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Sample records for sunflower originated continues

  1. Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a species native to North America. It is a relatively new crop in the USA with commercialization starting around 1970. The high oil content sunflower seed changed the economics of producing and crushing sunflower seed for oil, making it attractive for growers. A n...

  2. Synthesis and refining of sunflower biodiesel in a cascade of continuous centrifugal contactor separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Abu Ghazali, Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik; Teddy, T; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol was studied in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like oil and methanol flow rate, rotational speed and catalyst concentr

  3. Synthesis and refining of sunflower biodiesel in a cascade of continuous centrifugal contactor separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Abu Ghazali, Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik; Teddy, T; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol was studied in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like oil and methanol flow rate, rotational speed and catalyst concentr

  4. Disentangling the Origin of the Kok Effect Using Position Specific Glucose Labeling in Sunflower Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, P. P.; Bender, M. L.; Saenz, N.

    2015-12-01

    In plants, leaf mitochondrial respiratory CO2 release is inhibited by light. Bessel Kok first demonstrated this inhibition in 1948. Based on curves of CO2 assimilation vs irradiance, it is understood that respiration is maximal in the dark. It then frequently decreases linearly with irradiance until reaching some value around the compensation point, beyond which it is constant. CO2 released by mitochondrial respiration is the result of decarboxylation through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the tricarboxylic acid pathway (TCAP) and the oxydative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). The overall activity of these three reactions is reduced by light. However, their individual contributions to the Kok effect are unknown. We measured the rate of decarboxylation of glucose, position-specifically labeled with 13C, to evaluate the participation of PDH, TCAP and OPPP in the Kok effect of sunflower. Leaves were fed with labeled glucose through their transpiration stream. The δ13C of the CO2 released by the leaf was then measured as a function of irradiance. The results showed that the inhibition of the decarboxylation of carbon positions 3 and 4 in glucose is at the origin of the Kok effect. These are the positions of carbon atoms decarboxylated by PDH. In addition, the rate of decarboxylation of position 1 was not different in the light and in the dark. Thus OPPP plays no role in the Kok effect in sunflower leaves. This work improves our current understanding of leaf mitochondrial respiratory metabolism in the light. Invoking the Kok effect in plant physiology models should improve our ability to simulate carbon fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. Influence of dimethylpolysiloxane addition to frying oils: performance of sunflower oil in discontinuous and continuous laboratory frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, N.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils were used to study the influence of dimethylpolysiloxane (DMPS addition (2 mg/Kg on discontinuous and simulated continuous laboratory frying. Analytical methods applied for a direct evaluation of oil degradation included determination of total polar compounds, polymers, oxidized triglyceride monomers and diglycerides. Results indicated that DMPS has a strong positive action in discontinuous frying as differences between samples with and without DMPS were very high and much more pronounced than those attributed to oil unsaturation. However, DMPS was not effective in simulated continuous frying. Comparison from results obtained for discontinuous and simulated continuous frying demonstrated that the surface was well protected from the penetration of oxygen when potatoes are being fried and, in consequence, protection by DMPS in discontinuous frying took place when the oil surface was unprotected.

  6. Impact of Inorganic Arsenicals on Vegetative Growth of Two Pakistani Origins Sunflower Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Imran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenicals impact on vegetative growth of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cultivars (FH-385 as Hybrid 1 and FH-405 as Hybrid 2 was monitored. Various levels of two different sodium salts of arsenic, namely, sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4·7H2O as source of As5+ and sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 as source of As3+, were used to evaluate the effect of arsenic on plant water relation parameters. Significant stress effects were found when arsenic was higher in concentrations (>60 mg/kg soil of both salts as compared to control plants. Genotype FH-405 showed higher levels for shoot and root length, water contents, number of leaves, and leaf area, which indicates well adaptation of this cultivar in arsenic contaminated environment. T5 (100 mg/kg of both salts showed notable stressful impacts as compared to low arsenic concentrations (20, 40 mg/kg and especially control plants in case of all morphophysiological parameters of sunflower cultivars.

  7. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  8. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  9. The Effects of Massage with Coconut and Sunflower Oils on Oxygen Saturation of Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated With Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Valizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays particular emphasis is placed on the developmental aspects of premature infants care. Massage therapy is one of the best-known methods of caring. Due to the minimal touch policy in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, massaging is not usually performed on premature infants. However, there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that newborn infants with complex medical conditions should not be massaged. This study aimed to determine the effects of massage with coconut and sunflower oils on oxygen saturation of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on 90 newborns who were admitted to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran. The infants were divided into control and massage therapy groups (massage with coconut and sunflower oils. Data was collected using a hospital documentation form. A 15-minute daily massage was performed for 3 days. Respiratory rate (RR, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and oxygen saturation were measured 5 minutes before the massage, 3 times during the massage, and 5 minutes after the massage. The collected data was analyzed using a mixed model. Results: In comparison to coconut oil and control groups, mean oxygen saturation of sunflower oil group was improved. In addition, the coconut massage group showed lower oxygen saturation than the control group but was all values were within the normal range. Although massage decreased oxygen saturation, there was no need to increase FiO2. Conclusion: Massage therapy can provide developmental care for infants treated with NCPAP.

  10. Big bang or continuous creation: does life have multiple origins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesky, Gregory A.

    2012-10-01

    The generally accepted notion of a single origin of life from a primordial soup on the early Earth has been challenged recently by the suggestion of a "second life," "shadow life," and even "biological dark matter." The problem in classifying these microorganisms is in the difficulty or complete failure of the 16s genetic fingerprinting process, suggesting a different underlying biochemistry resulting from at least a second origin of life. We consider an extension of this concept to include continuous origination of life throughout Earth's history, up to the present. The consequences for interpreting the "tree of life" are also considered.

  11. Production of trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid in continuous culture fermenters fed diets containing fish oil and sunflower oil with decreasing levels of forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abughazaleh, A; Jacobson, B N

    2007-06-01

    Previously, feeding fish oil (FO) and sunflower seeds to dairy cows resulted in the greatest increases in the concentrations of vaccenic acid (VA, t11 C18:1) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forage level in diets containing FO and sunflower oil (SFO) on the production of trans C18:1 and CLA by mixed ruminal microbes. A dual-flow continuous culture system consisting of three fermenters was used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design. Treatments consisted of (1) 75:25 forage:concentrate (HF); (2) 50:50 forage:concentrate (MF); and (3) 25:75 forage:concentrate (LF). FO and SFO were added to each diet at 1 and 2 g/100 g dry matter (DM), respectively. The forage source was alfalfa pellets. During 10-day incubations, fermenters were fed treatment diets three times daily (140 g/day, divided equally between three feedings) as TMR diet. Effluents from the last 3 days of incubation were collected and composited for analysis. The concentration of trans C18:1 (17.20, 26.60, and 36.08 mg/g DM overflow for HF, MF, and LF treatments, respectively) increased while CLA (2.53, 2.35, and 0.81 mg/g DM overflow) decreased in a linear manner ( P effluent increased ( P effluent decreased in a linear manner ( P < 0.05) as dietary forage levels decreased. Decreasing dietary forage levels resulted in t10 C18:1 and t10c12 CLA replacing VA and c9t11 CLA, respectively, in fermenters fed FO and SFO.

  12. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  13. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  14. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  15. A comparison of the properties of polyurethane immobilised Sphagnum moss, seaweed, sunflower waste and maize for the biosorption of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni in continuous flow packed columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles

    2006-02-01

    The biosorption of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni from a mixed solution of the metals was investigated in continuous flow packed columns containing polyurethane immobilised biomass. The characteristics and biosorption properties of Sphagnum moss, the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, waste biomass from the preparation of sunflower oil, and whole plant maize were compared. All the biomass types showed a preference for the sequestration of Pb followed by Cu, with Ni and Zn having roughly equal affinity. With continuous metal loading to the column there was an initial binding of all metals and then a displacement of the lower affinity metals by those with a high affinity. This led to a chromatographic effect in the column with breakthrough concentrations for low-affinity metals higher than the concentration in the feed. A similar phenomenon was found on desorption using acidic solutions where low-affinity metals were desorbed preferentially. The results also indicated that despite competitive displacement of one metal species by another the biomass appeared to succeed in retaining some low-affinity metal species indicating that there may be selective sites present with different affinity characteristics. When using a multi-metal solution with Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni at equal 10 mgl(-1) concentrations as column influent, the total quantities of metal sequestered were: seaweed, 117.3 mg g(-1); sunflower waste, 33.2 mg g(-1); Sphagnum moss, 32.5 mg g(-1); and maize, 2.3 mg g(-1). The use of an acid base potentiometric titration showed a relationship between the number of acid functional groups and biosorption capacity, although this was not proportional for the biomass types studied. It can, however, be used in conjunction with a simple classification of metals into high and low-affinity bands to make a preliminary assessment of a biosorption system.

  16. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  17. MICROELEMENTS IN SUNFLOWER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldykova I. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The obtained experimental data show that the incorporation of trace elements into the system of the sunflower crop has a positive impact on the mineral nutrition of plants, the number and quality of the crop. Foliar feeding of sunflower crops with micronutrients improves nutrition of plants with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, thus creating the preconditions for the formation of highly agrocenosis. The seed yield of sunflower increased by variants with application of micronutrients 1.2-3.5 t/ha or 4.4-12.9 percent. The greatest impact of treatment with boron and copper, exceeding the background option 3.1-3.5 t/ha or 11.5-12.9% respectively. The crop is least influenced by manganese and molybdenum. The examined elements positively influenced the structure of the sunflower crop. The greatest influence on the diameter of the basket, the number of seeds, weight of seeds in the basket, the weight of 1000 seeds was provided by the zinc and copper. Trace elements contributed to the improvement of quality indicators of sunflower. For husk content, the greatest positive effect was cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper, increasing the background option 10.1, 10.4, 10.5 and 10, and 6%, respectively, on the oil content of sunflower seeds had cobalt, copper and zinc. The oil content on these options amounted 55,0, with 55.1 and 55.2%, respectively, increasing this figure by 1.5 to 1.7 %. The acid number at variants with boron, manganese and zinc was the same with the background option and amounted to 1.8. The greatest influence on iodine number provided molybdenum, zinc and copper, which accounted for 170,5, 171,2 and 171,4, exceeding the background option 10.2 and 11.1

  18. Development of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Siniša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of tribenuron-methyl resistant wild Helianthus annuus L. population (ANN-KAN created an opportunity for expansion of sunflower herbicide resistance breeding program. The aim of this study was development of sunflower hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Creation of tribenuron-methyl resistant hybrids would enable the use of a wider palette of herbicides for sunflower, more efficient chemical control of Cirsium arvense and more economically profitable post-emergence control of some annual broad-leaves weeds in sunflower. Original populations SURES-1 and SURES-2 are homozygous for resistance to tribenuron-methyl. F1 generations produced from the crossings are completely resistant to tribenuron-methyl, pointing out to dominant way of inheritance of this trait. Studies on the exact number of genes controlling the resistance are in progress. Tribenuron-methyl resistance was transferred from original populations into a number of female and male inbred lines of cultivated sunflower. These inbred lines could enable creation of a number of hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Hybrids SUMO-1-PR, SUMO-2- OR and SUMO-3 are resistant to doubled application dose of tribenuron-methyl. Agronomical characteristics of these hybrids are on the level with the leading conventional sunflower hybrids.

  19. Sunflower crop in Argentina to date

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez A.; de Romano A.

    2006-01-01

    Inside a panorama of a spectacular grain production in the last 10 years in Argentina, sunflower crop participates with an annual production of more than 3,500,000 t. During that period, many advances were made in the improvement of diseases resistance: Verticillium wilt, downy mildew and head rot. Also oil yield per hectare continued to increase. The new hybrids have new qualities, for example imidazolinones resistance, which allows farmers to keep yields, although the soils destined to sunf...

  20. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  1. Effects of different doses of low power continuous wave he-ne laser radiation on some seed thermodynamic and germination parameters, and potential enzymes involved in seed germination of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Rashida; Ali, Qasim; Ashraf, Muhammad; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Jamil, Yasir; Raza Ahmad, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    In this study, water-soaked seeds of sunflower were exposed to He-Ne laser irradiation of different energies to determine whether or not He-Ne laser irradiation caused changes to seed thermodynamic and germination parameters as well as effects on the activities of germination enzymes. The experiment comprised four energy levels: 0 (control), 100, 300 and 500mJ of laser energy and each treatment replicated four times arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimentation was performed under the greenhouse conditions in the net-house of the Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The seed thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to seed germination thermograms determined with a calorimeter at 25.8°C for 72h. Various thermodynamic parameters of seed (ΔH, (ΔS)(e), (ΔS)(c), (ΔS)(e) /Δt and (ΔS)(c) /Δt) were affected significantly due to presowing laser treatment. Significant changes in seed germination parameters and enzyme activities were observed in seeds treated with He-Ne laser. The He-Ne laser seed treatment resulted in increased activities of amylase and protease. These results indicate that the low power continuous wave He-Ne laser light seed treatment has considerable biological effects on seed metabolism. This seed treatment technique can be potentially employed to enhance agricultural productivity.

  2. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  3. Gustav klimt's "sunflower" impact on Schiller "sunflower" Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯新

    2016-01-01

    gustav klimt and Schiller as a master of expressionism, same to the entire world's art has a great influence. But klimt's landscape painting had a huge impact on Schiller's landscape paintings, the most typical example is Schiller's already watched the klimt's "sunflower"exhibition, to create a picture composition and theme is very similar to the sunflower Ⅱ, thus klimt for Schiller's influence.

  4. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  5. 37 CFR 1.178 - Original patent; continuing duty of applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original patent; continuing duty of applicant. 1.178 Section 1.178 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...

  6. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the U.S. Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Paul J; Charlet, Laurence D; Seiler, Gerald J

    2011-02-01

    Classical biological control programs often target a pest's region of origin as a likely source for new biological control agents. Here, we use this approach to search for biological control agents of the sunflower stem weevil (Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte), an economically important pest of commercial sunflower. We conducted surveys of weevil natural enemy diversity and abundance across a transect running from the northern Great Plains to the southwestern U.S. (the presumed area of endemism of annual sunflower species in the genus Helianthus). Accordingly, natural enemy diversity and abundance were expected to be greater in the southwestern U.S. C. adspersus and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states. Native H. annuus constituted the majority of the sunflower populations. Mean weevil densities were significantly higher in sunflower stalks that were larger in diameter. Mean weevil densities within sites did not differ across the range of longitudes and latitudes sampled. After accounting for the effects of stalk diameter and location, weevil densities did not differ among the four sunflower species nor did they differ as a function of elevation. C. adspersus in H. annuus and H. petiolaris were attacked by seven species of parasitoids. No parasitoids were found attacking C. adspersus in H. nuttallii or H. pauciflorus stalks. C. adspersus were twice as likely to be attacked by a parasitoid when feeding on H. petiolaris than H. annuus. Furthermore, the likelihood that C. adspersus would be parasitized decreased with increasing elevation and increasing stem diameters. All parasitoid species have been previously reported attacking C. adspersus larvae in cultivated sunflower. Species richness was less diverse in these collections than from previous studies of cultivated sunflower. Our findings suggest that the species

  7. Crop-weed competition between sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and Convolvulus arvensis L. in substitutive experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinczi, G; Takács, A; Horváth, J

    2006-01-01

    The main characteristics of a substitutive experiment is that the proportions of two species in the mixtures are varied while the overall density of the two species is maintained constant - a replacement series. In our experiments early competition between sunflower and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) was studied in a replacement studies under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were set up with the following treatments: 1, sunflower 100% (6 plants pot(-1)); 2, sunflower 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)); 3, sunflower 33.3% (2 plants pot(-1)) + C. arvensis 66.6% (4 plants pot(-1)); 4, C. arvensis 100% (6 plants pot(-1)). Sixty eight days after sowing dry weight of shoots and roots were measured and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content was also determined. Dry biomass production of sunflower was almost twice higher as compared to that of C. arvensis without interspecific competition. Dry weight of sunflower and C. arvensis shoots and roots for a plant continuously decreased by reducing their proportion in the mixtures. Higher biomass production of sunflower suggests, that its development is faster at the beginning of vegetation penod, therefore sunflower has better competitive ability in sunflower--C. arvensis mixtures in the early competition as compared to C. arvensis. Shoot:root ratio of plants did not change considerably in mixtures, but generally was ten times higher in sunflower plants, as compared to that of C. arvensis. Shoots generally contained macro elements at higher concentration as compared to those of roots. Total NPK content of sunflower was reduced by 53 and 82% for a pot, as its proportion decreased in the mixtures. More severe reduction in NPK content was observed in case of C. arvensis, which also proves stronger competitive ability of sunflower in the early vegetation.

  8. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D; W. Dale Plummer Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventio...

  9. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  10. Analysis of the origin of periodic oscillatory flow in the continuous casting mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-young; Kim, Yong-tae; Yi, Kyung-woo

    2015-03-01

    It is very important to understand flow patterns within the continuous casting mold because they have a significant impact on product quality. Water model experiment and particle image velocimetry were conducted to identify the fluid flow pattern in the steel slab continuous casting mold. The fluid flow pattern in the mold is not steady but instead an oscillatory flow with a specific oscillation frequencies. Many studies have been reported about oscillatory flow within the mold. However, these studies do not provide a clear explanation of physical origin of oscillatory flow. We identified the physical origins of various specific oscillation frequencies, and confirmed through experimentation and simulation that each frequency is related to the cross flow and injection stream oscillation. Moreover, the degree of oscillation at each frequency appears differently depending on the location within the mold, and is shown to have a effect near the mold wall. These results provide a better understanding of complex oscillatory flow patterns within the mold.

  11. Sunflower proteins : overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Pérez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing worldwide demand for proteins of both animal and plant origin. However, animal proteins are expensive in terms of both market price and environmental impact. Among alternative plant proteins, sunflower seeds are particularly interesting in view of their widespread availability in

  12. Sunflower proteins : overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Pérez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing worldwide demand for proteins of both animal and plant origin. However, animal proteins are expensive in terms of both market price and environmental impact. Among alternative plant proteins, sunflower seeds are particularly interesting in view of their widespread availability in

  13. Preventing Rancidity in sunflower Oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used in turn to extract the polar flavonoids, while chilled acetone and petroleum ether ... sunflower oil was measured using changes in peroxide values and the UV absorbances (Conjugated diene) .... metal ions and metalloprotein catalysts.

  14. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  15. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  16. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-09-01

    Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the observed potential negative effect in this trial, future randomized clinical trials may base their design on randomly assigning the exposed patients to give up use of sunflower seed intake.

  17. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  18. Direct evidence for continuous radar reflector originating from changes in crystal-orientation fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Eisen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of a strong continuous radar reflector observed with airborne radio-echo sounding (RES at the EPICA deep-drilling site in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, is identified as a transition in crystal fabric orientation from a vertical girdle to an increased single-pole orientation seen along the ice core. The reflector is observed with a 60 ns and 600 ns long pulse at a frequency of 150 MHz, spans one pulse length, is continuous over 5 km, and occurs at a depth of about 2025–2045 m at the drill site. Changes in conductivity as reflector origin are excluded by investigating the ice-core profile, synthetic RES data, and a RES profile with different electromagnetic polarisation azimuths. The reflector's magnitude shows maximum values for polarisation parallel to the nearby ice divide and disappears for polarisation perpendicular to it, identifying the orientation of the girdle to lie in the vertical plane parallel to the ice divide. Observations allow us to extrapolate the crystal orientation feature along the reflector in space, with implications for ice-sheet dynamics and modeling.

  19. Original position statistic distribution analysis study of low alloy steel continuous casting billet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Haizhou; ZHAO; Pei; CHEN; Jiwen; LI; Meiling; YANG; Z

    2005-01-01

    The homogeneity of low alloy steels continuous casting billet obtained under different technological conditions has been investigated by original position statistic distribution analysis technique. On the basis of systematic analysis of ten thousands primary optical signals at the corresponding original positions, the quantitative statistic distribution information of each element was obtained. The biggest degrees of segregation of low alloy steel continuous casting billet were calculated accurately according to the quantitative distribution maps of the contents. It was suggested that the weight ratio in a certain content range was used to judge the homogeneity of the materials, and the two models -- the total weight ratio of contents (the degree of statistic homogeneity, H) within the permissive content range (C0±R) and the median value confidence extension ratio (the degree of statistic segregation, S) at 95% of confidence limit of weight ratio -- were put forward. The two models reflect the composition and state distribution regularity of the metal materials in a large region. The difference between the sample with high columnar crystal and the sample with high equiaxed crystal has been studied by using the two models.

  20. Compendium of sunflower disease and insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Compendium of Sunflower Diseases and Pests is a new addition to the popular APS Press series of plant disease compendia. This will be the most comprehensive guide to sunflower diseases and pests in the world. The introduction contains brief histories of sunflower use and production, botany of th...

  1. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  2. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    OpenAIRE

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia) and three Southern European countries (Portugal, Greece and Spain, and additional to this the autonomous region of Catalonia) to the three original SUN countries. The topics covered ...

  3. Turning heads: the biology of solar tracking in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbrink, Joshua P; Brown, Evan A; Harmer, Stacey L; Blackman, Benjamin K

    2014-07-01

    Solar tracking in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, is a dramatic example of a diurnal rhythm in plants. During the day, the shoot apex continuously reorients, following the sun's relative position so that the developing heads track from east to west. At night, the reverse happens, and the heads return and face east in anticipation of dawn. This daily cycle dampens and eventually stops at anthesis, after which the sunflower head maintains an easterly orientation. Although shoot apical heliotropism has long been the subject of physiological studies in sunflower, the underlying developmental, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that drive the directional growth and curvature of the stem in response to extrinsic and perhaps intrinsic cues are not known. Furthermore, the ecological functions of solar tracking and the easterly orientation of mature heads have been the subject of significant but unresolved speculation. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge about this complex, dynamic trait. Candidate mechanisms that may contribute to daytime and nighttime movement are highlighted, including light signaling, hormonal action, and circadian regulation of growth pathways. The merits of the diverse hypotheses advanced to explain the adaptive significance of heliotropism in sunflower are also considered.

  4. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal S. Borja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

  5. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during deep frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA, Peroxide Value (PV, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC, color and viscosity were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 °C ± 5 °C, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25; while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24. Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process.

    Aceites de girasol se mezclaron con diferentes niveles de aceite de chufa prensado en frío. Se obtuvieron mezclas de aceite de chufa con girasol en las proporciones: 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30

  6. Sunflower domestication alleles support single domestication center in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Benjamin K; Scascitelli, Moira; Kane, Nolan C; Luton, Harry H; Rasmussen, David A; Bye, Robert A; Lentz, David L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-08-23

    Phylogenetic analyses of genes with demonstrated involvement in evolutionary transitions can be an important means of resolving conflicting hypotheses about evolutionary history or process. In sunflower, two genes have previously been shown to have experienced selective sweeps during its early domestication. In the present study, we identified a third candidate early domestication gene and conducted haplotype analyses of all three genes to address a recent, controversial hypothesis about the origin of cultivated sunflower. Although the scientific consensus had long been that sunflower was domesticated once in eastern North America, the discovery of pre-Columbian sunflower remains at archaeological sites in Mexico led to the proposal of a second domestication center in southern Mexico. Previous molecular studies with neutral markers were consistent with the former hypothesis. However, only two indigenous Mexican cultivars were included in these studies, and their provenance and genetic purity have been questioned. Therefore, we sequenced regions of the three candidate domestication genes containing SNPs diagnostic for domestication from large, newly collected samples of Mexican sunflower landraces and Mexican wild populations from a broad geographic range. The new germplasm also was genotyped for 12 microsatellite loci. Our evidence from multiple evolutionarily important loci and from neutral markers supports a single domestication event for extant cultivated sunflower in eastern North America.

  7. SUNflower +6 : estudio comparativo sobre el desarrollo de la seguridad vial en los países SUNflower +6 : informe final.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2007-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  8. SUNflower +6 : estudio comparativo sobre el desarrollo de la seguridad vial en los países SUNflower +6 : informe final.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2007-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  9. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet si

  10. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  11. Effect of antioxidant butylated hydroxyl anisole on the thermal or oxidative stability of sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus) by ultrasonic

    OpenAIRE

    Murari, Satish Kumar; Shwetha, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) as an antioxidant in sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus). The oxidation stability of sunflower oil have been investigated by the effects of varying amounts of BHA. The antioxidant incorporated sunflower oil system and control edible oil were subjected to heating at 180 ± 5 °C continuously for a period of 4 h per day for consecutive 4 days. The parameters used to assess the thermal degradation...

  12. Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  13. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  14. Legal Origin and Social Solidarity: The Continued Relevance of Durkheim to Comparative Institutional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris

    2017-06-01

    By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks.

  15. Dental peculiarities in the silvery mole-rat: an original model for studying the evolutionary and biological origins of continuous dental generation in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Gomes Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unravelling the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms that have impacted the mammalian dentition, since more than 200 Ma, is an intricate issue. Interestingly, a few mammal species, including the silvery mole-rat Heliophobius argenteocinereus, are able to replace their dentition by the addition of supernumerary molars at the back of jaw migrating then toward the front. The aim here was to demonstrate the potential interest of further studying this rodent in order to better understand the origins of continuous dental replacement in mammals, which could also provide interesting data concerning the evolution of limited dental generation occurring in first mammals. In the present study, we described the main stages of the dental eruptive sequence in the silvery mole-rat and the associated characteristics of horizontal replacement using X-ray microtomography. This was coupled to the investigation of other African mole-rats which have no dental replacement. This method permitted to establish evidence that the initial development of the dentition in Heliophobius is comparable to what it is observed in most of African mole-rats. This rodent first has premolars, but then identical additional molars, a mechanism convergent to manatees and the pygmy rock-wallaby. Evidence of continuous replacement and strong dental dynamics were also illustrated in Heliophobius, and stressed the need to deeply investigate these aspects for evolutionary, functional and developmental purposes. We also noticed that two groups of extinct non-mammalian synapsids convergently acquired this dental mechanism, but in a way differing from extant mammals. The discussion on the diverse evolutionary origins of horizontal dental replacement put emphasis on the necessity of focusing on biological parameters potentially involved in both continuous and limited developments of teeth in mammals. In that context, the silvery mole-rat could appear as the most appropriate candidate to do so.

  16. Legal Origin and Social Solidarity: The Continued Relevance of Durkheim to Comparative Institutional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris

    2017-01-01

    By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks. PMID:28502999

  17. Circumnutations of sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Lewis, R. F.; Venditti, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    The principal objective of the research reported here was to determine whether a plant's periodic growth oscillations, called circumnutations, would persist in the absence of a significant gravitational or inertial force. The definitive experiment was made possible by access to the condition of protracted near weightlessness in an earth satellite. The experiment, performed during the first flight of Spacelab on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shuttle, Columbia, in November and December, 1983, tested a biophysical model, proposed in 1967, that might account for circumnutation as a gravity-dependent growth response. However, circumnutations were observed in microgravity. They continued for many hours without stimulation by a significant g-force. Therefore, neither a gravitational nor an inertial g-force was an absolute requirement for initiation [correction of initation] or continuation of circumnutation. On average, circumnutation was significantly more vigorous in satellite orbit than on earth-based clinostats. Therefore, at least for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) circumnutation, clinostatting is not the functional equivalent of weightlessness.

  18. SUNflower +6 : estudio comparativo sobre el desarrollo de la seguridad vial en los países SUNflower +6 : informe final.

    OpenAIRE

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2007-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia) and three Southern European countries (Portugal, Greece and Spain, and additional to this the autonomous region of Catalonia) to the three original SUN countries. The topics covered ...

  19. Continuously variable rating: a new, simple and logical procedure to evaluate original scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha e Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Impact Factors (IF are widely used surrogates to evaluate single articles, in spite of known shortcomings imposed by cite distribution skewness. We quantify this asymmetry and propose a simple computer-based procedure for evaluating individual articles. METHOD: (a Analysis of symmetry. Journals clustered around nine Impact Factor points were selected from the medical ‘‘Subject Categories’’ in Journal Citation Reports 2010. Citable items published in 2008 were retrieved and ranked by granted citations over the Jan/2008 - Jun/2011 period. Frequency distribution of cites, normalized cumulative cites and absolute cites/decile were determined for each journal cluster. (b Positive Predictive Value. Three arbitrarily established evaluation classes were generated: LOW (1.33.9. Positive Predictive Value for journal clusters within each class range was estimated. (c Continuously Variable Rating. An alternative evaluation procedure is proposed to allow the rating of individually published articles in comparison to all articles published in the same journal within the same year of publication. The general guiding lines for the construction of a totally dedicated software program are delineated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Skewness followed the Pareto Distribution for (1Continuously Variable Rating is shown to be a simple computer based procedure capable of accurately providing a valid rating for each article within the journal and time frame in which it was published.

  20. Effects of High Temperature and Water Stress on Seed Germination of the Invasive Species Mexican Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Mexican sunflower is native to Mexico and Central America and was introduced into China early last century. Now it has widely naturalized and is exhibiting increasing invasiveness in South China. As this species often dominates bare ground, a habitat characterized by extreme fluctuation in temperature and water, it is reasonable to hypothesize that it has special adaptations to high temperature and water stress. Using laboratory experiments to simulate these stresses, this study investigated the response of Mexican sunflower seed germination to temperature and water stress, and compared these responses with those previously reported for another invasive, bamboo piper, which is confined to relatively cool and moist habitats in Xishuangbanna. As expected, Mexican sunflower seeds exhibited higher tolerance to these stresses than bamboo piper. Germination of Mexican sunflower seeds was highest at 15–30°C, but significant numbers of seeds germinated and formed seedlings at 10°C and 35°C, at which no bamboo piper seeds formed seedlings, indicating a wider temperature range for germination than the latter. Roughly half the seeds survived 240 h continuous heat treatment and up to 15 h daily periodical heat treatment at 40°C, while bamboo piper seeds were mostly killed by these treatments. About 20% of Mexican sunflower but no bamboo piper seeds germinated after heat treatment for 30 min at 80°C. Germination was completely inhibited in bamboo piper seeds at -0.6 mPa, while 20–60% of Mexican sunflower seeds germinated depending on PEG or NaCl as osmoticum. This higher tolerance in Mexican sunflower seeds accords with its stronger invasiveness in this area. This comparison between two plant invaders demonstrates that invasiveness is not an all-or-nothing situation, and that adaptation to local habitats is a critical determinant of successful invasiveness for an alien plant. PMID:26509675

  1. Effects of High Temperature and Water Stress on Seed Germination of the Invasive Species Mexican Sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Mexican sunflower is native to Mexico and Central America and was introduced into China early last century. Now it has widely naturalized and is exhibiting increasing invasiveness in South China. As this species often dominates bare ground, a habitat characterized by extreme fluctuation in temperature and water, it is reasonable to hypothesize that it has special adaptations to high temperature and water stress. Using laboratory experiments to simulate these stresses, this study investigated the response of Mexican sunflower seed germination to temperature and water stress, and compared these responses with those previously reported for another invasive, bamboo piper, which is confined to relatively cool and moist habitats in Xishuangbanna. As expected, Mexican sunflower seeds exhibited higher tolerance to these stresses than bamboo piper. Germination of Mexican sunflower seeds was highest at 15-30°C, but significant numbers of seeds germinated and formed seedlings at 10°C and 35°C, at which no bamboo piper seeds formed seedlings, indicating a wider temperature range for germination than the latter. Roughly half the seeds survived 240 h continuous heat treatment and up to 15 h daily periodical heat treatment at 40°C, while bamboo piper seeds were mostly killed by these treatments. About 20% of Mexican sunflower but no bamboo piper seeds germinated after heat treatment for 30 min at 80°C. Germination was completely inhibited in bamboo piper seeds at -0.6 mPa, while 20-60% of Mexican sunflower seeds germinated depending on PEG or NaCl as osmoticum. This higher tolerance in Mexican sunflower seeds accords with its stronger invasiveness in this area. This comparison between two plant invaders demonstrates that invasiveness is not an all-or-nothing situation, and that adaptation to local habitats is a critical determinant of successful invasiveness for an alien plant.

  2. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  3. Different leachate phytotreatment systems using sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbo, Francesco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    The use of energy crops in the treatment of wastewaters is of increasing interest, particularly in view of the widespread scarcity of water in many countries and the possibility of obtaining renewable fuels of vegetable origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of landfill leachate phytotreatment using sunflowers, particularly as seeds from this crop are suitable for use in biodiesel production. Two different irrigation systems were tested: vertical flow and horizontal subsurface flow, with or without effluent recirculation. Plants were grown in 130L rectangular tanks placed in a special climatic chamber. Leachate irrigated units were submitted to increasing nitrogen concentrations up to 372mgN/L. Leachate was successfully tested as an alternative fertilizer for plants and was not found to inhibit biomass development. The experiment revealed good removal efficiencies for COD (η>50%) up until flowering, while phosphorous removal invariably exceeded 60%. Nitrogen removal rates decreased over time in all experimental units, particularly in vertical flow tanks. In general, horizontal flow units showed the best performances in terms of contaminant removal capacity; the effluent recirculation procedure did not improve performance. Significant evapo-transpiration was observed, particularly in vertical flow units, promoting removal of up to 80% of the inlet irrigation volume.

  4. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  5. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  6. Contribution of interspecific hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation is directed at improving sunflower using hybrid forms resulted from interspecific hybridization. The aim is to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific hybrid forms that are resistant to diseases, the parasite broomrape, herbicides, and other stress factors and are characterized with high combining ability and to obtain on this basis highly productive oilseed sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid composition of oil. The investigat...

  7. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  8. Biodiesel production from sunflower oil by using alkali metal exchanged NaX zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, A.; Borges, M.E.; Hernandez, A. [La Laguna Univ. (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the activity of a potassium-acetate exchanges NaX zeolite as catalyst for the transesterification of commercial sunflower oil and frying oil for the production of biodiesel, using a slurry reactor, batch and continuous operation, and testing the effect of some variables on the process. (orig.)

  9. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower...... sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  10. TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF PROTEIN-CONTAINING RAW MATERIALS FROM THE PRODUCTS OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoldina T. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, secondary resources of vegetable raw materials are widely used in solving the food, environmental and energy issues, as well as an additional source of substances of natural origin. A significant amount of secondary resources is produced during the processing of sunflower seeds - the main oilseed Kuban. Fats industry, while processing seeds, mainly extracts only one component - vegetable oil and is having a huge amount of meal, which is mainly used for agricultural purposes. Valuable property of sunflower meal is that it is high in protein, low cost and lack of toxic and anti-nutrients. Favorable amino acid composition determines the viability of recovering proteins from sunflower meal. Proteins were extracted from sunflower meal with a dispersing agent which may be water, sodium salts, alkalis, acids, or any organic solvent, followed by precipitation of the protein at the isoelectric point with hydrochloric acid. However, this protein has a high content of phenolic compounds, which gives it a dark color. The high concentration of chlorogenic acid in sunflower meal and its ability to form a dark colored complex with proteins limits the use of sunflower proteins in the food industry. All known methods of protein purification products from phenolic compounds, in particular chlorogenic acids, are mainly aimed at reducing the use of solvents and washing using membrane technology. However, in most cases, their use is either inadequate due to removal of phenolic compounds or decreasing the nutritional and biological value of the obtained product due to the toxicity of the solvent used, and an inability to completely remove it from the protein

  11. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent...

  12. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  13. Registration of a male fertility restorer oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-R9 resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm HA-R9 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 667595) was developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the Agricultural Experiment Station of North Dakota State University and released in January, 2013. Sunflower rust (caused by P...

  14. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  15. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  16. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  17. Catching Up or Falling Behind? Continuing Wealth Disparities for Immigrants to Canada by Region of Origin and Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle; Aylsworth, Laura

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates wealth disparities among first-generation immigrants using data from the 2012 Survey of Financial Security. We apply logistic and linear regression models to estimate disparities in homeownership and household equivalent net worth by immigrant status, region of origin, and time since arrival. By focusing on immigrant families from different regions who entered Canada at different points in time, this research applies theories related to assimilation, human capital, and structural barriers to wealth. Our findings demonstrate that even though many immigrant families transition into homeownership and grow their wealth over time, certain first-generation immigrant groups continue to experience wealth disparities many years after their arrival to Canada. In particular, immigrant families from African, Asian, and Middle Eastern countries experienced the largest wealth gaps. Cet article examine les disparités de richesse entre les immigrants de première génération en utilisant les données de l'Enquête 2012 sur la sécurité financière. Nous appliquons des modèles de régression logistique et linéaire pour estimer les disparités dans la propriété et valeur nette des ménages équivalente par le statut d'immigrant, la région d'origine, et le temps écoulé depuis leur arrivée. En se concentrant sur les familles d'immigrants de différentes régions qui sont entrés au Canada à différents points dans le temps, cette recherche applique les théories liées à l'assimilation, le capital humain, et les obstacles structurels à la richesse. Nos résultats démontrent que même si de nombreuses familles d'immigrants transition vers la propriété et de croître leur richesse au fil du temps, certains groupes d'immigrants de première génération continuent d'éprouver des disparités de richesse de nombreuses années après leur arrivée au Canada. En particulier, les familles d'immigrants d'Afrique, d'Asie, et les pays du Moyen-Orient ont

  18. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganó, M.C.; Toso, G.; Caille, G.; Mangenot, C.; Lager, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding spat

  19. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  20. [Possible uses of sunflower in proper human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorić, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    The sunflower is the main oil crop in Serbia and one of the four major oil crops on the global scale. The seed of commercial sunflower crops being grown today consists most commonly of 45-53% oil and 15-18% protein. Unfortunately, sunflower seed protein has traditionally been underused in the human diet in Serbia. The amino acid composition of sunflower protein is quite favorable. In addition to oil and protein, sunflower kernels contain tocopherols, minerals, and vitamins. The sunflower is also a major honey plant, as sunflower plants produce over 40 kg of nectar and over 80 kg of pollen per area unit (hectare) under normal circumstances. Standard sunflower oil is linoleic in character, but induced mutations have been used to obtain genotypes with a high-oleic acid content of the oil (> 85%), thus enabling the development of high-oleic sunflower hybrids. Induced mutations have also been used to obtain genotypes with high levels of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. The predominant tocopherol in standard sunflower oil is the alpha one, but sunflower genotypes have now been developed using spontaneous and induced mutations that predominantly contain beta, gamma, and delta tocopherols. Various developments in the field of genetics have made it possible to develop sunflower hybrids with different oil profiles in terms of fatty acid composition and tocopherol type and amount. The thermo-oxidative stability of the new types of sunflower oil is significantly higher than that of standard sunflower oil. Of the new types of sunflower, it is the high-oleic hybrids that have found the widest application in commercial production. It is expected that the future sunflower hybrids combining high levels of oleic and stearic acids with gamma tocopherol will become a major component of a healthy human diet. The development of new consumption sunflower hybrids with an increased protein content and altered oil quality will lead to the development of a large number of novel final

  1. sunTILL: a TILLING resource for gene function analysis in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabetta Wilma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annus L. is a globally important oilseed crop, subjected to intensive genetic and genomic studies. Although classical mutagenesis has successfully been applied to Helianthus genus in the past, we have developed the first sunflower TILLING resource. Results To balance the maximum mutation density with an acceptable plant survival rate, a 'kill curve' analysis was first conducted with different ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS dosages and different exposure times. According to the germination rate, a treatment with 0.7% EMS for 6 h was chosen. An M2 progeny of 3,651 fertile plants was obtained. Totally, 4.79% of the whole population showed clear aberrant phenotypes. A microsatellite analysis on a representative sample of the original seed stock and mutant lines confirmed the uniformity of the genetic background of plant material. The TILLING procedure was successfully applied to sunflower genome, initially by a CelI-nuclease mismatch cleavage assay coupled with a DNA-pooling level test. To investigate the efficiency of the mutagenic treatment, a pilot screening was carried out on 1,152 M2 lines focusing on four genes, three involved in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway and one for downy mildew resistance. A total of 9 mutant lines were identified and confirmed by sequencing; thereby, the estimated overall mutation frequency for the pilot assay resulted to be 1/475 kb. Conclusion A first TILLING population for a high throughput identification of EMS-induced point mutations in sunflower genome has been successfully obtained. This represents a powerful tool to a better understanding of gene function in sunflower.

