (COS) sequences. The cranberry SSRs were developed from next-generation cranberry genomic sequence assemblies; thus, the positions of these SSRs on the genomic map provide information about the genomic location of the sequence scaffold from which they were derived. The use of SSR markers near COS and other functional sequences, plus 33 SSR markers from blueberry, facilitates comparisons of this map with maps of other plant species. Regions of the cranberry map were identified that showed conservation of synteny with Vitis vinifera and Arabidopsis thaliana. Positioned on this map are quantitative trait loci (QTL) for field fruit-rot resistance (FFRR), fruit weight, titratable acidity, and sound fruit yield (SFY). The SFY QTL is adjacent to one of the fruit weight QTL and may reflect pleiotropy. Two of the FFRR QTL are in regions of conserved synteny with grape and span defense gene markers, and the third FFRR QTL spans a flavonoid biosynthetic gene.

  2. Quantitative genetics model as the unifying model for defining genomic relationship and inbreeding coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunkao; Da, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The traditional quantitative genetics model was used as the unifying approach to derive six existing and new definitions of genomic additive and dominance relationships. The theoretical differences of these definitions were in the assumptions of equal SNP effects (equivalent to across-SNP standardization), equal SNP variances (equivalent to within-SNP standardization), and expected or sample SNP additive and dominance variances. The six definitions of genomic additive and dominance relationships on average were consistent with the pedigree relationships, but had individual genomic specificity and large variations not observed from pedigree relationships. These large variations may allow finding least related genomes even within the same family for minimizing genomic relatedness among breeding individuals. The six definitions of genomic relationships generally had similar numerical results in genomic best linear unbiased predictions of additive effects (GBLUP) and similar genomic REML (GREML) estimates of additive heritability. Predicted SNP dominance effects and GREML estimates of dominance heritability were similar within definitions assuming equal SNP effects or within definitions assuming equal SNP variance, but had differences between these two groups of definitions. We proposed a new measure of genomic inbreeding coefficient based on parental genomic co-ancestry coefficient and genomic additive correlation as a genomic approach for predicting offspring inbreeding level. This genomic inbreeding coefficient had the highest correlation with pedigree inbreeding coefficient among the four methods evaluated for calculating genomic inbreeding coefficient in a Holstein sample and a swine sample.

  3. Determinants of Neurotransmitters in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma : from Seasonality to Quantitative Genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luykx, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric conditions are complex genetic as the largest proportion of genetic variance is likely to derive from many genetic variants of small effect. Nonetheless, given the intricacies of the human brain and the heterogeneous nature of psychiatric disease entities, dissecting the genetic mec

  4. Detection of single copy sequences using BAC-FISH and C-PRINS techniques in sunflower chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Paola; Greizerstein, Eduardo J; Hopp, H Esteban; Paniego, Norma; Poggio, Lidia; Heinz, Ruth A

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome-fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH) and cycling-primed in situ labeling (C-PRINS) techniques were evaluated for integration of physical and genetic maps of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Single-site SSR markers were selected from three linkage groups of a high-density sunflower genetic map. This selection was based on previously identified QTL associated to S. sclerotiorum. These markers were used to select BACs contaning single copy sequences for BAC-FISH aplication. Blocking of highly dispersed repetitive sunflower sequences reduced unspecific hybridization, and allowed the detection of specific signals for BACs containing SSR markers HA4222 and HA2600, anchored to LG 16 and LG 10, respectively. Single-site FISH signal detection was optimized by adjusting the relative quantity and quality of unlabelled repetitive sequences present in the blocking DNA. The SSR marker ORS1247 anchored to the LG 17 was detected by C-PRINS, which yielded fluorescence signals that were specific and intense. This progress in localizing single-copy sequences using BAC-FISH and indirect C-PRINS strategies in sunflower will facilitate the integration of genetic and physical maps, allowing the identification of chromosomes containing key genes and/or QTL associated to agronomic important traits in sunflower.

  5. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  6. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  7. SNP discovery and development of a high-density genotyping array for sunflower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Bachlava

    Full Text Available Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have made possible the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms that allow for the simultaneous interrogation of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Such resources have the potential to facilitate the rapid development of high-density genetic maps, and to enable genome-wide association studies as well as molecular breeding approaches in a variety of taxa. Herein, we describe the development of a SNP genotyping resource for use in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. This work involved the development of a reference transcriptome assembly for sunflower, the discovery of thousands of high quality SNPs based on the generation and analysis of ca. 6 Gb of transcriptome re-sequencing data derived from multiple genotypes, the selection of 10,640 SNPs for inclusion in the genotyping array, and the use of the resulting array to screen a diverse panel of sunflower accessions as well as related wild species. The results of this work revealed a high frequency of polymorphic SNPs and relatively high level of cross-species transferability. Indeed, greater than 95% of successful SNP assays revealed polymorphism, and more than 90% of these assays could be successfully transferred to related wild species. Analysis of the polymorphism data revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that were largely congruent with the evolutionary history of sunflower, though the large number of markers allowed for finer resolution than has previously been possible.

  8. SNP discovery and development of a high-density genotyping array for sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlava, Eleni; Taylor, Christopher A; Tang, Shunxue; Bowers, John E; Mandel, Jennifer R; Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have made possible the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms that allow for the simultaneous interrogation of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Such resources have the potential to facilitate the rapid development of high-density genetic maps, and to enable genome-wide association studies as well as molecular breeding approaches in a variety of taxa. Herein, we describe the development of a SNP genotyping resource for use in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). This work involved the development of a reference transcriptome assembly for sunflower, the discovery of thousands of high quality SNPs based on the generation and analysis of ca. 6 Gb of transcriptome re-sequencing data derived from multiple genotypes, the selection of 10,640 SNPs for inclusion in the genotyping array, and the use of the resulting array to screen a diverse panel of sunflower accessions as well as related wild species. The results of this work revealed a high frequency of polymorphic SNPs and relatively high level of cross-species transferability. Indeed, greater than 95% of successful SNP assays revealed polymorphism, and more than 90% of these assays could be successfully transferred to related wild species. Analysis of the polymorphism data revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that were largely congruent with the evolutionary history of sunflower, though the large number of markers allowed for finer resolution than has previously been possible.

  9. Components of phenotypic variability for head diameter in sunflower - Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the main crop species for the production of edible oil in many countries of the world, including ours. Plant height and head size, form and position on the stem as well as the number of leaves, their size, duration and distribution on the plant all play an important role in defining optimal plant architecture in sunflower hybrids (Škorić, 1975, 1989, 2002. In order to monitor the mode of inheritance and gene effects for head diameter in the F1 and F2 generations, half diallel crosses were made in six genetically divergent sunflower inbreds. The mean values of the trait in question differed significantly. The mode of inheritance of head diameter in the F1 generation was superdominance in all but four crosses, which had dominance instead. In the F2 generation, on the other hand, the prevailing mode was dominance, while superdominance was recorded in four cases. The dominant component accounted for the bulk of genetic variance, and the mode of inheritance of head diameter taking into account both the F1 and F2 generations was superdominance. These findings may prove valuable for developing high-yielding sunflower genotypes.

  10. A quantitative genetic approach to assess the evolutionary potential of a coastal marine fish to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvezzi, Alex J; Murray, Christopher S; Feldheim, Kevin A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Garant, Dany; Gobler, Christopher J; Chapman, Demian D; Baumann, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the potential of marine organisms to adapt genetically to increasing oceanic CO2 levels requires proxies such as heritability of fitness-related traits under ocean acidification (OA). We applied a quantitative genetic method to derive the first heritability estimate of survival under elevated CO2 conditions in a metazoan. Specifically, we reared offspring, selected from a wild coastal fish population (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia), at high CO2 conditions (∼2300 μatm) from fertilization to 15 days posthatch, which significantly reduced survival compared to controls. Perished and surviving offspring were quantitatively sampled and genotyped along with their parents, using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, to reconstruct a parent–offspring pedigree and estimate variance components. Genetically related individuals were phenotypically more similar (i.e., survived similarly long at elevated CO2 conditions) than unrelated individuals, which translated into a significantly nonzero heritability (0.20 ± 0.07). The contribution of maternal effects was surprisingly small (0.05 ± 0.04) and nonsignificant. Survival among replicates was positively correlated with genetic diversity, particularly with observed heterozygosity. We conclude that early life survival of M. menidia under high CO2 levels has a significant additive genetic component that could elicit an evolutionary response to OA, depending on the strength and direction of future selection. PMID:25926880

  11. A quantitative genetic approach to assess the evolutionary potential of a coastal marine fish to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvezzi, Alex J; Murray, Christopher S; Feldheim, Kevin A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Garant, Dany; Gobler, Christopher J; Chapman, Demian D; Baumann, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    Assessing the potential of marine organisms to adapt genetically to increasing oceanic CO2 levels requires proxies such as heritability of fitness-related traits under ocean acidification (OA). We applied a quantitative genetic method to derive the first heritability estimate of survival under elevated CO2 conditions in a metazoan. Specifically, we reared offspring, selected from a wild coastal fish population (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia), at high CO2 conditions (∼2300 μatm) from fertilization to 15 days posthatch, which significantly reduced survival compared to controls. Perished and surviving offspring were quantitatively sampled and genotyped along with their parents, using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, to reconstruct a parent-offspring pedigree and estimate variance components. Genetically related individuals were phenotypically more similar (i.e., survived similarly long at elevated CO2 conditions) than unrelated individuals, which translated into a significantly nonzero heritability (0.20 ± 0.07). The contribution of maternal effects was surprisingly small (0.05 ± 0.04) and nonsignificant. Survival among replicates was positively correlated with genetic diversity, particularly with observed heterozygosity. We conclude that early life survival of M. menidia under high CO2 levels has a significant additive genetic component that could elicit an evolutionary response to OA, depending on the strength and direction of future selection.

  12. A quantitative genetic approach to assess the evolutionary potential of a coastal marine fish to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Malvezzi, Alex J.

    2015-02-01

    Assessing the potential of marine organisms to adapt genetically to increasing oceanic CO2 levels requires proxies such as heritability of fitness-related traits under ocean acidification (OA). We applied a quantitative genetic method to derive the first heritability estimate of survival under elevated CO2 conditions in a metazoan. Specifically, we reared offspring, selected from a wild coastal fish population (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia), at high CO2 conditions (~2300 μatm) from fertilization to 15 days posthatch, which significantly reduced survival compared to controls. Perished and surviving offspring were quantitatively sampled and genotyped along with their parents, using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, to reconstruct a parent-offspring pedigree and estimate variance components. Genetically related individuals were phenotypically more similar (i.e., survived similarly long at elevated CO2 conditions) than unrelated individuals, which translated into a significantly nonzero heritability (0.20 ± 0.07). The contribution of maternal effects was surprisingly small (0.05 ± 0.04) and nonsignificant. Survival among replicates was positively correlated with genetic diversity, particularly with observed heterozygosity. We conclude that early life survival of M. menidia under high CO2 levels has a significant additive genetic component that could elicit an evolutionary response to OA, depending on the strength and direction of future selection.

  13. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower...... sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  14. Challenges and prospects in genome-wide quantitative trait loci mapping of standing genetic variation in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielzeth, Holger; Husby, Arild

    2014-07-01

    A considerable challenge in evolutionary genetics is to understand the genetic mechanisms that facilitate or impede evolutionary adaptation in natural populations. For this, we must understand the genetic loci contributing to trait variation and the selective forces acting on them. The decreased costs and increased feasibility of obtaining genotypic data on a large number of individuals have greatly facilitated gene mapping in natural populations, particularly because organisms whose genetics have been historically difficult to study are now within reach. Here we review the methods available to evolutionary ecologists interested in dissecting the genetic basis of traits in natural populations. Our focus lies on standing genetic variation in outbred populations. We present an overview of the current state of research in the field, covering studies on both plants and animals. We also draw attention to particular challenges associated with the discovery of quantitative trait loci and discuss parallels to studies on crops, livestock, and humans. Finally, we point to some likely future developments in genetic mapping studies.

  15. Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint percentage in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min Wang; Chengqi Li; Qinglian Wang

    2014-08-01

    Lint percentage is an important character of cotton yield components and it is also correlated with cotton fibre development. In this study, we used a high lint percentage variety, Baimian1, and a low lint percentage, TM-1 genetic standard for Gossypium hirsutum, as parents to construct a mapping populations in upland cotton (G. hirsutum). A quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analysis of lint percentage was performed by using two mapping procedures; composite interval mapping (CIM), inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) and the F2:3 populations in 2 years. Six main-effect QTL (M-QTL) for lint percentage (four significant and two suggestive) were detected in both years by CIM, and were located on chr. 3, chr. 19, chr. 26 and chr. 5 /chr. 19. Of the six QTL, marker intervals and favourable gene sources of the significant M-QTL, qLP-3(2010) and qLP-3(2011) were consistent. These QTL were also detected by ICIM, and therefore, should preferentially be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of lint percentage. Another M-QTL, qLP-19(2010), was detected by two mapping procedures, and it could also be a candidate for MAS. We detected the interaction between two M-QTL and environment, and 11 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) and their interaction with environment by using ICIM. The study also found two EST-SSRs, NAU1187 and NAU1255, linked to M-QTL for lint percentage that could be candidate markers affecting cotton fibre development.

  16. Establishment of Quantitative Analysis Method for Genetically Modified Maize Using a Reference Plasmid and Novel Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

    2012-01-01

    For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×101~105 copies of pGMmaize and the R2 values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods. PMID:24471096

  17. Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint percentage in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Chengqi; Wang, Qinglian

    2014-08-01

    Lint percentage is an important character of cotton yield components and it is also correlated with cotton fibre development. In this study, we used a high lint percentage variety, Baimian1, and a low lint percentage, TM-1 genetic standard for Gossypium hirsutum, as parents to construct a mapping populations in upland cotton (G. hirsutum). A quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analysis of lint percentage was performed by using two mapping procedures; composite interval mapping (CIM), inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) and the F2:3 populations in 2 years. Six main-effect QTL (M-QTL) for lint percentage (four significant and two suggestive) were detected in both years by CIM, and were located on chr. 3, chr. 19, chr. 26 and chr. 5/chr. 19. Of the six QTL, marker intervals and favourable gene sources of the significant M-QTL, qLP-3(2010) and qLP-3(2011) were consistent. These QTL were also detected by ICIM, and therefore, should preferentially be used for markerassisted selection (MAS) of lint percentage. Another M-QTL, qLP-19(2010), was detected by two mapping procedures, and it could also be a candidate for MAS. We detected the interaction between two M-QTL and environment, and 11 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) and their interaction with environment by using ICIM. The study also found two EST-SSRs, NAU1187 and NAU1255, linked to M-QTL for lint percentage that could be candidate markers affecting cotton fibre development.

  18. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent...

  19. The quantitative genetics of incipient speciation: heritability and genetic correlations of skeletal traits in populations of diverging Favia fragum ecomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlon, David B; Budd, Ann F; Lippé, Catherine; Andrew, Rose L

    2011-12-01

    Recent speciation events provide potential opportunities to understand the microevolution of reproductive isolation. We used a marker-based approach and a common garden to estimate the additive genetic variation in skeletal traits in a system of two ecomorphs within the coral species Favia fragum: a Tall ecomorph that is a seagrass specialist, and a Short ecomorph that is most abundant on coral reefs. Considering both ecomorphs, we found significant narrow-sense heritability (h(2) ) in a suite of measurements that define corallite architecture, and could partition additive and nonadditive variation for some traits. We found positive genetic correlations for homologous height and length measurements among different types of vertical plates (costosepta) within corallites, but negative correlations between height and length within, as well as between costosepta. Within ecomorphs, h(2) estimates were generally lower, compared to the combined ecomorph analysis. Marker-based estimates of h(2) were comparable to broad-sense heritability (H) obtained from parent-offspring regressions in a common garden for most traits, and similar genetic co-variance matrices for common garden and wild populations may indicate relatively small G × E interactions. The patterns of additive genetic variation in this system invite hypotheses of divergent selection or genetic drift as potential evolutionary drivers of reproductive isolation.

  20. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johnsson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait–gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species.

  1. Quantitative Trait Locus and Genetical Genomics Analysis Identifies Putatively Causal Genes for Fecundity and Brooding in the Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Martin; Jonsson, Kenneth B; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2015-12-04

    Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. Overlaps between egg loci and expression loci, and trait-gene expression correlations identify 29 candidates from bone and five from hypothalamus. The candidate quantitative trait genes include fibroblast growth factor 1, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins L42 and L32. In summary, we found putative quantitative trait genes for egg traits in the chicken that may have been affected by regulatory variants under chicken domestication. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, some of the first candidate genes identified by genome-wide mapping for life history traits in an avian species.

  2. Calculation of measurement uncertainty in quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms using intermediate precision--a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina; Cankar, Katarina; Stebih, Dejan; Blejec, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of nucleic acids is becoming a frequently used method in routine analysis of biological samples, one use being the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Measurement uncertainty is an important factor to be considered in these analyses, especially where precise thresholds are set in regulations. Intermediate precision, defined as a measure between repeatability and reproducibility, is a parameter describing the real situation in laboratories dealing with quantitative aspects of molecular biology methods. In this paper, we describe the top-down approach to calculating measurement uncertainty, using intermediate precision, in routine GMO testing of food and feed samples. We illustrate its practicability in defining compliance of results with regulations. The method described is also applicable to other molecular methods for a variety of laboratory diagnostics where quantitative characterization of nucleic acids is needed.

  3. Kinetic Modeling of Sunflower Grain Filling and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durruty, Ignacio; Aguirrezábal, Luis A. N.; Echarte, María M.

    2016-01-01

    Grain growth and oil biosynthesis are complex processes that involve various enzymes placed in different sub-cellular compartments of the grain. In order to understand the mechanisms controlling grain weight and composition, we need mathematical models capable of simulating the dynamic behavior of the main components of the grain during the grain filling stage. In this paper, we present a non-structured mechanistic kinetic model developed for sunflower grains. The model was first calibrated for sunflower hybrid ACA855. The calibrated model was able to predict the theoretical amount of carbohydrate equivalents allocated to the grain, grain growth and the dynamics of the oil and non-oil fraction, while considering maintenance requirements and leaf senescence. Incorporating into the model the serial-parallel nature of fatty acid biosynthesis permitted a good representation of the kinetics of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids production. A sensitivity analysis showed that the relative influence of input parameters changed along grain development. Grain growth was mostly affected by the specific growth parameter (μ′) while fatty acid composition strongly depended on their own maximum specific rate parameters. The model was successfully applied to two additional hybrids (MG2 and DK3820). The proposed model can be the first building block toward the development of a more sophisticated model, capable of predicting the effects of environmental conditions on grain weight and composition, in a comprehensive and quantitative way. PMID:27242809

  4. WOMBAT——A tool for mixed model analyses in quantitative genetics by restricted maximum likelihood (REML)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    WOMBAT is a software package for quantitative genetic analyses of continuous traits, fitting a linear, mixed model;estimates of covariance components and the resulting genetic parameters are obtained by restricted maximum likelihood. A wide range of models, comprising numerous traits, multiple fixed and random effects, selected genetic covariance structures, random regression models and reduced rank estimation are accommodated. WOMBAT employs up-to-date numerical and computational methods. Together with the use of efficient compilers, this generates fast executable programs, suitable for large scale analyses.Use of WOMBAT is illustrated for a bivariate analysis. The package consists of the executable program, available for LINUX and WINDOWS environments, manual and a set of worked example, and can be downloaded free of charge from http://agbu.une.edu.au/~kmeyer/wombat.html

  5. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  6. Registration of a male fertility restorer oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-R9 resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm HA-R9 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 667595) was developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the Agricultural Experiment Station of North Dakota State University and released in January, 2013. Sunflower rust (caused by P...

  7. sunTILL: a TILLING resource for gene function analysis in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabetta Wilma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annus L. is a globally important oilseed crop, subjected to intensive genetic and genomic studies. Although classical mutagenesis has successfully been applied to Helianthus genus in the past, we have developed the first sunflower TILLING resource. Results To balance the maximum mutation density with an acceptable plant survival rate, a 'kill curve' analysis was first conducted with different ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS dosages and different exposure times. According to the germination rate, a treatment with 0.7% EMS for 6 h was chosen. An M2 progeny of 3,651 fertile plants was obtained. Totally, 4.79% of the whole population showed clear aberrant phenotypes. A microsatellite analysis on a representative sample of the original seed stock and mutant lines confirmed the uniformity of the genetic background of plant material. The TILLING procedure was successfully applied to sunflower genome, initially by a CelI-nuclease mismatch cleavage assay coupled with a DNA-pooling level test. To investigate the efficiency of the mutagenic treatment, a pilot screening was carried out on 1,152 M2 lines focusing on four genes, three involved in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway and one for downy mildew resistance. A total of 9 mutant lines were identified and confirmed by sequencing; thereby, the estimated overall mutation frequency for the pilot assay resulted to be 1/475 kb. Conclusion A first TILLING population for a high throughput identification of EMS-induced point mutations in sunflower genome has been successfully obtained. This represents a powerful tool to a better understanding of gene function in sunflower.

  8. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  9. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  10. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  11. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  12. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R(12) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Hulke, B S; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is resistant to both of the most predominant and most virulent rust races identified in the Northern Great Plains of the USA. The gene conditioning rust resistance in RHA 464 originated from wild Helianthus annuus L., but has not been molecularly marked or determined to be independent from other rust loci. The objectives of this study are to identify molecular markers linked to the rust resistance gene and to investigate the allelism of this gene with the unmapped rust resistance genes present in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397. Virulence phenotypes of seedlings for the F(2) population and F(2:3) families suggested that a single dominant gene confers rust resistance in RHA 464, and this gene was designated as R(12). Bulked segregant analysis identified ten markers polymorphic between resistant and susceptible bulks. In subsequent genetic mapping, the ten markers covered 33.4 cM of genetic distance on linkage group 11 of sunflower. A co-dominant marker CRT275-11 is the closest marker distal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 1.0 cM, while ZVG53, a dominant marker linked in the repulsion phase, is proximal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 9.6 cM. The allelism test demonstrated that R(12) is not allelic to the rust resistance genes in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397, and it is also not linked to any previously mapped rust resistance genes. Discovery of the R(12) novel rust resistance locus in sunflower and associated markers will potentially support the molecular marker-assisted introgression and pyramiding of R(12) into sunflower breeding lines.

  13. The genetic variance for multiple linked quantitative trait loci conditional on marker information in a crossed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, H; Iwaisaki, H

    2002-01-01

    In the prediction of genetic values and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping via the mixed model method incorporating marker information in animal populations, it is important to model the genetic variance for individuals with an arbitrary pedigree structure. In this study, for a crossed population originated from different genetic groups such as breeds or outbred strains, the variance of additive genetic values for multiple linked QTLs that are contained in a chromosome segment, especially the segregation variance, is investigated assuming the use of marker data. The variance for a finite number of QTLs in one chromosomal segment is first examined for the crossed population with the general pedigree. Then, applying the concept of the expectation of identity-by-descent proportion, an approximation to the mean of the conditional probabilities for the linked QTLs over all loci is obtained, and using it an expression for the variance in the case of an infinite number of linked QTLs marked by flanking markers is derived. It appears that the approach presented can be useful in the segment mapping using, and in the genetic evaluation of, crosses with general pedigrees in the population of concern. The calculation of the segregation variance through the current approach is illustrated numerically, using a small data-set.

  14. Quantitative genetics theory for genomic selection and efficiency of breeding value prediction in open-pollinated populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To date, the quantitative genetics theory for genomic selection has focused mainly on the relationship between marker and additive variances assuming one marker and one quantitative trait locus (QTL. This study extends the quantitative genetics theory to genomic selection in order to prove that prediction of breeding values based on thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs depends on linkage disequilibrium (LD between markers and QTLs, assuming dominance. We also assessed the efficiency of genomic selection in relation to phenotypic selection, assuming mass selection in an open-pollinated population, all QTLs of lower effect, and reduced sample size, based on simulated data. We show that the average effect of a SNP substitution is proportional to LD measure and to average effect of a gene substitution for each QTL that is in LD with the marker. Weighted (by SNP frequencies and unweighted breeding value predictors have the same accuracy. Efficiency of genomic selection in relation to phenotypic selection is inversely proportional to heritability. Accuracy of breeding value prediction is not affected by the dominance degree and the method of analysis, however, it is influenced by LD extent and magnitude of additive variance. The increase in the number of markers asymptotically improved accuracy of breeding value prediction. The decrease in the sample size from 500 to 200 did not reduce considerably accuracy of breeding value prediction.

  15. QTL mapping identifies candidate alleles involved in adaptive introgression and range expansion in a wild sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kenneth D.; Broman, Karl W.; Kane, Nolan C.; Hovick, Stephen M.; Randell, Rebecca A.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    The wild North American sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. debilis are participants in one of the earliest identified examples of adaptive trait introgression, and the exchange is hypothesized to have triggered a range expansion in H. annuus. However, the genetic basis of the adaptive exchange has not been examined. Here, we combine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with field measurements of fitness to identify candidate H. debilis QTL alleles likely to have introgressed into H. annuus to form the natural hybrid lineage H. a. texanus. Two 500-individual BC1 mapping populations were grown in central Texas, genotyped for 384 SNP markers, and then phenotyped in the field for two fitness and 22 herbivore resistance, ecophysiological, phenological, and architectural traits. We identified a total of 110 QTL, including at least one QTL for 22 of the 24 traits. Over 75% of traits exhibited at least one H. debilis QTL allele that would shift the trait in the direction of the wild hybrid H. a. texanus. We identified three chromosomal regions where H. debilis alleles increased both female and male components of fitness; these regions are expected to be strongly favored in the wild. QTL for a number of other ecophysiological, phenological, and architectural traits co-localized with these three regions and are candidates for the actual traits driving adaptive shifts. G × E interactions played a modest role, with 17% of the QTL showing potentially divergent phenotypic effects between the two field sites. The candidate adaptive chromosomal regions identified here serve as explicit hypotheses for how the genetic architecture of the hybrid lineage came into existence. PMID:25522096

  16. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganó, M.C.; Toso, G.; Caille, G.; Mangenot, C.; Lager, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding spat

  17. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  18. Plasmopara halstedii virus causes hypovirulence in Plasmopara halstedii, the downy mildew pathogen of the sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasse, Wolfgang; Zipper, Reinhard; Totska, Maria; Spring, Otmar

    2013-08-01

    Plasmopara halstedii virus (PhV) is an isometric virus recently found in the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii. The fully sequenced virus genome consists of two ss(+)RNA strands encoding for the virus polymerase and the coat protein, respectively. Most of previously screened field isolates of P. halstedii were found to harbor PhV, but effects of PhV on the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the oomycete have not been investigated yet. To assess the influence of PhV on the infectivity of P. halstedii, virus-free isolates of the oomycete were searched for, cultivated on sunflower and used for single zoospore infection. Four genetically homogenous strains belonging to three different pathotypes (710, 730, 750) were established. Subcultures of each strain were successfully infected with PhV. This afforded pairs of isogenic strains with and without virus and allowed assessment of the pathogenicity (susceptibility to specific sunflower genotypes) and aggressiveness (intensity of infection, time scale and density of sporulation) in cultivation of sunflower. While no significant difference was found in the pathogenicity of P. halstedii strains with and without virus towards sunflower seedlings of different resistance (pathotype differentials), the aggressiveness of the oomycete was diminished by PhV. Compared to the virus-free strains, the time required for the first sporulation (latent period) increased by about 1 day post inoculation. Progression of the pathogen from the hypocotyl into the epicotyl of sunflower (systemic infection) was reduced by about one third in the presence of virus. In the virus containing strains, the average density of sporangia produced per cm² cotyledon reached only 75% of the virus-free controls. In summary, the presence of PhV leads to hypovirulence effects by weakening the aggressiveness of P. halstedii.