  2. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Bakken, Bradley H; Blackman, Benjamin K; Chapman, Mark A; Kane, Nolan C; Tang, Shunxue; Ungerer, Mark C; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2012-10-01

    Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well-documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence reads and assembled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, we show that it is composed of over 81% transposable elements, 77% of which are long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Moreover, the LTR retrotransposon fraction in BAC clones harboring genes is disproportionately composed of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons ('chromoviruses'), and the majority of the intact chromoviruses contain tandem chromodomain duplications. We show that there is a bias in the efficacy of homologous recombination in removing LTR retrotransposon DNA, thereby providing insight into the mechanisms associated with transposable element (TE) composition in the sunflower genome. We also show that the vast majority of observed LTR retrotransposon insertions have likely occurred since the origin of this species, providing further evidence that biased LTR retrotransposon activity has played a major role in shaping the chromatin and DNA landscape of the sunflower genome. Although our findings on LTR retrotransposon age and structure could be influenced by the selection of the BAC clones analyzed, a global analysis of random sequence reads indicates that the evolutionary patterns described herein apply to the sunflower genome as a whole.

  3. Effects of weak 16 3/2 Hz magnetic fields on growth parameters of young sunflower and wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, G; Tausz, M; Köck, M; Grill, Dieter

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies on effects of magnetic fields on plants focussed on the power frequencies (50-60 Hz), but in Austria and Germany electric railways are powered by a frequency of 16 2/3) Hz. In the present study, sunflower and wheat seedlings were exposed to 16 2/3 Hz sinusoidal 20 muT (rms) vertical magnetic fields. Seeds were germinated in a germination roll and grown for 12 days under continued exposure. Seven series with sunflower and six series with wheat were done over 2 years. Sunflower seedlings exposed to experimental magnetic field showed small, but significant increases in total fresh weights, shoot fresh weights, and root fresh weights, whereas dry weights and germination rates remained unaffected. Experimentally treated wheat exhibited marginally (but significantly) higher root fresh and dry weights, total fresh weights, and higher germination rates. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  5. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carolina Viganó; Giovanni Toso; Gerard Caille; Cyril Mangenot; Lager, Ioan E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding spatial density fits a Taylor amplitude tapering law which guarantees the pattern requirements in terms of beamwidth and sidelobe level. Different configurations, based on a Voronoi cell spatial tessel...

  6. High-oleic sunflower, a new oil component; Die High-Oleic-Sunflower als neue Grundoelkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botz, O. [Natoil AG, Technopark Luzern (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    Achieved results from NATOIL {sup registered} proved that the application of the High-Oleic-Sunflower as a component of a base oil in lubricants is in general feasible. The target goals and properties have been realised with great success. To emphasize are particularly good results in relation to piston cleanliness, oxidative stability as well as fuel economy properties. The central fear that the High-Oleic-Sunflower would not be sufficiently stable concerning oxidation has been clearly refuted in diverse motor tests. The application of the High-Oleic Sunflower and of the here of manufactured esters enables the development of lubricants with much lower viscosity characteristics in comparison to mineral-oil-based lubricants, which may result in the overall reduction of the average drag torque by up to 30%. (orig.)

  7. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  8. Growing Mediums in Different Environments for Sunflower and Cilantro Microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, B.; Gonzalez, O.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the growth and subsequent harvest of young seedlings known as microgreens, which have expanded into a very profitable market. The goal of the experiment is to discover whether the nutrients, soil quality and climate influences the quality, flavor, and yield of the microgreens. To conduct this experiment, locations and soil types were chosen; the locations consisted of a greenhouse (an enclosed space which held consistent sunlight, warmth, and humidity) and a lath house (a somewhat shaded location that was open to the elements as well as temperature changes), while compost, Quick Root (a growing medium that is relatively devoid of nutrients), and a combination of the two is used in this experiment. This meant that a total of six different combinations could be tested. Along with that, two different seeds were selected, sunflower seeds and cilantro seeds. Each of the results are mainly influenced by the soil type, and a partial influence by the climate. Compost has an extreme lack in growth and did not produce enough plants to record in general. The Quick Root results show only a burst of growth would occur; also, the plants did not have a strong taste, but did grow slightly quicker within the greenhouse. Another advantage to the Quick Root results is that the root size nearly tripled compared to the 50/50 root size. 50/50 holds the strongest results i.e., growth consistency and holds a stronger taste. Originally, there was an attempt to grow sunflowers uncovered, but was not attempted again due to poor results. Overall the 50/50 held a stronger growth and taste, but also would easily excel in the long run compared to the Quick Root and the compost.

  9. 15e CONFERENCE INTERNATIONALE TOURNESOL Sunflower ecophysiology: some unresolved issues*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Antonio J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Major unresolved issues in sunflower ecophysiology constrain efforts to improve crop modelling, management, genetic analysis and breeding. Three issues are used here to illustrate this point. Firstly, much of the work on the duration of the emergence to flowering phase has considered the phase as a whole. It is argued that a more detailed analysis based on sub-phases is required, particularly in view of possible intraspecific variability in the durations of the basic vegetative and juvenile phases and evidence that photoperiod responses before, during and after floral initiation may differ between genotypes and even be of opposite sign for the same genotype. Secondly,contrasting responses of grain oil proportion to manipulation of plant population density and incident radiation appear to be linked to variations in kernel oil proportion rather than to kernel: hull ratio, and responses of grain oil proportion to changes in sowing date seem to have a similar origin. More effort should be focused on understanding the controls of oil mass per kernel. It is speculated that there may be a genotype-dependent limit to this variable. A third unresolved issue relates to the nature and strength of the linkage between post-anthesis stay-green and leaf photosynthetic functionality. These variables are poorly related during pre-anthesis senescence of leaves in the lower portion of closed canopies, and for sunflower this linkage appears much weaker than in other crop species. Current interest in post-anthesis stay-green as a possibly useful crop attribute requires clarification of this uncertainty.

  10. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase.

  11. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during the deep frying process; Estudios fisicoquimicos sobre mezclas de aceite de girasol con aceite de chufa prensado en frio durante el proceso de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rehah, F. M.; Anany, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Peroxide Value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC), color and viscosity) were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 degree centigrade {+-} 5 degree centigrade, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25); while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24). Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W) proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process. (Author) 68 refs.

  12. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R(12) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Hulke, B S; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is resistant to both of the most predominant and most virulent rust races identified in the Northern Great Plains of the USA. The gene conditioning rust resistance in RHA 464 originated from wild Helianthus annuus L., but has not been molecularly marked or determined to be independent from other rust loci. The objectives of this study are to identify molecular markers linked to the rust resistance gene and to investigate the allelism of this gene with the unmapped rust resistance genes present in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397. Virulence phenotypes of seedlings for the F(2) population and F(2:3) families suggested that a single dominant gene confers rust resistance in RHA 464, and this gene was designated as R(12). Bulked segregant analysis identified ten markers polymorphic between resistant and susceptible bulks. In subsequent genetic mapping, the ten markers covered 33.4 cM of genetic distance on linkage group 11 of sunflower. A co-dominant marker CRT275-11 is the closest marker distal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 1.0 cM, while ZVG53, a dominant marker linked in the repulsion phase, is proximal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 9.6 cM. The allelism test demonstrated that R(12) is not allelic to the rust resistance genes in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397, and it is also not linked to any previously mapped rust resistance genes. Discovery of the R(12) novel rust resistance locus in sunflower and associated markers will potentially support the molecular marker-assisted introgression and pyramiding of R(12) into sunflower breeding lines.

  13. A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Sunflower Market in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Miran

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oil is the most preferred vegetable oil in Turkey. 35% of total consumption of vegetable oil issunflower oil. Sunflower seed import is approximately 500-650 thousand tons while sunflower seedproduction is 800-850 thousand tons in the last years. The main objective of this study is to determine thereasons of deficiency of vegetable oil in Turkey and to suggest some solutions. For this objective, theprospective situation and the market structure of sunflower seed in Turkey has estimated. “One productpartial equilibrium analysis” has been used to estimate the future market structure of sunflower seed. Asimulation model from 2003 to 2015 has been created with partial equilibrium analysis. Turkey is a netimporter of vegetable oils. Sunflower seed import is approximately 300 thousand tons while crude oil importis approximately 180 thousand tons in 2002. According to the results of simulation model, Turkey willcontinue to be a net importer for sunflower and other oil seeds. It has been estimated that the sunflower seedimport will be approximately 1 million tons and crude oil import will be approximately 400 thousand tons atend of the simulation period (2003-2015.

  14. Morphology and networks of sunflower wax crystals in organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant waxes are considered as promising alternatives to unhealthy solid fats such as trans fats and saturated fats in structured food products including margarines and spreads. Sunflower wax is of a great interest due to its strong gelling ability. Morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in soyb...

  15. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  16. Evaluating perennial sunflower for wildlife and food uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to use current genetics and plant breeding techniques to introgress genes for perennial habit from Helianthus tuberosus L. (2n=6x=102) into domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=2x=34). H. tuberosusis part of the secondary gene pool of sunflower and has b...

  17. Consumptive Water Use and Crop Coefficients of Irrigated Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    In semi-arid environments, the use of irrigation is necessary for sunflower production to reach its maximum potential. The aim of this study was to quantify the consumptive water use and crop coefficients of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) without soil water limitations during two growing...

  18. Sunflower water productivity in four Great Plains soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a drought-adapted crop whose short growing season reduces irrigation requirements, makes it ideal for regions with limited irrigation water supplies. Our objectives were to a) evaluate the yield (Y) potential of sunflower under full and deficit irrigation (IR) b)...

  19. SUNflower +6 : development and application of a footprint methodology for the SUNflower +6 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Oppe, S. Reurings, M. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in traffic safety is the result of many efforts, starting with political decisions, the development of safety plans and safety actions and their implementation. This report explores ways of presenting information from the SUNflower+6 countries in such a way that it shows how the interaction

  20. SUNflower +6 : development and application of a footprint methodology for the SUNflower +6 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Oppe, S. Reurings, M. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in traffic safety is the result of many efforts, starting with political decisions, the development of safety plans and safety actions and their implementation. This report explores ways of presenting information from the SUNflower+6 countries in such a way that it shows how the interaction

  1. Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for color removal from textile wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.; Xu, X. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Textiles and Clothing

    1997-03-01

    Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for two basic dyes (Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9) and two direct dyes (Congo Red and Direct Blue 71) in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of two basic dyes on sunflower stalks are very high, i.e., 205 and 317 mg/g for Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9, respectively. The two direct dyes have relatively lower adsorption on sunflower stalks. The adsorptive behaviors of sunflower stalk components are different. The pith, which is the soft and porous material in the center of stalks, has twice the adsorptive capacity of the skin. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks also affect the adsorption of dyes. The adsorption rates of two basic dyestuffs are much higher than that of the direct dyes. Within 30 min about 80% basic dyes were removed from the solutions.

  2. Industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemelä, J. R.K.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available High oleic sunflower oil has been developed for some special purposes where a good oxidation stability is needed and a healthy fatty acid profile is preferred. The oil is especially suitable for deep fat frying. These industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil were part of the AIR-project CT 920687 "Utilisation of Sunflower Oils in Industrial Frying Operations". High oleic sunflower oil (HOSO was tested against the traditional oils and fats in two industrial deep fat frying applications, namely crisps and prefried frozen french fries. The frying trials took place in Raisio Groups factories in Pyhanta and Vihanti, Finland in 1993 and 1994. According to the trials, high oleic sunflower oil is very suitable for deep fat frying. Problems occurred when a hard fat was substituted for a liquid oil in the preparation of prefrozen French Fries. These problems could be partly overcome by adjustments in the processing line.

  3. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS). Referenc

  4. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS). Referenc

  5. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  6. Influences of religion and culture on continuing bonds in a sample of British Muslims of Pakistani origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hanan; Oyebode, Jan R

    2009-11-01

    This study considered the nature of continuing bonds with deceased relatives in a sample of Pakistani Muslims living in the United Kingdom. Ten participants were interviewed following a cultural psychology approach and transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Dreaming, talking with others about the deceased, following the deceased's example, keeping memories and mementos, and doing actions thought to help the deceased were forms of continued relationship found. These were intertwined with the process of grieving and were influenced by the family, culture, and religion. Religion was a strong influence on the prominence given by participants to finishing well and on the notion of doing actions thought to help the deceased. Cultural mores, such as the community, and collectivist ethos and the expectation that emotion would be expressed around the time of death, were found to be supportive for some but sources of tension for other participants. Expressing a continuing bond through following the deceased's example so as to make them proud or happy seemed to be reinforced by cultural roots in respect for elders. Participants gave instances of tensions in areas such as expression of emotion and communality versus individualism that arose as a result of their position between two cultural frameworks, some illustrating how assimilation into the host culture set up conflict with the expected norms of their family/ancestral culture. The study highlights how understanding different cultural and religious influences may enrich the concept of continuing bonds.

  7. Expressed Sequence Tags from the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii, an obligate parasite of the sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouzeyar Said

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sunflower downy mildew is a major disease caused by the obligatory biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenicity. In this study we used a genomics approach to gain a first insight into the transcriptome of P. halstedii. Results To identify genes from the obligatory biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara halstedii that are expressed during infection in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. we employed the suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH method from sunflower seedlings infected by P. halstedii. Using this method and random sequencing of clones, a total of 602 expressed sequence tags (ESTs corresponding to 230 unique sequence sets were identified. To determine the origin of the unisequences, PCR primers were designed to amplify these gene fragments from genomic DNA isolated either from P. halstedii sporangia or from Helianthus annuus. Only 145 nonredundant ESTs which correspond to a total of 373 ESTs (67.7% proved to be derived from P. halstedii genes and that are expressed during infection in sunflower. A set of 87 nonredundant sequences were identified as showing matches to sequences deposited in public databases. Nevertheless, about 7% of the ESTs seem to be unique to P. halstedii without any homolog in any public database. Conclusion A summary of the assignment of nonredundant ESTs to functional categories as well as their relative abundance is listed and discussed. Annotation of the ESTs revealed a number of genes that could function in virulence. We provide a first glimpse into the gene content of P. halstedii. These resources should accelerate research on this important pathogen.

  8. [Isolation and purification of virus damaging sunflower].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakusilo, A O; Didenko, L F; Kniazieva, N A; Boĭko, A L

    1994-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for purifying intact virus's isolate particles evoking yellow spot mosaic disease in sunflower. Purification of pathogen in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0 containing 0.05 M Na3SO3 and 0.2% 2-mercaptoethanol is used. After first clarification extract was exposed to two cycles of high-speed centrifugation and fractionated in linear 10-40% (wt vol-1) sucrose density gradient. Virus was recovered from appropriate fractions after dialysis against 0.01 M Na2SO3.

  9. Sunflower cataract: do not forget Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Tomasz; Langwińska-Wośko, Ewa; Dzieżyc, Karolina; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology for 6 years was admitted to our department to confirm the diagnosis of Wilson's disease. He consulted an ophthalmologist who suspected the presence of a sunflower cataract and Kayser-Fleischer ring. At admission, his liver function tests were modestly impaired (Child-Pugh C, 10 pts). Neurological examination was normal, but cognitive functions were mildly impaired. Based on the copper metabolism abnormalities and clinical manifestation, we diagnosed Wilson's disease (Ferenci score, 6 pts) and started treatment with d-penicillamine. Presenting the case we would like to emphasise the significance of the ophthalmological examination in Wilson's disease diagnosis.

  10. Genetics and the origin of species: the continuing synthesis a symposium in honor of Richard G. Harrison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Richard K.; Rand, David M.; Normark, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    This is a special issue of Genetica that has its origins in a symposium held in honor of Richard G. Harrison at Ithaca, New York on July 22–23. Former students of Rick Harrison organized the symposium and most of the speakers were former students, as well. The quality and breadth of the talks were a testament to Rick’s influence as a thinker, synthesizer, and mentor and it is only appropriate to reflect on Rick’s contributions to the fields of evolutionary ecology, systematics, and genetics in this preface to the symposium articles. PMID:21152955

  11. Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouzadeh Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is one of the major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs implicated in partial resistance to basal stem rot disease were identified using 99 recombinant inbred lines (RILs from the cross between sunflower parental lines PAC2 and RHA266. The study was undertaken in a completely randomized design with three replications under controlled conditions. The RILs and their parental lines were inoculated with a moderately aggressive isolate of S. sclerotiorum (SSKH41. Resistance to disease was evaluated by measuring the percentage of necrosis area three days after inoculation. QTLs were mapped using an updated high-density SSR and SNP linkage map. ANOVA showed significant differences among sunflower lines for resistance to basal stem rot (P≤0.05. The frequency distribution of lines for susceptibility to disease showed a continuous pattern. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed 5 QTLs for percentage of necrotic area, localized on linkage groups 1, 3, 8, 10 and 17. The sign of additive effect was positive in 5 QTLs, suggesting that the additive allele for partial resistance to basal stem rot came from the paternal line (RHA266. The phenotypic variance explained by QTLs (R2 ranged from 0.5 to 3.16%. Identified genes (HUCL02246_1, GST and POD, and SSR markers (ORS338, and SSL3 encompassing the QTLs for partial resistance to basal stem rot could be good candidates for marker assisted selection.

  12. Ulcerative Colitis Activity Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin, in a Patient with Longstanding Disease under Continuous Treatment with Mesalazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Voukelatou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The presence of ulcerative colitis (UC with no bowel symptoms, as fever of unknown origin (FUO, is uncommon. Objective. To describe the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with fever, with a history of UC under treatment with mesalazine. Case Presentation. She was admitted due to fever lasting for 12 days with no associated symptoms. Seven years earlier, she was diagnosed with UC. After an extended workup for FUO that failed to reach the diagnosis, she underwent a gallium-67 scintigraphy. This revealed a persistent diffuse concentration of gallium-67 in the ascending colon at 24-hour imaging that remained stable at 48- and 72-hour imaging without any topographic change after the use of laxatives. Considering the results and in the absence of another diagnosis, the patient was treated with 30 mg prednisone daily and mesalazine, as treatment of active UC. Subsequently, the patient’s condition improved markedly and the fever retreated. One month later, she was reevaluated with a gallium-67 scintigraphy with total absence of gallium-67 concentration in the ascending colon. Conclusion. UC activity must be included in the differential diagnosis of FUO in patients with longstanding disease, since fever may present alone, with no other manifestations.

  13. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  14. Final Critical Habitat for the Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) occur. The geographic extent includes...

  15. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  16. Sunflower cake in the diet of Quarter Horses in activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of sunflower cake, a by-product of oilseed extraction for biodiesel production, prompted us to test the scope of its utilization in the diet of Quarter Horses employed in equestrian shows. We substituted 600 and 1200 g of feed with 300 and 600 g of sunflower cake, respectively, so as to obtain isoproteic and isoenergetic diets. Digestibility evaluation by the AIA method evidenced generally improved nutrient utilization with the lower cake diet (300 g sunflower. The higher cake diet was associated with a reduction in organic matter, protein and ether extract digestibility coefficients. In particular, the trend of the protein coefficients (88.5 - 91.5 - 87.7 for control, 300 and 600 g sunflower cake, respectively was confirmed by higher plasma urea levels.

  17. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  18. Significance of cytogenetic research in sunflower and rapeseed breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atlagić Jovanka; Terzić Sreten; Marjanović-Jeromela Ana; Marinković Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetic research of sunflower and rapeseed has a century long tradition. Chromosome number and morphology were studied at first in species from the Helianthus and Brassica genera, and than their cytotaxonomy and phylogenesis...

  19. Mutation breeding in sunflower for resistance to alternaria leaf spot

    OpenAIRE

    de Marcelo Oliveira F.; Tulmann Augusto Neto; Regina Leite M.V.B.C.; Vania Castiglioni B.R.; Arias C.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic variability for resistance to Alternarla leaf spot disease (Alternaria helianthi) can be induced by radiation or chemical mutagens. The objectives of this study were to create genetic variability in cultivated sunflower and to select lines resistant to Alternaria leaf spot. In the first experiment, sunflower seeds of the genotype HA BR 104 were irradiated with 150 and 165 Gy of gamma rays. Seeds were sown in the field at the Embrapa Soybean experimental station, in Londrina, PR, Brazi...

  20. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  1. Oryzanol as natural antioxidant for improving sunflower oil stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Srinivas, P; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-06-01

    Sunflower oil is being made shelf stable by the incorporation of synthetic antioxidants such as tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), while natural antioxidants like oryzanol and tocopherols can also be used. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of natural oryzanol (Oz) concentrate (15.5 % oryzanol) and purified Oz (80 % oryzanol) on oxidative and thermal stability of sunflower oil. Sunflower oil was incorporated with Oz concentrate to provide 0, 0.12, 0.25, 0.50, 0.84, 1.0, 1.60, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.20 % oryzanol in the oil, stored for 5 weeks at 37 °C and oxidative stability was evaluated. It was found that the oryzanol concentrate showed good antioxidant effect with increase in concentration of oryzanol. In another set of experiments, sunflower oil containing purified Oz at 1 % level individually and in combination with 0.1 % α- tocopherol (α-T) was heated at 120 °C for 24 h to evaluate thermal stability. Sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz (80 % purity) showed 98.40 % and sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz and 0.1 % α-T showed 108.75 % antioxidant effect compared to TBHQ taken as 100 %. The study indicated that sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz (80 % purity) and 0.1 % α-T combination provides a synergistic effect in inhibiting primary and secondary products and showed highest thermal stability. SFO containing 1 % Oz added as concentrate also showed good antioxidant effect during storage. Hence, instead of using synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ, we can add natural oryzanol (purified or as concentrate) to sunflower oil to increase its oxidative and thermal stability.

  2. SUNFLOWER HUSKS AS A SOURCE OF FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Khusid S. B.; Gneush A. N.; Nesterenko E. E.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the results of the complex feed additive based on sunflower husk, enriched with beer wort with the addition of pumpkin pulp. We have studied the chemical composition of sunflower husk, which is the secondary resource of the processing plant raw material, selected methods of enrichment of this raw material with the help of fungi Trichoderma harzianum. Cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the basis of fungi of the genus Trichoderma for use in agriculture and animal feed pro...

  3. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  4. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Škorić Dragan; Kraljević-Balalić Marija

    2003-01-01

    The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean va...

  5. Association Mapping and the Genomic Consequences of Selection in Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Savithri Nambeesan; Bowers, John E; Laura F Marek; Daniel Ebert; Loren H. Rieseberg; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall ...

  6. Contribution of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was directed to sunflower improvement using hybrid forms resulted from wide hybridization. The aim was to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific and intergeneric hybrids resistant to diseases, parasite broomrape, herbicides, other stress factors and with high combining ability in highly productive oil-type sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid contents. The confectionary hybrids should have a high kernel protein content and amin...

  7. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of the Early Domestication of Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    David M Wills; Burke, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic analyses of the domestication syndrome have revealed that domestication-related traits typically have a very similar genetic architecture across most crops, being conditioned by a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL), each with a relatively large effect on the phenotype. To date, the domestication of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stands as the only counterexample to this pattern. In previous work involving a cross between wild sunflower (also H. annuus) and a highly improv...

  8. THE BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF SUNFLOWER BROOMRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUCA Maria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanchaceae is a dicot family, which consists of annual and perennial plants distributing from tropical to subarctic regions, predominately in temperate regions. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. = Orobanche cernua Loefl. is a parasitic angiosperm that has been causing a great deal of damage to sunflower production in many countries, including Republic of Moldova. This parasitic angiosperm depends entirely on the host for its supply of water and nutrients. A thorough understanding of its biology, including detailed knowledge of the specific mechanisms of parasitism, is needed in order to develop novel control methods. Some main developmental steps are described for the root parasites: seed conditioning and germination, haustorium formation, penetration into host tissues, maturation of the parasite plant, and seed production. All these stages were studied in artificial and natural conditions.

  9. Effect of antioxidant butylated hydroxyl anisole on the thermal or oxidative stability of sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus) by ultrasonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Satish Kumar; Shwetha, M V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) as an antioxidant in sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus). The oxidation stability of sunflower oil have been investigated by the effects of varying amounts of BHA. The antioxidant incorporated sunflower oil system and control edible oil were subjected to heating at 180 ± 5 °C continuously for a period of 4 h per day for consecutive 4 days. The parameters used to assess the thermal degradation and oxidation properties of the oils include ultrasonic velocity, viscosity, density and peroxide value. The fatty acid compositions of the oils were measured by gas chromatography. Adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relaxation time and acoustic impedance have been calculated from experimental data. Viscosity, density and ultrasonic velocity change in control oil is from 3.72 × 10(-2) to 13.2 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 918 to 994 kg/m3 and 1412 to 1484 m/s respectively and in sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA is from 3.88 × 10(-2) to 7.52 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 926 to 962 kg/m3 and 1418 to 1463 m/s respectively for 16 h of heat treated oil. The ultrasonic results obtained have shown reduction in thermal degradation and improvement in oxidation stability of antioxidant loaded oil in comparison to base oil. Hence, it can be recommended that sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA can be used for frying without adverse effect on physical properties. The ultrasonic velocity can be used for assessment of stability of frying oil.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON CRUDE OIL YIELD AND GERMINATION OF SUNFLOWER-TANAY VARIETY (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. VAİZOĞULLAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma rays on crude oil yield, seedling growth, germination and antimicrobial activity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus. As plant materials, sunflower variety Tanay seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological.To determine seed viability, tetrazolium chloride (TTC test was performed. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts and seeds were subjected to germination tests. The seeds were treated with 100 ppm doses of GA3 for 24 hours (GA, soaking for 24 hours (SB, preheating for 24 hours in a week (PH and precooling for 24 hours in a week (PC for optimization of germination.The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy. As a result of testing of seed viability, 95% viability in seeds was determined. In 12L/12D light photoperiod, 25% germination in seeds was detected at GA application the highest, the lowest 5% germination in seeds was determined in PC application. It was found that minimum and maximum values ranged between 5.72and 10.81% for humidity rate.Extraction of the seed of Sunflower-Tanay was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours. Antimicrobial activity of Sunflower-Tanay extract were tested by a disk diffusion method. Extracts of the H.annuus L.(sunflower-Tanay showed no antimicrobial activity against M.luteus NCIMB 13267 and E. coli ATCC 25922.

  11. Technical Efficiency of Sunflower Production in Trakya Region by DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Unakitan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine how efficiently the resources are used in sunflowerproduction in Turkey. The data used in efficiency measurements covers the provinces Tekirdag, Kırklareliand Edirne in Trakya region which is the most important area of sunflower seed production. The productionarea of sunflower is about 307 thousand hectares, 57% of total sunflower sown area in Turkey and theamount of production is 498 thousand metric tons, 62% of the total sunflower production. 197 farmers wereinterviewed face to face to obtain the data. Efficiency measurements are made by means of the DataEnvelopment Analysis (DEA with respect to constant return to scale for each province. The Efficiencyscores is decomposed into pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency for getting more information fromthe measurements. Total sunflower production (kg is used as the output and land (decar; labour (hour,tractor use (hour, nitrogen fertilizer use (kg, seed use (kg and pesticide (kg are considered as the maininputs. Average technical efficiency score covering all the provinces is estimated as 0.672. Although none ofthe provinces produces sunflower efficiently, Tekirdag province is relatively more successful in input use.Tekirdag province has the highest pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency score. Considering all theregions, the reason for inefficiency is not optimal production but not producing a certain output withminimum input. Yield is a factor that increases efficiency.

  12. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  13. Genetic impact on protein content and hullability of sunflower seeds, and on the quality of sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauguet Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed quality, in particular the characteristics of hullability and protein content, has a significant impact on the protein content of the resulting meal. Seeds dehulled before crushing produce a meal with a protein content of approximately 36%; without dehulling, the protein content is typically in the range of 27–29%. This study seeks to assess the effect of sunflower variety on hullability and protein content. Genetic effects were studied by means of seed samples obtained from a network of variety evaluation trials undertaken across the production area in France for sunflowers. For both characteristics, significant differences between cultivars were observed; as a consequence, the potential protein content of their dehulled meals also ranged widely (34–44%. Genetic selection, which provides substantial improvements in both oil content and fatty acid composition, should therefore be expected to enhance the quality of sunflower meal.

  14. Common Sunflower Pests and Prevention Methods of Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江省向日葵常见害虫及防治方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明

    2009-01-01

    Sunflower is a new kind of industrial crop and oil crop,and has became the second biggest oil crop in the world.Recently insect pests occurred continually,and have caused prodigious loss to sunflower production.The article introduced common sunflower pests and prevention methods of Heilongjiang province.%向日葵是一种新兴的经济作物和油料作物,现已经成为世界第二大油料作物.近年来向日葵虫害频繁发生,给向日葵生产工作带来了很大的危害.对黑龙江向日葵常见害虫的形态特征和发生规律进行了介绍,并介绍了防治方法.

  15. Effects of increased gravity force on nutations of sunflower hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.

    1977-01-01

    A centrifuge was used to provide sustained acceleration in order to study the hypocotyl nutation of 6-day-old Helianthus annuus L. over a range of g-forces, up to 20 times normal g. At the upper end of this g-range, nutation was impeded and at times was erratic evidently because the weight of the cotyledons exceeded the supportive abilities of the hypocotyls. Over the range 1 to 9 g, the period of nutation was independent of the resultant force vector. Over the same g-range, the amplitude of nutation was nearly independent of the chronic g-force. If nutation in sunflower seedlings is an oscillation caused by a succession of geotropic responses which continue to overshoot the equilibrium position (plumb line), its amplitude might be expected to be more sensitive to changes in magnitude of the sustained g-force. In order to preserve the geotropic model, in which nutation is considered to be a sustained oscillation driven by geotropic reactions, it is necessary to assume that geotropic response must increase with increasing g most rapidly in the region of the g-parameter below the terrestrial value of 1 g.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the biofuel production process from sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Requena, J.F.; Guimaraes, A.C.; Quiros Alpera, S.; Relea Gangas, E.; Hernandez-Navarro, S.; Navas Gracia, L.M.; Martin-Gil, J.; Fresneda Cuesta, H. [Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources; Valladolid Univ., Palencia (Spain). Dept. of Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Once ratified the Kyoto protocol, Spain arises the great challenge of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Among the measures proposed is the introduction of biofuels in the market, both for the transport sector and for the production of heat. This paper compares the environmental impact from the production of biofuels whose origin is the oil obtained from sunflower, rapeseed and soybeans. The environmental impact of each production is performed by applying the methodology of life cycle analysis (LCA). The categories where you get a greater impact are land use, fossil fuels, carcinogens, inorganic respiratory and climate change. The cause is mainly due to the processes of seed production. We have also found a significant impact on the drying and preparation processes of the seed as well as the crude soybean oil extracting process. Moreover as the LCA shows production of rapeseed and sunflower has a positive contribution to climate change. (author)

  17. Disease Tolerance in Helianthus petiolaris: A Genetic Resource for Sunflower Breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutierrez, Agustina; Cantamutto, Miguel; Poverene, Monica

    2012-01-01

    .... Controlled crosses of this species with sunflower demonstrated that H. petiolaris constitutes a valuable genetic variability source for sunflower breeding to improve tolerance to rust (Puccinia helianthi), white rust (Albugo tragopogonis...

  18. Solid biofuels production from agricultural residues and processing by-products by means of torrefaction treatment: the case of sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use. Their standardisation is going to be a key aspect to get good quality biofuels from those residues. Torrefaction is an interesting process to improve the physical and chemical properties of lignocellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks, husks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of these materials has been studied at first by thermogravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Afterwards, different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been tested in a bench top torrefaction reactor. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the treatment. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range reduces making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60%, 80% and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64%, 85% and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by the results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks due to their different original characteristics. Untreated oil press cake and husks, in fact, already show a good high heating value and, for this reason, their torrefaction should be mild to avoid an excessive ash concentration. On the contrary, for sunflower stalks the treatment is more useful and could be more severe.

  19. Effect of cultivation measures on index of photosynthesis and yield of sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Aksyonov I.

    2007-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity is the decisive factor of yield increase in sunflower plants. This activity determines the application of agrotechnical measures such as row spacing and plant density. Experiments have proved that agrotechnical measures allow to control the growth, development and yield of sunflower hybrids and varieties. Row spacing and plants density affect the index of photosynthesis and the yield of sunflower agrophytocoenoses. Cultivation of sunflower at the row spacing of 15 cm i...

  20. Le problème du continu/discontinu dans la sémiophysique de René Thom et l’origine du langage

    OpenAIRE

    Wildgen, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Le problème de la relation entre le continu et le discontinu fut au centre de la sémiotique (appelée « sémiophysique ») de René Thom. On peut retrouver au moins trois problèmes pour lesquels Thom a donné des réponses : 1) La distinction aristotélicienne entre homéomère et anhoméomère. 2) Le concept de symétrie ; les brisures de la symétrie créent une structure discontinue. 3) L’origine du langage. Les théories contemporaines d’une discontinuité ou continuité dans l’évolution du langage devron...

  1. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  2. Molecular mapping of R11, a novel rust resistance gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an ‘HA 89’ backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), was identified a...

  3. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R12 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is r...

  4. The Metabolism of Sunflower Phytoalexins Ayapin and Scopoletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Beni; Robeson, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The coumarin phytoalexins ayapin and scopoletin accumulate in longitudinal stem sections of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Compositae) following inoculation with fungi both pathogenic (Alternaria helianthi) and nonpathogenic (Helminthosporium carbonum) to this plant. Both compounds were induced more rapidly, and they attained higher levels in tissue inoculated with the heterologous pathogen H. carbonum as compared with the sunflower pathogen A. helianthi. Similarly, scopoletin and ayapin accumulated to comparatively low concentrations following inoculation with a second sunflower pathogen, Phoma macdonaldii. Scopoletin was biosynthesized de novo following inoculation, although levels of its glucoside scopolin exceeded those of the aglucone in both infected and control tissues. Both scopoletin and scopolin were routinely detected in trace amounts in uninoculated tissue. In contrast, ayapin was not detected as a component of uninfected plants. When [14C]scopoletin was supplied to induced sunflower stem sections about 36% of the recovered radioactivity was in the form of ayapin. In vitro studies demonstrated that A. helianthi possessed the ability to rapidly degrade both scopoletin and ayapin, whereas H. carbonum was much less efficient in these traits. The differential degradation of these compounds by phytopathogenic fungi which do not attack sunflower is also discussed. PMID:16664986

  5. Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein.

  6. Antioxidative effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris in sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Zaborowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off – flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ethanol extract on sunflower oil during its storage in different temperature conditions. Oil samples were stored in darkness at 4°C, 18°C, 38°C. Material and methods. Samples of thyme (thymus vulgaris were purchased at a local pharmacy in Poznań, Poland and sunflower oil was acquired from a local supermarket. Thyme extract was characterized by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPHand ABTSradicals scavenging methods. Ethanol extract of thyme at 1% level was added to sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AV, totox value (TxV and fatty acids (FA content were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of thyme extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Results. High polyphenol content, DPPHand ABTSradicals scavenging activity of ethanol thyme extract were evaluated. Results from different parameters were in agreement with other researchers, suggesting the antioxidant effect of thyme on antioxidant stability. Results show that thyme extract prolonged stability of sunflower oil and it may be a potent antioxidant for its stabilization. Conclusions. Ethanol thyme extract may be used as a natural antioxidant to prolong stability of oils.  

  7. Elucidation of echovirus 30's origin and transmission during the 2012 aseptic meningitis outbreak in Guangdong, China, through continuing environmental surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Zheng, Huanying; Guo, Xue; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hui; Liu, Leng; Zeng, Hanri; Fang, Ling; Mo, Yanling; Yoshida, Hiromu; Yi, Lina; Liu, Tao; Rutherford, Shannon; Xu, Wenbo; Ke, Changwen

    2015-04-01

    An aseptic meningitis outbreak occurred in Luoding City of Guangdong, China, in 2012, and echovirus type 30 (ECHO30) was identified as the major causative pathogen. Environmental surveillance indicated that ECHO30 was detected in the sewage of a neighboring city, Guangzhou, from 2010 to 2012 and also in Luoding City sewage samples (6/43, 14%) collected after the outbreak. In order to track the potential origin of the outbreak viral strains, we sequenced the VP1 genes of 29 viral strains from clinical patients and environmental samples. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses based on VP1 gene sequences revealed that virus strains isolated from the sewage of Guangzhou and Luoding cities matched well the clinical strains from the outbreak, with high nucleotide sequence similarity (98.5% to 100%) and similar cluster distribution. Five ECHO30 clinical strains were clustered with the Guangdong environmental strains but diverged from strains from other regions, suggesting that this subcluster of viruses most likely originated from the circulating virus in Guangdong rather than having been more recently imported from other regions. These findings underscore the importance of long-term, continuous environmental surveillance and genetic analysis to monitor circulating enteroviruses.

  8. Heat rate improvement at Sunflower Electric`s Holcomb Station - a programmatic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, C.; Nelson, K.E.; DesJardins, R.R.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the heat rate improvement program implemented at Sunflower Electric Power Corporations Holcomb Generating Station located in Holcomb, Kansas. The Holcomb Station is a large coal-fired generating plant that supplies electricity to Southwestern. Kansas and surrounding states. In 1993, Sunflower Electric (SEPC) established a continuing heat rate improvement program at the Holcomb Station which consisted of a periodic performance test program in combination with continuous on-line monitoring. This paper provides an overview of the test program and initial results and describes a unique approach to monitoring boiler feed pump performance especially suitable for on-line monitoring. implementation of a 15-user LAN-based on-line performance monitoring system is also described. In addition to technical issues, the paper addresses some of the {open_quotes}human factors{close_quotes} encountered while promoting acceptance and use of the on-line monitoring system by all levels of plant personnel. The importance of proper program planning and long term management support is stressed.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  10. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  11. Simple sequence repeat map of the sunflower genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S.; Yu, J.-K.; Slabaugh, B.; Shintani, K.; Knapp, J.

    2002-12-01

    Several independent molecular genetic linkage maps of varying density and completeness have been constructed for cultivated sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.). Because of the dearth of sequence and probe-specific DNA markers in the public domain, the various genetic maps of sunflower have not been integrated and a single reference map has not emerged. Moreover, comparisons between maps have been confounded by multiple linkage group nomenclatures and the lack of common DNA markers. The goal of the present research was to construct a dense molecular genetic linkage map for sunflower using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, 879 SSR markers were developed by identifying 1,093 unique SSR sequences in the DNA sequences of 2,033 clones isolated from genomic DNA libraries enriched for (AC)(n) or (AG)(n) and screening 1,000 SSR primer pairs; 579 of the newly developed SSR markers (65.9% of the total) were polymorphic among four elite inbred lines (RHA280, RHA801, PHA and PHB). The genetic map was constructed using 94 RHA280 x RHA801 F(7) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and 408 polymorphic SSR markers (462 SSR marker loci segregated in the mapping population). Of the latter, 459 coalesced into 17 linkage groups presumably corresponding to the 17 chromosomes in the haploid sunflower genome ( x = 17). The map was 1,368.3-cM long and had a mean density of 3.1 cM per locus. The SSR markers described herein supply a critical mass of DNA markers for constructing genetic maps of sunflower and create the basis for unifying and cross-referencing the multitude of genetic maps developed for wild and cultivated sunflowers.

  12. Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, G; Tinaut, F V; Briceño, Y; Castaño, V; Pérez, C; Ramírez, A I

    2002-06-01

    In this work the transformation process of sunflower oil in order to obtain biodiesel by means of transesterification was studied. Taguchi's methodology was chosen for the optimisation of the most important variables (temperature conditions, reactants proportion and methods of purification), with the purpose of obtaining a high quality biodiesel that fulfils the European pre-legislation with the maximum process yield. Finally, sunflower methyl esters were characterised to test their properties as fuels in diesel engines, such as viscosity, flash point, cold filter plugging point and acid value. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions is an excellent substitute for fossil fuels.

  13. Structure of catalytic domain of Matriptase in complex with Sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mingdong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease that is found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and certain cancer cells. Matriptase has been implicated in the degradation of certain extracellular matrix components as well as the activation of various cellular proteins and proteases, including hepatocyte growth factor and urokinase. Sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1, a cyclic peptide inhibitor originally isolated from sunflower seeds, exhibits potent inhibitory activity toward matriptase. Results We have engineered and produced recombinant proteins of the matriptase protease domain, and have determined the crystal structures of the protease:SFTI-1 complex at 2.0 Å as well as the protease:benzamidine complex at 1.2 Å. These structures elaborate the structural basis of substrate selectivity of matriptase, and show that the matriptase S1 substrate specificity pocket is larger enough to allow movement of benzamidine inside the S1 pocket. Our study also reveals that SFTI-1 binds to matriptase in a way similar to its binding to trypsin despite the significantly different isoelectric points of the two proteins (5.6 vs. 8.2. Conclusions This work helps to define the structural basis of substrate specificity of matriptase and the interactions between the inhibitor and protease. The complex structure also provides a structural template for designing new SFTI-1 derivatives with better potency and selectivity against matriptase and other proteases.

  14. Evolution of oxidation during storage of crisps and french fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Polvillo, M.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Storage studies were carried out to define the behaviour of both conventional and high oleic sunflower oils in the industrial preparation of crisps and prefried french fries. Samples of crisps and prefried french fries were stored during 6 and 21 months, respectively, and evolution of oxidation was compared with that of the more saturated fats normally used for the preparation of both products, i.e., palm olein and hydrogenated rapeseed/palm oil mixture. Total oxidation compounds, α-tocopherol content, as well as monomeric and dimeric triglycerides, were quantitated in lipids from fried products after different time periods. Results obtained for crisps at room temperature indicated that only conventional sunflower oil underwent significant oxidation after 6 months. In the case of prefried french fries, maintained at freezer temperatures, no appreciable changes were found after 21 months storage, thus indicating that both sunflower oils can be good alternatives to saturated fats.

  15. β-carotene in sunflower oil oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanishlieva, N. V.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation kinetics of sunflower oil (SO, as well as of pure triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO in the presence of different concentrations (0.001-0.02 % β-carotene was studied. The process was β-performed at high (kinetic regime and low (diffusion regime oxygen concentrations at room temperature in the dark and under daylight. The results from the oxidation of SO and TGSO at 100ºC in the presence of β-carotene were also presented. It was established that in the antioxidant-free lipid system, the β-carotene did not give any antioxidative protection. It worked as a prooxidant during the oxidation at room temperature and at sufficiently high oxygen concentration, the effect being more pronounced in the dark than under daylight. β-carotene increased the stability of tocopherol-containing SO during its oxidation at room temperature and under daylight. This effect is more strongly expressed in a kinetic regime of oxidation. The synergism of β-carotene with the tocopherols was characterized by the stabilization factor F and the activity A. In the kinetic regime of oxidation F and A varied in the interval F=2.0-6.3, and A =2.7-21.0. In the diffusion regime F=1.3-1.5, and A=1.5-2.8.Se estudió la cinética de oxidación de aceite de girasol (SO, así como la de triacilgliceroles puros de aceite de girasol (TGSO en presencia de diferentes concentraciones (0.001-0.02 % de β- caroteno. El proceso se llevó a cabo a altas (régimen cinético y bajas (régimen de difusión concentraciones de oxígeno a temperatura ambiente con luz natural y en la oscuridad, y se presentan también los resultados de la oxidación de SO y TGSO a 100ºC en presencia de β-caroteno. Los resultados indicaron que en los sistemas lipídicos libres de antioxidantes, el β-caroteno no dio protección antioxidante. Funcionó como prooxidante durante la oxidación a temperatura ambiente y a concentraciones de oxigeno suficientemente elevadas, siendo el efecto m

  16. Using banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg density to estimate damage and economic distance in oilseed sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundal, Kirk D; Brewer, Gary J

    2008-06-01

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important economic pest of sunflower in the Upper Great Plains of North America. Economic losses due to reductions in seed number, weight, and quality can be significant. Previously, the potential for economic losses were estimated by sampling for adult moths. However, sampling for moths can be difficult and inaccurate. An alternative is to sample for banded sunflower moth eggs, which can be accurately counted in the field by using a binocular 3.5 headband magnifier. The egg counts are used to calculate the economic injury level (EIL) (EIL = C/VWPK), where C is the cost of treatment per unit area, V is the crop market value per unit of weight, W is the slope of the regression between banded sunflower moth egg densities and weight loss per plant, P is a term for plant population per unit area, and K is the control treatment efficacy. Estimates of populations of banded sunflower moth eggs are taken from the center of 400-m spans along all field sides. From these samples and the calculated EIL, a map of the extent of the economically damaging banded sunflower moth population throughout the field is made using economic distance; ED = e ( ( (EIL/E)-1.458)/-0.262). Economic distance estimates the distance an economic population extends into the field interior along a transect from the sampling site. By using egg samples to calculate the EIL and mapping the distribution of economic populations throughout a field, producers can then make more effective pest management decisions.

  17. Influence of maltodextrin dextrose equivalent value on rheological and dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Petar P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of dextrose equivalent (DE of maltodextrin present in continuous phase on flow along with dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions has been investigated. Both, rheological and disperse characteristics of the emulsions were greatly influenced by continuous phase viscosity and thus by the DE value of maltodextrin.. The smaller DE value the greater high shear viscosity and the smaller the droplet size. Irrespective of the amount and DE value of maltodextrin used was, all the emulsions showed a pseudoplastic behaviour.

  18. Two year-long continuous monitoring of PM1 aerosol chemical composition at the Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory. Source apportionment of the Organic content and geographic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulas, Iasonas; Pikridas, Michael; Oikonomou, Kostantina; Vasiliadou, Emily; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Gros, Valerie; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter with diameter smaller than 1{μ}m (PM1) induces direct and indirect effects on local and regional pollution, global climate and health. As of the beginning of 2015, the chemical composition of submicron aerosols, is continuously being monitored at the newly established Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO, http://www.cyi.ac.cy/index.php/cao.html), a national facility of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure operated by The Cyprus Institute. Cyprus, an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean Middle East region and influenced by diverse air masses throughout the year, is ideal for monitoring photochemically aged aerosols and gaseous pollutants of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Furthermore this is a unique dataset for this area in such proximity to the Middle East, a poorly documented area in terms of atmospheric aerosol observations. An Aerodyne Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Q-ACSM) is currently deployed at the CAO premises (35.04N - 33.06E) situated at the rural area of Agia Marina Xyliatou on the foothill of mount Troodos at an elevation of 532m above sea level (asl). The ACSM delivers chemical composition of the major non-refractory aerosol (PM1) chemical constituents (organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride) with an effective (close to 100{%}) collection efficiency for particles in the diameter range of 65-700 nm at a 30 minute temporal resolution. Black Carbon (BC) was also monitored using both Magee Scientific AE-31 and AE-33 aethalometers. Quality control of the PM chemical dataset was conducted by comparison with chemical analysis performed on collocated 24-h filter samples (PM1) and comparison with 1-h PM2.5 derived from a Thermo Scientific TEOM (1400a) Monitor. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was conducted and different organic aerosol factors were distinguished using the Igor based SoFi toolkit utilizing the ME-2 multilinear engine. Air mass origin was investigated for each measurement day using the

  19. He-Ne laser-induced improvement in biochemical, physiological, growth and yield characteristics in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Rashida; Jamil, Yasir; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ali, Qasim; Iqbal, Munawar; Ahmad, Muhammad Raza

    2011-01-01

    The water-soaked seeds of sunflower were exposed to low power continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation of energies 0, 100, 300 and 500 mJ to evaluate the effect on various biochemical, physiological, growth and yield parameters of sunflower. The experiments which consisted of four replicates arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) were carried out under the greenhouse conditions. The physiological attributes like, photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), intrinsic CO(2) concentration (C(i) ), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll a and b contents, relative membrane permeability and leaf water (ψ(w)), osmotic (ψ(s)) and turgor (ψ(p)) potentials, relative water contents and leaf area increased significantly as compared to control due to He-Ne treatment of seeds. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalases and contents of total soluble proteins, malondialdehyde, proline and leaf total phenolic also increased due to laser treatment. Significant increase in growth parameters of sunflower like shoot fresh and dry masses, root fresh and dry masses, root and shoot lengths, number of leaves per plant and stem diameter has also been observed. The contents of K, Ca and Mg in shoot and root were also increased and an overall increase of up to 28.12% was observed due to laser treatment.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M; Berry, Simon T; Leon, Alberto J; Slabaugh, Mary B; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K; Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J

    2007-09-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression(-)the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines ( = 0.0094) than wild populations ( = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome ( approximately 3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping.

  1. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  2. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves da Rocha-Filho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  3. Glycerol inclusion levels in corn and sunflower silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the seasonal cycle of forage, the use of silage to feed animals provides nutrients throughout the year. However, its quality can be improved with the inclusion of additives and other products. Glycerol is a rich source of energy and present a high efficiency of utilization by animals. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of glycerol inclusion on the chemical and fermentation characteristics of corn and sunflower silages. Two silage sources (maize and sunflower were used and four levels of glycerol inclusion (0, 15, 30 and 45% based on dry matter were carried out. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement with five replications. The pH values and chemical composition of corn and sunflower silages were determined. In both silages there was increment of dry matter, non-fiber carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients (TDN added to a reduction of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber due to the glycerol inclusion. The corn silage required 45% glycerol to achieve the TDN level of the sunflower silage. The glycerol addition contributed to the increase in the nutritional value, offsetting loss of quality in the ensiling process.

  4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M.; Berry, Simon T.; Leon, Alberto J.; Slabaugh, Mary B.; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K.; Burke, John M.; Knapp, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression−the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines (θ = 0.0094) than wild populations (θ = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome (∼3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping. PMID:17660563

  5. A thermoanalytic and kinetic study of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza A. Gouveia de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, thermoanalytic methods have frequently been used in the characterization of oils and fats. In this work, thermoanalytic and kinetic parameters of sunflower oils, with and without antioxidants, were evaluated using thermogravimetry / derivative thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermogravimetric profiles for the sunflower oils had similar characteristics, showing a level stretch indicative of stability up to about 200ºC. Thermal decomposition of these oils occurred in three stages, related to the decomposition of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, respectively. DSC curves show two events that characterize the polymerization and decomposition of triglycerides. The heat capacities of the sunflower oils, obtained by DSC, showed a good correlation and were dependent on the composition of fatty acids. The kinetic parameters, obtained by non isothermal thermogravimetry by the Coats and Redfern, Madhusudanan, Horowitz and Metzger and Van Krevelen methods, were dependent on the antioxidant used. Increasing the frying time produced a decrease in the onset of thermal decomposition temperature in the sunflower oils analyzed.

  6. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  7. Phototropism in seedlings of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this thesis the phototropic bending of hypocotyls of sunflower seedlings, Helianthus annuus L., is investigated.

    Chapter 1 gives the reasons for this project. Although phototropism has been studied extensively over the past 100 years, the understanding of

  8. Association mapping and the genomic consequences of selection in sunflower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Mandel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM, indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval.

  9. Association mapping and the genomic consequences of selection in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R; Nambeesan, Savithri; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2013-03-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching) and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM), indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval.

  10. Development of insect resistant sunflowers: Updates and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. is one of the major oil seed crops grown in the USA. with a highest estimated cultivated acreage of 975,000 acres in North Dakota. Besides diseases and weeds, insects are one of the major causes for yield losses. An average of 9-10% yield losses was attributed to insec...

  11. Transport of glutamine into the xylem of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Findenegg, G.R.; Plaisier, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Melger, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants were grown on nutrient solution with ammonium nitrogen. After 12 days of growth the ammonium in the nutrient solution was labeled with N (99%). Three hours later glutamine-N in the xylem exudate was labeled for 56% as shown by GC-MS; this percentage increased

  12. Phototropism in seedlings of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this thesis the phototropic bending of hypocotyls of sunflower seedlings, Helianthus annuus L., is investigated.Chapter 1 gives the reasons for this project. Although phototropism has been studied extensively over the past 100 years, the understanding of the mechanism is far from clear. During th

  13. Physiological and biochemical responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) exposed to nano-CeO2 and excess boron: Modulation of boron phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, E; Giorgetti, L; Morelli, E; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L; Barbafieri, M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with soil constituents and their effects in plants. Boron (B), an essential micronutrient that reduces crop production at both deficiency and excess, has not been investigated with respect to its interaction with cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO2). Considering conflicting results on the nano-CeO2 toxicity and protective role as antioxidant, their possible modulation on B toxicity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was investigated. Sunflower was cultivated for 30 days in garden pots containing original or B-spiked soil amended with nano-CeO2 at 0-800 mg kg(-1). At harvest, Ce and B concentrations in tissues, biomass, and activities of stress enzymes in leaves were determined. Results showed that in the original soil, Ce accumulated mainly in roots, with little translocation to stems and leaves, while reduced root Ce was observed in plants from B-spiked soil. In the original soil, higher levels of nano-CeO2 reduced plant B concentration. Although morphological effects were not visible, changes in biomass and oxidative stress response were observed. Sunflower leaves from B-spiked soil showed visible symptoms of B toxicity, such as necrosis and chlorosis in old leaves, as well as an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. However, at high nano-CeO2 level, SOD activity decreased reaching values similar to that of the control. This study has shown that nano-CeO2 reduced both the B nutritional status of sunflower in original soil and the B phytotoxicity in B-spiked soil.

  14. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  15. Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmongoyo, Juma A; Wu, Felicia; Linz, John E; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Mugula, Jovin K; Tempelman, Robert J; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania. Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across two years, and analyzed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Mbeya (2.8-97.7 ng/g), Dodoma (1.9-88.2 ng/g), and Singida (2.0-34.3 ng/g). For seed samples collected August-October 2015, the highest concentrations were from Morogoro (2.8-662.7 ng/g), Singida (1.6-217.6 ng/g) and Mbeya (1.4-174.2 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Morogoro (2.7-536.0 ng/g), Dodoma (1.4-598.4 ng/g) and Singida (3.2-52.8 ng/g). In summary, humans and animals are potentially at high risk of exposure to aflatoxins through sunflower seeds and cakes from micro-scale millers in Tanzania; and location influences risk.

  16. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  17. 影响葵花籽油微乳形成的因素%Factors influencing the preparation on sunflower oil microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长豹; 吴红艳; 贾秀峰; 李昂

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, sunflower oil microemulsion is prepared by microemulsion technology.The effects of factors, including HLB value, surfacant, co-surfacant, temperature, pH and NaCl concentration on sunflower oil microemulsion formation are investigateed.The results showed that, the best formula of preparation of sunflower oil microemulsion: tween 80 and Span 80 are mixed by a 91:9 mass ratio as a surfactant, then mixed with sunflower oil,according to the mass ratio 9: 1.Under the optimum temperature 25 ℃, ultra-pure water is added to the system with constant stirring.A clear and transparent system will become turbid viscous, continue adding ultrapure water, and then mixing system will become clear and transparent again, sunflower oil microemulsion formed at this point.The impact of weak acid or weak base on sunflower oil microemulsion is very small.Sunflower oil microemulsion is slightly affected by NaCl concentration of 5% ~ 15%.%利用微乳化技术制备葵花籽油微乳,研究了HLB值、表面活性剂、助表面活性剂、表面活性剂与助表面活性剂的比值(Km)、温度、pH和NaCl浓度对葵花籽油微乳形成的影响.结果表明:制备葵花籽油微乳的最佳配方为,以吐温80和司班80按质量比91:9比例混合作为表面活性剂,再与葵花籽油按质量比9:1混合,在最适温度25℃下,不断搅拌并滴加超纯水,体系由澄清透明变得浑浊黏稠,继续滴加超纯水,体系会由浑浊黏稠再次变得澄清透明,此时即形成葵花籽油微乳;pH值在3~11时,弱酸弱碱对葵花籽油微乳的形成影响很小;NaCl浓度5% ~15%时,对葵花籽油微乳的形成影响较小.

  18. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  19. Arsenic-contaminated soils. Phytotoxicity studies with sunflower and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubun, Y.V.; Kosterin, P.V.; Zakharova, E.A.; Fedorov, E.E. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation); Shcherbakov, A.A. [Saratov Military Inst. of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Defence, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Aim and Scope. Environmental pollution caused by arsenic (As) is a major ecological problem. There has been intense worldwide effort to find As-hyperaccumulating plants that can be used in phytoremediation - the green-plant-assisted removal of chemical pollutants from soils. For phytoremediation, it is natural to prefer cultivated rather than wild plants, because their agriculture is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Pers.) for soil-As contents of 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, with sodium arsenite as a model contaminant. Methods. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days. Microfield experiments were conducted on experimental plots. To study the phytoremediation effect of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), we treated 1- and 3-day-old plant seedlings with water solutions of the auxins (concentrations of 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -7}, and 10{sup -9} g l{sup -1}). The soil and plant-biomass samples were analyzed for total As by using the color reaction of ammonium molybdate with As. Results and Discussion. Phytotoxicity studies showed that 100 mg as kg{sup -1} soil poisoned sunflower and sorghum growth by 50%. There was a linear correlation between soil-As content and As accumulation in the plants. Laboratory experiments showed that the soil-As content was reduced two- to threefold after sunflower had been grown with 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil for 30 days. Treatment of sunflower and sorghum seedlings with IAA and 2,4-D at a concentration of 10{sup -5} g l{sup -1} in microfield experiments enhanced the phytoremediation two- to fivefold as compared with untreated control plants. The best results were obtained with 3-day-old seedlings. Conclusion, Recommendation and Outlook. (a) Sunflower and sorghum are good candidates to remediate As-polluted soils. (b) Phytoremediation can be improved with IAA or 2

  20. Investigation of Correlation between Traits and Path Analysis of Confectionary Sunflower Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    SINCIK, Mehmet; Abdurrahim Tanju GOKSOY

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. This study examined the relationships between various traits associated with seed and crude protein yields of confectionary sunflower as well as the direct and indirect effects of these traits on crude protein yield. Eight open-pollinated confectionary sunflower populations and two open-pollinated confectionary sunflower cultivars used as control varieties were evaluated during two growing seasons (2009 and 2010). Certain agronomical and technological traits such as plant height, he...

  1. Wild helianthus species used for broadening the genetic base of cultivated sunflower in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha M

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation has been undertaken to introgress desirable traits from wild sunflowers to cultivated sunflower. Using conventional methods of crossing, backcrossing and selection, several pre-bred lines with altered plant architecture, high yield and oil content, maturity duration and inbuilt tolerance to major biotic stresses have been developed from crosses involving diploid annuals. These recombinant interspecific inbred lines are being utilized in the national sunflower network...

  2. Production of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of the sunflower and soybean oils: modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Fernando L P; Magalhães, Shayane P; Falcão, Pedro Wagner de Carvalho

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel has become attractive due to its environmental benefits compared with conventional diesel. Although the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel requires low thermal energy, low conversions of enzymatic transesterification with ethanol (ethanolysis) of oils to produce biodiesel are reported as a result of deactivation of the enzyme depending on the reaction conditions. The synthesis of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of sunflower and soybean oils was investigated. Kinetic parameters for the overall reactions were fitted to experimental data available in the literature with the Ping Pong Bi-Bi mechanism including the inhibition effect of the ethanol on the activity of lipase Novozyme 435. The model was applied to a batch reactor and the experimental conversions were successfully reproduced. The modeling of a semibatch reactor with continuous addition of ethanol was also performed and the results showed a reduction of roughly 3 h in the reaction time in comparison with the batch-wise operation.

  3. BIOCATALYTIC METHODS IN THE SUNFLOWER BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY Candida antarctica LIPASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Priscilla de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of lipases in reactions of transformation of vegetable oil is against the principles of green chemistry, mainly because they are renewable and have a high efficiency and specificity in oleochemical reactions. Among the lipases studied stands out mainly Candida antarctica B (Novozym ® 435 and being marketed already immobilized in support of acrylic resin, has the advantage of being reused in the reactions. It was possible to optimize a system of transesterification by a continuous process, with which it was possible maximum conversion of substrate (sunflower oil in ethyl esters, and perform 87 cycles with the same enzyme without reducing the activity and 224 cycles, after the reduction of the activity. The system obtained are adequate to objectives and can be used in absence of organic solvent, it is only need the alcohol excess.

  4. The Effectof Temperature on the Dynmaic Viscosity of Acetone Sunflower-Seed Oil Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    TOPALLAR, Hüseyin; BAYRAK, Yüksel

    1998-01-01

    The effect of acetone on the dynamic viscosity of sunflower-seed oil was studied under a dynamic heating regime at temeparuters ranging from 25oC to 50oC at 5oC intervals. Acetone dramatically reduced the viscosity of sunflower-seed oil. The reduction of viscosity was far less with further addition of acetone. A linear relationship was found between the density of sunflower-seed oil and temperature. The influence of a solvent on the density of the sunflower-seed oil/acetone solution can be ac...

  5. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvey, Bassie B.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported. PMID:19325810

  6. Volumetric properties of sunflower methyl ester oil at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Cristina; Guignon, Bérengère; Rodríguez-Antón, Luis M; Sanz, Pedro D

    2007-09-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel oil (DO), because it is a fuel obtained from renewable resources that has lower emissions than DO. Biomass production should promote agricultural activity to obtain fuels for the transport sector. The study of the behavior of biodiesel at varying pressure and temperature is very interesting because diesel engines are mechanical systems that work with fuels submitted to high pressure. The specific volume, isothermal compressibility, and cubic expansion coefficients of refined sunflower methyl ester oil (SMEO) and unrefined sunflower methyl ester oil (URSMEO) were obtained and compared with those of DO from 0.1 to 350 MPa and 288.15 to 328.15 K. This work shows that oil refinement did not significantly modify any of the properties studied of the final biodiesel. Compared with DO, both SMEOs were about 6% denser, whereas isothermal compressibility and cubic expansion coefficients were bigger or smaller for DO depending on pressure and temperature.

  7. Evaluation and characterization of sunflower germplasm accessions for quantitative characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kulkarni, I.Shankegoud and M.R. Govindappa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower germplasm accessions (143 were evaluated for yield and yield contributing characters to study the extentof variation for different quantitative traits. The germplasm accessions were also characterized on qualitative traits. Highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for seed yield per plant (53.4 % and 46.9% respectively followed by head diameter, test weight, plant height,volume weight and oil content. High heritability was noticed for all the traits studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean has been recorded for seed yield per plant (77 and 65.1 followed by head diameter, test weight and plant height. It was noticed that sunflower germplasm accessions exhibited wide range of variability for all the morphological characters studied like leaf shape, leaf color, leaf serrations, leaf hairiness, stem hairiness, indicator leaf, petiole anthocyanin, branching, leaf angle, petiole length, stem pigmentation and pollen color.

  8. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  9. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  10. Genome skimming reveals the origin of the Jerusalem Artichoke tuber crop species: neither from Jerusalem nor an artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Dan G; Kane, Nolan C; Ebert, Daniel P; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-02-01

    The perennial sunflower Helianthus tuberosus, known as Jerusalem Artichoke or Sunchoke, was cultivated in eastern North America before European contact. As such, it represents one of the few taxa that can support an independent origin of domestication in this region. Its tubers were adopted as a source of food and forage when the species was transferred to the Old World in the early 1600s, and are still used today. Despite the cultural and economic importance of this tuber crop species, its origin is debated. Competing hypotheses implicate the occurrence of polyploidization with or without hybridization, and list the annual sunflower H. annuus and five distantly related perennial sunflower species as potential parents. Here, we test these scenarios by skimming the genomes of diverse populations of Jerusalem Artichoke and its putative progenitors. We identify relationships among Helianthus taxa using complete plastomes (151 551 bp), partial mitochondrial genomes (196 853 bp) and 35S (8196 bp) and 5S (514 bp) ribosomal DNA. Our results refute the possibility that Jerusalem Artichoke is of H. annuus ancestry. We provide the first genetic evidence that this species originated recursively from perennial sunflowers of central-eastern North America via hybridization between tetraploid Hairy Sunflower and diploid Sawtooth Sunflower. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Effects of nitrogen and plant density on dwarf sunflower hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Süzer S.

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the seed yield and some yield components of two dwarf hybrids as compared to one standard-height sunflower hybrid (Helianthus annuus L.) at different nitrogen rates and planting densities. The study was carried out under natural rainfed conditions at the Thrace Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne-Turkey between 1999 and 2001. The experiments were set up in split-split plots in a randomized complete block desi...

  12. Breeding sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for drought tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Rauf

    2008-01-01

    Productivity of sunflower is strongly regulated by the availability of water and greatest yield losses occur when water shortage occurs at flowering. Therefore, it is critical to manage the deleterious effect of drought stress at this stage. Evolving crop genotypes which have enhanced drought tolerance are the most successful and cheapest strategy to cope with drought. However, progress in drought tolerance breeding is slow due to inappropriate selection criteria and faulty breeding strategie...

  13. Biodiesel production by chemical or enzymatic esterification of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, Paula C.; Rosa, M. Fernanda; Oliveira, A.C.; Pingarilho, M.S.; Beirao, S.G.; Vieira, Ana Maria Soares

    1998-07-01

    In this work, two processes of sunflower oil transesterification, with methanol or ethanol, were studied for biodiesel production: chemical (catalyst- NaOH) and enzymatic (catalyst - rhizomucor miehei lipase). The chemical catalysis proved to be more efficient, having been obtained higher conversion yields and a better quality biodiesel, mainly in the case where methanol was used. The transesterification product had, in all cases, to be purified in order to be used as a diesel substitute.

  14. Microbiological Production of Citric and Isocitric Acids from Sunflower Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova; Finogenova, Tatiana V; Igor G. Morgunov

    2008-01-01

    The growth of wild type strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 and its mutant Yarrowia lipolytica N 15 as well the biosynthesis of citric and isocitric acids on sunflower oil were studied. It was indicated that cell growth was associated with the simultaneous utilization of glycerol and free fatty acids produced during oil hydrolysis. The activities of enzymes of glycerol metabolism (glycerol kinase), fatty acid assimilation enzymes of glyoxylate cycle (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) an...

  15. Storage stability of value added products from sunflower kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttagi, Gopika C; Joshi, Neena; Shadakshari, Y G; Chandru, R

    2014-09-01

    Shelf life of two products namely chikki and oilseed butter were evaluated. Sunflower was substituted for groundnut at three levels (0, 50 and 100 %). Products were stored up to 2 months in ambient conditions (25-30 °C; RH 40-60 %). Chikki was packed in Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and laminated pouches and oil seed butter was stored in glass and plastic jars. Products were evaluated for sensory characteristics, absence of rancidity; per cent free fatty acid and peroxide value. Stored chikki was evaluated for microbial load. Products were acceptable for sensory attributes even at the end of storage period. Product chikki stored in laminated pouches had higher per cent free fatty acid and peroxide value compared to that stored in Low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches. Oilseed butter stored in glass jar had higher per cent free fatty acid when compared to that stored in plastic jar. Stored chikki had higher microbial load in the Low density polyethylene (LDPE) when compared to that stored in laminated pouches. Products made with groundnut alone (control) were preferred over those made in combination with sunflower and groundnut (1:1) or sunflower alone. However all products were highly acceptable at the end of storage period.

  16. Very long chain fatty acid synthesis in sunflower kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Joaquín J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2005-04-01

    Most common seed oils contain small amounts of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), the main components of oils from species such as Brassica napus or Lunnaria annua. These fatty acids are synthesized from acyl-CoA precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum through the activity of a dissociated enzyme complex known as fatty acid elongase. We studied the synthesis of the arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric VLCFAs in sunflower kernels, in which they account for 1-3% of the saturated fatty acids. These VLCFAs are synthesized from 18:0-CoA by membrane-bound fatty acid elongases, and their biosynthesis is mainly dependent on NADPH equivalents. Two condensing enzymes appear to be responsible for the synthesis of VLCFAs in sunflower kernels, beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase-I (KCS-I) and beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase-II (KCS-II). Both of these enzymes were resolved by ion exchange chromatography and display different substrate specificities. While KCS-I displays a preference for 20:0-CoA, 18:0-CoA was more efficiently elongated by KCS-II. Both enzymes have different sensitivities to pH and Triton X-100, and their kinetic properties indicate that both are strongly inhibited by the presence of their substrates. In light of these results, the VLCFA composition of sunflower oil is considered in relation to that in other commercially exploited oils.

  17. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KoohiKamali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD through response surface methodology (RSM was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w. The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P≥0.05. Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.

  18. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability.

  19. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  20. Interaction hybrid × planting date for oil yield in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of hybrids and planting dates as well as their interaction on oil yield in sunflower for three-year experiment (2005, 2006, 2007. Three sunflower hybrids (Miro, Rimi and Pobednik and eight planting dates were included in the experiment. AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction analysis is one of the mainly used multiplicative models, which evaluates main effects and also interaction. The interaction was detected by using AMMI1 biplot. Oil yield was predominantly influenced by the year of growing (58.9%, then by planting date (12.9% and by hybrid (10.7%. All interactions were significant as well. AMMI ANOVA showed high significance of both IPC1 and IPC2. The contribution of IPC1 was 77.5%. Hybrids Miro and Pobednik showed no significant differences in the mean values, which were higher than average. However, the hybrid Miro showed the highest stability for oil yield. Hybrid Rimi, with the lowest mean value, was the most unstable for the examined character. Oil yield was higher in earlier than in later planting dates. Graphical presentation of AMMI1 in the form of biplot could facilitate the choice of stable hybrids and planting dates for desired characters in sunflower.

  1. Residual nutational activity of the sunflower hypocotyl in simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity dependence of circumnutational activity in the sunflower hypocotyl is investigated under conditions of simulated weightlessness. Seedling cultures of the sunflower Helianthus annuus were placed four days after planting in clinostats rotating at a rate of 1.0 rpm in the horizontal or somersaulting configurations, and plant movements around their growth axes were recorded in infrared light by a time-lapse closed-circuit video system. The amplitudes and mean cycle durations of the plant nutations in the horizontal and tumbling clinostats are observed to be 20% and 72%, and 32% and 74%, respectively, of the values observed in stationary plants; extrapolations to a state of zero g by the imposition of small centripetal forces on horizontally clinostated plants also indicate some nutational motion in the absence of gravity. It is concluded that the results are incompatible with the model of Israelsson and Johnsson (1967) of geotropic response with overshoot for sunflower circumnutation; however, results of the Spacelab 1 mission experiment are needed to unambiguously define the role of gravitation.

  2. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean values of all the traits were found in the F1 and F2 generations. Additive gene effects were more important in the inheritance of total leaf number per plant and plant height, while in the case of total leaf area per plant the nonadditive ones were more important looking at all the combinations in the F1 and F2 generations. The average degree of dominance (Hi/D1/2 was lower than one for total leaf number per plant and plant height, so the mode of inheritance was partial dominance, while with total leaf area the value was higher than one, indicating super dominance as the mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlation was found: between total leaf area per plant and total leaf number per plant (0.285* and plant height (0.278*. The results of the study are of importance for further sunflower breeding work.

  3. Microbiological Production of Citric and Isocitric Acids from Sunflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of wild type strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 and its mutant Yarrowia lipolytica N 15 as well the biosynthesis of citric and isocitric acids on sunflower oil were studied. It was indicated that cell growth was associated with the simultaneous utilization of glycerol and free fatty acids produced during oil hydrolysis. The activities of enzymes of glycerol metabolism (glycerol kinase, fatty acid assimilation enzymes of glyoxylate cycle (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase and citric acid cycle were comparatively assayed in Y. lipolytica grown on sunflower oil, glycerol and oleic acid. Glycerol kinase and enzymes of glyoxylate cycle were active during the whole period of cell cultivation on sunflower oil. Citric acid production and a ratio between citric and isocitric acids depended on both the strain used and the medium composition. It was revealed that wild type strain Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2373 produced almost equal amounts of citric and isocitric acids at pH=4.5 and predominantly accumulated isocitric acid at pH=6.0. The mutant Y. lipolytica N 15 produced only citric acid (150 g/L with mass yield (YCA of 1.32 g/g. Biochemical characteristics of mutant strain Y. lipolytica N 15 were discussed.

  4. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  5. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Navdeep Gill; Matteo Buti; Nolan Kane; Arnaud Bellec; Nicolas Helmstetter; Hélène Berges; Loren H. Rieseberg

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the g...

  6. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  7. Physical behavior of purified and crude wax obtained from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed oil refineries and seed hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanya, T C Sindhu; Sankar, K Udaya; Sastry, M C Shamnathaka

    2003-01-01

    The sunflower seed waxes obtained from two sources (i) seed hull as a standard and (ii) crude wax from oil refineries were studied for their crystallization, melting characteristics and morphology of crystals. The results of differential scanning calorimetry of wax obtained from seed hulls showed the melting temperature range of 13.18 degrees C with the onset at 62.32 degrees C, for purified wax, compared to the melting range of 24.73 degrees C with the onset at 42.3 degrees C. for crude wax. The enthalpy of fusion for both waxes were 57.55 mcal/mg and 7.63 mcal/mg, respectively. The DSC melt crystallization temperature range was 15.79 degrees C with the onset of 64.58 degrees C for purified wax and temperature range of 31.45 degrees C with an onset of 57.76 degrees C for crude wax. A similar pattern was observed of wax obtained from the crude wax of oil refineries. The enthalpy of crystallization was -64.27 mcal/mg and -7.67 mcal/mg, respectively. The purified wax obtained from the two sources (i) and (ii) were comparable with completion temperatures of 75.5 degrees C and 75.1 degrees C, respectively. The effect of inhibitor (lecithin) on crystallization of purified wax under light microscope and surface structure by scanning electron microscope were observed. Lecithin at 0.2% inhibited the crystallization but nucleation was unaltered. The wax crystal was inhibited to around 60% of the original size with 0.2% lecithin. It is concluded that the sunflower waxes studied were not comparable in their crystal properties of crude and purified states. Lecithin inhibited the crystallization of sunflower seed wax.

  8. Visual definition of physiological maturity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is associated with receptacle quantitative color parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Hernandez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying physiological maturity (PM in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. by visual methods is subjective. The present study was conducted during two years in two short season sunflower hybrids (Macón and MG60 to determine the relationship between quantitative color parameters in the receptacle and physiological markers such as fruit dry weight (FDW and fruit water content (FWC from flowering to PM. Fruits from the external 25% of the capitulum radius were sampled at 3-5-day intervals from first anthesis until harvest maturity. Fruit and receptacle fresh and dry weight were calculated, and color changes of the receptacle base were followed over time using a spectrophotometer. Comparison of colorimetric coordinates a* and b*, defined by the CIELAB color space enabled quantitative correlation of color changes in the receptacle with the maturation stage of the fruits and their moisture content. In both hybrids and years, fruits attained maximum dry weight when the receptacle color turned from dark green to buttery-yellow. Strong correlations were found between FWC and a* for Macón the first (r=-0.877 and second year (r=-0.934 and for MG60, (r=-0.912 and r=-0.891 the first and second year, respectively. The same results were found for b* for Macón (r=-0.901 and r=-0.829 and for MG60 (r=-0.898 and r= -0.863 for the first and second year respectively. Maximum b* at FWC between 40 to 41% had the highest correlation with maximum fruit dry weight for both hybrids and years, and was a good indicator for identifying the attainment of PM. This work represents an original contribution and a first step towards the development of a model for predicting PM in sunflower by using colorimetric measurements.

  9. The role of fungal polysaccharidases in the hydrolysis of cell wall materials from sunflower and palm-kernel meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsterhöft, E M; Bonte, A W; Venekamp, J C; Voragen, A G

    1993-09-01

    Main fractions from multi-component polysaccharidase preparations (Driselase, Gamanase and an experimental preparation of fungal origin), previously used for the enzymic treatment of cell wall materials from sunflower and palm-kernel meals, were sub-fractionated by different chromatographic techniques to evaluate the contribution of each of their constituent activities in cell wall degradation. Based on activity measurements, 5- to 10-fold purification was achieved for the major enzymes but residual side-activities were still detectable in most sub-fractions. Solubilization of non-starch polysaccharides from the cell wall materials by the resulting pectolytic, xylanolytic, cellulolytic and mannanolytic sub-fractions and by highly purified glucanases, arabinanases and xylanases was, when acting individually, very low (1% to 5%). With few exceptions, the solubilizing effect of the main fractions could only be slightly enhanced by supplementation with pectolytic, cellulolytic or mannanolytic sub-fractions or by highly purified enzymes. The extent of solubilization remained mostly lower than the sum of both individually obtained values. In the degradation of palm-kernel cell wall material, however, synergistic action of mannanases and glucanases was observed. The hydrolysis of pectic compounds in sunflower cell wall material was most effective when polygalacturonases, arabinanases and rhamnogalacturonan-degrading activities were applied together. The resistance of 4-O-methyl-glucuronoxylan, the major hemicellulosic polymer in the cell wall material from sunflower meal, to enzymic hydrolysis was not only caused by its location in the cell wall or interlinkage to other polymers but also by its primary structure. Neither purified endo-xylanase nor the crude parent preparation were able to achieve complete hydrolysis of this polysaccharide after extraction.

  10. Genetic mapping of rust resistance genes in confection sunflower line HA-R6 and oilseed line RHA 397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few widely effective resistance sources to sunflower rust, incited by Puccinia helianthi Schwein., have been identified in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The USDA inbred line HA-R6 is one of the few confection sunflower lines resistant to rust. A previous allelism test indicated that r...

  11. Thiamethoxam seed treatments hav no impact on pest numbers or yield in cultivated sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of neonicotinoid seed treatments is a nearly ubiquitous practice in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pest management. Sunflowers have a speciose pest complex, but also harbor a diverse and abundant community of beneficial, non-target organisms which may be negatively affected by pest management...