  19. PCR-free quantitative detection of genetically modified organism from raw materials. An electrochemiluminescence-based bio bar code method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Debin; Tang, Yabing; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R

    2008-05-15

    A bio bar code assay based on oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) provides a PCR-free method for quantitative detection of nucleic acid targets. However, the current bio bar code assay requires lengthy experimental procedures including the preparation and release of bar code DNA probes from the target-nanoparticle complex and immobilization and hybridization of the probes for quantification. Herein, we report a novel PCR-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based bio bar code assay for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) from raw materials. It consists of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled bar code DNA, nucleic acid hybridization using Au-NPs and biotin-labeled probes, and selective capture of the hybridization complex by streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. The detection of target DNA is realized by direct measurement of ECL emission of TBR. It can quantitatively detect target nucleic acids with high speed and sensitivity. This method can be used to quantitatively detect GMO fragments from real GMO products.

  20. Study of quantitative genetics of gum arabic production complicated by variability in ploidy level of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Hansen, Jon Kehlet;

    2015-01-01

    sibs, while the open-pollinated families of polyploids showed low variation within families. The difference in sibling relationship observed between ploidy levels complicated estimation of genetic parameters. However, based on the diploid trees, we conclude that heritability in gum arabic production......Gum arabic is an important international commodity produced by trees of Acacia senegal across Sahelian Africa, but documented results of breeding activities are limited. The objective of this study was to provide reliable estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in order to shed light...... on the breeding potential for improvement of gum yield and quality. For this purpose, we measured growth on 617 offspring from 60 open-pollinated trees after 18 years, and gum yield and quality based on two seasons, 18 and 19 years after establishment. Genotyping with eight microsatellite markers revealed...

  1. Quantitative Seq-LGS: Genome-Wide Identification of Genetic Drivers of Multiple Phenotypes in Malaria Parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Abkallo, Hussein M.

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the genetic determinants of phenotypes that impact on disease severity is of fundamental importance for the design of new interventions against malaria. Traditionally, such discovery has relied on labor-intensive approaches that require significant investments of time and resources. By combining Linkage Group Selection (LGS), quantitative whole genome population sequencing and a novel mathematical modeling approach (qSeq-LGS), we simultaneously identified multiple genes underlying two distinct phenotypes, identifying novel alleles for growth rate and strain specific immunity (SSI), while removing the need for traditionally required steps such as cloning, individual progeny phenotyping and marker generation. The detection of novel variants, verified by experimental phenotyping methods, demonstrates the remarkable potential of this approach for the identification of genes controlling selectable phenotypes in malaria and other apicomplexan parasites for which experimental genetic crosses are amenable.

  2. High-Density Genetic Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping for Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuhui; Su, Kai; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Jijun; Li, Junpeng; Guo, Yinshan

    2017-07-14

    Genetic linkage maps are an important tool in genetic and genomic research. In this study, two hawthorn cultivars, Qiujinxing and Damianqiu, and 107 progenies from a cross between them were used for constructing a high-density genetic linkage map using the 2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) sequencing method, as well as for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for flavonoid content. In total, 206,411,693 single-end reads were obtained, with an average sequencing depth of 57× in the parents and 23× in the progeny. After quality trimming, 117,896 high-quality 2b-RAD tags were retained, of which 42,279 were polymorphic; of these, 12,951 markers were used for constructing the genetic linkage map. The map contained 17 linkage groups and 3,894 markers, with a total map length of 1,551.97 cM and an average marker interval of 0.40 cM. QTL mapping identified 21 QTLs associated with flavonoid content in 10 linkage groups, which explained 16.30-59.00% of the variance. This is the first high-density linkage map for hawthorn, which will serve as a basis for fine-scale QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection of important traits in hawthorn germplasm and will facilitate chromosome assignment for hawthorn whole-genome assemblies in the future.

  3. Quantitative genetic analysis indicates natural selection on leaf phenotypes across wild tomato species (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Christopher D; Pease, James B; Moyle, Leonie C

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive evolution requires both raw genetic material and an accessible path of high fitness from one fitness peak to another. In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). A QTL sign test showed that several traits likely evolved under directional natural selection. Leaf traits correlated across species do not share a common genetic basis, consistent with a scenario in which selection maintains trait covariation unconstrained by pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium. Two large effect QTL for stomatal distribution colocalized with key genes in the stomatal development pathway, suggesting promising candidates for the molecular bases of adaptation in these species. Furthermore, macroevolutionary transitions between vastly different stomatal distributions may not be constrained when such large-effect mutations are available. Finally, genetic correlations between stomatal traits measured in this study and data on carbon isotope discrimination from the same ILs support a functional hypothesis that the distribution of stomata affects the resistance to CO2 diffusion inside the leaf, a trait implicated in climatic adaptation in wild tomatoes. Along with evidence from previous comparative and experimental studies, this analysis indicates that leaf traits are an important component of climatic niche adaptation in wild tomatoes and demonstrates that some trait transitions between species could have involved few, large-effect genetic changes, allowing rapid responses to new environmental conditions.

  4. The genetic basis of adaptive population differentiation: A quantitative trait locus analysis of fitness traits in two wild barley populations from contrasting habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Vanhala, T.K.; Biere, A.; Nevo, E.; Damme, van J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We used a quantitative trait locus (QTL) approach to study the genetic basis of population differentiation in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum. Several ecotypes are recognized in this model species, and population genetic studies and reciprocal transplant experiments have indicated the role of local

  5. Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in "Brassica rapa" Fast Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzli, Janet M.; Smith, Amber R.; Williams, Paul H.; McGee, Seth A.; Dosa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question "What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev)," we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory…

  6. Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in "Brassica rapa" Fast Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzli, Janet M.; Smith, Amber R.; Williams, Paul H.; McGee, Seth A.; Dosa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question "What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev)," we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory…

  7. Quantitative determination of casein genetic variants in goat milk: Application in Girgentana dairy goat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein.

  8. Quantitative genetics of migration syndromes: a study of two barn swallow populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitsky, C; Mouawad, N G; Balbontin, J; De Lope, F; Møller, A P

    2011-09-01

    Migration is a complex trait although little is known about genetic correlations between traits involved in such migration syndromes. To assess the migratory responses to climate change, we need information on genetic constraints on evolutionary potential of arrival dates in migratory birds. Using two long-term data sets on barn swallows Hirundo rustica (from Spain and Denmark), we show for the first time in wild populations that spring arrival dates are phenotypically and genetically correlated with morphological and life history traits. In the Danish population, length of outermost tail feathers and wing length were negatively genetically correlated with arrival date. In the Spanish population, we found a negative genetic correlation between arrival date and time elapsed between arrival date and laying date, constraining response to selection that favours both early arrival and shorter delays. This results in a decreased rate of adaptation, not because of constraints on arrival date, but constraints on delay before breeding, that is, a trait that can be equally important in the context of climate change.

  9. Logistics for Working Together to Facilitate Genomic/Quantitative Genetic Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incorporation of DNA tests into the national cattle evaluation system will require estimation of variances of and covariances among the additive genetic components of the DNA tests and the phenotypic traits they are intended to predict. Populations with both DNA test results and phenotypes will ...

  10. [Attempt at quantitative estimation of genetic effects of chemical pollution of atmospheric air in urban populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antypenko, Ie M; Kohut, N M; Oleksiienko, P L

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiological investigation of spontaneous abortions and congenital anomalies in three towns of Ukraine has shown that mutation rate in Mariupol, the most contaminated town, as compared with relatively clean town is essentially higher. Genetical consequences due to environmental chemical pollution in Mariupol proved to be equivalent to the chronic influence of ionizing radiation for 30 years in the dose of 230 REM.

  11. Genetic analysis identifies quantitative trait loci controlling rosette mineral concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana under drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghandilyan, A.; Barboza, L.; Tisne, S.; Granier, C.; Reymond, M.; Koornneef, M.; Schat, H.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    • Rosettes of 25 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and an Antwerp-1 (An-1) × Landsberg erecta (Ler) population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) grown in optimal watering conditions (OWC) and water deficit conditions (WDC) were analysed for mineral concentrations to identify genetic loci involved in

  12. Effects of long-term averaging of quantitative blood pressure traits on the detection of genetic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Santhi K; Chasman, Daniel I; Larson, Martin G; Guo, Xiuqing; Verwoert, Germain; Bis, Joshua C; Gu, Xiangjun; Smith, Albert V; Yang, Min-Lee; Zhang, Yan; Ehret, Georg; Rose, Lynda M; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Papanicolau, George J; Sijbrands, Eric J; Rice, Kenneth; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Pihur, Vasyl; Ridker, Paul M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Raffel, Leslie J; Amin, Najaf; Rotter, Jerome I; Liu, Kiang; Launer, Lenore J; Xu, Ming; Caulfield, Mark; Morrison, Alanna C; Johnson, Andrew D; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Dehghan, Abbas; Li, Guo; Bouchard, Claude; Harris, Tamara B; Zhang, He; Boerwinkle, Eric; Siscovick, David S; Gao, Wei; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Willer, Cristen J; Franco, Oscar H; Huo, Yong; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Munroe, Patricia B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Palmas, Walter; van Duijn, Cornelia; Fornage, Myriam; Levy, Daniel; Psaty, Bruce M; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2014-07-03

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable, quantitative trait with intraindividual variability and susceptibility to measurement error. Genetic studies of BP generally use single-visit measurements and thus cannot remove variability occurring over months or years. We leveraged the idea that averaging BP measured across time would improve phenotypic accuracy and thereby increase statistical power to detect genetic associations. We studied systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP) averaged over multiple years in 46,629 individuals of European ancestry. We identified 39 trait-variant associations across 19 independent loci (p < 5 × 10(-8)); five associations (in four loci) uniquely identified by our LTA analyses included those of SBP and MAP at 2p23 (rs1275988, near KCNK3), DBP at 2q11.2 (rs7599598, in FER1L5), and PP at 6p21 (rs10948071, near CRIP3) and 7p13 (rs2949837, near IGFBP3). Replication analyses conducted in cohorts with single-visit BP data showed positive replication of associations and a nominal association (p < 0.05). We estimated a 20% gain in statistical power with long-term average (LTA) as compared to single-visit BP association studies. Using LTA analysis, we identified genetic loci influencing BP. LTA might be one way of increasing the power of genetic associations for continuous traits in extant samples for other phenotypes that are measured serially over time. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative genetics, version 3.0: where have we gone since 1987 and where are we headed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bruce

    2009-06-01

    The last 20 years since the previous World Congress have seen tremendous advancements in quantitative genetics, in large part due to the advancements in genomics, computation, and statistics. One central theme of this last 20 years has been the exploitation of the vast harvest of molecular markers--examples include QTL and association mapping, marker-assisted selection and introgression, scans for loci under selection, and methods to infer degree of coancestry, population membership, and past demographic history. One consequence of this harvest is that phenotyping, rather than genotyping, is now the bottleneck in molecular quantitative genetics studies. Equally important have been advances in statistics, many developed to effectively use this treasure trove of markers. Computational improvements in statistics, and in particular Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, have facilitated many of these methods, as have significantly improved computational abilities for mixed models. Indeed, one could argue that mixed models have had at least as great an impact in quantitative genetics as have molecular markers. A final important theme over the past 20 years has been the fusion of population and quantitative genetics, in particular the importance of coalescence theory with its applications for association mapping, scans for loci under selection, and estimation of the demography history of a population. What are the future directions of the field? While obviously important surprises await us, the general trend seems to be moving into higher and higher dimensional traits and, in general, dimensional considerations. We have methods to deal with infinite-dimensional traits indexed by a single variable (such as a trait varying over time), but the future will require us to treat much more complex objects, such as infinite-dimensional traits indexed over several variables and with graphs and dynamical networks. A second important direction is the interfacing of quantitative

  14. Screening of sunflower cultivars for metal phytoextraction in a contaminated field prior to mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Federer, Guido; Erismann, Karl-Hans; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Sunflower can be used for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Its high biomass production makes this plant species interestingfor phytoextraction and using sunflower oil for a technical purpose may improve the economic balance of phytoremediation. The aim of the present field study was to screen 15 commercial cultivars of Helianthus annuus L. grown on metal-contaminated soil, to find out the variety with the highest metal extraction, which can be further improved by mutation or in vitro breeding procedures. Two different fertilizers (ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate) were also used to enhance the bioavailability of metals in soil Highly significant differences were observed within tested varieties for metal accumulation and extraction efficiency. Furthermore, ammonium nitrate increased cadmium extraction, whereas ammonium sulphate enhanced zinc and lead uptake in most tested cultivars. In this field-based sunflower screening, we found enhanced cumulative Cd, Zn, and Pb extraction efficiency by a factor 4.4 for Salut cultivar. We therefore emphasize that prior to any classical breeding or genetic engineering enhancing metal uptake potential, a careful screening of various genotypes should be done to select the cultivar with the naturally highest metal uptake and to start the genetic improvement with the best available plant material.

  15. Genotypic responses and diallel analysis for an early resistance test to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño Fernando

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of sunflower genotypic performance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infections is important for understanding its usefulness as source of resistance. In the field, artificial and natural resistance tests provide important information that can be used in the selection of the best materials, however the procedures for resistance tests are usually both expensive and laborious. This work describes the performance of sunflower genotypes of broad genetic base at an early stage of plant development using a resistance test carried out under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. Statistical analysis detected highly significant genotypic responses and the combined abilities effects among the evaluated populations and their offspring, obtained by a diallel crossing system method 2 for dead seedlings (% at 25 days after S. sclerotiorum infection on the basal stem. The methodology allowed superior parents to be detected and crosses to be furthered in the selection for S. sclerotiorum resistance. The usefulness of the evaluated genetic materials and the early resistance test in sunflower breeding plans is discussed.

  16. Development and evaluation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean A2704-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event; A2704-12. During the plant transformation, DNA fragments derived from pUC19 plasmid were integrated in A2704-12, and the region was found to be A2704-12 specific. The pUC19-derived DNA sequences were used as primers for the specific detection of A2704-12. We first tried to construct a standard plasmid for A2704-12 quantification using pUC19. However, non-specific signals appeared with both qualitative and quantitative PCR analyses using the specific primers with pUC19 as a template, and we then constructed a plasmid using pBR322. The conversion factor (C(f)), which is required to calculate the amount of the genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined with two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT and the Applied Biosystems 7500. The determined C(f) values were both 0.98. The quantitative method was evaluated by means of blind tests in multi-laboratory trials using the two real-time PCR instruments. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.1%. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSD(R)), and the determined bias and RSD(R) values for the method were each less than 20%. These results suggest that the developed method would be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of A2704-12.

  17. [Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize.

  18. A quantitative genetic study of starvation resistance at different geographic scales in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenaga, Julieta; José Fanara, Juan; Hasson, Esteban

    2010-08-01

    Food shortage is a stress factor that commonly affects organisms in nature. Resistance to food shortage or starvation resistance (SR) is a complex quantitative trait with direct implications on fitness. However, surveys of natural genetic variation in SR at different geographic scales are scarce. Here, we have measured variation in SR in sets of lines derived from nine natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster collected in western Argentina. Our study shows that within population variation explained a larger proportion of overall phenotypic variance (80%) than among populations (7·2%). We also noticed that an important fraction of variation was sex-specific. Overall females were more resistant to starvation than males; however, the magnitude of the sexual dimorphism (SD) in SR varied among lines and explained a significant fraction of phenotypic variance in all populations. Estimates of cross-sex genetic correlations suggest that the genetic architecture of SR is only partially shared between sexes in the populations examined, thus, facilitating further evolution of the SD.

  19. Quantitative genome-wide genetic interaction screens reveal global epistatic relationships of protein complexes in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Babu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale proteomic analyses in Escherichia coli have documented the composition and physical relationships of multiprotein complexes, but not their functional organization into biological pathways and processes. Conversely, genetic interaction (GI screens can provide insights into the biological role(s of individual gene and higher order associations. Combining the information from both approaches should elucidate how complexes and pathways intersect functionally at a systems level. However, such integrative analysis has been hindered due to the lack of relevant GI data. Here we present a systematic, unbiased, and quantitative synthetic genetic array screen in E. coli describing the genetic dependencies and functional cross-talk among over 600,000 digenic mutant combinations. Combining this epistasis information with putative functional modules derived from previous proteomic data and genomic context-based methods revealed unexpected associations, including new components required for the biogenesis of iron-sulphur and ribosome integrity, and the interplay between molecular chaperones and proteases. We find that functionally-linked genes co-conserved among γ-proteobacteria are far more likely to have correlated GI profiles than genes with divergent patterns of evolution. Overall, examining bacterial GIs in the context of protein complexes provides avenues for a deeper mechanistic understanding of core microbial systems.

  20. Genetic diversity of upland rice germplasm in Malaysia based on quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M; Rafii, M Y; Hanafi, M M; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Latif, M A

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity is prerequisite for any crop improvement program as it helps in the development of superior recombinants. Fifty Malaysian upland rice accessions were evaluated for 12 growth traits, yield and yield components. All of the traits were significant and highly significant among the accessions. The higher magnitudes of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for flag leaf length-to-width ratio, spikelet fertility, and days to flowering. High heritability along with high genetic advance was registered for yield of plant, days to flowering, and flag leaf length-to-width ratio suggesting preponderance of additive gene action in the gene expression of these characters. Plant height showed highly significant positive correlation with most of the traits. According to UPGMA cluster analysis all accessions were clustered into six groups. Twelve morphological traits provided around 77% of total variation among the accessions.

  1. Genetic Diversity of Upland Rice Germplasm in Malaysia Based on Quantitative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sohrabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is prerequisite for any crop improvement program as it helps in the development of superior recombinants. Fifty Malaysian upland rice accessions were evaluated for 12 growth traits, yield and yield components. All of the traits were significant and highly significant among the accessions. The higher magnitudes of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for flag leaf length-to-width ratio, spikelet fertility, and days to flowering. High heritability along with high genetic advance was registered for yield of plant, days to flowering, and flag leaf length-to-width ratio suggesting preponderance of additive gene action in the gene expression of these characters. Plant height showed highly significant positive correlation with most of the traits. According to UPGMA cluster analysis all accessions were clustered into six groups. Twelve morphological traits provided around 77% of total variation among the accessions.

  2. Estimates of genetic variability and association studies in quantitative plant traits of Eruca spp. landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozokalfa Kadri Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing of economical importance of rocket plant limited information is available on genetic variability for the agronomic traits among Eruca spp. Hence, heritability and association studies of plant properties are necessities for a successful further rocket breeding programme. The objective of this study was to examine phenotypic and genotypic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance, genotypic and phenotypic correlation and mean for agronomic traits of rocket plant. The magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variation values for all the traits were higher than the corresponding values and broad sense heritability estimates exceeded 65% for all traits. Phenotypic coefficients of variability (PCV ranged from 7.60 to 34.34% and genotypic coefficients of variability (GCV ranged between 5.58% for petiole thickness and 34.30% for plant weight. The results stated that plant weight, siliqua width, seed per siliqua and seed weight could be useful character for improved Eruca spp. breeding programme.

  3. Dissection of Genetic Effects of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) in Transgenic Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-shan

    2008-01-01

    @@ When alien DNA inserts into cotton genome in multi-copy manner,several QTL in cotton genome are disrupted,which are called dQTL in this study.Transgenic mutant line is near-isogenic to its recipient which is divergent for the dQTL from remaining QTL.So,a set of data from a transgenic QTL mutant line produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation,30074,its recipient,their F1 hybrids between them,and three elite lines were analyzed under a modified additive-dominance model with genotype by environment interactions in three different environments to dissect the genetic effects due to dQTL from the whole genome based genetic effects.

  4. Quantitative genetic variation for oviposition preference with respect to phenylthiocarbamide in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possidente, B; Mustafa, M; Collins, L

    1999-05-01

    Seven isogenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster were assayed for oviposition preference on food with phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) versus plain food. There was significant variation among strains for the percentage of eggs oviposited on each medium, ranging from 70 +/- 4% (SE) preference for plain food to no significant preference. Reciprocal hybrid, backcross, and F2 generations derived from two extreme parent strains revealed significant additive and nonadditive genetic variation but no evidence of maternal, paternal, or sex-chromosome effects.

  5. Kernel Approach for Modeling Interaction Effects in Genetic Association Studies of Complex Quantitative Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadaway, K Alaine; Duncan, Richard; Conneely, Karen N; Almli, Lynn M; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Epstein, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    The etiology of complex traits likely involves the effects of genetic and environmental factors, along with complicated interaction effects between them. Consequently, there has been interest in applying genetic association tests of complex traits that account for potential modification of the genetic effect in the presence of an environmental factor. One can perform such an analysis using a joint test of gene and gene-environment interaction. An optimal joint test would be one that remains powerful under a variety of models ranging from those of strong gene-environment interaction effect to those of little or no gene-environment interaction effect. To fill this demand, we have extended a kernel machine based approach for association mapping of multiple SNPs to consider joint tests of gene and gene-environment interaction. The kernel-based approach for joint testing is promising, because it incorporates linkage disequilibrium information from multiple SNPs simultaneously in analysis and permits flexible modeling of interaction effects. Using simulated data, we show that our kernel machine approach typically outperforms the traditional joint test under strong gene-environment interaction models and further outperforms the traditional main-effect association test under models of weak or no gene-environment interaction effects. We illustrate our test using genome-wide association data from the Grady Trauma Project, a cohort of highly traumatized, at-risk individuals, which has previously been investigated for interaction effects. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  6. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color – a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) – is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought. PMID:26380676

  7. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-08-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color - a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) - is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought.

  8. Quantitative genetic modeling and inference in the presence of nonignorable missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsland, Ingelin; Larsen, Camilla Thorrud; Roulin, Alexandre; Jensen, Henrik

    2014-06-01

    Natural selection is typically exerted at some specific life stages. If natural selection takes place before a trait can be measured, using conventional models can cause wrong inference about population parameters. When the missing data process relates to the trait of interest, a valid inference requires explicit modeling of the missing process. We propose a joint modeling approach, a shared parameter model, to account for nonrandom missing data. It consists of an animal model for the phenotypic data and a logistic model for the missing process, linked by the additive genetic effects. A Bayesian approach is taken and inference is made using integrated nested Laplace approximations. From a simulation study we find that wrongly assuming that missing data are missing at random can result in severely biased estimates of additive genetic variance. Using real data from a wild population of Swiss barn owls Tyto alba, our model indicates that the missing individuals would display large black spots; and we conclude that genes affecting this trait are already under selection before it is expressed. Our model is a tool to correctly estimate the magnitude of both natural selection and additive genetic variance.

  9. Genetic counseling follow-up - a retrospective study with a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Pina-Neto João M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of genetic counseling (GC was evaluated in families, who were interviewed at least two and half years and at most seven years after GC at the Genetics Service of the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (HC, FMRP, USP. The 113 families interviewed in this study were asked 48 questions and all children born after GC were studied clinically. We evaluated the families for spontaneous motivation for GC and understanding of GC information, their reproductive decisions, changes in the family after GC and the health status of new children. The majority of families seen at the Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto were not spontaneously motivated to undergo GC. They had a low level of understanding about the information they received during GC. Generally families were using contraceptive methods (even when at low genetic risk with a consequent low rate of pregnancies and children born after GC. These families also had a very low rate of child adoption and divorces when compared to other studies.

  10. 15e CONFERENCE INTERNATIONALE TOURNESOL Sunflower ecophysiology: some unresolved issues*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Antonio J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Major unresolved issues in sunflower ecophysiology constrain efforts to improve crop modelling, management, genetic analysis and breeding. Three issues are used here to illustrate this point. Firstly, much of the work on the duration of the emergence to flowering phase has considered the phase as a whole. It is argued that a more detailed analysis based on sub-phases is required, particularly in view of possible intraspecific variability in the durations of the basic vegetative and juvenile phases and evidence that photoperiod responses before, during and after floral initiation may differ between genotypes and even be of opposite sign for the same genotype. Secondly,contrasting responses of grain oil proportion to manipulation of plant population density and incident radiation appear to be linked to variations in kernel oil proportion rather than to kernel: hull ratio, and responses of grain oil proportion to changes in sowing date seem to have a similar origin. More effort should be focused on understanding the controls of oil mass per kernel. It is speculated that there may be a genotype-dependent limit to this variable. A third unresolved issue relates to the nature and strength of the linkage between post-anthesis stay-green and leaf photosynthetic functionality. These variables are poorly related during pre-anthesis senescence of leaves in the lower portion of closed canopies, and for sunflower this linkage appears much weaker than in other crop species. Current interest in post-anthesis stay-green as a possibly useful crop attribute requires clarification of this uncertainty.

  11. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carolina Viganó; Giovanni Toso; Gerard Caille; Cyril Mangenot; Lager, Ioan E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding spatial density fits a Taylor amplitude tapering law which guarantees the pattern requirements in terms of beamwidth and sidelobe level. Different configurations, based on a Voronoi cell spatial tessel...

  12. Sunflower crop in Argentina to date

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez A.; de Romano A.

    2006-01-01

    Inside a panorama of a spectacular grain production in the last 10 years in Argentina, sunflower crop participates with an annual production of more than 3,500,000 t. During that period, many advances were made in the improvement of diseases resistance: Verticillium wilt, downy mildew and head rot. Also oil yield per hectare continued to increase. The new hybrids have new qualities, for example imidazolinones resistance, which allows farmers to keep yields, although the soils destined to sunf...