  12. In vivo digestibility of corn and sunflower intercropped as a silage crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, F R; Harrison, J H; Deetz, D A; Fransen, S C

    1988-07-01

    Six nonlactating Holstein cows in a 3 x 3 Latin square total collection digestion trial were used to evaluate three low DM (less than 26%) silage types: 1) corn; 2) corn and sunflower intercropped and 3) sunflower. Feeding periods consisted of a 7-d adjustment followed by a 5-d collection period. Dry matter intake was similar for the three treatments; 12.5, 12.1, and 12.0 kg, respectively. Percent apparent digestibilities for DM, NDF, and N for corn and corn-sunflower were similar and greater than for sunflower: DM (69.6, 68.2, 57.4); NDF (68.1, 61.5, 51.6); and N (66.3, 66.5, 63.6). No differences were observed for digestibilities of ADF, hemicellulose, starch, or for N retention. Percent ether extract digestibility was greatest for corn-sunflower and sunflower silage when compared with digestibility of corn silage (82.5, 77.9, vs. 66.3). Major changes in rumen fermentation patterns were not observed as evidenced by rumen molar proportions of propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, valerate, or acetate to propionate ratios. No difference was observed for rumen NH3 N (2.7, 3.2, 4.1 mg/dl, respectively). Corn and sunflower intercropped silage had intermediate concentrations of fat, fiber, and protein when compared with those of corn or sunflower silages.

  13. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  14. Effect of solvents on the fractionation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootello, Miguel A; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2015-04-01

    Solvent fractionation of high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower oil was studied to determine the best solvent to use (hexane or acetone) in terms of the operational parameters and properties of the final stearins. Acetone fractionation on two types of HOHS sunflower oils (N17 and N20) was carried out at temperatures from 5 to 10 °C using micelles with different oil/solvent ratios. Acetone was more suitable than hexane as a solvent for HSHO sunflower oil fractionation because it allowed the oil to be fractionated at higher temperatures and at lower supercooling degrees. Likewise, a sunflower soft stearin obtained by dry fractionation of HOHS sunflower oil was also used to produce high-melting point stearins by acetone or hexane fractionation. The fractionation of these stearins could be performed at higher temperatures and gave higher yields. The combination of dry and solvent fractionation to obtain tailor-made stearins is discussed.

  15. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  16. Biplot Analysis of Silicon Dioxide on Early Growth of Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into nanotechnology has advanced in almost all fields of technology and the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 in germination performance sunflower. Germination and seedling growth are the most important stage of plant development and are critical factors to crop production and are essential to achieve optimum performance. The effects of pre-germination hydration in solutions of nano-SiO2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h on germination characteristics of sunflower were investigated. The trait by treatment (TT biplot explained 93% of the total variation of the standardized data (77% and 16% for the first and second principal components, respectively. According to polygon-view of TT biplot, T2 (0.2 mM had the highest values for all of the measured traits except mean germination time and the time to 50% germination. The germination percentage was determined as the best trait and showed the high association with promptness index, energy of germination and germination rate traits. The results of the present study indicated that pre-sowing seed treatments with low concentration of nano-SiO2 had favorable effect sunflower seed germination and seedling early growth. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to outline other crops in response to nano-particles as well as to help define tolerance tools for recommendations in stressful conditions in the world.

  17. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots in Stata Version 8

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D

    2004-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional ...

  18. Sunflower oil bleaching by adsorption onto acid-activated bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Foletto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two bentonite clays with different mineralogical compositions from Mendoza, Argentine, were activated with H2SO4 solutions of 4 and 8 N at 90ºC for 3.5 hours. This treatment affected clay structural properties, as was shown by thermogravimetry, infrared spectrometry and chemical analysis. Bleaching efficiency for sunflower oil was strongly dependent on the acid concentration used for clay activation. The samples have bleaching capacity comparable to that observed with a commercial adsorbent standard. The mineralogical composition of natural clays influenced the properties of the activated clays.

  19. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage.

  20. High oleic sunflower oil as a gear lubricant

    OpenAIRE

    Vižintin, Jože; Kržan, Boris

    2015-01-01

    A formulated high oleic sunflower oil was investigated with respect to their expected performance in gear boxes in comparison to a typical mineral oil. Investigations of scuffing load capacity, pitting resistance and low-speed high-load wear resistance were performed by using the FZG gear test rig. In addition of standardized tests, new formulated ISO VG 46 oil was tested in a spur gear test rig. A set of spur gears was rotated at a specified load for 1,000 hours. The physical and chemical pr...

  1. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  2. Thiamethoxam Seed Treatments Have No Impact on Pest Numbers or Yield in Cultivated Sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeson, Michael M; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2015-12-01

    The use of neonicotinoid seed treatments is a nearly ubiquitous practice in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pest management. Sunflowers have a speciose pest complex, but also harbor a diverse and abundant community of beneficial, nontarget organisms which may be negatively affected by pest management practices. Here, we investigate how the foliar and subterranean arthropod pest communities in sunflower fields were affected by a thiamethoxam seed treatment over three site years (two years on one farm, and another year at an additional field in the second year). Thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in leaf tissue were quantified throughout the growing season, and yield differences between treatments were measured. Across site years, foliar herbivores and key pests of sunflowers were unaffected by the seed treatment. Likewise, subterranean herbivores were unaffected. Thiamethoxam was measurable in leaf tissue through the R1 plant stage, while its metabolite clothianidin was detected throughout flowering (R6). No difference in sunflower yield was observed between treatments across site years. This research suggests that neonicotinoid seed treatments in sunflowers do not always provide economic benefits to farmers in the form of pest reductions or yield improvements. Future research should focus on sunflower integrated pest management strategies that limit nontarget effects of agrochemicals, while providing greater economic returns to farmers.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNFLOWER OPEN-POLLINATED VARIETIES FOR MAIN SEED TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigay K. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of confectionery sunflower openpollinated varieties (OP-varieties is a prospect direction in sunflower breeding. High price level for confectionery sunflower seeds pushes forward the breeding program. Contrary, it is necessary to offer product, meeting consumer’s expectation for large seeds, good dehulling rate, proper oil and husk content. The aim of our work is to study morphometric peculiarities of seed structure for sunflower OP-varieties of different types – oil and confectionery, and to identify the best samples for using in the breeding program as an initial material. The study was done at All-Russia Oil Crops Research Institute (VNIIMK named by V.S. Pustovoit (Krasnodar in 2014 and 2015. Seeds of 6 OP sunflower varieties of VNIIMK breeding were used as a material (confectionery type – Dzhinn, SPK, Lakomka, Oreshek, Borodinskiy and oil-type – Muster. OP-varieties were sown by randomized blocks with 3 replications. Every plot had 4 rows. It was shown that seeds of confectionery sunflower OP-varieties had higher values of main traits (length, width and thickness in comparison with oil-type sunflower. Seed traits analyses allowed identifying the best confectionery samples (Dzhinn and Oreshek for future breeding

  4. Confectionery products (halva type obtained from sunflower: production technology and quality alterations. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower "halva" is a popular and widely enjoyed confectionery product specific to the countries of Eastern Europe. Conventional halva has historically been produced from sesame seeds in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, in the production of halva in Eastern Europe, sesame seeds have been largely replaced by sunflower seeds, due to the high availability of sunflower in this region and the comparable taste of the final product. Due to the importance of the cost of raw materials in the food industry, utilization of sunflower seeds in halva production may be of great interest worldwide because it offers the possibility of significantly lowering production costs. Nevertheless, oil separation and storage techniques must be perfected if sunflower halva is to fulfill its promise of becoming a cost effective alternative to sesame seed halva on a worldwide scale. The aims of this review are firstly, to describe the current state of sunflower halva technology, secondly, to isolate the main problems affecting the quality of the final product, and thirdly, to suggest areas of further research necessary to move sunflower halva production closer to reaching its full potential on the world market.

  5. Tracing the origin of suspended sediment in a large Mediterranean river by combining continuous river monitoring and measurement of artificial and natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebracki, Mathilde, E-mail: zebracki@free.fr [Laboratoire d' Etudes Radioécologiques en milieu Continental et Marin (LERCM), Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique [Laboratoire d' Etudes Radioécologiques en milieu Continental et Marin (LERCM), Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Evrard, Olivier [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE/IPSL), Unité Mixte de Recherche 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Claval, David [Laboratoire d' Etudes Radioécologiques en milieu Continental et Marin (LERCM), Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mourier, Brice [Université Lyon 1, UMR 5023 Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, ENTPE, CNRS, 3, Rue Maurice Audin, F-69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Université de Limoges, GRESE, EA 4330, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Gairoard, Stéphanie [Centre de Recherche et d' Enseignement de Géosciences de l' Environnement (CEREGE), Unité Mixte 34 (AMU/CNRS/IRD), Aix-en-Provence (France); and others

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of suspended sediment from large rivers to marine environments has important environmental impacts on coastal zones. In France, the Rhone River (catchment area of 98,000 km{sup 2}) is by far the main supplier of sediment to the Mediterranean Sea and its annual solid discharge is largely controlled by flood events. This study investigates the relevance of alternative and original fingerprinting techniques based on the relative abundances of a series of radionuclides measured routinely at the Rhone River outlet to quantify the relative contribution of sediment supplied by the main tributaries during floods. Floods were classified according to the relative contribution of the main subcatchments (i.e., Oceanic, Cevenol, extensive Mediterranean and generalised). Between 2000 and 2012, 221 samples of suspended sediment were collected at the outlet and were shown to be representative of all flood types that occurred during the last decade. Three geogenic radionuclides (i.e., {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K) were used as fingerprints in a multivariate mixing model in order to estimate the relative contribution of the main subcatchment sources—characterised by different lithologies—in sediment samples collected at the outlet. Results showed that total sediment supply originating from Pre-Alpine, Upstream, and Cevenol sources amounted to 10, 7 and 2.10{sup 6} tons, respectively. These results highlight the role of Pre-Alpine tributaries as the main sediment supplier (53%) to the Rhone River during floods. Other fingerprinting approaches based on artificial radionuclide activity ratios (i.e., {sup 137}Cs/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu) were tested and provided a way to quantify sediment remobilisation or the relative contributions of the southern tributaries. In the future, fingerprinting methods based on natural radionuclides should be further applied to catchments with heterogeneous lithologies. Methods based on artificial radionuclides

  6. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  7. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 microg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  8. Kinetic Modeling of Sunflower Grain Filling and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durruty, Ignacio; Aguirrezábal, Luis A. N.; Echarte, María M.

    2016-01-01

    Grain growth and oil biosynthesis are complex processes that involve various enzymes placed in different sub-cellular compartments of the grain. In order to understand the mechanisms controlling grain weight and composition, we need mathematical models capable of simulating the dynamic behavior of the main components of the grain during the grain filling stage. In this paper, we present a non-structured mechanistic kinetic model developed for sunflower grains. The model was first calibrated for sunflower hybrid ACA855. The calibrated model was able to predict the theoretical amount of carbohydrate equivalents allocated to the grain, grain growth and the dynamics of the oil and non-oil fraction, while considering maintenance requirements and leaf senescence. Incorporating into the model the serial-parallel nature of fatty acid biosynthesis permitted a good representation of the kinetics of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids production. A sensitivity analysis showed that the relative influence of input parameters changed along grain development. Grain growth was mostly affected by the specific growth parameter (μ′) while fatty acid composition strongly depended on their own maximum specific rate parameters. The model was successfully applied to two additional hybrids (MG2 and DK3820). The proposed model can be the first building block toward the development of a more sophisticated model, capable of predicting the effects of environmental conditions on grain weight and composition, in a comprehensive and quantitative way. PMID:27242809

  9. Functional properties of proteins isolated from industrially produced sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petia Ivanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein isolate 1 (PI1 and protein isolate 2 (PI2 were prepared from industrially produced sunflower meal by using isoelectric and ethanol precipitation respectively. The water absorption capacity of PI1 was 6 times higher than that of PI2 and was significantly reduced by the presence of 0.03 M and 0.25 M NaCl. Oil absorption capacity of both protein isolates was not influenced by NaCl supplementation. Foam capacity of PI1 and PI2 was pH-dependent. While the foam capacity of both isolates was improved by either 0.03 M or 0.25 M NaCl, the foam stability was negatively influenced by the addition of NaCl at all pH values with except for pH 4. Emulsifying activity of PI1 and PI2 was lowest at pH 4. The emulsions exhibited relatively high stability (> 90% under all studied conditions. Knowledge of the influence of pH and boundary concentrations of NaCl on the functionality of sunflower meal protein isolates could be beneficial for their future potential application in food industry.

  10. The benefits of sunflower oleodistillate (SOD) in pediatric dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; McCollum, Alexandra; Msika, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    For millennia, sunflower seed oil has been used in folk medicine for both skin care and the treatment of skin disorders. In its natural state, the oil contains high levels of essential fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid, which has skin barrier-enhancing properties. A sunflower oleodistillate (SOD), which is produced through a molecular distillation process without the use of solvents, has been shown to increase the epidermal key lipid synthesis and to reduce inflammation in vitro and in animal models. It has also been shown to activate peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) in vitro. As PPAR-alpha agonists have been shown to stimulate keratinocyte differentiation, improve barrier function, and enhance lipid metabolism in the skin, it has been suggested that SOD might also be efficacious in atopic dermatitis (AD). An initial clinical evaluation of the care effect of a 2% SOD emulsion in 20 adult volunteers with atopic skin revealed the moisturizing properties of SOD. Finally, a strong steroid-sparing effect and a positive effect on quality-of-life parameters were clearly demonstrated for the 2% SOD cream in studies in infants and babies with AD.

  11. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  12. Sequence validation of candidates for selectively important genes in sunflower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Chapman

    Full Text Available Analyses aimed at identifying genes that have been targeted by past selection provide a powerful means for investigating the molecular basis of adaptive differentiation. In the case of crop plants, such studies have the potential to not only shed light on important evolutionary processes, but also to identify genes of agronomic interest. In this study, we test for evidence of positive selection at the DNA sequence level in a set of candidate genes previously identified in a genome-wide scan for genotypic evidence of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In the majority of cases, we were able to confirm the effects of selection in shaping diversity at these loci. Notably, the genes that were found to be under selection via our sequence-based analyses were devoid of variation in the cultivated sunflower gene pool. This result confirms a possible strategy for streamlining the search for adaptively-important loci process by pre-screening the derived population to identify the strongest candidates before sequencing them in the ancestral population.

  13. [Cytogenetic effect of temperature on the sunflower varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashkina, E V; Gus'kov, E P

    2002-01-01

    The influence of increased temperature on the intensity of fission and level of chromosome aberrations (ChA) in root meristeme cells of two lines of sunflower seedlings was studied. Within the first hour of seed germination, the temperature of 40 degrees C reduced proliferation activity of root meristeme cells line 3629 for almost the next 15 h of growth. Heat stress (HS) blocks the beginning of cell fission in the plastome mutant en-chlorina-5. However, subsequent by mitosis activity was seen to increase. The influence of HS on the ChA level is ambiguous: the effect depends on the duration of warm-up influence and the used sunflower lines. So, ChA level does not change inbred line 3629 even after 6 h HS. In mutant en-chlorina-5 the ChA level increases after 1 h HS and decreases after 3 and 6 h HS. The study of HS modification effect has shown that preliminary warm-up influence (40 degrees C for 1 h) reduces differences in reactions of cells 3629 of line on the action of different nitrosomethylurea (NMU) concentrations. Preliminary warm-up influence does not change sensitivity of en-chlorina-5 cells to NMU. The combined action of the increased temperature and NMU induce a powerful cytostatic effect.

  14. SUNFLOWER HUSKS AS A SOURCE OF FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusid S. B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the complex feed additive based on sunflower husk, enriched with beer wort with the addition of pumpkin pulp. We have studied the chemical composition of sunflower husk, which is the secondary resource of the processing plant raw material, selected methods of enrichment of this raw material with the help of fungi Trichoderma harzianum. Cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the basis of fungi of the genus Trichoderma for use in agriculture and animal feed production is often obtained when the surface method of cultivation. These drugs are cheap and contain a significant number of related hydrolytic enzymes, 29 such as amylase, protease, pectinase and hemicellulase, which are also important and valuable to the consumer. As a vitamin component of the feed additive we have selected a pumpkin pulp, which is a valuable feed for livestock and poultry is a source of carotene, fat and nitrogenous substances. We have also developed elements of technology for complex feed additive. We have created a comprehensive feed additive which can be used in the composition of diets in the feeding of farm animals and poultry

  15. The genetic architecture of UV floral patterning in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brook T; Owens, Gregory L; Baute, Gregory J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2017-07-01

    The patterning of floral ultraviolet (UV) pigmentation varies both intra- and interspecifically in sunflowers and many other plant species, impacts pollinator attraction, and can be critical to reproductive success and crop yields. However, the genetic basis for variation in UV patterning is largely unknown. This study examines the genetic architecture for proportional and absolute size of the UV bullseye in Helianthus argophyllus , a close relative of the domesticated sunflower. A camera modified to capture UV light (320-380 nm) was used to phenotype floral UV patterning in an F 2 mapping population, then quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing and linkage mapping. The ability of these QTL to predict the UV patterning of natural population individuals was also assessed. Proportional UV pigmentation is additively controlled by six moderate effect QTL that are predictive of this phenotype in natural populations. In contrast, UV bullseye size is controlled by a single large effect QTL that also controls flowerhead size and co-localizes with a major flowering time QTL in Helianthus . The co-localization of the UV bullseye size QTL, flowerhead size QTL and a previously known flowering time QTL may indicate a single highly pleiotropic locus or several closely linked loci, which could inhibit UV bullseye size from responding to selection without change in correlated characters. The genetic architecture of proportional UV pigmentation is relatively simple and different from that of UV bullseye size, and so should be able to respond to natural or artificial selection independently.

  16. Yield and nutrition of sunflower fertilized with sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann C. de Albuquerque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermally dried sewage sludge on soil fertility, growth and yield of sunflower. The experiment was conducted in a Nitosol area of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Montes Claros-MG, Brazil. The treatments consisted of four doses of sewage sludge (0, 10, 20 or 30 t ha-1, dry weight basis, with six replicates in a randomized block design. The levels of nutrients in soil and plant, soil fertility indices, stem diameter, plant height, head diameter and grain yield were evaluated. Stem diameter, plant height, head diameter and grain yield increased with increasing doses of sewage sludge. The application of the residue increased linearly the contents of soil organic matter and N in sunflower leaves. On the other hand, pH, the exchangeable bases, total and effective cation exchange capacity, base saturation, H+Al, Al, soil contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe and B, and the leaf contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe and B were not influenced by the application of sewage sludge doses of up to 30 t ha-1.

  17. Strabono Geografijos įžangos: mokslinio diskurso tąsa ir originalumas. Prefaces in Strabo’s Geography: continuity and originality of scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Juchnevičienė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The so called two prefaces of Strabo’s Geography (books I–II demonstrably attest that geography as a literary (narrative rather than descriptive genre has experienced a formative impact of the historiographic tradition. In fact, the two prose genres mentioned have common origin. The very first known histories are also the first known geographies: the works by Hecataeus and Herodotus were without doubt regarded as history, but they are also known as the first extant descriptions of oikoumene. The idea of special book on geography is witnessed for the first time in historiographic tradition, – it belongs to the IVth century historian Ephorus. The role of geography in historical research and the self-importance of geographical studies was first conceptualized by historians such as Ephorus, Polybius or Diodorus. Geography took over from history the main elements of narrative as well as the idea of the prooimion as a methodic programme of the research. The traditional topic of historiographic prooimion is also exploited by Strabo; but his Geography differs from the common historiographic context in its shift to academism and in Strabo’s strive to avoid the “familiarity” of the historiographic discourse. Instead of his, as the author’s, intellectual „biography“, he chooses to present the intellectual “biography” of geography and to define the place of his Geography in it. This attitude has no analogue in historiographic tradition, but without any doubt it originates in the striving of history to discuss its “scientific” nature in the prooimia.

  18. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de. The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons. The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0 was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01 allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  19. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01) allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  20. Sowing quality of seeds sunflower, depending on the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants

    OpenAIRE

    Буряк, Ю. І.; Огурцов, Ю. Є.; Чернобаб, О. В.; Клименко, І. І.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this work was to study the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants on the sowing quality of seeds parental forms and hybrids of sunflower.Methodology and materials. Research conducted in the Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya. Yuriev NAAS. The predecessor of sunflower – winter wheat. Sunflower seeds parent lines Сх1010А, Х720В, Х526В and hybrids F1 Romance and Maximus were sown in optimal terms with the seeding norm of 57 thousand pieces of viable seeds p...

  1. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gemert, L. J.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO or high oleic sunflower oil (HOBO. Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS. Reference samples were prepared using palm olein (PO or hydrogenated rapeseed/palm oil mixture (RP. Crisps were stored at ambient temperature for six months and French fries at -20°C for 12 months. At regular intervals the samples were assessed. Crisps prepared in SO have a lower sensory quality than those prepared in PO. Frying in HOSO resulted in crips comparable with those fried in PO. The differences found in this study concerning the mouthfeel or texture were thought not to be caused by the application of different oils. The addition of DMPS did not have any positive effect on the storage quality of crisps fried in SO or HOSO. Frying of French fries in HOSO and especially in SO, in comparison with RP, resulted in a product with a typical sweet fruits odour and flavour. During storage these sensory attributes decreased in intensity. As this finding might be an artefact of this study, further research is needed.

  2. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower me

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg–1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours than with air (8 hours. Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity.

    Se ha aplicado dos procedimientos de ozonización a aceites de girasol a diferentes dosis de ozono, obteniendo el ozono a partir de oxígeno medicinal y de aire. Se han determinado los índices de peróxido, yodo y acidez conjuntamente con la densidad, viscosidad y la actividad antimicrobiana. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada mediante CG. El contenido de oxígeno fue determinado mediante Análisis Elemental. Se utilizó la resonancia paramagnética electrónica para medir los radicales libres orgánicos. Las reacciones fueron realizadas hasta valores de índice de peróxidos de 658 y 675 mmol-equiv kg–1 usando oxígeno medicinal y aire durante 5 y 8 horas, respectivamente. Las muestras de aceite de girasol ozonizado no presentaron radicales libres orgánicos, lo cual es muy importante en el caso de que estos aceites sean utilizados en medicina. La reacción de ozonización es más rápida cuando se utiliza oxígeno medicinal (5 horas

  4. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic extraction of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr, F. H.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was extracted with an enzymatic processes using different hydrolytic enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex, as compared to enzyme - free aqueous extraction. All the hydrolytic enzymes enhanced oil extraction from sunflower seeds. The most optimal conditions for oil extraction from sunflower seeds were: 2% enzyme concentration, 30% substrate concentration and 3 hrs period. Using Boganov and Buchkov equation showed that time must be prolonged to get higher yields. The maximum yield during 3 hrs extraction with enzymatic process ranged between 44,5%-57,1% of the soxhlet extractable oil. The potency of the investigated enzymes in extracting oil was in the following order: acid proteinase > cellulase > hemicellulase > animal proteinase > pectinex > pectinase when compared at the previous optimal conditions.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído mediante un proceso enzimático usando diferentes enzimas hidrolíticos: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinasa acida, pectinasa y pectinex, comparando con la extracción acuosa libre de enzima. Todos los enzimas hidrolíticos incrementan la extracción de aceites de semilla de girasol. Las condiciones óptimas para la extracción de aceite a partir de semillas de girasol fueron: 2% de concentración de enzima, 30% de concentración de sustrato y un período de 3 horas. La ecuación de Boganov y Buchkov mostró que el tiempo debe ser prolongado para alcanzar altos rendimientos. El máximo rendimiento durante tres horas de extracción con proceso enzimático osciló entre el 44,5%-57,1% del aceite extraído con soxhlet. La potencia de los enzimas investigados en la extracción de aceite siguió el orden: proteinasa acida > celulasa > hemicelulasa > proteinasa animal > pectinex > pectinasa cuando fue previamente comparado con las condiciones óptimas.

  5. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassie B. Marvey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF INOCULANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopic and chromatographic studies of sunflower oil biodiesel using optimized base catalyzed methanolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureen, Rizwana; Tariq, Muhammad; Yusoff, Ismail; Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal Khan; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-05-01

    Methyl esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitute for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide an alternate and sustainable source for fuel with more benign environmental properties. In the present study biodiesel was prepared from sunflower seed oil by transesterification by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. The fuel properties of sunflower oil biodiesel were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 standards for biodiesel. The sunflower oil biodiesel was chemically characterized with analytical techniques like FT-IR, and NMR ((1)H and (13)C). The chemical composition of sunflower oil biodiesel was determined by GC-MS. Various fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were identified by retention time data and verified by mass fragmentation patterns. The percentage conversion of triglycerides to the corresponding methyl esters determined by (1)H NMR was 87.33% which was quite in good agreement with the practically observed yield of 85.1%.

  8. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) in vivo assay for screening imidazolinone-resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, T; Breccia, G; Gil, M; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L; Nestares, G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity response to imidazolinones and its possible use as a selection method for evaluating AHAS inhibitor resistance. In vivo AHAS assay and the comparison of parameters from dose-response curves have been used as a valid tool for comparing sunflower lines and hybrids differing in imidazolinone resistance. The sunflower resistant genotypes evaluated here were 100-fold and 20-fold more resistant compared with the susceptible line for imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. This assay also allowed discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous genotypes for I(mr1) locus that codify for the catalytic subunit of AHAS. The in vivo AHAS assay described in this study was useful for the selection of sunflower genotypes differing in herbicide resistance and could be a useful tool when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in sunflower.

  9. Silk-Cocoon Matrix Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Transesterification of Sunflower Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushovan Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from sunflower oil using lipase chemically immobilized on silk-cocoon matrix in a packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. The immobilization was demonstrated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and activity study. The lipase loading was 738.74 U (~0.01 g lipase powder/g-lipase-immobilized matrix. The Km (Michaelis-Menten constant of the free and the immobilized lipase was 451.26 μM and 257.26 μM, respectively. Low Km value of the immobilized lipase is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the matrix that facilitated the substrate diffusion to the enzyme surface. The biodiesel yield of 81.62% was obtained at 48 hours reaction time, 6 : 1 methanol : oil ratio (v/v, and 30°C. The immobilized lipase showed high operational stability at 30°C. The substrate conversion was only marginally decreased till third cycle (each of 48 hours duration of the reaction since less than even 5% of the original activity was decreased in each of the second and third cycle. The findings demonstrated the potential of the silk-cocoon as lipase immobilization matrix for industrial production of biodiesel.

  10. Apoplastic superoxide production and peroxidase activity by intact and excised axenically grown seedling roots of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Inmaculada; Espinosa, Francisco; Alvarez-Tinaut, M Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Excised and cold-preincubated sunflower seedling roots were compared with intact non-preincubated roots to test the effect of the injury stress and cold preincubation on the oxidative burst measured as apoplastic superoxide (O (2) (.-) ) generation and exocellular peroxidase (ECPOX) activity. Preincubated excised or intact roots released into the medium apoplastic proteins with peroxidase activity. Intact and excised roots responded to methyl jasmonate by an immediate oxidative burst that could not be induced by salicylic acid; both phytohormones also induced a slight and slow O (2)(.-) generation and ECPOX activity on excised roots, when added to the cold preincubation medium. The results with cyanide, azide, SHAM (ECPOX inhibitors) and diphenylene iodonium (inhibitor of trans-plasma membrane NAD(P)H-oxidases (NOX)-respiratory burst oxidase homologue in plants (RBOH), the trans-plasmamembrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase) are consistent with the hypothesis that different systems may be the origin of O (2) (.-) in intact and excised roots; ECPOX was an important component of them in both, together with NOX-RBOH in intact roots, but in excised roots the last one was replaced by an oxidase sensitive to the same inhibitors as the alternative mitochondrial oxidase. According to our hypothesis, these results could be explained if the electron flux would be deviated to different interconnected plasma membrane-redox systems, with different terminal oxidases, activated by different effectors or stresses.

  11. Affinity purification of copper-chelating peptides from sunflower protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2007-08-08

    Copper-chelating peptides were purified from sunflower protein hydrolysates by affinity chromatography using immobilized copper. A variety of protein hydrolysates were obtained by incubation with the proteases Alcalase and Flavourzyme for different periods of time. Chelating activity was indirectly determined by measuring the inhibitory effect of hydrolysates on the oxidation of beta-carotene by copper. Copper-binding peptides purified from the two hydrolysates that inhibited oxidation by copper the most contained 25.4 and 42.0% histidine and inhibited beta-carotene oxidation 8 and 3 times more than the original hydrolysates, which had 2.4 and 2.6% histidine, respectively. Thus, histidine content is not the only factor involved in antioxidant activity, and probably other factors such as peptide size and amino acid sequence are also important. This work shows that affinity chromatography can be used for the purification of copper-chelating peptides and probably other metals of nutritional interest such as calcium, iron, and zinc. In addition to their antioxidant potential, chelating peptides are of nutritional interest because they increase bioavailability of minerals.

  12. New insulation fiberboards from sunflower cake with improved thermal and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Evon, Philippe; Vinet, Justine; Rigal, Matthieu; Labonne, Laurent; Vandenbossche, Virginie; Rigal, Luc

    2015-01-01

    International audience; New thermal insulation fiberboards were manufactured by compression molding from a cake generated during the sunflower biorefinery. Fiberboards were cohesive mixtures of a natural binder and lignocellulosic fibers from sunflower cake. The natural binder ensured the board cohesion, and fibers acted as reinforcing fillers. The influence of molding conditions, i.e. binder type and binder content, on board density, mechanical and heat insulation properties was examined. Th...

  13. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to sowing date and plant density under Mediterranean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, José; Carvalho, Mário; Basch, G.

    2004-01-01

    The productivity of rainfed sunflower under Mediterranean conditions depends strongly on the water availability and the efficiency of its utilisation by the crop. Amongst other factors, sowing date and plant density may interact decisively with water supply. Two field trials were conducted in the South of Portugal on a Vertisol to evaluate the effect of these two factors on the productivity of several sunflower cultivars with different growth cycle. The study of the effect of the ...

  14. Honey bee visitation to sunflower: effects on pollination and plant genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Dechechi Chambó; Regina Conceição Garcia; Newton Tavares Escocard de Oliveira; José Barbosa Duarte-Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an allogamic plant, which needs insects on flowering, especially the honeybees for seed production. Collecting nectar and pollen by honeybees in agricultural crops is essential to apiculture, as well as a better understanding of plant biology. The foraging behavior of Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) and its efficiency of pollination on seed yield of sunflower genotypes (open pollination and restricted pollination) were evaluated. There w...

  15. Model-free kinetics applied to volatilization of Brazilian sunflower oil, and its

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Artigo publicado no Periódico Thermochimica Acta e também disponível em: www.elsevier.com/locate/tca Model-free kinetic studies for volatilization of Brazilian sunflower oil and its respective biodiesel were carried out. The biodiesel was obtained by the methylic route using potassium hydroxide as catalyst. Both sunflower oil and biodiesel were characterized by physicochemical analyses, gas chromatography, simulated distillation and thermogravimetry. The physicochemical properties...

  16. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Alicia D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  17. USE LANDSAT IMAGE TO EVALUATE VEGETATION STAGE IN SUNFLOWER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Valentin HERBEI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing is of great interest for the study and characterization of the vegetation and of the agricultural crops, in order to monitor them and to develop predictable patterns regarding the evolution of the crops and also for the purpose of the decision making process in real time. The main purpose of this research was the study of the sunflower crops dynamics based on spectral information obtained from satellite images. Vegetation dynamics was differently expressed by the indexes NDVI, NDBR and NDMI determined based on spectral information. NDVI has registered an ascending slope since the beginning of the vegetation period until the flowering (65 BBCH code when the maximum value was recorded (NDVIGS6 = 0.4074. Later the distribution of this indicator recorded a descending slope until the physiological maturity.

  18. Resistance of sunflower hybrids to imazamox and tribenuron-methyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozic, D; Saric, M; Malidza, G;

    2012-01-01

    The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post...... concentrations was determined in vitro. Pronounced differences were noted between Rimi and S hybrids and between Rsu and S hybrids in the vegetative parameters and ALS activity. Namely, Rimi hybrid was 9e64-fold more resistant than S for vegetative parameters and about 3000-fold for ALS activity, while Rsu...... hybrid was 14e56-fold more resistant than S for vegetative parameters, and about 2600-fold for ALS activity....

  19. An alternative process for hydrogenation of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic methodologies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils have traditionally been carried out by nickel catalysts under high pressure of H2 and high temperature. An alternative method for hydrogenation of sunflower oil using limonene and palladium-on-carbon was investigated in this study. The use of limonene as a hydrogen donor solvent was proposed in order to avoid high temperature and high-pressure conditions. The catalytic transfer of hydrogenation was studied by using 0.5 to 2% of Pd as a catalyst, a limonene:oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction times from 0.5 to 2 hours. Under these conditions, high selectivities for oleic acid and low concentrations of stearic acid were obtained.

  20. Circadian regulation of sunflower heliotropism, floral orientation, and pollinator visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Hagop S; Creux, Nicky M; Brown, Evan A; Garner, Austin G; Blackman, Benjamin K; Harmer, Stacey L

    2016-08-05

    Young sunflower plants track the Sun from east to west during the day and then reorient during the night to face east in anticipation of dawn. In contrast, mature plants cease movement with their flower heads facing east. We show that circadian regulation of directional growth pathways accounts for both phenomena and leads to increased vegetative biomass and enhanced pollinator visits to flowers. Solar tracking movements are driven by antiphasic patterns of elongation on the east and west sides of the stem. Genes implicated in control of phototropic growth, but not clock genes, are differentially expressed on the opposite sides of solar tracking stems. Thus, interactions between environmental response pathways and the internal circadian oscillator coordinate physiological processes with predictable changes in the environment to influence growth and reproduction.

  1. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of sunflower oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Rosana de Cassia S.; Lara, Luciano R.S. [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Fisica], e-mail: rosana@unisc.br; Bitencourt, Thiago B.; Nascimento, Maria da Graca [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nunes, Marta R. dos Santos [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of the methyl esters of sunflower oil with lipase from Candida antarctica B and aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence and absence of an acyl donor was investigated. The biphasic system (CH{sub C}l{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O) comprised Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB, 1000 u g{sup -1}) and 30% (v/v) aqueous hydrogen peroxide. In some cases the conversion was higher than 99%. The best results were obtained for the biphasic system after 16 h of reaction, at 30 deg C, using 10 mmol of octanoic acid in relation to 1 g of the oil, 6 mL of dichloromethane and 5 mL of water. (author)

  2. Plasticity in sunflower leaf and cell growth under high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céccoli, G; Bustos, D; Ortega, L I; Senn, M E; Vegetti, A; Taleisnik, E

    2015-01-01

    A group of sunflower lines that exhibit a range of leaf Na(+) concentrations under high salinity was used to explore whether the responses to the osmotic and ionic components of salinity can be distinguished in leaf expansion kinetics analysis. It was expected that at the initial stages of the salt treatment, leaf expansion kinetics changes would be dominated by responses to the osmotic component of salinity, and that later on, ion inclusion would impose further kinetics changes. It was also expected that differential leaf Na(+) accumulation would be reflected in specific changes in cell division and expansion rates. Plants of four sunflower lines were gradually treated with a relatively high (130 mm NaCl) salt treatment. Leaf expansion kinetics curves were compared in leaves that were formed before, during and after the initiation of the salt treatment. Leaf areas were smaller in salt-treated plants, but the analysis of growth curves did not reveal differences that could be attributed to differential Na(+) accumulation, since similar changes in leaf expansion kinetics were observed in lines with different magnitudes of salt accumulation. Nevertheless, in a high leaf Na(+) -including line, cell divisions were affected earlier, resulting in leaves with proportionally fewer cells than in a Na(+) -excluding line. A distinct change in leaf epidermal pavement shape caused by salinity is reported for the first time. Mature pavement cells in leaves of control plants exhibited typical lobed, jigsaw-puzzle shape, whereas in treated plants, they tended to retain closer-to-circular shapes and a lower number of lobes.

  3. Effectiveness of added natural antioxidants in sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapiste, Guillermo H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of α- and δ-tocopherol, citric acid, ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate was investigated in sunflower oil containing naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of natural antioxidants in sunflower oil was monitored by the accelerated oxidative stability test Rancimat and oxidation development during storage under different conditions. Samples in storage experiments were periodically removed and analyzed for peroxide value, p-anisidine value, total content and distribution of polar compounds, and residual naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of each antioxidant was strongly dependent on temperature and the testing method. While ascorbic acid appears to be the most effective antioxidant according to the Rancimat oxidative stability index, δ-tocopherol shows improved performance when considering storage experiments.Se investigó la actividad antioxidante de α-tocoferol, δ-tocoferol, ácido cítrico y palmitato de ascorbilo en aceite de girasol con su conteniendo natural de tocoferol. La efectividad de los mismos fue analizada a través de la medida de la estabilidad oxidativa en Rancimat y el seguimiento de la oxidación con el almacenamiento a diferentes temperaturas. Las muestras extraídas periódicamente de la estufa fueron sometidas a los siguientes análisis: índice de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidina, contenido y distribución de compuestos polares y contenido residual de tocoferol natural. La efectividad de cada antioxidante resultó fuertemente dependiente de la temperatura y método de ensayo. Mientras el ácido ascórbico resultó ser el antioxidante más efectivo según el índice de estabilidad oxidativa medido en el equipo Rancimat, el δ-tocoferol fue el antioxidante más efectivo en las experiencias de almacenamiento.

  4. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.

  5. Composition of human VLDL triacylglycerols after ingestion of olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Morgado, N; Prada, J L; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Muriana, F J

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-I). They then consumed the two experimental oils (40% dietary energy) in a crossover design. The olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil diets resulted in significant increases in palmitoleic (55%, P 100%, P sunflower oil diet increased the content of stearic acid (60%, P 100%, P sunflower oil diet). Intake of olive oil, in particular, significantly decreased the content of sn-glycerol-tripalmitate (36%, P sunflower oil diets. In addition, olive oil, but not high oleic sunflower oil, further contributed to VLDL triacylglycerols that contained alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids acylated in the sn-2 position. These data suggest that differences in the composition of VLDL triacylglycerols may be of major importance in explaining the beneficial effects of dietary olive oil in reducing the atherogenic risk profile in healthy subjects.

  6. Impact of irrigation on larval density of stem-infesting pests of cultivated sunflower in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Meyer, Ron F; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa

    2007-10-01

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers, chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The incidence of a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also has increased. Experiments were conducted in Kansas during 2000-2001 to investigate the effect of irrigation timing and intensity on densities of C. adspersus, D. texanus, and P. womonana larvae within cultivated sunflower stalks. Supplemental soil moisture provided by irrigation during the growing season increased both seed yield and oil content, and it reduced insect densities of the sunflower stem weevil and P. womonana in the sunflower stalk. Results showed that ensuring adequate moisture during the growing season can assist in reducing stem-infesting insect densities, revealing an additional advantage of crop irrigation beyond improved sunflower productivity.

  7. CASTOR BEAN AND SUNFLOWER INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN ROW ARRANGEMENT: BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Miranda Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment field was carried in the agricultural seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010, with aim of studying the response of castorbean (Ricinus communis L. intercropping with sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in row arrangement in the dryland farming conditions. In addition, it was evaluated the biological efficiency of plants in intercropping systems.The design used in the experiment was randomized block with seven treatement and four replications. The treatments were represented by rows of castor oil (Ma and sunflower (Gi listed below: 1Ma:1Gi; 1Ma:2Gi; 1Ma:3Gi; 2Ma:2Gi; 2Ma:3Gi; castor and sunflower in the monoculture. The efficiency of intercropping was measured by LER, ATER, LEC, average between LER and ATER, SPI and CoR. The grain yield of castor bean and sunflower were reduced in intercropped row arrangements. The row arrangement 1Ma:2Gi showed the smallest reduction of average productivity of castor beans and sunflower in the evaluation period of the experiment. The castor bean was the dominant crop in relation to sunflower.

  8. Formation of oil-in-water emulsions from natural emulsifiers using spontaneous emulsification: sunflower phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaiko, Jennifer; Sastrosubroto, Ashtri; McClements, David Julian

    2015-11-18

    This study examined the possibility of producing oil-in-water emulsions using a natural surfactant (sunflower phospholipids) and a low-energy method (spontaneous emulsification). Spontaneous emulsification was carried out by titrating an organic phase (oil and phospholipid) into an aqueous phase with continuous stirring. The influence of phospholipid composition, surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), initial phospholipids location, storage time, phospholipid type, and preparation method was tested. The initial droplet size depended on the nature of the phospholipid used, which was attributed to differences in phospholipid composition. Droplet size decreased with increasing SOR and was smallest when the phospholipid was fully dissolved in the organic phase rather than the aqueous phase. The droplets formed using spontaneous emulsification were relatively large (d > 10 μm), and so the emulsions were unstable to gravitational separation. At low SORs (0.1 and 0.5), emulsions produced with phospholipids had a smaller particle diameter than those produced with a synthetic surfactant (Tween 80), but at a higher SOR (1.0), this trend was reversed. High-energy methods (microfluidization and sonication) formed significantly smaller droplets (d < 10 μm) than spontaneous emulsification. The results from this study show that low-energy methods could be utilized with natural surfactants for applications for which fine droplets are not essential.

  9. Cholesterol and stigmasterol within a sunflower oil matrix: Thermal degradation and oxysterols formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Poyato, Candelaria; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the lipid matrix surrounding sterols exert a great influence in their thermal oxidation process. The objective of this work was to assess the oxidation susceptibility of equal amounts of cholesterol and stigmasterol within a sunflower oil lipid matrix (ratio 1:1:200) during heating (180°C, 0-180min). Remaining percentage of sterols was determined and seven sterol oxidation products (SOPs) were analysed for each type of sterol along the heating treatment. Evolution of the fatty acid profile and vitamin E content of the oil was also studied. Overall oxidation status of the model system was assessed by means of Peroxides Value (PV) and TBARS. PV remained constant from 30min onwards and TBARS continued increasing along the whole heating treatment. Degradation of both cholesterol and stigmasterol fitted a first order curve (R(2)=0.937 and 0.883, respectively), with very similar degradation constants (0.004min(-1) and 0.005min(-1), respectively). However, higher concentrations of oxidation products were found from cholesterol (79μg/mg) than from stigmasterol (53μg/mg) at the end of the heating treatment. Profile of individual oxidation products was similar for both sterols, except for the fact that no 25-hydroxystigmasterol was detected. 7α-Hydroxy and 7-keto-derivatives were the most abundant SOPs at the end of the treatment. PUFA and vitamin E suffered a significant degradation along the process, which was correlated to sterols oxidation.

  10. Simulating sunflower canopy temperatures to infer root-zone soil water potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Idso, S. B.

    1983-01-01

    A soil-plant-atmosphere model for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), together with clear sky weather data for several days, is used to study the relationship between canopy temperature and root-zone soil water potential. Considering the empirical dependence of stomatal resistance on insolation, air temperature and leaf water potential, a continuity equation for water flux in the soil-plant-atmosphere system is solved for the leaf water potential. The transpirational flux is calculated using Monteith's combination equation, while the canopy temperature is calculated from the energy balance equation. The simulation shows that, at high soil water potentials, canopy temperature is determined primarily by air and dew point temperatures. These results agree with an empirically derived linear regression equation relating canopy-air temperature differential to air vapor pressure deficit. The model predictions of leaf water potential are also in agreement with observations, indicating that measurements of canopy temperature together with a knowledge of air and dew point temperatures can provide a reliable estimate of the root-zone soil water potential.

  11. Impact of major gene resistance management for sunflower on fitness of Plasmopara halstedii (downy mildew populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourvieille de Labrouhe Denis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in virulence of Plasmopara halstedii populations under different major gene (Pl management strategies were studied over 5 years continuous cropping of one sunflower hybrid under netting cages. Strategies were monoculture of forms of the hybrid with 1 gene or with combinations of 2 genes, alternation of different genes, and mixtures of several different forms of the hybrid. Monoculture with single resistance genes led to loss of efficient resistance after 3 years, with high levels of disease and increased variability of the pathogen, whatever the Pl gene used. Combinations of genes, alternation and mixtures gave longer term control of downy mildew. In particular, combinations of resistance genes coming from both female and male parents of the hybrid (such that even impurities had a resistance gene gave the best control and least variation in pathogen virulence. Results are discussed with the object of durable control of downy mildew by all methods available.

  12. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Preferences for end-use products and market prices continuous ... f specific landraces over others in sensitive environments. cts and market prices .... and wealthy classes were included. Farmers ..... land or other social aspects. In Ethiopia it is.

  13. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  14. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  15. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  16. Chemical mutagenesis--a promising technique to increase metal concentration and extraction in sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Federer, Guido; Erismann, Karl-Hans; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Since most of the metal-hyperaccumulating wild plants only produce very low biomass and many high-yielding crops accumulate only moderate amounts of metals, the current research is mainly focused on overcoming these limitations and the optimization of metal phytoextraction. The main goal of the present study was the improvement of metal concentration and extraction properties of Helianthus annuus L by chemical mutagenesis (the non-GMO approach). Sunflowers--hybrid cultivar Salut and inbred lines-were treated with the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The effect of chemical mutagenesis on metal concentration in and extraction by new sunflower M1 and M2 mutants was directly assessed on a metal-contaminated field in Raft, Switzerland. Mutants of the M2 generation showed a 2-3 times higher metal shoot concentration than the control plants. The best M2 sunflower "giant mutant" 14/185/04 showed a significantly enhanced metal extraction ability: 7.5 times for Cd, 9.2 times for Zn, and 8.2 times for Pb in aboveground parts, as compared to the control plants. Theoretical calculations for the phytoextraction potential of new sunflower variants note that the best sunflower mutant can produce up to 26 t dry matter per hectare and remove 13.3 kg Zn per hectare and year at the sewage sludge contaminated site of Raft; that is a gain factor of 9 compared to Zn extraction by sunflower controls. Furthermore, the use of sunflower oil and biomass for technical purposes (lubricants, biodiesel, biogas) should produce an additional value and improve the economical balance of phytoextraction.

  17. Improving Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture by Controlling Tahini Particle Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower halva is an appreciated product, but shows currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers, having a hard texture and oil exuded on the surface (low stability. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture and stability. Eight different particle size sunflower tahini samples were produced at pilot plant scale, the higher the number of passes through the colloidal mill, the smaller the particle size (P1- coarsest → P8 - finest. Halva prototypes (25g / piece, including also an industrial sample (H0, were obtained at laboratory scale by mixing the nougat with tahini. The texture was evaluated on Stable micro systems TA.HD Plus texture analyzer equipped either with a cylinder probe or with a blade set. All samples were stored for 60 days at 4°C, room temperature (~25°C or 40°C. During storage, the colloidal stability of all samples was assessed by a gravimetric technique. Tahini samples P6 → P8 were not suitable for halva production while due to the low viscosities, the product was impossible to be shaped. Among obtained sunflower halva prototypes (H1 → H5 it was shown that decreasing tahini particle size decreased sunflower halva hardness and stability. For each sample, the increase of storage temperature decreased sunflower halva stability. Sunflower halva H3 was the most efficient, while was more stable and showed smaller hardness values than H0.

  18. RESULTS ON THE FLOWERING STAGE IN THE ROMANIAN-GROWN SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. ION

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the results of the research carried out on forty sunflowerhybrids in southern Romania (15 km far from northeastern Bucharest, under the2004 and 2006 climatic conditions, regarding the flowering stage, the period andthe duration of flowering process within the crop, respectively. The studied hybridswere the following: Favorit, Festiv, Florina, Jupiter, Alcazar, Top 75, Venus, Alex,Saturn, Minunea, HS 2442, HS 2606, Milenium, Romina, Performer, Select, Justin,Splendor, Hercule, Felix, and twenty foreign hybrids cultivated in Romania:Huracan, Kasol, Lindor, Masai, Mateol, Podium, Saxo, Sunko, Fly, Rigasol, RigasolOR, Fleuret OR, Arena, Melody, NK Armoni, Alexandra, NK Dolbi, NK Ferti,Opera PR, Sanay.At the studied sunflower hybrids were performed the following determinations:sum of growing degree days (GDD from plant emergency (i.e. when 75% ofthe plants emerged to the beginning of the flowering process within the crop(i.e. when 10% of the sunflower heads are flowered;date for the first sunflower heads flowering;date for the beginning of the flowering process, i.e. when 10% of the sunflowerheads have flowered in the whole crop;date for the plain flowering phase, i.e. when 50% of the total sunflower headshave flowered;date for the full-flower phase, i.e. when all the sunflower head in the crop haveflowered;date for the time when only 10% of the sunflower heads were still in flower;date for the end of flowering, i.e. when no sunflower heads are in flower in thewhole crop;number of days between different flowering stages.

  19. Histological Changes of Small Intestinal Mucosa of Cocks Due to Sunflower Meal Single Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hamedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to evaluate histological changes of small intestine of adult cocks due to sunflower meal single diet. Approach: Twenty adult cocks were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control; control group fed with basal diet, while Sunflower meal supplemented to basal diet of experimental group gradually with the ratio of 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 during a week and 100% during the next week. At the end of the period all animals sacrificed and 6-μm transverse sections from the middle parts of duodenum, jejunum and ileum prepared and stained with HandE and PAS. Villus length, villus width, crypt depth, villus length/crypt depth ratio and goblet cell number per unit area were measured. Chemical composition of sunflower meal and basal diet determined and metabolizable energy of sunflower meal and basal diets measured. Data analyzed by student's t test. Results: Crude fiber and crude protein of sunflower meal were 81% and 44% higher than basal diet respectively, while both AME and TME were about 40% lower in sunflower meal compared to basal diet. No difference observed between AME and AMEn or TME and TMEn in both diets. In duodenum of birds in experimental group, a significant decrease in villus length and villus length/crypt depth ratio and a significant increase in number of goblet cells observed while in jejunum there was only a significant increase in goblet cell number. In ileum of these birds number of goblet cells increased while villus length, villus width and villus length/crypt depth ratio decreased significantly compared to control group. Conclusion: Single feeding with sunflower meal can adversely affect morphological parameters of small intestinal mucosa of cocks especially in ileum, which may be due to its low energy and/or high fiber content.

  20. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Gill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence.

  1. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Navdeep; Buti, Matteo; Kane, Nolan; Bellec, Arnaud; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Berges, Hélène; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-04-16

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are "novel" to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence.

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  3. 印欧语言起源研究之旧石器连续范式%On the Paleolithic Continuity Paradigm for the Origins of Indo-European Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓行

    2013-01-01

    The Paleolithic Continuity Paradigm for the origins of Indo-European languages dated back to 1990s, but it has not been widely accepted by the international academic community for different reasons. And the Chinese academic community is also unfamiliar with its progress, hypotheses, historical reconstruction and objectives. It overthrew the Catastrophism, Eurocentrism, and Racism in the previous IE theories, removed misinterpretations of Darwinism in the linguistic circle, inherited and developed the Uralic Continuity Theory, and presented seminal viewpoints on the nature of changes in language, ways of lexical periodicalization and the relationship between linguistic frontiers and archaeological frontiers. Therefore, it deserves to be popularized as a new paradigm for origins of Indo-European languages and a prospective general framework applicable to all domains that find a direct or indirect expression in language.%  印欧语言起源研究的旧石器连续范式发端于20世纪90年代,但尚未被国际主流学术界广泛接纳,其发展历程、理论假设、历史重构及理论目标尚不为国内学界了解。它摒弃了传统理论中的“突变论”“欧洲中心主义”和“种族主义”,修正了传统理论对达尔文进化论的误解,继承并发展了“乌拉尔连续理论”,提出了关于语言变化、词汇历史分期方法、语言边界与考古边界的关系等方面的新观点,值得借鉴和推广。

  4. Interaction of dietary high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls and different fat sources in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Rebolé, A; Alzueta, C; Arija, I; Centeno, C; Brenes, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat sources (high-oleic-acid sunflower seeds, HOASS; palm oil, PO; and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil, HOASO) and high-oleic-acid sunflower hulls (HOAS hulls; 40 g/kg of diet) on performance, digestive organ size, fat digestibility, and fatty acid profile in abdominal fat and blood serum parameters was evaluated in chickens (from 1 to 21 d of age). Bird performance and digestive organ size were not affected by either dietary fat source or sunflower hull supplementation. Fat digestibility in birds fed diets enriched (HOASS and HOASO) in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was increased compared with those fed the PO diet. The addition of sunflower hulls did not modify fat digestibility. The fatty acids pattern of abdominal fat reflected the dietary fat profile. The greatest concentrations of C16:0 and C18:0 were found in birds fed PO diets. The C18:1n-9 content was increased in birds that received HOASS and HOASO diets compared with those fed PO diets. The greatest content of C18:2n-6 was observed in birds fed HOASS diets. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to MUFA was significantly increased in birds fed PO diets compared with those fed HOASS or HOASO diets. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets resulted in a decrease of C18:2n-6 and PUFA concentrations and PUFA:MUFA ratio in abdominal fat. Dietary fat sources and sunflower hulls modify blood triglycerides and serum lipoproteins. A decrease in triglyceride concentrations was observed in birds fed HOASS diets compared with those fed PO and HOASO diets. The greatest concentrations of serum high density, very low density (VLDL), and low density lipoproteins were found in birds receiving HOASO, PO, and HOASS diets, respectively. The addition of sunflower hulls to the diets caused an increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL concentrations. The MUFA-enriched diets had lower triglyceride and VLDL concentrations than did diets rich in saturated fatty acids. However, the sunflower hull

  5. Genetic possibilities for altering sunflower oil quality to obtain novel oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorić, Dragan; Jocić, Sinisa; Sakac, Zvonimir; Lecić, Nada

    2008-04-01

    The sunflower is one of the four most important oilseed crops in the world, and the nutritional quality of its edible oil ranks among the best vegetable oils in cultivation. Typically up to 90% of the fatty acids in conventional sunflower oil are unsaturated, namely oleic (C 18:1, 16%-19%) and linoleic (C 18:2, 68%-72%) fatty acids. Palmitic (C 16:0, 6%), stearic (C 18:0, 5%), and minor amounts of myristic (C 14:0), myristoleic (C 14:1), palmitoleic (C 16:1), arachidic (C 20:0), behenic (C 22:0), and other fatty acids account for the remaining 10%. Advances in modern genetics, most importantly induced mutations, have altered the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil to a significant extent. Treating sunflower seeds with gamma- and X-rays has produced mutants with 25%-30% palmitic acid. Sunflower seed treatment with X-rays has also resulted in mutants having 30% palmitoleic acid, while treatments with mutagenic sodium azide have produced seeds containing 35% stearic acid. The most important mutations have been obtained by treatment with dimethyl sulfate, which produced genotypes with more than 90% oleic acid. Mutants have also been obtained that have a high linoleic acid content (>80%) by treating seeds with X-rays and ethyl methanesulfonate. Of the vitamin E family of compounds, sunflower oil is known to predominantly contain alpha-tocopherol (>90%). Spontaneous mutations controlled by recessive genes have been discovered that significantly alter tocopherol forms and levels. The genes in question are tph(1) (50% alpha- and 50% beta-tocopherol), tph(2) (0%-5% alpha- and 95%-100% gamma-tocopherol), and tph(1)tph(2) (8%-40% alpha-, 0%-25% beta-, 25%-84% gamma-, and 8%-50% delta-tocopherol). The existence of (mutant) genes for increased levels of individual fatty acids and for different forms and levels of tocopherol enables the development of sunflower hybrids with different oil quality. The greatest progress has been made in developing high-oleic hybrids (>90

  6. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl18, introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower downy mildew is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflowe...

  7. Genetics and mapping of the R11 gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes a 20% yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in Nor...

  8. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds.

  9. Sunflower therapy for children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia): a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Leona

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and perceived effectiveness of the Sunflower therapy in the treatment of childhood dyslexia. The Sunflower therapy includes applied kinesiology, physical manipulation, massage, homeopathy, herbal remedies and neuro-linguistic programming. A multi-centred, randomised controlled trial was undertaken with 70 dyslexic children aged 6-13 years. The research study aimed to test the research hypothesis that dyslexic children 'feel better' and 'perform better' as a result of treatment by the Sunflower therapy. Children in the treatment group and the control group were assessed using a battery of standardised cognitive, Literacy and self-esteem tests before and after the intervention. Parents of children in the treatment group gave feedback on their experience of the Sunflower therapy. Test scores were compared using the Mann Whitney, and Wilcoxon statistical tests. While both groups of children improved in some of their test scores over time, there were no statistically significant improvements in cognitive or Literacy test performance associated with the treatment. However, there were statistically significant improvements in academic self-esteem, and reading self-esteem, for the treatment group. The majority of parents (57.13%) felt that the Sunflower therapy was effective in the treatment of learning difficulties. Further research is required to verify these findings, and should include a control group receiving a dummy treatment to exclude placebo effects.

  10. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes.

  11. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  12. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  13. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD is CaSO(4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1 and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3 ha(-1. The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, pH and total dissolved salts (TDS in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1 and water was supplied at 1200 m(3·ha(-1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  14. Influence of Storage Condition on Seed Oil Content of Maize, Soybean and Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the changes in seed oil content in different genotypes of maize, soybean and sunflower from 2002 to 2006, in two types of storage conditions which differ in air temperature and humidity: 25°C/75% and 12°C/60%, respectively. Aff ected by storage longevity, in average, seed oil content decreased by 0.82% in maize, 2.19% in soybean and 8.53% in sunflower. Differences in oil content affected by storage longevity were significant among tested crops and genotypes within crops. Storage longevity was negatively associated with oil content. At storage conditions at 12°C/60%, decreasing of seed oil content was less by 0.55% (maize, 1.30% (soybean and 1.75% (sunflower than in storage conditions at 25°C/75%. In summary, the lowest seed quality losses were in maize, then in soybean and the highest losses were in sunflower. Decreasing of seed quality losses is possible with suitable storage conditions, particularly for soybean and sunflower.

  15. The Application of Neural Networks in Balancing Production of Crude Sunflower Oil and Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Ivetic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to predict specific output characteristics of half finished goods (crude sunflower oil and meal on the basis of specific input variables (quality and composition of sunflower seeds, with the help of artificial neural networks. This is an attempt to predict the amount much more precisely than is the case with technological calculations commonly used in the oil industry. All input variables are representing the data received by the laboratory, and the output variables except category % of oil which is obtained by measuring the physical quantity of produced crude sunflower oil and sunflower consumed quantity of the processing quality. The correct prediction of the output variables contributes to better sales planning, production of sunflower oil, and better use of storage. Also, the correct prediction of technological results of the quality of crude oil and meal provides timely response and also preventing getting rancid and poor-quality oil, timely categorizing meal, which leads to proper planning and sales to the rational utilization of storage space, allows timely response technologists and prevents the growth of microorganisms in the meal.

  16. Sunflower oil supplementation alters meat quality but not performance of growing partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülşen, N; Umucalilar, H D; Kirikçi, K; Hayirli, A; Aktümsek, A; Alaşahan, S

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil supplementation (0%, 3%, 6% and 9%) to partridge chicks (Alectoris chukar) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics. Feed consumption and live weight gain were responsive to dietary sunflower oil inclusion during the starter period, but not during the grower period. Increasing sunflower oil level linearly increased crude protein and fat digestibilities. Except for abdominal fat, weights of inedible parts and edible organs remained unchanged by the diets. The treatments linearly decreased weight and efficiency of carcass and weights of wings and breast and did not alter weights of thighs and neck. Breast meat saturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 17.9% and unsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 10.6%, as sunflower oil level increased in the diets. Monounsaturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 27.3%, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 51%. Overall, n-3 (0.78% vs. 0.59%) and n-6 (42.6% vs. 29.8%) were greater in breast meat in treatment groups than in control group. In conclusion, sunflower addition into diets has minimal effects on performance of growing partridges, but significantly alters meat fatty acid composition.

  17. Technical efficiency analysis for oilseed sunflower farms: a case study in Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külekçi, Murat

    2010-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the technical efficiency of farms producing sunflower in Erzurum, Turkey and to identify factors that might be causing inefficiency. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to measure technical efficiency. One hundred and seventeen randomly selected farms were interviewed for farm-level data in the 2004-2005 production period. Results revealed that the mean technical efficiency for the sunflower farms, estimated by the stochastic production frontier, is 64%. At full technical efficiency, on average, the farmers could reduce their inputs by around 56% without reducing their sunflower production, simply by improving technical efficiency. In the inefficiency model the parameter estimates showed that older farmers, higher level of farmer's education, more experienced farmers, larger farm size and higher information score resulted in lower technical inefficiency, while bigger family size and more credit usage resulted in higher technical inefficiency. This study proposes strategies such as providing better extension services and farmer-training programmes, including more educated people in sunflower farming and also expanding the sunflower-growing area through provision of adequate facilities in order to increase technical efficiency.

  18. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N. [Unidad Integrada Balcarce, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Covi, Mauro [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Intendente Gueiraldes 2160, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nolasco, Susana M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Avda. del Valle 7537, B7400JWI, Olavarria (Argentina)

    2009-03-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard. (author)

  19. Organization of lipid reserves in cotyledons of primed and aged sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Christina; Landré, Pierre; Hill, Lisa; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe

    2005-10-01

    Imbibing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Briosol) seeds at water potentials between -2 MPa and -5 MPa leads to faster (priming) or slower (accelerated ageing) germination depending on the temperature and duration of treatment. Mobilization of food reserves may be associated with the changes in seed vigor. To study this, morphological, biochemical and phase properties of lipid, the major food reserve in sunflower, were compared in freshly harvested (i.e., control), primed and aged sunflower cotyledons using electron microscopy, biochemical analyses and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Lipid bodies became smaller and more dispersed throughout the cytoplasm during priming and ageing. Despite ultrastructural changes, there were few measured changes in biochemistry of the neutral lipid component; lipid content, proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and level of free fatty acids were unchanged in primed and slightly aged seeds, with only severely aged seeds showing a net decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids and an increase in free fatty acids. Subtle changes in the calorimetric behavior of lipids within sunflower cotyledons were observed. Sunflower lipids exhibited polymorphic crystalline and amorphous solid phases when cooled to priming decreased the rate of crystallization in vivo and ageing increased the rate of crystallization, but decreased percentage crystallinity. The observed changes in thermal behavior in vivo are consistent with losses and gains, respectively, of interacting non-lipid moieties in the triacylglycerol matrix.

  20. Effects of mass transfer and hydrogen pressure on the fixed-bed pyrolysis of sunflower bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putun, E.; Kockar, O.M.; Gercel, F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    There are a number of waste and biomass sources being considered as potential sources of fuels and chemical feedstocks. The economics for biomass pyrolysis are generally considered to be most favourable for (1) plants which grow abundantly and require little cultivation in and lands and (2) wastes available in relatively large quantities from agricultural plants, for example, sunflower and hazel nuts. For the former, one such group of plants is Euphorbiaceae which are characterised by their ability to produce a milky latex, an emulsion of about 30% w/w terpenoids in water. One species in the family, Euphorbia Rigida from Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey is cultivated in close proximity to the sunflower growing regions and their oil extraction plants. The Turkish sunflower oil industry generates 800,000 tons of extraction residue (bagasse) per annum. Thus, both sunflower wastes and latex-producing plants are being considered as feedstocks for a future thermochemical demonstration unit in Turkey. Pyrolysis at relatively high hydrogen pressures (hydropyrolysis) has not been widely investigated for biomass. A potential advantage of hydropyrolysis is the ability to upgrade tar vapours over hydroprocessing catalysts. Fixed-bed pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis experiments have been conducted on sunflower bagasse to assess the effects of mass transfer and hydrogen pressure on oil yield and quality.

  1. Water footprint and carbon footprint of the energy consumption in sunflower agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi

    2017-07-07

    The aims of this study were to assess the energy requirements, carbon footprint, and water footprint of sunflower production in Kermanshah province, western Iran. Data were collected from 70 sunflower production agroecosystems which were selected based on random sampling method in summer 2012. Results indicated that total input and output energy in sunflower production were 26,973.87 and 64,833.92 MJha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in sunflower agroecosystems was recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 35, 19, and 17%, respectively. Also, energy use efficiency, water footprint, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and carbon footprint were calculated as 2.40, 3.41 m(3) kg(-1), 2042.091 kg CO2eqha(-1), and 0.875 kg CO2eqkg(-1), respectively. 0.18 of sunflower water footprint was related to green water footprint and the remaining 82% was related to blue water footprint. Also, the highest share of carbon footprint was related to electricity power (nearby 80%). Due to the results of this study, reducing use of fossil fuel and non-renewable energy resource and application of sufficient irrigation systems by efficient use of water resource are essential in order to achieve low carbon footprint, environmental challenges, and also sustainability of agricultural production systems.

  2. Effect of phosphogypsum on growth, physiology, and the antioxidative defense system in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Woodward, Steve; Kallel, Monem

    2015-10-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is the solid waste product of phosphate fertilizer production and is characterized by high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, and certain natural radionuclides. The work reported in this paper examined the influence of PG amendment on soil physicochemical proprieties, along with its potential impact on several physiological traits of sunflower seedlings grown under controlled conditions. Sunflower seedlings were grown on agricultural soil substrates amended with PG at rates of 0, 2.5, and 5 %. The pH of the soil decreased but electrical conductivity and organic matter, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and heavy metal contents increased in proportion to PG concentration. In contrast, no variations were observed in magnesium content and small increases were recorded in potassium content. The effects of PG on sunflower growth, leaf chlorophyll content, nutritional status, osmotic regulator content, heavy metal accumulation, and antioxidative enzymes were investigated. Concentrations of trace elements in sunflower seedlings grown in PG-amended soil were considerably lower than ranges considered phytotoxic for vascular plants. The 5 % PG dose inhibited shoot extension and accumulation of biomass and caused a decline in total protein content. However, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, proline and sugar contents, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase increased. Collectively, these results strongly support the hypothesis that enzymatic antioxidation capacity is an important mechanism in tolerance of PG salinity in sunflower seedlings.

  3. Shrinkage and growth compensation in common sunflowers: refining estimates of damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, James A.; Oldemeye, John L.; Swenson, Elizabeth L.

    1986-01-01

    Shrinkage and growth compensation of artificially damaged common sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) were studied in central North Dakota during 1981-1982 in an effort to increase accuracy of estimates of blackbird damage to sunflowers. In both years, as plants matured damaged areas on seedheads shrank at a greater rate than the sunflower heads themselves. This differential shrinkage resulted in an underestimation of the area damaged. Sunflower head and damaged-area shrinkage varied widely by time and degree of damage and by size of the seedhead damaged. Because variation in shrinkage by time of damage was so large, predicting when blackbird damage occurs may be the most important factor in estimating seed loss. Yield'occupied seed area was greater (P < 0.05) for damaged than undamaged heads and tended to increase as degree of damage inflicted increased, indicating growth compensation was occurring in response to lost seeds. Yields of undamaged seeds in seedheads damaged during early seed development were higher than those of heads damaged later. This suggested that there was a period of maximal response to damage when plants were best able to redirect growth to seeds remaining in the head. Sunflowers appear to be able to compensate for damage of ≤ 15% of the total hear area. Estimates of damage can be improved by applying empirical results of differential shrinkage and growth compensations.

  4. Mycoflora of phylloplane as a factor protecting the oil sunflower against the diseases caused by fungi, depending on ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Kita

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1980-83 a research was carried out on the phylloplane of oil sunflowers. A composition of species of the fungus community was determined as well as its reaction in relation to the sunflower pathogens: Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  5. Characterisation and expression of the mitochondrial genome of a new type of cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Moneger, Françoise; Leaver, Christopher J.; Petrov, Peter; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    A new cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower, CMS3, was characterised in relation to the Petiolaris (PET1) cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower, CMS89. Southern blot analysis showed that the mitochondrial genome of CMS3 contains unique rearrangements in at least five loci (atp6, atp9, atpA, nad1 + 5 and c

  6. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile ba

  7. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile ba

  8. SNP discovery and QTL mapping of Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a serious disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbr...

  9. Seed moisture at physiological maturity in oilseed and confectionary sunflower hybrids in the Northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiccating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to hasten harvest has become a common practice in the northern U.S. and can aid in reducing yield loss associated with severe weather and bird predation. Currently, it is recommended to apply desiccants to sunflower at 35% or less seed moisture correspond...

  10. Registration of two double rust resistant germplasms, HA-R12 and HA-R13 for confection sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms HA-R12 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673104) and HA-R13 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673105) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and released in Jul...

  11. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

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    Taha, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA. In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anticarcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anticarcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the

  12. Borneo: The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid

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    Hladni Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products. In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of 1000 seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell. Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia (EU in 2009. It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production. Borneo is a medium early hybrid with the genetic potential for yield of over 4,5t/ha and its seed oil content is under 43%. .

  13. Anti-Neuroblastoma Properties of a Recombinant Sunflower Lectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Marcela; Genoula, Melanie; Silveyra, María Ximena; De Oliveira Carvalho, André; Regente, Mariana; Del Río, Marianela; Ribeiro Soares, Júlia; Moreira Gomes, Valdirene; De La Canal, Laura

    2017-01-01

    According to their sugar recognition specificity, plant lectins are proposed as bioactive proteins with potential in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Helja is a mannose-specific jacalin-like lectin from sunflower which was shown to inhibit the growth of certain fungi. Here, we report its recombinant expression in a prokaryotic system and its activity in neurobalstoma cells. Helja coding sequence was fused to the pET-32 EK/LIC, the enterokinase/Ligation-independent cloning vector and a 35 kDa protein was obtained in Escherichia coli representing Helja coupled to thioredoxin (Trx). The identity of this protein was verified using anti-Helja antibodies. This chimera, named Trx-rHelja, was enriched in the soluble bacterial extracts and was purified using Ni+2-Sepharose and d-mannose-agarose chromatography. Trx-rHelja and the enterokinase-released recombinant Helja (rHelja) both displayed toxicity on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastomas. rHelja decreased the viability of these tumor cells by 75% according to the tetrazolium reduction assay, and microscopic analyses revealed that the cell morphology was disturbed. Thus, the stellate cells of the monolayer became spheroids and were isolated. Our results indicate that rHelja is a promising tool for the development of diagnostic or therapeutic methods for neuroblastoma cells, the most common solid tumors in childhood. PMID:28075401

  14. Degradation of soil fertility can cancel pollination benefits in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Giovanni; Berti, Antonio; Morari, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-02-01

    Pollination and soil fertility are important ecosystem services to agriculture but their relative roles and potential interactions are poorly understood. We explored the combined effects of pollination and soil fertility in sunflower using soils from a trial characterized by different long-term input management in order to recreate plausible levels of soil fertility. Pollinator exclusion was used as a proxy for a highly eroded pollination service. Pollination benefits to yield depended on soil fertility, i.e., insect pollination enhanced seed set and yield only under higher soil fertility indicating that limited nutrient availability may constrain pollination benefits. Our study provides evidence for interactions between above- and belowground ecosystem services, highlighting the crucial role of soil fertility in supporting agricultural production not only directly, but also indirectly through pollination. Management strategies aimed at enhancing pollination services might fail in increasing yield in landscapes characterized by high soil service degradation. Comprehensive knowledge about service interactions is therefore essential for the correct management of ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes.

  15. Anti-Neuroblastoma Properties of a Recombinant Sunflower Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pinedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to their sugar recognition specificity, plant lectins are proposed as bioactive proteins with potential in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Helja is a mannose-specific jacalin-like lectin from sunflower which was shown to inhibit the growth of certain fungi. Here, we report its recombinant expression in a prokaryotic system and its activity in neurobalstoma cells. Helja coding sequence was fused to the pET-32 EK/LIC, the enterokinase/Ligation-independent cloning vector and a 35 kDa protein was obtained in Escherichia coli representing Helja coupled to thioredoxin (Trx. The identity of this protein was verified using anti-Helja antibodies. This chimera, named Trx-rHelja, was enriched in the soluble bacterial extracts and was purified using Ni+2-Sepharose and d-mannose-agarose chromatography. Trx-rHelja and the enterokinase-released recombinant Helja (rHelja both displayed toxicity on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastomas. rHelja decreased the viability of these tumor cells by 75% according to the tetrazolium reduction assay, and microscopic analyses revealed that the cell morphology was disturbed. Thus, the stellate cells of the monolayer became spheroids and were isolated. Our results indicate that rHelja is a promising tool for the development of diagnostic or therapeutic methods for neuroblastoma cells, the most common solid tumors in childhood.

  16. Interdependence of yield and yield components of confectionary sunflower hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into production are high seed and protein yield. That is why it is important to find the traits that are measurable, and that at the same time show a strong correlation with seed and protein yield, so that they can be used as a criteria for confectionary hybrid breeding. Results achieved during 2008 at the locations Rimski Šančevi (Region of Vojvodina and Kula (Central Serbia show that the new confectionary hybrids are expressing higher seed yields in comparison to standards (Vranac and Cepko though with a lower seed oil content. A very strong positive correlation was determined between seed yield and seed protein content, kernel content and mass of 1000 seeds. A very strong positive correlation was determined between seed protein content, seed yield and mass of 1000 seeds, with protein yield. This indicates that seed yield, seed protein content and mass of 1000 seeds have a high influence on protein yield. The degree of interdependence between different traits is a sign of direction which is supposed to facilitate better planning of sunflower breeding program.

  17. Alternative potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower

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    Sabrina Thereza dos Santos Torqueti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil is dependent on importation of fertilizers, especially the potassics. Rocks and minerals that contain nutrients have a potential for use in agriculture as fertilizer, especially those of slow solubilization and that exhibit residual effect. In this context, the objective was to assess the feasibility of glauconite rock as potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions arranged in an entirely randomized design, in a 4x4 + 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates and one plant per plot. Four glauconite-based fertilizers were used as a potassium source: fine grained glauconite, fine grained organo-mineral glauconite, coarse grained glauconite and coarse grained organo-mineral glauconite, in four doses, as well as an additional treatment with four doses of KCl, the principal conventional source of the nutrient. The height of the flower stalks, the diameter of the stem and floral capitulum, the number of cultivation days and post-harvest durability were evaluated. The application of KCl yielded the production of flower stems with greater height and larger capitulum diameter in relation to the supply of glauconite. Among the glauconite based fertilizers, the fine grained organo-mineral product provided the best flower charateristics. The postharvest commercial durability of the flower stalks was higher in plants that received the glauconite and fine grained organo-mineral glauconite. The fine grained organo-mineral glauconite surpasses all other alternative sources of potassium in relation to the agronomic characteristics evaluated.

  18. MISSING FLOWERS gene controls axillary meristems initiation in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, Marco; Cionini, Giuliano; Bertini, Daniele; Michelotti, Vania; Conti, Alessio; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2003-05-01

    The initiation and growth of axillary meristems are fundamental components of plant architecture. Here, we describe the mutant missing flowers (mf) of Helianthus annuus characterized by the lack of axillary shoots. Decapitation experiments and histological analysis indicate that this phenotype is the result of a defect in axillary meristem initiation. In addition to shoot branching, mutation affects floral differentiation. The indeterminate inflorescence of sunflower (capitulum) is formed of a large flat meristem which produces floret primordia in multiple spirals. In wildtype plants a bisecting crease divides each primordium in two distinct bumps that adopt different fate. The peripheral (abaxial) part of the primordium becomes a small leaf-like bract and the adaxial part becomes a flower. In the mf mutant, the formation of flowers at the axil of bracts is precluded. Histological analyses show that in floret primordia of the mutant a clear subdivision in dyads is not established. The primordia progressively bend inside and only large involucral floral bracts are developed. The results suggest that the MISSING FLOWERS gene is essential to provide or perceive an appropriate signal to the initiation of axillary meristems during both vegetative and reproductive phases.

  19. Interrelationship of pollination conditions, fertilization and sunflower seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four commercially important sunflower hybrids (NS-H-45, NS-H-l 11, NS-H-702 and Velja and their parental components (Ha-74B, Ha-98B, CMS-3-8B, Ha-26B, RHA-583, RHA-R-PI-2/1 and RHA-113N were used over a period of two years to study the following traits: disk flower corolla length, nectar content, pollen viability, bee visitation, fertilization percentage and seed yield. Relations among the traits were determined by path coefficient analysis. The simple correlation coefficients showed that fertilization percentage and bee visitation had a highly significant influence on seed yield. The corolla length had a positive effect on nectar content, while nectar content had a significant negative influence on pollen viability. The highest significant direct influence on seed yield was that of fertilization percentage, while the effect on nectar content on seed yield was negative but not significant. The coefficient of determination was 0.8071.

  20. Dark Stomatal Movement in Sunflowers in Response to Illumination under Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchat, P; Lasceve, G; Audouin, P

    1982-04-01

    Experiments were performed on intact sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) placed in a specially designed experimental chamber which allows instantaneous modifications of the atmospheric composition without changing any other conditions. After one night in normal conditions, the plant was illuminated under pure nitrogen atmosphere; the opening stomatal movement, measured as a transpiration rate variation, was inhibited. After an anoxia time period not exceeding one hour, the light was turned off and normal air restored. The stomatal movement was no longer inhibited, and a transient increase in the transpiration rate, referred to here as the postillumination transpiration peak (PITP), was observed.The quantity of transpired water during the PITP can be related to the total incident light energy supplied during the light-nitrogen period. Furthermore, the addition of a dark-nitrogen period between the light-nitrogen and dark-air periods caused the PITP to decrease. The PITP is almost suppressed after a 20-minute dark-nitrogen period.It is shown that the PITP does not result from a hydropassive mechanism but is metabolically controlled. Moreover, it seems that the PITP is not due to a CO(2)-suppression effect during the light-nitrogen period.The results are interpreted in terms of stomatal mechanism. The metabolites leading to PITP originate from the reducing equivalents created during the light-nitrogen period. They could be synthesized at the beginning of the PITP period (darkness under normal air) or during the dark-nitrogen plus CO(2) period between the light-nitrogen and PITP periods. The results obtained are related to the first steps of classical photoactive stomatal opening.