  13. High-oleic sunflower, a new oil component; Die High-Oleic-Sunflower als neue Grundoelkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botz, O. [Natoil AG, Technopark Luzern (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    Achieved results from NATOIL {sup registered} proved that the application of the High-Oleic-Sunflower as a component of a base oil in lubricants is in general feasible. The target goals and properties have been realised with great success. To emphasize are particularly good results in relation to piston cleanliness, oxidative stability as well as fuel economy properties. The central fear that the High-Oleic-Sunflower would not be sufficiently stable concerning oxidation has been clearly refuted in diverse motor tests. The application of the High-Oleic Sunflower and of the here of manufactured esters enables the development of lubricants with much lower viscosity characteristics in comparison to mineral-oil-based lubricants, which may result in the overall reduction of the average drag torque by up to 30%. (orig.)

  14. Identification of quantitative genetic components of fitness variation in farmed, hybrid and native salmon in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnier, F; Glover, K A; Lien, S; Kent, M; Hansen, M M; Shen, X; Skaala, Ø

    2015-07-01

    Feral animals represent an important problem in many ecosystems due to interbreeding with wild conspecifics. Hybrid offspring from wild and domestic parents are often less adapted to local environment and ultimately, can reduce the fitness of the native population. This problem is an important concern in Norway, where each year, hundreds of thousands of farm Atlantic salmon escape from fish farms. Feral fish outnumber wild populations, leading to a possible loss of local adaptive genetic variation and erosion of genetic structure in wild populations. Studying the genetic factors underlying relative performance between wild and domesticated conspecific can help to better understand how domestication modifies the genetic background of populations, and how it may alter their ability to adapt to the natural environment. Here, based upon a large-scale release of wild, farm and wild x farm salmon crosses into a natural river system, a genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) scan was performed on the offspring of 50 full-sib families, for traits related to fitness (length, weight, condition factor and survival). Six QTLs were detected as significant contributors to the phenotypic variation of the first three traits, explaining collectively between 9.8 and 14.8% of the phenotypic variation. The seventh QTL had a significant contribution to the variation in survival, and is regarded as a key factor to understand the fitness variability observed among salmon in the river. Interestingly, strong allelic correlation within one of the QTL regions in farmed salmon might reflect a recent selective sweep due to artificial selection.

  15. Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-06-01

    A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this.

  16. Genetic influences on type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related quantitative traits in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Jeremy B; Diego, Vincent P; Kotea, Navaratnam; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Chitson, Pierrot; Dyer, Thomas D; Zimmet, Paul; Blangero, John

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiological studies report a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the island nation of Mauritius. The Mauritius Family Study was initiated to examine heritable factors that contribute to these high rates of prevalence and consists of 400 individuals in 24 large extended multigenerational pedigrees. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements relating to the metabolic syndrome were undertaken in addition to family and lifestyle based information for each individual. Variance components methods were used to determine the heritability of the type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related quantitative traits. The cohort was made up of 218 females (55%) and 182 males with 22% diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and a further 30% having impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. Notably BMI was not significantly increased in those with type 2 diabetes (P= .12), however a significant increase in waist circumference was observed in these groups (P= .02). The heritable proportion of trait variance was substantial and greater than values previously published for hip circumference, LDL and total cholesterol, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and serum creatinine. Height, weight and BMI heritabilities were all in the upper range of those previously reported. The phenotypic characteristics of the Mauritius family cohort are similar to those previously reported in the Mauritian population with a high observed prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes. A high heritability for key type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related phenotypes (range 0.23 to 0.68), suggest the cohort will have utility in identifying genes that influence these quantitative traits.

  17. GENES - a software package for analysis in experimental statistics and quantitative genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Damião Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available GENES is a software package used for data analysis and processing with different biometricmodels and is essential in genetic studies applied to plant and animal breeding. It allows parameterestimation to analyze biologicalphenomena and is fundamental for the decision-making process andpredictions of success and viability of selection strategies. The program can be downloaded from theInternet (http://www.ufv.br/dbg/genes/genes.htm orhttp://www.ufv.br/dbg/biodata.htm and is available inPortuguese, English and Spanish. Specific literature (http://www.livraria.ufv.br/ and a set of sample filesare also provided, making GENES easy to use. The software is integrated into the programs MS Word, MSExcel and Paint, ensuring simplicity and effectiveness indata import and export ofresults, figures and data.It is also compatible with the free software R and Matlab, through the supply of useful scripts available forcomplementary analyses in different areas, including genome wide selection, prediction of breeding valuesand use of neural networks in genetic improvement.

  18. Quantitative genetic insights into the coevolutionary dynamics of male and female genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P; van Lieshout, Emile; Gasparini, Clelia

    2013-07-22

    The spectacular variability that typically characterizes male genital traits has largely been attributed to the role of sexual selection. Among the evolutionary mechanisms proposed to account for this diversity, two processes in particular have generated considerable interest. On the one hand, females may exploit postcopulatory mechanisms of selection to favour males with preferred genital traits (cryptic female choice; CFC), while on the other hand females may evolve structures or behaviours that mitigate the direct costs imposed by male genitalia (sexual conflict; SC). A critical but rarely explored assumption underlying both processes is that male and female reproductive traits coevolve, either via the classic Fisherian model of preference-trait coevolution (CFC) or through sexually antagonistic selection (SC). Here, we provide evidence for this prediction in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a polyandrous livebearing fish in which males transfer sperm internally to females via consensual and forced matings. Our results from a paternal half-sibling breeding design reveal substantial levels of additive genetic variation underlying male genital size and morphology-two traits known to predict mating success during non-consensual matings. Our subsequent finding that physically interacting female genital traits exhibit corresponding levels of genetic (co)variation reveals the potential intersexual coevolutionary dynamics of male and female genitalia, thereby fulfilling a fundamental assumption underlying CFC and SC theory.

  19. Simulation of collaborative studies for real-time PCR-based quantitation methods for genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Sawada, Hiroshi; Naito, Shigehiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Hino, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    To study impacts of various random effects and parameters of collaborative studies on the precision of quantitation methods of genetically modified (GM) crops, we developed a set of random effects models for cycle time values of a standard curve-based relative real-time PCR that makes use of an endogenous gene sequence as the internal standard. The models and data from a published collaborative study for six GM lines at four concentration levels were used to simulate collaborative studies under various conditions. Results suggested that by reducing the numbers of well replications from three to two, and standard levels of endogenous sequence from five to three, the number of unknown samples analyzable on a 96-well PCR plate in routine analyses could be almost doubled, and still the acceptable repeatability RSD (RSDr crops by real-time PCR and their collaborative studies.

  20. Gene set analyses of genome-wide association studies on 49 quantitative traits measured in a single genetic epidemiology dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Kwon, Ji-Sun; Kim, Sangsoo

    2013-09-01

    Gene set analysis is a powerful tool for interpreting a genome-wide association study result and is gaining popularity these days. Comparison of the gene sets obtained for a variety of traits measured from a single genetic epidemiology dataset may give insights into the biological mechanisms underlying these traits. Based on the previously published single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data on 8,842 individuals enrolled in the Korea Association Resource project, we performed a series of systematic genome-wide association analyses for 49 quantitative traits of basic epidemiological, anthropometric, or blood chemistry parameters. Each analysis result was subjected to subsequent gene set analyses based on Gene Ontology (GO) terms using gene set analysis software, GSA-SNP, identifying a set of GO terms significantly associated to each trait (pcorr neuronal or nerve systems.

  1. [Genetic selection of mice for quantitative responsiveness of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffel, C; Liacopoulos-Briot, M; Decreusefond, C; Lambert, F

    1977-01-01

    A two-way selection was performed in mice according to the quantitative response of small lymphocytes to the mitogenic activity of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). The response of inguinal lymph node cells of each mouse to an optimal dose of PHA was measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation using a micro-plate method. Starting from four outbred mouse strains we mated on the one hand mice getting the best response and on the other hand mice getting the poorest response. A progressive separation of the two lines was observed. At the 7th generation a 3-fold difference was found between the two lines. A similar interline difference was observed when concanavalin A (ConA) was used as mitogen. The separation of the two lines was also evident when spleen cells or thymus cells were cultured with PHA or ConA.

  2. How can we harness quantitative genetic variation in crop root systems for agricultural improvement?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher N. Topp; Adam L. Bray

    2016-01-01

    Root systems are a black box obscuring a comprehensive understanding of plant function, from the ecosystem scale down to the individual. In particular, a lack of knowledge about the genetic mechanisms and environmental effects that condition root system growth hinders our ability to develop the next generation of crop plants for improved agricultural productivity and sustainability. We discuss how the methods and metrics we use to quantify root systems can affect our ability to understand them, how we can bridge knowledge gaps and accelerate the derivation of structure-function relationships for roots, and why a detailed mecha-nistic understanding of root growth and function will be important for future agricultural gains.

  3. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize.

  4. Development and validation of an event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize MIR162.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize event, MIR162. We first prepared a standard plasmid for MIR162 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf) required to calculate the genetically modified organism (GMO) amount was empirically determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (ABI7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (ABI7500) for which the determined Cf values were 0.697 and 0.635, respectively. To validate the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined biases were less than 25% and the RSDr values were less than 20% at all evaluated concentrations. These results suggested that the limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and that the developed method would thus be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MIR162.

  5. Arms race between selfishness and policing: two-trait quantitative genetic model for caste fate conflict in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobata, Shigeto

    2012-12-01

    Policing against selfishness is now regarded as the main force maintaining cooperation, by reducing costly conflict in complex social systems. Although policing has been studied extensively in social insect colonies, its coevolution against selfishness has not been fully captured by previous theories. In this study, I developed a two-trait quantitative genetic model of the conflict between selfish immature females (usually larvae) and policing workers in eusocial Hymenoptera over the immatures' propensity to develop into new queens. This model allows for the analysis of coevolution between genomes expressed in immatures and workers that collectively determine the immatures' queen caste fate. The main prediction of the model is that a higher level of polyandry leads to a smaller fraction of queens produced among new females through caste fate policing. The other main prediction of the present model is that, as a result of arms race, caste fate policing by workers coevolves with exaggerated selfishness of the immatures achieving maximum potential to develop into queens. Moreover, the model can incorporate genetic correlation between traits, which has been largely unexplored in social evolution theory. This study highlights the importance of understanding social traits as influenced by the coevolution of conflicting genomes. © 2012 The Author. Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Construction of a genetic linkage map of Thlaspi caerulescens and quantitative trait loci analysis of zinc accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ana G L; Pieper, Bjorn; Vromans, Jaap; Lindhout, Pim; Aarts, Mark G M; Schat, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation seems to be a constitutive species-level trait in Thlaspi caerulescens. When compared under conditions of equal Zn availability, considerable variation in the degree of hyperaccumulation is observed among accessions originating from different soil types. This variation offers an excellent opportunity for further dissection of the genetics of this trait. A T. caerulescens intraspecific cross was made between a plant from a nonmetallicolous accession [Lellingen (LE)], characterized by relatively high Zn accumulation, and a plant from a calamine accession [La Calamine (LC)], characterized by relatively low Zn accumulation. Zinc accumulation in roots and shoots segregated in the F3 population. This population was used to construct an LE/LC amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based genetic linkage map and to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Zn accumulation. Two QTL were identified for root Zn accumulation, with the trait-enhancing alleles being derived from each of the parents, and explaining 21.7 and 16.6% of the phenotypic variation observed in the mapping population. Future development of more markers, based on Arabidopsis orthologous genes localized in the QTL regions, will allow fine-mapping and map-based cloning of the genes underlying the QTL.

  7. Systems genetics of liver fibrosis: identification of fibrogenic and expression quantitative trait loci in the BXD murine reference population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabea A Hall

    Full Text Available The progression of liver fibrosis in response to chronic injury varies considerably among individual patients. The underlying genetics is highly complex due to large numbers of potential genes, environmental factors and cell types involved. Here, we provide the first toxicogenomic analysis of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in the murine 'genetic reference panel' of recombinant inbred BXD lines. Our aim was to define the core of risk genes and gene interaction networks that control fibrosis progression. Liver fibrosis phenotypes and gene expression profiles were determined in 35 BXD lines. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis identified seven genomic loci influencing fibrosis phenotypes (pQTLs with genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 12, and 17. Stepwise refinement was based on expression QTL mapping with stringent selection criteria, reducing the number of 1,351 candidate genes located in the pQTLs to a final list of 11 cis-regulated genes. Our findings demonstrate that the BXD reference population represents a powerful experimental resource for shortlisting the genes within a regulatory network that determine the liver's vulnerability to chronic injury.

  8. Detection of nonauthorized genetically modified organisms using differential quantitative polymerase chain reaction: application to 35S in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Chauvensy-Ancel, Valérie; Fortabat, Marie-Noelle; Gruden, Kristina; Kobilinsky, André; Zel, Jana; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-05-15

    Detection of nonauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has always presented an analytical challenge because the complete sequence data needed to detect them are generally unavailable although sequence similarity to known GMOs can be expected. A new approach, differential quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for detection of nonauthorized GMOs is presented here. This method is based on the presence of several common elements (e.g., promoter, genes of interest) in different GMOs. A statistical model was developed to study the difference between the number of molecules of such a common sequence and the number of molecules identifying the approved GMO (as determined by border-fragment-based PCR) and the donor organism of the common sequence. When this difference differs statistically from zero, the presence of a nonauthorized GMO can be inferred. The interest and scope of such an approach were tested on a case study of different proportions of genetically modified maize events, with the P35S promoter as the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus common sequence. The presence of a nonauthorized GMO was successfully detected in the mixtures analyzed and in the presence of (donor organism of P35S promoter). This method could be easily transposed to other common GMO sequences and other species and is applicable to other detection areas such as microbiology.

  9. A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Sunflower Market in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Miran

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oil is the most preferred vegetable oil in Turkey. 35% of total consumption of vegetable oil issunflower oil. Sunflower seed import is approximately 500-650 thousand tons while sunflower seedproduction is 800-850 thousand tons in the last years. The main objective of this study is to determine thereasons of deficiency of vegetable oil in Turkey and to suggest some solutions. For this objective, theprospective situation and the market structure of sunflower seed in Turkey has estimated. “One productpartial equilibrium analysis” has been used to estimate the future market structure of sunflower seed. Asimulation model from 2003 to 2015 has been created with partial equilibrium analysis. Turkey is a netimporter of vegetable oils. Sunflower seed import is approximately 300 thousand tons while crude oil importis approximately 180 thousand tons in 2002. According to the results of simulation model, Turkey willcontinue to be a net importer for sunflower and other oil seeds. It has been estimated that the sunflower seedimport will be approximately 1 million tons and crude oil import will be approximately 400 thousand tons atend of the simulation period (2003-2015.

  10. Morphology and networks of sunflower wax crystals in organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant waxes are considered as promising alternatives to unhealthy solid fats such as trans fats and saturated fats in structured food products including margarines and spreads. Sunflower wax is of a great interest due to its strong gelling ability. Morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in soyb...

  11. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  12. Consumptive Water Use and Crop Coefficients of Irrigated Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    In semi-arid environments, the use of irrigation is necessary for sunflower production to reach its maximum potential. The aim of this study was to quantify the consumptive water use and crop coefficients of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) without soil water limitations during two growing...

  13. Sunflower water productivity in four Great Plains soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a drought-adapted crop whose short growing season reduces irrigation requirements, makes it ideal for regions with limited irrigation water supplies. Our objectives were to a) evaluate the yield (Y) potential of sunflower under full and deficit irrigation (IR) b)...

  14. Impact of pedoclimatic and agricultural conditions on sunflower seeds characteristics in relation to the dehulling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauguet Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dehulling sunflower seeds can increase meal protein content by up to 35–36%. However, high variability in seed quality constitutes an obstacle to optimizing the dehulling process. This study has sought to identify the parameters that influence the protein content of sunflower seeds and the ease with which they can be dehulled. Genetic, climatic and crop management effects were studied using seed samples taken from farmers’ fields in south-west France. Soil and climatic effects were revealed to be important for protein content and ease of dehulling (hullability. Some cultivars were found to be significantly more difficult to dehull than others. No relationship was observed between oil content and protein content expressed as a proportion of DDM (defatted dry matter, but there was a significant negative linear relationship between hullability and oil content. Due to the wide range of locations and agricultural practices encountered in the farmers’ fields, it was not possible to verify with confidence the influence of other interactions such as nitrogen fertilization and the potential fertility of the fields. This work nevertheless showed that locality and growing conditions affect the quality of sunflower seeds. This variability in quality could be measured by crushers in order to optimize the dehulling process and thereby produce a meal of consistent quality, with a guaranteed protein content.

  15. A Quantitative Volumetric Micro-Computed Tomography Method to Analyze Lung Tumors in Genetically Engineered Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B. Haines

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two genetically engineered, conditional mouse models of lung tumor formation, K-rasLSL-G12D and K-rasLSL-G12D/p53LSL-R270H, are commonly used to model human lung cancer. Developed by Tyler Jacks and colleagues, these models have been invaluable to study in vivo lung cancer initiation and progression in a genetically and physiologically relevant context. However, heterogeneity, multiplicity and complexity of tumor formation in these models make it challenging to monitor tumor growth in vivo and have limited the application of these models in oncology drug discovery. Here, we describe a novel analytical method to quantitatively measure total lung tumor burden in live animals using micro-computed tomography imaging. Applying this methodology, we studied the kinetics of tumor development and response to targeted therapy in vivo in K-ras and K-ras/p53 mice. Consistent with previous reports, lung tumors in both models developed in a time- and dose (Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Furthermore, the compound K-rasLSL-G12D/p53LSL-R270H mice developed tumors faster and more robustly than mice harboring a single K-rasLSL-G12D oncogene, as expected. Erlotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor, significantly inhibited tumor growth in K-rasLSL-G12D/p53LSL-R270H mice. These results demonstrate that this novel imaging technique can be used to monitor both tumor progression and response to treatment and therefore supports a broader application of these genetically engineered mouse models in oncology drug discovery and development.

  16. Borneo: The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products. In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of 1000 seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell. Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia (EU in 2009. It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production. Borneo is a medium early hybrid with the genetic potential for yield of over 4,5t/ha and its seed oil content is under 43%. .

  17. Effect of spatial arrangement on the production components and yield of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Thiago Coelho Bezerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The sunflower plant is an oilseed crop that has aroused a great interest in the Brazilian and international scenery especillay because of the possibility of using its oil for biodiesel production. The objective of this study was to evaluate productivity and yield components of Embrapa 122 sunflower according to the spatial arrangement. Treatments were arranged in 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, which are the four spacings between rows (0.30; 0.50; 0.70 and 0.90 m and four sowing densities (30,000; 45,000; 60,000 and 75,000 plants ha-1. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design with four replications. The experiments were conducted in the experimental area of the Plant Science Department in Fortaleza, State of Ceará-Brazil and on the Curu Vale Experimental Farm in Pentecoste, State of Ceará-Brazil. Productivity and the following production components were analyzed in the end of the crop cycle: harvested capitula, capitulum diameter, capitulum mass, achene mass per capitulum, mass of 100 achenes, achenes per capitulum, harvest index and oil content in the achenes. The experiments were analyzed jointly in relation to the cropping area and the data submitted to analysis of variance and quantitative factors tested by polynomial regression. The variables, spacing, density and cropping area did not interact with these variables and the spatial arrangement of the plants affected only the components. The cropping area influences the productive behavior of sunflower Embrapa 122. The spatial arrangement of the plants of sunflower of variety Embrapa 122 influences yield components but does not affect productivity.

  18. Genetic Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Contents of Mineral Nutrients in Rice Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Luisa Garcia-Oliveira; Lubin Tan; Yongcai Fu; Chuanqing Sun

    2009-01-01

    In present study, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, P and K contents of 85 Introgression linee (ILs) derived from a cross between an elite indica cultivar Teqing and the wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were measured by inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) spectrometry. Substantial variation was observed for all traits and most of the mineral elements were significantly positive correlated or independent except for Fe with Cu. A total of 31 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for these eight mineral elements by single point analysis. Wild rice (O. rufipogon) contributed favorable alleles for most of the QTLs (26 QTLs), and chromosomes 1, 9 and 12 exhibited 14 QTLs (45%) for these traits. One major effect of QTL for zinc content accounted for the largest proportion of phenotypic variation (11%-19%) was detected near the simple sequence repeats marker RM152 on chromosome 8. The co-locations of QTLs for some mineral elements observed in this mapping population suggested the relationship was at a molecular level among these traits and could be helpful for simultaneous improvement of these traits in rice grain by marker assisted selection.

  19. Genetic selection of mice for quantitative responsiveness of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffel, C; Liacopoulos-Briot, M; Decreusefond, C; Lambert, F

    1977-05-01

    A two-way selection was performed in mice according to the quantitative in vitro response of lymph node lymphocytes to the mitogenic activity of phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The foundation population was composed of outbred mice produced by reciprocal mating of equal numbers of mice from four different colonies. The selective breeding was carried out by mating of mice at each generation giving the best or the lowest response, respectively. The progressive interline separation produced by 6 generations of selective breeding demonstrates that responsiveness to PHA is submitted to polygenic regulation. The heritability of the character investigated is 0.28 +/- 0.08. The interline separation is also found with another T mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). In spleen cells PHA and Con A produce a similar interline difference. In contrast, the purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) stimulated both lines equally, and E. coli lipopolysaccharide gave only a slightly higher response in high line. This finding implies that our selection based upon response to PHA did not influence B cell function.

  20. SUNflower +6 : development and application of a footprint methodology for the SUNflower +6 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Oppe, S. Reurings, M. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in traffic safety is the result of many efforts, starting with political decisions, the development of safety plans and safety actions and their implementation. This report explores ways of presenting information from the SUNflower+6 countries in such a way that it shows how the interaction

  1. SUNflower +6 : development and application of a footprint methodology for the SUNflower +6 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Oppe, S. Reurings, M. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in traffic safety is the result of many efforts, starting with political decisions, the development of safety plans and safety actions and their implementation. This report explores ways of presenting information from the SUNflower+6 countries in such a way that it shows how the interaction

  2. Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for color removal from textile wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.; Xu, X. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Textiles and Clothing

    1997-03-01

    Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for two basic dyes (Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9) and two direct dyes (Congo Red and Direct Blue 71) in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of two basic dyes on sunflower stalks are very high, i.e., 205 and 317 mg/g for Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9, respectively. The two direct dyes have relatively lower adsorption on sunflower stalks. The adsorptive behaviors of sunflower stalk components are different. The pith, which is the soft and porous material in the center of stalks, has twice the adsorptive capacity of the skin. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks also affect the adsorption of dyes. The adsorption rates of two basic dyestuffs are much higher than that of the direct dyes. Within 30 min about 80% basic dyes were removed from the solutions.

  3. Industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemelä, J. R.K.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available High oleic sunflower oil has been developed for some special purposes where a good oxidation stability is needed and a healthy fatty acid profile is preferred. The oil is especially suitable for deep fat frying. These industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil were part of the AIR-project CT 920687 "Utilisation of Sunflower Oils in Industrial Frying Operations". High oleic sunflower oil (HOSO was tested against the traditional oils and fats in two industrial deep fat frying applications, namely crisps and prefried frozen french fries. The frying trials took place in Raisio Groups factories in Pyhanta and Vihanti, Finland in 1993 and 1994. According to the trials, high oleic sunflower oil is very suitable for deep fat frying. Problems occurred when a hard fat was substituted for a liquid oil in the preparation of prefrozen French Fries. These problems could be partly overcome by adjustments in the processing line.

  4. Triploid Production from Interspecific Crosses of Two Diploid Perennial Helianthus with Diploid Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Seiler, Gerald J.; Gulya, Thomas J.; Feng, Jiuhuan; Rashid, Khalid Y.; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2017-01-01

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. & G. and H. maximiliani Schr. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses indicated that the triploid F1s had two genomes from the wild pollen sources and one from the cultivated line. Mitotic chromosome analyses indicated that the frequency of triploid progenies from the crosses of cultivated lines × H. nuttallii accession 102 (N102) was significantly higher than those of unexpected polyploid progenies from the crosses of wild perennial species × N102, and no unexpected polyploids were obtained from the reverse crosses. Pollen stainability analysis suggested the existence of a low percentage of unreduced (2n) male gametes in some accessions, especially N102 and H. maximiliani accession 1113 (M1113), which were generated at the telophase II and tetrad stages of meiosis. The triploid F1s could be the results of preferred fertilization of the low frequency of 2n male gametes with the female gametes of the cultivated sunflower, due to the dosage factors related to recognition and rejection of foreign pollen during fertilization. The triploids have been used to produce amphiploids and aneuploids. Future studies of the male gametes’ fate from pollination through fertilization will further uncover the mechanism of this whole genome transmission. Studies of the genetic control of this trait will facilitate research on sunflower polyploidy speciation and evolution, and the utilization of this trait in sunflower breeding. PMID:28179393

  5. Triploid Production from Interspecific Crosses of Two Diploid Perennial Helianthus with Diploid Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Seiler, Gerald J; Gulya, Thomas J; Feng, Jiuhuan; Rashid, Khalid Y; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2017-02-07

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. &. G. and H. maximiliani Schr. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses indicated that the triploid F1s had two genomes from the wild pollen sources and one from the cultivated line. Mitotic chromosome analyses indicated that the frequency of triploid progenies from the crosses of cultivated lines × H. nuttallii accession 102 (N102) was significantly higher than those of unexpected polyploid progenies from the crosses of wild perennial species × N102, and no unexpected polyploids were obtained from the reverse crosses. Pollen stainability analysis suggested the existence of a low percentage of unreduced (2n) male gametes in some accessions, especially N102 and H. maximiliani accession 1113 (M1113), which were generated at the telophase II and tetrad stages of meiosis. The triploid F1s could be the results of preferred fertilization of the low frequency of 2n male gametes with the female gametes of the cultivated sunflower, due to the dosage factors related to recognition and rejection of foreign pollen during fertilization. The triploids have been used to produce amphiploids and aneuploids. Future studies of the male gametes' fate from pollination through fertilization will further uncover the mechanism of this whole genome transmission. Studies of the genetic control of this trait will facilitate research on sunflower polyploidy speciation and evolution, and the utilization of this trait in sunflower breeding.