  1. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-05-09

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  2. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTROPHORETIC FRACTIONS OF PROTEIN ISOLATES FROM SUNFLOWER MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronova N. S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The food status of Russians is characterized by deficiency of protein. Perspective sources of food protein are the secondary resources of the oil and fat industry received when processing seeds of sunflower, including sunflower meal. Unfortunately, the features of technological process at the oilextracting press exclude a possibility of receiving food protein-containing products from them without the additional processing increasing biological value and improving technical characteristics of proteins. On the basis of the above information, the researches of a protein complex of sunflower cake, development of ways of regulation of its functional and technological properties and increase of biological value is up-to-date. The article presents the analysis of the influence of enzymatic modification on the distribution of electrophoretic fractions of the modified protein isolates

  3. INFLUENCE OF BIOPREPARATIONS FROM DRY SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER LECITHINS ON SERUM LIPIDS COMPOSITION

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    H. V. Dziak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry lecithin, which is a mixture of polar phospholipids, neutral lipids, free fatty acids, glycolipids, carbohydrates, and small amounts of moisture, is a promising object for biologic-hepatoprotectors creation. One of its pharmacological activity displays is its influence on serum lipids, in particular transport forms of these lipids. The influence of dry soy lecithin and sunflower on hyperlipoproteinemia ratio and other lipid disorders is studied. It is shown that low-fat dry soybean lecithin showed hypocholesterolemic activity against all studied forms of serum cholesterol. Nonfat dry sunflower lecithin had similar but somewhat less prominent effect. However reduced concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol under sunflower lecithin developed right before soya lecithin. Both lecithin prevented the development of dyslipidemia induced carbon tetrachloride.

  4. Occurrence and transport of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River, northwestern Mississippi, October 2009-June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The Big Sunflower River Basin, located within the Yazoo River Basin, is subject to large annual inputs of nitrogen from agriculture, atmospheric deposition, and point sources. Understanding how nutrients are transported in, and downstream from, the Big Sunflower River is key to quantifying their eutrophying effects on the Gulf. Recent results from two Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW models), which include the Big Sunflower River, indicate minimal losses of nitrogen in stream reaches typical of the main channels of major river systems. If SPARROW assumptions of relatively conservative transport of nitrogen are correct and surface-water losses through the bed of the Big Sunflower River are negligible, then options for managing nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico may be limited. Simply put, if every pound of nitrogen entering the Delta is eventually delivered to the Gulf, then the only effective nutrient management option in the Delta is to reduce inputs. If, on the other hand, it can be shown that processes within river channels of the Mississippi Delta act to reduce the mass of nitrogen in transport, other hydrologic approaches may be designed to further limit nitrogen transport. Direct validation of existing SPARROW models for the Delta is a first step in assessing the assumptions underlying those models. In order to characterize spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River Basin, water samples were collected at four U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations located on the Big Sunflower River between October 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. Nitrogen concentrations were generally highest at each site during the spring of the 2010 water year and the fall and winter of the 2011 water year. Additionally, the dominant form of nitrogen varied between sites. For example, in samples collected from the most upstream site (Clarksdale), the concentration of organic nitrogen was generally higher than the concentrations of

  5. Thermal decomposition analysis of coal-waste sludge and coal-sunflower seed husk blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-yan; LI Xiao-qi; LIU Wen-tie; SONG Cheng-yi; WANG Chun-sheng; DONG Qun

    2010-01-01

    The thermal decomposition analysis of coal-pharmaceutical waste sludge,coal-sewage waste sludge blends and coal-sunflower seed husk blends are studied by TG dynamic runs at the heating rate of 20 ℃/min within the temperature range of 25 ℃-900℃.The effect of different kinetic models on the determination of kinetic parameters of thermal decompesition has been investigated.Results show that for coal-pharmaceutical sludge blend,coal-sewage sludge blend and coal-sunflower seed husk blend the optimal model functions are the three-dimensional diffusion reaction,2-dimensional and 3-diemensional nucleation and growth reactions,respectively.The Arrhenius kinetic parameters of the pre-exponential factor and activation energy of blends,as well waste sludge and sunflower seed husk only are proposed.

  6. Determination of traces of several pesticides in sunflower oil using organic phase immuno electrodes (OPIEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Testing for traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates), present in hydrophobic matrices such as sunflower oil was checked using new immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs). The competitive process took place in an n-hexane-chloroform 75% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent final enzymatic measurement was performed in decane using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. A linear response of between about 10 nM and 4 μM was usually obtained in the presence of sunflower oil. Immunosensors show satisfactory selectivity and precision and recovery tests carried out on commercial sunflower oil samples gave excellent results. Lastly, theoretical confirmation of the possibility that immunosensors can act positively in organic solvent mixtures was discussed on the basis of Hill׳s coefficient values.

  7. Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for the removal of metal ions from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.; Shi, W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Textiles and Clothing

    1998-04-01

    Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for the removal of metal ions such as copper, cadmium, zinc, and chromium ions in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of four heavy metals are 29.3 mg/g (Cu{sup 2+}), 30.73 mg/g (Zn{sup 2+}), 42.18 mg/g (Cd{sup 2+}), and 25.07 mg/g (Cr{sup 3+}), respectively. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks affected the adsorption of metal ions; the finer size of particles showed better adsorption to the ions. Temperature also plays an interesting role in the adsorption of different metal ions. Copper, zinc, and cadmium exhibited lower adsorption on sunflower stalks at higher temperature, while chromium showed the opposite phenomenon. The adsorption rates of copper, cadmium, and chromium are quite rapid. Within 60 min of operation about 60--80% of these ions were removed from the solutions.

  8. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

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    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  9. Changes in Cell Membrane Permeability in Sunflower Hypocotyls Infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, J G

    1972-03-01

    Influx and efflux of water and urea and electrolyte leakage are less for sunflower (Helianthus annuus) hypocotyl sections above lesions caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than for those from healthy plants. Urea uptake by sections above lesions is reduced (celery, squash, and tomato) or unchanged (bean) in other hosts after Sclerotinia infection. Efflux of urea from sunflower hypocotyls is biphasic, suggesting diffusion in series from two cellular compartments (cytoplasm and vacuole). Efflux during the fast phase was 7 to 20 times greater than that during the slow phase. No difference was noted in urea efflux from healthy and diseased tissues during the slow phase. However, efflux during the fast phase from diseased tissues was slower than from healthy tissues, suggesting that the increased resistance to diffusion of urea in host cells above lesions resides in the plasmalemma. Water movement across cell membranes of healthy and diseased sunflower hypocotyls was reduced when tissues were treated with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate.

  10. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  11. High trees increase sunflower seed predation by birds in an agricultural landscape of Israel

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    Jessica eSchäckermann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural habitats in agricultural landscapes promote agro-ecosystem services but little is known about negative effects (dis-services derived by natural habitats such as crop seed predation. Birds are important seed predators and use high landscape structures to perch and hide. High trees in agricultural landscapes may therefore drive seed predation. We examined if the presence, the distance and the percentages of high trees (tree height >5 m and the percentages of natural habitat surrounding sunflower fields, increased seed predation by birds in Israel. At the field scale, we assessed seed predation across a sample grid of an entire field. At the landscape scale, we assessed seed predation at the field margins and interiors of 20 sunflower fields. Seed predation was estimated as the percentage of removed seeds from sunflower heads. Distances of sample points to the closest high tree and percentage of natural habitat and of high trees in a 1km radius surrounding the fields were measured.We found that seed predation increased with decreasing distance to the closest high tree at the field and landscape scale. At the landscape scale, the percentage of high trees and natural habitat did not increase seed predation. Seed predation in the fields increased by 37 %, with a maximum seed predation of 92 %, when a high tree was available within zero to 50 m to the sunflower fields. If the closest high tree was further away, seed predation was less than 5 %. Sunflower seed predation by birds can be reduced, when avoiding sowing sunflowers within a radius of 50 m to high trees. Farmers should plan to grow crops, not sensitive to bird seed predation, closer to trees to eventually benefit from ecosystem services provided by birds, such as predation of pest insects, while avoiding these locations for growing crops sensitive to bird seed predation. Such management recommendations are directing towards sustainable agricultural landscapes.

  12. Mycoflora and occurrence of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in Brazilian sunflower from sowing to harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Claudia R; Braghini, Raquel; Arcaro, Juliana R P; Zorzete, Patricia; Israel, Ana Lia M; Pozar, Ivani Otsuk; Denucci, Silmar; Corrêa, Benedito

    2005-07-13

    The present study aimed to analyze the mycoflora and the occurrence of alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in grain samples of sunflower during different stages of plant development in Nova Odessa, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The data obtained were correlated with the presence of fungi in soil, wind-dispersed fungi, and the predominant climatic conditions of the region where the experiment was carried out. Analysis of the mycoflora revealed the presence of Fusarium verticillioides and Alternaria alternata in 70% and 46% of the samples, respectively. The profile of wind-dispersed fungi also showed F. verticillioides as the most frequently isolated fungus (68%), although A. alternata was detected in 28% of samples. In soil, Penicillium was the most frequent species (49.9%), followed by F. verticillioides (47.7%) and A. alternata (10.9%). Regarding water activity, sunflower grains presenting a high frequency of isolation of F. verticillioides and A. alternatahad a water activity ranging from 0.92 to 0.96, and statistical analysis revealed a negative linear correlation between the isolation of fungi and water activity. HPLC analysis showed that 18% of the sunflower grains were contaminated with alternariol (24.9-170.9 ng/g) and 10% with alternariol monomethyl ether (14.1-108.6 ng/g). The contamination of sunflower grains with AOH and AME in the field was low when compared to the LD50 necessary to cause toxicity to animals. However, the contamination with other toxigenic fungi such as F. verticillioides may indicate the presence of other mycotoxins in sunflower grains and a possible synergistic effect between them. This is the first report of the natural occurrence of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in sunflower grains in Brazil.

  13. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  14. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  15. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  16. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut and sunflower oils in different Sudanese states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Idris, Yousif Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the level of contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in groundnut and sunflower oils was determined. The 241 oil samples were collected from Khartoum, Gezira, Kordofan and Algadarif states of Sudan and assessed for AFB1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AFB1 levels in groundnut oil samples ranged from 0.5 to 70 µg/kg and were 0.7 to 35 µg/kg in sunflower oil samples. High contamination was found in unrefined samples. It was concluded that AFB1 levels in oil samples indicated that growing, harvesting, handling and storage of the crops were not done properly.

  17. Performance of some sunflower genotypes grown under dry weather conditions in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Tahsin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on yield and agricultural performance of new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrids grown under dry weather conditions in South Bulgaria is limited. The objectives of this field study is to acquire information on seed yield and other agricultural characteristics of five sunflower hybrids and their parental lines in South Bulgaria. This research was carried out on the Experimental farm at the Agricultural University in Plovdiv, Bulgaria in the seasons of 2008 and 2009. Statistical analysis revealed that the differences among genotypes for all studied characters were significant in both seasons as well as in the combined one.

  18. Comparison of germination and seed vigor of sunflower in two contaminated soils of different texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Han, Jaemaro; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-05-01

    Phytoremediation as an emerging low-cost and ecologically friendly alternative to the conventional soil remediation technologies has gained a great deal of attention and into lots of research. As a kind of the methods that use of green plants to remediate heavy metals contaminated soils, the early growth status of plant seeds in the contaminated environmental directly affects the effect of phytoremediation. Germination test in the water (aqueous solution of heavy metal) is generally used for assessing heavy metal phytotoxicity and possibility of plant growth, but there is a limit. Because soil is commonly main target of phytoremediation, not the water. The bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil also depends on the texture. So soil texture is an important factor of phytoremediation effect. Sunflower is the representative species which have good tolerance to various heavy metals; furthermore, the seeds of sunflower can be used as the raw-material for producing bio-diesel. The objectives of this research were to investigate germination rate of sunflowers in various heavy metal contaminated soils and to compare the seedling vigor index (SVI) of sunflower in two contaminated soils of different texture. Sunflower (Helianthusannuus L.) seeds were obtained from a commercial market. In order to prove the soil texture effect on heavy metal contaminated soil, germination tests in soil were conducted with two different types of soil texture (i.e., loam soil and sandy loam soil) classified by soil textural triangle (defined by USDA) including representative soil texture of Korea. Germination tests in soil were conducted using KS I ISO 11260-1 (2005) for reference that sunflower seeds were incubated for 7 days in dark at 25 ± 1 Celsius degree. The target heavy metals are Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). The Ni and Zn concentrations were 0, 10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 mg-Ni/kg-dry soil, and 0, 10, 50, 100, 300, 500, 900 mg-Zn/kg-dry soil, respectively. After germination test for 7

  19. Economics of sunflower oil as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgeson, D.L.; Schaffner, L.W.

    1982-05-01

    The economics of sunflower oil as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel in US agriculture, with particular emphasis on North Dakota, is examined. A study of the spot market prices indicates that crude sunflower oil has moved closer competitively with bulk diesel prices. On the question of energy efficiency, it is estimated, that using current production and processing estimates, there is a positive net energy ratio of 5.78 to 1. Processing can take place at the commercial leveL, in intermediate sized plants or on-farm. Costs were analyzed for three sizes of farm presses. (Refs. 6).

  20. [Comparative study of nuclear RNA and polysomal mRNA in sunflower seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsevich, V I; Tishchenko, E N; Lobov, V P; Zhil'ko, T D

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study of nRNA and polysomal mRNA complexity in the sunflower seedlings by molecular DNA:RNA hybridization method was carried out. It is established that nRNA complexity 4 times exceeds that of mRNA and is equal to 4.85.10(8) bp. Thus the nuclear RNA is expressed from at least 50.47% of single-copy DNA or 10.40% of genome. This data allow the presence of regulation of sunflower genome expression on the posttranscriptional level to be assumed.

  1. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties....... Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor...... gallate and lactoferrin did not exert any antioxidative effect in the SL mayonnaise...

  2. Components of phenotypic variability for head diameter in sunflower - Helianthus annuus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Škorić Dragan; Kraljević-Balalić Marija

    2003-01-01

    Sunflower is the main crop species for the production of edible oil in many countries of the world, including ours. Plant height and head size, form and position on the stem as well as the number of leaves, their size, duration and distribution on the plant all play an important role in defining optimal plant architecture in sunflower hybrids (Škorić, 1975, 1989, 2002). In order to monitor the mode of inheritance and gene effects for head diameter in the F1 and F2 generations, half diallel cr...

  3. Genotoxic effects of the insecticide cypermethrin on the root meristem cells of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inceer, Huseyin; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ozcan, Melahat

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the genotoxic effects of the insecticide cypermethrin on the root meristem cells of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) were investigated. The roots were treated with 10- 25- 50- and 100-ppm concentrations of cypermethrin for 6, 12 and 24 h. The mitotic index and mitotic abnormalities were determined in both control and test groups. The cypermethrin showed a marked mitodepressive action on mitosis. The types of mitotic abnormalities included disturbed metaphase, c-mitosis, stickiness, laggards and chromatid bridges. A pronounced toxic effect was observed at the 50-ppm concentration. Cypermethrin may have genotoxic effects on sunflowers.

  4. High oleic sunflower biodiesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25º to 110ºC and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25º to 30ºC and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la producción de biodiesel usando etanol y aceite de girasol. La extracción del aceite de girasol fue evaluada primero. Un diseño experimental fue usado para estimar la influencia de las variables independientes: temperatura del grano (25º a 110ºC y rotación del expeller (85 a 119 rpm en la obtención del aceite crudo. El mejor resultado obtenido fue un 68,38%, conseguido con una rotación de 100 a 115 rpm, una temperatura del grano de 25º a 30ºC y un contenido de humedad de alrededor del 7%. El siguiente estudio mediante transesterificación, evaluó la influencia de la relación molar etanol: aceite y concentración de catalizador (metilato sódico en el rendimiento de la fase rica en esteres. El rendimiento más alto fue 98,39% obtenido con una relación molar de 9.1 y 3% de

  5. Rhizobium helianthi sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuexin; Yan, Shouwei; Li, Dai; Pang, Huancheng; Li, Yuyi; Zhang, Jianli

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium, designated Xi19T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from the rhizosphere of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Wuyuan county of Inner Mongolia, China and was characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel isolate was related to species of the genus Rhizobium, sharing the greatest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Rhizobium rhizoryzae J3-AN59T (98.4 %), followed by Rhizobium pseudoryzae J3-A127T (97.4 %). There were low similarities ( Rhizobium. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain Xi19T and the most related strain Rhizobium rhizoryzae J3-AN59T were low. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Xi19T were C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c. Q-10 was identified as the predominant ubiquinone and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C content of strain Xi19T was 60.2 mol%. On the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics, coupled with genotypic data obtained in this work, strain Xi19T represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium helianthi is proposed. The type strain is Xi19T ( = CGMCC 1.12192T = KCTC 23879T).

  6. Growth, Cadmium and Zinc Accumulation of Ornamental Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Contaminated Soil with Different Amendments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiu-Zhen; ZHOU Dong-Mei; LI Dan-Dan; JIANG Ping

    2012-01-01

    Use of ornamental plants for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil is a new option.A pot experiment was carried out to assess the effect of application of amendments,i.e.,swine manure,salicylic acid (SA) and potassium chloride (KCl),on the growth,uptake and translocation of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) of ornamental sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on a contaminated soil.The three amendments increased sunflower height,flower diameter,and biomass.Manure significantly decreased Cd and Zn concentrations in sunflower,and thus decreased the bioaccumulation coefficient (BCF) of Cd and Zn.However,using of KCI markedly increased Cd concentrations in sunflower and the BCF of Cd.Additionally,both swine manure and KCl application increased Cd and Zn translocation from root to aboveground part.Swine manure and salicylic acid reduced the Cd/Zn ratios in flower of sunflower,while KCl significantly increased the Cd/Zn ratios.Correlation analysis demonstrated that the Cd/Zn ratio in the root of sunflower was affected by K/Na ratio in root and soil available potassium (K) concentration.Ornamental sunflower could be grown as an alternative plant in the Cd- and Zn-contaminated soil with KCl application to get the balance between environmental and economic interests.

  7. Class FH sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus) as an energy/protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestible energy (DE) content of milled and whole class FH sunflower seed (SS) was determined in a digestion trial and ... that SS can be used effectively as a protein/energy source in diets for early weaned piglets. ..... Supplement 4.

  8. A laboratory simulation of the carbonization of sunflower achenes and seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.; Wright, P.J.; Horst, J. van der; Boon, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The current project describes physical and chemical alterations that result from the thermal exposure of sunflower achenes and seeds. Specifically, achenes and seeds were heated at temperatures ranging from 130 to 600 °C under anoxic conditions for 60 min. Changes were measured in mass, relative per

  9. Gelling ability and crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant waxes can effectively form organogels with vegetable oils and these organogels have drawn considerable interests as alternatives to solid fats containing trans fats and saturated fats in margarines and spreads. Among them sunflower wax showed the most pronounced gelling ability. In an attempt ...

  10. Could a crop model be useful for improving sunflower crop management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flénet Francis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In France, there is a need for improved sunflower crop management, in order to meet the greater requirement for oil by increasing both seed yields and the area of this crop. The objective of this article is to review the main characteristics of sunflower crop management in France and in other countries, in order to emphasize the need for improvement, and to evaluate if the recent advances in crop modelling could help to find solutions. In France, a better adaptation of crop management to water availability is needed, as well as a more efficient control of diseases without applying more fungicides. The results of these objectives would also trigger major improvements in other countries, but there is also a need to control insects and to adapt crop management to the goals of oil quality. The main sunflower crop models are reviewed in this article, with an emphasis on the most recent ones. Their ability to contribute to improving sunflower crop management, although they do not take into account diseases and insects, is discussed. Confidence in the decisions based on simulations, and the way to evaluate it, is also examined.

  11. Plant population and weeds influence stalk insects, soil moisture, and yield in rainfed sunflowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAWWAD A. QURESHI; PHILLIP W. STAHLMAN; J. P. MICHAUD

    2007-01-01

    Insect infestation, soil moisture, and yield were examined in populations of≈ 33 140 plants/ha (low) and ≈ 40 340 plants/ha (high) of an oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L, cv. ' Triumph 660CL' with two levels of weediness. Less weedy plots resulted from the application of herbicide combination of S-metolachlor and sulfentrazone, whereas more weedy plots resulted from application of sulfentrazone alone. Among the 12 weed species recorded, neither plant numbers nor biomass differed between crop plant densities.Larvae of the stalk-boring insects Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae) were less abundant in high density sunflowers, ostensibly due to reduced plant size. However, the same effect was not observed for Dectes texanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) or Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), two other stalk-boring insects. Soil moisture was highest in low density and lowest in the high density sunflowers that were less weedy. Stalk circumference, head diameter, and seed weight were reduced for sunflower plants with short interplant distances (mean = 20 cm apart) compared to plants with long interplant distances (mean = 46 cm apart).These three variables were greater in less weedy plots compared with more weedy plots and positively correlated with interplant distance. Yields on a per-hectare basis paralleled those on a per-plant basis but were not different among treatments. The agronomic implications of planting density are discussed in the context of weed and insect management.

  12. The equation of state for solutions of the sunflower oil+isomerhexane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, M. M.; Abdukhamidova, Z.

    1995-11-01

    The article presents the results of an experimental investigation into the density of solutions of the sunflower oil+isomerhexane system (from 23 to 75%) at temperatures of from 293 to 450 K and pressures of from 0.101 to 98.1 MPa. An equation of state is obtained.

  13. SNP discovery and development of a high-density genotyping array for sunflower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Bachlava

    Full Text Available Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have made possible the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms that allow for the simultaneous interrogation of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Such resources have the potential to facilitate the rapid development of high-density genetic maps, and to enable genome-wide association studies as well as molecular breeding approaches in a variety of taxa. Herein, we describe the development of a SNP genotyping resource for use in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. This work involved the development of a reference transcriptome assembly for sunflower, the discovery of thousands of high quality SNPs based on the generation and analysis of ca. 6 Gb of transcriptome re-sequencing data derived from multiple genotypes, the selection of 10,640 SNPs for inclusion in the genotyping array, and the use of the resulting array to screen a diverse panel of sunflower accessions as well as related wild species. The results of this work revealed a high frequency of polymorphic SNPs and relatively high level of cross-species transferability. Indeed, greater than 95% of successful SNP assays revealed polymorphism, and more than 90% of these assays could be successfully transferred to related wild species. Analysis of the polymorphism data revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that were largely congruent with the evolutionary history of sunflower, though the large number of markers allowed for finer resolution than has previously been possible.

  14. SNP discovery and development of a high-density genotyping array for sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlava, Eleni; Taylor, Christopher A; Tang, Shunxue; Bowers, John E; Mandel, Jennifer R; Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have made possible the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms that allow for the simultaneous interrogation of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Such resources have the potential to facilitate the rapid development of high-density genetic maps, and to enable genome-wide association studies as well as molecular breeding approaches in a variety of taxa. Herein, we describe the development of a SNP genotyping resource for use in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). This work involved the development of a reference transcriptome assembly for sunflower, the discovery of thousands of high quality SNPs based on the generation and analysis of ca. 6 Gb of transcriptome re-sequencing data derived from multiple genotypes, the selection of 10,640 SNPs for inclusion in the genotyping array, and the use of the resulting array to screen a diverse panel of sunflower accessions as well as related wild species. The results of this work revealed a high frequency of polymorphic SNPs and relatively high level of cross-species transferability. Indeed, greater than 95% of successful SNP assays revealed polymorphism, and more than 90% of these assays could be successfully transferred to related wild species. Analysis of the polymorphism data revealed patterns of genetic differentiation that were largely congruent with the evolutionary history of sunflower, though the large number of markers allowed for finer resolution than has previously been possible.

  15. Effect of glycerol on the morphology of starch-sunflower oil composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Feil, H.

    1999-01-01

    The presented study involves the encapsulation of sunflower oil in starch by casting emulsions of oil in aqueous starch solutions. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer and lecithin was used as an emulsifier, to improve the emulsion stability. Increasing glycerol concentration in the samples resulted

  16. Crystallization Kinetics of Fully Hydrogenated Palm Oil in Sunflower Oil Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Walstra, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2000-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of mixtures of fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF) was studied. The thermal properties and phase behavior of this model system were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. From the melting enthalpy and clear p

  17. Characterization of partially purified milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Assia I A M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Hamid, Omer I A

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to extract milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower seeds and to determine its potentiality for manufacturing white soft cheese from cows and goats milk. The seeds were blended and extracted using two types of buffers and milk-clotting and proteolytic activities were evaluated. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation techniques. Results indicated that sunflower seeds extracted with 5% NaCl in 50 mmol/L acetate buffer, pH 5.0, had the highest milk-clotting activity (MCA) and lowest coagulation time compared to that extracted with only acetate buffer (pH 5.0). Ammonium sulfate at 30-50% saturation purified the enzyme to 4.3 folds with MCA of 241.0 U/mL and final enzyme yield of 10.9%. The partially purified enzyme was characterized by SDS-PAGE that showed two bands with molecular weight of 120 and 62 kDa. When compared with other plant enzymes, the partially purified sunflower enzyme was found to have higher milk-clotting activity and lower proteolytic activity. Also, both milk sources and enzyme types significantly affected the cheese yield and curd formation time. The cheese made from cow milk using sunflower enzyme had higher yield compared to that obtained using commercial rennet, whereas the opposite was observed when using goat milk.

  18. Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Macrophomina phaseolina Strains Causing Pathogenicity on Sunflower and Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali N. Khan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophomina phaseolina is the most devastating pathogen which causes charcoal rot and root rot diseases in various economically important crops. Three strains M. phaseolina 1156, M. phaseolina 1160, and M. phaseolina PCMC/F1 were tested for their virulence on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.. The strains showed high virulence on both hosts with a disease score of 2 on chickpea and sunflower. The strains also increased the hydrogen per oxide (H2O2 content by 1.4- to 1.6-fold in root as well as shoot of chickpea and sunflower. A significant increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed in fungal infected plants which indicated prevalence of oxidative stress during pathogen propagation. The M. phaseolina strains also produced hydrolytic enzymes such as lipase, amylase, and protease with solubilization zone of 5–43 mm, 5–45 mm, and 12–35 mm, respectively. The M. phaseolina strains were identified by 18S rRNA and analyzed for genetic diversity by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The findings based on RAPD markers and 18S rRNA sequence analysis clearly indicate genetic variation among the strains collected from different hosts. The genetically diverse strains were found to be pathogenic to sunflower and chickpea.

  19. Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Macrophomina phaseolina Strains Causing Pathogenicity on Sunflower and Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ali N; Shair, Faluk; Malik, Kamran; Hayat, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Ayub; Hafeez, Fauzia Yusuf; Hassan, Muhammad Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina is the most devastating pathogen which causes charcoal rot and root rot diseases in various economically important crops. Three strains M. phaseolina 1156, M. phaseolina 1160, and M. phaseolina PCMC/F1 were tested for their virulence on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The strains showed high virulence on both hosts with a disease score of 2 on chickpea and sunflower. The strains also increased the hydrogen per oxide (H2O2) content by 1.4- to 1.6-fold in root as well as shoot of chickpea and sunflower. A significant increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed in fungal infected plants which indicated prevalence of oxidative stress during pathogen propagation. The M. phaseolina strains also produced hydrolytic enzymes such as lipase, amylase, and protease with solubilization zone of 5-43 mm, 5-45 mm, and 12-35 mm, respectively. The M. phaseolina strains were identified by 18S rRNA and analyzed for genetic diversity by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The findings based on RAPD markers and 18S rRNA sequence analysis clearly indicate genetic variation among the strains collected from different hosts. The genetically diverse strains were found to be pathogenic to sunflower and chickpea.

  20. 78 FR 50409 - Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on August... 206 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), Kansas...

  1. Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Christov, Michail; Bohorova, Natasha; Petrov, Peter; Dudov, Kalin; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jaques

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in

  2. Comparison of Selenium Toxicity in Sunflower and Maize Seedlings Grown in Hydroponic Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garousi, Farzaneh; Veres, Szilvia; Kovács, Béla

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selenium (Se) at low concentrations is beneficial, whereas high Se concentrations can induce toxicity. Controlling Se uptake, metabolism, translocation and accumulation in plants is important to decrease potential health risks and helping to select proper biofortification methods to improve the nutritional content of plant-based foods. The uptake and distribution of Se, changes in Se content, and effects of various concentrations of Se in two forms (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) on sunflower and maize plants were measured in nutrient solution experiments. Results revealed the Se content in shoots and roots of both sunflower and maize plants significantly increased as the Se level increased. In this study, the highest exposure concentrations (30 and 90 mg/L, respectively) caused toxicity in both sunflower and maize. While both Se forms damaged and inhibited plant growth, each behaved differently, as toxicity due to selenite was observed more than in the selenate treatments. Sunflower demonstrated a high Se accumulation capacity, with higher translocation of selenate from roots to shoots compared with selenite. Since in seleniferous soils, a high change in plants' capability exists to uptake Se from these soils and also most of the cultivated crop plants have a bit tolerance to high Se levels, distinction of plants with different Se tolerance is important. This study has tried to discuss about it.

  3. Crystallization Kinetics of Fully Hydrogenated Palm Oil in Sunflower Oil Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Walstra, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2000-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of mixtures of fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF) was studied. The thermal properties and phase behavior of this model system were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. From the melting enthalpy and clear

  4. An EPR spin probe study of liposomes from sunflower and soybean phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrii K; Sukhoveev, Olexandr V; Kononets, Lyudmyla A; Khilchevsky, Olexandr M; Shulga, Serhiy M; Kukhar, Valery P; Vovk, Andriy I

    2016-01-01

    Comparative properties of lecithin-based liposomes prepared from the mixed phospholipids of sunflower seeds, soybean and egg yolk were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. For these investigations, stable nitroxide radicals, 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl 5,7-dimethyladamantane-1-carboxylate (DMAC-TEMPO), 5-doxylstearic acid (5-DSA) and 16-doxylstearic acid (16-DSA) were used as spin probes. Binding of the spin probes to the liposome membranes resulted in a substantial increase of the apparent rotational diffusion correlation times. The EPR spectra of the incorporated nitroxides underwent temperature-dependent changes. For every spin probe, values of apparent enthalpy and entropy of activation were calculated from the temperature dependence of rotational diffusion correlation times via Arrhenius equation. In case of DMAC-TEMPO, the data point to differences between the phospholipid bilayer of liposomes derived from sunflower and soy lecithin, and some similarity between the sunflower and egg yolk liposomes. Anisotropic hyperfine interaction constants of DMAC-TEMPO and 16-DSA included in the liposomes have been analyzed and attributed to different micropolarity of the surroundings of the spin probes. The kinetics of EPR signal decay of DMAC-TEMPO in the presence of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) suggest the better stability of the sunflower liposomes to lipid peroxidation as compared to the liposomes prepared from soy lecithin.

  5. Influence of biostimulators on germination parameters and early growth of sunflower seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinov Zlatica J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the influence of biostimulators, with or without the use of fungicides, on seed quality parameters and early growth of sunflower seedling. Testing was conducted at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad on cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower line HA-26-PR. The experiment included six treatments: Slavol S (25%, Slavol S (25% + fungicide (a.m. metalaxyl-M, Bioplant Flora (2%, Bioplant Flora (2% + fungicide (a.m. metalaxyl-M, Slavol S (25% + Bioplant Flora (2%, Slavol S (25% + Bioplant Flora (2% + fungicide (a. m. metalaxyl-M and control. Results of the research showed that treating the seed with biostimulators prior to sowing has a significant influence on seed germination parameters and early growth of sunflower seedling. The individual application of fertilizers, with or without the use of fungicide, gave a positive effect, while their combination led to a negative effect. The individual application of fertilizers, with or without combination with fungicide, may increase germination energy by 5%, germinability by 6%, but may also reduce the time of seed germination. Likewise, their use has a positive effect on early growth of sunflower seedling. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31025: Razvoj novih sorti i poboljšanja novih tehnologija proizvodnje uljanih biljnih vrsta za različite namene

  6. Counter-current CO2 purification of partially deacylated sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    High oleic sunflower oil was partially deacylated by propanolysis to produce a mixture of diglycerides and triglycerides. To remove by-product fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) from this reaction mixture, a liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) counter-current fractionation method was developed. The fracti...

  7. Helianthus Porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing the Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  8. Counter-current carbon dioxide purification of partially deacylated sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    High oleic sunflower oil was partially deacylated by propanolysis to produce a mixture of diglycerides and triglycerides. To remove by-product fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) from this reaction mixture, a liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) counter-current fractionation method was developed. The fracti...

  9. Effect of glycerol on the morphology of starch-sunflower oil composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Feil, H.

    1999-01-01

    The presented study involves the encapsulation of sunflower oil in starch by casting emulsions of oil in aqueous starch solutions. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer and lecithin was used as an emulsifier, to improve the emulsion stability. Increasing glycerol concentration in the samples resulted i

  10. Helianthus porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  11. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  12. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  13. Development of sunflower oil and composition with respect to seed moisture and physiological maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiccants/harvest aids are becoming more commonly used to hasten sunflower harvest. The current recommendation is to apply a desiccant (e.g., glyphosate and paraquat) at 35% or less seed moisture at physiological maturity (PM). Desiccating as early as possible without sacrificing yield may be a des...

  14. Preparation of margarines from organogels of sunflower wax and vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was previously reported that sunflower wax (SW) had high potential as an organogelator for soybean oil-based margarine and spread products. In this study twelve other vegetable oils were evaluated in a margarine formulation to test feasibility of utilization of SW as an alternative to solid fats ...

  15. A laboratory simulation of the carbonization of sunflower achenes and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braadbaart, F. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Earth Sciences-Geochemistry, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80021, 3058 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Wright, P.J. [Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Horst, J. van der; Boon, J.J. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    The current project describes physical and chemical alterations that result from the thermal exposure of sunflower achenes and seeds. Specifically, achenes and seeds were heated at temperatures ranging from 130 to 600 C under anoxic conditions for 60 min. Changes were measured in mass, relative percentages of C and N, internal and external morphology, molecular composition by direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry (DTMS) under EI conditions, and the reflectance on polished specimens. The main constituents of sunflower seeds are lipids and protein, while the pericarps or hulls enclosing the seeds have a ligno-cellulosic structure. The morphology of achenes and seeds remains intact following exposure which makes the identification of the residues possible. The results of the sunflower experiments were compared to previous experiments conducted with peas and wheat grains. Up to approximately 340 C, the molecular conversion of polysaccharide and protein rich peas and wheat grains follow similar pathways, while the lignin present in sunflower achenes follows its own unique pathway, resulting in a different molecular composition. At higher temperatures the molecular composition of the three propagules becomes identical. In addition the reflectance of the three propagules is identical confirming the similarity in molecular composition. Lipids show a different behaviour compared to the other three biopolymers; from 370 C no oils are observed in the heated specimens and the DTMS-EI measurements show no lipid markers. Apart from evaporation of the triacylglycerides it is suggested that steroids have a high resistance against thermal degradation and are converted into aromatic moieties. (author)

  16. A laboratory simulation of the carbonization of sunflower achenes and seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.; Wright, P.J.; Horst, J. van der; Boon, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The current project describes physical and chemical alterations that result from the thermal exposure of sunflower achenes and seeds. Specifically, achenes and seeds were heated at temperatures ranging from 130 to 600 °C under anoxic conditions for 60 min. Changes were measured in mass, relative per

  17. Understanding growth limitation in wheat and sunflower under low phosphorus conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, D.

    1998-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focuses on the understanding of growth of leaf area and biomass in wheat and sunflower under low phosphorus conditions.Chapters 2 and 3 address the question whether P-deficiency limits leaf area expansion directly by inhibiting the individual leaf expansion, or thr

  18. EFFECT OF ARSENIC ON DRY WEIGHT AND RELATIVE CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN GREENINGMAIZE AND SUNFLOWER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Várallyay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most toxic elements that can be found in the environment. Excessive uptake of arsenic may cause physiological changes in plants. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different arsenic treatments on relative chlorophyll content and dry weight of shoot and root of maize and sunflower in the early phases of plant development. Seedlings were grown in climatic room in nutrient solution under strictly regulated environmental conditions. The plants were exposed to 3, 10 and 30 mg kg-1arsenic, whereas there was no arsenic treatment on the control plants. We applied arsenic in the form of arsenite (NaAsO2 and arsenate (KH2AsO4, respectively. After 14 days of arsenic treatments, changes in relative chlorophyll content and dry weight of maize shoots and roots were recorded. In the case of sunflower these physiological parameters were measured after 21 day. The applied arsenic decreased the relative chlorophyll content of maize and sunflower leaves, especially at concentration of30 mg kg-1. The increasing amount of As treatment were resulted the lower weight of the experimental plants, which was more considerable in the case of the roots. The results indicate that the sunflower plants is more sensitive to arsenic toxicity than maize plants and all data demonstrate that the As(III is more toxic to these crop plants than the As(V.

  19. Regional characteristics of market production of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Simo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the trends in the development of industrial crop production in the case of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia from 1976 to 2013. Grouping of regions (4 regions without Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija and districts (25 districts in Serbia in 2013, according to the characteristics of land capacity, production of sugar beet and sunflower and level of development, was carried out by cluster analysis. Based on the median value of the important characteristics of available land capacity, production volume and economic development in municipalities, I-distance method were ranked districts in Serbia from 1 to 25. Similarities between the sugar beet and sunflower production regions in Serbia were determined by the method of complete-linkage clustering, and the results were presented in the dendrogram. According to data for 2013 it was found that 99.8% of sugar beet production and 93.9% of sunflower production in Serbia comes from the Vojvodina region. The average yields per hectare for analyzed crops in the areas of the Vojvodina region, on average, were by up to 10% higher compared to the yields in Serbia. According to the characteristics of land capacity and production, areas of the Vojvodina region belong to the highest rank 1-7, while according to the characteristics of the development level, these areas belong to rank 2-13.

  20. A time-series phytoremediation experiment with sunflowers (Helianthus annuus on a former uranium mining site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kötschau A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On a test field situated at a former uranium mining site near Ronneburg (Thuringia, Germany a small scale time-series field experiment with sunflowers (Helianthus annuus was carried out. This area ghas elevated contents for the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn including the radionuclides U and Th. Over a time period of 24 weeks the sunflowers were cultivated on homogenized soil substrate and regularly harvested. The aim was to find the ideal moment to harvest the sunflowers, being defined as having the best balance between the extraction of the contaminants and a high biomass produced. The contents of the elements were determined in soil, roots and above-ground plant parts. The contents in the above-ground plant showed no clear increasing or decreasing trend over time, so they were not the appropriate values to determine the best moment to harvest. Instead the total extracted masses (content in μg/g x biomass in g of the contaminants in the above-ground plant parts were calculated. According to this the best moment to harvest the sunflower plants was reached after 24 weeks of vegetation, because the highest extracted masses for all contaminants were calculated to this time. Additionally the biomass, which could be used e.g. for bio-fuel production, was highest at this time.

  1. Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Christov, Michail; Bohorova, Natasha; Petrov, Peter; Dudov, Kalin; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jaques

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in

  2. Components of phenotypic variability for head diameter in sunflower - Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the main crop species for the production of edible oil in many countries of the world, including ours. Plant height and head size, form and position on the stem as well as the number of leaves, their size, duration and distribution on the plant all play an important role in defining optimal plant architecture in sunflower hybrids (Škorić, 1975, 1989, 2002. In order to monitor the mode of inheritance and gene effects for head diameter in the F1 and F2 generations, half diallel crosses were made in six genetically divergent sunflower inbreds. The mean values of the trait in question differed significantly. The mode of inheritance of head diameter in the F1 generation was superdominance in all but four crosses, which had dominance instead. In the F2 generation, on the other hand, the prevailing mode was dominance, while superdominance was recorded in four cases. The dominant component accounted for the bulk of genetic variance, and the mode of inheritance of head diameter taking into account both the F1 and F2 generations was superdominance. These findings may prove valuable for developing high-yielding sunflower genotypes.

  3. Rhizopus oryzae associated with Melanagromyza splendida and stem disease of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2012, a female parental line in a Yolo, CA in sunflower seed-production field began displaying external stem symptoms that could not be attributed to any known disease. Symptoms appeared to be associated with tunneling caused by an un-identified insect. Stems were collected and Rhizopu...

  4. The effects of topical application of sunflower-seed oil on open wound healing in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Silvio Romero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effects of the use of sunflower seed oil on the treatment of skin wounds. METHODS: Eighteen male Saint Inês lambs were divided in 3 groups according to the pos-operative (7, 14 and 21 days. After antisepsis and local anestesia, two 4cm² wounds on each side of the thoracic region, close to the scapule were surgically produced. The experimental wounds were treated with sunflower seed oil, with high concentration of linoleic acid (LA, and the control ones with sterilized Vaseline. Biopsies of the pos-operative wounds tissue were performed on the 7th, 14th, 21st days and histologically evaluated. RESULTS: Topic application of sunflower seed oil accelerated healing process at the 7th and 21st days, reducing wound area and increasing wound contraction. Granulation tissue increased faster on treated wounds. The epidermis of the treated wounds was completely recovered when compared to control wounds. CONCLUSION: The topic use of sunflower seed oil accelerated the healing process, and it can be used as an alternative therapy on second intention wound healing.

  5. Isolation and characterization of undenatured chlorogenic acid free sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales-Perez, S.; Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for obtaining sunflower protein (SFP) isolate, nondenatured and free of chlorogenic acid (CGA), has been developed. During the isolating procedure, the extent of CGA removal and protein denaturation was monitored. The defatted flour contained 2.5 percent CGA as the main phenolic compound. P

  6. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficients for irrigated sunflower in the southern high plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is diverse crop grown for oil or confectionary uses in the Southern High Plains often under irrigation. Crop water use (evapotranspiration or ET) was measured in 2009 and 2011 in two 4-ha fields using two precision 9 m**2 weighing lysimeters containing 2.3-m deep mo...

  7. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  8. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  9. A unified SNP map of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) derived from current genomic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dense genetic maps are critical tools for plant breeders and geneticists. While many maps have been developed for sunflower in the last few decades, most have been based on low-throughput technologies and include markers numbers in the hundreds. However, two maps with reasonably dense coverage of a...

  10. Changes in mass and dimensions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes and seeds due to carbonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.; Wright, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    When analyzing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) remains, which are often carbonized, archaeobotanists commonly differentiate between wild and domesticated achenes and seeds based on the measured length (L) and width (W) or the calculated index L*W. Carbonization reduces the dimensions. To compensate

  11. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  12. Phomopsis stem canker: a re-emerging threat to sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis stem canker frequently causes yield reductions on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Russia, Europe and North America. Between 2001 and 2012, the incidence of Phomopsis stem canker has increased 16 fold in the Northern Great Plains of the United...

  13. Sources of resistance to sunflower diseases in a global collection of domesticated USDA plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) and head rot (HR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary are traditionally major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the United States, while Phomopsis stem canker (PSC) caused by Phomopsis helianthi Munt.-Cvet. et. al. has increasingly become damaging in...

  14. Is The Boron Uptake Affected When Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Grown At Poly Culture Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZTEKİN, Mahmut; TUNA, Atilla Levent

    2015-01-01

    n this study, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was growth alone and with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and clover plants (Medicago sativa L.). Boron at 25-50-75 mg L-1 concentrations was applied by the foliarly in the forms of Boric

  15. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  16. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  17. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  18. SSRs and INDELs mined from the sunflower EST database: abundance, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesacker, Adam; Kishore, Venkata K; Gao, Wenxiang; Tang, Shunxue; Kolkman, Judith M; Gingle, Alan; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard M; Lai, Zhao; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J

    2008-11-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are abundant and frequently highly polymorphic in transcribed sequences and widely targeted for marker development in eukaryotes. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) transcript assemblies were built and mined to identify SSRs and insertions-deletions (INDELs) for marker development, comparative mapping, and other genomics applications in sunflower. We describe the spectrum and frequency of SSRs identified in the sunflower EST database, a catalog of 16,643 EST-SSRs, a collection of 484 EST-SSR and 43 EST-INDEL markers developed from common sunflower ESTs, polymorphisms of the markers among the parents of several intraspecific and interspecific mapping populations, and the transferability of the markers to closely and distantly related species in the Compositae. Of 17,904 unigenes in the transcript assembly, 1,956 (10.9%) harbored one or more SSRs with repeat counts of n > or = 5. EST-SSR markers were 1.6-fold more polymorphic among exotic than elite genotypes and 0.7-fold less polymorphic than non-genic SSR markers. Of 466 EST-SSR or INDEL markers screened for cross-species amplification and polymorphisms, 413 (88.6%) amplified alleles from one or more wild species (H. argophyllus, H. tuberosus, H. anomalus, H. paradoxus, and H. deserticola), whereas 69 (14.8%) amplified alleles from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and 67 (14.4%) amplified alleles from lettuce (Lactuca sativa); hence, only a fraction were transferable to distantly related genera in the Compositae, whereas most were transferable to wild relatives of H. annuus. Several thousand additional SSRs were identified in the EST database and supply a wealth of templates for EST-SSR marker development in sunflower.

  19. Plasmopara halstedii virus causes hypovirulence in Plasmopara halstedii, the downy mildew pathogen of the sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasse, Wolfgang; Zipper, Reinhard; Totska, Maria; Spring, Otmar

    2013-08-01

    Plasmopara halstedii virus (PhV) is an isometric virus recently found in the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii. The fully sequenced virus genome consists of two ss(+)RNA strands encoding for the virus polymerase and the coat protein, respectively. Most of previously screened field isolates of P. halstedii were found to harbor PhV, but effects of PhV on the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of the oomycete have not been investigated yet. To assess the influence of PhV on the infectivity of P. halstedii, virus-free isolates of the oomycete were searched for, cultivated on sunflower and used for single zoospore infection. Four genetically homogenous strains belonging to three different pathotypes (710, 730, 750) were established. Subcultures of each strain were successfully infected with PhV. This afforded pairs of isogenic strains with and without virus and allowed assessment of the pathogenicity (susceptibility to specific sunflower genotypes) and aggressiveness (intensity of infection, time scale and density of sporulation) in cultivation of sunflower. While no significant difference was found in the pathogenicity of P. halstedii strains with and without virus towards sunflower seedlings of different resistance (pathotype differentials), the aggressiveness of the oomycete was diminished by PhV. Compared to the virus-free strains, the time required for the first sporulation (latent period) increased by about 1 day post inoculation. Progression of the pathogen from the hypocotyl into the epicotyl of sunflower (systemic infection) was reduced by about one third in the presence of virus. In the virus containing strains, the average density of sporangia produced per cm² cotyledon reached only 75% of the virus-free controls. In summary, the presence of PhV leads to hypovirulence effects by weakening the aggressiveness of P. halstedii.

  20. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.

  1. THE ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL EVALUATION OF FUROLAN TREATMENT IN SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yablonskaya Y. K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops, which are of great economic importance in Russia and in the world. It is very adaptive crop in terms of climatic conditions range, for that reason it is cultivated on a vast territory of the Russian Federation in various weather conditions. Sunflower oil has high nutritional and taste qualities, it is used numerously in food and is applied in various fields of food industry. The biologically active linoleic acid, phosphatides and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, which are of great nutritional value to humans, are contained in the oil. According to its calorific capacity, sunflower oil is on the first place among vegetable oils. Due to biological characteristics of sunflower, the Krasnodar region is the most favorable region of the Russian Federation for obtaining high and stable yields of this crop. However, here the drought is observed during the summer period and it affects adversely the productivity and quality of sunflower seeds. The increasing of resistance to unfavorable weather conditions is possible only based on detailed study of physiological features of productivity formation and seeds quality that is highly important task in view of the current geopolitical situation in Russia. One way of solving this issue is the appliance of the growth regulators, possessing anti-stress activity that improve the quality of sowing seeds and increase the productivity and plant resistance to stressful environmental factors. These drugs include growth regulator called Furolan, which was created in KubGTU and is certified for use in Russia. It is not toxic and is used in nano-dozes, there is no its residual quantities in the products and environment. Furolan has a positive effect on physiological and biochemical processes, improves the productivity of plants, their resistance to unfavorable growing conditions by increasing the resistance to dehydration as well as to the risk of fungal diseases

  2. THE APPLICATION OF FUROLAN PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR AND IMMUNIZER ON SUNFLOWER CULTIVATION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yablonskaya Y. K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops, which are of great economic importance in Russia and in the world. It is very adaptive crop in terms of climatic conditions range, for that reason it is cultivated on a vast territory of the Russian Federation in various weather conditions. Sunflower oil has high nutritional and taste qualities, it is used numerously in food and is applied in various fields of food industry. The biologically active linoleic acid, phosphatides and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, which are of great nutritional value to humans, are contained in the oil. According to its calorific capacity, sunflower oil is on the first place among vegetable oils. Due to biological characteristics of sunflower, the Krasnodar region is the most favorable region of the Russian Federation for obtaining high and stable yields of this crop. However, here the drought is observed during the summer period and it affects adversely the productivity and quality of sunflower seeds. The increasing of resistance to unfavorable weather conditions is possible only based on detailed study of physiological features of productivity formation and seeds quality that is highly important task in view of the current geopolitical situation in Russia. One way of solving this issue is the appliance of the growth regulators, possessing anti-stress activity that improve the quality of sowing seeds and increase the productivity and plant resistance to stressful environmental factors. These drugs include growth regulator called Furolan, which was created in KubGTU and is certified for use in Russia. It is not toxic and is used in nano-dozes, there is no its residual quantities in the products and environment. Furolan has a positive effect on physiological and biochemical processes, improves the productivity of plants, their resistance to unfavorable growing conditions by increasing the resistance to dehydration as well as to the risk of fungal diseases

  3. Growth under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration accelerates leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, Lourdes; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación; Agüera, Eloísa

    2012-09-15

    Some morphogenetic and metabolic processes were sensitive to a high atmospheric CO(2) concentration during sunflower primary leaf ontogeny. Young leaves of sunflower plants growing under elevated CO(2) concentration exhibited increased growth, as reflected by the high specific leaf mass referred to as dry weight in young leaves (16 days). The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased with leaf development, especially in plants grown under elevated CO(2) concentrations, suggesting that high CO(2) accelerates chlorophyll degradation, and also possibly leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased the oxidative stress in sunflower plants by increasing H(2)O(2) levels and decreasing activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The loss of plant defenses probably increases the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast, decreasing the photosynthetic pigment content as a result. Elevated CO(2) concentration was found to boost photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, especially in young leaves. High CO(2) also increased the starch and soluble sugar contents (glucose and fructose) and the C/N ratio during sunflower primary leaf development. At the beginning of senescence, we observed a strong increase in the hexoses to sucrose ratio that was especially marked at high CO(2) concentration. These results indicate that elevated CO(2) concentration could promote leaf senescence in sunflower plants by affecting the soluble sugar levels, the C/N ratio and the oxidative status during leaf ontogeny. It is likely that systemic signals produced in plants grown with elevated CO(2), lead to early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves.

  4. Phytobenthos and phytoplankton community changes upon exposure to a sunflower oil spill in a South African protected freshwater wetland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available . At the intracellular level, phytoplankton chlorophyll a and b concentrations as physiological variables were more sensitive indicators of the adverse effects of sunflower oil than the 72 h Selenastrum capricornutum algal bioassay conducted....

  5. Development of an ultra-dense genetic map of the sunflower genome based on single-feature polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Bowers

    Full Text Available The development of ultra-dense genetic maps has the potential to facilitate detailed comparative genomic analyses and whole genome sequence assemblies. Here we describe the use of a custom Affymetrix GeneChip containing nearly 2.4 million features (25 bp sequences targeting 86,023 unigenes from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and related species to test for single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs in a recombinant inbred line (RIL mapping population derived from a cross between confectionery and oilseed sunflower lines (RHA280×RHA801. We then employed an existing genetic map derived from this same population to rigorously filter out low quality data and place 67,486 features corresponding to 22,481 unigenes on the sunflower genetic map. The resulting map contains a substantial fraction of all sunflower genes and will thus facilitate a number of downstream applications, including genome assembly and the identification of candidate genes underlying QTL or traits of interest.

  6. Statistical optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower waste cooking oil using basic heterogeneous biocatalyst prepared from eggshells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Deriase, Samiha F; Hamdy, A; Abdallah, Renee I

    2015-01-01

    A statistical design of experiments DOE was applied to investigate biodiesel fuel BDF production process from sunflower waste cooking oil SWCO using heterogeneous bio-catalyst produced from eggshells ES...

  7. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p  0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources.

  8. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR.

  9. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.: A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Ghosh

    Full Text Available Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools.Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry.Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease.Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level, which substantiated the

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF MICROWAVE HEATING OF FRESHLY HARVESTED SUNFLOWER SEEDS BEFORE CONVECTIVE DRYING ON OUTPUT AND QUALITY OF OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafayev S. K.; Smychagin E. O.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the influence of various methods of thermal, acoustic and electromagnetic exposure on free lipid content, acid and peroxidation number of oil in sunflower seeds during their after harvesting ripening. We have investigated the influence of traditional and microwave heating on lipase activity of seeds. We have also founded the most efficient conditions for the rate and the temperature of microwave heating of freshly harvested sunflower seeds and determined their effect on t...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF MICROWAVE HEATING OF FRESHLY HARVESTED SUNFLOWER SEEDS BEFORE CONVECTIVE DRYING ON OUTPUT AND QUALITY OF OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafayev S. K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the influence of various methods of thermal, acoustic and electromagnetic exposure on free lipid content, acid and peroxidation number of oil in sunflower seeds during their after harvesting ripening. We have investigated the influence of traditional and microwave heating on lipase activity of seeds. We have also founded the most efficient conditions for the rate and the temperature of microwave heating of freshly harvested sunflower seeds and determined their effect on the rate of drying

  12. Row and plant spacing effects on agronomic performance of sunflower in warm and semi-cold areas of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Beg A.; Pourdad S.S.; Alipour S.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important oilseed crop. It was grown on more than 20 million hectares in the world in 1997, of which 60,000 ha were in Iran. There is a potential for substantial increase in sunflower acreage and production on dry land in Iran by applying optimum management practices. Two important management considerations are selecting row and plant spacings able to provide adequate plant density that will maximize seed yields and minimize seeding costs. This study con...

  13. Mycoflora and mycotoxins of sunflower(helianthus annuus l.) Seeds in egypt 1. Sugar fungi and natural occurrence of mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    El Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed [سعد شحاتة محمد المراغي; El-Maghraby, O. M. O.

    1986-01-01

    Eighteen genera and sixty-three species, in addition to three varieties were isolated from thirty six samples of sunflower seeds collected from different places in Egypt. Aspergillus and Penicillium followed by Rhizopus and Fusarium were the most frequent genera. A. niger, A. flaws, A. jumigatus, A. terreus and P. chrysogenum were the most common species. Samples 11,4 and 8 of 36 sunflower samples were of high, moderate and low toxicity, respectively, to brine shrimp larvae and were naturally...

  14. Ecological effect analysis of pumpkin and oil sunflower intercropping in arid area of northwest Hebei Province: I. moisture analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua ZHANG; Wei HUANG; Fenglu ZHANG; Lifeng ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 at the Zhangbei Agricultural Resource and Ecological Environment Key Field Research Station, Hebei Province, China to study water-efficient pumpkin planting patterns in this area. Four treatments of pumpkin and oil sunflower intercropping were used to study the problem of water resource scarcity and inefficient water use in the plateau of northern Hebei Province. The four treatments were: pumpkin sole cropping (Sp), oil-sunflower sole cropping (So), intercropp ing one row oil sunflower (IC1) or two rows (IC2) between pumpkin rows. The results showed that oil sunflower competed for soil water with pumpkin during late growth stage of pumpkin in IC2, but there was no water competition in IC1. Total rainfall during the growing season was 201.6mm and the soil water balance differed between treatments. In all cases the water percolation was low and soil moisture storage always negative. Nearly all water loss was through evapotranspiration, which varied by treatment. The seasonal evapotranspiration of IC1 was less than So, Sp and IC2, 46.57%, 41.22% and 46.73%, respectively. Economic yield of pumpkin decreased from 30.00% (IC1) to 71.42% (IC2). However, yield per plant of intercropping oil sunflower increased from 190.71% to 241.26%. as compared with So, because oil sunflower showed remarkably partial advantage. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of pumpkin-oil sunflower was 1.08-1.22, and the Water Equivalent Ratio (WER) of pumpkin-oil sunflower was 1.07-1.26. Economic value of sole pumpkin was greatest but did not differ from treatment IC1. Other treatments had significantly less economic value. In this region of rain-fed dry land farming, a sparse planting of sole pumpkin with high efficiency production could realize water resources most effectively in the Plateau of northern Hebei Province.

  15. Bio-priming of seeds: A potential tool in the integrated management of alternaria blight of sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Rao M.S.L.; Kulkarni S; Lingaraju S.; Nadaf H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Of the different integrated seed treatment options tested for the management of Alternaria blight of sunflower, highest benefit was obtained in the seed treatment with Carbendazim+Iprodione (Quintal) at 0.3% in water along with hexaconazole foliar spray (0.1%) followed by seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens (0.8%) in jelly+hexaconazole foliar spray. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed dresser can be enhanced by bio-priming the sunflower seeds for the effective and eco-friendly...

  16. Pollen production in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is affected by air temperature and relative humidity during early reproductive growth

    OpenAIRE

    Astiz, V.; Hernández, Luis Francisco

    2013-01-01

    During microsporogenesis, sunflower florets might be exposed to episodes of day- and night-time temperatures exceeding 30 and 20 °C, respectively, that can affect pollen availability and consequently plant’s yield. The relationship between air temperature and relative humidity during the meiotic phase of microsporogenesis, and the quantity and quality of pollen produced by the flowers, were studied in two sunflower hybrids during two years. The hybrids were grown on irrigated plots in Bahía B...

  17. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  18. A sunflower WRKY transcription factor stimulates the mobilization of seed-stored reserves during germination and post-germination growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineri, Jesica; Hartman, Matías D; Chan, Raquel L; Iglesias, Alberto A; Ribichich, Karina F

    2016-09-01

    The sunflower transcription factor HaWRKY10 stimulates reserves mobilization in Arabidopsis. Gene expression and enzymes activity assays indicated that lipolysis and gluconeogenesis were increased. Microarray results suggested a parallelism in sunflower. Germinating oilseeds converts stored lipids into sugars, and thereafter in metabolic energy that is used in seedling growth and establishment. During germination, the induced lipolysis linked to the glyoxylate pathway and gluconeogenesis produces sucrose, which is then transported to the embryo and driven through catabolic routes. Herein, we report that the sunflower transcription factor HaWRKY10 regulates carbon partitioning by reducing carbohydrate catabolism and increasing lipolysis and gluconeogenesis. HaWRKY10 was regulated by abscisic acid and gibberellins in the embryo leaves 48 h after seed imbibition and highly expressed during sunflower seed germination and seedling growth, concomitantly with lipid mobilization. Sunflower leaf disks overexpressing HaWRKY10 showed repressed expression of genes related to sucrose cleavage and glycolysis compared with controls. Moreover, HaWRKY10 constitutive expression in Arabidopsis seeds produced higher decrease in lipid reserves, whereas starch and sucrose were more preserved compared with wild type. Gene transcripts abundance and enzyme activities involved in stored lipid mobilization and gluconeogenesis increased more in transgenic than in wild type seeds 36 h after imbibition, whereas the negative regulator of lipid mobilization, ABI4, was repressed. Altogether, the results point out a functional parallelism between tissues and plant species, and reveal HaWRKY10 as a positive regulator of storage reserve mobilization in sunflower.

  19. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  20. Original Misunderstanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  1. Process intensification of catalytic liquid-liquid solid processes : Continuous biodiesel production using an immobilized lipase in a centrifugal contactor separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, M.; Kloekhorst, A.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Euverink, G. J. W.; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) synthesis from sunflower oil and methanol using an immobilized lipase, an example of a liquid-liquid solid reaction, was studied in batch and various continuous reactor set-ups including the use of a centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS). The latter is an

  2. Energy performance of sprinkler irrigated maize, wheat and sunflower in Vigia irrigation district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Rodrigues, Goncalo Caleia; Paredes, Paula; Pereira, Luis S. [Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER/ISA), Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lspereira@isa.utl.pt

    2008-07-01

    The energy potential of a crop may be evaluated through life cycle assessment methodologies. These refer to the computation of the crop's energy balance and other related indicators, such as the energy ratio and the energetic efficiency, that may be used as to assess how a given irrigated crop may be used for production of biofuel. This study concerns sprinkler irrigated sunflower, wheat and maize crops using data relative to the campaign of 2007 in the Vigia Irrigation District, Alentejo. A model was developed and various scenarios were considered. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that the maize crop is the most efficient in producing energy and sunflower is the least one for all the alternative scenarios considered. (author)

  3. New natural injection-moldable composite material from sunflower oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouilly, A; Orliac, O; Silvestre, F; Rigal, L

    2006-03-01

    Through a twin-screw extrusion process the native structure of sunflower oil cake was completely transformed (globular protein denaturation/texturization and husk fiber defibration) into a simpler matrix-fiber structure, as could be seen on SEM micrographs. Further chemical reduction of protein disulfide bridges greatly reduced the melt viscosity of the moistened composite that it could be injection-molded. The molded specimens were tested and their tensile and flexural properties and water absorption calculated. Their water resistance appeared to be particularly high, and could be enhanced further after a thermal treatment (N2, 200 degrees C). The proteic matrix seemed to behave like a natural thermoset resin. Sunflower oil cake could be used without any additives to make biodegradable, water resistant and exceptionally cheap materials.

  4. Irrigation method does not affect wild bee pollinators of hybrid sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Sardiñas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation method has the potential to directly or indirectly influence populations of wild bee crop pollinators nesting and foraging in irrigated crop fields. The majority of wild bee species nest in the ground, and their nests may be susceptible to flooding. In addition, their pollination of crops can be influenced by nectar quality and quantity, which are related to water availability. To determine whether different irrigation methods affect crop pollinators, we compared the number of ground-nesting bees nesting and foraging in drip- and furrow-irrigated hybrid sunflower fields in the Sacramento Valley. We found that irrigation method did not impact wild bee nesting rates or foraging bee abundance or bee species richness. These findings suggest that changing from furrow irrigation to drip irrigation to conserve water likely will not alter hybrid sunflower crop pollination.

  5. Fast pyrolysis of sunflower-pressed bagasse: effects of sweeping gas flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F.; Putun, E.

    2002-05-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.85 wt% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere and a nitrogen flow rate of 50 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C and heating rate of 5{sup o}C s{sup -1}. The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (author)

  6. Production and characterization of pyrolysis liquids from sunflower-pressed bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu University (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-11-01

    Pyrolysis experiments on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.10 wt.% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere with flow rate of 50 ml min{sup -1} and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C with a heating rate of 5{sup o}C s{sup -1}. The chemical characterization results showed that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks. (author)

  7. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  8. Stereoselective degradation of metalaxyl and metalaxyl-M in soil and sunflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucchini, Cesare; Zadra, C

    2002-01-01

    A high proportion of agrochemicals are chiral compounds. Since stereoisomers often show different biological and physiological properties, the biological and metabolic responses to these compounds and their fate in the environment are expected to be different. In this work we investigate a possible stereo and/or enantioselective degradation in soil and plants (sunflower) of the fungicide Metalaxyl (rac-Metalaxyl) and the new compound Metalaxyl-M ((-)-(R)-Metalaxyl) and propose procedures for extraction, cleanup, chromatographic separation of enantiomers, and determination of the R : S ratio by using an HPLC chiral column. The degradation of the two stereoisomers of Metalaxyl proved to be enantioselective and dependent on the media: the (+)-(S)-enantiomer showed a faster degradation in plants, while the (-)-(R)-enantiomer showed a faster degradation in soil. In this study there was no evidence that racemization of Metalaxyl-M took place either in soil or in sunflowers. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Sunflower meal as a major vegetable protein source in layers' ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, M A; Sial, M A

    1992-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with Starcross layers to evaluate the replacement value of sunflower meal (SFM) for cotton seed meal (CSM) and sesame meal (SM). The birds (aged 24 weeks) were given 4 isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing 0, 5, 10 and 15% dehulled sunflower meal. The substitution of SFM for CSM and SM did not generally affect the egg production, feed consumption, feed conversion nor did it have any effect on the quality of eggs as measured by Haugh Units (HU) and yolk index. Egg shell thickness, however, improved by increasing dietary levels of SFM. The feed costs per hen were generally lower for the SFM group since SFM was cheaper than CSM and SM.

  10. Valorization of sunflower meal through the production of ethanol from the hemicellulosic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Tavares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sunflower is among the major oil seeds crop grown in the world and the by-products generated during the seeds processing represent an attractive source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioprocesses. The conversion of lignocellulosic fibers into fermentable sugars has been considered as a promising alternative to increase the demand for ethanol. The present study aimed to establish the fermentation conditions for ethanol production by Scheffersomyces stipitis ATCC 58376 in sunflower meal hemicellulosic hydrolysate, through a 23 CCRD (Central Composite Rotational Design factorial design. Under the selected conditions (pH 5.25, 29 ºC and 198 rpm the final ethanol concentration was 13.92 g L-1 and the ethanol yield was 0.49 g g-1.

  11. Effect of dried sunflower seeds on incisal edge abrasion: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Avita; Ramamurthy, Priyadarshini H; Fernandes, Bennete Aloysius; Sidhu, Preena

    2017-01-01

    Tooth surface loss (TSL) is a complex phenomenon characterized by the loss of hard tooth structure at various locations of the teeth, usually due to more than one factor. TSL due to abrasion can be significant in patients consuming coarse, abrasive diet. The present case reports an interesting incisal edge abrasion in a female patient, attributed to a particular dietary behavior of long-term consumption of sunflower seeds. All her family members and most of the people from her native place were also reported to have similar lesions by the patient. Larger epidemiological studies to assess the prevalence and severity of such abrasive lesions in geographic areas with this particular dietary habit need to be carried out so that people may be made aware and educated about alternative ways of eating sunflower seeds that will not cause any form of tooth wear.

  12. Rapeseed and sunflower meal: a review on biotechnology status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomascolo, Anne; Uzan-Boukhris, Eva; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Fine, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Rapeseed and sunflower are two of the world's major oilseeds. Rapeseed and sunflower meal (RSM and SFM), the by-products of oil extraction, are produced in large quantities. They are mainly composed of proteins, lignocellulosic fibres and minerals. They were initially used as a protein complement in animal feed rations and sometimes as fertilizer or as combustible source. More recently, new alternatives to these traditional uses have been developed that draw on the structure and physicochemical properties of RSM and SFM, which are plentiful sources of nitrogen and carbon nutrients. This feature, together with their cheapness and ready availability, supports the cultivation of various microorganisms in both submerged cultures and solid-state fermentation. Recent studies have thus emphasized the potential utilisation of RSM and SFM in fermentative processes, including saccharification and production of enzymes, antibiotics, antioxidants and other bio-products, opening new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  13. Yield and nutrition of sunflower fertilized with sewage sludge stabilized by different processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altina Lacerda Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The different methods of sewage sludge stabilization modify their physical chemical and biological properties, altering its efficiency when applied in agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient levels in soil and the yield of sunflower fertilized with sewage sludge stabilized by different processes. The experiment was conducted in Cambisol, with the treatments: control (without fertilization, fertilization with sewage sludge solarized, composted, vermicomposted, limed and chemical fertilizer recommended for sunflower crop. The experimental design a randomized block with four replications. The different methods of sewage sludge treatment did not affect the yield; however, the application of sewage sludge, regardless the stabilization process adopted, was more effective than chemical fertilizer and the control treatment. Overall, fertilization with limed sewage sludge provided higher soil nutrients concentrations, while treatments with composted and vermicomposted sewage sludge showed higher levels of nutrients in the plant.

  14. Data on mass spectrometry based identification of allergens from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. pollen proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergy is a type of abnormal immune reactions, which is triggered by environmental antigens or allergens and mediated by IgE antibodies. Now-a-days mass spectrometry is the method of choice for allergen identification based on homology searching. Here, we provide the mass spectrometry dataset associated with our previously published research article on identification of sunflower pollen allergens (Ghosh et al., 2015 [1]. In this study allergenicity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus pollen grains were primarily investigated by clinical studies followed by detailed immunobiochemical and immunoproteomic analyses. The mass spectrometry data for the identification of allergens were deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002397.

  15. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols.

  16. 葵花籽油的氧化稳定性研究%Research on the oxidative stability of sunflower seed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文婷; 蒲传奋

    2011-01-01

    The factors which affect the stability of sunflower seed oil such as temperature, light, metal ions, oxygen and moisture were studied with acid value and peroxide value as indexes. The results showed that temperature, light, metal ions, oxygen and moisture could increase acid value and peroxide value of sunflower seed oil. Among them temperature and moisture were the most critical factors. The acid value and peroxide value of sunflower seed oil increased to 1.03 mgKOH/g and 19.2 meq/kg at 40 ℃ for 24 d. The effects of Cu2+ on peroxide value was greater than Fe2+ ,while oxygen did not increase the acid value in short - term. The acid value was a bit higher with addition of 1% and 2% of water than that of original oil, and the higher the moisture content was, the faster the peroxide value increased.%以葵花籽油的酸值和过氧化值为评价指标,考察了温度、光照、金属离子、氧气、水分对葵花籽油氧化稳定性的影响。结果表明:温度、光照、金属离子、氧气、水分均会引起储藏过程中葵花籽油的酸值和过氧化值的升高,且温度和水分影响较明显;40℃下试样放置24 d后的酸值和过氧化值分别达到1.03 mgKOH/g和19.2 meq/kg;Cu2+对于葵花籽油过氧化值的影响大于Fe2+;氧气短期内不会促进葵花籽油酸值的上升;添加了1%和2%水分的葵花籽油的酸值相差不大,均大于未加水样品,且水分含量越高,过氧化值增加越快。

  17. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression patterns of LATERAL SUPPRESSOR-LIKE and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION-LIKE genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2016-12-29

    The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively. Typical amino acid residues and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL are the orthologs of the branching regulator LS and ROX/LAX1, involved in the growth habit of both dicot and monocot species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed a high accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts in roots, vegetative shoots, and inflorescence shoots. By contrast, in internodal stems and young leaves, a lower amount of Ha-LSL transcripts was observed. A comparison of transcription patterns between Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL revealed some analogies but also remarkable differences; in fact, the gene Ha-ROXL displayed a low expression level in all organs analyzed. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that Ha-ROXL transcription was strongly restricted to a small domain within the boundary zone separating the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia and in restricted regions of the inflorescence meristem, beforehand the separation of floral bracts from disc flower primordia. These results suggested that Ha-ROXL may be involved to establish a cell niche for the initiation of AMs as well as flower primordia. The accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts was not restricted to the boundary zones in vegetative and inflorescence shoots, but the mRNA activity was expanded in other cellular domains of primary shoot apical meristem as well as AMs. In addition, Ha

  18. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohy, M. Z.; Badr, E. H.; Perifanova-Nemska, M.; Khadjiski, T. S.

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  19. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound‐assisted and microwave‐assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β‐carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound‐assisted extraction was the most effective method on...

  20. Is chronic rapeseed oil diet more neuroprotective than chronic corn/sunflower diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Nicole

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and specifically omega3 have been shown to exert a potent protecting effect on both cardiac and neuronal functions. Rapeseed oil contains 9% of alphalinolenic acid (18-3n-3, ALA, whereas corn and sunflower oils (18:2n-6, linoleic acid rich do not. The aim of the present study was to compare in mice the putative protective effects of ALA, by testing two chronic diets containing either rapeseed oil (ALA rich or a corn/sunflower blend (devoided of ALA using an epilepsy model, allowing the detection of neurotoxic or neuroprotective activities: the MDDAS test (Magnesium Deficiency-Dependent Audiogenic Seizure test. After a 30 day-Mg-deprivation period, neuronal hyperexcitability appeared only in the corn/sunflower fed group, suggesting a protecting effect of the rapeseed oil. The number of convulsive mice was twice reduced in the rapeseed group and all of them recovered whereas in the corn/sunflower group all the mice had seizures and 43% died. The pattern of seizures with the rapeseed diet showed an increase in the first two step durations (latency and wild running, and a non significant slight decrease in the third (convulsions and the fourth (recovery ones. These results suggest a GABAergic-like effect. The increases in the first 2 phases were also indicative of a likely effect on Na+ channels, which was also observed using the maximum electroshock seizure test. These preliminary results indicate that adapted chronic dietary intake of rapeseed oil, an ALA rich monounsaturated oil, could help to control neuronal disorders as here shown in our model of magnesium-deficient mice.

  1. Effect of spatial arrangement on the production components and yield of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Thiago Coelho Bezerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The sunflower plant is an oilseed crop that has aroused a great interest in the Brazilian and international scenery especillay because of the possibility of using its oil for biodiesel production. The objective of this study was to evaluate productivity and yield components of Embrapa 122 sunflower according to the spatial arrangement. Treatments were arranged in 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, which are the four spacings between rows (0.30; 0.50; 0.70 and 0.90 m and four sowing densities (30,000; 45,000; 60,000 and 75,000 plants ha-1. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized block design with four replications. The experiments were conducted in the experimental area of the Plant Science Department in Fortaleza, State of Ceará-Brazil and on the Curu Vale Experimental Farm in Pentecoste, State of Ceará-Brazil. Productivity and the following production components were analyzed in the end of the crop cycle: harvested capitula, capitulum diameter, capitulum mass, achene mass per capitulum, mass of 100 achenes, achenes per capitulum, harvest index and oil content in the achenes. The experiments were analyzed jointly in relation to the cropping area and the data submitted to analysis of variance and quantitative factors tested by polynomial regression. The variables, spacing, density and cropping area did not interact with these variables and the spatial arrangement of the plants affected only the components. The cropping area influences the productive behavior of sunflower Embrapa 122. The spatial arrangement of the plants of sunflower of variety Embrapa 122 influences yield components but does not affect productivity.

  2. Giardia duodenalis: effects of an ozonized sunflower oil product (Oleozon) on in vitro trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Frank; Hernández, Damian; Zamora, Zullyt; Díaz, Maritza; Ancheta, Odelsa; Rodriguez, Sandra; Torres, Dinorah

    2009-03-01

    The ozonized sunflower oil product (Oleozon) was investigated to explore its cytotoxic activity on Giardia duodenalis in vitro cultivated trophozites. Oleozon produced inactivation of Giardia trophozoites in a dose- and cell density-dependent manner. Thirty microliter of Oleozon with peroxide index value of 500 equivalent-mmol of activated oxygen per kilogram were used to achieve a 100% inhibition (density-dependent effect must be taken into account when prescription of this product for giardiasis treatment in humans.

  3. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  4. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C Rowe

    Full Text Available Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL, a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  5. The role of biotechnologies in the development of sunflower cultures in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Durante Mauro; Vannozzi Gian Paolo; Pugliesi Claudio; Bernardi Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Sunflower improvement by conventional breeding is severely restricted by the availability of a rather limited gene pool owing to natural incompatibilities, even between related species, and by the time scale of most breeding programs. Therefore, much attention has been directed recently to the newly emerging and novel technologies of plant cell and molecular biology that provide a powerful means to supplement and complement the traditional methods of plant improvement. The concept of DNA-base...

  6. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  7. The effect of zeolite,bentonite and sepiolite minerals onheavy metal uptake by sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N . Esmaeilpour Fard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining, industrial and agricultural activities can result in considerable soil pollution by heavy metals (HMs. One of the methods to control this pollution is application of adsorbent minerals. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of adsorbent minerals (bentonite, zeolite and sepiolite on transfer of some heavy metals (i.e., Pb, Zn and Cd from soil to tissues of sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.. Treatments included: Non-polluted soil, HM-polluted soil, polluted soil + bentonite, polluted soil + zeolite, and polluted soil + sepiolite. Sunflower seeds were planted in different pots containing the above treated soils. After 70 days of growth, plants were harvested and HMs content was measured. Results revealed that the uptake of HMs from non-polluted soil was lower than that of other treatments. In the polluted soil + sepiolite treatment, the added sepiolite increased plant Cd and Zn uptake by 0.37 and 7.17 mg/kg, respectively. However, the differences in HMs uptake were not significant for other treatments. Zeolite addition decreased plant uptake of Zn and Cd by about 12 and 0.21 mg/kg, respectively, while bentonite addition reduced Pb uptake by about 3.05 mg/kg, without any significant difference for the other treatments. Zn uptake was higher by about 12.2 mg/kg in plant shoots as compared to plant roots. On the contrary, the roots took up higher amounts of Cd and Pb, as compared to the shoots. Despite high concentration of the HMs in the polluted soils, considerable tendency of sunflower for uptake, and a high adsorption capacity of the applied minerals, the HMs uptake by sunflower and surface adsorption by the minerals were very low, probably due to HMs precipitation in the soil.

  8. Whole Plant Utilization of Sunflowers as a Renewable Source of Strategic Materials (Rubber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-14

    a tetraploid . Both have a basic chromosome number of n-17. No reports of attempted hybridization with Helianthus are known (Heiser et al., 1969). A...genus includes both annuals and perennials, with considerable natural hybridization . Most species have a chromosome number of n-17. Tithonia (Mexican...domestic hybrid through hybridization with wild species. D. Breeding and Selection. Sunflowers are easily cross-bred, and hybridize so frequently in the

  9. Synthesis of a high-grade lubricant from sunflower oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillion Gérard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis of saturated branched fatty acid methyl esters by codimerization of ethylene with conjugated linoleic methyl esters from sunflower oil. The catalytic system used is composed of iron, diimine and a reducing agent. This four-step synthesis will be discussed. After a last step of transesterification with TMP (trimethylolpropane a lubricant with interesting characteristics (in particular a high thermal stability and a good cold behavior is obtained

  10. Hazards of imidacloprid seed coating to Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) when applied to sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasei, J N; Ripault, G; Rivault, E

    2001-06-01

    Seed coating treatments of sunflower by the systemic insecticide imidacloprid was suspected of affecting honey bees and bumblebees. The hypothesis raised was whether imidacloprid could migrate into nectar and pollen, then modify flower attractiveness, homing behavior, and colony development. Our greenhouse and field experiments with Bombus terrestris L. were aimed at the following: the behavior of workers foraging on treated and control plants blooming in a greenhouse, the homing rate of colonies placed for 9 d in a treated field compared with colonies in a control field, and the development of these 20 colonies under laboratory conditions when removed from the fields. In the greenhouse, workers visited blooming heads of treated and control plants at the same rate and the mean duration of their visits was similar. In field colonies, analysis of pollen in hairs and pellets of workers showed that in both fields 98% of nectar foragers visited exclusively sunflowers, whereas only 25% of pollen gatherers collected sunflower pollen. After 9 d, in the control and treated field, 23 and 33% of the marked foragers, respectively, did not return to hives. In both fields, workers significantly drifted from the center to the sides of colony rows. During the 26-d period under field and laboratory conditions, the population increase rate of the 20 colonies was 3.3 and 3.0 workers/d in hives of the control and treated field, respectively. This difference was not significant. New queens were produced in eight colonies in either field. The mean number of new queens per hive was 17 and 24 in the control and treated field, respectively. Their mating rate was the same. It was concluded that applying imidacloprid at the registered dose, as a seed coating of sunflowers cultivated in greenhouse or in field, did not significantly affect the foraging and homing behavior of B. terestris and its colony development.