  6. Prediction of Genetic Values of Quantitative Traits in Plant Breeding Using Pedigree and Molecular Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossa, José; Campos, Gustavo de los; Pérez, Paulino; Gianola, Daniel; Burgueño, Juan; Araus, José Luis; Makumbi, Dan; Singh, Ravi P.; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Yan, Jianbing; Arief, Vivi; Banziger, Marianne; Braun, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The availability of dense molecular markers has made possible the use of genomic selection (GS) for plant breeding. However, the evaluation of models for GS in real plant populations is very limited. This article evaluates the performance of parametric and semiparametric models for GS using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays) data in which different traits were measured in several environmental conditions. The findings, based on extensive cross-validations, indicate that models including marker information had higher predictive ability than pedigree-based models. In the wheat data set, and relative to a pedigree model, gains in predictive ability due to inclusion of markers ranged from 7.7 to 35.7%. Correlation between observed and predictive values in the maize data set achieved values up to 0.79. Estimates of marker effects were different across environmental conditions, indicating that genotype × environment interaction is an important component of genetic variability. These results indicate that GS in plant breeding can be an effective strategy for selecting among lines whose phenotypes have yet to be observed. PMID:20813882

  7. Quantitative criteria for improving performance of buccal DNA for high-throughput genetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jessica G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA from buccal brush samples is being used for high-throughput analyses in a variety of applications, but the impact of sample type on genotyping success and downstream statistical analysis remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to determine laboratory predictors of genotyping failure among buccal DNA samples, and to evaluate the successfully genotyped results with respect to analytic quality control metrics. Sample and genotyping characteristics were compared between buccal and blood samples collected in the population-based Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Stroke (GERFHS study (https://gerfhs.phs.wfubmc.edu/public/index.cfm. Results Seven-hundred eight (708 buccal and 142 blood DNA samples were analyzed for laboratory-based and analysis metrics. Overall genotyping failure rates were not statistically different between buccal (11.3% and blood (7.0%, p = 0.18 samples; however, both the Contrast Quality Control (cQC rate and the dynamic model (DM call rates were lower among buccal DNA samples (p  Conclusions We identified a buccal sample characteristic, a ratio of ds/total DNA

  8. Breeding maize as biogas substrate in Central Europe: I. Quantitative-genetic parameters for testcross performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Christoph; Dhillon, Baldev S; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2012-04-01

    Biofuels have gained importance recently and the use of maize biomass as substrate in biogas plants for production of methane has increased tremendously in Germany. The objectives of our research were to (1) estimate variance components and heritability for different traits relevant to biogas production in testcrosses (TCs) of maize, (2) study correlations among traits, and (3) discuss strategies to breed maize as a substrate for biogas fermenters. We evaluated 570 TCs of 285 diverse dent maize lines crossed with two flint single-cross testers in six environments. Data were recorded on agronomic and quality traits, including dry matter yield (DMY), methane fermentation yield (MFY), and methane yield (MY), the product of DMY and MFY, as the main target trait. Estimates of variance components showed general combining ability (GCA) to be the major source of variation. Estimates of heritability exceeded 0.67 for all traits and were even much greater in most instances. Methane yield was perfectly correlated with DMY but not with MFY, indicating that variation in MY is primarily determined by DMY. Further, DMY had a larger heritability and coefficient of genetic variation than MFY. Hence, for improving MY, selection should primarily focus on DMY rather than MFY. Further, maize breeding for biogas production may diverge from that for forage production because in the former case, quality traits seem to be of much lower importance.

  9. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  10. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C Rowe

    Full Text Available Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL, a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  11. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS). Referenc

  12. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS). Referenc

  13. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  14. Commercial cuts and chemical and sensory attributes of meat from crossbred Boer goats fed sunflower cake-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Palmieri, Adriana Dantas; Carvalho, Silvana Teixeira; Leão, André Gustavo; de Abreu, Claudilene Lima; Ribeiro, Claudio Vaz Di Mambro; Pereira, Elzania Sales; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sunflower cake feed in commercial cut yields and chemical and sensory attributes of goat meat. Thirty-two castrated male goats were distributed in four levels (0, 8, 16 and 24%) of sunflower cake supplementation. The animals were slaughtered and the carcasses were placed in a cold chamber and sectioned into five anatomical regions corresponding to commercial cuts. Samples of the Longissimus lumborum muscle were analyzed for chemical composition and sensory quality. The chemical composition and pH were not affected by the treatments. The smell, taste and 'goatiness' of the aroma and flavor of the meat were also unaffected by the treatments. The appearance, tenderness and juiciness of the meat differed by treatment. The highest level (24%) of sunflower cake increased meat tenderness; however, according to the tasters there was reduced softness, although none of the samples were rejected by the tasters. Sunflower cake can be added to the diet at a level of up to 16% without altering the quantitative and qualitative attributes of the meat.

  15. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  16. Automated, quantitative cognitive/behavioral screening of mice: for genetics, pharmacology, animal cognition and undergraduate instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

    2014-02-26

    We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be

  17. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables.

  18. A non-parametric mixture model for genome-enabled prediction of genetic value for a quantitative trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianola, Daniel; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Manfredi, Eduardo; Simianer, Henner

    2010-10-01

    A Bayesian nonparametric form of regression based on Dirichlet process priors is adapted to the analysis of quantitative traits possibly affected by cryptic forms of gene action, and to the context of SNP-assisted genomic selection, where the main objective is to predict a genomic signal on phenotype. The procedure clusters unknown genotypes into groups with distinct genetic values, but in a setting in which the number of clusters is unknown a priori, so that standard methods for finite mixture analysis do not work. The central assumption is that genetic effects follow an unknown distribution with some "baseline" family, which is a normal process in the cases considered here. A Bayesian analysis based on the Gibbs sampler produces estimates of the number of clusters, posterior means of genetic effects, a measure of credibility in the baseline distribution, as well as estimates of parameters of the latter. The procedure is illustrated with a simulation representing two populations. In the first one, there are 3 unknown QTL, with additive, dominance and epistatic effects; in the second, there are 10 QTL with additive, dominance and additive × additive epistatic effects. In the two populations, baseline parameters are inferred correctly. The Dirichlet process model infers the number of unique genetic values correctly in the first population, but it produces an understatement in the second one; here, the true number of clusters is over 900, and the model gives a posterior mean estimate of about 140, probably because more replication of genotypes is needed for correct inference. The impact on inferences of the prior distribution of a key parameter (M), and of the extent of replication, was examined via an analysis of mean body weight in 192 paternal half-sib families of broiler chickens, where each sire was genotyped for nearly 7,000 SNPs. In this small sample, it was found that inference about the number of clusters was affected by the prior distribution of M. For a

  19. [Isolation and purification of virus damaging sunflower].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakusilo, A O; Didenko, L F; Kniazieva, N A; Boĭko, A L

    1994-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for purifying intact virus's isolate particles evoking yellow spot mosaic disease in sunflower. Purification of pathogen in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0 containing 0.05 M Na3SO3 and 0.2% 2-mercaptoethanol is used. After first clarification extract was exposed to two cycles of high-speed centrifugation and fractionated in linear 10-40% (wt vol-1) sucrose density gradient. Virus was recovered from appropriate fractions after dialysis against 0.01 M Na2SO3.

  20. Sunflower cataract: do not forget Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Tomasz; Langwińska-Wośko, Ewa; Dzieżyc, Karolina; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology for 6 years was admitted to our department to confirm the diagnosis of Wilson's disease. He consulted an ophthalmologist who suspected the presence of a sunflower cataract and Kayser-Fleischer ring. At admission, his liver function tests were modestly impaired (Child-Pugh C, 10 pts). Neurological examination was normal, but cognitive functions were mildly impaired. Based on the copper metabolism abnormalities and clinical manifestation, we diagnosed Wilson's disease (Ferenci score, 6 pts) and started treatment with d-penicillamine. Presenting the case we would like to emphasise the significance of the ophthalmological examination in Wilson's disease diagnosis.

  1. A common genetic determinism for sensitivities to soil water deficit and evaporative demand: meta-analysis of quantitative trait Loci and introgression lines of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcker, Claude; Sadok, Walid; Dignat, Grégoire; Renault, Morgan; Salvi, Silvio; Charcosset, Alain; Tardieu, François

    2011-10-01

    Evaporative demand and soil water deficit equally contribute to water stress and to its effect on plant growth. We have compared the genetic architectures of the sensitivities of maize (Zea mays) leaf elongation rate with evaporative demand and soil water deficit. The former was measured via the response to leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit in well-watered plants, the latter via the response to soil water potential in the absence of evaporative demand. Genetic analyses of each sensitivity were performed over 21 independent experiments with (1) three mapping populations, with temperate or tropical materials, (2) one population resulting from the introgression of a tropical drought-tolerant line in a temperate line, and (3) two introgression libraries genetically independent from mapping populations. A very large genetic variability was observed for both sensitivities. Some lines maintained leaf elongation at very high evaporative demand or water deficit, while others stopped elongation in mild conditions. A complex architecture arose from analyses of mapping populations, with 19 major meta-quantitative trait loci involving strong effects and/or more than one mapping population. A total of 68% of those quantitative trait loci affected sensitivities to both evaporative demand and soil water deficit. In introgressed lines, 73% of the tested genomic regions affected both sensitivities. To our knowledge, this study is the first genetic demonstration that hydraulic processes, which drive the response to evaporative demand, also have a large contribution to the genetic variability of plant growth under water deficit in a large range of genetic material.

  2. Genetic control of environmental variation of two quantitative traits of Drosophila melanogaster revealed by whole-genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; de los Campos, Gustavo; Morgante, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies usually focus on quantifying and understanding the existence of genetic control on expected phenotypic outcomes. However, there is compelling evidence suggesting the existence of genetic control at the level of environmental variability, with some genotypes exhibiting more stable ...

  3. QTL IciMapping:Integrated software for genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; Meng; Huihui; Li; Luyan; Zhang; Jiankang; Wang

    2015-01-01

    QTL Ici Mapping is freely available public software capable of building high-density linkage maps and mapping quantitative trait loci(QTL) in biparental populations. Eight functionalities are integrated in this software package:(1) BIN: binning of redundant markers;(2) MAP: construction of linkage maps in biparental populations;(3) CMP: consensus map construction from multiple linkage maps sharing common markers;(4) SDL: mapping of segregation distortion loci;(5) BIP: mapping of additive, dominant, and digenic epistasis genes;(6) MET: QTL-by-environment interaction analysis;(7) CSL: mapping of additive and digenic epistasis genes with chromosome segment substitution lines; and(8) NAM: QTL mapping in NAM populations. Input files can be arranged in plain text, MS Excel 2003, or MS Excel 2007 formats. Output files have the same prefix name as the input but with different extensions. As examples, there are two output files in BIN, one for summarizing the identified bin groups and deleted markers in each bin, and the other for using the MAP functionality. Eight output files are generated by MAP, including summary of the completed linkage maps, Mendelian ratio test of individual markers, estimates of recombination frequencies, LOD scores, and genetic distances, and the input files for using the BIP, SDL,and MET functionalities. More than 30 output files are generated by BIP, including results at all scanning positions, identified QTL, permutation tests, and detection powers for up to six mapping methods. Three supplementary tools have also been developed to display completed genetic linkage maps, to estimate recombination frequency between two loci,and to perform analysis of variance for multi-environmental trials.

  4. QTL IciMapping:Integrated software for genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Meng; Huihui Li; Luyan Zhang; Jiankang Wang

    2015-01-01

    QTL IciMapping is freely available public software capable of building high-density linkage maps and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in biparental populations. Eight func-tionalities are integrated in this software package: (1) BIN:binning of redundant markers;(2) MAP: construction of linkage maps in biparental populations; (3) CMP: consensus map construction from multiple linkage maps sharing common markers; (4) SDL: mapping of segregation distortion loci;(5) BIP:mapping of additive, dominant, and digenic epistasis genes;(6) MET:QTL-by-environment interaction analysis;(7) CSL:mapping of additive and digenic epistasis genes with chromosome segment substitution lines; and (8) NAM: QTL mapping in NAM populations. Input files can be arranged in plain text, MS Excel 2003, or MS Excel 2007 formats. Output files have the same prefix name as the input but with different extensions. As examples, there are two output files in BIN, one for summarizing the identified bin groups and deleted markers in each bin, and the other for using the MAP functionality. Eight output files are generated by MAP, including summary of the completed linkage maps, Mendelian ratio test of individual markers, estimates of recombination frequencies, LOD scores, and genetic distances, and the input files for using the BIP, SDL, and MET functionalities. More than 30 output files are generated by BIP, including results at all scanning positions, identified QTL, permutation tests, and detection powers for up to six mapping methods. Three supplementary tools have also been developed to display completed genetic linkage maps, to estimate recombination frequency between two loci, and to perform analysis of variance for multi-environmental trials.

  5. QTL IciMapping: Integrated software for genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Meng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available QTL IciMapping is freely available public software capable of building high-density linkage maps and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in biparental populations. Eight functionalities are integrated in this software package: (1 BIN: binning of redundant markers; (2 MAP: construction of linkage maps in biparental populations; (3 CMP: consensus map construction from multiple linkage maps sharing common markers; (4 SDL: mapping of segregation distortion loci; (5 BIP: mapping of additive, dominant, and digenic epistasis genes; (6 MET: QTL-by-environment interaction analysis; (7 CSL: mapping of additive and digenic epistasis genes with chromosome segment substitution lines; and (8 NAM: QTL mapping in NAM populations. Input files can be arranged in plain text, MS Excel 2003, or MS Excel 2007 formats. Output files have the same prefix name as the input but with different extensions. As examples, there are two output files in BIN, one for summarizing the identified bin groups and deleted markers in each bin, and the other for using the MAP functionality. Eight output files are generated by MAP, including summary of the completed linkage maps, Mendelian ratio test of individual markers, estimates of recombination frequencies, LOD scores, and genetic distances, and the input files for using the BIP, SDL, and MET functionalities. More than 30 output files are generated by BIP, including results at all scanning positions, identified QTL, permutation tests, and detection powers for up to six mapping methods. Three supplementary tools have also been developed to display completed genetic linkage maps, to estimate recombination frequency between two loci, and to perform analysis of variance for multi-environmental trials.

  6. Hybrid incompatibility is acquired faster in annual than in perennial species of sunflower and tarweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gregory L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid sterility is an important species barrier, especially in plants where hybrids can often form between divergent taxa. Here we explore how life history affects the acquisition of hybrid sterility in two groups in the sunflower family. We analyzed genetic distance and F1 pollen sterility for interspecific crosses in annual and perennial groups. We find that reproductive isolation is acquired in a steady manner and that annual species acquire hybrid sterility barriers faster than perennial species. Potential causes of the observed sterility pattern are discussed.

  7. A high-density SNP Map of sunflower derived from RAD-sequencing facilitating fine-mapping of the rust resistance gene R12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Zahirul I; Gong, Li; Hulke, Brent S; Pegadaraju, Venkatramana; Song, Qijian; Schultz, Quentin; Qi, Lili

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution genetic map of sunflower was constructed by integrating SNP data from three F2 mapping populations (HA 89/RHA 464, B-line/RHA 464, and CR 29/RHA 468). The consensus map spanned a total length of 1443.84 cM, and consisted of 5,019 SNP markers derived from RAD tag sequencing and 118 publicly available SSR markers distributed in 17 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of sunflower. The maximum interval between markers in the consensus map is 12.37 cM and the average distance is 0.28 cM between adjacent markers. Despite a few short-distance inversions in marker order, the consensus map showed high levels of collinearity among individual maps with an average Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.972 across the genome. The order of the SSR markers on the consensus map was also in agreement with the order of the individual map and with previously published sunflower maps. Three individual and one consensus maps revealed the uneven distribution of markers across the genome. Additionally, we performed fine mapping and marker validation of the rust resistance gene R12, providing closely linked SNP markers for marker-assisted selection of this gene in sunflower breeding programs. This high resolution consensus map will serve as a valuable tool to the sunflower community for studying marker-trait association of important agronomic traits, marker assisted breeding, map-based gene cloning, and comparative mapping.

  8. Analysis of relations between crop temperature indices and yield of different sunflower hybrids foliar treated by biopreparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovár Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of biological active preparations (BAPs and remote-sensing control in the management of agronomic intervention are an important part of successful crop cultivation. The effects of foliar application of two BAPs (containing amino acids or Abiestins® on yield and yield-forming, as well eco-physiological traits calculated from infrared thermographs data (crop water stress index, CWSI and index of stomatal conductance, Ig of three hybrids of sunflower were studied in field poly-factorial experiments, realised during two years (2012 and 2013. The results showed that the application of selected BAPs has contributed to an increase of the sunflower yield, in particular through an increase in the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761, P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in achenes was significantly higher in treatments with BAPs, mainly with preparation containing free amino acids. The study describes the quantitative relationship between yield and quality of sunflower production (rp = −0.41, P < 0.01. Selected hybrids of sunflower in two growth stages showed the significant differences in CWSI and Ig (both at P < 0.01, respectively. An analysis of negative linear relation between the yield of achenes and CWSI (rp = −0.654, P < 0.001 confirmed that higher value of plant stress resulted in a smaller yield and vice-versa. The opposite trend was observed between yield and Ig index (rp = 0.576, P < 0.001. The data obtained from IR thermography can be used for monitoring the physiological health of sunflower plants, as well in potential prediction and control of yield.

  9. Construction of measurement uncertainty profiles for quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms based on interlaboratory validation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarthur, Roy; Feinberg, Max; Bertheau, Yves

    2010-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the size of uncertainty associated with the measurement of products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The method is based on the uncertainty profile, which is an extension, for the estimation of uncertainty, of a recent graphical statistical tool called an accuracy profile that was developed for the validation of quantitative analytical methods. The application of uncertainty profiles as an aid to decision making and assessment of fitness for purpose is also presented. Results of the measurement of the quantity of GMOs in flour by PCR-based methods collected through a number of interlaboratory studies followed the log-normal distribution. Uncertainty profiles built using the results generally give an expected range for measurement results of 50-200% of reference concentrations for materials that contain at least 1% GMO. This range is consistent with European Network of GM Laboratories and the European Union (EU) Community Reference Laboratory validation criteria and can be used as a fitness for purpose criterion for measurement methods. The effect on the enforcement of EU labeling regulations is that, in general, an individual analytical result needs to be 1.8% to demonstrate noncompliance with a labeling threshold of 0.9%.

  10. International collaborative study of the endogenous reference gene LAT52 used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of genetically modified tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-05-28

    One tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) gene, LAT52, has been proved to be a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) tomato detection in a previous study. Herein are reported the results of a collaborative ring trial for international validation of the LAT52 gene as endogenous reference gene and its analytical systems; 14 GMO detection laboratories from 8 countries were invited, and results were finally received from 13. These data confirmed the species specificity by testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, less allelic variation and stable single copy number of the LAT52 gene, among 12 different tomato cultivars. Furthermore, the limit of detection of LAT52 qualitative PCR was proved to be 0.1%, which corresponded to 11 copies of haploid tomato genomic DNA, and the limit of quantification for the quantitative PCR system was about 10 copies of haploid tomato genomic DNA with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Additionally, the bias between the test and true values of 8 blind samples ranged from 1.94 to 10.64%. All of these validated results indicated that the LAT52 gene is suitable for use as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM tomato and its derivates.

  11. Identification of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschen, Sebastian; Bengoa Luoni, Sofia; Paniego, Norma B; Hopp, H Esteban; Dosio, Guillermo A A; Fernandez, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs) identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ethylene insensitive 2) previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1) and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could play important

  12. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone

  13. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  14. Final Critical Habitat for the Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) occur. The geographic extent includes...

  15. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  16. Sunflower cake in the diet of Quarter Horses in activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of sunflower cake, a by-product of oilseed extraction for biodiesel production, prompted us to test the scope of its utilization in the diet of Quarter Horses employed in equestrian shows. We substituted 600 and 1200 g of feed with 300 and 600 g of sunflower cake, respectively, so as to obtain isoproteic and isoenergetic diets. Digestibility evaluation by the AIA method evidenced generally improved nutrient utilization with the lower cake diet (300 g sunflower. The higher cake diet was associated with a reduction in organic matter, protein and ether extract digestibility coefficients. In particular, the trend of the protein coefficients (88.5 - 91.5 - 87.7 for control, 300 and 600 g sunflower cake, respectively was confirmed by higher plasma urea levels.

  17. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  18. Significance of cytogenetic research in sunflower and rapeseed breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atlagić Jovanka; Terzić Sreten; Marjanović-Jeromela Ana; Marinković Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetic research of sunflower and rapeseed has a century long tradition. Chromosome number and morphology were studied at first in species from the Helianthus and Brassica genera, and than their cytotaxonomy and phylogenesis...

  19. MaGelLAn 1.0: a software to facilitate quantitative and population genetic analysis of maternal inheritance by combination of molecular and pedigree information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristov, Strahil; Brajkovic, Vladimir; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka; Michieli, Ivan; Curik, Ino

    2016-09-10

    Identification of genes or even nucleotides that are responsible for quantitative and adaptive trait variation is a difficult task due to the complex interdependence between a large number of genetic and environmental factors. The polymorphism of the mitogenome is one of the factors that can contribute to quantitative trait variation. However, the effects of the mitogenome have not been comprehensively studied, since large numbers of mitogenome sequences and recorded phenotypes are required to reach the adequate power of analysis. Current research in our group focuses on acquiring the necessary mitochondria sequence information and analysing its influence on the phenotype of a quantitative trait. To facilitate these tasks we have produced software for processing pedigrees that is optimised for maternal lineage analysis. We present MaGelLAn 1.0 (maternal genealogy lineage analyser), a suite of four Python scripts (modules) that is designed to facilitate the analysis of the impact of mitogenome polymorphism on quantitative trait variation by combining molecular and pedigree information. MaGelLAn 1.0 is primarily used to: (1) optimise the sampling strategy for molecular analyses; (2) identify and correct pedigree inconsistencies; and (3) identify maternal lineages and assign the corresponding mitogenome sequences to all individuals in the pedigree, this information being used as input to any of the standard software for quantitative genetic (association) analysis. In addition, MaGelLAn 1.0 allows computing the mitogenome (maternal) effective population sizes and probability of mitogenome (maternal) identity that are useful for conservation management of small populations. MaGelLAn is the first tool for pedigree analysis that focuses on quantitative genetic analyses of mitogenome data. It is conceived with the purpose to significantly reduce the effort in handling and preparing large pedigrees for processing the information linked to maternal lines. The software source

  20. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  1. Oryzanol as natural antioxidant for improving sunflower oil stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Srinivas, P; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-06-01

    Sunflower oil is being made shelf stable by the incorporation of synthetic antioxidants such as tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), while natural antioxidants like oryzanol and tocopherols can also be used. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of natural oryzanol (Oz) concentrate (15.5 % oryzanol) and purified Oz (80 % oryzanol) on oxidative and thermal stability of sunflower oil. Sunflower oil was incorporated with Oz concentrate to provide 0, 0.12, 0.25, 0.50, 0.84, 1.0, 1.60, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.20 % oryzanol in the oil, stored for 5 weeks at 37 °C and oxidative stability was evaluated. It was found that the oryzanol concentrate showed good antioxidant effect with increase in concentration of oryzanol. In another set of experiments, sunflower oil containing purified Oz at 1 % level individually and in combination with 0.1 % α- tocopherol (α-T) was heated at 120 °C for 24 h to evaluate thermal stability. Sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz (80 % purity) showed 98.40 % and sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz and 0.1 % α-T showed 108.75 % antioxidant effect compared to TBHQ taken as 100 %. The study indicated that sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz (80 % purity) and 0.1 % α-T combination provides a synergistic effect in inhibiting primary and secondary products and showed highest thermal stability. SFO containing 1 % Oz added as concentrate also showed good antioxidant effect during storage. Hence, instead of using synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ, we can add natural oryzanol (purified or as concentrate) to sunflower oil to increase its oxidative and thermal stability.

  2. SUNFLOWER HUSKS AS A SOURCE OF FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Khusid S. B.; Gneush A. N.; Nesterenko E. E.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the results of the complex feed additive based on sunflower husk, enriched with beer wort with the addition of pumpkin pulp. We have studied the chemical composition of sunflower husk, which is the secondary resource of the processing plant raw material, selected methods of enrichment of this raw material with the help of fungi Trichoderma harzianum. Cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the basis of fungi of the genus Trichoderma for use in agriculture and animal feed pro...

  3. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  4. Association Mapping and the Genomic Consequences of Selection in Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Savithri Nambeesan; Bowers, John E; Laura F Marek; Daniel Ebert; Loren H. Rieseberg; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall ...

  5. Contribution of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was directed to sunflower improvement using hybrid forms resulted from wide hybridization. The aim was to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific and intergeneric hybrids resistant to diseases, parasite broomrape, herbicides, other stress factors and with high combining ability in highly productive oil-type sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid contents. The confectionary hybrids should have a high kernel protein content and amin...

  6. THE BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF SUNFLOWER BROOMRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUCA Maria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanchaceae is a dicot family, which consists of annual and perennial plants distributing from tropical to subarctic regions, predominately in temperate regions. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. = Orobanche cernua Loefl. is a parasitic angiosperm that has been causing a great deal of damage to sunflower production in many countries, including Republic of Moldova. This parasitic angiosperm depends entirely on the host for its supply of water and nutrients. A thorough understanding of its biology, including detailed knowledge of the specific mechanisms of parasitism, is needed in order to develop novel control methods. Some main developmental steps are described for the root parasites: seed conditioning and germination, haustorium formation, penetration into host tissues, maturation of the parasite plant, and seed production. All these stages were studied in artificial and natural conditions.

  7. Array-CGH and quantitative PCR genetic analysis in a case with bilateral hypoplasia of pulmonary arteries and lungs and simultaneous unilateral renal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Kais; Steinemann, Doris; Scholz, Henrike; Menkhaus, Ralf; Feist, Henning; Kreipe, Hans

    2010-08-18

    We describe the clinical course and have characterised anatomically and genetically a unique case of a newborn with bilateral hypoplasia of pulmonary arteries, consecutive extremely hypoplastic lung tissue and associated unilateral renal agenesis. Intrauterine oxygenation by the placenta seemed to have allowed normotrophic body maturity but immediately after delivery, in the third trimester, progressive hypoxemia developed and the newborn succumbed to acute respiratory failure. Genetic analysis by array-based comparative genomic hybridisation and quantitative PCR revealed duplication of 1p21, which, however, might not be the disease causing aberration. This case might represent an extreme form of previously reported, rare cases with simultaneous dysorganogenesis of lungs and kidneys.

  8. Development of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Siniša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of tribenuron-methyl resistant wild Helianthus annuus L. population (ANN-KAN created an opportunity for expansion of sunflower herbicide resistance breeding program. The aim of this study was development of sunflower hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Creation of tribenuron-methyl resistant hybrids would enable the use of a wider palette of herbicides for sunflower, more efficient chemical control of Cirsium arvense and more economically profitable post-emergence control of some annual broad-leaves weeds in sunflower. Original populations SURES-1 and SURES-2 are homozygous for resistance to tribenuron-methyl. F1 generations produced from the crossings are completely resistant to tribenuron-methyl, pointing out to dominant way of inheritance of this trait. Studies on the exact number of genes controlling the resistance are in progress. Tribenuron-methyl resistance was transferred from original populations into a number of female and male inbred lines of cultivated sunflower. These inbred lines could enable creation of a number of hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Hybrids SUMO-1-PR, SUMO-2- OR and SUMO-3 are resistant to doubled application dose of tribenuron-methyl. Agronomical characteristics of these hybrids are on the level with the leading conventional sunflower hybrids.