  11. Seed priming with antioxidants improves sunflower seed germination and seedling growth under unfavorable germination conditions

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGANIC, Ivana; LEKIC, Slavoljub

    2014-01-01

    The results of studying the effects of sunflower seed priming with an aqueous solution of ascorbic acid (A), tocopherol (T), and glutathione (G) performed prior to accelerated ageing and a cold test are presented in this paper. Germination, the percentage of abnormal seedlings, and the lengths of both roots and shoots were monitored. The results showed that the cold test caused a drastic drop in germination, an adverse effect on the shoot length, an increase in the percentage of abnormal seed...

  12. Biological seed priming mitigates the effects of water stress in sunflower seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Narsingh Bahadur; Singh, Deepmala; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. PAC 36) seedlings were inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), viz. Azotobacter chroococcum (A+), Bacillus polymyxa (B+), separately and in combination of the two (AB+). Relative water content and seedling growth were maximum in AB+ seedlings under control. Water stress significantly decreased the RWC, growth and dry mass of non-inoculated seedlings. However, inoculated seedlings maintained higher growth even under water stress. Pig...

  13. Development and standardization of a simple technique for breaking seed dormancy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maiti R.K.; Vidyasagar P; Shahapur S.C.; Ghosh S.K.; Seiler G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Seed dormancy causes a great problem in efficient seed production of sunflower. Attempts have been made to develop simple techniques for breaking seed dormancy. In the first experiment, different techniques were evaluated using treatments such as a growth regulator, Ethrel, priming (water soaking followed by 2-3 days drying in shade), chemicals such as acetone (CH3COCH3), and potassium nitrate (KNO3) which showed the most promise. To confirm these findings, several treatments (25% acetone, 0....

  14. Correlation and path coefficient analysis for protein yield in confectionary sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Miklič Vladimir; Mijić Anto; Jocić Siniša; Miladinović Dragana

    2015-01-01

    The most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into the production is high protein yield. Path coefficient analysis was used to obtain information on direct and indirect effects of studied traits (seed oil content, kernel oil content, seed yield, kernel protein content, mass of 1000 seeds, kernel ratio and hull ratio) on protein yield. The research was conducted during three vegetation seasons, on 22 experimental confectionary sunflow...

  15. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  16. The Influence of Palm Oil Addition on Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halva is one of the most popular food products of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Worldwide, the most known halva contains roasted sesame seeds, while usually in Eastern European countries the most appreciated is sunflower halva. However, even if sunflower halva is an appreciated product, it has currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers. Sunflower halva main issue is caused by the oil which separates at the surface during storage, determining a low commercial aspect of the product. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of palm oil addition on sunflower halva stability and texture. Five samples containing different oil percentages [w/w] (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% were prepared, as well as a control sample prepared using the standard recipe (no palm oil added. The texture of all samples was analyzed by an instrumental method, while the colloidal stability was determined by a gravimetric technique during 40 days of storage at two different temperatures (1-2ºC and 15-20ºC. After the storage test at 1-2oC, there were not significant differences between the samples, for all palm oil containing samples as well as for control the percentages of separated oil being below 0.6%. With respect to the control sample, the halva samples containing 1%, 4% and 5% of palm oil showed a decrease in their stability, while samples containing 2% and 3% showed an improved stability (3.44% and 1.78% of separated oil. During this study it was established that the sample containing 3% palm oil was the most favorable, regarding its textural properties, as well as its colloidal stability. 

  17. Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bogatek, Renata; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 degrees C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dormancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible role of cyanide, which is produced by the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, in this process. The aims of this work were to investigate whether exogenous cyanide could improve the germination of dormant sunflower seeds and to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Naked dormant seeds became able to germinate at 10 degrees C when they were incubated in the presence of 1 mM gaseous cyanide. Other respiratory inhibitors showed that this effect did not result from an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway or the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Cyanide stimulated germination of dormant seeds in the presence of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, but its improving effect required functional ethylene receptors. It did not significantly affect ethylene production and the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis or in the first steps of ethylene signalling pathway. However, the expression of the transcription factor Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1) was markedly stimulated in the presence of gaseous cyanide. It is proposed that the mode of action of cyanide in sunflower seed dormancy alleviation does not involve ethylene production and that ERF1 is a common component of the ethylene and cyanide signalling pathways.

  18. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RELAXATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNFLOWER AND RAPESEED LECITHIN

    OpenAIRE

    Lisovaya E. V.; Victorova E. P.; Agafonov O. S.; Kornen N. N.; Shahray T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a comparative assessment and peculiarities of nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of rapeseed and sunflower lecithin. It was established, that lecithin’s nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics, namely, protons’ spin-spin relaxation time and amplitudes of nuclear magnetic relaxation signals of lecithin components, depend on content of oil’s fat acids and phospholipids, contained in the lecithin. Comparative assessment of protons’ spin-spin relaxation time of r...

  19. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  20. Analysis of transposons and repeat composition of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia; Zuccolo, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Jurman, Irena; Ferrillo, Veronica; Vitacolonna, Nicola; Sarri, Vania; Cattonaro, Federica; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cionini, Pier Giorgio; Morgante, Michele

    2010-02-01

    A sample-sequencing strategy combined with slot-blot hybridization and FISH was used to study the composition of the repetitive component of the sunflower genome. One thousand six hundred thirty-eight sequences for a total of 954,517 bp were analyzed. The fraction of sequences that can be classified as repetitive using computational and hybridization approaches amounts to 62% in total. Almost two thirds remain as yet uncharacterized in nature. Of those characterized, most belong to the gypsy superfamily of LTR-retrotransposons. Unlike in other species, where single families can account for large fractions of the genome, it appears that no transposon family has been amplified to very high levels in sunflower. All other known classes of transposable elements were also found. One family of unknown nature (contig 61) was the most repeated in the sunflower genome. The evolution of the repetitive component in the Helianthus genus and in other Asteraceae was studied by comparative analysis of the hybridization of total genomic DNAs from these species to the sunflower small-insert library and compared to gene-based phylogeny. Very little similarity is observed between Helianthus species and two related Asteraceae species outside of the genus. Most repetitive elements are similar in annual and perennial Helianthus species indicating that sequence amplification largely predates such divergence. Gypsy-like elements are more represented in the annuals than in the perennials, while copia-like elements are similarly represented, attesting a different amplification history of the two superfamilies of LTR-retrotransposons in the Helianthus genus.

  1. INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN SUNFLOWER +APIARY FARMING SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G .SUMALATHA AND T. GEETHA JEBARATHNAM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Two sets of field experiments were conducted during  June-August months of 2012-2013 at Annamalai University of Cuddalore district under irrigated conditions to formulate site –specific nutrient management and to assess the yield  performance of sunflower +apiary farming system.The experiment consists of two main treatments; i.e, sunflower alone (M1 ,sunflower  with apiary (M2 and nine sub treatments i.e, control (S1, 100%RDF (S2, 100%RDF + Azospirillum (S3,100% RDF+phosphobacteria (S4,100%RDF+vermicompost (S5, 100%RDF+ Azospirillum+ phosphobacteria (S6, 100% RDF + Vermicompost +Azospirillum (S7, 100%RDF+ vermicompost+phosphobacteria (S8,100%RDF + Vermicompost + Azospirillum+phosphobacteria(S9 and it was laid out in split plot design with three replications .Highest values for seed yield and NPK uptake were observed for the combined application of all three nutrient sources in the plots of the experiment where beehive was installed. Perhaps to ensure better outcome. The apiary should be provided with better feeding for a longer period of time, beside  the natural feeding resources .feed consists of 500ml sugar syrup two times a week. Infact the bee foraging activites, improved seed yield, apart from the income through honey production, thus sustaining the crop + apiary system.

  2. Resistance among cultivated sunflower germplasm to stem-infesting pests in the central Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Miller, Jerry F; Seiler, Gerald J

    2009-06-01

    A 7-yr field study evaluated 61 oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions and 31 interspecific crosses for resistance to attack by naturally occurring populations of three stem-infesting pests, the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); a longhorned beetle, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae); and a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), at two locations in the central Great Plains. Germplasm with potential sources of resistance to attack from all three stem-infesting species were revealed. Accessions PI 650558, PI 386230, and PI 431516 were consistent in averaging low densities of stem weevil larvae per stalk among lines tested, and PI 497939 exceeded 25 weevil larvae per stalk in only 1 yr of 5 yr of trials. Several interspecific crosses also had consistently low densities of C. adspersus larvae per stalk. Populations of both D. texanus and P. womonana were variable over years, but differences among the lines tested were evident in many trials, revealing potential for developing resistant germplasm. Four accessions (PI 386230, PI 431542, PI 650497, and PI 650558) had low larval densities of C. adspersus and P. womonana in addition to reduced percentage infestation by D. texanus. Results showed potential for developing resistant genotypes for these pests. The prospect of adding host plant resistance as an integrated pest management (IPM) tactic would provide another tool for reducing economic losses from stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower in the central Great Plains.

  3. Honey bee visitation to sunflower: effects on pollination and plant genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Dechechi Chambó

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an allogamic plant, which needs insects on flowering, especially the honeybees for seed production. Collecting nectar and pollen by honeybees in agricultural crops is essential to apiculture, as well as a better understanding of plant biology. The foraging behavior of Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae and its efficiency of pollination on seed yield of sunflower genotypes (open pollination and restricted pollination were evaluated. There were peaks of visits by A. mellifera for nectar collection on the 2nd and 3rd flowering days between 7h00 and 8h30. The average density of A. mellifera during increased visitation ranged from 2.27 to 2.94 bees per capitulum. Nectar collecting bees were more frequent (2.28 bees per capitulum than pollen collecting (0.40 bees per capitulum. On the 3rd flowering day, Helio 360 and Aguará hybrids had higher (p ≤ 0.05 number of bee visits per flower head than the other genotypes. Seed yield was 43 % higher (p ≤ 0.05 from sunflower plants that were visited by pollinator-insects compared with plants restricted to pollinators.

  4. Deformation Curve Characteristics of Rapeseeds and Sunflower Seeds Under Compression Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divišová M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deformation curve characteristics of rapeseeds and sunflower seeds compressed using the equipment ZDM 50-2313/56/18 and varying vessel diameters (40, 60, 80, and 100 mm were investigated. Maximum compressive force of 100 kN was applied on bulk oilseeds of rape and sunflower of measured height 20-80 mm and deformed at a speed of 60 mm∙min-1. The compression test using the vessel diameters of 40 and 60 mm showed a serration effect while the vessel diameters of 80 and 100 mm indicated an increasing function effect on the force-deformation characteristic curves. Clearly, the increasing function effect described the region with oil flow and that of serration effect described the region without any oil flow. However, it was observed that the serration effect could be due to the higher compressive stress inside the smaller vessel diameters (40 and 60 mm compared to those with bigger vessel diameters (80 and 100 mm. Parameters such as deformation, deformation energy, and energy density were determined from the force-deformation curves dependency showing both increasing function and serration effect. The findings of the study provide useful information for the determination of specific compressive force and energy requirements for extracting maximum oil from oilseed crops such as rape and sunflower.

  5. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winne Sia Chiaw Mei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA. Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  6. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, David L; Pohl, Mary DeLand; Alvarado, José Luis; Tarighat, Somayeh; Bye, Robert

    2008-04-29

    Mexico has long been recognized as one of the world's cradles of domestication with evidence for squash (Cucurbita pepo) cultivation appearing as early as 8,000 cal B.C. followed by many other plants, such as maize (Zea mays), peppers (Capsicum annuum), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We present archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric data demonstrating that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) had entered the repertoire of Mexican domesticates by ca. 2600 cal B.C., that its cultivation was widespread in Mexico and extended as far south as El Salvador by the first millennium B.C., that it was well known to the Aztecs, and that it is still in use by traditional Mesoamerican cultures today. The sunflower's association with indigenous solar religion and warfare in Mexico may have led to its suppression after the Spanish Conquest. The discovery of ancient sunflower in Mexico refines our knowledge of domesticated Mesoamerican plants and adds complexity to our understanding of cultural evolution.

  7. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradkhani S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

  8. Characteristics of carcasses and meat from feedlot lambs fed with sunflower cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the characteristics of the carcasses and meat of feedlot lambs that received diets supplemented with sunflower cake; correlations among the variables were also performed. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four treatments (sunflower cake added at 0, 10, 20, and 30% dry matter to the base diet and seven replications per treatment. The diets were formulated with genotypes of Cynodon hay and corn- and soybean meal-based concentrate that were premixed at the ratio of 50:50 (hay:concentrate and were fed to the lambs in two portions daily at 08:00 and 14:00. The feed conversion of the animals was adversely affected (P<0.05 by the increase in the feedlot period in the individual stalls. For each additional day of confinement, the feed conversion increased by 0.0096 kg DM/kg of weight gain. Based on the linear regression model for the average loin pH, one hour after slaughter, the pH was reduced by 0.04 units. The marginal change in pH between the longest and the shortest times after slaughter was 14.11%. The weights of the animals at slaughter were not significantly correlated with the carcass yields. Sunflower cake is a suitable dietary supplement for lambs in intensive production systems and can be a substitute for soybean meal at up to 20%.

  9. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.

  10. Novel Fibonacci and non-Fibonacci structure in the sunflower: results of a citizen science experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinton, Jonathan; Ochu, Erinma

    2016-05-01

    This citizen science study evaluates the occurrence of Fibonacci structure in the spirals of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedheads. This phenomenon has competing biomathematical explanations, and our core premise is that observation of both Fibonacci and non-Fibonacci structure is informative for challenging such models. We collected data on 657 sunflowers. In our most reliable data subset, we evaluated 768 clockwise or anticlockwise parastichy numbers of which 565 were Fibonacci numbers, and a further 67 had Fibonacci structure of a predefined type. We also found more complex Fibonacci structures not previously reported in sunflowers. This is the third, and largest, study in the literature, although the first with explicit and independently checkable inclusion and analysis criteria and fully accessible data. This study systematically reports for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, seedheads without Fibonacci structure. Some of these are approximately Fibonacci, and we found in particular that parastichy numbers equal to one less than a Fibonacci number were present significantly more often than those one more than a Fibonacci number. An unexpected further result of this study was the existence of quasi-regular heads, in which no parastichy number could be definitively assigned.

  11. Sunflower seedlings dry matter content as affected by chemical treatment and storage length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical treatment of seed is a common crop protection measure. In the case of sunflower seed, fungicides are used regularly and insecticides at an increasing rate. In some cases, sunflower hybrid seed not planted in the first year is planted in the second or even third year after production. Seed vigour decreases gradually over time, which negatively affects seed emergence and subsequent plant growth and development. Seed with high vigour is expected to germinate quickly, producing seedlings that grow fast and uniformly. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of seed chemical treatment and storage length on seedling dry matter content in different sunflower hybrids. The study included several variants with fungicide and pesticide treatments and an untreated control. In the case of the hybrid NS-H-111, highest values of the studied characteristic were recorded in the control and directly after chemical treatment. In the case of the hybrid Sremac, the lowest value was recorded in seed treatment with benomyl+metalaxyl, highest in the treatments directly after chemical treatment and in seed stored for six months. In the case of the hybrid Šumadinac, highest values were recorded in the control and in seed treatment with fludioxonil+metalaxyl, the lowest in seed treatment with fludioxonil+metalaxyl+im idacloprid. Regarding the effect of different seed storage periods, highest values of the studied characteristic were recorded shortly after chemical treatment and in seed stored for six months.

  12. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  13. Interactive Effect of Potassium and Phosphorus on Grain Quality and Profitability of Sunflower in Northwest Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMANULLAH; M. W. KHAN

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted using a split plot randomized complete block design with three replications to study the effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) application on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) growth at the New Developmental Research Farm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University in Peshawar,Pakistan.Six levels of K (0,25,50,75,100 and 125 kg K ha-1) were main plots while four levels of P (0,45,90 and 135 kg P ha-1) were subplots.Increase in both K and P levels enhanced grain oil concentration of sunflower.Increase in P level increased grain protein concentration,while increase in K level decreased grain protein concentration.Both oil and protein yields increased significantly with increase in K and P levels.The increase in oil and protein yields of sunflower was mainly attributed to the improvement in yield components (grains per head,grain weight and head size) and the significant increase in grain yield.The highest net returns of 297 and 368 US$ ha-1 based on grain and oil yields,respectively,were obtained from a combination of 100 kg K ha-1 + 45 kg P ha-1.

  14. Impact of pedoclimatic and agricultural conditions on sunflower seeds characteristics in relation to the dehulling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauguet Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dehulling sunflower seeds can increase meal protein content by up to 35–36%. However, high variability in seed quality constitutes an obstacle to optimizing the dehulling process. This study has sought to identify the parameters that influence the protein content of sunflower seeds and the ease with which they can be dehulled. Genetic, climatic and crop management effects were studied using seed samples taken from farmers’ fields in south-west France. Soil and climatic effects were revealed to be important for protein content and ease of dehulling (hullability. Some cultivars were found to be significantly more difficult to dehull than others. No relationship was observed between oil content and protein content expressed as a proportion of DDM (defatted dry matter, but there was a significant negative linear relationship between hullability and oil content. Due to the wide range of locations and agricultural practices encountered in the farmers’ fields, it was not possible to verify with confidence the influence of other interactions such as nitrogen fertilization and the potential fertility of the fields. This work nevertheless showed that locality and growing conditions affect the quality of sunflower seeds. This variability in quality could be measured by crushers in order to optimize the dehulling process and thereby produce a meal of consistent quality, with a guaranteed protein content.

  15. Characterization of Confectionery Spreadable Creams Based on Roasted Sunflower Kernels and Cocoa or Carob Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Racolta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CSpreadable creams are solid-oil suspensions, a mix of fats represents the oil phase, the dispersed phase consisting usually of sugar, cocoa powder, milled and roasted nuts, dried milk and whey. For improving the viscosity of the final product emulsifiers are used, most common being lecithin and mono and diglycerides. The present paper refers to a spreadable confectionery product group, creamy, proper to be eaten as it is, as well as spread on a bread slice or as a filling for cookies or chocolate cream. According to this work, the following ingredients were used: roasted sunflower kernels, sugar, palm oil, cocoa or carob powder and lecithin. The obtained product can be consumed also by persons who suffer from allergies, due the fact that sunflower seeds were replacing the peanuts or almond, the ingredients known as allergens and which are usually used in the technological process of obtaining these creams. The purpose of this study was to characterize the obtaining confectionery spreadable creams based on sunflower kernels, cocoa or carob powder. It was determined the chemical composition of the prototypes obtained, a spreadable cream having no cocoa or carob, one with cocoa and one with carob powder. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the obtained samples were also assessed.

  16. Screening of sunflower cultivars for metal phytoextraction in a contaminated field prior to mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Federer, Guido; Erismann, Karl-Hans; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Sunflower can be used for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Its high biomass production makes this plant species interestingfor phytoextraction and using sunflower oil for a technical purpose may improve the economic balance of phytoremediation. The aim of the present field study was to screen 15 commercial cultivars of Helianthus annuus L. grown on metal-contaminated soil, to find out the variety with the highest metal extraction, which can be further improved by mutation or in vitro breeding procedures. Two different fertilizers (ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate) were also used to enhance the bioavailability of metals in soil Highly significant differences were observed within tested varieties for metal accumulation and extraction efficiency. Furthermore, ammonium nitrate increased cadmium extraction, whereas ammonium sulphate enhanced zinc and lead uptake in most tested cultivars. In this field-based sunflower screening, we found enhanced cumulative Cd, Zn, and Pb extraction efficiency by a factor 4.4 for Salut cultivar. We therefore emphasize that prior to any classical breeding or genetic engineering enhancing metal uptake potential, a careful screening of various genotypes should be done to select the cultivar with the naturally highest metal uptake and to start the genetic improvement with the best available plant material.

  17. Copper phytoextraction in tandem with oilseed production using commercial cultivars and mutant lines of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbas, A; Mench, M; Herzig, R; Nehnevajova, E; Bes, C M

    2011-01-01

    Use of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Cu phytoextraction and oilseed production on Cu-contaminated topsoils was investigated in afield trial at a former wood preservation site. Six commercial cultivars and two mutant lines were cultivated in plots with and without the addition of compost (5% w/w) and dolomitic limestone (0.2% w/w). Total soil Cu ranged from 163 to 1170 mg kg(-1). In soil solutions, Cu concentration varied between 0.16-0.93 mg L(-1). The amendment increased soil pH, reduced Cu exposure and promoted sunflower growth. Stem length, shoot and capitulum biomasses, seed yield, and shoot and leaf Cu concentrations were measured. At low total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass was higher in commercial cultivars, Le., Salut, Energic, and Countri, whereas competition and shading affected morphological traits of mutants. Based on shoot yield (7 Mg DW ha(-1)) and Cu concentration, the highest removal was 59 g Cu ha(-1). At high total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass peaked for mutants (e.g., 52 g Cu ha(-1) for Mutant 1 line) and cultivars Energic and Countri. Energic seed yield (3.9 Mg air-DW ha(-1)) would be sufficient to produce oil Phenotype traits and shoot Cu removal depended on sunflower types and Cu exposure.

  18. Industrial production of crisps and prefried french fries using sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébédio, J. L.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Crisps and prefried french fries were prepared during industrial operations in order to study the possibility of using sunflower oils («normal» and high oleic instead of palm olein and mixtures of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and palm oil in industrial frying. The quality of the food items was evaluated by determining the total amount of polar components, the amount of the different components in the polar fraction (dimers, oxidized triglycerides, diglycerides, the quantity of cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM, as well as the 18:2 geometrical fatty acid isomers. For both the production of crisps and french fries, very small increase in the polar components was observed. Frying of crisps did not result in any changes in the fatty acid composition and in the amount of 18:2 geometrical isomers. However the amount of CFAM increased in samples fried in SO. An increase of CFAM was observed also for french fries independently of the nature of the frying medium. No modifications of the cis and trans isomer distributions were observed for the french fries prepared in the mixture of palm oil and partially hydrogenated canola. These results show that sunflower oils could be used for the industrial production of french fries and crisps. However, storage studies are being carried out in order to determine if both types of sunflower oils give products which are as stable as those prepared in a solid frying medium.

  19. OXIDATIVE STABILISATION OF SUNFLOWER OIL BY ANTIOXIDANT FRACTIONS FROM SELECTED LAMIACEAE HERBS

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    NADA BABOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of antioxidant fractions from rosemary (Rosma-rinus officinalis, sage (Salvia officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and hyssop (Hyssop officinalis on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at elevated tempe¬rature. In order to isolate antioxidant fractions, the method of fractional super¬critical extraction with carbon dioxide at 35 MPa and 100 C was applied. Anti¬oxidant fractions were added to sunflower oil at concentrations of 200 mg/kg oil and the samples were stored in an oven maintained at 98 C. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by measuring peroxide values (PV. Among investigated extracts, the rosemary extract was most effective on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was com¬pared to the activity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and a commercial rose¬mary extract Flavor’ Plus. On the basis of PV assay, the antioxidant activity of the investigated plant extracts after 12 h of storage at 98 C followed the order: rosemary extract > BHA > sage extract > Flavor’ Plus > thyme extract > hyssop extract.

  20. Impact of abiotic stress on photosynthetic efficiency and leaf temperature in sunflower

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    Antonela Markulj Kulundžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the variability of photosynthetic performance index (PIABS and leaf temperature values measured in V6 development phase on 13 sunflower hybrids, grown in stressful conditions. The pot trial was made up of two treatments, one (T1 with 60% Field Water Capacity (FWC, and the other one (T2 with 80% FWC. Significant differences between T1 and T2 treatments were established for both of these parameters which prove their dependence on the water content in the soil, while the influence of hybrid was evident only in the case of PIABS. Although in T1, as opposed to T2, all sunflower hybrids reacted by increasing leaf temperature, reaction to stress conditions measured with PIABS parameter was not uniform. Some of the hybrids reacted by decreasing PIABS values, while others reacted by increasing their PIABS values. Therefore, it can be concluded that changes in parameters were independent of each other, which was confirmed by correlation analysis. Investigated parameters are suitable for determining the existence of undesirable environmental conditions that cause stress in plants and can be used in breeding of sunflower to withstand abiotic stress conditions, i.e. in selection of stress tolerant hybrids.

  1. Genotypic responses and diallel analysis for an early resistance test to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño Fernando

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of sunflower genotypic performance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infections is important for understanding its usefulness as source of resistance. In the field, artificial and natural resistance tests provide important information that can be used in the selection of the best materials, however the procedures for resistance tests are usually both expensive and laborious. This work describes the performance of sunflower genotypes of broad genetic base at an early stage of plant development using a resistance test carried out under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. Statistical analysis detected highly significant genotypic responses and the combined abilities effects among the evaluated populations and their offspring, obtained by a diallel crossing system method 2 for dead seedlings (% at 25 days after S. sclerotiorum infection on the basal stem. The methodology allowed superior parents to be detected and crosses to be furthered in the selection for S. sclerotiorum resistance. The usefulness of the evaluated genetic materials and the early resistance test in sunflower breeding plans is discussed.

  2. Influence of the g-force on the circumnutations of sunflower hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariassen, E.; Johnsson, A.; Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Johnson-Glebe, C.

    1987-01-01

    Circumnutations of hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Californicus) were studied under 1 g and 3 g conditions. Root mean square values of the hypocotyl deviation from the plumbline and period of the movements were determined from calculations of the autocorrelation functions of the movements. The amplitude and the period of the circumnutations increased under 3 g as compared to 1 g. A transition from 3 to 1 g or vice versa also caused changes in period and amplitude of the movements. The results are interpreted as a support for the idea that gravity influences the circumnutation parameters in this sunflower variety. A comparison is made with published results on the dwarf sunflower cv. Teddy Bear where the force influence is very small or negligible. Simulations of a model for circumnutations show movements which are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results, provided adaptation to g-levels is included in the model. Finally, the results are discussed with the recent Spacelab-experiment (SL1) as a background.

  3. Heliolactone, a non-sesquiterpene lactone germination stimulant for root parasitic weeds from sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kotomi; Furumoto, Toshio; Umeda, Shuhei; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Batchvarova, Rossitza; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2014-12-01

    Root exudates of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) line 2607A induced germination of seeds of root parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche minor, Orobanche crenata, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of a germination stimulant designated as heliolactone. FT-MS analysis indicated a molecular formula of C20H24O6. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies established a methylfuranone group, a common structural component of strigolactones connected to a methyl ester of a C14 carboxylic acid via an enol ether bridge. The cyclohexenone ring is identical to that of 3-oxo-α-ionol and the other part of the molecule corresponds to an oxidized carlactone at C-19. It is a carlactone-type molecule and functions as a germination stimulant for seeds of root parasitic weeds. Heliolactone induced seed germination of the above mentioned root parasitic weeds, while dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide, sesquiterpene lactones isolated from sunflower root exudates, were effective only on O. cumana and O. minor. Heliolactone production in aquacultures increased when sunflower seedlings were grown hydroponically in tap water and decreased on supplementation of the culture with either phosphorus or nitrogen. Costunolide, on the other hand, was detected at a higher concentration in well-nourished medium as opposed to nutrient-deficient media, thus suggesting a contrasting contribution of heliolactone and the sesquiterpene lactone to the germination of O. cumana under different soil fertility levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying pollination service hotspots and coldspots using citizen science data from the Great Sunflower Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBuhn, G.; Schmucki, R.

    2016-12-01

    Identifying the spatial patterns of pollinator visitation rates is key to identifying the drivers of differences in pollination service and the areas where pollinator conservation will provide the highest return on investment. However, gathering pollinator abundance data at the appropriate regional and national scales is untenable. As a surrogate, habitat models have been developed to identify areas of pollinator losses but these models have been developed using expert opinion based on foraging and nesting requirements. Thousands of citizen scientists across the United States participating in The Great Sunflower Project (www.GreatSunflower.org) contribute timed counts of pollinator visits to a focal sunflower variety planted in local gardens and green spaces. While these data provide a more direct measure of pollination service to a standardized plant and include a measure of effort, the data are complicated. Each location is sampled at different dates, times and frequencies as well as different points across the local flight season. To overcome this complication, we have used a generalized additive model to generate regional flight curves to calibrate each individual data point and to attain better estimates of pollination service at each site. Using these flight season corrected data, we identify hotspots and cold spots in pollinator service across the United States, evaluate the drivers shaping the spatial patterns and observe how these data align with the results obtained from predictive models that are based on expert knowledge on foraging and nesting habitats.

  5. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martin, I.; Vilaescusa-Garcia, V.; Lopez-Gonzalez, F.; Oiz-Jimenez, C.; Lobos-Ortega, I. A.; Gordillo, B.; Hernandez-Hierro, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low) oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation. (Author) 23 refs.

  6. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  7. Irrigation and fungicide application on disease occurrence and yield of early and late sown sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan C. Maldaner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation and fungicide application on the occurrence of diseases and cypsela yield of two genotypes of sunflower. The experiments were carried out in Santa Maria-RS, during the regular season in 2007 and the late season, in 2008. Plants were sown on 04/09/2007 and 21/01/2008, in a completely randomized design, with four replicates. A 2 x 6 factorial scheme was used, with the sunflower genotypes Aguará 03 and Hélio 358 and six fungicide application schemes, which were determined by the FAST forecasting system, as follows: FAST 16, FAST 22 and FAST 28, without irrigation, FAST 16 IRR under irrigated condition, in addition to irrigated control (CONTROL IRR and control (CONTROL. Disease progress was analyzed based on weekly observations of the severity of the symptoms. It was verified that irrigation increases sunflower cypsela yield in the regular season, provided that weather conditions are not favorable for the occurrence of alternaria and septoria leaf blights or that fungicides are applied. In the late season, under irrigated condition, fungicide application is necessary to control alternaria and septoria leaf blights.

  8. Genetic analysis of agro-morphological traits in promising hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam GOLABADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective underlying sunflower breeding programs is to develop high-yielding productive F1 hybrid cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic control of some agro-morphological traits of new sunflower F1 hybrids. For this purpose, fourteen inbred lines of sunflower were crossed with three male sterile inbred lines. Their hybrids (14 hybrids were then evaluated against three control cultivars. The data thus obtained were analyzed using the nested model (North Carolina Design І as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four replications. Analysis of variance showed that the hybrids were significantly different in all the traits studied, except for head and stem diameters. From among the hybrids evaluated, Cms19 × Rn1-81 was found to have the highest seed yield and oil content. Cluster analysis classified the hybrids into four different groups. Genetic analysis showed that days to maturity, seed weight, and oil content (% were under the additive gene action. Breeding strategies based on selection could be suggested for the improvement of these traits. Head angle, head diameter, seed yield, and oil yield were under the dominance gene action; breeding based on hybridization methods is, therefore, proposed for these traits. Finally, both additive and dominance gene actions were observed to play important roles in the genetic control of plant height and stem diameter.

  9. The nutritive value of poultry diets containing sunflower meal supplemented by enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sredanović Slavica A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international limitations imposed on the utilization of meat and bone meals in animal diets, together with the increasing demand for soybean meal, create a necessity to search for other protein sources to economically balance compound feeds. In this regard it is important to note that sunflower is the best adapted high-protein crop available in some European regions and that is useful to use it in poultry farming as the replacement of other protein sources. Protein and many other nutrients are “imprisoned” to variable degrees, inside sunflower meal fibrous structures, and remain less available for digestion by the poultry’s own proteases and other endogenous enzymes. Added exogenous enzymes (phytase, hemicellulase, cellulase, carbohydrase, protease, etc. offer a number of creative possibilities for breakdown and “liberation” of these nutrients, their easier digestion and absorption, and thus development of new nutritional standards and new diets formulation. Supplementation of poultry diets containing sunflower meal by different enzymes increasingly contribute to sustainable poultry farming by enhancing production efficiency, increasing the effectiveness of nutrient utilization and upgrading in environmental protection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the standard enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test. Design. Prospective ... African origin,' since most of the available commercial tests are not manufactured in ... specimens (plasma or whole blood), and it has a long shelf life. Study sites.

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mogensen CE. Combined high blood pressure and glucose in type 2 diabetes: double .... relevant exercise-induced tachycardia originating in the right yentricular ..... of pain, and considers the physical, pharmacological and psychological in-.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abundant component of the human leucocyte population and although essential for host .... ORIGINAL ARTICLES kinase,'6 an important enzyme in the signal transduction ... neutrophils from two different subjects. FMLP (!-)and PAF (¥).

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Cannabis and other drug use among trauma patients in three ... Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University, W Cape. Charles D H ..... of cannabis and methaqualone on cognitive or psychomotor skills, including.

  14. Nutritional value, for pigs and rats, of sunflower oilcake meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein quality was determined using a multi-point, slope ratio assay .... The pigs were fed ad libitum from ... source since the original batch of SFOC 46 was not large enough .... growth rates and feed conversion ratios between pigs fed the.

  15. Protection of sunflower seed and sunflower meal protein with malic acid and heat: effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Jorge Leonardo; Carro, Maria Dolores; Alvir, Maria Remedios; González, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Combined malic acid-heat treatments of protein supplements have been shown to reduce ruminal protein degradation, but there is no information on their possible influence on ruminal fermentation and methane emissions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the treatment of sunflower meal (SM) and sunflower seed (SS) with malic acid and subsequent drying at 150°C for 1 (MAL1) or 3 h (MAL3) on in vitro rumen fermentation and methane emission using ruminal fluid from sheep as inoculum. Compared with untreated samples, the MAL3 treatment reduced (P 0.05) total volatile fatty acid production for any feed. This treatment also increased (P production (by 15.5% and 11.3%, respectively) and ammonia-N concentrations (by 26.5% and 14.5%, respectively). The MAL1 treatment was effective in reducing both ammonia-N concentrations and methane emissions without depressing SS and SM fermentation, but more research is needed to formulate environmentally cleaner diets for ruminants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The determination of botanical origin of honeys based on enantiomer distribution of chiral volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špánik, Ivan; Pažitná, Alexandra; Šiška, Peter; Szolcsányi, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The enantiomer ratios of chiral volatile organic compounds in rapeseed, chestnut, orange, acacia, sunflower and linden honeys were determined by multi-dimensional gas chromatography using solid phase microextraction (SPME) as a sample pre-treatment procedure. Linalool oxides, linalool and hotrienol were present at the highest concentration levels, while significantly lower amounts of α-terpineol, 4-terpineol and all isomers of lilac aldehydes were found in all studied samples. On the other hand, enantiomer distribution of some chiral organic compounds in honey depends on their botanical origin. The significant differences in enantiomer ratio of linalool were observed for rapeseed honey that allows us to distinguish this type of honey from the other ones. The enantiomer ratios of lilac aldehydes were useful for distinguishing of orange and acacia honey from other studied monofloral honeys. Similarly, different enantiomer ratio of 4-terpineol was found for sunflower honeys.

  17. Assessment of microbial respiratory activity of a manufactured gas plant soil after remediation using sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Mai, Maike; Li, Peijun

    2005-09-30

    Microbial activity of a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil, as well as remaining oil degradability, before and after remediation using sunflower oil was assessed. A sandy soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was collected from an MGP site in Berlin, Germany. Column solubilizations of PAHs from the field-moist soil and air-dried soil using sunflower oil as an extractant at an oil/soil ratio of 2:1 (v/m) were carried out to compare PAH removals from the soil under these two conditions. After column solubilizations, portions of untreated soil (UTS), solubilized field-moist soil (SFMS), and solubilized air-dried soil (SADS) were amended with nutrients. Both nutrient amended and unamended soil samples were subjected to soil respiratory measurement. Soil respiration parameters, such as basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, lag time, exponential growth rate, respiratory activation quotient, peak maximum time, and cumulative CO2 evolution were calculated from the soil respiration curves. The parameters were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least-significance difference (LSD). Results showed that the impact of soil moisture on the PAH removals was quite significant, with the SADS showing higher PAH removals and the SFMS showing lower ones. There were significant differences between the respiration parameters with respect to the UTS, SFMS, and SADS. Basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, and exponential growth rate were lower for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Lag time and peak maximum time were higher for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Exponential growth rate was higher for the SFMS relative to the SADS. These parameters demonstrated that soil microbial activity was reduced at the onset of the test, because a lot of bioavailable materials for microbial growth were removed by sunflower oil. On the other hand, cumulative CO2 evolutions in the SFMS and SADS were higher than that in

  18. Identification of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschen, Sebastian; Bengoa Luoni, Sofia; Paniego, Norma B; Hopp, H Esteban; Dosio, Guillermo A A; Fernandez, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs) identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ethylene insensitive 2) previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1) and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could play important

  19. Condicionamento fisiológico de aquênios de girassol Priming of sunflower achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de condicionamento fisiológico tem como vantagem favorecer o desempenho das sementes no campo, sobretudo as de menor vigor e, consequentemente, garantir maior uniformidade na população inicial. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de aquênios de girassol após a aplicação de métodos de condicionamento fisiológico e após dois meses de armazenamento para comercialização. Para isso, foi utilizado um lote de aquênios da cultivar 'Catissol 01', previamente envelhecido a 45°C durante zero, 24 e 36 horas. Por lote, os aquênios foram submetidos ou não (SC ao osmocondicionamento (OC com solução de KNO3 e de polietilenoglicol (PEG 6000 e ao hidrocondicionamento (HC, com subsequente secagem. Posteriormente, os lotes foram divididos em dois sublotes, sendo um avaliado imediatamente e o outro, após dois meses de armazenamento em condições controladas. Os aquênios foram submetidos aos testes de germinação nas temperaturas de 15, 25, 35 e 45°C e nos potenciais hídricos de zero, -0,3, -0,6 e -0,9MPa e aos testes de vigor (primeira contagem de germinação, condutividade elétrica, envelhecimento acelerado, emergência de plântulas e índice de velocidade de emergência. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a germinação dos aquênios de girassol manteve-se dentro do padrão de comercialização exigido durante o armazenamento, quando os aquênios não envelhecidos artificialmente foram osmocondicionados com PEG a 25°C e com solução de KNO3 a -0,3MPa, e quando os aquênios envelhecidos artificialmente por 36 horas, foram osmocondicionado com PEG, a 15°C. Houve redução da germinação e do vigor dos aquênios de girassol a partir de potenciais hídricos de -0,3MPa e temperatura de 25°C.The priming technique has been used to promote the seeds performance in the yield, especially the low vigour and consequently to assure the uniformity of the original population. The objective of this work was to

  20. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study......Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... of pedagogues and in everyday life in daycare facilities. The competence term includes at least two discourses of interest; a pedagogical competence discourse and a political jurisdiction discourse which forms a distention between authenticity and competence. In order that pedagogues may regain their autonomy I...