  9. Technical Efficiency of Sunflower Production in Trakya Region by DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Unakitan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine how efficiently the resources are used in sunflowerproduction in Turkey. The data used in efficiency measurements covers the provinces Tekirdag, Kırklareliand Edirne in Trakya region which is the most important area of sunflower seed production. The productionarea of sunflower is about 307 thousand hectares, 57% of total sunflower sown area in Turkey and theamount of production is 498 thousand metric tons, 62% of the total sunflower production. 197 farmers wereinterviewed face to face to obtain the data. Efficiency measurements are made by means of the DataEnvelopment Analysis (DEA with respect to constant return to scale for each province. The Efficiencyscores is decomposed into pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency for getting more information fromthe measurements. Total sunflower production (kg is used as the output and land (decar; labour (hour,tractor use (hour, nitrogen fertilizer use (kg, seed use (kg and pesticide (kg are considered as the maininputs. Average technical efficiency score covering all the provinces is estimated as 0.672. Although none ofthe provinces produces sunflower efficiently, Tekirdag province is relatively more successful in input use.Tekirdag province has the highest pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency score. Considering all theregions, the reason for inefficiency is not optimal production but not producing a certain output withminimum input. Yield is a factor that increases efficiency.

  10. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  11. Evaluation of stable isotope labelling strategies for the quantitation of CP4 EPSPS in genetically modified soya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocana, Mireia Fernandez [Centre for Chemical and Bioanalytical Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Mireia.FernandezOcana@pfizer.com; Fraser, Paul D. [Centre for Chemical and Bioanalytical Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Patel, Raj K.P.; Halket, John M. [Specialist Bioanalytical Services Ltd., Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Bramley, Peter M. [Centre for Chemical and Bioanalytical Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-16

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops into the market has raised a general alertness relating to the control and safety of foods. The applicability of protein separation hyphenated to mass spectrometry to identify the bacterial enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) protein expressed in GM crops has been previously reported [M.F. Ocana, P.D. Fraser, R.K.P. Patel, J.M. Halket, P.M. Bramley, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 21 (2007) 319.]. Herein, we investigate the suitability of two strategies that employ heavy stable isotopes, i.e. AQUA and iTRAQ, to quantify different levels of CP4 EPSPS in up to four GM preparations. Both quantification strategies showed potential to determine whether the presence of GM material is above the limits established by the European Union. The AQUA quantification procedure involved protein solubilisation/fractionation and subsequent separation using SDS-PAGE. A segment of the gel in which the protein of interest was located was excised, the stable isotope labeled peptide added at a known concentration and proteolytic digestion initiated. Following recovery of the peptides, on-line separation and detection using LC-MS was carried out. A similar approach was used for the iTRAQ workflow with the exception that proteins were digested in solution and generated tryptic peptides were chemically tagged. Both procedures demonstrated the potential for quantitative detection at 0.5% (w/w) GM soya which is a level below the current European Union's threshold for food-labelling. In this context, a comparison between the two procedures is provided within the present study.

  12. Quantitative ultrasound of the hand phalanges in a cohort of monozygotic twins: influence of genetic and environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G. [Scientific Institute Hospital, Department of Radiology, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Terlizzi, F. de [IGEA Biophysics Lab, Carpi (Italy); Torrente, I.; Mingarelli, R. [Mendel Institute, Rome (Italy); Dallapiccola, B. [Scientific Institute Hospital, Department of Radiology, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Mendel Institute, Rome (Italy)

    2005-11-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the similarities and differences in bone mass and structure between pairs of monozygotic twins as measured by means of the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technique. A cohort of monozygotic twins was measured by QUS of the hand phalanges using the DBM sonic bone profiler (IGEA, Carpi, Italy). The parameters studied were amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS), ultrasound bone profile index (UBPI), signal dynamics (SDy) and bone transmission time (BTT). Linear correlation coefficients, multivariate linear analysis and the ANOVA test were used to assess intrapair associations between variables and to determine which factors influence the intrapair differences in QUS variables. One hundred and six pairs of monozygotic twins were enrolled in the study, 68 females and 38 males in the age range 5 to 71 years. Significant intrapair correlations were obtained in the whole population and separately for males and females, regarding height (r =0.98-0.99, p <0.0001), weight (r =0.95-0.96, p <0.0001), AD-SoS (r =0.90-0.92, p <0.0001), BTT (r =0.94-0.95, p <0.0001) and other QUS parameters (r >0.74, p <0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that intrapair differences between AD-SoS, SDy, UBPI and BTT are significantly influenced by age in the whole population and in the female population. Furthermore, the ANOVA test showed, for the female group, a significant increase in the intrapair differences in SDy and UBPI above 40 years. A relative contribution of genetic factors to skeletal status could be observed by phalangeal QUS measurement in monozygotic twins. A significant increase in the intrapair difference in QUS parameters with increasing age and onset of menopause also suggests the importance of environmental factors in the female twin population. (orig.)

  13. Encapsulation of ω-3 fatty acids in nanoemulsion-based delivery systems fabricated from natural emulsifiers: Sunflower phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaiko, Jennifer; Sastrosubroto, Ashtri; McClements, David Julian

    2016-07-15

    Nanoemulsions have considerable potential for encapsulating and delivering ω-3 fatty acids, but they are typically fabricated from synthetic surfactants. This study shows that fish oil-in-water nanoemulsions can be formed from sunflower phospholipids, which have advantages for food applications because they have low allergenicity and do not come from genetically modified organisms. Nanoemulsions containing small droplets (dphospholipid type and concentration, with the smallest droplets being formed at high phosphatidylcholine levels and at surfactant-to-oil ratios exceeding unity. The physical stability of the nanoemulsions was mainly attributed to electrostatic repulsion, with droplet aggregation occurring at low pH values (low charge magnitude) and at high ionic strengths (electrostatic screening). These results suggest that sunflower phospholipids may be a viable natural emulsifier to deliver ω-3 fatty acids into food and beverage products.

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HETEROSIS AND GENETIC DISTANCES BASED ON SSR MARKERS IN HELIANTHUS ANNUUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Usatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the best inbred combinations for the development of commercial hybrid of sunflower remains the main challenge to sunflower breeders. In the present research the level of heterosis of F1 hybrids, genetic diversity of parental lines based on SSR markers, as well as its connection with specific combining ability of sunflower were studied. Ten sunflower elite inbred lines (3 restorer lines and 7 cytoplasmic male sterility lines and their hybrids were examined for plant height, seed yield, thousand seed mass, oil content and husk content. Field tests were carried out in 5-6 seasons. The level of heterosis was calculated using measurement of midparent heterosis. Genetic distance between pairs of tested sunflower inbred lines ranged from 0.45 to 0.74. Significant positive correlation was found between genetic distances among lines, measured using SSR markers and midparent heterosis for seed yield of hybrids (r = 0.79 p<0.05. The correlation between genetic distances and the level of midparent heterosis for other studied agronomic traits was not reliable. The dependence of seed yield of hybrids on genetic distances among parental lines may be used for planning of effective crossbreeding of sunflower. Further research is needed to determine the best inbred combinations for the development of commercial hybrid of sunflower.

  15. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MULTIPLE GENETIC TUMOR MARKER ASSAY BY QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR TO PREDICT RECURRENCE IN COLORECTAL CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe correlation between multiple genetic tumor markers,carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),cytokeratin 20 (CK20),and Survivin,and clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to assess prognostic diagnosis value in cancer recurrence and metastasis.Methods A total of 92 patients with CRC,68 patients with precancerous lesions,and 29 control volunteers were collected for the detection of CEA,CK20,and Survivin expressions by using quantitative Real-Time PCR technology.Associations am...

  16. Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in Brassica rapa Fast Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amber R.; Williams, Paul H.; McGee, Seth A.; Dósa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question “What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev),” we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory course focused on the inheritance and expression of a quantitative trait in varying environments. We utilized Brassica rapa Fast Plants as a model organism to study variation in the phenotype anthocyanin pigment intensity. As an initial curriculum assessment, we used free word association to examine students’ cognitive structures before and after the unit and explanations in students’ final research posters with particular focus on variation (Pv = Gv + Ev). Comparison of pre- and postunit word frequency revealed a shift in words and a pattern of co-occurring concepts indicative of change in cognitive structure, with particular focus on “variation” as a proposed threshold concept and primary goal for students’ explanations. Given review of 53 posters, we found ∼50% of students capable of intermediate to high-level explanations combining both Gv and Ev influence on expression of anthocyanin intensity (Pv). While far from “plug and play,” this conceptually rich, inquiry-based unit holds promise for effective integration of quantitative and Mendelian genetics. PMID:25185225

  17. Bigger Is Fitter? Quantitative Genetic Decomposition of Selection Reveals an Adaptive Evolutionary Decline of Body Mass in a Wild Rodent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Timothée; Wandeler, Peter; Camenisch, Glauco; Postma, Erik

    2017-01-01

    In natural populations, quantitative trait dynamics often do not appear to follow evolutionary predictions. Despite abundant examples of natural selection acting on heritable traits, conclusive evidence for contemporary adaptive evolution remains rare for wild vertebrate populations, and phenotypic stasis seems to be the norm. This so-called "stasis paradox" highlights our inability to predict evolutionary change, which is especially concerning within the context of rapid anthropogenic environmental change. While the causes underlying the stasis paradox are hotly debated, comprehensive attempts aiming at a resolution are lacking. Here, we apply a quantitative genetic framework to individual-based long-term data for a wild rodent population and show that despite a positive association between body mass and fitness, there has been a genetic change towards lower body mass. The latter represents an adaptive response to viability selection favouring juveniles growing up to become relatively small adults, i.e., with a low potential adult mass, which presumably complete their development earlier. This selection is particularly strong towards the end of the snow-free season, and it has intensified in recent years, coinciding which a change in snowfall patterns. Importantly, neither the negative evolutionary change, nor the selective pressures that drive it, are apparent on the phenotypic level, where they are masked by phenotypic plasticity and a non causal (i.e., non genetic) positive association between body mass and fitness, respectively. Estimating selection at the genetic level enabled us to uncover adaptive evolution in action and to identify the corresponding phenotypic selective pressure. We thereby demonstrate that natural populations can show a rapid and adaptive evolutionary response to a novel selective pressure, and that explicitly (quantitative) genetic models are able to provide us with an understanding of the causes and consequences of selection that is

  18. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. UG157 and DPU915 were good general combiners. Two crosses namely PDB 88-31/DPU 915 and PLU 277/KAU7 had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  19. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. �UG157� and �DPU915� were good general combiners. Two crosses namely �PDB 88-31�/�DPU 915� and �PLU 277�/�KAU7� had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  20. Genome-wide conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS) marker-based integrative genetical genomics for quantitative dissection of seed weight in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Kujur, Alice; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Tripathi, Shailesh; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Gowda, C. L. L.; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting identified 666 genome-wide paralogous and orthologous CNMS (conserved non-coding microsatellite) markers from 5′-untranslated and regulatory regions (URRs) of 603 protein-coding chickpea genes. The (CT)n and (GA)n CNMS carrying CTRMCAMV35S and GAGA8BKN3 regulatory elements, respectively, are abundant in the chickpea genome. The mapped genic CNMS markers with robust amplification efficiencies (94.7%) detected higher intraspecific polymorphic potential (37.6%) among genotypes, implying their immense utility in chickpea breeding and genetic analyses. Seventeen differentially expressed CNMS marker-associated genes showing strong preferential and seed tissue/developmental stage-specific expression in contrasting genotypes were selected to narrow down the gene targets underlying seed weight quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/eQTLs (expression QTLs) through integrative genetical genomics. The integration of transcript profiling with seed weight QTL/eQTL mapping, molecular haplotyping, and association analyses identified potential molecular tags (GAGA8BKN3 and RAV1AAT regulatory elements and alleles/haplotypes) in the LOB-domain-containing protein- and KANADI protein-encoding transcription factor genes controlling the cis-regulated expression for seed weight in the chickpea. This emphasizes the potential of CNMS marker-based integrative genetical genomics for the quantitative genetic dissection of complex seed weight in chickpea. PMID:25504138

  1. Physiology and proteomics of drought stress acclimation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulda, S; Mikkat, S; Stegmann, H; Horn, R

    2011-07-01

    An easy and manageable in vitro screening system for drought tolerance of sunflower seedlings based on MS media supplemented with polyethylene glycol 6000 was evaluated. Morphological and physiological parameters were compared between control (-0.05 MPa) and drought-stressed (-0.6 MPa) seedlings of Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovick. There was a significant growth deficit in drought-stressed plants compared to control plants in terms of hypocotyl length, and shoot and root fresh mass. Shoot growth was more restricted than root growth, resulting in an increased root/shoot ratio of drought-stressed plants. Accumulation of osmolytes such as inositol (65-fold), glucose (58-fold), proline (55-fold), fructose (11-fold) and sucrose (eightfold), in leaves of drought-stressed plants could be demonstrated by gas-liquid chromatography. Soluble protein patterns of leaves were analysed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A set of 46 protein spots allowed identification of 19 marker proteins. Quantitative changes in protein expression of drought-stressed versus control plants were detected. In leaves of drought-stressed sunflower seedlings six proteins were significantly up-regulated more than twofold: a putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (4.5-fold), a fructokinase 3 (3.3-fold), a vegetative storage protein (2.5-fold), a glycine-rich RNA binding protein (2.2-fold), a CuZn-superoxide dismutase (2.1-fold) and an unknown low molecular weight protein (2.3-fold). These proteins represent general stress proteins induced under drought conditions or proteins contributing to basic carbon metabolism. The up-regulated proteins are interesting candidates for further physiological and molecular investigations regarding drought tolerance in sunflower.

  2. Biochemical and molecular characterization of high population density bacteria isolated from sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Pinheiro de Goes, Kelly Campos; de Castro Fisher, Maria Luisa; Cattelan, Alexandre José; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Portela de Carvalho, Claudio Guilherme; Martinez de Oliveira, Andre Luiz

    2012-04-01

    Natural and beneficial associations between plants and bacteria have demonstrated potential commercial application for several agricultural crops. The sunflower has acquired increasing importance in Brazilian agribusiness owing to its agronomic characteristics such as the tolerance to edaphoclimatic variations, resistance to pests and diseases, and adaptation to the implements commonly used for maize and soybean, as well as the versatility of the products and by-products obtained from its cultivation. A study of the cultivable bacteria associated with two sunflower cultivars, using classical microbiological methods, successfully obtained isolates from different plant tissues (roots, stems, florets, and rhizosphere). Out of 57 plantgrowth- promoting isolates obtained, 45 were identified at the genus level and phylogenetically positioned based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing: 42 Bacillus (B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. pumilus, B. megaterium, and Bacillus sp.) and 3 Methylobacterium komagatae. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed a broad diversity among the Bacillus isolates, which clustered into 2 groups with 75% similarity and 13 subgroups with 85% similarity, suggesting that the genetic distance correlated with the source of isolation. The isolates were also analyzed for certain growth-promoting activities. Auxin synthesis was widely distributed among the isolates, with values ranging from 93.34 to 1653.37 microM auxin per microng of protein. The phosphate solubilization index ranged from 1.25 to 3.89, and siderophore index varied from 1.15 to 5.25. From a total of 57 isolates, 3 showed an ability to biologically fix atmospheric nitrogen, and 7 showed antagonism against the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The results of biochemical characterization allowed identification of potential candidates for the development of biofertilizers targeted to the sunflower crop.

  3. An integrated restriction fragment length polymorphism--amplified fragment length polymorphism linkage map for cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedil, M A; Wye, C; Berry, S; Segers, B; Peleman, J; Jones, R; Leon, A; Slabaugh, M B; Knapp, S J

    2001-04-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) maps have been constructed for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) using three independent sets of RFLP probes. The aim of this research was to integrate RFLP markers from two sets with RFLP markers for resistance gene candidate (RGC) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Genomic DNA samples of HA370 and HA372, the parents of the F2 population used to build the map, were screened for AFLPs using 42 primer combinations and RFLPs using 136 cDNA probes (RFLP analyses were performed on DNA digested with EcoRI, HindIII, EcoRV, or DraI). The AFLP primers produced 446 polymorphic and 1101 monomorphic bands between HA370 and HA372. The integrated map was built by genotyping 296 AFLP and 104 RFLP markers on 180 HA370 x HA372 F2 progeny (the AFLP marker assays were performed using 18 primer combinations). The HA370 x HA372 map comprised 17 linkage groups, presumably corresponding to the 17 haploid chromosomes of sunflower, had a mean density of 3.3 cM, and was 1326 cM long. Six RGC RFLP loci were polymorphic and mapped to three linkage groups (LG8, LG13, and LG15). AFLP markers were densely clustered on several linkage groups, and presumably reside in centromeric regions where recombination is reduced and the ratio of genetic to physical distance is low. Strategies for targeting markers to euchromatic DNA need to be tested in sunflower. The HA370 x HA372 map integrated 14 of 17 linkage groups from two independent RFLP maps. Three linkage groups were devoid of RFLP markers from one of the two maps.

  4. Effect of cultivation measures on index of photosynthesis and yield of sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Aksyonov I.

    2007-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity is the decisive factor of yield increase in sunflower plants. This activity determines the application of agrotechnical measures such as row spacing and plant density. Experiments have proved that agrotechnical measures allow to control the growth, development and yield of sunflower hybrids and varieties. Row spacing and plants density affect the index of photosynthesis and the yield of sunflower agrophytocoenoses. Cultivation of sunflower at the row spacing of 15 cm i...

  5. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  6. Molecular mapping of R11, a novel rust resistance gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an ‘HA 89’ backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), was identified a...

  7. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R12 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is r...

  8. The Metabolism of Sunflower Phytoalexins Ayapin and Scopoletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Beni; Robeson, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The coumarin phytoalexins ayapin and scopoletin accumulate in longitudinal stem sections of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Compositae) following inoculation with fungi both pathogenic (Alternaria helianthi) and nonpathogenic (Helminthosporium carbonum) to this plant. Both compounds were induced more rapidly, and they attained higher levels in tissue inoculated with the heterologous pathogen H. carbonum as compared with the sunflower pathogen A. helianthi. Similarly, scopoletin and ayapin accumulated to comparatively low concentrations following inoculation with a second sunflower pathogen, Phoma macdonaldii. Scopoletin was biosynthesized de novo following inoculation, although levels of its glucoside scopolin exceeded those of the aglucone in both infected and control tissues. Both scopoletin and scopolin were routinely detected in trace amounts in uninoculated tissue. In contrast, ayapin was not detected as a component of uninfected plants. When [14C]scopoletin was supplied to induced sunflower stem sections about 36% of the recovered radioactivity was in the form of ayapin. In vitro studies demonstrated that A. helianthi possessed the ability to rapidly degrade both scopoletin and ayapin, whereas H. carbonum was much less efficient in these traits. The differential degradation of these compounds by phytopathogenic fungi which do not attack sunflower is also discussed. PMID:16664986

  9. Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein.

  10. Antioxidative effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris in sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Zaborowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off – flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ethanol extract on sunflower oil during its storage in different temperature conditions. Oil samples were stored in darkness at 4°C, 18°C, 38°C. Material and methods. Samples of thyme (thymus vulgaris were purchased at a local pharmacy in Poznań, Poland and sunflower oil was acquired from a local supermarket. Thyme extract was characterized by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPHand ABTSradicals scavenging methods. Ethanol extract of thyme at 1% level was added to sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AV, totox value (TxV and fatty acids (FA content were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of thyme extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Results. High polyphenol content, DPPHand ABTSradicals scavenging activity of ethanol thyme extract were evaluated. Results from different parameters were in agreement with other researchers, suggesting the antioxidant effect of thyme on antioxidant stability. Results show that thyme extract prolonged stability of sunflower oil and it may be a potent antioxidant for its stabilization. Conclusions. Ethanol thyme extract may be used as a natural antioxidant to prolong stability of oils.  

  11. From beavis to beak color: a simulation study to examine how much qtl mapping can reveal about the genetic architecture of quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Jon

    2013-05-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is frequently used in evolutionary studies to understand the genetic architecture of continuously varying traits. The majority of studies have been conducted in specially created crosses, in which genetic differences between parental lines are identified by linkage analysis. Detecting QTL segregating within populations is more problematic, especially in wild populations, because these populations typically have complicated and unbalanced multigenerational pedigrees. However, QTL mapping can still be conducted in such populations using a variance components mixed model approach, and the advent of appropriate statistical frameworks and better genotyping methods mean that the approach is gaining popularity. In this study it is shown that all studies described to date report evidence of QTL of major effect on trait variation, but that these findings are probably caused by inflated estimates of QTL effect sizes due to the Beavis effect. Using simulations I show that even the most powerful studies conducted to date are likely to give misleading descriptions of the genetic architecture of a trait. I show that an interpretation of a mapping study of beak color in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), that suggested genetic variation was determined by a small number of loci of large effect, which are possibly maintained by antagonistic pleiotropy, is likely to be incorrect. More generally, recommendations are made to how QTL mapping can be combined with other approaches to provide more accurate descriptions of a trait's genetic architecture.

  12. Different leachate phytotreatment systems using sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbo, Francesco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    The use of energy crops in the treatment of wastewaters is of increasing interest, particularly in view of the widespread scarcity of water in many countries and the possibility of obtaining renewable fuels of vegetable origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of landfill leachate phytotreatment using sunflowers, particularly as seeds from this crop are suitable for use in biodiesel production. Two different irrigation systems were tested: vertical flow and horizontal subsurface flow, with or without effluent recirculation. Plants were grown in 130L rectangular tanks placed in a special climatic chamber. Leachate irrigated units were submitted to increasing nitrogen concentrations up to 372mgN/L. Leachate was successfully tested as an alternative fertilizer for plants and was not found to inhibit biomass development. The experiment revealed good removal efficiencies for COD (η>50%) up until flowering, while phosphorous removal invariably exceeded 60%. Nitrogen removal rates decreased over time in all experimental units, particularly in vertical flow tanks. In general, horizontal flow units showed the best performances in terms of contaminant removal capacity; the effluent recirculation procedure did not improve performance. Significant evapo-transpiration was observed, particularly in vertical flow units, promoting removal of up to 80% of the inlet irrigation volume.

  13. Circumnutations of sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Lewis, R. F.; Venditti, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    The principal objective of the research reported here was to determine whether a plant's periodic growth oscillations, called circumnutations, would persist in the absence of a significant gravitational or inertial force. The definitive experiment was made possible by access to the condition of protracted near weightlessness in an earth satellite. The experiment, performed during the first flight of Spacelab on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shuttle, Columbia, in November and December, 1983, tested a biophysical model, proposed in 1967, that might account for circumnutation as a gravity-dependent growth response. However, circumnutations were observed in microgravity. They continued for many hours without stimulation by a significant g-force. Therefore, neither a gravitational nor an inertial g-force was an absolute requirement for initiation [correction of initation] or continuation of circumnutation. On average, circumnutation was significantly more vigorous in satellite orbit than on earth-based clinostats. Therefore, at least for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) circumnutation, clinostatting is not the functional equivalent of weightlessness.

  14. Ultrasensitive SERS performance in 3D "sunflower-like" nanoarrays decorated with Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Dai, Zhigao; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xingang; Fu, Lei; Jiang, Changzhong

    2017-03-02

    Low-cost, stabilized and ultrasensitive three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates ("sunflower-like" nanoarrays decorated with Ag nanoparticles, denoted as SLNAs-Ag) have been obtained by fabricating binary colloidal crystals and then decorating with Ag nanoparticles. In order to provide a larger density of hot spots within the laser-illumination area, the silica sphere arrays were chosen as the island-type platform for the polystyrene (PS) nanosphere deposition, and the distances between the PS nanospheres were tuned by etching for different durations. Compared with conventional 2D planar systems, the as-fabricated 3D SLNAs-Ag exhibited extremely high SERS sensitivity ascribed to the larger SERS active regions. Quantitative detection of molecules with an extremely low incident laser power was achieved on the "sunflower-like" nanoarrays in which the PS nanospheres were etched for 5 minutes and decorated with Ag nanoparticles, and the corresponding analytical enhancement factor is calculated to be 2 × 10(14) with the concentration of rhodamine 6G down to 10(-15) M. Based on the achieved SERS substrates, we have further demonstrated the highly sensitive detection of molecules such as melamine for food safety inspection.

  15. Drought-Induced Increases in Abscisic Acid Levels in the Root Apex of Sunflower 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. Mason; Pharis, Richard P.; Huang, Yan Y.; Reid, David M.; Yeung, Edward C.

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) levels in 3-mm apical root segments of slowly droughted sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv Russian Giant) were analyzed as the methyl ester by selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using characteristic ions. An internal standard, hexadeuterated ABA (d6ABA) was used for quantitative analysis. Sunflower seedlings, grown in aeroponic chambers, were slowly droughted over a 7-day period. Drought stress increased ABA levels in the root tips at 24, 72, and 168 hour sample times. Control plants had 57 to 106 nanograms per gram ABA dry weight in the root tips (leaf water potential, −0.35 to −0.42 megapascals). The greatest increase in ABA, about 20-fold, was found after 72 hours of drought (leaf water potential, −1.34 to −1.47 megapascals). Levels of ABA also increased (about 7− to 54-fold) in 3-mm apical root segments which were excised and then allowed to dessicate for 1 hour at room temperature. PMID:16664535

  16. Analytical importance of determination of lipase activity for the express analysis of contamination by heavy metals of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Dyachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades becoming more sharply there is a problem of chemical and environmental monitoring and industrial inspection the content of toxic elements in food raw materials and foodstuff. At the same time there is a need to develop rapid methods, informative, integral, reflecting not only the safety but also the ecological purity of food raw materials. The method of determination of content of toxic elements on activity of its own lipase of in situ (AОL-method in seeds of oil-bearing crops, on the example of sunflower is offered. The system of mathematical assessment of analytical criteria of laboratory test used in clinical laboratory diagnostics was for this purpose adapted. Sunflower seeds in which established the maintenance of toxiferous elements served as an object of a research: Cd, Pb, As, Hg, by atomic absorption method on the KVANT-Z.ETA device. Further tests divided on clear, including high-quality and pollution-free, and polluted - naturally containing toxiferous elements and which are artificially contaminated. Definition of activity of a lipase of seeds was carried out by the standard titrimetric method. Decrease of the activity of enzyme was connected with the maintenance of toxiferous elements. Proceeding from the received results counted an analytical significance (sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of descriptiveness the positive and negative results of determination of level of maintenance of toxiferous elements in sunflower seeds by the AОL-method. The set values of analytical specificity of a method and predictive value of a positive take at the level of 77.3% and 71.4% respectively, do not allow to use the offered method for the quantitative analysis, however, analytical sensitivity at the level of 86.2% and the predictive value of the negative result at the level of 89.5%, allow to recommend the AOL-method for screening programs of chemical environmental monitoring and technological monitoring of a

  17. Genetic Dissection and Molecular Dissection of Quantitative Traits%数量性状的遗传剖析和分子剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴为人; 唐定中; 李维明

    2000-01-01

    生物的大多数重要性状都是数量性状,遗传基础复杂,遗传研究非常困难。近20年来,由于分子生物技术飞速发展,特别是分子标记技术和大片段DNA克隆和分析技术的出现,使遗传学开始向阐明人类和一些模式动植物整个基因组的宏伟目标进军,也使得数量性状的遗传剖析(即系统地对各个数量性状基因或QTL的遗传定位和效应分析)和分子剖析(即对QTL的克隆分离)成为可能,并在短短的10余年内取得了重大的进展。该领域的研究将使我们能精确地分析QTL的效应,可靠地对QTL进行标记辅助选择以及实现对数量性状的基因工程,从而使现代分子生物技术在动植物遗传改良和人类遗传病治疗方面发挥更大的作用。本文综述了近年来在数量性状遗传剖析和分子剖析的方法方面的研究进展。%Most of the important characters in living beings are quantitative traits,which have complicated genetic basis and are very difficult for genetic research.Due to the rapid progress of molecular biological technology in the last two decades,especially dne to the advent of molecularmarker techniques and the techniques for the analysis and clonning of large DNA fragments,genetics has begun to march towards the great goal of elncidating the whole genomes of human and some model animals and plants,and the genetic and molecular dissection of quantitative traits(mapping and cloning of individual quantitative trait loci orQTL)has therefore becomepossible,and great progress has been achieved since late 1980's.Studies in this will enable us to perfirm precise analysis of QTL's effects and reliable marker-assisted selection of QTL and to realize genetic engineering of quantitative traits so as to make modern molecular biotechnologyplay even greater role in the genetic improvement of animals and plants d in the terapy of human's genetic diseases.In this paper

  18. Using quantitative mass spectrometry to better understand the influence of genetics and nutritional perturbations on the virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jessica R; Balasubramanian, Divya; Tam, Kayan; Askenazi, Manor; Copin, Richard; Shopsin, Bo; Torres, Victor J; Ueberheide, Beatrix

    2017-02-14

    Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) is the leading cause of a variety of bacterial infections ranging from superficial skin infections to invasive and life threatening diseases such as septic bacteremia, necrotizing pneumonia, and endocarditis. The success of Sa as a human pathogen is due to its ability to adapt to the environment by changing expression, production, or secretion of virulence factors. Although Sa immune evasion is well-studied, the regulation of virulence factors under different nutrient and growth conditions is still not well understood. Here, we used label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to quantify and compare the secreted Sa proteins (i.e. exoproteomes) of master regulator mutants or established reference strains. Different environmental conditions were addressed by growing the bacteria in rich or minimal media at different phases of growth. We observed clear differences in the composition of the exoproteomes depending on the genetic background or growth conditions. The relative abundance of cytotoxins determined in our study correlated well with differences in cytotoxicity measured by lysis of human neutrophils. Our findings demonstrate that label-free quantitative mass spectrometry is a versatile tool for predicting the virulence of bacterial strains and highlights the importance of the experimental design for in vitro studies. Furthermore, the results indicate that label-free proteomics can be used to cluster isolates into groups with similar virulence properties and genetic lineages, highlighting the power of label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to distinguish Sa strains.

  19. Development of an event-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treml, Diana; Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-12-10

    A genetically modified (GM) common bean event, namely Embrapa 5.1, resistant to the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Brazilian regulation for genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling requires that any food containing more than 1% GMO be labeled. The event-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been the primary trend for GMO identification and quantitation because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence. This work reports the development of an event-specific assay, named FGM, for Embrapa 5.1 detection and quantitation by use of SYBR Green or hydrolysis probe. The FGM assay specificity was tested for Embrapa 2.3 event (a noncommercial GM common bean also resistant to BGMV), 46 non-GM common bean varieties, and other crop species including maize, GM maize, soybean, and GM soybean. The FGM assay showed high specificity to detect the Embrapa 5.1 event. Standard curves for the FGM assay presented a mean efficiency of 95% and a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 genome copies in the presence of background DNA. The primers and probe developed are suitable for the detection and quantitation of Embrapa 5.1.

  20. Quantitative genetic analysis of brain size variation in sticklebacks: support for the mosaic model of brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreikiene, Kristina; Herczeg, Gábor; Gonda, Abigél; Balázs, Gergely; Husby, Arild; Merilä, Juha

    2015-07-07

    The mosaic model of brain evolution postulates that different brain regions are relatively free to evolve independently from each other. Such independent evolution is possible only if genetic correlations among the different brain regions are less than unity. We estimated heritabilities, evolvabilities and genetic correlations of relative size of the brain, and its different regions in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We found that heritabilities were low (average h(2) = 0.24), suggesting a large plastic component to brain architecture. However, evolvabilities of different brain parts were moderate, suggesting the presence of additive genetic variance to sustain a response to selection in the long term. Genetic correlations among different brain regions were low (average rG = 0.40) and significantly less than unity. These results, along with those from analyses of phenotypic and genetic integration, indicate a high degree of independence between different brain regions, suggesting that responses to selection are unlikely to be severely constrained by genetic and phenotypic correlations. Hence, the results give strong support for the mosaic model of brain evolution. However, the genetic correlation between brain and body size was high (rG = 0.89), suggesting a constraint for independent evolution of brain and body size in sticklebacks.

  1. The boron on sunflower crop / O boro na cultura do girassol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Beatriz Rodrigues Castiglioni

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient for the growth of higher plants and its deficiency is more widespread than deficiency of any other micronutrient. In Brazil, this deficiency is habitual in ‘cerrados’ soils. Sunflower is one of the most sensitive to this deficiency and presents low efficiency in boron utilization. This literature review has the purpose to show aspects of sunflower, cerrados soils, boron in plant and in soil, visual symptoms, correction of boron deficiency and genetic control.O boro é um micronutriente essencial ao desenvolvimento das plantas superiores e a sua deficiência é mais comum que de qualquer outro micronutriente. No Brasil, deficiência de boro ocorre com maior freqüência nos solos de cerrados. A cultura do girassol é uma das mais sensíveis a essa deficiência e apresenta pouca eficiência em seu aproveitamento. Este trabalho de revisão de literatura teve como objetivo levantar e apresentar aspectos da cultura do girassol, dos solos dos cerrados, do boro na planta e no solo, dos sintomas de deficiência de boro e sua correção na cultura do girassol e do controle genético da eficiência no aproveitamento de boro.

  2. Quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenna; Zhao, Hui; Lu, Xuefeng; Wang, Cong; Yang, Menglong; Bai, Fali

    2011-11-11

    Simple and rapid quantitative determination of fatty-acid-based biofuels is greatly important for the study of genetic engineering progress for biofuels production by microalgae. Ideal biofuels produced from biological systems should be chemically similar to petroleum, like fatty-acid-based molecules including free fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols and fatty alkanes. This study founded a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of seven free fatty acids, nine fatty acid methyl esters, five fatty acid ethyl esters, five fatty alcohols and three fatty alkanes produced by wild-type Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its genetically engineered strain. Data obtained from GC-MS analyses were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. The linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and precision (RSD) of the method were evaluated. The results demonstrated that fatty-acid-based biofuels can be directly determined by GC-MS without derivation. Therefore, rapid and reliable quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria can be achieved using the GC-MS method founded in this work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  4. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero-Ruiz, L.; Delavault, P.; Pérez-Vich, B.; Pacureanu-Joita, M.; Bulos, M.; Altieri, E.; Domínguez, J.

    2015-07-01

    Broomrape, caused by Orobanche cumana, has affected sunflowers since the early 20th century in Eastern Europe. Currently, it limits sunflower oil production in Southern and Eastern Europe and in some areas of Asia, causing around 50% seed losses when susceptible hybrids are grown. Covered in this review are aspects such as: biological processes that are common to Orobanche spp. and/or particular to O. cumana in sunflower, genetic resistance and its mechanisms, races of the parasite identified in different countries throughout the time and their increasing virulence, and breeding for resistance to some herbicides as a novel control option. The main purpose is to present an updated and, as far as possible, complete picture of the way both the parasitic weed and its host crop have evolved in time, and how they co-exist in the current agriculture. Additionally, we propose a system for determining the races of the parasite that can be internationally adopted from now. In the context of minimal harmful effects on the environment, changing patterns of land use in farming systems, and global environment changes, the final goal of this work is to provide all those interested in parasites from field crops and their integrated management compiled information on the sunflower – O. cumana system as a case study. (Author)

  5. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Molinero-Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape, caused by Orobanche cumana, has affected sunflowers since the early 20th century in Eastern Europe. Currently, it limits sunflower oil production in Southern and Eastern Europe and in some areas of Asia, causing around 50% seed losses when susceptible hybrids are grown. Covered in this review are aspects such as: biological processes that are common to Orobanche spp. and/or particular to O. cumana in sunflower, genetic resistance and its mechanisms, races of the parasite identified in different countries throughout the time and their increasing virulence, and breeding for resistance to some herbicides as a novel control option. The main purpose is to present an updated and, as far as possible, complete picture of the way both the parasitic weed and its host crop have evolved in time, and how they co-exist in the current agriculture. Additionally, we propose a system for determining the races of the parasite that can be internationally adopted from now. In the context of minimal harmful effects on the environment, changing patterns of land use in farming systems, and global environment changes, the final goal of this work is to provide all those interested in parasites from field crops and their integrated management compiled information on the sunflower – O. cumana system as a case study.

  6. Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, G; Tinaut, F V; Briceño, Y; Castaño, V; Pérez, C; Ramírez, A I

    2002-06-01

    In this work the transformation process of sunflower oil in order to obtain biodiesel by means of transesterification was studied. Taguchi's methodology was chosen for the optimisation of the most important variables (temperature conditions, reactants proportion and methods of purification), with the purpose of obtaining a high quality biodiesel that fulfils the European pre-legislation with the maximum process yield. Finally, sunflower methyl esters were characterised to test their properties as fuels in diesel engines, such as viscosity, flash point, cold filter plugging point and acid value. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions is an excellent substitute for fossil fuels.

  7. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  8. Quantitation of 35S promoter in maize DNA extracts from genetically modified organisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction, part 2: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Max; Fernandez, Sophie; Cassard, Sylvanie; Bertheau, Yves

    2005-01-01

    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the European Network of GMO Working Laboratories have proposed development of a modular strategy for stepwise validation of complex analytical techniques. When applied to the quantitation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products, the instrumental quantitation step of the technique is separately validated from the DNA extraction step to better control the sources of uncertainty and facilitate the validation of GMO-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. This paper presents the results of an interlaboratory study on the quantitation step of the method standardized by CEN for the detection of a regulatory element commonly inserted in GMO maize-based foods. This is focused on the quantitation of P35S promoter through using the quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Fifteen French laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study of the P35S quantitation operating procedure on DNA extract samples using either the thermal cycler ABI Prism 7700 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) or Light Cycler (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). Attention was focused on DNA extract samples used to calibrate the method and unknown extract samples. Data were processed according to the recommendations of ISO 5725 standard. Performance criteria, obtained using the robust algorithm, were compared to the classic data processing after rejection of outliers by the Cochran and Grubbs tests. Two laboratories were detected as outliers by the Grubbs test. The robust precision criteria gave values between the classical values estimated before and after rejection of the outliers. Using the robust method, the relative expanded uncertainty by the quantitation method is about 20% for a 1% Bt176 content, whereas it can reach 40% for a 0.1% Bt176. The performances of the quantitation assay are relevant to the application of the European regulation, which has an accepted tolerance interval of about +/-50%. These data

  9. β-carotene in sunflower oil oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanishlieva, N. V.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation kinetics of sunflower oil (SO, as well as of pure triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO in the presence of different concentrations (0.001-0.02 % β-carotene was studied. The process was β-performed at high (kinetic regime and low (diffusion regime oxygen concentrations at room temperature in the dark and under daylight. The results from the oxidation of SO and TGSO at 100ºC in the presence of β-carotene were also presented. It was established that in the antioxidant-free lipid system, the β-carotene did not give any antioxidative protection. It worked as a prooxidant during the oxidation at room temperature and at sufficiently high oxygen concentration, the effect being more pronounced in the dark than under daylight. β-carotene increased the stability of tocopherol-containing SO during its oxidation at room temperature and under daylight. This effect is more strongly expressed in a kinetic regime of oxidation. The synergism of β-carotene with the tocopherols was characterized by the stabilization factor F and the activity A. In the kinetic regime of oxidation F and A varied in the interval F=2.0-6.3, and A =2.7-21.0. In the diffusion regime F=1.3-1.5, and A=1.5-2.8.Se estudió la cinética de oxidación de aceite de girasol (SO, así como la de triacilgliceroles puros de aceite de girasol (TGSO en presencia de diferentes concentraciones (0.001-0.02 % de β- caroteno. El proceso se llevó a cabo a altas (régimen cinético y bajas (régimen de difusión concentraciones de oxígeno a temperatura ambiente con luz natural y en la oscuridad, y se presentan también los resultados de la oxidación de SO y TGSO a 100ºC en presencia de β-caroteno. Los resultados indicaron que en los sistemas lipídicos libres de antioxidantes, el β-caroteno no dio protección antioxidante. Funcionó como prooxidante durante la oxidación a temperatura ambiente y a concentraciones de oxigeno suficientemente elevadas, siendo el efecto m

  10. Using banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg density to estimate damage and economic distance in oilseed sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundal, Kirk D; Brewer, Gary J

    2008-06-01

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important economic pest of sunflower in the Upper Great Plains of North America. Economic losses due to reductions in seed number, weight, and quality can be significant. Previously, the potential for economic losses were estimated by sampling for adult moths. However, sampling for moths can be difficult and inaccurate. An alternative is to sample for banded sunflower moth eggs, which can be accurately counted in the field by using a binocular 3.5 headband magnifier. The egg counts are used to calculate the economic injury level (EIL) (EIL = C/VWPK), where C is the cost of treatment per unit area, V is the crop market value per unit of weight, W is the slope of the regression between banded sunflower moth egg densities and weight loss per plant, P is a term for plant population per unit area, and K is the control treatment efficacy. Estimates of populations of banded sunflower moth eggs are taken from the center of 400-m spans along all field sides. From these samples and the calculated EIL, a map of the extent of the economically damaging banded sunflower moth population throughout the field is made using economic distance; ED = e ( ( (EIL/E)-1.458)/-0.262). Economic distance estimates the distance an economic population extends into the field interior along a transect from the sampling site. By using egg samples to calculate the EIL and mapping the distribution of economic populations throughout a field, producers can then make more effective pest management decisions.

  11. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  12. An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; McGregor, Cecilia; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Cai, Wantao; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yong

    2014-01-20

    Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over previous watermelon genetic maps. A

  13. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting susceptibility in chicken to develop the Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (PHS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabie, T.S.K.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Veenendaal, A.; Poel, van der J.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Pakdel, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS), also referred to as ascites syndrome, is a growth-related disorder of chickens frequently observed in fast-growing broilers with insufficient pulmonary vascular capacity at low temperature and/or at high altitude. A cross between two genetically different

  14. Quantitative-genetic analysis of wing form and bilateral asymmetry in isochromosomal lines of Drosophila subobscura using Procrustes methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pedro Fernández Iriarte; Walkiria Céspedes; Mauro Santos

    2003-12-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is often used as a measure of underlying developmental instability (DI), motivated by the idea that morphological variance is maladaptive. Whether or not DI has evolutionary potential is a highly disputed topic, marred by methodological problems and fuzzy prejudices. We report here some results from an ongoing study of the effects of karyotype, homozygosity and temperature on wing form and bilateral asymmetry using isochromosomal lines of Drosophila subobscura. Our approach uses the recently developed methodologies in geometric morphometrics to analyse shape configurations of landmarks within the standard statistical framework employed in studies of bilateral asymmetries, and we have extended these methods to partition the individual variation and the variation in asymmetries into genetic and environmental causal components. The analyses revealed temperature-dependent expression of genetic variation for wing size and wing shape, directional asymmetry (DA) of wing size, increased asymmetries at suboptimal temperature, and a transition from FA to DA in males as a result of increase in the rearing temperature. No genetic variation was generally detected for FA in our samples, but these are preliminary results because no crosses between lines were carried out and, therefore, the contribution of dominance was not taken into account. In addition, only a subset of the standing genetic variation was represented in the experiments.

  15. Factor analysis in the Genetics of Asthma International Network family study identifies five major quantitative asthma phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillai, S. G.; Tang, Y.; van den Oord, E.; Klotsman, M.; Barnes, K.; Carlsen, K.; Gerritsen, J.; Lenney, W.; Silverman, M.; Sly, P.; Sundy, J.; Tsanakas, J.; von Berg, A.; Whyte, M.; Ortega, H. G.; Anderson, W. H.; Helms, P. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Asthma is a clinically heterogeneous disease caused by a complex interaction between genetic susceptibility and diverse environmental factors. In common with other complex diseases the lack of a standardized scheme to evaluate the phenotypic variability poses challenges in identifying the

  16. An ultra-high-density map as a community resource for discerning the genetic basis of quantitative traits in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we generated a linkage map containing 1,151,856 high quality SNPs between Mo17 and B73, which were verified in the maize intermated B73'×'Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 population. This resource is an excellent complement to existing maize genetic maps available in an online database (iPlant, http:...

  17. Selection of Suitable DNA Extraction Methods for Genetically Modified Maize 3272, and Development and Evaluation of an Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for 3272.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize, 3272. We first attempted to obtain genome DNA from this maize using a DNeasy Plant Maxi kit and a DNeasy Plant Mini kit, which have been widely utilized in our previous studies, but DNA extraction yields from 3272 were markedly lower than those from non-GM maize seeds. However, lowering of DNA extraction yields was not observed with GM quicker or Genomic-tip 20/G. We chose GM quicker for evaluation of the quantitative method. We prepared a standard plasmid for 3272 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf), which is required to calculate the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (the ABI 7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (the ABI7500). The determined Cf values were 0.60 and 0.59 for the ABI 7900 and the ABI 7500, respectively. To evaluate the developed method, a blind test was conducted as part of an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined values were similar to those in our previous validation studies. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.5% or less, and we concluded that the developed method would be suitable and practical for detection and quantification of 3272.

  18. International collaborative study of the endogenous reference gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxi; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Mazzara, Marco; Van den Eede, Guy; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-05-13

    One rice ( Oryza sativa ) gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), has been proven to be a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) rice detection in a previous study. Herein are the reported results of an international collaborative ring trial for validation of the SPS gene as an endogenous reference gene and its optimized qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems. A total of 12 genetically modified organism (GMO) detection laboratories from seven countries participated in the ring trial and returned their results. The validated results confirmed the species specificity of the method through testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, low heterogeneity, and a stable single-copy number of the rice SPS gene among 7 indica varieties and 5 japonica varieties. The SPS qualitative PCR assay was validated with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%, which corresponded to about 230 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the quantitative PCR system was about 23 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Furthermore, the bias between the test and true values of eight blind samples ranged from 5.22 to 26.53%. Thus, we believe that the SPS gene is suitable for use as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM rice and its derivates.

  19. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  20. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves da Rocha-Filho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  1. Glycerol inclusion levels in corn and sunflower silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the seasonal cycle of forage, the use of silage to feed animals provides nutrients throughout the year. However, its quality can be improved with the inclusion of additives and other products. Glycerol is a rich source of energy and present a high efficiency of utilization by animals. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of glycerol inclusion on the chemical and fermentation characteristics of corn and sunflower silages. Two silage sources (maize and sunflower were used and four levels of glycerol inclusion (0, 15, 30 and 45% based on dry matter were carried out. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement with five replications. The pH values and chemical composition of corn and sunflower silages were determined. In both silages there was increment of dry matter, non-fiber carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients (TDN added to a reduction of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber due to the glycerol inclusion. The corn silage required 45% glycerol to achieve the TDN level of the sunflower silage. The glycerol addition contributed to the increase in the nutritional value, offsetting loss of quality in the ensiling process.

  2. Sunflower proteins : overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Pérez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing worldwide demand for proteins of both animal and plant origin. However, animal proteins are expensive in terms of both market price and environmental impact. Among alternative plant proteins, sunflower seeds are particularly interesting in view of their widespread availability in

  3. A thermoanalytic and kinetic study of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza A. Gouveia de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, thermoanalytic methods have frequently been used in the characterization of oils and fats. In this work, thermoanalytic and kinetic parameters of sunflower oils, with and without antioxidants, were evaluated using thermogravimetry / derivative thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermogravimetric profiles for the sunflower oils had similar characteristics, showing a level stretch indicative of stability up to about 200ºC. Thermal decomposition of these oils occurred in three stages, related to the decomposition of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, respectively. DSC curves show two events that characterize the polymerization and decomposition of triglycerides. The heat capacities of the sunflower oils, obtained by DSC, showed a good correlation and were dependent on the composition of fatty acids. The kinetic parameters, obtained by non isothermal thermogravimetry by the Coats and Redfern, Madhusudanan, Horowitz and Metzger and Van Krevelen methods, were dependent on the antioxidant used. Increasing the frying time produced a decrease in the onset of thermal decomposition temperature in the sunflower oils analyzed.

  4. Turning heads: the biology of solar tracking in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Brown, Evan A; Harmer, Stacey L; Blackman, Benjamin K

    2014-07-01

    Solar tracking in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, is a dramatic example of a diurnal rhythm in plants. During the day, the shoot apex continuously reorients, following the sun's relative position so that the developing heads track from east to west. At night, the reverse happens, and the heads return and face east in anticipation of dawn. This daily cycle dampens and eventually stops at anthesis, after which the sunflower head maintains an easterly orientation. Although shoot apical heliotropism has long been the subject of physiological studies in sunflower, the underlying developmental, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that drive the directional growth and curvature of the stem in response to extrinsic and perhaps intrinsic cues are not known. Furthermore, the ecological functions of solar tracking and the easterly orientation of mature heads have been the subject of significant but unresolved speculation. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge about this complex, dynamic trait. Candidate mechanisms that may contribute to daytime and nighttime movement are highlighted, including light signaling, hormonal action, and circadian regulation of growth pathways. The merits of the diverse hypotheses advanced to explain the adaptive significance of heliotropism in sunflower are also considered.

  5. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  6. Phototropism in seedlings of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this thesis the phototropic bending of hypocotyls of sunflower seedlings, Helianthus annuus L., is investigated.

    Chapter 1 gives the reasons for this project. Although phototropism has been studied extensively over the past 100 years, the understanding of

  7. Development of insect resistant sunflowers: Updates and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. is one of the major oil seed crops grown in the USA. with a highest estimated cultivated acreage of 975,000 acres in North Dakota. Besides diseases and weeds, insects are one of the major causes for yield losses. An average of 9-10% yield losses was attributed to insec...

  8. Sunflower proteins : overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Pérez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing worldwide demand for proteins of both animal and plant origin. However, animal proteins are expensive in terms of both market price and environmental impact. Among alternative plant proteins, sunflower seeds are particularly interesting in view of their widespread availability in

  9. Transport of glutamine into the xylem of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Findenegg, G.R.; Plaisier, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Melger, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were grown on nutrient solution with ammonium nitrogen. After 12 days of growth the ammonium in the nutrient solution was labeled with N (99%). Three hours later glutamine-N in the xylem exudate was labeled for 56% as shown by GC-MS; this percentage increased

  10. Phototropism in seedlings of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this thesis the phototropic bending of hypocotyls of sunflower seedlings, Helianthus annuus L., is investigated.Chapter 1 gives the reasons for this project. Although phototropism has been studied extensively over the past 100 years, the understanding of the mechanism is far from clear. During th

  11. Molecular markers of nuclear restoration gene Rf1 in sunflower using bulked segregant analysis-RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季静; 王罡; E.Belhassen; H.Serieys; A.Berville

    1996-01-01

    Restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower was demonstrated to be controlled by polygenes by analysing 982 effective crosses among 109 self-crossed lines and 16 CMS lines. Two self-crossed lines and one CMS line with distinct genotypes were applied to creation of segregating populations for DNA bulks of the target gene Rfl. Bulked DNA was prepared in order to investigate single gene Rfl and its gene marker among polygenic characters at the same genetic background. Using 80 10-mer operon primers, 620 RAPD reactions were carried out between fertile and sterile DNA bulks. In about 800 loci, primary results showed that 8 were related to the restoration genes. Furthermore. 2 were confirmed as RAPD markers for gene Rfl by examining 9 maintenance and 7 restoration lines. This method is the improvement for bulked segregant analysis[1] with which markers of single gene of target can be identified rapidly among polygenic characters.

  12. Genomic islands of divergence are not affected by geography of speciation in sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, S; Grassa, C J; Yeaman, S; Moyers, B T; Lai, Z; Kane, N C; Bowers, J E; Burke, J M; Rieseberg, L H

    2013-01-01

    Genomic studies of speciation often report the presence of highly differentiated genomic regions interspersed within a milieu of weakly diverged loci. The formation of these speciation islands is generally attributed to reduced inter-population gene flow near loci under divergent selection, but few studies have critically evaluated this hypothesis. Here, we report on transcriptome scans among four recently diverged pairs of sunflower (Helianthus) species that vary in the geographical context of speciation. We find that genetic divergence is lower in sympatric and parapatric comparisons, consistent with a role for gene flow in eroding neutral differences. However, genomic islands of divergence are numerous and small in all comparisons, and contrary to expectations, island number and size are not significantly affected by levels of interspecific gene flow. Rather, island formation is strongly associated with reduced recombination rates. Overall, our results indicate that the functional architecture of genomes plays a larger role in shaping genomic divergence than does the geography of speciation.

  13. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the U.S. Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Paul J; Charlet, Laurence D; Seiler, Gerald J

    2011-02-01

    Classical biological control programs often target a pest's region of origin as a likely source for new biological control agents. Here, we use this approach to search for biological control agents of the sunflower stem weevil (Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte), an economically important pest of commercial sunflower. We conducted surveys of weevil natural enemy diversity and abundance across a transect running from the northern Great Plains to the southwestern U.S. (the presumed area of endemism of annual sunflower species in the genus Helianthus). Accordingly, natural enemy diversity and abundance were expected to be greater in the southwestern U.S. C. adspersus and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states. Native H. annuus constituted the majority of the sunflower populations. Mean weevil densities were significantly higher in sunflower stalks that were larger in diameter. Mean weevil densities within sites did not differ across the range of longitudes and latitudes sampled. After accounting for the effects of stalk diameter and location, weevil densities did not differ among the four sunflower species nor did they differ as a function of elevation. C. adspersus in H. annuus and H. petiolaris were attacked by seven species of parasitoids. No parasitoids were found attacking C. adspersus in H. nuttallii or H. pauciflorus stalks. C. adspersus were twice as likely to be attacked by a parasitoid when feeding on H. petiolaris than H. annuus. Furthermore, the likelihood that C. adspersus would be parasitized decreased with increasing elevation and increasing stem diameters. All parasitoid species have been previously reported attacking C. adspersus larvae in cultivated sunflower. Species richness was less diverse in these collections than from previous studies of cultivated sunflower. Our findings suggest that the species

  14. A high-density SNP Map of sunflower derived from RAD-sequencing facilitating fine-mapping of the rust resistance gene R12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahirul I Talukder

    Full Text Available A high-resolution genetic map of sunflower was constructed by integrating SNP data from three F2 mapping populations (HA 89/RHA 464, B-line/RHA 464, and CR 29/RHA 468. The consensus map spanned a total length of 1443.84 cM, and consisted of 5,019 SNP markers derived from RAD tag sequencing and 118 publicly available SSR markers distributed in 17 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of sunflower. The maximum interval between markers in the consensus map is 12.37 cM and the average distance is 0.28 cM between adjacent markers. Despite a few short-distance inversions in marker order, the consensus map showed high levels of collinearity among individual maps with an average Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.972 across the genome. The order of the SSR markers on the consensus map was also in agreement with the order of the individual map and with previously published sunflower maps. Three individual and one consensus maps revealed the uneven distribution of markers across the genome. Additionally, we performed fine mapping and marker validation of the rust resistance gene R12, providing closely linked SNP markers for marker-assisted selection of this gene in sunflower breeding programs. This high resolution consensus map will serve as a valuable tool to the sunflower community for studying marker-trait association of important agronomic traits, marker assisted breeding, map-based gene cloning, and comparative mapping.

  15. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  16. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  17. Genetic map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL detection of growth-related traits in Litopenaeus vannamei for selective breeding applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farafidy Andriantahina

    Full Text Available Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS in complex traits as growth. Using an intermediate F2 cross of slow and fast growth parents, a genetic linkage map of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP and simple sequence repeats (SSR markers was constructed. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for growth-related traits. The linkage map consisted of 451 marker loci (429 AFLPs and 22 SSRs which formed 49 linkage groups with an average marker space of 7.6 cM; they spanned a total length of 3627.6 cM, covering 79.50% of estimated genome size. 14 QTLs were identified for growth-related traits, including three QTLs for body weight (BW, total length (TL and partial carapace length (PCL, two QTLs for body length (BL, one QTL for first abdominal segment depth (FASD, third abdominal segment depth (TASD and first abdominal segment width (FASW, which explained 2.62 to 61.42% of phenotypic variation. Moreover, comparison of linkage maps between L. vannamei and Penaeusjaponicus was applied, providing a new insight into the genetic base of QTL affecting the growth-related traits. The new results will be useful for conducting MAS breeding schemes in L. vannamei .

  18. Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for minerals in Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Sehested, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine milk provides important minerals, essential for human nutrition and dairy product quality. For changing the mineral composition of the milk to improve dietary needs in human nutrition and technological properties of milk, a thorough understanding of the genetics underlying milk...... mineral contents is important. Therefore the aim of this study was to 1) estimate the genetic parameters for individual minerals in Danish Holstein (DH) (n = 371) and Danish Jersey (DJ) (n = 321) milk, and 2) detect genomic regions associated with mineral content in the milk using a genome...... The results show that Ca, Zn, P and Mg show high heritabilities. In combination with the GWAS results this opens up possibilities to select for specific minerals in bovine milk....

  19. Construction of a High-Density Genetic Map and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping in the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meilin; Li, Yangping; Jing, Jing; Mu, Chuang; Du, Huixia; Dou, Jinzhuang; Mao, Junxia; Li, Xue; Jiao, Wenqian; Wang, Yangfan; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Wang, Ruijia; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-10-06

    Genetic linkage maps are critical and indispensable tools in a wide range of genetic and genomic research. With the advancement of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods, the construction of a high-density and high-resolution linkage maps has become achievable in marine organisms lacking sufficient genomic resources, such as echinoderms. In this study, high-density, high-resolution genetic map was constructed for a sea cucumber species, Apostichopus japonicus, utilizing the 2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) method. A total of 7839 markers were anchored to the linkage map with the map coverage of 99.57%, to our knowledge, this is the highest marker density among echinoderm species. QTL mapping and association analysis consistently captured one growth-related QTL located in a 5 cM region of linkage group (LG) 5. An annotated candidate gene, retinoblastoma-binding protein 5 (RbBP5), which has been reported to be an important regulator of cell proliferation, was recognized in the QTL region. This linkage map represents a powerful tool for research involving both fine-scale QTL mapping and marker assisted selection (MAS), and will facilitate chromosome assignment and improve the whole-genome assembly of sea cucumber in the future.

  20. Contrasting patterns of quantitative and neutral genetic variation in locally adapted populations of the natterjack toad, Bufo calamita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Tejedo, Miguel

    2004-10-01

    The relative importance of natural selection and genetic drift in determining patterns of phenotypic diversity observed in nature is still unclear. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is one of a few amphibian species capable of breeding in saline ponds, even though water salinity represents a considerable stress for them. Results from two common-garden experiments showed a pattern of geographic variation in embryonic salinity tolerance among populations from either fresh or brackish environments, consistent with the hypothesis of local adaptation. Full-sib analysis showed increased variation in survival among sibships within population for all populations as osmotic stress was increased (broad-sense heritability increased as salinity raised). Nevertheless, toads native to the brackish water environment had the highest overall survival under brackish conditions. Levels of population genetic differentiation for salinity tolerance were higher than those of neutral genetic differentiation, the latter obtained through the analysis of eight microsatellite loci. Microsatellite markers also revealed little population differentiation, lack of an isolation-by-distance pattern, and moderate gene flow connecting the populations. Therefore, environmental stress tolerance appears to have evolved in absence of geographic isolation, and consequently we reject the null hypothesis of neutral differentiation.

  1. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  2. Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmongoyo, Juma A; Wu, Felicia; Linz, John E; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Mugula, Jovin K; Tempelman, Robert J; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania. Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across two years, and analyzed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Mbeya (2.8-97.7 ng/g), Dodoma (1.9-88.2 ng/g), and Singida (2.0-34.3 ng/g). For seed samples collected August-October 2015, the highest concentrations were from Morogoro (2.8-662.7 ng/g), Singida (1.6-217.6 ng/g) and Mbeya (1.4-174.2 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Morogoro (2.7-536.0 ng/g), Dodoma (1.4-598.4 ng/g) and Singida (3.2-52.8 ng/g). In summary, humans and animals are potentially at high risk of exposure to aflatoxins through sunflower seeds and cakes from micro-scale millers in Tanzania; and location influences risk.

  3. The roles of genetic drift and natural selection in quantitative trait divergence along an altitudinal gradient in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y; Widmer, A; Karrenberg, S

    2015-02-01

    Understanding how natural selection and genetic drift shape biological variation is a central topic in biology, yet our understanding of the agents of natural selection and their target traits is limited. We investigated to what extent selection along an altitudinal gradient or genetic drift contributed to variation in ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. We collected seeds from 8 to 14 individuals from each of 14 A. thaliana populations originating from sites between 800 and 2700 m above sea level in the Swiss Alps. Seed families were grown with and without vernalization, corresponding to winter-annual and summer-annual life histories, respectively. We analyzed putatively neutral genetic divergence between these populations using 24 simple sequence repeat markers. We measured seven traits related to growth, phenology and leaf morphology that are rarely reported in A. thaliana and performed analyses of altitudinal clines, as well as overall QST-FST comparisons and correlation analyses among pair-wise QST, FST and altitude of origin differences. Multivariate analyses suggested adaptive differentiation along altitude in the entire suite of traits, particularly when expressed in the summer-annual life history. Of the individual traits, a decrease in rosette leaf number in the vegetative state and an increase in leaf succulence with increasing altitude could be attributed to adaptive divergence. Interestingly, these patterns relate well to common within- and between-species trends of smaller plant size and thicker leaves at high altitude. Our results thus offer exciting possibilities to unravel the underlying mechanisms for these conspicuous trends using the model species A. thaliana.

  4. Utilization of a quantitative mammalian cell mutation system, CHO/HGPRT, in experimental mutagenesis and genetic toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsie, A. W.; Couch, D. B.; O' Neill, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Development of the CHO/HGPRT system is described and a host-mediated CHO/HGPRT assay is discussed. The following topics are discussed: evidence for the genetic origin of mutation induction in the CHO/HGPRT system; dose-response relationship for EMS-mediated mutation induction and cell lethality; apparent dosimetry of EMS-induced mutagenesis; structure-activity relationship of alkylating agents and ICR compounds; mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of congeners of two classes of nitrosi compounds; and preliminary validation of the CHO/HGPRT assay in predicting chemical carcinogenicity. (HLW)

  5. "Are we there yet?": Deciding when one has demonstrated specific genetic causation in complex diseases and quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Grier P; George, Varghese; Go, Rodney C; Page, Patricia Z; Allison, David B

    2003-10-01

    Although mathematical relationships can be proven by deductive logic, biological relationships can only be inferred from empirical observations. This is a distinct disadvantage for those of us who strive to identify the genes involved in complex diseases and quantitative traits. If causation cannot be proven, however, what does constitute sufficient evidence for causation? The philosopher Karl Popper said, "Our belief in a hypothesis can have no stronger basis than our repeated unsuccessful critical attempts to refute it." We believe that to establish causation, as scientists, we must make a serious attempt to refute our own hypotheses and to eliminate all known sources of bias before association becomes causation. In addition, we suggest that investigators must provide sufficient data and evidence of their unsuccessful efforts to find any confounding biases. In this editorial, we discuss what "causation" means in the context of complex diseases and quantitative traits, and we suggest guidelines for steps that may be taken to address possible confounders of association before polymorphisms may be called "causative."

  6. Quantitative trait locus mapping with background control in genetic populations of clonal F1 and double cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Li, Huihui; Ding, Junqiang; Wu, Jianyu; Wang, Jiankang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we considered five categories of molecular markers in clonal F1 and double cross populations, based on the number of distinguishable alleles and the number of distinguishable genotypes at the marker locus. Using the completed linkage maps, incomplete and missing markers were imputed as fully informative markers in order to simplify the linkage mapping approaches of quantitative trait genes. Under the condition of fully informative markers, we demonstrated that dominance effect between the female and male parents in clonal F1 and double cross populations can cause the interactions between markers. We then developed an inclusive linear model that includes marker variables and marker interactions so as to completely control additive effects of the female and male parents, as well as the dominance effect between the female and male parents. The linear model was finally used for background control in inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) of quantitative trait locus (QTL). The efficiency of ICIM was demonstrated by extensive simulations and by comparisons with simple interval mapping, multiple-QTL models and composite interval mapping. Finally, ICIM was applied in one actual double cross population to identify QTL on days to silking in maize.

  7. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  8. Arsenic-contaminated soils. Phytotoxicity studies with sunflower and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubun, Y.V.; Kosterin, P.V.; Zakharova, E.A.; Fedorov, E.E. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation); Shcherbakov, A.A. [Saratov Military Inst. of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Defence, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Aim and Scope. Environmental pollution caused by arsenic (As) is a major ecological problem. There has been intense worldwide effort to find As-hyperaccumulating plants that can be used in phytoremediation - the green-plant-assisted removal of chemical pollutants from soils. For phytoremediation, it is natural to prefer cultivated rather than wild plants, because their agriculture is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Pers.) for soil-As contents of 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, with sodium arsenite as a model contaminant. Methods. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days. Microfield experiments were conducted on experimental plots. To study the phytoremediation effect of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), we treated 1- and 3-day-old plant seedlings with water solutions of the auxins (concentrations of 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -7}, and 10{sup -9} g l{sup -1}). The soil and plant-biomass samples were analyzed for total As by using the color reaction of ammonium molybdate with As. Results and Discussion. Phytotoxicity studies showed that 100 mg as kg{sup -1} soil poisoned sunflower and sorghum growth by 50%. There was a linear correlation between soil-As content and As accumulation in the plants. Laboratory experiments showed that the soil-As content was reduced two- to threefold after sunflower had been grown with 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil for 30 days. Treatment of sunflower and sorghum seedlings with IAA and 2,4-D at a concentration of 10{sup -5} g l{sup -1} in microfield experiments enhanced the phytoremediation two- to fivefold as compared with untreated control plants. The best results were obtained with 3-day-old seedlings. Conclusion, Recommendation and Outlook. (a) Sunflower and sorghum are good candidates to remediate As-polluted soils. (b) Phytoremediation can be improved with IAA or 2

  9. Crop-weed competition between sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and Convolvulus arvensis L. in substitutive experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinczi, G; Takács, A; Horváth, J

    2006-01-01

    The main characteristics of a substitutive experiment is that the proportions of two species in the mixtures are varied while the overall density of the two species is maintained constant - a replacement series. In our experiments early competition between sunflower and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) was studied in a replacement studies under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were set up with the following treatments: 1, sunflower 100% (6 plants pot(-1)); 2, sunflower 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)); 3, sunflower 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)); 4, C. arvensis 100% (6 plants pot(-1)). Sixty eight days after sowing dry weight of shoots and roots were measured and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content was also determined. Dry biomass production of sunflower was almost twice higher as compared to that of C. arvensis without interspecific competition. Dry weight of sunflower and C. arvensis shoots and roots for a plant continuously decreased by reducing their proportion in the mixtures. Higher biomass production of sunflower suggests, that its development is faster at the beginning of vegetation penod, therefore sunflower has better competitive ability in sunflower--C. arvensis mixtures in the early competition as compared to C. arvensis. Shoot:root ratio of plants did not change considerably in mixtures, but generally was ten times higher in sunflower plants, as compared to that of C. arvensis. Shoots generally contained macro elements at higher concentration as compared to those of roots. Total NPK content of sunflower was reduced by 53 and 82% for a pot, as its proportion decreased in the mixtures. More severe reduction in NPK content was observed in case of C. arvensis, which also proves stronger competitive ability of sunflower in the early vegetation.

  10. Investigation of Correlation between Traits and Path Analysis of Confectionary Sunflower Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    SINCIK, Mehmet; Abdurrahim Tanju GOKSOY

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. This study examined the relationships between various traits associated with seed and crude protein yields of confectionary sunflower as well as the direct and indirect effects of these traits on crude protein yield. Eight open-pollinated confectionary sunflower populations and two open-pollinated confectionary sunflower cultivars used as control varieties were evaluated during two growing seasons (2009 and 2010). Certain agronomical and technological traits such as plant height, he...

  11. Quantitative structure-property relationship study of the solubility of thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives using ab initio and genetic algorithm-partial least squares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Niazi; Saeed Jameh-Bozorghi; Davood Nori-Shargh

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study is suggested for the prediction of solubility of some thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives in aqueous solution. Ab initio theory was used to calculate some quantum chemical descriptors including electrostatic potentials and local charges at each atom, HOMO and LUMO energies, etc. Modeling of the solubility of thiazolidine4-carboxylic acid derivatives as a function of molecular structures was established by means of the partial least squares (PLS). The subset of descriptors, which resulted in the low prediction error, was selected by genetic algorithm. This model was applied for the prediction of the solubility of some thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives, which were not in the modeling procedure. The relative errors of prediction lower that -4% was obtained by using GA-PLS method. The resulted model showed high prediction ability with RMSEP of 3.8836 and 2.9500 for PLS and GA-PLS models, respectively.

  12. Quantitative EEG and Current Source Density Analysis of Combined Antiepileptic Drugs and Dopaminergic Agents in Genetic Epilepsy: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Hamlin; Wells, Christopher; Mizrahi, Neptune

    2015-07-01

    Two adolescent females with absence epilepsy were classified, one as attention deficit and the other as bipolar disorder. Physical and cognitive exams identified hypotension, bradycardia, and cognitive dysfunction. Their initial electroencephalograms (EEGs) were considered slightly slow, but within normal limits. Quantitative EEG (QEEG) data included relative theta excess and low alpha mean frequencies. A combined treatment of antiepileptic drugs with a catecholamine agonist/reuptake inhibitor was sequentially used. Both patients' physical and cognitive functions improved and they have remained seizure free. The clinical outcomes were correlated with statistically significant changes in QEEG measures toward normal Z-scores in both anterior and posterior regions. In addition, low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) Z-scored source correlation analyses of the initial and treated QEEG data showed normalized patterns, supporting a neuroanatomic resolution. This study presents preliminary evidence for a neurophysiologic approach to patients with absence epilepsy and comorbid disorders and may provide a method for further research.

  13. A Study of Mercury Methylation Genetics: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of hgcAB in Pure Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, G. A.; Wymore, A. M.; King, A. J.; Podar, M.; Hurt, R. A., Jr.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Gilmour, C. C.; Brandt, C. C.; Brown, S. D.; Palumbo, A. V.; Elias, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Two proteins (HgcA and HgcB) have been determined to be essential for mercury (Hg)-methylation and either one alone is not sufficient for this process. Detection and quantification of these genes to determine at risk environments is critical. Universal degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers spanning hgcAB were developed to ascertain organismal diversity and validate that both genes were present as an established prerequisite for Hg-methylation. To confirm this approach, an extensive set of pure cultures with published genomes (including methylators and non-methylators: 13 Deltaproteobacteria, 9 Firmicutes, and 10 methanogenic Archaea) were assayed with the newly designed universal hgcAB primer set. A single band within an agarose gel was observed for the majority of the cultures with known hgcAB and confirmed via Sanger sequencing. For environmental applications, once the potential for Hg-methylation is established from PCR amplification with the universal hgcAB primer set, quantification of clade-specific hgcAB gene abundance is desirable. We developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) degenerate primers targeting hgcA from each of the three dominate clades (Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and methanogenic Archaea) known to be associated with anaerobic Hg-methylation. The qPCR primers amplify virtually all hgcA positive cultures overall and are specific for their designed clade. Finally, to ensure the procedure is robust and sensitive in complex environmental matrices, cells from all clades were mixed in different combinations and ratios to assess qPCR primer specificity. The development and validation of these high fidelity quantitative molecular tools now allows for rapid and accurate risk management assessment in any environment.

  14. MR brain image analysis in dementia: From quantitative imaging biomarkers to ageing brain models and imaging genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Wiro J

    2016-10-01

    MR brain image analysis has constantly been a hot topic research area in medical image analysis over the past two decades. In this article, it is discussed how the field developed from the construction of tools for automatic quantification of brain morphology, function, connectivity and pathology, to creating models of the ageing brain in normal ageing and disease, and tools for integrated analysis of imaging and genetic data. The current and future role of the field in improved understanding of the development of neurodegenerative disease is discussed, and its potential for aiding in early and differential diagnosis and prognosis of different types of dementia. For the latter, the use of reference imaging data and reference models derived from large clinical and population imaging studies, and the application of machine learning techniques on these reference data, are expected to play a key role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effectof Temperature on the Dynmaic Viscosity of Acetone Sunflower-Seed Oil Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    TOPALLAR, Hüseyin; BAYRAK, Yüksel

    1998-01-01

    The effect of acetone on the dynamic viscosity of sunflower-seed oil was studied under a dynamic heating regime at temeparuters ranging from 25oC to 50oC at 5oC intervals. Acetone dramatically reduced the viscosity of sunflower-seed oil. The reduction of viscosity was far less with further addition of acetone. A linear relationship was found between the density of sunflower-seed oil and temperature. The influence of a solvent on the density of the sunflower-seed oil/acetone solution can be ac...

  16. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvey, Bassie B.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported. PMID:19325810

  17. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in sunflower elite inbred lines using the candidate gene approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association analysis is a powerful tool to identify gene loci that may contribute to phenotypic variation. This includes the estimation of nucleotide diversity, the assessment of linkage disequilibrium structure (LD and the evaluation of selection processes. Trait mapping by allele association requires a high-density map, which could be obtained by the addition of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and short insertion and/or deletions (indels to SSR and AFLP genetic maps. Nucleotide diversity analysis of randomly selected candidate regions is a promising approach for the success of association analysis and fine mapping in the sunflower genome. Moreover, knowledge of the distance over which LD persists, in agronomically meaningful sunflower accessions, is important to establish the density of markers and the experimental design for association analysis. Results A set of 28 candidate genes related to biotic and abiotic stresses were studied in 19 sunflower inbred lines. A total of 14,348 bp of sequence alignment was analyzed per individual. In average, 1 SNP was found per 69 nucleotides and 38 indels were identified in the complete data set. The mean nucleotide polymorphism was moderate (θ = 0.0056, as expected for inbred materials. The number of haplotypes per region ranged from 1 to 9 (mean = 3.54 ± 1.88. Model-based population structure analysis allowed detection of admixed individuals within the set of accessions examined. Two putative gene pools were identified (G1 and G2, with a large proportion of the inbred lines being assigned to one of them (G1. Consistent with the absence of population sub-structuring, LD for G1 decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.48 at 643 bp; trend line, pooled data than the LD trend line for the entire set of 19 individuals (r2 = 0.64 for the same distance. Conclusion Knowledge about the patterns of diversity and the genetic relationships between breeding materials could be an invaluable aid in crop

  18. Volumetric properties of sunflower methyl ester oil at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Cristina; Guignon, Bérengère; Rodríguez-Antón, Luis M; Sanz, Pedro D

    2007-09-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel oil (DO), because it is a fuel obtained from renewable resources that has lower emissions than DO. Biomass production should promote agricultural activity to obtain fuels for the transport sector. The study of the behavior of biodiesel at varying pressure and temperature is very interesting because diesel engines are mechanical systems that work with fuels submitted to high pressure. The specific volume, isothermal compressibility, and cubic expansion coefficients of refined sunflower methyl ester oil (SMEO) and unrefined sunflower methyl ester oil (URSMEO) were obtained and compared with those of DO from 0.1 to 350 MPa and 288.15 to 328.15 K. This work shows that oil refinement did not significantly modify any of the properties studied of the final biodiesel. Compared with DO, both SMEOs were about 6% denser, whereas isothermal compressibility and cubic expansion coefficients were bigger or smaller for DO depending on pressure and temperature.

  19. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  20. Development and optimisation of a label-free quantitative proteomic procedure and its application in the assessment of genetically modified tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Leticia; Bramley, Peter M; Fraser, Paul D

    2013-06-01

    A key global challenge for plant biotechnology is addressing food security, whereby provision must be made to feed 9 billion people with nutritional feedstuffs by 2050. To achieve this step change in agricultural production new crop varieties are required that are tolerant to environmental stresses imposed by climate change, have better yields, are more nutritious and require less resource input. Genetic modification (GM) and marker-assisted screening will need to be fully utilised to deliver these new crop varieties. To evaluate these varieties both in terms of environmental and food safety and the rational design of traits a systems level characterisation is necessary. To link the transcriptome to the metabolome, quantitative proteomics is required. Routine quantitative proteomics is an important challenge. Gel-based densitometry and MS analysis after stable isotope labeling have been employed. In the present article, we describe the application of a label-free approach that can be used in combination with SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase chromatography to evaluate the changes in the proteome of new crop varieties. The workflow has been optimised for protein coverage, accuracy and robustness, then its application demonstrated using a GM tomato variety engineered to deliver nutrient dense fruit.

  1. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren H. Rieseberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp. and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis, with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The “response to biotic stimulus” category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi. We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the

  2. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Grassa, Christopher J; Moyers, Brook T; Kane, Nolan C; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-10-25

    Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs) in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis), with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha) and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The "response to biotic stimulus" category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio) and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi). We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the determinants of

  3. A wheat intervarietal genetic linkage map based on microsatellite and target region amplified polymorphism markers and its utility for detecting quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z H; Anderson, J A; Hu, J; Friesen, T L; Rasmussen, J B; Faris, J D

    2005-08-01

    Efficient user-friendly methods for mapping plant genomes are highly desirable for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), genotypic profiling, genomic studies, and marker-assisted selection. SSR (microsatellite) markers are user-friendly and efficient in detecting polymorphism, but they detect few loci. Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) is a relatively new PCR-based technique that detects a large number of loci from a single reaction without extensive pre-PCR processing of samples. In the investigation reported here, we used both SSRs and TRAPs to generate over 700 markers for the construction of a genetic linkage map in a hard red spring wheat intervarietal recombinant inbred population. A framework map consisting of 352 markers accounted for 3,045 cM with an average density of one marker per 8.7 cM. On average, SSRs detected 1.9 polymorphic loci per reaction, while TRAPs detected 24. Both marker systems were suitable for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes using wheat aneuploid stocks. We demonstrated the utility of the maps by identifying major QTLs for days to heading and reduced plant height on chromosomes 5A and 4B, respectively. Our results indicate that TRAPs are highly efficient for genetic mapping in wheat. The maps developed will be useful for the identification of quality and disease resistance QTLs that segregate in this population.

  4. Effects of nitrogen and plant density on dwarf sunflower hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Süzer S.

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the seed yield and some yield components of two dwarf hybrids as compared to one standard-height sunflower hybrid (Helianthus annuus L.) at different nitrogen rates and planting densities. The study was carried out under natural rainfed conditions at the Thrace Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne-Turkey between 1999 and 2001. The experiments were set up in split-split plots in a randomized complete block desi...

  5. Breeding sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for drought tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Rauf

    2008-01-01

    Productivity of sunflower is strongly regulated by the availability of water and greatest yield losses occur when water shortage occurs at flowering. Therefore, it is critical to manage the deleterious effect of drought stress at this stage. Evolving crop genotypes which have enhanced drought tolerance are the most successful and cheapest strategy to cope with drought. However, progress in drought tolerance breeding is slow due to inappropriate selection criteria and faulty breeding strategie...

  6. Biodiesel production by chemical or enzymatic esterification of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, Paula C.; Rosa, M. Fernanda; Oliveira, A.C.; Pingarilho, M.S.; Beirao, S.G.; Vieira, Ana Maria Soares

    1998-07-01

    In this work, two processes of sunflower oil transesterification, with methanol or ethanol, were studied for biodiesel production: chemical (catalyst- NaOH) and enzymatic (catalyst - rhizomucor miehei lipase). The chemical catalysis proved to be more efficient, having been obtained higher conversion yields and a better quality biodiesel, mainly in the case where methanol was used. The transesterification product had, in all cases, to be purified in order to be used as a diesel substitute.

  7. Microbiological Production of Citric and Isocitric Acids from Sunflower Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova; Finogenova, Tatiana V; Igor G. Morgunov

    2008-01-01

    The growth of wild type strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 and its mutant Yarrowia lipolytica N 15 as well the biosynthesis of citric and isocitric acids on sunflower oil were studied. It was indicated that cell growth was associated with the simultaneous utilization of glycerol and free fatty acids produced during oil hydrolysis. The activities of enzymes of glycerol metabolism (glycerol kinase), fatty acid assimilation enzymes of glyoxylate cycle (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) an...

  8. Receptor-based modeling and 3D-QSAR for a quantitative production of the butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors based on genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer-ul, Haq; Uddin, Reaz; Yuan, Hongbin; Petukhov, Pavel A; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Madura, Jeffry D

    2008-05-01

    Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models have been constructed using the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) for a series of structurally related steroidal alkaloids as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors. Docking studies were employed to position the inhibitors into the BuChE active site to determine the most probable binding mode. The strategy was to explore multiple inhibitor conformations in producing a more reliable 3D-QSAR model. These multiple conformations were derived using the FlexS program. The conformation selection step for CoMFA was done by genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm based CoMFA approach was found to be the best. Both CoMFA and CoMSIA yielded significant cross-validated q(2) values of 0.701 and 0.627 and the r(2) values of 0.979 and 0.982, respectively. These statistically significant models were validated by a test set of five compounds. Comparison of CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps helped to identify structural requirements for the inhibitors and serves as a basis for the design of the next generation of the inhibitor analogues. The results demonstrate that the combination of ligand-based and receptor-based modeling with use of a genetic algorithm is a powerful approach to build 3D-QSAR models. These data can be used for the lead optimization process with respect to inhibition enhancement which is important for the drug discovery and development for Alzheimer's disease.

  9. High-resolution genetic linkage mapping, high-temperature tolerance and growth-related quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification in Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Hu, Long Yang; Mao, Yong; Tao, Ye; Zhong, Sheng Ping; Kong, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The Kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, is one of the most promising marine invertebrates in the industry in Asia, Europe and Australia. However, the increasing global temperatures result in considerable economic losses in M. japonicus farming. In the present study, to select genetically improved animals for the sustainable development of the Kuruma prawn industry, a high-resolution genetic linkage map and quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification were performed using the RAD technology. The maternal map contained 5849 SNP markers and spanned 3127.23 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.535 cM. Instead, the paternal map contained 3927 SNP markers and spanned 3326.19 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.847 cM. The consensus map contained 9289 SNP markers and spanned 3610.90 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.388 cM and coverage of 99.06 % of the genome. The markers were grouped into 41 linkage groups in the maps. Significantly, negative correlation was detected between high-temperature tolerance (UTT) and body weight (BW). The QTL mapping revealed 129 significant QTL loci for UTT and four significant QTL loci for BW at the genome-wide significance threshold. Among these QTLs, 129 overlapped with linked SNPs, and the remaining four were located in regions between contiguous SNPs. They explained the total phenotypic variance ranging from 8.9 to 12.4 %. Because of a significantly negative correlation between growth and high-temperature tolerance, we demonstrate that this high-resolution linkage map and QTLs would be useful for further marker-assisted selection in the genetic improvement of M. japonicus.

  10. Storage stability of value added products from sunflower kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttagi, Gopika C; Joshi, Neena; Shadakshari, Y G; Chandru, R

    2014-09-01

    Shelf life of two products namely chikki and oilseed butter were evaluated. Sunflower was substituted for groundnut at three levels (0, 50 and 100 %). Products were stored up to 2 months in ambient conditions (25-30 °C; RH 40-60 %). Chikki was packed in Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and laminated pouches and oil seed butter was stored in glass and plastic jars. Products were evaluated for sensory characteristics, absence of rancidity; per cent free fatty acid and peroxide value. Stored chikki was evaluated for microbial load. Products were acceptable for sensory attributes even at the end of storage period. Product chikki stored in laminated pouches had higher per cent free fatty acid and peroxide value compared to that stored in Low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches. Oilseed butter stored in glass jar had higher per cent free fatty acid when compared to that stored in plastic jar. Stored chikki had higher microbial load in the Low density polyethylene (LDPE) when compared to that stored in laminated pouches. Products made with groundnut alone (control) were preferred over those made in combination with sunflower and groundnut (1:1) or sunflower alone. However all products were highly acceptable at the end of storage period.

  11. Very long chain fatty acid synthesis in sunflower kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Joaquín J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2005-04-01

    Most common seed oils contain small amounts of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), the main components of oils from species such as Brassica napus or Lunnaria annua. These fatty acids are synthesized from acyl-CoA precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum through the activity of a dissociated enzyme complex known as fatty acid elongase. We studied the synthesis of the arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric VLCFAs in sunflower kernels, in which they account for 1-3% of the saturated fatty acids. These VLCFAs are synthesized from 18:0-CoA by membrane-bound fatty acid elongases, and their biosynthesis is mainly dependent on NADPH equivalents. Two condensing enzymes appear to be responsible for the synthesis of VLCFAs in sunflower kernels, beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase-I (KCS-I) and beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase-II (KCS-II). Both of these enzymes were resolved by ion exchange chromatography and display different substrate specificities. While KCS-I displays a preference for 20:0-CoA, 18:0-CoA was more efficiently elongated by KCS-II. Both enzymes have different sensitivities to pH and Triton X-100, and their kinetic properties indicate that both are strongly inhibited by the presence of their substrates. In light of these results, the VLCFA composition of sunflower oil is considered in relation to that in other commercially exploited oils.

  12. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KoohiKamali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD through response surface methodology (RSM was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w. The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P≥0.05. Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.

  13. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability.

  14. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  15. Interaction hybrid × planting date for oil yield in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of hybrids and planting dates as well as their interaction on oil yield in sunflower for three-year experiment (2005, 2006, 2007. Three sunflower hybrids (Miro, Rimi and Pobednik and eight planting dates were included in the experiment. AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction analysis is one of the mainly used multiplicative models, which evaluates main effects and also interaction. The interaction was detected by using AMMI1 biplot. Oil yield was predominantly influenced by the year of growing (58.9%, then by planting date (12.9% and by hybrid (10.7%. All interactions were significant as well. AMMI ANOVA showed high significance of both IPC1 and IPC2. The contribution of IPC1 was 77.5%. Hybrids Miro and Pobednik showed no significant differences in the mean values, which were higher than average. However, the hybrid Miro showed the highest stability for oil yield. Hybrid Rimi, with the lowest mean value, was the most unstable for the examined character. Oil yield was higher in earlier than in later planting dates. Graphical presentation of AMMI1 in the form of biplot could facilitate the choice of stable hybrids and planting dates for desired characters in sunflower.

  16. Residual nutational activity of the sunflower hypocotyl in simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity dependence of circumnutational activity in the sunflower hypocotyl is investigated under conditions of simulated weightlessness. Seedling cultures of the sunflower Helianthus annuus were placed four days after planting in clinostats rotating at a rate of 1.0 rpm in the horizontal or somersaulting configurations, and plant movements around their growth axes were recorded in infrared light by a time-lapse closed-circuit video system. The amplitudes and mean cycle durations of the plant nutations in the horizontal and tumbling clinostats are observed to be 20% and 72%, and 32% and 74%, respectively, of the values observed in stationary plants; extrapolations to a state of zero g by the imposition of small centripetal forces on horizontally clinostated plants also indicate some nutational motion in the absence of gravity. It is concluded that the results are incompatible with the model of Israelsson and Johnsson (1967) of geotropic response with overshoot for sunflower circumnutation; however, results of the Spacelab 1 mission experiment are needed to unambiguously define the role of gravitation.

  17. Microbiological Production of Citric and Isocitric Acids from Sunflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of wild type strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 and its mutant Yarrowia lipolytica N 15 as well the biosynthesis of citric and isocitric acids on sunflower oil were studied. It was indicated that cell growth was associated with the simultaneous utilization of glycerol and free fatty acids produced during oil hydrolysis. The activities of enzymes of glycerol metabolism (glycerol kinase, fatty acid assimilation enzymes of glyoxylate cycle (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase and citric acid cycle were comparatively assayed in Y. lipolytica grown on sunflower oil, glycerol and oleic acid. Glycerol kinase and enzymes of glyoxylate cycle were active during the whole period of cell cultivation on sunflower oil. Citric acid production and a ratio between citric and isocitric acids depended on both the strain used and the medium composition. It was revealed that wild type strain Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2373 produced almost equal amounts of citric and isocitric acids at pH=4.5 and predominantly accumulated isocitric acid at pH=6.0. The mutant Y. lipolytica N 15 produced only citric acid (150 g/L with mass yield (YCA of 1.32 g/g. Biochemical characteristics of mutant strain Y. lipolytica N 15 were discussed.

  18. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  19. Genetic analysis of ecological relevant morphological variability in Plantago lanceolata L. : 2. Localisation and organisation of quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, K

    1987-04-01

    Morphological variability was analysed in an F2-generation derived from crosses between two ecotypes of Plantago lanceolata L. Six allozyme loci, localised in five linkage groups, were used as markers. For two marker loci, Got-2 and Gpi-1, segregations did not fit monogenic ratios. In the linkage groups to which these two loci belonged, male sterility genes appeared to be present. In these crosses, male sterility (type 3, as described by Van Damme 1983) may be determined by two recessive loci located in the linkage groups of Got-2 and of Gpi-1. Many correlations of morphological and life history characters with allozyme markers were observed. The quantitative trait loci did not appear to be concentrated in major gene complexes. Often many loci were involved, sometimes with effects opposite to those expected from the population values. Main effects of the linkage groups appeared to be more important than interaction effects in determining variability. It also appeared that there is a positive correlation between the number of heterozygous allozyme loci and generative growth.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Sunflower Genotypes with Contrasting Oxidative Stress Tolerance Reveals Individual- and Combined- Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Vemanna S; Paramanantham, Anjugam; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Mohan-Raju, Basavaiah; Udayakumar, Makarla; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2016-01-01

    In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses.

  1. Genetic Variation, Heritability, and Diversity Analysis of Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L. Genotypes Based on Quantitative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Tuhina-Khatun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upland rice is important for sustainable crop production to meet future food demands. The expansion in area of irrigated rice faces limitations due to water scarcity resulting from climate change. Therefore, this research aimed to identify potential genotypes and suitable traits of upland rice germplasm for breeding programmes. Forty-three genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design with three replications. All genotypes exhibited a wide and significant variation for 22 traits. The highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for the number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g. The highest heritability was found for photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2, and number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g. Cluster analysis based on 22 traits grouped the 43 rice genotypes into five clusters. Cluster II was the largest and consisted of 20 genotypes mostly originating from the Philippines. The first four principle components of 22 traits accounted for about 72% of the total variation and indicated a wide variation among the genotypes. The selected best trait of the number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g, which showed high heritability and high genetic advance, could be used as a selection criterion for hybridisation programmes in the future.

  2. Genetic Variation, Heritability, and Diversity Analysis of Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes Based on Quantitative Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhina-Khatun, Mst; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Rafii Yusop, Mohd; Wong, M Y; Salleh, Faezah M; Ferdous, Jannatul

    2015-01-01

    Upland rice is important for sustainable crop production to meet future food demands. The expansion in area of irrigated rice faces limitations due to water scarcity resulting from climate change. Therefore, this research aimed to identify potential genotypes and suitable traits of upland rice germplasm for breeding programmes. Forty-three genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design with three replications. All genotypes exhibited a wide and significant variation for 22 traits. The highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for the number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g). The highest heritability was found for photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO₂, and number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g). Cluster analysis based on 22 traits grouped the 43 rice genotypes into five clusters. Cluster II was the largest and consisted of 20 genotypes mostly originating from the Philippines. The first four principle components of 22 traits accounted for about 72% of the total variation and indicated a wide variation among the genotypes. The selected best trait of the number of filled grains/panicle and yields/plant (g), which showed high heritability and high genetic advance, could be used as a selection criterion for hybridisation programmes in the future.

  3. Ex vivo multiscale quantitation of skin biomechanics in wild-type and genetically-modified mice using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancelin, Stéphane; Lynch, Barbara; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ducourthial, Guillaume; Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Dokládal, Petr; Allain, Jean-Marc; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Ruggiero, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Soft connective tissues such as skin, tendon or cornea are made of about 90% of extracellular matrix proteins, fibrillar collagens being the major components. Decreased or aberrant collagen synthesis generally results in defective tissue mechanical properties as the classic form of Elhers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS). This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in collagen V genes and is mainly characterized by skin hyperextensibility. To investigate the relationship between the microstructure of normal and diseased skins and their macroscopic mechanical properties, we imaged and quantified the microstructure of dermis of ex vivo murine skin biopsies during uniaxial mechanical assay using multiphoton microscopy. We used two genetically-modified mouse lines for collagen V: a mouse model for cEDS harboring a Col5a2 deletion (a.k.a. pN allele) and the transgenic K14-COL5A1 mice which overexpress the human COL5A1 gene in skin. We showed that in normal skin, the collagen fibers continuously align with stretch, generating the observed increase in mechanical stress. Moreover, dermis from both transgenic lines exhibited altered collagen reorganization upon traction, which could be linked to microstructural modifications. These findings show that our multiscale approach provides new crucial information on the biomechanics of dermis that can be extended to all collagen-rich soft tissues.

  4. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    OpenAIRE

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia) and three Southern European countries (Portugal, Greece and Spain, and additional to this the autonomous region of Catalonia) to the three original SUN countries. The topics covered ...

  5. Significant impact of non-B HIV-1 variants genetic diversity in Gabon on plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Mabika-Mabika, Arsène; Alalade, Patrick; Mongo, Arnaud Delis; Sica, Jeanne; Liégeois, Florian; Rouet, François

    2014-01-01

    Evaluations of HIV-1 RNA viral load assays are lacking in Central Africa. The main objective of our study was to assess the reliability of HIV-1 RNA results obtained with three different assays for samples collected in Gabon. A total of 137 plasma specimens were assessed for HIV-1 RNA using the Abbott RealTime HIV-1® and Nuclisens HIV-1 EasyQ® version 2.0 assays. It included HIV-1 non-B samples (n = 113) representing six subtypes, 10 CRFs and 18 URFs from patients infected with HIV-1 and treated with antiretrovirals that were found HIV-1 RNA positive (≥300 copies/ml) with the Generic HIV viral load® assay; and samples (n = 24) from untreated individuals infected with HIV-1 but showing undetectable (<300 copies/ml) results with the Biocentric kit. For samples found positive with the Generic HIV viral load® test, correlation coefficients obtained between the three techniques were relatively low (R = 0.65 between Generic HIV viral load® and Abbott RealTime HIV-1®, 0.50 between Generic HIV viral load® and Nuclisens HIV-1 EasyQ®, and 0.66 between Abbott RealTime HIV-1® and Nuclisens HIV-1 EasyQ®). Discrepancies by at least one log10 were obtained for 19.6%, 33.7%, and 20% of samples, respectively, irrespective of genotype. Most of samples (22/24) from untreated study patients, found negative with the Biocentric kit, were also found negative with the two other techniques. In Central Africa, HIV-1 genetic diversity remains challenging for viral load testing. Further studies are required in the same area to confirm the presence of HIV-1 strains that are not amplified with at least two different viral load assays.

  6. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Navdeep Gill; Matteo Buti; Nolan Kane; Arnaud Bellec; Nicolas Helmstetter; Hélène Berges; Loren H. Rieseberg

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the g...

  7. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  8. Ecologically relevant stress resistance: from microarrays and quantitative trait loci to candidate genes – A research plan and preliminary results using Drosophila as a model organism and climatic and genetic stress as model stresses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volker Loeschcke; Jesper G Sørensen; Torsten N Kristensen

    2004-12-01

    We aim at studying adaptation to genetic and environmental stress and its evolutionary implications at different levels of biological organization. Stress influences cellular processes, individual physiology, genetic variation at the population level, and the process of natural selection. To investigate these highly connected levels of stress effects, it is advisable – if not critical – to integrate approaches from ecology, evolution, physiology, molecular biology and genetics. To investigate the mechanisms of stress resistance, how resistance evolves, and what factors contribute to and constrain its evolution, we use the well-defined model systems of Drosophila species, representing both cosmopolitan species such as D. melanogaster with a known genome map, and more specialized and ecologically well described species such as the cactophilic D. buzzatii. Various climate-related stresses are used as model stresses including desiccation, starvation, cold and heat. Genetic stress or genetic load is modelled by studying the consequences of inbreeding, the accumulation of (slightly) deleterious mutations, hybridization or the loss of genetic variability. We present here a research plan and preliminary results combining various approaches: molecular techniques such as microarrays, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses, quantitative PCR, ELISA or Western blotting are combined with population studies of resistance to climatic and genetic stress in natural populations collected across climatic gradients as well as in selection lines maintained in the laboratory.

  9. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Pineda-Martos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms.

  10. Genome scans reveal candidate domestication and improvement genes in cultivated sunflower, as well as post-domestication introgression with wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baute, Gregory J; Kane, Nolan C; Grassa, Christopher J; Lai, Zhao; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-04-01

    The development of modern crops typically involves both selection and hybridization, but to date most studies have focused on the former. In the present study, we explore how both processes, and their interactions, have molded the genome of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus), a globally important oilseed. To identify genes targeted by selection during the domestication and improvement of sunflower, and to detect post-domestication hybridization with wild species, we analyzed transcriptome sequences of 80 genotypes, including wild, landrace, and modern lines of H. annuus, as well as two cross-compatible wild relatives, Helianthus argophyllus and Helianthus petiolaris. Outlier analyses identified 122 and 15 candidate genes associated with domestication and improvement, respectively. As in several previous studies, genes putatively involved in oil biosynthesis were the most extreme outliers. Additionally, several promising associations were observed with previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs), such as branching. Admixture analyses revealed that all the modern cultivar genomes we examined contained one or more introgressions from wild populations, with every chromosome having evidence of introgression in at least one modern line. Cumulatively, introgressions cover c. 10% of the cultivated sunflower genome. Surprisingly, introgressions do not avoid candidate domestication genes, probably because of the reintroduction of branching.

  11. Influence of thiourea application on some physiological and molecular criteria of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants under conditions of heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladious, Samia Ageeb

    2014-05-01

    High temperature is a major factor limiting the growth of plant species during summer. Understanding the mechanisms of plant tolerance to high temperature would help in developing effective management practices and heat-tolerant cultivars through breeding or biotechnology. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of thiourea in enhancing the tolerance of sunflower plants to heat stress. Sunflower plants were subjected to temperature stress by exposing plants to 35 or 45 °C for 12 h. Two levels of thiourea (10 and 20 mM) were applied before sowing (seed treatment). The results indicated that the plants exposed to temperature stress exhibited a significant decline in growth parameters, chlorophylls, relative leaf water content, oil content, leaf nutrient status, and nitrate reductase activity. Treatment with thiourea, especially when applied at 10 mM, improved the above parameters and induced non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants responsible for antioxidation. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that high-temperature treatments alone or in combination with thiourea were associated with the disappearance of some bands or the appearance of unique ones. The result of RAPD analysis using five primers showed variable qualitative and quantitative changes. These findings confirm the effectiveness of applying thiourea on alleviating heat injuries in sunflower plants.

  12. Thiamethoxam seed treatments hav no impact on pest numbers or yield in cultivated sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of neonicotinoid seed treatments is a nearly ubiquitous practice in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pest management. Sunflowers have a speciose pest complex, but also harbor a diverse and abundant community of beneficial, non-target organisms which may be negatively affected by pest management...

  13. In vivo digestibility of corn and sunflower intercropped as a silage crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, F R; Harrison, J H; Deetz, D A; Fransen, S C

    1988-07-01

    Six nonlactating Holstein cows in a 3 x 3 Latin square total collection digestion trial were used to evaluate three low DM (less than 26%) silage types: 1) corn; 2) corn and sunflower intercropped and 3) sunflower. Feeding periods consisted of a 7-d adjustment followed by a 5-d collection period. Dry matter intake was similar for the three treatments; 12.5, 12.1, and 12.0 kg, respectively. Percent apparent digestibilities for DM, NDF, and N for corn and corn-sunflower were similar and greater than for sunflower: DM (69.6, 68.2, 57.4); NDF (68.1, 61.5, 51.6); and N (66.3, 66.5, 63.6). No differences were observed for digestibilities of ADF, hemicellulose, starch, or for N retention. Percent ether extract digestibility was greatest for corn-sunflower and sunflower silage when compared with digestibility of corn silage (82.5, 77.9, vs. 66.3). Major changes in rumen fermentation patterns were not observed as evidenced by rumen molar proportions of propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, valerate, or acetate to propionate ratios. No difference was observed for rumen NH3 N (2.7, 3.2, 4.1 mg/dl, respectively). Corn and sunflower intercropped silage had intermediate concentrations of fat, fiber, and protein when compared with those of corn or sunflower silages.

  14. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4. The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60% did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences

  15. Effect of solvents on the fractionation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootello, Miguel A; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2015-04-01

    Solvent fractionation of high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower oil was studied to determine the best solvent to use (hexane or acetone) in terms of the operational parameters and properties of the final stearins. Acetone fractionation on two types of HOHS sunflower oils (N17 and N20) was carried out at temperatures from 5 to 10 °C using micelles with different oil/solvent ratios. Acetone was more suitable than hexane as a solvent for HSHO sunflower oil fractionation because it allowed the oil to be fractionated at higher temperatures and at lower supercooling degrees. Likewise, a sunflower soft stearin obtained by dry fractionation of HOHS sunflower oil was also used to produce high-melting point stearins by acetone or hexane fractionation. The fractionation of these stearins could be performed at higher temperatures and gave higher yields. The combination of dry and solvent fractionation to obtain tailor-made stearins is discussed.

  16. Physico-chemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water deficit conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sunflower seed and seed oils were assessed. Two sunflower cultivars (Gulshan-98 and Suncross were sown in the field. The water stress treatment was applied at the vegetative or the reproductive stage. Analysis of the sunflower seed showed that the oil content decreased (a decline of 10.52% relative to the control significantly (p ≤ 0.05 due to water stress when imposed at either of the growth stages. Both of the sunflower cultivars studied showed differential responses to water stress with respect to oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. A significant negative correlation in oil oleic and linoleic acid was observed in cv. Gulshan-98 under water deficit conditions as compared to Suncross in which no such effect of water stress on oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Water deficit conditions caused a reduction in linolenic acid in Gulshan-98, whereas it remained unaffected in Suncross. The stearic acid content increased in cv. Gulshan-98 due to drought, whereas no effect due to water stress was observed on oil palmitic acid content in either sunflower cultivar. Overall, oil unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged in the drought stressed or normally irrigated plants of both cultivars but saturated fatty acid increased in Gulshan-98. Individual (α, γ, and δ and total tocopherol contents in the seed oil increased significantly with the application of water stress in both cultivars. An assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of the oils of both sunflower cultivars revealed that drought stress caused a marked increase in the content of un-saponifiable matter (18.75% with respect to the control and a decrease in iodine value (5.87% with respect to the control, but saponifcation value, density, specific gravity and refractive index remained unchanged.El efecto de las condiciones de déficit de agua sobre las caracter

  17. Application of a qualitative and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting genetically modified papaya line 55-1 in papaya products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-01-15

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line 55-1 (55-1), which is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, has been marketed internationally. Many countries have mandatory labeling regulations for GM foods, and there is a need for specific methods for detecting 55-1. Here, an event- and construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detecting 55-1 in papaya products. Quantitative detection was possible for fresh papaya fruit up to dilutions of 0.001% and 0.01% (weight per weight [w/w]) for homozygous SunUp and heterozygous Rainbow cultivars, respectively, in non-GM papaya. The limit of detection and quantification was as low as 250 copies of the haploid genome according to a standard reference plasmid. The method was applicable to qualitative detection of 55-1 in eight types of processed products (canned papaya, pickled papaya, dried fruit, papaya-leaf tea, jam, puree, juice, and frozen dessert) containing papaya as a main ingredient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biplot Analysis of Silicon Dioxide on Early Growth of Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into nanotechnology has advanced in almost all fields of technology and the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 in germination performance sunflower. Germination and seedling growth are the most important stage of plant development and are critical factors to crop production and are essential to achieve optimum performance. The effects of pre-germination hydration in solutions of nano-SiO2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h on germination characteristics of sunflower were investigated. The trait by treatment (TT biplot explained 93% of the total variation of the standardized data (77% and 16% for the first and second principal components, respectively. According to polygon-view of TT biplot, T2 (0.2 mM had the highest values for all of the measured traits except mean germination time and the time to 50% germination. The germination percentage was determined as the best trait and showed the high association with promptness index, energy of germination and germination rate traits. The results of the present study indicated that pre-sowing seed treatments with low concentration of nano-SiO2 had favorable effect sunflower seed germination and seedling early growth. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to outline other crops in response to nano-particles as well as to help define tolerance tools for recommendations in stressful conditions in the world.

  19. IDENTIFYING GENETIC ASSOCIATIONS WITH VARIABILITY IN METABOLIC HEALTH AND BLOOD COUNT LABORATORY VALUES: DIVING INTO THE QUANTITATIVE TRAITS BY LEVERAGING LONGITUDINAL DATA FROM AN EHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shefali S; Lucas, Anastasia M; Lavage, Daniel R; Leader, Joseph B; Metpally, Raghu; Krishnamurthy, Sarathbabu; Dewey, Frederick; Borecki, Ingrid; Lopez, Alexander; Overton, John; Penn, John; Reid, Jeffrey; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Breitwieser, Gerda; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2016-01-01

    variance group and the low variance group for each lab variable. We found 717 PheWAS associations that replicated at a p-value less than 0.001. Next, we evaluated the results of this study by comparing the association results between the high and low variance groups. For example, we found 39 SNPs (in multiple genes) associated with ICD-9 250.01 (Type-I diabetes) in patients with high variance of plasma glucose levels, but not in patients with low variance in plasma glucose levels. Another example is the association of 4 SNPs in UMOD with chronic kidney disease in patients with high variance for aspartate aminotransferase (discovery p-value: 8.71×10-09 and replication p-value: 2.03×10-06). In general, we see a pattern of many more statistically significant associations from patients with high variance in the quantitative lab variables, in comparison with the low variance group across all of the 25 laboratory measurements. This study is one of the first of its kind to utilize quantitative trait variance from longitudinal laboratory data to find associations among genetic variants and clinical phenotypes obtained from an EHR, integrating laboratory values and diagnosis codes to understand the genetic complexities of common diseases.

  20. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots in Stata Version 8

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D

    2004-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional ...