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Sample records for sunflower oil cake

  1. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  2. Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmongoyo, Juma A; Wu, Felicia; Linz, John E; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Mugula, Jovin K; Tempelman, Robert J; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania. Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across two years, and analyzed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Mbeya (2.8-97.7 ng/g), Dodoma (1.9-88.2 ng/g), and Singida (2.0-34.3 ng/g). For seed samples collected August-October 2015, the highest concentrations were from Morogoro (2.8-662.7 ng/g), Singida (1.6-217.6 ng/g) and Mbeya (1.4-174.2 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Morogoro (2.7-536.0 ng/g), Dodoma (1.4-598.4 ng/g) and Singida (3.2-52.8 ng/g). In summary, humans and animals are potentially at high risk of exposure to aflatoxins through sunflower seeds and cakes from micro-scale millers in Tanzania; and location influences risk.

  3. Assessment of process control parameters in the biochemical methane potential of sunflower oil cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, F.; Borja, R.; Rincon, B. [Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Seville (Spain); Jimenez, A.M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. De Utrera, km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted on the batch anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. A multi-reactor system was used to compare methane production from this waste at inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) of 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 (expressed as volatile solids (VS) basis). The tests were carried out at mesophilic temperature (35 C) and run against a control of inoculum without substrate. The results obtained in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that the ultimate methane yield (Y{sub M,ult}) decreased considerably from 227{+-}23 to 107{+-}11 ml CH{sub 4} at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions g{sup -1} VS{sub added} when the ISR decreased from 3.0 to 0.5, showing a clear influence of the ISR on the methane yield coefficient. The biodegradability (BD) of the waste also decreased from 86% to 41% when the ISR varied from 3.0 to 0.5. A net total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) yield of 39.2 mg N g{sup -1} VS{sub added} was obtained, and this value was not influenced by the ISRs assayed, which demonstrated the appropriate operation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage of the overall digestion process. A clear imbalance of the methanogenic process was observed at the lowest ISRs studied (0.5 and 0.8) due to a considerable increase in CODs and TVFA in the digestates. The profile of VFA was also influenced by the ISR, typical of the proteinaceous substrates. (author)

  4. Assessment of process control parameters in the biochemical methane potential of sunflower oil cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, F.; Borja, R.; Rincon, B.; Jimenez, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted on the batch anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. A multi-reactor system was used to compare methane production from this waste at inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) of 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 (expressed as volatile solids (VS) basis). The tests were carried out at mesophilic temperature (35 deg. C) and run against a control of inoculum without substrate. The results obtained in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that the ultimate methane yield (Y M,ult ) decreased considerably from 227±23 to 107±11 ml CH 4 at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions g -1 VS added when the ISR decreased from 3.0 to 0.5, showing a clear influence of the ISR on the methane yield coefficient. The biodegradability (BD) of the waste also decreased from 86% to 41% when the ISR varied from 3.0 to 0.5. A net total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) yield of 39.2 mg N g -1 VS added was obtained, and this value was not influenced by the ISRs assayed, which demonstrated the appropriate operation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage of the overall digestion process. A clear imbalance of the methanogenic process was observed at the lowest ISRs studied (0.5 and 0.8) due to a considerable increase in CODs and TVFA in the digestates. The profile of VFA was also influenced by the ISR, typical of the proteinaceous substrates

  5. Effect of the type and level of hydration of alcoholic solvents on the simultaneous extraction of oil and chlorogenic acids from sunflower seed press cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlack, Nayara K; Aracava, Keila K; Rodrigues, Christianne Ec

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the replacement of hexane by alcoholic solvents in oil extraction from sunflower seed press cake. The use of ethanol and isopropanol has important advantages, including low toxicity and good operational safety. Thus, in the present study, solid-liquid extractions were performed in a single stage from 60 to 90 °C and in consecutive extractions in three stages at 90 °C. Solvent hydration negatively affected the extraction of oil but favored the extraction of chlorogenic acids (CAs), especially when ethanol was used. Regarding oxidative stability, the oils extracted using ethanol presented long induction times, which could be related to the high levels of not only CAs and tocopherols, but also phospholipids. Alcoholic solvents can be used for extraction to produce sunflower seed oil containing minor compounds that give it greater oxidative stability. In addition, the results obtained using hydrous ethanol showed that this solvent can yield defatted sunflower seed meal with a low content of CAs, enabling future use of the protein fraction. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  7. Production, characterization and anticancer activity of Candida bombicola sophorolipids by means of solid state fermentation of sunflower oil cake and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 grown in a mixture of sunflower oil cake and crude soybean oil as economic substrates with different fermentation techniques was studied. The highest yield (49.5 g·100 g−1 substrates was obtained from solid state fermentation after employing a new concept for extraction by methanol (E I followed by ethyl acetate (E II, then partially purified with hexane (E III. The course of time of fermentation was also studied, and E I extracted of the 12th day showed the minimum surface tension (45 mN·m−1 at a critical micelle dilution (CMD of 10% concentration. The produced sophorolipids were characterized and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer activity of the produced compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HepG2, A549, HCT116 cancer cell lines and the results revealed that E III and E IV (a mixture of E I & E III act as promising anticancer agents in HepG2 and A549 by inhibiting urokinase and histone deacetylase activities.Se estudió la producción de soforolípidos por Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 cultiva con diferentes técnicas de fermentación en una mezcla de torta de girasol y aceite de soja crudo, como sustratos económicos. El rendimiento más alto (49,5 g·100 g−1 de sustrato se obtuvo por fermentación en estado sólido después de extraer con metanol (IE seguido de acetato de etilo (EII, y de purificación parcial con hexano (EIII. También se estudió el tiempo de fermentación, considerando que el extracto IE de 12 días mostró una tensión superficial mínima (45 mN·m−1 a una dilución micelar crítica (CMD de concentración 10 %. Los soforolípidos producidos se caracterizaron y se confirmaron mediante espectroscopia FTIR y RMN de 1H. La actividad anticancerígena de los compuestos producidos se evaluó en células MCF-7, HepG2, A549, líneas celulares de cáncer de HCT116 y los resultados revelaron que EIII y EIV (una mezcla de EI y EIII

  8. Effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to avaluate the effects of substituting sunflower seed cake with Acacia tortilis pods as a protein source in supplementing Small East African goats fed a basal diet of Brachiaria brizantha hay. Twenty-four growing female goats with mean body weight of 9. 71 = 1.56 kg were used in a growth ...

  9. The Production Procress in Sunflower Oil Industries and The Cost Calculetions ofBy-products

    OpenAIRE

    Çalıyurt, Kıymet Tunca

    2008-01-01

    (The Production Procress in Sunflower Oil Industries and The Cost Calculetions of By-products) Oil-cake and soap are by-products of sunflower oil industry. Soap is generally ignored for accounting because of its low production quantities. However oil-cake should be take part in accounting because of its high production efficiency up to 57%. The aims of the study are to introduce production procees of sunflower oil industry and to analyse register of oil-cake by an example.

  10. Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.

  11. Influence of sunflower cake supplementation on Marchigiana carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Federica Trombetta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a sunflower cake supplement on the quantity and quality parameters of Marchigiana carcasses and meat were assessed. Live-animal and post-mortem performances were not significantly different in the animals receiving the supplement, whereas significant differences were noted in conformation and fatness. The colour parameters were also influenced by the diet, which resulted in a more brilliant red colour, greatly appreciated by consumers, in the subjects fed sunflower cake.

  12. Physical refining of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovari Katalin

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical refining has several advantages compared to the classical chemical one. This process is more economical (improved yield, lower investment cost, less chemicals used environmental friendly process (no soapstock to be treated, splitted but more sensitive to the crude oil quality. Physical refining of sunflower oil is discussed in details. Recent developments in the field of processes, equipment and control have made it possible to refine by physical way the high phosphatide containing seed oils as well. Special degumming processes, improved performance of bleaching materials, better design of deodorizers are applied in new installations; huge capacity one-line physical refineries are successfully operated in different countries.

  13. Sunflower cake in multiple supplements for cattle grazing in the dry season: Nutritional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Cristian Mesacasa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of inclusion levels of sunflower cake as protein source to replace soybean meal in multiple supplements for cattle grazing during dry season on nutritional parameters. Five steers were used, Nellore, non-castrated, with age and average initial weights of 20 months and 354.7 kg, respectively, divided into five paddocks of 0.25 ha each, consisting of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. The experiment was divided into 5 x 5 Latin square, composed of five experimental periods of 15 days each and five animals. The strategy adopted was the inclusion of sunflower cake in increasing levels of zero, 270, 406, 540 g / kg supplement and mineral supplement composed only by the will provided in the trough (control. Supplements were formulated to be isonitrogenous (25% CP and provided the amount of 1.5 kg / animal / day of natural material. The forage mass and the availability of dry matter digestible pontecialmente were 3,120 and 2,379 kg DM / ha respectively. Effect was observed (P 0.10. There was a significant difference in the concentrations of NH3-N between animals that received only mineral mixture (8.64 mg / dL and cattle supplemented with 0 (12.61 mg / dL and 27% (11.79 mg / dL of adding TG in time 4 hours after supplementation. However, the concentration of NH3-N, between supplemented animalsindependent of the inclusion of TG was not significant (P> 0.10, but was numerically lower for animals supplemented with 40.6 (10.81 mg / dL and 54% (10.50 mg / dL inclusion of sunflower cake. We conclude that the inclusion of sunflower cake in the formulation of the supplements did not interfere with nutritional parameters can replace soybean meal in up to 100% without affect consumption of animals, this level of supplementation

  14. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  15. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

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    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  16. Feeding sunflower cake from biodiesel production to Santa Ines lambs: Physicochemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Graycy Vasconcelos de Oliveira Lima

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the inclusion of sunflower cake in the diets of lambs on meat quality. Forty male, uncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 20.9 ± 0.41 kg were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments. The lambs were fed 500 g/kg hay and 500 g/kg concentrate (corn, soybean meal, urea, ammonium sulfate and sunflower cake in their diet, and the experimental treatments were 0, 10, 20, and 30% sunflower cake inclusion (DM basis. The inclusion of sunflower cake in the diet did not affect (P > 0.05 the content of ash and protein, overall acceptance, or sensory aroma of the lamb meat. Total lipids and moisture content of the longissimus lumborum muscle increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05 with sunflower cake inclusion. The C16:0, ΣSFA, ΣMUFA:ΣSFA ratio, Δ-9 desaturase enzyme and atherogenicity index in the longissimus lumborum muscle decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05 with sunflower cake inclusion in lamb diets, whereas a linear increase occurred (P ≤ 0.05 in C12:0, C18:0, ΣMUFA, ΣPUFA, ΣPUFA:ΣSFA and ΣPUFA:ΣMUFA ratios, Σn-6, Σn-3, desirable fatty acids, h:H index, elongase activity, and flavor, tenderness and juiciness sensory qualities in lamb meat. Among the panelists, the highest preference (35.9% was for meat with 30% sunflower cake inclusion in the diet. Sunflower cake up to 30% of total DM can be included in the diet of Santa Ines lambs, because lipid nutritional quality and the sensory qualities of the lamb meat increase, in addition to improvement in nutraceutical compounds, such as the CLA content, and in the AI, PUFA:SFA and PUFA:MUFA ratios, desirable fatty acids content and h:H ratio, which are beneficial to the health of consumers.

  17. Feeding sunflower cake from biodiesel production to Santa Ines lambs: Physicochemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Anny Graycy Vasconcelos de Oliveira; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Silva, Thadeu Mariniello; Barbosa, Analívia Martins; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; Oliveira, Vinicius da Silva; Ribeiro, Rebeca Dantas Xavier; Pereira, Elzânia Sales; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the inclusion of sunflower cake in the diets of lambs on meat quality. Forty male, uncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 20.9 ± 0.41 kg were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments. The lambs were fed 500 g/kg hay and 500 g/kg concentrate (corn, soybean meal, urea, ammonium sulfate and sunflower cake) in their diet, and the experimental treatments were 0, 10, 20, and 30% sunflower cake inclusion (DM basis). The inclusion of sunflower cake in the diet did not affect (P > 0.05) the content of ash and protein, overall acceptance, or sensory aroma of the lamb meat. Total lipids and moisture content of the longissimus lumborum muscle increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) with sunflower cake inclusion. The C16:0, ΣSFA, ΣMUFA:ΣSFA ratio, Δ-9 desaturase enzyme and atherogenicity index in the longissimus lumborum muscle decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) with sunflower cake inclusion in lamb diets, whereas a linear increase occurred (P ≤ 0.05) in C12:0, C18:0, ΣMUFA, ΣPUFA, ΣPUFA:ΣSFA and ΣPUFA:ΣMUFA ratios, Σn-6, Σn-3, desirable fatty acids, h:H index, elongase activity, and flavor, tenderness and juiciness sensory qualities in lamb meat. Among the panelists, the highest preference (35.9%) was for meat with 30% sunflower cake inclusion in the diet. Sunflower cake up to 30% of total DM can be included in the diet of Santa Ines lambs, because lipid nutritional quality and the sensory qualities of the lamb meat increase, in addition to improvement in nutraceutical compounds, such as the CLA content, and in the AI, PUFA:SFA and PUFA:MUFA ratios, desirable fatty acids content and h:H ratio, which are beneficial to the health of consumers.

  18. Development and utilization of sunflower genotypes with altered oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejić, Sandra; Jocić, Siniša; Miladinović, Dragana; Jocković, Milan; Imerovski, Ivana; Sakač, Zvonimir; Miklič, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower oil is among the highest quality oils of plant origin. The oil of standard sunflowers has an average of 10% saturated fatty acids, 20-30% oleic acid and 60-70% linoleic acid. The total content of tocopherols in standard sunflower oil is 700-1000 mg/kg with the predominant being alpha-tocopherol (vitamin-E). Following the trends of the food and non-food industries sunflower breeders have been able to significantly change the fatty acid composition of the oil. The oil of high-oleic hy...

  19. Filtration of sunflower oil in the field of vibroacoustic effects

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Bredikhin; F. Y. Rudik; M. S. Tuliyeva

    2017-01-01

    Purification of crude unrefined sunflower oil along with the removal of primary oxidation products is an urgent task to remove the solid constituents formed during the processing of sunflower seeds. All of them irrespective of the chemical composition negatively affect the quality of the food product and, over time, saturate the oil with coagulants that affect its organoleptic and physico-mechanical characteristics. The problem of cleaning unrefined sunflower oil by filtration with the use of...

  20. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sunflower oil was investigated for biodiesel production. Sunflower is one of the leading oil seed crop, cultivated for the production of oil in the world. It has also been considered as an important crop for biodiesel production. Seeds for biodiesel production were procured from local farmers of Attock and ...

  1. A note on self heating and spontaneous combustion of stored sunflower seed cake and cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nazir, S. M. A.; Babikir, I. H.; Shakak, M. A. S.; Sulieman, I. A.; Medani, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower seed cake and cotton seed warehouses combusted spontaneously and burnt in August and November 2009, respectively, in Khartoum North industrial area. The objective of this study was to determine some of the reasons for self-heating and spontaneous combustion. Representative sample from the two warehouses were collected. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, paecilomyces sp., Rhizopus oryzae, Absidia sp. were isolated at 37°C. Bacillus thuringiensis was isolated at 37°C and B. pantothenticus, B. circulans, B. licheniformis, B. sphaericus, B. badius, Escherichia coli and klebsiella sp. were isolated at 60°C. A decrease in soil, fiber and phosphorus and increase in free fatty acids and protein contents were detected.(Author)

  2. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  3. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  4. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  5. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  6. Genomic Prediction of Sunflower Hybrids Oil Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mangin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of hybrid performance using incomplete factorial mating designs is widely used in breeding programs including different heterotic groups. Based on the general combining ability (GCA of the parents, predictions are accurate only if the genetic variance resulting from the specific combining ability is small and both parents have phenotyped descendants. Genomic selection (GS can predict performance using a model trained on both phenotyped and genotyped hybrids that do not necessarily include all hybrid parents. Therefore, GS could overcome the issue of unknown parent GCA. Here, we compared the accuracy of classical GCA-based and genomic predictions for oil content of sunflower seeds using several GS models. Our study involved 452 sunflower hybrids from an incomplete factorial design of 36 female and 36 male lines. Re-sequencing of parental lines allowed to identify 468,194 non-redundant SNPs and to infer the hybrid genotypes. Oil content was observed in a multi-environment trial (MET over 3 years, leading to nine different environments. We compared GCA-based model to different GS models including female and male genomic kinships with the addition of the female-by-male interaction genomic kinship, the use of functional knowledge as SNPs in genes of oil metabolic pathways, and with epistasis modeling. When both parents have descendants in the training set, the predictive ability was high even for GCA-based prediction, with an average MET value of 0.782. GS performed slightly better (+0.2%. Neither the inclusion of the female-by-male interaction, nor functional knowledge of oil metabolism, nor epistasis modeling improved the GS accuracy. GS greatly improved predictive ability when one or both parents were untested in the training set, increasing GCA-based predictive ability by 10.4% from 0.575 to 0.635 in the MET. In this scenario, performing GS only considering SNPs in oil metabolic pathways did not improve whole genome GS prediction but

  7. Improving oxidative stability of soya and sunflower oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmarinus officinallis) and tert- butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) as possible antioxidants in sunflower and soya oil. Upon addition of 200 ppm of dried leaf extract, acetone extract yielded protection of the samples against oxidation more efficiently as ...

  8. Effectiveness of added natural antioxidants in sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Crapiste, Guillermo H.; Franco, Indira C.; Carelli, Amalia A.

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of α- and δ-tocopherol, citric acid, ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate was investigated in sunflower oil containing naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of natural antioxidants in sunflower oil was monitored by the accelerated oxidative stability test Rancimat and oxidation development during storage under different conditions. Samples in storage experiments were periodically removed and analyzed for peroxide value, p-anisidine va...

  9. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, U. S.; Patra, R. K.; Sahoo, N. R.; Bakhara, C. K.; Panda, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorba...

  10. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND COTTONSEED CAKES IN THE FEED OF CROSSBRED CALVES FOR MEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. JABBAR, M. I. ANJUM1, S. REHMAN2 AND W. SHAHZAD2

    2006-01-01

    Thirty crossbred (Sahiwal x Friesian) male calves of 9-10 months age and weighing 70 to 90 kg, were used in completely randomized design to investigate the possibility of replacing cottonseed cakes (CSC) with sunflower meal (SFM), partially or completely, in rations for fattening of crossbred calves for meat production. Three concentrate rations viz. A, B and C were formulated. Ration A containing CSC was fed to the calves of group A, ration B containing SFM was fed to calves of group B and...

  11. Antioxidative effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Zofia; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Bilska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off - flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ethanol extract on sunflower oil during its storage in different temperature conditions. Oil samples were stored in darkness at 4°C, 18°C, 38°C. Samples of thyme (thymus vulgaris) were purchased at a local pharmacy in Poznań, Poland and sunflower oil was acquired from a local supermarket. Thyme extract was characterized by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging methods. Ethanol extract of thyme at 1% level was added to sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), totox value (TxV) and fatty acids (FA) content were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of thyme extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. High polyphenol content, DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activity of ethanol thyme extract were evaluated. Results from different parameters were in agreement with other researchers, suggesting the antioxidant effect of thyme on antioxidant stability. Results show that thyme extract prolonged stability of sunflower oil and it may be a potent antioxidant for its stabilization. Ethanol thyme extract may be used as a natural antioxidant to prolong stability of oils.

  12. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... conventional fertilizers. Nutritional values of the two crops were raised by the application of the fertilizer formulations. Key words: De-oiled seed cake, palm kernel, fertilizer. INTRODUCTION. De-oiled seed cake (Doc) is a by product of oil seed from oil extraction plants. It has the potential of being used as.

  13. Filtration of sunflower oil in the field of vibroacoustic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bredikhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude unrefined sunflower oil along with the removal of primary oxidation products is an urgent task to remove the solid constituents formed during the processing of sunflower seeds. All of them irrespective of the chemical composition negatively affect the quality of the food product and, over time, saturate the oil with coagulants that affect its organoleptic and physico-mechanical characteristics. The problem of cleaning unrefined sunflower oil by filtration with the use of vibroacoustic action is considered. The calculation scheme of the process is given, and an experimental setup has been developed that makes it possible to vary the angle of inclination of the filter element. The research of sunflower oil filtration in the field of vibroacoustic impact is carried out. In the study, a decision was made to expand the energy effects to create a cumulative system in the liquid medium that improves the hydrodynamic situation at the scale of the oil purification plant. It is established that the process speed can be intensified by creating additional microflows that provide an active influence on the motion of liquid, gas and solid particles. The results are obtained, which testify to the effectiveness of the use of vibroacoustic effects during the filtration of sunflower oil.

  14. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality.

  15. Bio-electricity Generation using Jatropha Oil Seed Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheman, Hifjur; Padhee, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    The review of patents reveals that Handling of Jatropha seed cake after extraction of oil is essential as it contains toxic materials which create environmental pollution. The goal of this work is complete utilisation of Jatropha seeds. For this purpose, Jatropha oil was used for producing biodiesel and the byproduct Jatropha seed cake was gasified to obtain producer gas. Both biodiesel and producer gas were used to generate electricity. To achieve this, a system comprising gasifier, briquetting machine, diesel engine and generator was developed. Biodiesel was produced successfully using the method patented for biodiesel production and briquettes of Jatropha seed cake were made using a vertical extruding machine. Producer gas was obtained by gasifying these briquettes in a downdraft gasifier. A diesel engine was then run in dual fuel mode with biodiesel and producer gas instead of only diesel. Electricity was generated by coupling it to a generator. The cost of producing kilowatthour of electricity with biodiesel and diesel in dual fuel mode with producer gas was found to be 0.84 $ and 0.75 $, respectively as compared to 0.69 $ and 0.5 $ for the same fuels in single fuel mode resulting in up to 48 % saving of pilot fuel. Compared to singlefuel mode, there was 25-32 % reduction in system and brake thermal efficiency along with significantly lower NOx, higher CO and CO2 emissions when the bio-electricity generating system was operated in dual fuel mode. Overall, the developed system could produce electricity successfully by completely uti- lising Jatropha seeds without leaving any seed cake to cause environmental pollution.

  16. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  17. β-carotene in sunflower oil oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanishlieva, N. V.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation kinetics of sunflower oil (SO, as well as of pure triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO in the presence of different concentrations (0.001-0.02 % β-carotene was studied. The process was β-performed at high (kinetic regime and low (diffusion regime oxygen concentrations at room temperature in the dark and under daylight. The results from the oxidation of SO and TGSO at 100ºC in the presence of β-carotene were also presented. It was established that in the antioxidant-free lipid system, the β-carotene did not give any antioxidative protection. It worked as a prooxidant during the oxidation at room temperature and at sufficiently high oxygen concentration, the effect being more pronounced in the dark than under daylight. β-carotene increased the stability of tocopherol-containing SO during its oxidation at room temperature and under daylight. This effect is more strongly expressed in a kinetic regime of oxidation. The synergism of β-carotene with the tocopherols was characterized by the stabilization factor F and the activity A. In the kinetic regime of oxidation F and A varied in the interval F=2.0-6.3, and A =2.7-21.0. In the diffusion regime F=1.3-1.5, and A=1.5-2.8.Se estudió la cinética de oxidación de aceite de girasol (SO, así como la de triacilgliceroles puros de aceite de girasol (TGSO en presencia de diferentes concentraciones (0.001-0.02 % de β- caroteno. El proceso se llevó a cabo a altas (régimen cinético y bajas (régimen de difusión concentraciones de oxígeno a temperatura ambiente con luz natural y en la oscuridad, y se presentan también los resultados de la oxidación de SO y TGSO a 100ºC en presencia de β-caroteno. Los resultados indicaron que en los sistemas lipídicos libres de antioxidantes, el β-caroteno no dio protección antioxidante. Funcionó como prooxidante durante la oxidación a temperatura ambiente y a concentraciones de oxigeno suficientemente elevadas, siendo el efecto m

  18. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  19. Sunflower oil in the treatment of hot tar burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türegün, M; Oztürk, S; Selmanpakoğlu, N

    1997-08-01

    Hot tar burns compose a unique class of thermal injury, because removal of this highly sticky compound may be very difficult without inflicting additional tissue damage. Early removal of tar facilitates assessment of the burn and improves patient comfort. Although the use of many substances for the painless removal of tar has been described, we used sunflower oil effectively in the treatment of four tar burn patients. This first report describes the practical and successful use of sunflower oil which was easily obtained from the hospital kitchen.

  20. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values castor oil cake to LDPE. The morphological study of the materials obtained showed that LDPE/PHB blends are immiscible and form morphological structures with well distinguished phase boundaries between dispersed phase and matrix. Biodegradation was evaluated burying the samples in simulated soil for different periods of time. The LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures with higher content of PHB showed more pronounced degradation. Under the experimental conditions studied the LDPE/CC compositions presented no degradation. However, the loss of mass of the LDPE/PHB/CC mixtures was higher than the loss of mass of the corresponding LDPE/PHB binary blend. This

  1. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability.

  2. Promoting Locally Fortified Sunflower Oil Using E-Vouchers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project team's recent work suggests that crude sunflower oil maintains shelf life for more than 70 days when fortified with vitamin A. The project will verify shelf life findings. It will also build a sustainable business ... IDRC panel tackles early marriage at UN Status of Women forum. IDRC-supported researchers share ...

  3. Phenolic extracts of coconut oil cake: a potential alternative for synthetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Nalawatta SENEVIRATNE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limitations of natural antioxidants include relatively low antioxidant activity, narrow range of food systems where the antioxidants are effective and limited thermal stability compared to synthetic antioxidants. In the present study, the phenolic extract of coconut oil cake (COCE was tested for antioxidant activity-related food stabilization. Heat stabilities of COCE and synthetic antioxidants were determined by measuring the indubbction time of sunflower oil enriched with heat-treated antioxidants. In the β-carotene-linoleate emulsion used for testing antioxidant activity, COCE can retain 96 ± 2% of initial colour intensity while BHT can retain 89 ± 2% of initial colour intensity at 60 µg mL–1 concentration after two hours. TBARS contents (MDA equivalents / kg of meat in COCE-treated and control pork samples after 14 days was 2.80 ± 0.57 and 22.55 ± 2.30 respectively. Heat stability varies in the order butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT < (butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA < COCE < tertiary butylhydroxyquinone (TBHQ. The results of these experiments suggest that COCE is a versatile and thermally stable natural antioxidant mixture effective in stabilizing many food systems.

  4. Quality of pies obtained of the extraction of sunflower and crambe oil for biodiesel under different temperatures; Qualidade das tortas obtidas na extracao do oleo de girassol e crambe para biodiesel sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Tabata Zingano; Prado, Naimara Vieira do; Coelho, Silvia Renata Machado; Bischoff, Teodato Zingano [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], emails: tabatazbi@yahoo.com.br, nai_mara@hotmail.com, srmcoelho@unioeste.br, teodato_zb@hotmail.com; Figueiredo, Paulo Roberto Abreu de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sunflower and crambe are viable alternatives to ethanol. Used in food production, the sunflower crop has economic, rustic and does not require specialized machinery. The crambe oil is concentrated enough, it is feasible to farm and is not edible. The extraction efficiencies of these oils gives to the heating and moisture content of grain. The aim of this study was to evaluate temperatures of oil extraction in sunflower and crambe as pies obtained. For oil extraction and acquisition of pies, we used a high pressure extruder press. The sunflower seed and crambe were extruded without heating and at temperatures of 50 and 70 deg C with three replicates for each treatment, estimated to be the pie, the amount of fat, protein and moisture. Increasing the temperature, we observed a reduction of moisture in sunflower cake, but this did not occur in seeds of crambe. For sunflower, the higher levels of lipids occurred for pie without heating, and for crambe, the higher levels of lipids occurred at 50 deg C. As for the protein, was found in both cultures, the highest level at 70 deg C. It is concluded that the extraction temperature alters the composition of oilseed cakes. (author)

  5. Biosurfactant production by Corynebacterium kutscheri from waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, R; Jayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2007-12-01

    Production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable sources. Biosurfactant production was carried out in 3-l fermentor using waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Maximum biomass (9.8 mg ml(-l)) and biosurfactant production (6.4 mg ml(-l)) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h, respectively. Chemical characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that it is a glycolipopeptide with chemical composition of carbohydrate (40%), lipid (27%) and protein (29%). The biosurfactant is able to emulsify waste motor lubricant oil, crude oil, peanut oil, kerosene, diesel, xylene, naphthalene and anthracene; the emulsification activity was comparatively higher than the activity found with Triton X-100. This study indicates the possibility of biosurfactant production using renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources like waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Emulsification activity found with the biosurfactant against different hydrocarbons showed the possibility of the application of biosurfactants against diverse hydrocarbon pollution. The data obtained from the study could be useful for large-scale biosurfactant production using economically cheaper substrates. Information obtained in emulsification activity and laboratory-scale experiment on bioremediation inferred that bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites may be treated with biosurfactants or the bacteria that produces it.

  6. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KoohiKamali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD through response surface methodology (RSM was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w. The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P≥0.05. Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.

  7. Biodiesel production by chemical or enzymatic esterification of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, Paula C.; Rosa, M. Fernanda; Oliveira, A.C.; Pingarilho, M.S.; Beirao, S.G.; Vieira, Ana Maria Soares

    1998-07-01

    In this work, two processes of sunflower oil transesterification, with methanol or ethanol, were studied for biodiesel production: chemical (catalyst- NaOH) and enzymatic (catalyst - rhizomucor miehei lipase). The chemical catalysis proved to be more efficient, having been obtained higher conversion yields and a better quality biodiesel, mainly in the case where methanol was used. The transesterification product had, in all cases, to be purified in order to be used as a diesel substitute.

  8. The Effectof Temperature on the Dynmaic Viscosity of Acetone Sunflower-Seed Oil Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    TOPALLAR, Hüseyin; BAYRAK, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acetone on the dynamic viscosity of sunflower-seed oil was studied under a dynamic heating regime at temeparuters ranging from 25oC to 50oC at 5oC intervals. Acetone dramatically reduced the viscosity of sunflower-seed oil. The reduction of viscosity was far less with further addition of acetone. A linear relationship was found between the density of sunflower-seed oil and temperature. The influence of a solvent on the density of the sunflower-seed oil/acetone solution can be ac...

  9. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  10. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Çınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, İlkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  11. Kinetic study of oil extraction from olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamrous, O.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oil extraction from olive foot cake can be explained by a model based on two stages. The first step corresponds to a simple washing of the oil from the particle surface. In the second step, the extraction is controlled by two mechanisms: slow diffusion from broken cells and very slow diffusion from intact cells.The kinetic coefficients of this mathematical model are calculated using the experimental results obtained from hexane and commercial ethyl alcohol for different particle sizes.La cinética de extracción de aceite de orujo puede ser explicada por un modelo basado en dos etapas. La primera etapa corresponde a un simple lavado del aceite de la superficie de las partículas. En la segunda etapa, la extracción esta controlada por dos mecanismos: difusión lenta desde las células rotas y difusión muy lenta desde las células intactas.Los coeficientes cinéticas de este modelo matemático se calculan usando los resultados experimentales obtenidos con hexano y alcohol etílico comercial para diferentes tamaños de partícula.

  12. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  13. Biodiesel from sunflower oil in supercritical methanol with calcium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sunflower seed oil was subjected to the transesterification reaction with calcium oxide (CaO) in supercritical methanol for obtaining biodiesel. Methanol is used most frequently as the alcohol in the transesterification process. Calcium oxide (CaO) can considerably improve the transesterification reaction of sunflower seed oil in supercritical methanol. The variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction, such as the catalyst content, reaction temperature and the molar ratio of soybean oil to alcohol, were investigated and compared with those of non-catalyst runs. The catalytic transesterification ability of CaO is quite weak under ambient temperature. At a temperature of 335 K, the yield of methyl ester is only about 5% in 3 h. When CaO was added from 1.0% to 3.0%, the transesterification speed increased evidently, while when the catalyst content was further enhanced to 5%, the yield of methyl ester slowly reached to a plateau. It was observed that increasing the reaction temperature had a favorable influence on the methyl ester yield. In addition, for molar ratios ranging from 1 to 41, as the higher molar ratios of methanol to oil were charged, the greater transesterification speed was obtained. When the temperature was increased to 525 K, the transesterification reaction was essentially completed within 6 min with 3 wt% CaO and 41:1 methanol/oil molar ratio

  14. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gemert, L. J.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO or high oleic sunflower oil (HOBO. Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS. Reference samples were prepared using palm olein (PO or hydrogenated rapeseed/palm oil mixture (RP. Crisps were stored at ambient temperature for six months and French fries at -20°C for 12 months. At regular intervals the samples were assessed. Crisps prepared in SO have a lower sensory quality than those prepared in PO. Frying in HOSO resulted in crips comparable with those fried in PO. The differences found in this study concerning the mouthfeel or texture were thought not to be caused by the application of different oils. The addition of DMPS did not have any positive effect on the storage quality of crisps fried in SO or HOSO. Frying of French fries in HOSO and especially in SO, in comparison with RP, resulted in a product with a typical sweet fruits odour and flavour. During storage these sensory attributes decreased in intensity. As this finding might be an artefact of this study, further research is needed.

  15. Plasma lipids of golden Syrian hamsters fed dietary rose hip, sunflower, olive and coconut oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I; Escobar, M; Olivera, P

    1997-06-01

    Plasma lipids of male golden Syrian hamsters fed diets supplemented with 15% (w/w) rose hip, sunflower, olive, or coconut oils during four weeks were assessed. The results confirm the saturated fat hyperlipidemic effect on golden Syrian hamsters fed with the olive oil and coconut oil, reaching the highest triglyceride levels. The monounsaturated (olive oil) or polyunsaturated (rose hip and sunflower oils) fatty acid-rich-vegetable oils have a similar action on the HDL-cholesterol. No statistically significant difference was observed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels in the rose hip and sunflower groups, showing that the polyunsaturation degree of both oils does not affect those results. Compared with the plasma levels obtained in the olive and coconut oil groups, rose hip and sunflower oils present a marked hypolipidemic effect, which could be due to specific action of the series n-6 linoleic acid.

  16. Sunflower cake in the diet of semi heavy weight laying hen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Waine Pinheiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two experiments testing the effects of rations containing different sunflower meal (SFM levels on laying hens’ performance and egg quality. In the first experiment a total of 240 animals were divided in groups (n = 6 of 10 hens each, balanced by age and live weight and at random allocated to four isocaloric rations with 0, 7, 14 and 21% of SFM. There was no effect (P> 0.05 of SFM levels on hens’ live weight, feed intake, feed conversion, metatarsus length, triglycerides and plasma cholesterol levels. In the second experiment a total of 192 animals were divided in groups (n = 6 of 8 hens each, balanced by age and live weight and at random allocated to four isocaloric rations with 0, 7, 14 and 21% of SFM. There was no effect (P>0.05 of SFM levels on eggs’ production, specific gravity, percentage of shell and yolk color index. However, eggs of hens fed on 21% of SFM showed reduced (P<0.05 Haugh units compared to eggs of animals fed on rations without SFM. These results indicate that there are no deleterious effects on performance and egg’s quality of lying hens fed on rations containing up to 21% of SFM.

  17. An alternative process for hydrogenation of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic methodologies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils have traditionally been carried out by nickel catalysts under high pressure of H2 and high temperature. An alternative method for hydrogenation of sunflower oil using limonene and palladium-on-carbon was investigated in this study. The use of limonene as a hydrogen donor solvent was proposed in order to avoid high temperature and high-pressure conditions. The catalytic transfer of hydrogenation was studied by using 0.5 to 2% of Pd as a catalyst, a limonene:oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction times from 0.5 to 2 hours. Under these conditions, high selectivities for oleic acid and low concentrations of stearic acid were obtained.

  18. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  19. Combined effect of soil amendment with oil cakes and seed priming in the control of root rot fungi of leguminous and non-leguminous crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Dawar, S.; Tariq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Organic amendments of soil help in proper aeration, rising of temperature and water holding capacity which results in better uptake of nutrients with root system gets extensive establishment. In this study, effects of soil amendment with oil seed cakes including mustard (Brassica campestris L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) and black seed (Nigella sativa L.) cakes at the rate of 0.1 and 1% w/w and priming of seeds with Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) leaves extracts and microbial antagonists (Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium melilotii) was observed on the growth of plants and in the suppression of root infecting fungi. The results obtained showed that combined effect of bio-priming of seeds with T. harzianum spore suspension and amendment of soil with mustard cake at the rate of 1% was found to be most effective for the growth of leguminous and non-leguminous crop plants (peanut, chickpea, okra and sunflower) and for the reduction of root infecting fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium spp followed by R. meliloti primed seeds in combination with cotton, almond and black seed cakes amendment respectively as compared to control (non treated seeds and soil). (author)

  20. Impact of climate changes and correlations on oil fatty acids in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onemli, F.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower oil is a major important vegetable oil because it is widely used in human nutrition and in many industrial productions depends on fatty acid composition. Field studies were conducted during in two years on the same soil to investigate changes of climate induced oil fatty acid composition of a traditional sunflower, and to obtain correlations among oil fatty acids. Seed oil content and twelve fatty acid percentages of sunflower oil were analyzed. Variations for years were significant for seed oil content and palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), miristic (C14:0) and eicosenoic acids (C20:1). Higher temperatures during seed development in 2010 resulted with 68.38 % increasing in oleic content of the traditional sunflower hybrid. The highest negative correlations (r= -0.99) were noted between oleic and linoleic acids. (author)

  1. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  2. Modeling of oil extraction from olive foot cake using hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellag, Hocine

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influences of the factors, which can have effect on oil extraction from olive foot cake using hexane, are studied. From the experimental results, a mathematical model for calculation of the extraction yield is proposed. The statistical tests used to obtain this model show that the yield does not depend on the granulometry and the stirring rate, but depends on the temperature, the contact time and the liquid-solid ratio (L/S. Also, it depends on interactions between time and temperature and interactions between time and L/S. The comparison of the results given by the experiment and the model allows us to say that the model is satisfactory.En este artículo se estudia la influencia de los factores que pueden tener efecto en la extracción del aceite de orujo usando hexano. Se propone a partir de los resultados experimentales, un modelo matemático para el cálculo del rendimiento de la extracción. Los tests estadísticos utilizados para obtener este modelo mostraron que el rendimiento no depende de la granulometría ni de la velocidad de agitación, pero si depende de la temperatura, del tiempo de contacto y de la relación líquido-sólido (L/S. También depende de las interacciones entre el tiempo y la temperatura y entre el tiempo y la relación L/S. La comparación entre los resultados experimentales y el modelo nos permite decir que dicho modelo es satisfactorio.

  3. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic extraction of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr, F. H.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was extracted with an enzymatic processes using different hydrolytic enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex, as compared to enzyme - free aqueous extraction. All the hydrolytic enzymes enhanced oil extraction from sunflower seeds. The most optimal conditions for oil extraction from sunflower seeds were: 2% enzyme concentration, 30% substrate concentration and 3 hrs period. Using Boganov and Buchkov equation showed that time must be prolonged to get higher yields. The maximum yield during 3 hrs extraction with enzymatic process ranged between 44,5%-57,1% of the soxhlet extractable oil. The potency of the investigated enzymes in extracting oil was in the following order: acid proteinase > cellulase > hemicellulase > animal proteinase > pectinex > pectinase when compared at the previous optimal conditions.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído mediante un proceso enzimático usando diferentes enzimas hidrolíticos: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinasa acida, pectinasa y pectinex, comparando con la extracción acuosa libre de enzima. Todos los enzimas hidrolíticos incrementan la extracción de aceites de semilla de girasol. Las condiciones óptimas para la extracción de aceite a partir de semillas de girasol fueron: 2% de concentración de enzima, 30% de concentración de sustrato y un período de 3 horas. La ecuación de Boganov y Buchkov mostró que el tiempo debe ser prolongado para alcanzar altos rendimientos. El máximo rendimiento durante tres horas de extracción con proceso enzimático osciló entre el 44,5%-57,1% del aceite extraído con soxhlet. La potencia de los enzimas investigados en la extracción de aceite siguió el orden: proteinasa acida > celulasa > hemicelulasa > proteinasa animal > pectinex > pectinasa cuando fue previamente comparado con las condiciones óptimas.

  4. Progress in modification of sunflower oil to expand its industrial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Saeed; Jamil, Nazia; Tariq, Sultan Ali; Khan, Maria; Kausar, Maria; Kaya, Yalcin

    2017-05-01

    Increasing the sunflower seed oil content as well as improving its quality makes it compatible for industrial demands. This is an important breeding objective of sunflower which increases its market value and ensures high returns for the producers. The present review focuses on determining the progress of improving sunflower seed oil content and modifying its quality by empirical and advanced molecular breeding methods. It is known that the sunflower oil content and quality have been altered through empirical selection methods and mutation breeding programmes in various parts of the world. Further improvement in seed oil content and its components (such as phytosterols, tocopherols and modified fatty acid profile) has been slowed down due to low genetic variation in elite germplasm and complex of hereditary traits. Introgression from wild species can be carried out to modify the fatty acids profile and tocopherol contents with linkage drags. Different transgenes introduced through biotechnological methods may produce novel long-chain fatty acids within sunflower oil. Bio-engineering of sunflower oil could allow it to be used in diverse industrial products such as bio-diesel or bio-plastics. These results showed that past and current trends of modifying sunflower oil quality are essential for its further expansion as an oilseed crop. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Sunflower press cake as a substrate for eicosapentaenoic acid production by representatives of the genus Mortierella

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ., Botha, A., and Van Zyl, W. H. (2009). “The production of eicosapentaenoic acid by representatives of the genus Mortierella grown on brewers’ spent grain,” Biologia 64(5), 871-876. Jang, H.-D., Lin, Y.-Y., and Yang, S.-S. (2000). “Polyunsaturated fatty.... Champaign, Illinois, USA: AOCS Press, 1-20. Sakuradani, E., Takeno, S., Abe, T., and Shimizu, S. (2005). “Arachidonic acid- producing Mortierella alpina: Creation of mutants and molecular breeding,” In: Cohen Z. & Ratledge C. (ed.), Single Cell Oils...

  6. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg–1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours than with air (8 hours. Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity.

    Se ha aplicado dos procedimientos de ozonización a aceites de girasol a diferentes dosis de ozono, obteniendo el ozono a partir de oxígeno medicinal y de aire. Se han determinado los índices de peróxido, yodo y acidez conjuntamente con la densidad, viscosidad y la actividad antimicrobiana. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada mediante CG. El contenido de oxígeno fue determinado mediante Análisis Elemental. Se utilizó la resonancia paramagnética electrónica para medir los radicales libres orgánicos. Las reacciones fueron realizadas hasta valores de índice de peróxidos de 658 y 675 mmol-equiv kg–1 usando oxígeno medicinal y aire durante 5 y 8 horas, respectivamente. Las muestras de aceite de girasol ozonizado no presentaron radicales libres orgánicos, lo cual es muy importante en el caso de que estos aceites sean utilizados en medicina. La reacción de ozonización es más rápida cuando se utiliza oxígeno medicinal (5 horas

  7. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  8. Seed yield and oil content of some sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on yield, yield components and oil content of sunflower during 2002 and 2003. Sunflower cultivars Sanbro, Tarsan-1018 and Ozdemirbey were used as materials in the experiment which was designed in a split plot of ...

  9. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  10. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Sclerocarya birrea kernel oil cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Ismail H.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from Sclerocarya birrea kernel oil meal, extracted using two different methods was evaluated. The extraction was carried out using magnetic stirring of the material in methanol/water (80:20 v/v overnight followed by two ultra-sonic treatments for 45 min. (Overnight extract, ONEXT and three ultra-sonic treatments for 45 min. only (Ultra-sonic extract, USEXT, respectively. Three fractions were obtained from each extract and the contents of total phenolic compounds were determined in each fraction according to the Folin-Ciocalteau method as 34.6, 54.8, and 58.6 mg/g of dry product in ONEXT and 29.6, 84.8, 143.9 mg/g in USEXT, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated according to the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, where the extracts and their fractions showed significant effect (p<0.05. The antioxidative properties of the extracts obtained from the two extraction methods described were similar. The AAC (antioxidant activity coefficient of these extracts and their fractions increased with an increasing concentration of the extract. The effect of ONEXT and USEXT at the 0.2 and 0.8 % levels on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 70°C was tested in the dark and compared with the commonly used synthetic antioxidant BHA. The oil peroxide values (PVs were significantly (p<0.05 lower with the addition of extract in comparison to a control. In comparison to BHA (0.02% the increase of PVs after the addition of ONEXT (0.2% and 0.8% and USEXT (0.8%, respectively, was reduced. The oxidation of sunflower oil, treated with 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1.0% of ONEXT and USEXT, respectively, was tested using the Rancimat test at 120 °C. Both extracts increased the induction time compared to a control and BHA, and the stabilization factor F increased with the concentration.Se ha evaluado la actividad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos de torta de aceite de semilla de Sclerocarya birrea

  11. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND COTTONSEED CAKES IN THE FEED OF CROSSBRED CALVES FOR MEAT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. JABBAR, M. I. ANJUM1, S. REHMAN2 AND W. SHAHZAD2

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crossbred (Sahiwal x Friesian male calves of 9-10 months age and weighing 70 to 90 kg, were used in completely randomized design to investigate the possibility of replacing cottonseed cakes (CSC with sunflower meal (SFM, partially or completely, in rations for fattening of crossbred calves for meat production. Three concentrate rations viz. A, B and C were formulated. Ration A containing CSC was fed to the calves of group A, ration B containing SFM was fed to calves of group B and ration C containing both CSC + SFM was fed to calves of group C. The feed intake of calves belonging to group C was the highest (5.7 ± 2.3 kg followed by group B (5.5 ± 1.3 kg and group A (5.2 ± 2.0 kg. Average daily body weight gain was 0.73 ± 0.1, 0.72 ± 0.2 and 0.71 ± 0.1 kg for groups A, B and C, respectively. Calves fed SFM gained numerically less than the calves fed CSC but higher than SFM+ CSC. Feed conversion ratio was 7.1 ± 0.4, 7.7 ± 0.7 and 8.0 ± 0.6, for calves of groups A, B and C, respectively. Dressing percentage averaged 51.5 ± 1.3, 52.1 ± 1.2 and 52.3 ± 0.8 for the respective rations. However, the differences in feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentages among calves of three groups were non significant. Considering the cost of feed and average growth, the cost of per kg body weight gain was 38, 30 and 37 rupees for the groups A, B and C, respectively. The lowest cost was observed in SFM based ration (B that was about 19% less than ration containing CSC. Results indicated that for fattening of crossbred calves the use of SFM is as efficient as CSC but more economical and can successfully replace CSC in fattening rations.

  12. Effectiveness of added natural antioxidants in sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapiste, Guillermo H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of α- and δ-tocopherol, citric acid, ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate was investigated in sunflower oil containing naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of natural antioxidants in sunflower oil was monitored by the accelerated oxidative stability test Rancimat and oxidation development during storage under different conditions. Samples in storage experiments were periodically removed and analyzed for peroxide value, p-anisidine value, total content and distribution of polar compounds, and residual naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of each antioxidant was strongly dependent on temperature and the testing method. While ascorbic acid appears to be the most effective antioxidant according to the Rancimat oxidative stability index, δ-tocopherol shows improved performance when considering storage experiments.Se investigó la actividad antioxidante de α-tocoferol, δ-tocoferol, ácido cítrico y palmitato de ascorbilo en aceite de girasol con su conteniendo natural de tocoferol. La efectividad de los mismos fue analizada a través de la medida de la estabilidad oxidativa en Rancimat y el seguimiento de la oxidación con el almacenamiento a diferentes temperaturas. Las muestras extraídas periódicamente de la estufa fueron sometidas a los siguientes análisis: índice de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidina, contenido y distribución de compuestos polares y contenido residual de tocoferol natural. La efectividad de cada antioxidante resultó fuertemente dependiente de la temperatura y método de ensayo. Mientras el ácido ascórbico resultó ser el antioxidante más efectivo según el índice de estabilidad oxidativa medido en el equipo Rancimat, el δ-tocoferol fue el antioxidante más efectivo en las experiencias de almacenamiento.

  13. Optimization of the Enzyme-Catalyzed Transesterification of Hungarian Sunflower Oil with High Oleic Acid Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Sandor; Krar, Marton; Hancsok, Jenoe (Univ. of Pannonia, Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing, H-8201 Veszprem (Hungary)). e-mail: kovacss@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2008-10-15

    In our research work we defined the optimum parameters (temperature, methanol to triglyceride molar ratio, reaction time, number of methanol feeds, and the amount of Candia Antarctica lipase) of the enzyme-catalyzed transesterification of properly pre-treated high oleic acid containing sunflower oil. The oleic acid content of the previously mentioned sunflower oil was present in the structure of the triglycerides. Characteristics of the produced sunflower oil methyl esters were evaluated according to the requirements of the EN 14214 standard. Our experimental results indicated that enzyme-catalyzed transesterification could be successfully used for the conversion of high oleic sunflower oils, since we have found proper combination of process parameters resulting in high yield (>99%) of monoesters. The applied enzyme can be separated after the transesterification and used again. The glycerine - because its reaction inhibiting effect - was separated continuously by membrane separation

  14. Rice Bran Oil Extraction by Screw Press Method: Optimum Operating Settings, Oil Extraction Level and Press Cake Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supakit SAYASOONTHORN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of rice bran ‘cake’ or discharge from a screw press corresponds to the level of oil produced in the extraction process. The relationships between operating settings, oil extraction level and cake appearance were studied. Cake characteristics reliably indicate the expected oil recovery extraction level. These conclusions applyed to both Chainat 1 rice bran and parboiled rice bran. Variables were the speed of the screw press (set at five levels from 8.5 to 19.8 r/min and corresponding clearance distances between the screw and barrel (set between 1.0 and 1.9 cm. Results showed that the maximum levels of extraction were 4.17% for the rice bran and 8.20% for the parboiled rice bran. At the maximum extraction level, the apparatus continuously discharged cake that were hard, crispy, flaky, shiny and polished on one side but dull and coarse on the other.

  15. Application of chitosan-sunflower oil edible films to pork meat hamburgers

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Maria; Albors, A.; Chiralt A.

    2011-01-01

    Edible films were prepared by combining high molecular weight chitosan with sunflower oil. Films were obtained by casting and were applied to the surface of pork meat hamburgers. Chitosan-based films increased the metmyoglobin (MtMb) content of coated hamburgers during cold storage, especially when using lactic acid as a solvent. The incorporation of sunflower oil to the chitosan matrix led to a reduction in MtMb content of hamburgers as compared to samples coated with pure chitosan films. Ch...

  16. Lead biotransformation potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 with sesame oil cake in mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 and sesame oil cake extract for transformation of Pb in mine soil. The bacteria were isolated from a brackish environment and identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. The isolate SKK11 exhibite...

  17. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during deep frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA, Peroxide Value (PV, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC, color and viscosity were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 °C ± 5 °C, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25; while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24. Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process.

    Aceites de girasol se mezclaron con diferentes niveles de aceite de chufa prensado en frío. Se obtuvieron mezclas de aceite de chufa con girasol en las proporciones: 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30

  18. Cyclic fatty acid monomer formation in domestic frying of frozen foods in sunflower oil and high oleic acid sunflower oil without oil replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2006-10-01

    During the frying process, oxidation, hydrolysis, polymerization, isomerization, and cyclization occur. Polymers and Cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) are potentially toxic, and the latter are detected at relatively low levels (0.01-0.7%) in used frying oils. Twenty fryings of different frozen foods were carried out over 10 consecutive days in sunflower oil (SO) and in high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO). Fatty acid methyl ester derivates were hydrogenated with platinum oxide catalyst under hydrogen. Ethyl palmitate was added as an internal standard before hydrogenation. The CFAM obtained were isolated, concentrated and quantified by HPLC using a reverse-phase column followed by gas chromatography. Linear adjustments between total and individual CFAM content and the number of frying operations performed with both oils were established by analysis of variance. The comparison between linear equation adjustments of both oils was performed by a two-way analysis of covariance. After 20 fryings 15.4 +/- 0.06 g polar content/100 g oil, 7.15 +/- 0.08 g polymers/ oil, 11.52 +/- 0.08 g polymers/100g oil and 855 +/- 8.9 mg CFAM/kg oil were detected in SO. A 10 mg/100 mg oil of altered fatty acid content correspond to 700 mg/kg CFAM, while 25% polar material and 10% polymer content would correspond to about 850-1,000 mg CFAM/kg oil. Data suggest that frying with SO produces in each new frying 9 mg CFAM/kg more than frying with HOSO (p oils. Bicyclic compound formation was significantly higher in SO (p < 0.001). Because digestion and absorption of polar material, polymers and CFAM occur, data clearly show the advantageousness and advisability of frying with HOSO rather than SO.

  19. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  1. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  2. direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical modification, genetic modification [10-14], blending with other base oils and development of special additives [16-23] are the different methods which overcomes the noted problems of vegetable oils. In this paper chemical modification by initial epoxidation of sunflower oil, followed by acetylation of epoxidized.

  3. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P < 0.05) increased the activities of lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and enhanced formation of bile acids. Results demonstrated hypolipidemic effect of VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

  4. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  5. Dietary Fats and Oxidative Stress: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Coronary Artery Disease Subjects Consuming Coconut Oil/Sunflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Vasudevan, D M

    2018-01-01

    Coconut oil has been used by the people of Kerala as a cooking medium for several decades. Due to its alleged hypercholesterolemic activity, general population in recent times is shifting to cooking oils rich in polyunsaturated fats, the most popular being sunflower oil. The effect of long-term consumption of sunflower oil on oxidative stress in humans is not well investigated. We studied oxidative stress among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who were consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as a part of their routine diet. Men, aged 35-70 years, with established CAD, who presented to the hospital for routine cardiac evaluations, were enrolled in this observational study. Group 1 and 2 consisted of 73 and 80 subjects consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively for over a period of 2 years. Lipid profile and parameters for oxidative stress were evaluated among them. Conventional lipid parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mean vitamin C concentration was significantly reduced for subjects on sunflower oil compared to those consuming coconut oil ( P  = 0.044). Malondialdehyde was higher for sunflower oil consumers compared to coconut oil consumers ( P  coconut oil did not induce hypercholesterolemia compared to sunflower oil. On the other hand, sunflower oil group had elevated oxidative stress compared to coconut oil group.

  6. The Application of Neural Networks in Balancing Production of Crude Sunflower Oil and Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Ivetic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to predict specific output characteristics of half finished goods (crude sunflower oil and meal on the basis of specific input variables (quality and composition of sunflower seeds, with the help of artificial neural networks. This is an attempt to predict the amount much more precisely than is the case with technological calculations commonly used in the oil industry. All input variables are representing the data received by the laboratory, and the output variables except category % of oil which is obtained by measuring the physical quantity of produced crude sunflower oil and sunflower consumed quantity of the processing quality. The correct prediction of the output variables contributes to better sales planning, production of sunflower oil, and better use of storage. Also, the correct prediction of technological results of the quality of crude oil and meal provides timely response and also preventing getting rancid and poor-quality oil, timely categorizing meal, which leads to proper planning and sales to the rational utilization of storage space, allows timely response technologists and prevents the growth of microorganisms in the meal.

  7. A randomized study of coconut oil versus sunflower oil on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with stable coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniyal Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Coconut oil even though rich in saturated fatty acids in comparison to sunflower oil when used as cooking oil media over a period of 2 years did not change the lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors and events in those receiving standard medical care.

  8. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  9. Fate of 14C-Chlorpyrifos Insecticide in Sunflower Seeds and Oil and the Effect of Processing According to Industrial Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad, H.; Khatab, M.S.; Hegazi, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ethyl -1- 14 C-chlorpyrifos and some of its degradation products have been prepared for the present investigation. Sunflower plants were treated with 14 C-chlorpyrifos under conditions simulating local agricultural practice. 14 C-residue in seeds were determined at different time intervals. At harvest time about 8 % of 14 C-activity was associated with oil. The methanol soluble 14 C-residues accounted for 0.8 % of the total seed residues, while the cake contained about 80 % of the total residues. About 46 % of the 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. The refined oil had a 14 C- residue level of about 21 ppm. Chromatographic analysis of crude and refined oil revealed the presence of the parent compound together with three metabolites which were identified as chlorpyrifos oxon, desethyl chlorpyrifos, and desethyl chlorpyrifos oxon in addition to an unknown compound. Methanol extract of the cake revealed the presence of the parent compound and its oxon as free compounds. Acid hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites in the methanol extract yielded desethyl chlorpyrifos and 3, 5, 6- trichloro-2-hydroxypyridine

  10. The influence of different pretreatment methods on biogas production from Jatropha curcas oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Sławomir Jan; Kułażyński, Marek; Sikora, Ilona; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Drought and pest resistance, together with high oil content in its seeds, make Jatropha curcas a good oil source for biodiesel. Oil cake from J. curcas is not suitable for animal feeding and thus may be profitably used for additional energy production by conversion into biogas; however, the anaerobic digestion process must be optimized to obtain good efficiency. We subjected oil cake to thermal and acidic pretreatment to deactivate protease inhibitors and partially hydrolyze phytate. We then digested the samples in batch conditions to determine the effects of pretreatment on biogas production. Thermal pretreatment changed the kinetics of anaerobic digestion and reduced protease inhibitor activity and the concentration of phytate; however, biogas production efficiency was not affected (0.281 m 3  kg -1 ). To evaluate the possibility of recirculating water for SSF hydrolysis, ammonium nitrogen recovery from effluent was evaluated by its precipitation in the form of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate).Concentration of ammonium ions was reduced by 53% (to 980 mg L -1 ). We propose a water-saving concept based on percolation of J. curcas cake using anaerobic digestion effluent and feeding that percolate into a methanogenic bioreactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Covi, Mauro; Nolasco, Susana M.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard

  12. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) / poli (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, M.C.G.; Oliveira, C.I.R. de; Sanches, M.C.; Coelho, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Blends of PHB and LDPE were prepared by melt mixing in a Haake internal mixer. Castor oil pressed cake was used as filler for the blends. In order to improve the interfacial adhesion between the filler and the polymers, a mercerization process with 5% NaOH solution was employed. This process was evaluated by several techniques such as: X-Ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were evaluated by traditional tensile stress-strain tests (ASTM D- 638). The obtained results showed that the mercerization process leads to better adhesion properties. The Young Modulus of the blends presented a tendency to increase with the addition of the castor oil cake.(author)

  13. Xylanase production by Penicillium canescens on soya oil cake in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Assamoi Allah; Jacqueline, Destain; Thonart, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest for the organic residues from various sectors of agriculture and industries over the past few decades. Their application in the field of fermentation technology has resulted in the production of bulk chemicals and value-added products such as amino acid, enzymes, mushroom, organic acids, single-cell protein, biologically active secondary metabolites, etc. (Ramachandran et al., Bioresource Technology 98:2000-2009, 2007). In this work, the production of extracellular xylanase by the fungus Penicillium canescens was investigated in solid-state fermentation using five agro-industrial substrates (soya oil cake, soya meal, wheat bran, whole wheat bran, and pulp beet). The best substrate was the soya oil cake. In order to optimize the production, the most effective cultivation conditions were investigated in Erlenmeyer flasks and in plastic bags with 5 and 100 g of soya oil cake, respectively. The initial moisture content, initial pH, and temperature of the culture affected the xylanase synthesis. The optimal fermentation medium was composed by soya oil cake crushed to 5 mm supplemented with 3% and 4% (w/w) of casein peptone and Na(2)HPO(4) x 2H(2)O. After 7 days of incubation at 30 degrees C and under 80% of initial moisture, a xylanase production level of 18,895 +/- 778 U/g (Erlenmeyer flasks) and 9,300 +/- 589 U/g (plastic bags) was reached. The partially purified enzyme recovered by ammonium sulfate fractionation was completely stable at freezing and refrigeration temperatures up to 6 months and reasonably stable at room temperature for more than 3 months.

  14. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  16. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Preparation of a new gamma irradiated PVC-Olive oil cake plastic composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messaud, F.A.; Almsmary, Y.A.; Elwerfalli, S.M.; Benayad, S.M.; Haraga, S.O.; Benfaid, N.A.; Kabar, Y.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper dealt with the investigation on preparing new plastic composite material, utilizing polyvinyl chloride polymer (a commercial product in abu-kammash chemical complex) and olive oil cake (a waste of many olive oil production factories), followed by gamma irradiation (26.3 Kg ry) o induce crosslinking of the polymer. The new material possess good, electrical and mechanical properties as compared to plastic products of (PVC plastic pipe factory), and which could be used as new construction anti corrosive material, such as special roofing and partitioning or household goods

  18. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  19. Effects of refining process on sunflower oil minor components: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotor Alicia Ayerdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oil is well known because of its diversity of fatty acids profiles which allow different uses (food: dressing salads, margarines; nonfood: agrofuel, lubricants. Besides, crude oil contains high amounts of desirable minor components (tocopherols, phytosterols, polyphenols, phospholipids... that present important nutritional features with a positive impact on human health. The different steps of the refining process have as main objective to remove contaminants and other compounds that could hamper the continuity of the process or alter oil during storage. An indirect consequence of this treatment used to preserve food safety is that micronutriments of interest are also partially eliminated reducing the nutritional quality of the oil. This review describes in the first part the chemical composition of sunflower oil focusing on desirable and undesirable components. In the second part the refining process is detailed following the losses of micronutriments at each step of the process and the elimination of unwanted compounds.

  20. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C A; Collazos, C A; Acuña, H E Castellanos; Fernandez, C P; Martínez, D Blanco; Cuervo, J A

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K 2 CO 3 and Na 2 CO 3 supported in gamma-alumina (K 2 CO 3 /γ Al 2 O 3 y Na 2 CO 3 /γ-Al 2 O 3 ) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated. (paper)

  1. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C. A.; Blanco Martínez, D.; Collazos, C. A.; Castellanos Acuña, H. E.; Cuervo, J. A.; Fernandez, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K2CO3 and Na2CO3 supported in gamma-alumina (K2CO3/γ Al2O3 y Na2CO3 /γ-Al2O3) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated.

  2. Comparison of lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes among south Indian men consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sabitha, P.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Vasudevan, D. M.; Kamath, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes of normal and diabetic subjects consuming two different types of oil as cooking medium. 70 normal, healthy subjects were taken as controls and 70 subjects with Type 2 diabetes were recruited in patient group. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups of 35 subjects each, consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively as cooking medium. Samples of blood were collected and analyzed for serum total cholesterol,...

  3. A randomized study of coconut oil versus sunflower oil on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with stable coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Maniyal; Vasudevan, D M; Sundaram, K R; Krishnan, Sajitha; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nandakumar, Sandya; Chandrasekhar, Rajiv; Mathew, Navin

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its pathological atherosclerotic process are closely related to lipids. Lipids levels are in turn influenced by dietary oils and fats. Saturated fatty acids increase the risk for atherosclerosis by increasing the cholesterol level. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of cooking oil media (coconut oil and sunflower oil) on lipid profile, antioxidant mechanism, and endothelial function in patients with established CAD. In a single center randomized study in India, patients with stable CAD on standard medical care were assigned to receive coconut oil (Group I) or sunflower oil (Group II) as cooking media for 2 years. Anthropometric measurements, serum, lipids, Lipoprotein a, apo B/A-1 ratio, antioxidants, flow-mediated vasodilation, and cardiovascular events were assessed at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Hundred patients in each arm completed 2 years with 98% follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference in the anthropometric, biochemical, vascular function, and in cardiovascular events after 2 years. Coconut oil even though rich in saturated fatty acids in comparison to sunflower oil when used as cooking oil media over a period of 2 years did not change the lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors and events in those receiving standard medical care. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect...

  5. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...

  6. Direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lubrication properties of sunflower oil have been modified by epoxidation in the first step and acetylation of the obtained epoxide in the second step. Epoxidation has been followed in dichloromethane solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid as oxidizing agent and sulfuric acid as catalyst. The reaction ...

  7. Dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels induced by fasting and sunflower oil challenge test in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. C.; de Almeida, I. T.; Jakobs, C.; Poll-The, B. T.; Duran, M.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels in 1- to 7-y-old children during fasting and after the ingestion of sunflower oil were studied. Glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, FFA, and individual plasma acylcarnitine levels were monitored in both conditions. Fasting experiments lasted

  8. Thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends during deep fat frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, Charanjiv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shall be deleted offer some advantages like better nutritional quality, lower cost and greater storage stability than pure oils. Model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO and sunflower oil (SFO were examined for change in their physico-chemical parameters (acid value, iodine value, color value, peroxide value and fatty acids. Repeated deep fat frying processes were carried out using dried potato chips in pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends, in order to study the thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil showed good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although all the blended oils used in the study showed good thermal stability during repeated deep fat frying cycles, model blends consisting of 60%RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils.La mezclas de aceites pueden ofrecer algunas ventajas sobre los aceites puros las como mejor calidad nutricional, coste inferior o mayor estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. En este estudio, aceite de salvado de arroz (RBO, aceite de girasol (SFO y mezclas de ambos, se sometieron al proceso de fritura de patatas y se evaluaron los principales cambios físico-químicos en los aceites puros y en sus mezclas (acidez, índice de yodo, color, índice de peróxidos y composición de ácidos grasos. Aunque todas las muestras mostraron buena estabilidad a elevada temperatura, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la mezcla que contenía 60% de RBO y 40% de SFO.

  9. The Influence of Palm Oil Addition on Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halva is one of the most popular food products of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Worldwide, the most known halva contains roasted sesame seeds, while usually in Eastern European countries the most appreciated is sunflower halva. However, even if sunflower halva is an appreciated product, it has currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers. Sunflower halva main issue is caused by the oil which separates at the surface during storage, determining a low commercial aspect of the product. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of palm oil addition on sunflower halva stability and texture. Five samples containing different oil percentages [w/w] (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% were prepared, as well as a control sample prepared using the standard recipe (no palm oil added. The texture of all samples was analyzed by an instrumental method, while the colloidal stability was determined by a gravimetric technique during 40 days of storage at two different temperatures (1-2ºC and 15-20ºC. After the storage test at 1-2oC, there were not significant differences between the samples, for all palm oil containing samples as well as for control the percentages of separated oil being below 0.6%. With respect to the control sample, the halva samples containing 1%, 4% and 5% of palm oil showed a decrease in their stability, while samples containing 2% and 3% showed an improved stability (3.44% and 1.78% of separated oil. During this study it was established that the sample containing 3% palm oil was the most favorable, regarding its textural properties, as well as its colloidal stability. 

  10. Life Cycle Assessment for Evaluating On-farm Energy Production: The Case of Sunflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the production of sunflower oil as a source of bioenergy and its use on the farm. Representative farms of the Veneto Region were analyzed in order to evaluate the possibility of using different biofuels. The results showed that there are only a few feasible alternatives at farm level. The conversion of oil to biodiesel appeared unachievable because of the large number of hectares necessary for optimizing use of the transesterification equipment. A life cycle environmental analysis (LCA was applied to eight different farm types simulating the total replacement of diesel oil by pure vegetable oil (sunflower. The results were not uniform because, considering all the LCA impact categories, some of them turned to be worse than the original scenario (use of diesel oil but there was a substantial advantage for all the farm types in terms of reduction of substances with effects on climate change. Some farms, termed horticultural farm large, unspecialized farm large and unspecialized farm small, had a reduction of more than 99% in the substances with effects on climate change by changing from diesel oil to sunflower oil. The biofuel is not yet competitive as no free market exists for it, but it represents a practical way to avoid the shift of economic benefits from agriculture to industry, as happens with biodiesel production.

  11. Application of Gamma Radiation on Bio-oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Soybean Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichestapong, P.; Injarean, U.; Prapakornrattana, P.; Charoen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean cake residue from soy milk making can be pyrolysed to produce pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil which has potency to be used as liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of soybean cake residue with the application of gamma irradiation was investigated in a batch reactor at 450°C for 1.5 hr under nitrogen flow 250 cc/min. Feed of soybean cake residue was exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of 200 to 1,000 kGy before pyrolysing. It was found that pyrolysis liquid yield increased significantly by 12.9 to 19.3 % at the irradiation doses of 400 kGy and higher. The increment was mainly due to the increasing of aqueous phase in the pyrolysis liquid. The heating value of organic phase in the pyrolysis liquid was 7,890 kcal/kg. The organic phase from the unexposed feed was also irradiated at 20-100 kGy. The viscosity of irradiated organic phase was found to increase with the increasing irradiation dose. Irradiated organic phase was distilled at temperatures 200 and 250°C. It was found that the first distilled fraction (<200°C) corresponding to gasoline fraction increased with the increasing irradiation dose while the second distilled fraction (200-250°C) corresponding to kerosene fraction seems to decrease. The composition of organic phase was also determined by GC-MS.

  12. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  13. Mycoflora of phylloplane as a factor protecting the oil sunflower against the diseases caused by fungi, depending on ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Kita

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1980-83 a research was carried out on the phylloplane of oil sunflowers. A composition of species of the fungus community was determined as well as its reaction in relation to the sunflower pathogens: Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  14. Mycoflora of phylloplane as a factor protecting the oil sunflower against the diseases caused by fungi, depending on ecological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Włodzimierz Kita

    2014-01-01

    In the years 1980-83 a research was carried out on the phylloplane of oil sunflowers. A composition of species of the fungus community was determined as well as its reaction in relation to the sunflower pathogens: Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  15. Effect of Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Oil Sunflower in Salted Soil of Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAN Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining field trial with test analysis, a nitrogen(N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O fertilizer experiment of oil sunflowers was set to explore the influence of different ratio of N, P, K fertilizer on dry matter accumulation of oil sunflowers, nutrient absorption and accumulation, the yield and quality, etc in salted soil of the northern Ningxia, in order to provide scientific evidence for regulating and controlling of fertilization in the salted soil and enhancing the yields and quality of oil sunflowers. The results showed that: in the salted soil, the plant which had been disposed by N, P, K fertilizer had more advantages, the 1 000-grain weight, fruit quantity of each oil sunflower and yield per plant and hectare all increased significantly. Treatment of adding the organic fertilizer on the basis of N, P, K fertilizer could also increase the amount of N, P, K absorption significantly. At the same time, the application of N, P, K fertilizer would increase the fat content and reduce the protein, increase the oleic acid and stearic acid, reduce the content of linoleic acid and palmitic acid. The needs of nitrogen (N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O absorption of oil sunflower seeds were averagely 6.1~9.6, 3.2~3.8 kg and 12.3~13.7 kg, about 1:0.40~0.55:1.43~2.09 in ratio, 1:0.49:1.79 averagely in ratio.

  16. Alpha amylase from a fungal culture grown on oil cakes and its properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Ramachandran

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermentation was carried out for the production of alpha-amylase using Aspergillus oryzae. Different oil cakes such as coconut oil cake (COC sesame oil cake (SOC, groundnut oil cake (GOC, palm kernel cake (PKC and olive oil cake (OOC were screened to be used as substrate for the enzyme production and also compared with wheat bran (WB. GOC was found to be the best producer of the enzyme among these. Combination of WB and GOC (1:1 resulted higher enzyme titres than the individual substrates. Maximum amount of enzyme (9196 U/gds was obtained when SSF was carried out using WB + GOC, having initial moisture of 64% and supplemented with lactose and ammonium nitrate (1% each at 30ºC for 72h using 2 mL spore suspension (6x10(7spores/ml. Partial purification of the enzyme using ammonium sulphate fractionation resulted in 2.4-fold increase in the activity. The enzyme showed molecular weight of 68 KDa by SDS-PAGE. Except Mn, all other metal ions such as Ca, K, Na, Mg were found to be inhibitory for the enzyme activity. The enzyme was optimally active at 50(0C and pH 5.0.Fermentação no Estado Sólido foi empregada na produção de alfa-amilase usando Aspergillus niger. Diferentes tipos de torta foram utilizadas, como torta de óleo de coco (COC, torta de de óleo de amendoim (GOC torta de óleo de sesamo (SOC, torta de palma (PKC e torta de óleo de oliva (OOC foram selecionadas para serem usadas como substratos para produção de enzima e comparadas com o farelo de trigo (WB, GOC foi escolhido por ser o que produziu maiores concentrações de enzima. A combinação WB e GOC (1:1 resultou em maiores títulos da enzima quando em comparação com os substratos individuais. A máxima concentração de enzima (9196 U/ gms foi obtida quando a FES foi conduzida utilizando WB + GOC, com umidade de 64% e suplementada com lactose e nitrato de amônia (1% cada a 300C por 72 horas utilizando 2 mL de uma suspensão de esporo (6x107sporos/ml. A purifica

  17. Extraction of oil and minor lipids from cold-press rapeseed cake with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Uquiche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extraction of oil from cold-press rapeseed cake using Supercritical CO2(SC-CO2. The effects of pressure (20, 30, and 40 MPa, temperature (40, 50, and 60 ºC, and extraction time (60, 90, and 120 min on oil yield and composition (tocopherols and carotenoids were studied using response surface design. The results indicated that pressure influenced the most the yield of oil, followed by temperature and extraction time. Extraction time had no effect on oil composition. Extraction pressure and temperature did not affect the tocopherol concentration of the oil to a great extent, whereas temperature had no affect in its carotenoid concentration. A comparison was made between the relative qualities of oil extracted with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC and with n-hexane. Neither solvent affected the unsaponifiable matter content or the composition of phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol of the oils, although there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in tocopherol. Extraction with SC-CO2at 40 MPa and 60 ºC is recommended to obtain rapeseed-oil enriched with tocopherols and carotenoids as important functional components.

  18. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  19. The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badouin, Hélène; Gouzy, Jérôme; Grassa, Christopher J; Murat, Florent; Staton, S Evan; Cottret, Ludovic; Lelandais-Brière, Christine; Owens, Gregory L; Carrère, Sébastien; Mayjonade, Baptiste; Legrand, Ludovic; Gill, Navdeep; Kane, Nolan C; Bowers, John E; Hubner, Sariel; Bellec, Arnaud; Bérard, Aurélie; Bergès, Hélène; Blanchet, Nicolas; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Brunel, Dominique; Catrice, Olivier; Chaidir, Nadia; Claudel, Clotilde; Donnadieu, Cécile; Faraut, Thomas; Fievet, Ghislain; Helmstetter, Nicolas; King, Matthew; Knapp, Steven J; Lai, Zhao; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Lippi, Yannick; Lorenzon, Lolita; Mandel, Jennifer R; Marage, Gwenola; Marchand, Gwenaëlle; Marquand, Elodie; Bret-Mestries, Emmanuelle; Morien, Evan; Nambeesan, Savithri; Nguyen, Thuy; Pegot-Espagnet, Prune; Pouilly, Nicolas; Raftis, Frances; Sallet, Erika; Schiex, Thomas; Thomas, Justine; Vandecasteele, Céline; Varès, Didier; Vear, Felicity; Vautrin, Sonia; Crespi, Martin; Mangin, Brigitte; Burke, John M; Salse, Jérôme; Muños, Stéphane; Vincourt, Patrick; Rieseberg, Loren H; Langlade, Nicolas B

    2017-06-01

    The domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is a global oil crop that has promise for climate change adaptation, because it can maintain stable yields across a wide variety of environmental conditions, including drought. Even greater resilience is achievable through the mining of resistance alleles from compatible wild sunflower relatives, including numerous extremophile species. Here we report a high-quality reference for the sunflower genome (3.6 gigabases), together with extensive transcriptomic data from vegetative and floral organs. The genome mostly consists of highly similar, related sequences and required single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies for successful assembly. Genome analyses enabled the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the Asterids, further establishing the existence of a whole-genome triplication at the base of the Asterids II clade and a sunflower-specific whole-genome duplication around 29 million years ago. An integrative approach combining quantitative genetics, expression and diversity data permitted development of comprehensive gene networks for two major breeding traits, flowering time and oil metabolism, and revealed new candidate genes in these networks. We found that the genomic architecture of flowering time has been shaped by the most recent whole-genome duplication, which suggests that ancient paralogues can remain in the same regulatory networks for dozens of millions of years. This genome represents a cornerstone for future research programs aiming to exploit genetic diversity to improve biotic and abiotic stress resistance and oil production, while also considering agricultural constraints and human nutritional needs.

  20. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among...

  1. 15th International Sunflower Conference Synthesis of new derivatives from vegetable sunflower oil methyl esters via epoxydation and oxirane opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, epoxides have received increased attention because they are of interest both as end-products and as chemical intermediates; epoxidized oils, mainly High Oleic Sunflower Oil, and their ester derivatives have thus found important applications as plasticizers and additives for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Epoxidized esters have been produced classically from High Oleic Sunflower Methyl Esters (HOSME using H2O2 and formic acid. The epoxidation reaches 90% on pilot scale (5kg. Epoxidized esters produced from HOSME have respectively hydroxyl values of 0, oxirane values of 5.2/4.5 and iodine values of 1.7/1.5. Cleavage trials of the oxirane group of the epoxidized esters with different reactants have been undertaken in order to produce on pilot scale new derivatives to be characterized and tested in different fields of application (lubrication, detergency and as chemical intermediates. Reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with an excess of oleic acid was conducted under atmospheric pressure without any catalyst and solvent. The oxirane opening leads to complete estolide formation: after neutralization, analytical controls (chemical values, GC and HPLC analysis indicate that the estolides are composed of a mixture of C36 (oleate of methyl hydroxystearate and C54 (di-oleate of methyl dihydroxystearate. Oxirane opening with alcohols (ethanol and octanol was preferentially performed by acid catalysis at 100°C under atmospheric pressure. Analytical controls show the formation of different etheralcohols and secondary products resulting from dehydration, transesterification and dimerization side-reactions. Cleavage reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with a primary amine (butylamine was conducted under pressure, at high temperature (180/200°C. Both transesterification and opening of the oxirane group occur under these conditions. Reaction products are composed of amides formed by transesterification and a mixture of fatty amines/imines obtained by ring opening as established

  2. Non-edible Oil Cakes as a Novel Substrate for DPA Production and Augmenting Biocontrol Activity of Paecilomyces variotii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the use of waste non-edible oil cakes (Jatropha, Karanja, Neem, and Mahua as a substrate for the growth of Paecilomyces variotii and dipicolinic acid (DPA production. Previous researches proved the efficacy of DPA in suppressing certain pathogens that are deleterious to the plants in the rhizosphere. DPA production was statistical optimized by amending non-edible oil cakes in growing media as nitrogen and sugars (Dextrose, Glucose, and Lactose as carbon source. Plackett-Burman design (PBD, indicated that Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose were the most significant components (p < 0.05 of the media and were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose at the concentration of 12.5, 4.5, and 10 g/l, respectively, yielded 250 mg/l of DPA, which was 2.5 fold more than that obtained from basal medium. HPLC analysis of the optimized medium (peak at retention time of 30 min confirmed the enhanced DPA production by P. variotii. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that optimized medium impose a stress like condition (due to less C:N ratio for the fungus and generated more spores as compared to the basal medium in which carbon source is easily available for the mycelial growth. The antimicrobial activity of the fungal extract was tested and found to be effective even at 10−2 dilution after 72 h against two plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahlia. Statistical experimental design of this study and the use of non-edible oil cakes as a substrate offer an efficient and viable approach for DPA production by P. variotii.

  3. Utilization of coconut oil cake for the production of lipase using Bacillus coagulans VKL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowthami, Palanisamy; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of enzymes was performed by manipulating the medium components. In our study, solvent-tolerant thermophilic lipase-producing Bacillus coagulans was isolated from soil samples and a stepwise optimization strategy was employed to increase the lipase production using coconut oil cake basal medium. In the first step, the influence of pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inducers on lipase activity was investigated by the One-Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) method. In the second step, the three significant factors resulted from OFAT were optimized by the statistical approach (CCD).The optimum values of olive oil (0.5%), Tween 80 (0.6%) and FeSO4 (0.05%) was found to be responsible for a 3.2-fold increase in the lipase production identified by Central Composite Design.

  4. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON GRAIN YIELD, OIL CONTENT AND OIL YIELD OF NEW OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Mijić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of determining the influence of weather conditions on the yield components of sunflower, the results of three-year field trials are analysed in the paper. In the trials sown in Osijek in 2013, 2014 and 2015, there were 15 sunflower hybrids: two foreign hybrids and 13 hybrid combinations of the Agricultural Institute Osijek. In the period before sowing (January – March, the highest amount of precipitation was in 2013 (213.1 mm, then in 2015 (167.9 mm, and the lowest in 2014 (109.5 mm. In the growing period (April – September, the highest amount of precipitation (487.3 mm was in 2014, 475.7 mm in 2013, and in 2015 it was the lowest (251.6 mm. In 2013, during the growing period, the mean monthly air temperature was 19.1°C, in 2015 19.9°C, and in 2014 18.6°C. Of these years, statistically significant at the P=0.05, the highest value of the analysed traits was recorded in 2013: grain yield of 6.47 t ha-1, oil content 51.69% and oil yield 3.05 t ha-1. Grain yield, oil content and oil yield were lower in 2015, and the lowest in 2014. Matej, a newly recognized sunflower hybrid of the Agricultural Institute Osijek had the highest values of grain and oil yield (6.95 and 3.39 t ha-1, and by its oil content of 53.44%, it was in the third place. For high grain and oil yields of sunflower, in addition to the optimal air temperature, the amount and distribution of precipitation before and also during the growing season are very important.

  5. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-05-09

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  7. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winne Sia Chiaw Mei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA. Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  8. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.

  9. OXIDATIVE STABILISATION OF SUNFLOWER OIL BY ANTIOXIDANT FRACTIONS FROM SELECTED LAMIACEAE HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADA BABOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of antioxidant fractions from rosemary (Rosma-rinus officinalis, sage (Salvia officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and hyssop (Hyssop officinalis on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at elevated tempe¬rature. In order to isolate antioxidant fractions, the method of fractional super¬critical extraction with carbon dioxide at 35 MPa and 100 C was applied. Anti¬oxidant fractions were added to sunflower oil at concentrations of 200 mg/kg oil and the samples were stored in an oven maintained at 98 C. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by measuring peroxide values (PV. Among investigated extracts, the rosemary extract was most effective on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was com¬pared to the activity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and a commercial rose¬mary extract Flavor’ Plus. On the basis of PV assay, the antioxidant activity of the investigated plant extracts after 12 h of storage at 98 C followed the order: rosemary extract > BHA > sage extract > Flavor’ Plus > thyme extract > hyssop extract.

  10. Economic viability and performance of an agricultural tractor using sunflower oil and diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Wasilewski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In studies concerning the use, as an fuel for agricultural tractors, of the mixture of diesel  with vegetable oil, it must be verified the economic viability regarding its use as renewable fuels and the performance of agricultural machinery in the field. Therefore, it was evaluated the economic viability and performance of an agricultural tractor, fueled with diesel fuel and the diesel mixture with sunflower oil. The assay was conducted at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá Experimental Farm, in Maringá Paraná, Brazil. It was used an MF 275 agricultural tractor, coupled to a horizontal straw chopper. It was used B S10 diesel (100% and a mixture of diesel (80% with sunflower oil (20%. The mechanized set was subjected to three travel speeds (3.00; 4.00; 5.00 km h-1 into two workload conditions, with load (CC and without load (SC. It was used the experimental design in strips, with four replications, in a factorial scheme 2 x 3 x 2. The data was submitted to the tests (variance analyses F and Tukey at the level of 5% of probability. The engine consumption did not differ between the tested fuels. The tractor with load presented a higher wheel  slip. The tractor fueled with the diesel mixture with sunflower oil had a higher cost per hour.

  11. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

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    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  12. Changes on the Solid Fat Content of Palm Oil/ Sunflower Oil Blends via Inter esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suria Ramli; Azwani Mohd Lazim; Siti Aishah Hasbullah

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of binary blends containing refined-deodorized-bleached palm oil (RBDPO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were studied before and after chemical inter esterification at different temperature (110 degree Celsius (CIE1) and 80 degree Celsius (CIE2)) using sodium methoxide as catalyst. Thirty-three samples with different ratios were analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, fatty acid composition (FAC) and solid fat content (SFC) profile. Upon CIE, extensive rearrangements of fatty acids among triacylglycerol (TAG) were seen. Generally, CIE not induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of ratio 8:2 and 5:5 of RBDPO:SFO blends. However, CIE induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of the 9:1, 7:3, 6:4, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8 and 1:9 blends, which some of the TAGs were increasing while the other decreasing. These changes in TAG profiles resulted in some changes in the physical properties (especially SFC) of the blends. Generally, the SFC of inter esterified blend were decreased after CIE1 and increased after CIE2, except for sample 10:0, 8:2, 7:3, 5:5 and 9:1 which were decreased after CIE1 and CIE2. As a conclusion, CIE1 and CIE2 successfully changed the physicochemical characteristics of the binary blends. (author)

  13. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

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    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  14. French environmental communication on sunflower and rapeseed oils based on life cycle assessment

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    Badey Laureen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The French “Grenelle” laws sparked a French national experiment trialling the environmental labelling of fast-moving consumer goods. The data required for this labelling scheme are generated by carrying out a life cycle assessment (LCA. The aim of this study is to provide all necessary information to fit the national experiment for two standard oils: sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The complete oil life cycle was studied, from oilseed farming through to the end-of-life of the packaging. We focused heavily on the impacts of crushing and refining. The seed processing data was collected from different plants that are representative of the French crushing/refining industry and packaging site practice. The data inventory was used to calculate the identified environmental labelling indicators, i.e. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water consumption. The production of 100g of refined bulk sunflower and rapeseed emits 89 and 127 g equivalent CO2 and consumes 1.7 L and 0.8 L of water, respectively. Most impacts on the studied indicators stem from the farming phase. Energy and water consumptions during crushing and refining also weigh on the studied indicators. The results of this study provide a relevant overview of all sunflower and rapeseed oils produced in France, and are usable as standard values for vegetable oil producers and users. Oil supply chain operators can use these values to compare to their own process values and gauge the improvements brought about by their ecodesign strategies. For example, using a biomass boiler, using less packaging, and making different choices on seed suppliers can lead to a lower set of impact values.

  15. Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

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    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the best conditions for drying and storing soybeans and sunflower grains to maintain their quality. In the first experiment, the soybeans were found to have initial moisture contents of 25 and 19% (w.b. at different drying air temperatures (75, 90, 105, and 120°C. In the second step, the soybeans were evaluated after they were stored in paper bags and plastic polyethylene at temperatures of 3, 10 and 23°C for six months. In the third experiment, sunflower grains were tested after exposure to drying air temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C, and under storage conditions of 25°C and 50%, 20°C and 60%, 30°C and 40% RH over six months in paper bags and raffia. Drying the sunflower seeds at 45°C and storing them at 30°C and 40% RH led to higher oil yields and lower acid numbers. The oil that was extracted from the acid number was higher for soybean grains that were dried down from initial concentrations of 25% water at a drying air temperature of 120°C. The air temperature in storage at 3°C favored for yield and reduction of the soybean oil acidity.

  16. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

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    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  17. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

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    Andrej GREGORI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil press cakes (OOPC represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation substrates resulted in decreasing production of fruiting bodies. Results show, that although OOPC in small portion can be successfully used as a medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies cultivating substrate, their use is rational only, if no other substrate composing materials can be found or when OOPC usage solves the problem of its deposition.

  18. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship.

  19. Effect of seed quality on oxidative stability of cold-pressed sunflower oil

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    Dimić Etelka B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the storage time, content of the husk and impurities in the seed mass on the oxidative stability of the cold pressed sunflower oil. The oxidative stability of oil was analyzed by the RSM (Response Surface Methodology, where the response value (output of the model was the content of oxidation products measured via specific absorbance at 232 nm for conjugated dienes and 270 nm for conjugated trienes. Analyses were performed on the fresh oil samples and oil samples tempered under the Schaal-Oven’s test conditions (96 h at 63±2ºC. It was concluded that the seed storage time had significant impact on the primary (A1%232nm and secondary (A1%270nm oil oxidation products, both before (b1-p<0,001; b1-p=0,021 and after (b1-p=0,048; b1-p=0,033 the heating of oil. The content of impurities and husks in the seeds used for pressing also had an influence of the conjugated dienes and trienes contents in both, fresh and heated oil samples. However, their impact was not statistically significant. Interaction of seed storage time, the content of impurities and husks also exert some effect on the values of these quality parameters in the fresh oil as well as in the oil after the heat treatment, even though their influence is not significant. The obtained results have shown that the cold pressed sunflower oil had a good oxidative stability at temperatures up to 63±2ºC.

  20. Effects of supplementation of sunflower cake for lactating cows: productive performance and economic analysis Efeitos da suplementação de torta de girassol para vacas lactantes: desempenho produtivo e análise econômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diorio Dias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the performance and estimate the viability of milk production for grazing cows supplemented with concentrate rations containing increasing levels of sunflower cake (0, 24, 48 and 72% DM. In this study were used 20 multiparous and primiparous cows after peak lactation distributed 4x4 Latin Square type. The data corrected milk yield to 3.5% fat showed no difference (P> 0.05 among treatments. Milk production presented linear effect; there was increased production for animals fed rations containing concentrated levels of 24% of sunflower cake and lower production with 72%. The fat content had a quadratic effect, the treatment containing 72% sunflower cake had minimum point; however, the latter had increase in fat presenting result of 3.98% compared to the control, 3.63%. The estimate of the economic viability per liter of milk did not differ (P> 0.05 among treatments, indicating that sunflower cake is a good alternative to lactating cows without causing additional economic burden. In this sense, it is found that the sunflower cake can be employed in supplementing lactating cows until the level of 72%Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho e estimar a viabilidade da produção leiteira para vacas em pastejo, suplementadas com rações concentradas contendo teores crescentes de torta de girassol (0; 24; 48 e 72% na MS. Neste estudo foram utilizadas 20 vacas multíparas e primíparas após o pico de lactação distribuídas em quadrado latino tipo 4x4. Os dados da produção leiteira corrigida para 3,5% de gordura demonstraram não haver diferença entre os tratamentos. A produção de leite apresentou efeito linear, verificou-se maior produção para os animais alimentados com rações contendo teores de 24% de torta de girassol e menor produção com 72%. Houve efeito quadrático para o teor de gordura, o tratamento contendo 72% de torta de girassol apresentou ponto de mínimo; entretanto, este último

  1. Effect of antioxidant butylated hydroxyl anisole on the thermal or oxidative stability of sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus) by ultrasonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Satish Kumar; Shwetha, M V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) as an antioxidant in sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus). The oxidation stability of sunflower oil have been investigated by the effects of varying amounts of BHA. The antioxidant incorporated sunflower oil system and control edible oil were subjected to heating at 180 ± 5 °C continuously for a period of 4 h per day for consecutive 4 days. The parameters used to assess the thermal degradation and oxidation properties of the oils include ultrasonic velocity, viscosity, density and peroxide value. The fatty acid compositions of the oils were measured by gas chromatography. Adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relaxation time and acoustic impedance have been calculated from experimental data. Viscosity, density and ultrasonic velocity change in control oil is from 3.72 × 10(-2) to 13.2 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 918 to 994 kg/m3 and 1412 to 1484 m/s respectively and in sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA is from 3.88 × 10(-2) to 7.52 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 926 to 962 kg/m3 and 1418 to 1463 m/s respectively for 16 h of heat treated oil. The ultrasonic results obtained have shown reduction in thermal degradation and improvement in oxidation stability of antioxidant loaded oil in comparison to base oil. Hence, it can be recommended that sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA can be used for frying without adverse effect on physical properties. The ultrasonic velocity can be used for assessment of stability of frying oil.

  2. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Process parameters optimization for synthesis of methyl ester from sunflower oil using Taguchi technique

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    G. Senthilkumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, transesterification of sunflower oil for obtaining biodiesel was studied. Taguchi’s methodology (L9 orthogonal array was selected to optimize the most significant variables (methanol, catalyst concentration and stirrer speed in transesterification process. Experiments have conducted based on development of L9 orthogonal array by using Taguchi technique. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the regression equations were used to find the optimum yield of sunflower methyl ester under the influence of methanol, catalyst & stirrer speed. The study resulted in a maximum yield of sun flower methyl ester as 96% with the optimal conditions of methanol 110 ml with 0.5% by wt. of sodium hydroxide (NaOH stirred at 1200 rpm. The yield was analyzed on the basis of “larger is better”. Finally, confirmation tests were carried out to verify the experimental results.

  4. Comparison of lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes among south Indian men consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitha, P; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Vasudevan, D M; Kamath, Prakash

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes of normal and diabetic subjects consuming two different types of oil as cooking medium. 70 normal, healthy subjects were taken as controls and 70 subjects with Type 2 diabetes were recruited in patient group. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups of 35 subjects each, consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively as cooking medium. Samples of blood were collected and analyzed for serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions. Total glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were measured in erythrocytes and superoxide dismutase in serum. Triacylglycerols, LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels were high in the diabetic subjects compared to the controls. Total glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values showed significant decrease in diabetic subjects as compared to the controls, while superoxide dismutase values showed significant difference between coconut oil consuming groups. Though lipid profile parameters and oxidative stress were high in Type 2 diabetic subjects compared to controls, no pronounced changes for these parameters were observed between the subgroups (coconut oil vs. sunflower oil).

  5. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

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    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  6. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during the deep frying process; Estudios fisicoquimicos sobre mezclas de aceite de girasol con aceite de chufa prensado en frio durante el proceso de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rehah, F. M.; Anany, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Peroxide Value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC), color and viscosity) were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 degree centigrade {+-} 5 degree centigrade, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25); while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24). Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W) proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process. (Author) 68 refs.

  7. INTENSIFICATION OF MICROBIAL EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE ETHAPOLAN BIOSYNTHESIS ON MIXTURE OF MOLASSES AND SUNFLOWER OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to establish Acinetobacter sp. IMB B-7005 cultivation conditions, which provide the maximal synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan on a mixture of molasses and sunflower oil, and to explore the possibility of replacing refined oil in a mixture with molasses for waste one. On the basis of theoretical calculations of energy consumption for the synthesis of ethapolan and biomass, it was determined that the optimal molar ratio of the concentrations of energy-deficient (sucrose and energy-excessive (sunflower oil substrates in the mixture was 1.0:0.9. Experiments have shown that the highest values of exopolysaccharide synthesis were observed at a molar ratio of monosubstrates in mixture 1.0:1.1, which is as close as possible to the theoretically calculated one. It was shown that increasing concentration of molasses and refined oil in mixture from 1.0 to 1.5% was accompanied by increase in amount of synthesized exopolysaccharide and its synthesizing capacity by 1.2 and 1.3 times, respectively. The possibility of replacing refined oil in a mixture with molasses for various types of waste (after frying potatoes, meat, vegetables and mixed was established. The maximum parameters of exopolysaccharide synthesis (concentration 14 g/l, synthesizing capacity 3.5 g exopolysaccharide/g biomass were observed when using mixed waste oil for both inoculum obtaining and EPS biosynthesis. The obtained results testify to the possibility of development of universal technology for obtaining microbal exopolysaccharide ethapolan on a mixture of waste (molasses and waste oil independent of the type and provider of waste oil.

  8. Antimicrobial effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl bark essential oil in cream-filled cakes and pastries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Food poisoning has been always a major concern in health system of every community and cream-filled products are one of the most widespread food poisoning causes in humans. In present study, we examined the preservative effect of the cinnamon oil in cream-filled cakes. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl (Cinnamon bark essential oil was examined against five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium to investigate its potential for use as a natural preservative in cream-filled baked goods. Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For evaluation of preservative sufficiency of the oil, pathogens were added to cream-filled cakes manually and 1 μL/mL of the essential oil was added to all samples except the blank.  Results: Chemical constituents of the oil were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and twenty five components were identified where cinnamaldehyde (79.73%, linalool (4.08%, cinnamaldehyde para-methoxy (2.66%, eugenol (2.37% and trans-caryophyllene (2.05% were the major constituents. Cinnamon essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens in vitro and the minimum inhibitory concentration values against all tested microorganisms were determined as 0.5 μL/disc except for S. aureus for which, the oil was not effective in tested concentrations. After baking, no observable microorganism was observed in all susceptible microorganisms count in 72h stored samples.  Conclusion: It was concluded that by analysing the sensory quality of the preserved food, cinnamon oil may be considered as a natural preservative in food industry, especially for cream-filled cakes and pastries.

  9. The Effect of Adding Fish Oil Sunflower Seed Oil in the Produce of Yogurt From Skim Milk on Cholesterol Level of Mice (Mus Musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Purnama, A; Malaka, R; Ako, A

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to look at the effect of adding fish oil and sunflower seed oil in the produce of yogurt from skim milk as unsaturated fatty acids that can lower blood cholesterol levels are tested on mice (Mus musculus). Materials research is skim milk, lamuru fish oil, sunflower seed oil, starter plain yogurt Lb.delbrueckii subps. bulgaricus, penoptalin 1%, NaOH 0.1 N and experimental animals. Experimental animals used were 27 mice (Mus musculus) which 2-3 month old male and weighing 25-30 ...

  10. Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Qiao, Qiquan; Dubey, Ashish; Anderson, Gary

    2015-03-25

    Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450°C, 500°C and 550°C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550°C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550°C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1-C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Partial Hydrogenation of Sunflower Oil-derived FAMEs Catalyzed by the Efficient and Recyclable Palladium Nanoparticles in Polyethylene Glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lu, Guanghui

    2017-10-01

    One approach to improve the oxidative stability of biodiesel is the partial hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds. In the current work, an efficient catalytic system using Pd(OAc) 2 dissolved in polyethylene glycol (PEG) which in situ generates palladium nanoparticles was developed in order to promote a selective partial hydrogenation reaction of sunflower oil FAMEs into mono-hydrogenated products avoiding the formation of saturated compounds or trans-isomers. High content of methyl oleate (85.0±1.4%) was obtained by hydrogenation of sunflower oil biodiesel with only 7.0±0.2% stearic acid. Through evaluating the palladium nanoparticles by TEM analysis, it is observed that 4 nm palladium nanoparticles generated in situ in PEG4000 are highly selective for the partial hydrogenation of sunflower oil biodiesel. And the Pd-PEG4000 catalyst can be resued for five times without obvious loss of activity or methyl oleate selectivity.

  12. Influence of dimethylpolysiloxane addition to frying oils: performance of sunflower oil in discontinuous and continuous laboratory frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, N.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils were used to study the influence of dimethylpolysiloxane (DMPS addition (2 mg/Kg on discontinuous and simulated continuous laboratory frying. Analytical methods applied for a direct evaluation of oil degradation included determination of total polar compounds, polymers, oxidized triglyceride monomers and diglycerides. Results indicated that DMPS has a strong positive action in discontinuous frying as differences between samples with and without DMPS were very high and much more pronounced than those attributed to oil unsaturation. However, DMPS was not effective in simulated continuous frying. Comparison from results obtained for discontinuous and simulated continuous frying demonstrated that the surface was well protected from the penetration of oxygen when potatoes are being fried and, in consequence, protection by DMPS in discontinuous frying took place when the oil surface was unprotected.

  13. Predicting the oil contents in sunflower genotype seeds using near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karolina Grunvald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to calibrate the NIR spectroscopy equation to evaluate the oil content of sunflower seeds from different genotypes produced under different environmental conditions in Brazil. The spectra of 901 standard samples obtained from 88 hybrids and 116 lines, which were evaluated in 11 locations, were collected from intact seeds (achenes and correlated with data generated by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The calibration was determined by linear regression using partial least squares to estimate the parameters. The goodness of fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, standard error of calibration (SEC and the standard error of performance (SEP. The wavelengths ranging from 1319 to 1760 nm were selected for the calibration. The R2 was 0.87, the SEC was 2.39, and the SEP was 1.97. The oil content values obtained for the 19 hybrid seeds analyzed by NIR spectroscopy that were not included in the calibration were similar to the values obtained using the chemical method. The similarities between the values obtained using both methods and the R2, SEC and SEP values indicated that it is possible to establish a calibration equation using NIR spectroscopy to determine the oil contents of sunflower seeds produced under Brazilian field conditions.

  14. Enhancing oxidative stability of sunflower oil during convective and microwave heating using grape seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  15. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  16. Silk-Cocoon Matrix Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Transesterification of Sunflower Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sushovan; Yadav, Dipti; Barbora, Lepakshi; Mahanta, Pinakeswar; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel from sunflower oil using lipase chemically immobilized on silk-cocoon matrix in a packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. The immobilization was demonstrated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and activity study. The lipase loading was 738.74 U (~0.01 g lipase powder)/g-lipase-immobilized matrix. The Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) of the free and the immobilized lipase was 451.26 μM and 257.26 μM, respectively. Low Km value of the immobilized lipase is attributed to the ...

  17. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    . Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor...... gallate and lactoferrin did not exert any antioxidative effect in the SL mayonnaise......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  18. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  20. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from castor de-oiled cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana M. Ospina-Guarín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass residues have been used to produce activated carbons. On this process, the activation method and the raw composition determine the properties as porosity and surface area of the charcoal. After the extraction of castor oil, there is a solid byproduct (cake of low added value, which was used in the production of activated carbon to add value to this waste. For this purpose two traditional methods were used, first, physical activation using as activating agents steam, CO2 and mixture of both, and additionally chemical activation using K2CO3 as the activating agent. Some activated carbons were characterized using N2 adsorption isotherms, BET surface areas varied between 255.98 (m2/g and 1218.43 (m2/g. By SEM and EDS analysis was possible to observe that materials obtained by the two types of activation are principally amorphous and morphological characteristics of the carbon obtained by physical activation are very different from those obtained by chemical activation. Finally, through impregnation of inorganic phases of Ni and Mo was revealed that the high dispersion characteristics, these carbonaceous materials will have potential to be used as catalyst support.

  1. Butter differs from olive oil and sunflower oil in its effects on postprandial lipemia and triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins after single mixed meals in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekki, Nadia; Charbonnier, Monique; Borel, Patrick; Leonardi, Jeannie; Juhel, Christine; Portugal, Henri; Lairon, Denis

    2002-12-01

    Accumulation of postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins is generated by assimilation of ingested dietary fat and has been increasingly related to atherogenic risk. Nevertheless, the influence of different kinds of dietary fatty acids on postprandial lipid metabolism is not well established, except for (n-3) polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of test meals containing a common edible fat source of saturated (butter), monounsaturated (olive oil) or (n-6) polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) fatty acids on postprandial lipid and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein responses. After a 12-h fast, 10 healthy young men ingested mixed meals containing 0 g (control) or 40 g fat, provided as butter, olive oil or sunflower oil in a random order. Fasting and postmeal blood samples were collected for 7 h. The no-fat test meal did not elicit any change over baseline except for plasma phospholipids, insulin and nonesterified fatty acids. Conversely, the three fat-containing meals elicited bell-shaped postprandial changes (P butter meal induced a lower postprandial rise of triacylglycerols in serum and chylomicrons (incremental AUC, mmol.h/L: 0.72) than the two unsaturated oils (olive oil: 1.6, sunflower oil: 1.8), which did not differ. Circulating chylomicrons were smaller after the butter meal than after the two vegetable oil meals. The in vitro susceptibility of circulating chylomicrons to hydrolysis by postheparin plasma was higher after sunflower oil than after butter or olive oil. We conclude that butter results in lower postprandial lipemia and chylomicron accumulation in the circulation of young men than olive or sunflower oils after consumption of a single mixed meal.

  2. Effect of chemically reduced palladium supported catalyst on sunflower oil hydrogenation conversion and selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Alshaibani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of sunflower oil was studied in order to improve the conversion and to reduce the trans-isomerization selectivity. The hydrogenation was performed using Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst and Pd/Al2O3 commercial catalyst under similar conditions. The Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation and chemical reduction processes. It was characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis (BET, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The result of sunflower oil hydrogenation on Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst showed a 17% higher conversion and a 23% lower trans-isomerization selectivity compared to the commercial Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The chemical reduction of palladium supported catalyst using potassium borohydride (KBH4 has affected the Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst’s structure and particle size. These most likely influenced its catalytic performance toward higher conversion and lower trans-isomerization selectivity.

  3. Spectroscopic Analysis of Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production from Expired Sunflower Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Wembabazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study characterized heterogeneous biocatalyst synthesized from sucrose, saw dust, and chicken egg shells using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR technique. Acidic sulphonate (–SO3H groups were more visible in the spectrum generated for carbonized and sulphonated sucrose than in carbonized and sulphonated saw dust. This was highlighted further by the significantly higher conversion percentage achieved for sulphonated sucrose (62.5% than sulphonated saw dust (46.6% during esterification of expired sunflower oil (p=0.05. The spectra for calcinated egg shells also showed that the most active form of calcium oxide was produced at calcination temperature of 1000°C. This was confirmed in the single-step transesterification reaction in which calcium oxide generated at 1000°C yielded the highest biodiesel (87.8% from expired sunflower oil. The study further demonstrated the versatility of the FTIR technique in qualitative analysis of biodiesel and regular diesel by confirming the presence of specific characteristic peaks of diagnostic importance. These findings therefore highlight the potential of FTIR-ATR as an inexpensive, fast, and accurate diagnostic means for easy identification and characterization of different materials and products.

  4. Sunflower oil ozonation. Following of the reaction by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Gomez, Maritza F.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the technique of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance can be used for the pursuit of the reaction between the ozone and the unsaturated fatty acids. It's carried out the sunflower oil ozonization to different applied dose of ozone and the index of peroxides and the concentration of aldehydes are determined. The main reaction products were identified by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR 1 H). The intensities of the signs were used to follow the advance of the reaction between the ozone and the sunflower oil. It is was carried out until obtaining an index of peroxides of 1 202 mmol-equiv/kg. The intensities of the signs of the olefinic protons diminish with a gradual increment in the dose of applied ozone, but without ending up disappearing completely. The ozonides of Criegee obtained to applied dose of ozone of 107,1 mg/g were approximately bigger 7,4 times that those obtained at the beginning from the reaction to applied dose of ozone of 15,3 mg/g. The aldehydes protons were observed as a sign of weak intensity in all the spectra. The signs belonging to the olenifics protons of the hydroperoxides in d = 5,55 ppm increases with the increment of the applied dose of ozone. You concludes that to higher applied dose of ozone, haggler is the advance of the ozonization reaction, what belongs together with a bigger formation of oxygenated compounds

  5. Study of the application of sunflower oil in the process of drilling ABNT 1045 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Robert Pereira Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cutting fluids in machining, when chosen and applied adequately can contemplate in benefits during the manufacturing processes. The selected method should allow the cutting fluid to reach the closest possible of the cutting edge lubricating the chip-tool interface. The properties of the fluid are fundamental so that the same facilitates the machining process. However the fluid can represent a great problem for the environment and health of the operator. For that reason, several scientific and technological studies are constantly developed to investigate the performance and alternative applications of cutting fluids in machining operations. This work studies the effect of sunflower oil in the cutting forces for the drilling process of 1045 ABNT steel. The fluid was applied in the form MQL - Minimum Quantity Lubrication for different cutting conditions. The cutting speed, feed rate and the length of the hole were varied. Each one of the cutting variables two levels were used. The results suggest a good acting sunflower oil in the work accomplished.

  6. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid...... and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage......Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...

  7. Ultrasonication Assisted Production of Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil by Using CuO: Mg Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rintu; Jose, Sony; Joyprabu, H.; Johnson, I.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a clean, renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly and alternative fuel used in the diesel engine. The present work was carried out at constant operational conditions such as methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1, catalyst concentration 0.25%, 30 minute reaction time and the reaction temperature at 60°C. Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of sunflower oil (SFO) with methanol, using CuO: Mgas nanocatalyst. This nanocatalyst was prepared by quick precipitation method. The biodiesel yield of 71.78% was achieved under reaction condition. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The FAME conversion yield up to 82.83 % could be obtained under the operating conditions.

  8. In vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test and phytochemical characterization of seeds oil of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma de Mello Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the genotoxic potential of the oil of H. annuus L. (sunflower seeds via the Ames test as well as its oxidative properties and lipid composition. The pre-incubation method, system metabolic activation (S9 fraction and five S. typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA102 were employed for the Ames test. The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were analyzed by standard methods and gas chromatography. A revertant analysis showed no significant differences between the treatment doses (10–200 μl/plate and the negative controls, regardless of S9+ and S9−, and included all of the S. typhimurium strains. Chromatographic analysis showed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated, saturated and total trans-isomers. Among the polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids predominated. The results suggest that the sunflower oil is not genotoxic as indicated by frameshift mutations and base pair substitutions regardless of the treatment dose, but shows dose-dependent toxicity. The oxidative properties of the sunflower oil were consistent with the requirements of national and international standards. However, its composition could also indicate phytotherapeutic properties. Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., Sunflower oil, Genetic toxicity, Gas chromatography

  9. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Prevc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  10. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevc, Tjaša; Levart, Alenka; Cigić, Irena Kralj; Salobir, Janez; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Cigić, Blaž

    2015-08-13

    The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP) of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  11. The Effect of Processing on 14C- Chlofenvinphos Residues in Maize Oil and Bioavailability of its Cake Residues on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; El-Maghraby, S.

    2008-01-01

    Maize seed obtained from 14 C-chlofenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12 % of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and coke amounted to 10 %, 6 % and 69 %, respectively of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C activity in the crude oil could be a gradual reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are more effective steps in the refining processes remove about (63 %). The refined oil contained only about 17 % of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailable. After feeding rats for 5 days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14 C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5 %), while about 20 % was excreted in the feces. About 15 % of the radioactivity was distribution among various organs

  12. Changes in composition and quality of sunflower oils during extraction and degumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapiste, G. H.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different stages of processing on composition and quality of crude sunflower oil was studied through the determination of fatty acids, metal and phosphorus contents, free fatty acids, peroxide and anisidine values, tocopherols, polar compounds, waxes and oxidative stability. No significant changes in the content of individual fatty acids and tocopherols were observed during processing. The composition of some minor constituents as metals, waxes and phospholipids was strongly affected by the extraction and water degumming processes. Sunflower oils obtained by hexane extraction presented a higher initial deterioration but also a higher oxidative stability than oils obtained by pressing.Se estudió la influencia de las distintas etapas del procesamiento sobre la composición y calidad de aceite crudo de girasol a través de la determinación de la composición de ácidos grasos, contenido de fósforo y metales, índice de acidez, índice de peróxido, valor de p-anisidina, tocoferoles, compuestos polares, ceras y estabilidad oxidativa. No se apreció durante el procesamiento ningún cambio significativo en la composición de ácidos grasos y tocoferoles. Los contenidos de algunos compuestos minoritarios como metales, ceras y fosfolípidos resultaron apreciablemente afectados con los procesos de extracción y desgomado con agua. Los aceites de girasol obtenidos por extracción con hexano presentaron un grado de deterioro inicial superior y una mayor estabilidad oxidativa con respecto a los aceites obtenidos por prensado.

  13. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  14. Physico-chemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water deficit conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sunflower seed and seed oils were assessed. Two sunflower cultivars (Gulshan-98 and Suncross were sown in the field. The water stress treatment was applied at the vegetative or the reproductive stage. Analysis of the sunflower seed showed that the oil content decreased (a decline of 10.52% relative to the control significantly (p ≤ 0.05 due to water stress when imposed at either of the growth stages. Both of the sunflower cultivars studied showed differential responses to water stress with respect to oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. A significant negative correlation in oil oleic and linoleic acid was observed in cv. Gulshan-98 under water deficit conditions as compared to Suncross in which no such effect of water stress on oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Water deficit conditions caused a reduction in linolenic acid in Gulshan-98, whereas it remained unaffected in Suncross. The stearic acid content increased in cv. Gulshan-98 due to drought, whereas no effect due to water stress was observed on oil palmitic acid content in either sunflower cultivar. Overall, oil unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged in the drought stressed or normally irrigated plants of both cultivars but saturated fatty acid increased in Gulshan-98. Individual (α, γ, and δ and total tocopherol contents in the seed oil increased significantly with the application of water stress in both cultivars. An assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of the oils of both sunflower cultivars revealed that drought stress caused a marked increase in the content of un-saponifiable matter (18.75% with respect to the control and a decrease in iodine value (5.87% with respect to the control, but saponifcation value, density, specific gravity and refractive index remained unchanged.El efecto de las condiciones de déficit de agua sobre las caracter

  15. Electronic nose guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil using fuzzy logic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Sehwag, Sneha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2017-04-15

    An electronic nose (e-nose), having 18 metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors, guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil is reported. The ranking and screening of MOS sensors, specific for volatile organic compounds, was performed using fuzzy logic. A correlation was examined between rancidity indices of fried oil (total polar compounds (TPC), and triglyceride dimers-polymers (TGDP), among others) and e-nose based odor index. Fuzzy logic screened 6 MOS sensors (LY2/G, LY2/AA, LY2/GH, LY2/gCT1, T30/1, and P30/1) to deconvolute the rancid fried oils using hierarchical clustering on principal component space. A good relationship was noted between rancidity indices and odor index (R 2 >0.85). Based on maximum discard limits of rancidity indices (25% TPC and 10% TGDP), the frying disposal time of 15.2h (TPC) vs. 15.8h (e-nose) and 15.5h (TGDP) vs. 16.3h (e-nose) was determined. The demonstrated methodology holds a potential extension to different fried oils and products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the effects of canola oil versus sunflower oil on the biochemical markers of bone metabolism in osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobe Azemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, omega-3 fatty acids are in the center of attention for their potent anti-inflammatory effects. Osteoporosis as a chronic senile disease is associated with inflammation, and the role of inflammatory mediators has been demonstrated in the recent years. The beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on bone were proven in many animal studies, while to date, no conclusive data is available in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of n-3 fatty acids on bone biomarkers in osteoporotic women. Material and Methods: Forty osteoporotic post-menopausal women were recruited in the study and randomized in receiving either 40 g canola oil or the same amount sunflower oil per day as their dietary oil for 3 months. Serum levels of osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, N telo peptide collagen (NTX and 25- hydroxy vitamin D3 were measured at baseline and at the end of the third month in both groups. Results: In the canola oil group, BALP and NTX were increased after 3 months while Osteocalcin decreased in both groups slightly; however,none of these changes were significant. In both groups, serum vitamin D3 was increased significantly; however, this change between groups was not significant. Conclusion: Canola oil did not affect bone formation and resorption significantly after 3 months consumption. Further investigations with longer follow up are recommended.

  17. Antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation and their effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, Gabriela N; Borgarello, Ana V; Grosso, Nelson R; Fernandez, Héctor; Pramparo, María C; Gayol, María F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation (MD) and investigate their effect on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. MD fractions were prepared in a series of low-pressure stages where rosemary essential oil was the first feed. Subsequently, a distillate (D1) and residue (R1) were obtained and the residue fraction from the previous stage used as the feed for the next. The residue fractions had the largest capacity to capture free radicals, and the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was due to oxygenated monoterpenes, specifically α-terpineol and cis-sabinene hydrate. Oxidative stability results showed the residues (R1 and R4) and butylated hydroxytoluene had greater antioxidant activity than either the distillate fractions or original rosemary essential oil. The residue fractions obtained by short path MD of rosemary essential oil could be used as a natural antioxidants by the food industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL CAKE BY KOH ACTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay Tay,; Murat Erdem,; Burak Ceylan,; Selhan Karagöz

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the adsorption behavior of the methylene blue (MB) dye onto the activated carbon produced from soybean oil cake by chemical activation with KOH at 800 °C. The adsorption isotherms, kinetic models, and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption were studied. The Langmuir isotherm showed a better fit than the Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption rate was described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The negative values of ΔG° and the positive values of ΔH° indicate that the adso...

  19. Esterification of oil adsorbed on palm decanter cake into methyl ester using sulfonated rice husk ash as heterogeneous acid catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryawati, Noor; Erwin, Maniam, Gaanty Pragas

    2017-02-01

    Palm Decanter cake (PDC) which is categorized as the waste from palm oil mill has been found to contain residual crude palm oil. The oil adsorbed on the PDC (PDC-oil) can be extracted and potentially used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Feedstock from waste like PDC-oil is burdened with high free fatty acids (FFAs) which make the feedstock difficult to be converted into biodiesel using basic catalyst. Therefore, in this study, a solid acid, RHA-SO3H catalyst was synthesized by sulfonating rice husk ash (RHA) with concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA-SO3H prepared was characterized with TGA, FTIR, BET, XRD, FE-SEM, and Hammett indicators (methyl red, bromophenol blue, and crystal violet). PDC was found to have about 11.3 wt. % oil recovered after 1 hour extraction using ultrasound method. The presence of sulfonate group was observed in IR spectrum, and the surface area of RHA-SO3H was reduced to 37 m2.g-1 after impregnation of sulfonate group. The RHA-SO3H catalyst showed that it can work for both esterification of free fatty acid which is present in PDC-oil, and transesterification of triglycerides into methyl ester. The results showed highest methyl ester content of 70.2 wt.% at optimal conditions, which was 6 wt.% catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio of 17:1 for 5 hours at 120 °C.

  20. Phytase production by thermophilic mold Sporotrichum thermophile in solid-state fermentation and its application in dephytinization of sesame oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2006-06-01

    The phytase production by Sporotrichum thermophile TLR50 was recorded on all the commonly used animal feed ingredients tested to varying degrees in solid-state fermentation. Enzyme production increased to 180 U/g of dry moldy residue (DMR) in sesame oil cake at 120 h and 45 degrees C at the initial substrate-to-moisture ratio of 1:2.5 and aw of 0.95. Supplementation of sesame oil cake with glucose and ammonium sulfate further enhanced phytase titer (282 U/g of DMR). An overall 76% enhancement in phytase production was achieved owing to optimization. The mold secreted acid phosphatase, amylase, xylanase, and lipase along with phytase. By the action of phytase, inorganic phosphate was liberated efficiently, leading to dephytinization of sesame oil cake.

  1. Composition of plasma and atheromatous plaque among coronary artery disease subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Rajesh, P C; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nair, Shiv K; Vasudevan, D M

    2012-12-01

    Coconut oil, which is rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids, is the principal cooking medium of the people of Kerala, India. Replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat is effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, the effect of substituting coconut oil with sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plaque has not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore evaluated and compared the fatty acid composition of plasma and plaque among subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium. Endarterectomy samples and plasma samples were obtained from subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 71). The subjects were grouped based on the type of oil they were using as their cooking medium (coconut oil or sunflower oil). The fatty acid composition in the plaques and the plasma was determined by HPLC and the data were analyzed statistically. Sunflower oil consumers had elevated concentrations of linoleic acid (p = 0.001) in plasma, while coconut oil users had higher myristic acid levels (p = 0.011) in plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids did not differ significantly between the two groups in the plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the plaques in both groups of subjects. In contrast to previous reports, long-chain saturated fatty acids dominated the lipid content of plaque in this population, and the fatty acid composition of plaque was not significantly different between the two groups. No correlation between fatty acids of plasma and plaque was observed in either group. A change in cooking medium, although it altered the plasma fatty acid composition, was not reflected in the plaque composition.

  2. Intensification of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. IМV B-7005 cultivation on sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivahniuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS by the ability of their solutions to change the rheological properties of aqueous systems are widely used in various industries. In recent years, research on the use of industrial waste (including oil-containing to obtain practically valuable microbial metabolites intensified. Materials and methods.Cultivation of Acinetobactersp. IМV B-7005 strain was performed in liquid medium, containing as a carbon source sunflower oil (1−5 %, v/v, a source of nitrogen – ammonium nitrate (0.4−0.8 g/l, a source of pantothenate − multivitamin complex «Complevit» (0.00085 and0.00095 %. EPSconcentration was determined gravimetrically after precipitation with isopropanol, EPS-synthesizing ability − as a ratio of EPS concentration to biomass concentration, wich was expressed as g EPS / g biomass. Results and discussions. It was established that increasing the concentration of sunflower oil in basic medium for Acinetobacter sp. IMV B -7005 cultivation to 4−5% was accompanied by decrease of ethapolan synthesis compared with those in the medium containing lower (2−3 % substrate concentration. Increasing ammonium nitrate content to 0.6 g/l and/or pantothenate concentration to 0.00095% in a medium with 5% sunflower oil allowed to increase the amount of ethapolan synthesized up to 6.6−6.7 g/l, that is in 1.3−1.4 times higher than in the basic medium with the same concentration of the substrate but lower NH4NO3 (0.4 g/l and pantothenate (0.00085 %. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate the possibility of microbial polysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. ІMV B -7005 cultivation in the medium with a high content of sunflower oil. These data are the basis for the development of ethapolan technology using as a substrate fried oil.

  3. Formation of oil-in-water emulsions from natural emulsifiers using spontaneous emulsification: sunflower phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaiko, Jennifer; Sastrosubroto, Ashtri; McClements, David Julian

    2015-11-18

    This study examined the possibility of producing oil-in-water emulsions using a natural surfactant (sunflower phospholipids) and a low-energy method (spontaneous emulsification). Spontaneous emulsification was carried out by titrating an organic phase (oil and phospholipid) into an aqueous phase with continuous stirring. The influence of phospholipid composition, surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), initial phospholipids location, storage time, phospholipid type, and preparation method was tested. The initial droplet size depended on the nature of the phospholipid used, which was attributed to differences in phospholipid composition. Droplet size decreased with increasing SOR and was smallest when the phospholipid was fully dissolved in the organic phase rather than the aqueous phase. The droplets formed using spontaneous emulsification were relatively large (d > 10 μm), and so the emulsions were unstable to gravitational separation. At low SORs (0.1 and 0.5), emulsions produced with phospholipids had a smaller particle diameter than those produced with a synthetic surfactant (Tween 80), but at a higher SOR (1.0), this trend was reversed. High-energy methods (microfluidization and sonication) formed significantly smaller droplets (d < 10 μm) than spontaneous emulsification. The results from this study show that low-energy methods could be utilized with natural surfactants for applications for which fine droplets are not essential.

  4. Sunflower cake to sows feeding on gestation and lactation phases / Torta de girassol na alimentação de matrizes suínas em gestação e lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maurício Gonçalves dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the use of sunflower cake in the rations to gestating and lactating sows. Forty eight sows, 24 gestating and 24 lactating, with the same genetic background were used. The treatments were represented by the levels of sunflower cake included in the rations of gestating and lactating sows, been: 0.0; 5.0; 10.0; 15.0%. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized block, with four treatments and six repetitions, been the block represented by the reproductive order. Each sow represented one repetition. The characteristics evaluated were back fat thickness, feed consumption, interval weaning to estrus, placenta’s weight and reproductive parameters. No significant effects were observed on reproductive performance, except the feed consumption during the lactation that was observed a negative linear effect. The sunflower cake can be included until the level of 20% in feeding programs to sows after 80-days of gestation and to the lactation phase.Foram realizados dois experimentos visando avaliar a utilização da torta de girassol nas rações de matrizes suínas em final de gestação (80 a 110 dias de prenhez e em matrizes em lactação (a partir do parto até o desmame aos 21 dias. Foram utilizadas 48 matrizes, 24 gestantes e 24 lactantes de mesma genética comercial. Os tratamentos consistiram na inclusão de 4 níveis de torta de girassol nas rações de gestação e lactação, sendo: 0,0; 5,0; 10,0 e 15,0% . O delineamento nos experimentos foi em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o bloco representado pela ordem do parto. Cada matriz representou uma repetição. Foram avaliados a espessura de toucinho, o consumo diário de ração, o peso das placentas, o intervalo desmame-cio e parâmetros reprodutivos. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 sobre nenhum dos parâmetros estudados, exceto para o consumo de ração na fase de lacta

  5. Exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) and sunflower oil in human adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Villegas, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is a potential oilseed crop because it is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (omega-3 fatty acid). To evaluate the exposure of fatty acids after a single oral administration of sacha inchi or sunflower oil in healthy volunteers. Plasma fatty acids concentrations were assayed by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector in 18 adult subjects. After fasting, blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after ingestion of 10 or 15 ml of sacha inchi oil or sunflower oil. The proportion ALA/linoleic acid was 1.37 in sacha inchi oil and 0.01 in sunflower oil. ALA, lauric acid, palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels changed over time after sacha inchi oil ingestion but not with sunflower oil. The time at maximal concentration (tmax) for ALA was 2 h after sacha inchi oil ingestion. No ALA in plasma was observed after sunflower oil consumption. The maximal concentration of ALA was 2.84 ± 0.36 mg/ml in women and 0.94 ± 0.57 mg/ml in men, p  0.05). There is a trend for higher plasma ALA levels with 15 ml sacha inchi oil. After 2 h of consumption, plasma delta triacylglycerol were reduced with sunflower oil but slightly increased with sacha inchi oil. A reduction in plasma delta triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein cholesterol was observed with both oils. Consumption of sacha inchi oil increased ALA and DHA in plasma.

  6. Using pre-heated sunflower oil as fuel in a diesel cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalibera, H.C.; Neto, P.H.W.; Martini, J. [State Univ. of Ponta Grossa (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 100 per cent sunflower oil was used in a tractor to compare its performance with petroleum diesel. Work trials were carried out for 50 hours on a single cylinder direct injection micro-tractor. In the first trial (E-1), the temperature of the vegetable oil was the same as the air temperature of the engine, while in the second trial (E-2), the oil was heated to a temperature of about 90 degrees C. Only petrodiesel was used in the third (E-3) trial. The head gasket burned in the first test after 50 hours of operation. An increase in compression was noted during trials E-1 and E-2. The carbonized mass in the nozzle of the E-2 trial was 81.5 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The carbonized mass in the intake system of the E-2 trial was 51.7 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The exhaust system of the E-2 trial was 33.4 per cent lower than that of the E-1 trial. For the combustion chamber, the carbonization of the E-1 trial was nearly the same as in the E-2 trial. The hourly fuel consumption of the E-1 trial was 2.3 per cent higher than petrodiesel, while E-2 trial was 0.7 per cent higher than petrodiesel. In the first 2 tests, the lubricating oil was contaminated by vegetable oil fuel. In general, results from the first trial were better than results from the second trial.

  7. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil over potassium loaded alumina as heterogeneous catalyst: The effect of process parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovic Milos M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous catalysis is in recent focus of research for biodiesel production from vegetable oils because of advantages such as easy separation and reuse of catalysts, although homogeneous catalysis is most commonly used method. The aim of this study was preparation of γ-Al2O3 support by modified sol-gel procedure, synthesis of the KI/Al2O3 catalyst and testing its activity in the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol. Influences of different process parameters on conversion of sunflower oil to methyl esters were examined. The gained results implicate that the potassium iodide incorporation into/onto the structure of γ-Al2O3 significantly influences textural and structural properties of the catalyst. Additionally, the catalyst basic strength is increased and all together those properties are positively affecting the activity of the catalyst in the reaction of transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol. The impregnation of alumina with potassium iodide resulted in the additional formation of basic catalytically active sites. The surface properties of the catalyst have an essential impact on its catalytic performance. Under relatively mild process conditions and relatively short reaction time, the usage of the KI/Al2O3 catalyst resulted in very high conversion to fatty acids methyl esters (i.e. 99.99 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172061 i br. TR 34008

  9. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  10. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [es

  11. Pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renny, Andrew; Santhosh, Viswanathan; Somkuwar, Nitin; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Bhargava, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen. As per literature, presence of heavy nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds leads to catalyst deactivation. Here, an attempt has been made to tune pyrolytic reactions to optimize the N and O content of the pyrolytic bio-oil. Bio-oil conversion and hydrogen yield decreased as reaction progressed, which attributes to temporary loss of catalytic activity by blockage of catalyst pores by carbon deposition. Further, retention of steam reforming activity after repetitive steam activation suggests long-term catalyst usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of heating temperatures and time on deformation energy and oil yield of sunflower bulk seeds in compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Sigalingging, R.; Demirel, C.

    2018-02-01

    The deformation energy (J) and percentage oil yield (%) of sunflower bulk seeds under the influence of heat treatment temperatures and heating time were examined in compression test using the universal compression testing machine and vessel diameter of 60 mm with a plunger. The heat treatment temperatures were between 40 and 100 °C and the heating time at specific temperatures of 40 and 100 °C ranged from 15 to 75 minutes. The bulk sunflower seeds were measured at a pressing height of 60 mm and pressed at a maximum force of 100 kN and speed of 5 mm/min. Based on the compression results, the deformation energy and oil yield increased along with increasing heat treatment temperatures. The results were statistically significant (p 0.05).

  13. Optimization of the protein concentration process from residual peanut oil-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayol, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the best process conditions for preparing protein concentrate from residual peanut oil-cake (POC. The study was carried out on POC from industrial peanut oil extraction. Different protein extraction and precipitation conditions were used: water/ flour ratio (10:1, 20:1 and 30:1, pH (8, 9 and 10, NaCl concentration (0 and 0.5 M, extraction time (30, 60 and 120 min, temperature (25, 40 and 60 °C, extraction stages (1, 2 and 3, and precipitation pH (4, 4.5 and 5. The extraction and precipitation conditions which showed the highest protein yield were 10:1 water/flour ratio, extraction at pH 9, no NaCl, 2 extraction stages of 30 min at 40 °C and precipitation at pH 4.5. Under these conditions, the peanut protein concentrate (PC contained 86.22% protein, while the initial POC had 38.04% . POC is an alternative source of protein that can be used for human consumption or animal nutrition. Therefore, it adds value to an industry residue.El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar las mejores condiciones para obtener un concentrado de proteínas a partir de la torta residual de maní (POC. El estudio se llevó a cabo en POC provenientes de la extracción industrial de aceite de maní. Se utilizaron distintas condiciones para la extracción y precipitación de proteínas: relación agua / harina (10:1, 20:1 y 30:1, pH de extracción (8, 9 y 10, concentración de NaCl (0 y 0,5 M, tiempo de extracción (30, 60 y 120 min, temperatura (25, 40 y 60 °C, número de etapas de extracción (1, 2 y 3, y el pH de precipitación (4, 4,5 y 5. Las condiciones de extracción y de precipitación que mostraron mayor rendimiento de proteína fueron: relación de 10:1 en agua / harina, pH de extracción de 9, en ausencia de NaCl, 2 etapas de extracción de 30 min cada una a 40 °C y el pH de precipitación de 4,5. En estas condiciones, el concentrado de proteína de maní (PC fue de 86,22%, mientras que el porcentaje de proteínas de

  14. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  15. Quantification and Classification of Corn and Sunflower Oils as Adulterants in Olive Oil Using Chemometrics and FTIR Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Abdul; Che Man, Y. B.

    2012-01-01

    Commercially, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is subjected to be adulterated with low-price oils having similar color to EVOO. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been successfully used for classification and quantification of corn (CO) and sunflower oils (SFOs) in EVOO sets. The combined frequency regions of 3027–3000, 1076–860, and 790–698 cm−1 were used for classification and quantification of CO in EVOO; meanwhile, SFO was analyzed using frequency regions of 3025–3000 and 1400–985 cm−1. Discriminant analysis can make classification of pure EVOO and EVOO adulterated with CO and SFO with no misclassification reported. The presence of CO in EVOO was determined with the aid of partial least square calibration using FTIR normal spectra. The calibration and validation errors obtained in CO's quantification are 0.404 and 1.13%, respectively. Meanwhile, the first derivative FTIR spectra and PLS calibration model were preferred for quantification of SFO in EVOO with high coefficient of determination (R 2) and low errors, either in calibration or in validation sample sets. PMID:22448127

  16. Food grade microemulsion systems: Sunflower oil/castor oil derivative-ethanol/water. Rheological and physicochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori Cortés, Noelia; Lorenzo, Gabriel; Califano, Alicia N

    2018-05-01

    Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable systems that have attracted considerable attention in the food industry as delivery systems for many hydrophobic nutrients. These spontaneous systems are highly dependent on ingredients and composition. In this work phase diagrams were constructed using two surfactants (Kolliphor RH40 and ELP), water, sunflower oil, and ethanol as cosurfactant, evaluating their physicochemical properties. Stability of the systems was studied at 25 and 60 °C, monitoring turbidity at 550 nm for over a month to identify the microemulsion region. Conductivity was measured to classify between water-in-oil and oil-in-water microemulsions. The phase diagram constructed with Kolliphor RH40 exhibited a larger microemulsion area than that formulated with Kolliphor ELP. All formulations showed a monomodal droplet size distribution with low polydispersity index (<0.30) and a mean droplet size below 20 nm. Systems with higher water content presented a Newtonian behavior; increasing the dispersed phase content produced a weak gel-like structure with pseudoplastic behavior under flow conditions that was satisfactorily modeled to obtain structural parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON CRUDE OIL YIELD AND GERMINATION OF SUNFLOWER-TANAY VARIETY (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. VAİZOĞULLAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma rays on crude oil yield, seedling growth, germination and antimicrobial activity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus. As plant materials, sunflower variety Tanay seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological.To determine seed viability, tetrazolium chloride (TTC test was performed. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts and seeds were subjected to germination tests. The seeds were treated with 100 ppm doses of GA3 for 24 hours (GA, soaking for 24 hours (SB, preheating for 24 hours in a week (PH and precooling for 24 hours in a week (PC for optimization of germination.The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy. As a result of testing of seed viability, 95% viability in seeds was determined. In 12L/12D light photoperiod, 25% germination in seeds was detected at GA application the highest, the lowest 5% germination in seeds was determined in PC application. It was found that minimum and maximum values ranged between 5.72and 10.81% for humidity rate.Extraction of the seed of Sunflower-Tanay was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours. Antimicrobial activity of Sunflower-Tanay extract were tested by a disk diffusion method. Extracts of the H.annuus L.(sunflower-Tanay showed no antimicrobial activity against M.luteus NCIMB 13267 and E. coli ATCC 25922.

  18. Comparison of four different enhancing methods for preparing biodiesel through transesterification of sunflower oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiulian; Ma, Haile; You, Qinghong; Wang, Zhenbin; Chang, Jinke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Four enhancing methods for preparing biodiesel were compared systematically. ► Two new enhancing methods, FPUI and PUI, were applied to prepare biodiesel. ► The energy consumptions of the four enhancing methods were studied. ► UIMS and PUI used less catalyst, methanol, energy consumption and shorter time. -- Abstract: Four different enhancing methods including mechanical stirring (MS), flat plate ultrasonic irradiation (FPUI), flat plate ultrasonic irradiation with mechanical stirring (UIMS) and probe ultrasonic irradiation (PUI) were studied to select a better one that need less catalyst, energy consumption and time to reach equilibrium for preparing biodiesel through transesterification of sunflower oil. The molar ratio of methanol to oil (3:1, 4:1, 5:1, 6:1, 7:1, 10:1 and 15:1), the catalyst concentration (0.5 wt.%, 1.0 wt.%, 1.5 wt.% and 2.0 wt.% of the weight of oil), the equilibrium time and energy consumption were studied. The PUI and UIMS methods reached the highest biodiesel conversion when methanol to oil ratio was 5:1 while that for MS was 6:1 and for FPUI was7:1. The suitable catalyst concentration for the reaction was 1.5 wt.%. At the same condition, the PUI and UIMS reached maximum biodiesel conversion about 25 min and that for MS and FPUI was about 50 min. The energy consumption of PUI and UIMS had no significant difference and were 0.19 kW h, 0.18 kW h, respectively. Results showed that under the same condition, UIMS and PUI used less catalyst, less methanol, shorter time and less energy consumption than MS and FPUI with the same biodiesel conversion.

  19. Silk-Cocoon Matrix Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Transesterification of Sunflower Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushovan Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from sunflower oil using lipase chemically immobilized on silk-cocoon matrix in a packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. The immobilization was demonstrated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and activity study. The lipase loading was 738.74 U (~0.01 g lipase powder/g-lipase-immobilized matrix. The Km (Michaelis-Menten constant of the free and the immobilized lipase was 451.26 μM and 257.26 μM, respectively. Low Km value of the immobilized lipase is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the matrix that facilitated the substrate diffusion to the enzyme surface. The biodiesel yield of 81.62% was obtained at 48 hours reaction time, 6 : 1 methanol : oil ratio (v/v, and 30°C. The immobilized lipase showed high operational stability at 30°C. The substrate conversion was only marginally decreased till third cycle (each of 48 hours duration of the reaction since less than even 5% of the original activity was decreased in each of the second and third cycle. The findings demonstrated the potential of the silk-cocoon as lipase immobilization matrix for industrial production of biodiesel.

  20. Temperature and duration of heating of sunflower oil affect ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privé, F; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2010-02-01

    Sunflower oil heated at 110 or 150 degrees C for 1, 3, or 6h was incubated with ruminal content in order to investigate the effects of temperature and duration of heating of oil on the ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro. When increased, these 2 parameters acted together to decrease the disappearance of linoleic acid in the media by inhibiting the isomerization of linoleic acid, which led to a decrease in conjugated linoleic acids and trans-C18:1 production. Nevertheless, trans-10 isomer production increased with heating temperature, suggesting an activation of Delta(9)-isomerization, whereas trans-11 isomer production decreased, traducing an inhibition of Delta(12)-isomerization. The amount of peroxides generated during heating was correlated with the proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates so that they might explain, at least in part, the observed effects. The effects of heating temperature and duration on ruminal bacteria community was assessed using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Ruminal bacterial population significantly differed according to heating temperature, but was not affected by heating duration. Heating of fat affected ruminal biohydrogenation, at least in part because of oxidative products generated during heating, by altering enzymatic reactions and bacterial population. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.; Oeztuerk, E.; Can, Oe.; Conkur, E.S.; Nas, S.; Con, A.H.; Can, A.C.; Topcu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

  2. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  3. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  4. The use of papain gel cream and sunflower oil in promoting healing in a wound in dogs: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y.H. Porsani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Papain is a proteolytic enzyme removed from the leaves of green papaya and/or latex. This enzyme is widely known as a medicinal fruit used extensively in human medicine for the treatment of wounds of various etiologies. However, studies and reports in veterinary medicine are scarce. Another herbal drug widely used in wound healing is Sunflower oil (Helianthus annus. It has inflammatory and antimicrobial properties which stimulate the local neovascularization, promoting tissue granulation, cell migration, fibroblast proliferation, and differentiation. Three dogs were treated with infected necrosis wounds, considered large, extent, and severe, with varied etiology. All cases were treated with papain gel with the exception of one dog, which was given the sunflower oil at the end of the treatment. Papain gel shows effectiveness in the treatment of wounds especially with wound debridement and removal of necrotic tissue. In addition, the healing time was shorter when compared to the treatment with sunflower oil. Finally, the herbal drugs have a low cost and high accessibility. This study contributes to create a new research regarding the use of this drug in animal wound healing.

  5. Biosorption of eriochrome black t and astrazon fggl blue using almond and cotton seed oil cake biomass in a batch mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safa, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the present research study, the biosorption of Eriochrome Black T (EBT) and Astrazon FGGL blue (A-FGGL) onto novel biomasses Almond (Prunus dulcis) oil cake and Cotton seed oil cake respectively was investigated in the batch mode using different process parameters like pH, particle size, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature. Maximum biosorption capacity was observed at pH 3 for EBT onto almond oil cake and pH2 for Astrazon FGGL blue onto cotton seed oil cake.The biosorption capacity was efficient at the smallest particle size of biosorbent. The amount of dye sorbed (mg/g) decreased with the decrease in biosorbent dose and increased with increase in initial dye concentration and temperature. Optimum contact time for equilibrium to achieve was found to be 120 and 180 minutes for EBT and A-FGGL blue, respectively. The Langmuir isotherm model was best fitted to experimental data. The biosorption followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model suggesting a chemisorption mechanism. The positive value of deltaH showed the endothermic nature of the process. In this research, the influence of electrolytes, heavy metals and surfactants on the removal of dyes was also examined. (author)

  6. Detection of sunflower oil in extra virgin olive oil by fast differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Boerrigter-Eenling, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an economically valuable product, due to its high quality and premium price. Therefore it is vulnerable for adulteration by means of the addition of cheaper vegetable oils. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been suggested as a fast technique for the

  7. In vitro assessment of bio-augmented minerals from peanut oil cakes fermented by Aspergillus oryzae through Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadh, Pardeep Kumar; Chawla, Prince; Bhandari, Latika; Kaushik, Ravinder; Duhan, Joginder Singh

    2017-10-01

    Present study was carried out to assess the significances of solid state fermentation of peanut oil cakes (POC) by Aspergillus oryzae on in vitro bioavailability of minerals (iron, zinc and calcium) and cellular transport, retention and uptake from POC through Caco-2 cells. Bioavailability of iron, zinc and calcium of POC was examined by means of a combined simulated gastrointestinal digestion/Caco-2 cell system. Bio-augmentation of minerals of fermented POC attributed a positive, statistically significant increased influence on minerals retention, transport and uptake values when compared with that of respective inorganic salts as reference. Results revealed increased cellular ferritin content from fermented POC digests than the digests of free form of respective inorganic salt. In prospect of the present investigation the fermented POC samples showed significantly higher iron, zinc and calcium bioavailability and enormous possible health benefits.

  8. Evaluation of Castor Oil Cake Starch and Recovered Glycerol and Development of "Green" Composites Based on Those with Plant Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, José Luis; Trindade Cursino, Ana Cristina; Ketzer Saul, Cyro; Sierrakowski, Maria Rita; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Satyanarayana, Kestur Gundappa

    2016-01-27

    Continuous efforts are being made in some countries for the recovery of crude glycerin (RG/CG) and castor oil cake (COC), the two byproducts of biodiesel production. These are expected to help, not only in addressing environmental safety, but also in adding value to those byproducts, which otherwise may go to waste. Finding ways to utilize those byproducts underlines the main objective of this study. This paper presents the evaluation of (i) COC, glycerin and banana and sugarcane fibers for moisture content; (ii) COC for structural and thermal properties; and (iii) CG for its chemical characteristics. The possibility of using COC and CG with the selected fibers as reinforcement in the development of bio-composites is attempted through thermo-molding. Results revealed enhanced mechanical properties for these composites. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the observed morphology.

  9. Optimisation of enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from high oleic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Sheida; De Clercq, Nathalie; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-05-01

    High oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and a fatty acid (FA) mixture were inter-esterified in a solvent-free system catalysed by Lipozyme RM IM to produce a cocoa butter equivalent (CBE). The effects of reaction conditions on the percentage of saturate-oleoyl-saturate (SOS) and saturate-saturate-oleoyl (SSO) triacylglycerols (TAGs) were studied. The process was further optimised by response surface methodology. A five-factor response surface design was used to investigate the influences of the five major factors and their mutual relationships. The five factors were substrate ratio (A, FA/HOSO, mol mol⁻¹), enzyme load (B, wt% based on substrates), water content (C, wt% based on substrates), reaction temperature (D,°C) and reaction time (E, in hours) varying at three levels together with two star point levels. The highest yield (59.1% SOS) and lowest acyl migration (2.9% SSO) was obtained at 10% enzyme load, 1% water content, 1:7 substrate mole ratio, 65°C reaction temperature and 6 h reaction time. All the investigated factors except substrate ratio had significant effect on acyl migration. The quadratic response models sufficiently described the acidolysis reaction. All parameters had significant effect on the percentage of SOS TAGs. Based on the models, the reaction was optimised to obtain a maximum yield of SOS TAGs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Distribution of olive oil phenolic compounds in rat tissues after administration of a phenolic extract from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Rubió, Laura; Borràs, Xenia; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2012-03-01

    The distribution and accumulation of olive oil phenolic compounds in the body are topics lacked of information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability, metabolism and distribution of phenolic compounds from olive cake. The metabolism and distribution of phenolic compounds were examined by UPLC-MS/MS after an acute intake of a phenolic extract from olive cake, analyzing plasma and tissues (heart, brain, liver, kidney, spleen, testicle and thymus) 1, 2 and 4 h after ingestion using Wistar rats as the in vivo model. The results showed a wide distribution of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in the tissues, with a main detoxification route through the kidneys. Highlighting the quantification of the free forms of some phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein derivative in plasma (Cmax 4 h: 24 nmol/L) and brain (Cmax 2 h: 2.8 nmol/g), luteolin in kidney (Cmax 1 h: 0.04 nmol/g), testicle (Cmax 2 h: 0.07 nmol/g) and heart (Cmax 1 h: 0.47 nmol/g); and hydroxytyrosol in plasma (Cmax 2 h: 5.2 nmol/L), kidney (Cmax 4 h: 3.8 nmol/g) and testicle (Cmax 2 h: 2.7 nmol/g). After a single ingestion of olive oil phenolic compounds, these were absorbed, metabolized and distributed through the blood stream to practically all parts of the body, even across the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  12. Stearic sunflower oil as a sustainable and healthy alternative to palm oil : A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, Anushree; Merrien, Andre; Decocq, Guillaume; Fine, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil is widely used in the food industry because of its lower cost, high oxidative stability index, long shelf-life, and a reasonable replacement of trans fats. However, increased palm oil production reduces biodiversity, damages the ecosystem, and poses health risks to humans. Unsustainable development of palm plantations has caused deforestation and loss of natural habitat, rendering many species (Sumatran orangutans, elephants, and tigers) critically endangered. Similarly, decompositio...

  13. Vitamin B12 biosynthesis over waste frying sunflower oil as a cost effective and renewable substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajfarajollah, Hamidreza; Mokhtarani, Babak; Mortaheb, Hamidreza; Afaghi, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Statistical experimental designs were used to develop a medium based on waste frying sunflower oil (WFO) and other nutrient sources for production of vitamin B12 (VB12) by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii PTCC 1674. The production of acetic acid and propionic acid were also evaluated using the same microorganism. The amount of WFO in the media was initially optimized. The amount of 4 % w/v of oil found to be an appropriate amount for production of VB12. A Plackett Burman design was then employed to identify nutrients that have significant effect on the production of VB12 in the WFO media. Dimethylbenzimidazolyl (DMB), cobalt chloride, ferrous sulfate, and calcium chloride were the most important compounds. The level optimization of nutrients as the significant factors was finally performed using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. The model predicted that a medium containing 35.56 mg/L DMB, 14.69 mg/L CoCl2.6H2O, 5.82 mg/L FeSO4.7H2O, and 11.41 mg/L CaCl2.2H2O gives the maximum VB12 production of 2.60 mg/L. The optimized medium provides a final concentration of vitamin 170 % higher than that by the original medium. This study offers valuable insights on a cost-effective carbon source for industrial production of food-grade VB12.

  14. Cholesterol and stigmasterol within a sunflower oil matrix: Thermal degradation and oxysterols formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Poyato, Candelaria; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the lipid matrix surrounding sterols exert a great influence in their thermal oxidation process. The objective of this work was to assess the oxidation susceptibility of equal amounts of cholesterol and stigmasterol within a sunflower oil lipid matrix (ratio 1:1:200) during heating (180°C, 0-180min). Remaining percentage of sterols was determined and seven sterol oxidation products (SOPs) were analysed for each type of sterol along the heating treatment. Evolution of the fatty acid profile and vitamin E content of the oil was also studied. Overall oxidation status of the model system was assessed by means of Peroxides Value (PV) and TBARS. PV remained constant from 30min onwards and TBARS continued increasing along the whole heating treatment. Degradation of both cholesterol and stigmasterol fitted a first order curve (R(2)=0.937 and 0.883, respectively), with very similar degradation constants (0.004min(-1) and 0.005min(-1), respectively). However, higher concentrations of oxidation products were found from cholesterol (79μg/mg) than from stigmasterol (53μg/mg) at the end of the heating treatment. Profile of individual oxidation products was similar for both sterols, except for the fact that no 25-hydroxystigmasterol was detected. 7α-Hydroxy and 7-keto-derivatives were the most abundant SOPs at the end of the treatment. PUFA and vitamin E suffered a significant degradation along the process, which was correlated to sterols oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh, Munir A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  17. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  18. Sunflower Oil and Nannochloropsis oculata Microalgae as Sources of Unsaturated Fatty Acids for Mitigation of Methane Production and Enhancing Diets' Nutritive Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Ali S; Kholif, Ahmed E; Kholif, Abdelkader M; Salama, Reda; El-Alamy, Hamza A; Olafadehan, Olurotimi A

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this assay was to investigate the effect of adding sunflower oil, Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae and their mixture at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% to three total mixed rations (TMRs) with different concentrate:forage ratios (40C:60F, 50C:50F, and 60C:40F) on in vitro gas production (GP), methane (CH 4 ) production, and nutrient degradability. Asymptotic GP, GP rate, CH 4 concentration/g acid detergent fiber (ADF), dry matter (DM) degradability (DMD), short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and ruminal bacteria population increased, but neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability (NDFD), ADF degradability (ADFD), and protozoa count decreased with increasing concentrate level in the TMR. Methane production/g DM and NDF was higher for 50C:50F TMR. Sunflower oil reduced asymptotic GP, lag time, CH 4 production/g ADF, ammonia-N (NH 3 -N), and SCFA. Compared to the control treatments, additives decreased GP rate, while sunflower oil/N. oculata mixture increased DMD and NDFD. All additives at 5% increased GP rate and lag time and decreased CH 4 production/g DM, ADF, and NDF, ruminal NH 3 -N, and protozoa count. All additives at 2% increased DMD, NDFD and ADFD, SCFA, and bacteria population. Supplementation of TMR, containing different concentrate:forage ratios, with sunflower oil, N. oculata, and sunflower oil/N. oculata mixture at different doses modified in vitro GP, CH 4 production, and nutrient degradability.

  19. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  20. Shelf-life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian; Tapia, Cristián; Plasencia, Dora; Pastor, Ana; Castro-Mandujano, Olivio; López, Luis; Escalona, Victor H

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating in extending the shelf-life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75% relative humidity. These conditions were used to simulate the storage conditions in supermarkets and represent adverse conditions for testing the effects of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of the coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by changes in weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa and 117.2% ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3 × 10(-12) ± 4.0 × 10(-13) g s(-1) m(-1) Pa(-1). In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher titratable acidity (0.3-0.5 g citric acid 100 g(-1)) and lower pH (3.4-3.6) than control during storage; however, it showed reduced firmness (up to 38%). The use of Q/CH/SO as a coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 days of storage, whereas the control showed an increasing of molds and yeast, between 1.8 and 3.1 log cycles (between 20 and 35 days). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) was used to characterize fast pyrolysis bio-oils originated from pinewood, wheat straw, and rapeseed cake. The combination of both techniques provided new information on the chemical composition of bio-oils for further upgrading. 13C NMR analysis indicated that pinewood-based bio-oil contained mostly methoxy/hydroxyl (≈30%) and carbohydrate (≈27%) carbons; wheat straw bio-oil showed to have high amount of alkyl (≈35%) and aromatic (≈30%) carbons, while rapeseed cake-based bio-oil had great portions of alkyl carbons (≈82%). More than 200 compounds were identified and quantified using GC × GC coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Nonaromatics were the most abundant and comprised about 50% of the total mass of compounds identified and quantified via GC × GC. In addition, this analytical approach allowed the quantification of high value-added phenolic compounds, as well as of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and aldehydes, which exacerbate the unstable and corrosive character of the bio-oil. PMID:27668136

  2. Influence of sunflower seed oil or baby lotion on the skin barrier function of newborns: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti, Varvara; Günther, Malise; Stroux, Andrea; Sawatzky, Sabine; Henrich, Wolfgang; Abou-Dakn, Michael; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2017-12-01

    Skin care influences skin barrier function during the first postnatal weeks. Although the use of natural oils in preterms has been investigated, there are currently no data comparing the effect of sunflower oil to an emollient on barrier development in healthy term newborns. In a prospective, randomized clinical study, 50 healthy full-term newborns aged ≤72 h were randomly assigned to two groups: group baby lotion (L, n=22) and sunflower seed oil (SSO, n=24). The skin barrier function was evaluated in three anatomical areas (front, abdomen, and thigh) by noninvasive assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration (SCH), sebum, and skin pH at inclusion and after five weeks. In both groups, skin pH decreased and SCH increased statistically significantly in all measured areas at W5 compared to baseline. TEWL decreased statistically significantly on the forearm in both groups, on the upper leg in group L, and on the abdomen in group SSO. Both skin care regimes did not harm skin barrier function adaptation in healthy term neonates during the first five weeks of life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of high temperature frying of Spinach leaves in sunflower oil on carotenoids, chlorophylls and tocopherol composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Nisar, Parveen

    2017-03-01

    Spinach is one of the highly consumed vegetable, with significant nutritional and beneficial properties. This study revealed for the first time, the effects of high temperature frying on the carotenoids, chlorophylls and tocopherol contents of spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were thermally processed in the sunflower oil for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min at 250 °C. HPLC-DAD results revealed a total of eight carotenoids, four chlorophylls and α-tocopherol in the spinach leaves. Lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide were the major carotenoids, while chlorophyll a and b' were present in higher amounts. Frying of spinach leaves increased significantly the amount of α-tocopherol, β-carotene-5,6-epoxide, luteoxanthin, lutein and its Z-isomers and chlorophyll b' isomer. There was a dose dependent decrease in the amounts of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, chlorophyll b, b' and chlorophyll a with increase of frying time. The increase of frying time increased the total phenolic contents in spinach leaves and fried sunflower oil samples. Chemical characteristics such as peroxide values, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes, conjugated trienes and radical scavenging activity were significantly affected by frying, while spinach leaves increased the stability of the frying oil. This study can be used to improve the quality of fried vegetable leaves or their products at high temperature frying in food industries for increasing consumer acceptability.

  4. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  5. HDO of guaiacol over NiMo catalyst supported on activated carbon derived from castor de-oiled cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ospina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical activation methods were used to prepare two different activated carbons (ACs from castor de-oiled cake. H2O/CO2 mixture was used as the physical activating agent, and for chemical activation potassium carbonate (K2CO3 was used. For both materials, textural and chemical properties were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal programmed reduction (TPR, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The ACs were used as supports for NiMo sulfide catalysts, which were prepared by wetness impregnation and in-situ sulfided for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of guaiacol (GUA as a model compound of bio-oil. The HDO reaction was carried out in a typical batch reactor at 5 MPa of H2 and 350 °C. Under the same test conditions, commercial catalysts were also tested in the reaction. Although the commercial catalysts displayed higher GUA conversion, the prepared catalysts showed higher activity and non-oxygenated and saturated products yield.

  6. Influence of maltodextrin dextrose equivalent value on rheological and dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Petar P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of dextrose equivalent (DE of maltodextrin present in continuous phase on flow along with dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions has been investigated. Both, rheological and disperse characteristics of the emulsions were greatly influenced by continuous phase viscosity and thus by the DE value of maltodextrin.. The smaller DE value the greater high shear viscosity and the smaller the droplet size. Irrespective of the amount and DE value of maltodextrin used was, all the emulsions showed a pseudoplastic behaviour.

  7. Feasibility and comparative studies of thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake in different supercritical organic solvents for producing bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongmei; Zhai, Yunbo; Xu, Bibo; Xiang, Bobin; Zhu, Lu; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiaoting; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for producing bio-oil. • Type of solvent affected the yield and composition of bio-oil considerably. • Liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 °C was preferred for producing bio-oil. - Abstract: Thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake (COC) for producing bio-oil was conducted in supercritical methanol (SCML), ethanol (SCEL) and acetone (SCAL), respectively. GC–MS, elemental analysis and ICP-OES were used to characterize properties of bio-oil. Results showed that thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for generating bio-oil. Increase of temperature was beneficial to the increase of bio-oil yield, and yield of bio-oil followed the sequence of SCAL > SCEL > SCML. In spite of the highest bio-oil yield, the lowest calorific value and highest contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr were found in bio-oil from SCAL. Though SCML has very similar bio-oil composition and calorific value with SCEL, higher bio-oil yield and lower contents of heavy metals could be obtained with SCEL, especially in bio-oil from SCEL at 300 °C. Moreover, the origin of ethanol could make the bio-oil product totally renewable. Therefore, liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 °C could have great potential in generating bio-oil

  8. Genotoxicity studies in the ST cross of the Drosophila wing spot test of sunflower and soybean oils before and after frying and boiling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Marcos, Ricard; Kaya, Bülent

    2012-10-01

    Sunflower and soybean oils were tested for genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing somatic mutation and recombination assay. Results indicate that both oils produce genotoxic effects when tested without any previous frying or boiling processes. Boiling sunflower oil during fifteen, thirty and sixty minutes significantly increased its genotoxic response; nevertheless, after frying potatoes this oil showed a significant decrease in the genotoxic activity. On the other hand, boiling and frying soybean oil in the same conditions results in a decrease of its genotoxic potential. We have also detected that the amount of total polar materials increases significantly in oils submitted to frying or boiling process. Nevertheless, in oils obtained after frying potatoes, the amount of TPM was higher than after boiling. It is suggested that this effect is probably due to the amount of non-volatile TPM, the fatty acid composition of the oils, the types of frying oil, the high frying temperature and time, and the number of boiling and frying. This is the first study reporting genotoxicity data in Drosophila for the boiling and frying of both sunflower and soybean oils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ridge sowing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a minimum till system improves the productivity, oil quality, and profitability on a sandy loam soil under an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Ahmad; Suleman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul; Sattar, Abdul; Wasaya, Allah; Ijaz, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2018-02-14

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a major oilseed crop grown for its edible oil across the globe including Pakistan. In Pakistan, the production of edible oil is less than the required quantity; the situation is being worsened with the increasing population. Thus, there is dire need to grow those sunflower genotypes which perform better under a given set of agronomic practices. In this 2-year study, we compared four sunflower genotypes, viz., Armoni, Kundi, Sinji, and S-278 for their yield potential, oil contents, fatty acid composition, and profitability under three sowing methods, viz., bed sowing, line sowing, and ridge sowing and two tillage system, viz., plow till and minimum till. Among the sunflower genotypes, the genotype Armoni produced the highest plant height, number of leaves, head diameter, 1000-achene weight, and achene yield; the oil contents and oleic acid were the highest in genotype Sinji. Among the sowing methods, the highest number of leaves per plant, head diameter, number of achenes per head, achene yield, and oil contents were recorded in ridge sowing. Among the tillage systems, the highest head diameter 16. 2 cm, 1000-achene weight (57.2 g), achene yield (1.8 t ha -1 ), oil contents (35.2%), and oleic acid (15.2%) were recorded in minimum till sunflower. The highest net benefits and benefit to cost ratio were recorded in minimum till ridge sown Armoni genotype. In conclusion, the genotype Armoni should be grown on ridges to achieve the highest achene yield, oil contents, and net profitability.

  10. Physical and chemical composition and in situ degradability of macauba palm cake and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Patrícia Barros Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Macauba palm coconuts are rich in essential nutrients for animal feed formulation and after oil extraction, a large amount of residual biomass is produced, which must be used rationally to environmental preservation. This study aimed to determine the nutritional value of macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata, cake and leaves, for its physical and chemical composition, dry matter (DM in vitro digestibility (IVD and in situ degradability. The test of in situ degradability was done using three rumen fistulated cattle. Analytical determinations were performed in the laboratory of Animal Nutrition of Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa-SP, Brazil. Six replicates were used for each analytical determination and were calculated the standard error. Macauba cake chemically assessed showed a low protein content (CP 4.5% and high content of acid detergent fibre (ADF 39.7% and average levels of neutral detergent fibre (NDF 52.5%. ADF and NDF were the macauba palm cake majority fractions compared NDF and ADF (respectively of cocoa cake (37.6 and 45.5%, sunflower cake (28.2 and 38.4%, corn meal (11.3 and 20.2% and peanut cake (15.4 and 21.0. Macauba palm leaves had a good protein content (12.0% and fiber content comparable to tropical grass of good nutritional value. They can be used with no restriction on ruminants’ diets. The macauba palm cake high levels of lignin (16.5% justify the low dry matter IVD percentage (48%, while the leaves had 58%.of IVD. Macauba leaves total digestible nutrients (TDN 59.0% is similar to TDN usually observed for forages. Macauba cake can be considered (TDN = 64.0% similar to energetic food, due to the fat content (6.4%, however the high content of lignin (16.5% can limit its consumption. Macauba palm cake showed high ruminal degradability of DM and CP (fraction a = 51.3 and 59.9, respectively, while macauba palm leaves hah low solubility of DM and CP (fraction a = 3.18 and 5.28, respectively. Thus, the higher CP macauba leaves

  11. Production of biodiesel from sunflower oil using highly catalytic bimetallic gold–silver core–shell nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Dey, Binita; Talukdar, Jayanta; Chandra Kalita, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Gold–silver core–shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) were synthesized at room temperature, where gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) served as seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core–shell structure was examined by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The catalytic activity of these nanoparticles toward biodiesel production from Sunflower oil through transesterification was studied. The confirmation for biofuel synthesis was performed using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Fuel properties are determined by standard ASTM (American society for Testing and Materials) protocols. Our observations show that at certain catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time, highest yield of biodiesel (86.9%) is attained. The fuel properties of the synthesized biofuel are at par with standard biofuel. Further, the catalyst showed sustained activity for 3 cycles of transesterification. - Highlights: • Gold–silver core–shell NPs were used for biofuel synthesis from sunflower oil. • At the optimized condition, biodiesel yield of 86.9% was achieved. • Fuel properties of the biofuel synthesized are at par with standard biofuel. • The catalyst showed sustained activity for 3 cycles of transesterification

  12. Pyrolysis of safflower (Charthamus tinctorius L.) seed press cake in a fixed-bed reactor: part 2. Structural characterization of pyrolysis bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensöz, Sevgi; Angin, Dilek

    2008-09-01

    Biomass in the form of agricultural residues is becoming popular among new renewable energy sources, especially given its wide potential and abundant usage. Pyrolysis is the most important process among the thermal conversion processes of biomass. In this study, the various characteristics of bio-oils acquired under different pyrolysis conditions from safflower seed press cake (SPC) were identified. The elemental analyses and calorific values of the bio-oils were determined, and then the chemical compositions of the bio-oils were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques such as column chromatography, (1)H NMR, FTIR and GC. The fuel properties of the bio-oil such as kinematic viscosity, flash point, density, water content and ASTM distillation were also determined. Chemical compositions of bio-oils showed that some quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The bio-oils obtained from safflower seed press cake were presented as an environmentally friendly feedstock candidate for biofuels and chemicals.

  13. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  14. Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.; Abdulahad, Waseem S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

  15. Characteristics and composition of Parkia biglobbossa and Jatropha curcas oils and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintayo, E T

    2004-05-01

    Parkia biglobbossa (PKBS) and Jatropha curcas (JTC) seeds were analysed for their proximate composition. The seeds oils were analysed for fatty acid, lipid classes, sterols and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fat and moisture in PKBS were 32.40%, 26.525% and 10.18% respectively and 24.60%, 47.25% and 5.54% in JTC. Campesterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, Delta5-avenasterol and Delta7-stigmasterol were identified in the seed oils, but beta-sitosterol was most abundant, constituting 71.9% in JTC and 39.5% in PKBS. JTC oil had 72.7% unsaturated fatty acids with oleic acid predominating, while PKBS had 62% unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Results of lipid classes showed triglyceride as the dominant lipid species in the seed oils. Physicochemical analysis of the seed oils showed that they could be classified as semi drying oils and that they could be found applicable in alkyd resin and soap manufacture.

  16. Use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics for the authentication of avocado oil in ternary mixtures with sunflower and soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sotelo, Paola; Hernández-Martínez, Maylet; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Meza-Márquez, Ofelia Gabriela; García-Ochoa, Felipe; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí

    2016-07-01

    Avocado oil is a high-value and nutraceutical oil whose authentication is very important since the addition of low-cost oils could lower its beneficial properties. Mid-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to detect and quantify adulteration of avocado oil with sunflower and soybean oils in a ternary mixture. Thirty-seven laboratory-prepared adulterated samples and 20 pure avocado oil samples were evaluated. The adulterated oil amount ranged from 2% to 50% (w/w) in avocado oil. A soft independent modelling class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to discriminate between pure and adulterated samples. The model showed recognition and rejection rate of 100% and proper classification in external validation. A partial least square (PLS) algorithm was used to estimate the percentage of adulteration. The PLS model showed values of R(2) > 0.9961, standard errors of calibration (SEC) in the range of 0.3963-0.7881, standard errors of prediction (SEP estimated) between 0.6483 and 0.9707, and good prediction performances in external validation. The results showed that mid-FTIR spectroscopy could be an accurate and reliable technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of avocado oil in ternary mixtures.

  17. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandi, Sarat Babu; Karanam, Sita Kumari; Garapati, Hanumantha Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus), the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF) using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds) was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  18. Growth performance and nutrient composition of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed Spirulina flakes, rice bran and mustard oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, N; Noor, P; Abdullah, A T M; Hasan, M R; Ahmed, K M; Naser, M N

    2012-08-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important cultured fish that is widely distributed in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to improve the growth performance and nutrient contents of the fish using five different types of feeds. Tilapia fingerlings were fed two types of commercial fish feeds (Feed-1 and Feed-2), Spirulina flakes (Feed-3), Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4) and manually mixed feed made from a mixture of mustard oil cake and rice bran (Feed-5). After 4 weeks of being fed with the diets, growth parameters and meat nutrient composition of the tilapia fingerlings were recorded. Significant growth in length and weight was observed in juvenile tilapia fish fed with commercial Feed-1 only, while growth performance varied significantly among fingerlings fed other types of feeds. Body tissue calcium (92.8 mg/100 g), iron (1.29 mg/100 g) was higher in fishes fed with dry Spirulina flakes (Feed 3), while the highest amount of zinc (2.09 mg/100 g) was recorded in fishes fed Feed-5. Protein (13.32%) content was highest in fish fed Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4). Meat nutritional quality of tilapia can be improved by combining commercial feeds with Spirulina flakes, compared with feeding commercial feeds in isolation.

  19. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  20. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme

  1. Enhancing the release of the antioxidant tocopherol from polypropylene films by incorporating the natural plasticizers lecithin, olive oil, or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Ares Pernas, Ana; Castro López, María del Mar; López Vilariño, José Manuel; González Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2013-12-04

    In this work, natural plasticizers-modified polypropylenes intended for food active packaging were developed. Sunflower oil, olive oil, and soy lecithin, without any known harmful effects or toxicity, were employed as natural plasticizers, also implementing the attractiveness of using synthetic plastics on active packaging developments. Their incorporation during the extrusion of polypropylene was tried as a means to obtain polymers with improved diffusion paths, allowing differences in antioxidant release rates for active packaging materials. Thermal and rheological characterization of the films showed that blending natural plasticizers do not significantly modify their thermal properties; however, small variations of viscoelastic properties were observed. Furthermore, the resulting release of tocopherol was highly dependent on the polymer formulation. Furthermore, it was clearly time-controlled by using those natural plasticizers, especially olive oil. Antioxidant activity results also showed that packaged foods are protected against oxidative degradation over time, resulting from the improved release of the antioxidants.

  2. Determination of free radical scavenger agent efficiency in Syrian consumed sunflower oil using FT-IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, A. W.; Al-Zier, A.

    2013-06-01

    Edible oils can be oxidized spontaneously by thermal process in the presence of atmospheric oxygen causing an oxidation to these oils and forming the hydroperoxides; this oxidative process is a major cause of cooking oils deterioration. Many synthetic or natural antioxidants additives have been used as free radical scavenger agent. In this work, Eugenol methylether has been used as free radical scavenger agent at three different concentrations to heated sunflower oil at 160°C for ten hours using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis and evaluations. Before any additives, three characteristic absorption bands were observed at 3544, 3473 and 3290 cm-1 in heated oil. The recorded bands were assigned to 7Tthe unbounded7T, 7Tbounded 7Thydroperoxide or free alcohols 7Tgroups7T and to the O-H stretching alcohol associated group, respectively. After the addition of Eugenol methylether at 0.8 mL/L concentration, the bands intensity of hydroperoxide formation content is reduced. It has been shown that the free radical scavenger agent plays an acceptable role in reducing the hydroperoxide formation content as the result of thermal oxidation. It is proved that FTIR spectroscopy is an effective analytical tool for such investigatio (author).

  3. Relationship between changes in peroxide value and conjugated dienes during oxidation of sunflower oils with different degree of unsaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxide value and the determination of conjugated dienes by UV absorption at 232 nm are normally applied alternatively for the evaluation of primary oxidation compounds. The objective of this study was to define the relationship between both indexes during oil oxidation in sunflower oils with different degree of unsaturation. The oils studied were conventional sunflower oil (SO and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO. For comparative purposes, methyl linoleate, whose hydroperoxides are conjugated diene hydroperoxides, was also studied. Samples were oxidized at 40 °C in the dark. In order to accelerate oxidation at 40 °C, the natural antioxidants present in the oils were removed, and a high surface to oil volume ratio (0.8 cm-1 was applied to guarantee total air availability. Linear regressions with high correlation coefficients between peroxide values and conjugated dienes were found for the three lipid systems studied (0.9988, 0.9991 and 0.9977 for methyl linoleate, SO and HOSO, respectively. Significant differences in the slopes of the lines were found (0.0974, 0.0854 and 0.0503 for methyl linoleate, SO and HOSO, respectively, indicating the formation of non-conjugated hydroperoxides from oleic acid in the oils, even in the oxidation of SO with a high degree of unsaturation. Consequently, only peroxide value would be reliable for the evaluation of primary oxidation compounds in oils of different degree of unsaturation, unless adequate calibration lines (peroxide value versus conjugated dienes are applied.

    El índice de peróxidos y la medida de dienos conjugados mediante la extinción específica a 232 nm se utilizan alternativamente para la evaluación de compuestos primarios de oxidación en estudios de oxidación de aceites y grasas. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir las relaciones entre ambas medidas en aceites de girasol con diferente grado de in-saturación. Los aceites estudiados fueron aceite de girasol

  4. Sunflower oil supplementation affects the expression of miR-20a-5p and miR-142-5p in the lactating bovine mammary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenha Mobuchon

    Full Text Available Oil supplementation in dairy cattle diets is used to modulate milk fat composition, as well as the expression of mammary lipogenic genes, whose regulation remains unclear. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNA considered as crucial regulators of gene expression, offering clues to explain the mechanism underlying gene nutriregulation. The present study was designed to identify miRNAs whose expression in the cow mammary gland is modulated by sunflower oil supplementation. MiRNomes were obtained using RNAseq technology from the mammary gland of lactating cows receiving a low forage diet, supplemented or not with 4% sunflower oil. Among the 272 miRNAs characterized, eight were selected for RT-qPCR validations, showing the significant down-regulation of miR-142-5p and miR-20a-5p by sunflower supplementation. These two miRNAs are predicted to target genes whose expression was reported as differentially expressed by sunflower supplementation. Among their putative targets, ELOVL6 gene involved in lipid metabolism has been studied. However, a first analysis did not show its significant down-regulation, in response to the over-expression of miR-142-5p, of miR-20a-5p, or both, in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line. However, a clearer understanding of the miRNA expression by lipid supplementation would help to decipher the regulation of lactating cow mammary gland in response to nutrition.

  5. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.

  6. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  7. Oxidative stability of lard and sunflower oil supplemented with coffee extracts under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budryn, Grażyna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability of sunflower oil and lard supplemented with water extracts of green and roasted, Arabica and Robusta coffee beans was estimated. A decrease in the rate of fat oxidation reactions during the storage of samples for 12 weeks at ambient temperature which resulted from the addition of coffee extracts was evaluated using standard chemical methods such as the determination of peroxide and p-anisidine value and the assays of conjugated dienes and trienes as well as physical methods such as the determination of thermal profile by DSC. The sensory properties of all fat samples were also determined. These measurements showed that 0.1% water coffee extracts in fats decreased (p < 0.05 the quantities assayed by the chemical methods as compared to the control samples and approximately halved the rate of fat oxidation. In addition, the thermal profile analysis revealed that supplementing with coffee extracts reduced the extent of negative changes in the thermal properties of fats. The effectiveness of the tested coffee extracts decreased in the order: green Robusta > green Arabica > roasted Robusta > roasted Arabica.

    La estabilidad oxidativa de manteca y aceite de girasol suplementados con extractos acuosos de granos de café verde o tostado Arábica y Robusta fue estimada. Un descenso en la velocidad de las reacciones de oxidación de la grasa durante el almacenamiento de las muestras durante 12 semana a temperatura ambiente, que resulto de la adición de los extractos de café, fue evaluada usando métodos químicos estándares tales como la determinación de peróxidos y el índice de paranisidina y ensayos de dienos y trienos conjugados, así como métodos físicos tales como la determinación del perfil térmico por DSC. También las propiedades sensoriales de todas las grasas fueron estimadas. Estas medidas mostraron que extractos acuosos de café al 0.1% en la grasa decrecieron (p < 0.05 los valores obtenidos por los m

  8. Intake, ruminal parameters and plasmatic urea concentration in beef cattle fed diets with different levels of sunflower cake in substitution to the cotton meal Consumo, parâmetros ruminais e concentração de uréia plasmática em novilhos alimentados com diferentes níveis de torta de girassol em substituição ao farelo de algodão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Masato Mori

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five substitution levels of cotton meal by sunflower cake in the concentrate ration, on dry matter intake (DMI, pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 in the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea in beef steers. The diets were isoprotein (13.0% CP and isoenergetic (72.0% TDN. In natura sugarcane silage was the only ronghage (40% DM. Five 1/2 Simental x Nelore, castrated males were used, with average weight of 380 kg and 24 months old, all fistulated in the rumen. The treatments were: 0% sunflower cake (TG0; 25% sunflower cake (TG25; 50% sunflower cake (TG50; 75% sunflower cake (TG75; and 100% sunflower cake (TG100, based on DM, substituting cotton meal (FA. The experiment was carried out in a 5x5 Latin square experimental design, with five animals and five periods. Each experimental period lasted 15 days. The dry matter intake (DMI presented significant difference (P 0.05 alter the pH and N-NH3 values of the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea values. It was concluded that sunflower cake can be used in substitution to the cotton meal when mean daily gains are expected, since in high levels of substitution it caused a decrease in DMI. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da torta de girassol (TG, em cinco níveis de substituição ao farelo de algodão, sobre o consumo de matéria seca (CMS, pH e concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 no líquido ruminal e de uréia plasmática em novilhos de corte. As rações foram isoprotéicas (13,0% PB e isoenergéticas (72,0% NDT. A silagem de cana-de-açúcar in natura, como volumoso, foi utilizada na proporção de 40% da MS fornecida. Foram utilizados cinco animais fistulados no rúmen, machos, castrados, ½ sangue Simental x Nelore, pesando em média 380 kg e 24 meses. Os tratamentos foram: 0% (TG0; 25% (TG25; 50% (TG50; 75% (TG75 e 100% (TG100 de torta de girassol (base na MS em substituição ao farelo de algodão. O experimento foi conduzido

  9. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  10. Plausible exploitation of Jatropha de-oiled seed cake for lipase and phytase production and simultaneous detoxification by Candida parapsilosis isolated from poultry garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannoju, Balakrishna; Ganapathiwar, Swaruparani; Nunavath, Hanumalal; Sunkar, Bindu; Bhukya, Bhima

    2017-02-01

    Jatropha de-oiled seed cake was explored to utilize as a basic nutrient source for Candida parapsilosis, isolated from poultry garbage and selected based on the production of lipase and phytase enzymes under submerged fermentation. At optimized parameters under solid-state fermentation, lipase and phytase activities were recorded as 1056.66±2.92 and 833±2.5U/g of substrate (U/g), respectively. Besides enzyme production, complete elimination of phorbol esters and significant phytate reduction from 6.51±0.01 to 0.43±0.01g/100g of seed cake were noted after 3days incubation. Curcin and trypsin inhibition activity were reduced significantly from 26.33±0.43 to 0.56±0.02mg/100g and 229.33±2.02 to 11.66±0.28U/g, respectively after 5days incubation. Saponins were reduced from 5.56±0.19 to 1.95±0.01g/100g of seed cake after 7days incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC 6.21 mmol/L than in women with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but palmolein decreased serum and LDL-peroxide in hypercholesterolemics more than in the normocholesterolemics, resulting in serum and LDL-peroxide levels which theoretically are more adequate. Though palmolein increased LDL-C concentrations, it better protected LDL particles, mainly in women with high TC, against peroxidation than did oleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

  12. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Flaxseed Oil-in-Water Emulsions Fabricated from Sunflower Lecithins: Impact of Blending Lecithins with Different Phospholipid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Chen, Fang; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2017-06-14

    There is great interest in the formulation of plant-based foods enriched with nutrients that promote health, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated the impact of sunflower phospholipid type on the formation and stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions. Two sunflower lecithins (Sunlipon 50 and 90) with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels (59 and 90%, respectively) were used in varying ratios to form emulsions. Emulsion droplet size, charge, appearance, microstructure, and oxidation were measured during storage at 55 °C in the dark. The physical and chemical stability increased as the PC content of the lecithin blends decreased. The oxidative stability of emulsions formulated using Sunlipon 50 was better than emulsions formulated using synthetic surfactants (SDS or Tween 20). The results are interpreted in terms of the impact of emulsifier type on the colloidal interactions between oil droplets and on the molecular interactions between pro-oxidants and oil droplet surfaces.

  13. Transesterification of linoleic and oleic sunflower oils to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Zlatica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to characterize biodiesel (i.e. methyl esters, MEs produced from linoleic and oleic sunflower oils (LSO and OSO, respectively by alkali transesterification with methanol and CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst under different reaction parameters. The parameters investigated were the methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1, 6:1, 7.5:1, 9:1 and 12:1 and the mass ratio of CaO to oil (2% and 3%. The physical and chemical properties of the feedstocks and MEs, like density at 15oC, kinematic viscosity at 40oC, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, cetane index, fatty acid (methyl ester composition, were determined in order to investigate the effects of LSO and OSO properties and reaction parameters on the product characteristics, yields and purity. The properties of feedstock had decisive effect on the physical and chemical properties of MEs as majority of them did not differ significantly under studied reaction conditions. The MEs produced generally met the criteria required for commercial biodiesel; in fact, the only exception was in the case of iodine value of ME produced from LSO. The product yields only slightly changed with the applied conditions; the highest yield (99.22% was obtained for ME-LSO produced at 6 mol% methanol to oil ratio, while the lowest one (93.20% was for ME-OSO produced under the lowest methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1. The applied catalyst amounts had similar influence on the oil conversion to biodiesel. The yields of ME-LSOs were in general somewhat higher than those obtained for ME-OSOs under the same conditions, which was attributed to the influence of the respective feedstocks' acid value and viscosity.

  14. Residues of ¹⁴C-ethion along the extraction and refining process of maize oil, and the bioavailability of bound residues in the cake for experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, H; Abdel-Hameed, R M; Witczak, A

    2013-08-01

    Maize seeds obtained from ¹⁴C-ethion treated plants contained about 0.01 % of the originally applied radioactivity 1 month following the last pesticide application. Hexane and methanol extracts of the seeds accounted for 35 % and 22.5 % of the radioactive residues, respectively, with 40 % remaining in the seed cake. Commercial processing procedures resulted in a gradual decrease in the total amount of ¹⁴C-residues in oils with aged residues. The refined oil contained ¹⁴C-residues that amounted to about 30 % of the amount that was originally present. The major residues in processed oil are ethion monooxon, O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate and O,O-diethyl S-hydroxymethyl phosphorodithioate, in addition to one unknown compound. After feeding rats with the cake containing ethion bound residues, a substantial amount (71 %) of ¹⁴C-residues was eliminated in the urine, while about 12 % was excreted in the feces. About 5 % of the radioactive residues were distributed among various organs. The bound residue was quite readily bioavailable to the rats.

  15. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20–30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20–30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development. PMID:26786011

  16. Chewing activity of dairy cows fed diets based in sunflower cakeComportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação alimentadas com rações a base de torta de girassol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nery Rocha Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of sunflower cake (SC on nutrient intake and ingestive behavior in lactating cows. Eight multiparous Holstein x Zebu cows, between 50 and 74 lactation days and 20 ± 2 kg of milk per day, were allocated in a 4 x 4 double latin square design, where the factors were four inclusion levels of SC (0; 7; 14 and 21%. Tifton 85 hay was used as forage in a 60:40 ratio of forage: concentrate. There was no detectable effect of the inclusion of SC (P > 0.05 on dry matter, crude protein and organic matter intake. However, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake, showed linear and quadratic effect (P O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de torta de girassol (TG sobre o consumo de nutrientes e comportamento ingestivo em vacas em lactação. Oito vacas da raça Girolando, entre 50 e 74 dias em lactação e com produção média de 20 ± 2 kg de leite/dia foram distribuídas em quadrado latino 4x4 duplo, onde os fatores foram os níveis de inclusão de TG (0; 7; 14 e 21%. Como volumoso foi utilizado o feno de Tifton 85 em uma relação 60:40 de volumoso:concentrado. Não foi detectado efeito da inclusão da TG (P > 0,05 sobre consumo de matéria seca, proteína bruta e matéria orgânica. No entanto, os consumos de extrato etéreo e de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN apresentaram comportamento linear e quadrático (P < 0,05, respectivamente. O tempo gasto com ruminação, ócio e em pé não foi alterado pela adição de TG às rações, contudo o tempo despendido com alimentação e ingestão de água foi influenciado linearmente (P < 0,05. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gMS/h e gFDN/h, o tempo de mastigação total, número de bolos ruminais e número de mastigações merícicas por dia não diferiram significativamente, com exceção da eficiência de alimentação que variou de forma quadrática (P < 0,05. Em um manejo alimentar de

  17. Influence of High Temperature and Duration of Heating on the Sunflower Seed Oil Properties for Food Use and Bio-diesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Poiana, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Two important problems for the food industry are oil oxidation and oil waste after frying. Sunflower seed oil is one of the vegetable oils most commonly used in the food industry. Two variables were applied to the low oleic sunflower seed oil in this work i.e. heating temperature (180-210-240°C) and time of heating (15-30-60-120 minutes), to study from the edible point of view the variations of its physico-chemical properties. After 120 minutes heating at 240°C the following was found: refractive index (1.476), free acidity (0.35%), K232 (2.87), K270 (3.71), antiradical activity (45.90% inhibition), total phenols (523 mg kg -1 ), peroxide value (17.00 meq kg -1 ), p-anisidine value (256.8) and Totox (271.7), all of which showed a constant deterioration. In relation to the use as a feedstock for bio-diesel production, after 120 minutes heating at 240℃ the following was found: acid value 0.70 mg KOH g -1 oil, iodine value 117.83 g I 2 100 g -1 oil, oil stability index 0.67 h, kinematic viscosity (at 40°C) 77.85 mm 2 s -1 , higher heating value 39.86 MJ kg -1 , density 933.34 kg/m 3 and cetane number 67.04. The parameters studied in this work were influenced, in different ways, by the applied variables. Heating temperature between 180 and 210°C and 120 min heating duration were found to be the most appropriate conditions for sunflower seed oil both from the deep frying point of view and from a subsequent use as feedstock for bio-diesel production. In light of the vegetable oils' International standards for an edible use and for a bio-diesel production, findings of this work can be used to set heating temperature and heating duration to preserve as long possible the physico-chemical properties of a low oleic sunflower seed oil for both its edible use as a fat during cooking and for its re-use after frying.

  18. Effect of dietary sunflower oil and coconut oil on adipose tissue gene expression, fatty acid composition and serum lipid profile of grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Mohan N Harihara; Sarmah, Babul C; Tamuli, Madan K; Das, Anubrata; Kalita, Dhireswar

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess whether the partial replacement of feed energy by vegetable oils containing high medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) would modify lipogenic gene expression and other parameter of fat metabolism in pigs. Eighteen pigs (17-19 kg body weight) received one of three experimental diets for 60 days (six animals per group): (i) Control diet; (ii) a diet with sunflower oil (SO) or (iii) a diet with coconut oil (CO). In diets SO and CO, 10% of the feed energy was replaced by the respective oils. The experimental treatment did not influence the performance of the pigs. In blood serum, an increased content of total cholesterol was observed for SO and CO fed animals, whereas no significant changes for total triglycerides and different lipoprotein fractions were detected. The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue was significantly modified, with an increased content of MCFA and n-6 PUFA in CO and SO fed pigs, respectively. The gene expression for fatty acid synthase was decreased for SO and CO fed pigs; for stearoyl CoA desaturase and sterol regulatory element binding protein, a depression was observed in SO but not in CO fed pigs. The results of present study suggest that the type of dietary fat can modulate the adipose tissue gene expression and fatty acid composition differentially, with minimal effect on serum lipid profile.

  19. Thermal oxidation process accelerates degradation of the olive oil mixed with sunflower oil and enables its discrimination using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Boqué, Ricard; Folcarelli, Rita; Busto, Olga; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid

    2015-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of thermal treatment on the discrimination of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with sunflower oil. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8 h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the excitation wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm. In order to optimize the differences between excitation and emission wavelengths, four constant differential wavelengths, i.e., 20 nm, 40 nm, 60 nm and 80 nm, were tried. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to discriminate between pure and adulterated oils. It was found that the 20 nm difference was the optimal, at which the discrimination models showed the best results. The best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration. Furthermore, PLS regression models were built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 1.75% of adulteration.

  20. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  1. Biodiesel production from sunflower, soybean, and waste cooking oils by transesterification using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizge, Nadir; Aydiner, Coskun; Imer, Derya Y; Bayramoglu, Mahmut; Tanriseven, Aziz; Keskinler, Bülent

    2009-03-01

    This study aims at carrying out lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from various vegetable oils using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymeric matrix (MPPM) as a low-cost biocatalyst. The research is focused on three aspects of the process: (a) MPPM synthesis (monolithic, bead, and powder forms), (b) microporous polymeric biocatalyst (MPPB) preparation by immobilization of lipase onto MPPM, and (c) biodiesel production by MPPB. Experimental planning of each step of the study was separately carried out in accordance with design of experiment (DoE) based on Taguchi methodology. Microporous polymeric matrix (MPPM) containing aldehyde functional group was synthesized by polyHIPE technique using styrene, divinylbenzene, and polyglutaraldehyde. Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase was covalently attached onto MPPM with 80%, 85%, and 89% immobilization efficiencies using bead, powder, and monolithic forms, respectively. Immobilized enzymes were successfully used for the production of biodiesel using sunflower, soybean, and waste cooking oils. It was shown that immobilized enzymes retain their activities during 10 repeated batch reactions at 25 degrees C, each lasting 24h. Since the developed novel method is simple yet effective, it could have a potential to be used industrially for the production of chemicals requiring immobilized lipases.

  2. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  3. New UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method for quantitative and qualitative determination of free phytoprostanes in foodstuffs of commercial olive and sunflower oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-González, Jacinta; Medina, Sonia; Durand, Thierry; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Torrecillas, Arturo; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we propose a new quick and accurate analytical method by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS which is able to identify free phytoprostanes in olive and refined sunflower oils. The recovery provided high extraction efficiencies ranging from 102.90% to 140.64% using Strata-XAW cartridge. The intra-day and inter-day variations for all target compounds ranged from 2.24% to 13.64% and 0.01% to 13.69%, respectively, and the accuracies for these parameters varied from 80.33% to 119.64% and from 80.34% to 119.90%, respectively. Results obtained reflect that refined sunflower presented more series of phytoprostanes and a 20 and 8-fold higher quantity than two types of olive oil: Extra virgin olive oil and olive oil, (containing half virgin extra olive oil and half refined olive oil). The manufacture process could be the key for the different phytoprostane production since most of the plant oils are subjected to a refining treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) on functional characteristics of gluten-free crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Tsao, Rong

    2014-03-01

    A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers. All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves. All crackers with added hemp flour had a significantly increased fiber content (39% to 249%) and decreased carbohydrate content (8.4% to 42.3%), compared to the brown rice flour crackers. All samples had antioxidant properties, even without the addition of green tea leaves. Optimization of the responses was conducted based on the maximized values for protein, fibers, omega-3 fatty acids content, as well as for the antioxidant activity and overall score. The suggested values for the addition of the hemp oil press-cake was 20% (total flour weight) with 4 g of decaffeinated green tea leaves that would provide protein content of 14.1 g/100 g; fibers content of 8.4 g/100 g; omega-3 fatty acids content of 3.2 g/100 g; antioxidant activity measured via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl value of 30.3 μmol TE/g d.w.; and an overall score of 8.9. This formulation has demonstrated potential application in the baking industry and marketing of these gluten-free crackers as a value-added functional product. Hemp seed oil press-cake as a by-product of cold-pressed oil processing and brown rice flour were used to design a functional gluten-free snack-type product-savory crackers. All crackers were high in minerals, fibers, and omega-3 fatty acids with a desirable omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio. Green tea leaves were added to improve antioxidant activity, which greatly

  5. Effect of dietary fish oil supplements alone or in combination with sunflower and linseed oil on ruminal lipid metabolism and bacterial populations in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairenius, P; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Muetzel, S; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Wallace, R J; Shingfield, K J

    2018-04-01

    Fish oil (FO) alters ruminal biohydrogenation causing trans fatty acid (FA) intermediates to accumulate, but the effects of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA supply on ruminal long-chain FA metabolism and microbial communities in cattle fed FO are not well established. Four cows fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of FO alone or in combination with plant oils high in 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 on rumen microbial ecology and flow of FA at the omasum. Treatments comprised a basal grass silage-based diet containing no additional oil (control) or supplements of FO (200 g/d) or FO (200 g/d) plus 500 g/d of sunflower oil (SFO) or linseed oil (LFO). Flow of FA was determined using the omasal sampling technique. The relative abundance of key biohydrogenating bacteria was assessed by quantitative PCR on 16S rRNA genes in omasal digesta. Fish oil-supplemented treatments increased the amounts of trans-18:1, trans-18:2, and 20- to 22-carbon polyunsaturated FA escaping the rumen. Relative to the control, oil supplements had no effect on the amount of 18:0 leaving the rumen, but LFO decreased the flow of 18:0 at the omasum compared with SFO. Both SFO and LFO increased trans-18:1 relative to FO, whereas LFO resulted in the highest trans-18:2 and 20- to 22-carbon FA flow. Supplements of FO plus plant oils shifted biohydrogenation toward trans-10 18:1 formation. Compared with FO alone, the ruminal metabolism of 22:6n-3 in the rumen of lactating cows is more extensive on diets containing higher amounts of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA. However, the biohydrogenation of 22:5n-3 was less extensive in LFO than SFO, but showed no difference between FO and diets containing plant oils. Ruminal outflow of 20:5n-3 was not altered when plant oils were added to FO. Alterations in the amount of intermediates at the omasum or ruminal biohydrogenation pathways were not accompanied by major changes in analyzed bacterial populations

  6. Sunflower cake in the ration of dairy cows: microbial production, production, composition and fatty acid profile of milk - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.11327 Torta de girassol em rações de vacas em lactação: produção microbiana, produção, composição e perfil de ácidos graxos do leite - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.11327

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro de Souza Carneiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial production, production, composition and fatty acids profile of milk from dairy cows fed rations with growing levels of sunflower cake. Eight Girolando cows were used, averaging 515 kg of body weight. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square, in duplicate, where the factors consisted of the rates of sunflower cake inclusion in the concentrate portion (0, 7, 14 and 21%. A decreasing linear effect was observed for protein and fat production in milk and N urea content. Allantoin rates (mmol day-1 were influenced by the levels of sunflower cake inclusion, with quadratic effect (p 0.05 by the levels of sunflower cake inclusion. A decreasing linear effect was observed with the levels of sunflower cake inclusion for palmitic acid (C16:0; no statistical differences were observed (p > 0.05 for the other fatty acids. The use of sunflower cake may represent an alternative feed for dairy cows, but does not alter the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and fatty acids profile of milk.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção microbiana, produção, composição e perfil de ácidos graxos do leite de vacas alimentadas com rações contendo níveis crescentes de torta de girassol (TG. Foram utilizadas oito vacas da raça Girolando com peso médio de 515 kg. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi quadrado latino 4 x 4 duplo, em que os fatores foram níveis de inclusão de TG na ração concentrada (0; 7; 14 e 21%. Observou-se efeito linear decrescente para os teores de proteína, gordura do leite e N-ureico. Os teores de alantoína (mmol dia-1 foram influenciados pelos níveis de inclusão da TG, apresentando comportamento quadrático (p 0,05 pelos níveis de inclusão de TG. Foi observado efeito linear decrescente com a adição dos níveis de torta de girassol para o ácido palmítico (C16:0, para os demais ácidos graxos não foram observadas diferenças (p > 0,05. A utiliza

  7. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  8. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Babu Imandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus, the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  9. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  10. Oxidation of β-sitosterol and campesterol in sunflower oil upon deep- and pan-frying of French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2015-10-01

    Fried foods, both deep-fried and pan-fried, are enjoyed by people worldwide. Frying is one of the main factors leading to formation of phytosterols (PS) oxidation products (POP) in vegetable oils. The aim of this study was to measure the oxidation of β-sitosterol (24α-ethyl-5-cholesten-3β-ol) and campesterol (24α-methyl-5-cholesten-3β-ol) in commercial sunflower oil (SFO) during deep- and pan-frying of French fries for different periods (30, 60, 120 and 240 min). The total amount of PS in SFO was 4732 μg/g, wherein the major PS were β-sitosterol and campesterol. The results of POP were confirmed by the GC-MS analysis that monitored the formation of oxides during frying. Upon frying, total PS content decreased whereas the highest decrease was measured after 240 min of frying. The oxidative stability (OS) of different sitosterol and campesterol during both frying methods was evaluated. In general, pan frying resulted in more PS oxidation than deep frying. β-Sitosterol oxides predominated while campesterol oxides were formed to a lesser extent. 7-Ketositosterol, followed by 7β-hydroxysitosterol, 5,6-epoxy derivatives and 7α-hydroxysitosterol were the main POP induced during frying. The proportion of 7-keto derivatives decreased during frying while the proportion of 7β-hydroxy derivatives increased. The formation of POP might be a limiting factor for frying in SFO for long periods.

  11. The Effect of Massage Therapy by Sunflower Oil on Neonates for Length of Hospital Stay from the Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alizadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infants are the most sensitive and injury of people in society that will make the feature of our country so they are needed special attention to take care of their physical &mental health. According to many studies one of the intervention for decrease of length of stay (LOS in Intensive Care Unit (NICU is massage therapy by oil because of rapidly recovery & early discharge. The aim of this study was to the effect of massage on neonates in Nicu ward for decreasing of LOS. Materials & Methods:. This one- blinded clinical trial was conducted on 44 infants who were born within 30-37weeks gestational age with 1000-2500gr in Nicu of Arash & Shariati hospitals. The infants were assigned randomly into two group of sunflower oil massage &without massage. The massage is done one hour after milk when the infants were stable (heart rate-respiratory rate and color of their skin become control. Each massage was 15minute 3 times in every 2 hours in the afternoon for 5 days. Observation was tools of collecting data by researcher which done before &after every intervention by respiratory heart rate monitoring & pulse oximetry. Data were analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA. Results: Within 5 days of following increasing pattern of infant weight in study group was significant (P=0.001 and comparison growth head circumference in 2 groups was not significant (P=0.01 about LOS variable within 5days massage was significant (P=0.04. Conclusion: Fortunately there were statistical significant difference between the infants weight and decreasing length of hospitalization in 2 groups , but difference between head circumference between 2 group was not significant.

  12. Statistical optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower waste cooking oil using basic heterogeneous biocatalyst prepared from eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A statistical design of experiments DOE was applied to investigate biodiesel fuel BDF production process from sunflower waste cooking oil SWCO using heterogeneous bio-catalyst produced from eggshells ES. It was based on 3 level D-optimal design involving as factors methanol:oil M:O molar ratio, catalyst concentration (wt%, reaction time (min and mixing rate (rpm. Twenty runs were carried out. A predictive linear interaction model has been correlated finding out how significant the effects of these variables are in practice. LINGO software was used to find out the optimum values of the aforementioned variables for enhancing the process. According to the results obtained, the most dominant positive factor influencing the response variable (% BDF yield was M:O molar ratio followed by catalyst concentration (wt% and mixing rate in a decreasing order while the reaction time showed to have a negative effect on the yield. The maximum BDF yield (98.8% and 97.5%, predicted and experimental, respectively was obtained at M:O 6:1 M ratio, catalyst concentration 3 wt%, reaction time 30 min, mixing rate 350 rpm and 60 °C. Also response surface methodology RSM has been applied to study the interactive effects of independent variables on BDF yield. It was found that, the interaction between M:O and catalyst concentration (wt% has more significant effect than interaction between other variables. The activity of the produced bio-catalyst was comparable to that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. All the physicochemical characteristics of the produced BDF using the prepared bio-catalyst and its blends with petro-diesel fuel PDF are completely acceptable and meet most of the required standard specifications.

  13. Influence of dietary replacement of sunflower oil with milk thistle (Silybum marianum oil on chicken meat quality and antioxidant status of liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the effects of dietary replacement of 3% sunflower oil (SO group with 3% milk thistle oil (MTO group on the technological quality of meat, such as pH value, colour (CIE L*, CIE a*, CIE b*, drip loss (%, shear force (N, and cooking loss (%, as well as on the content of fatty acid lipids in broiler breast and thigh muscles. Significant difference (P < 0.05 was determined for pHi, pHu, CIE a*, CIE b* values between groups, although the values for the stated indicators were within the standard range. Lipids of breast meat of the MTO group contained more arachidic acid (P < 0.001, octadecenoic acid isomer B (P = 0.047 and eicosatrienoic acid (P = 0.041, and less α-linolenic acid (P < 0.001 and Σn-3PUFA. Lipids of thigh meat of the MTO group contained more ΣSFA, myristoleic acid, eicosatrienoic acid (P < 0.05 and eicosenoic acid (P < 0.001, and less α-linolenic acid, and had narrower Σn-3/n-6 PUFA ratio than the SO group. According to the antioxidant status of broiler liver, there was significantly higher catalase activity determined in the MTO group.

  14. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  15. Low-cost and eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil cake extract and its antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarthanan, Muthusamy; Seo, Young-Seok; Lee, Kui-Jae; Jung, Ik-Boo; Ju, Ho-Jong; Kim, Jae Su; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports the simple, inexpensive, eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using coconut oil cake extract. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy peak at 3 keV confirmed the presence of silver. Transmission electron micrograph showed that nanoparticles are mostly circular with an average size of 10-70 nm. The results of the X-ray powder diffraction analysis (2θ = 46.2, 67.4 and 76.8) indicated the crystal nature of the AgNPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicates that proteins present in the oilcake extract could be responsible for the reduction of silver ions. The synthesized AgNPs (1-4 mm) reduced the growth rate of multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as Aeromonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Citrobacter sp. isolated from livestock wastewater.

  16. Evaluation of Castor Oil Cake Starch and Recovered Glycerol and Development of “Green” Composites Based on Those with Plant Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, José Luis; Trindade Cursino, Ana Cristina; Ketzer Saul, Cyro; Sierrakowski, Maria Rita; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Satyanarayana, Kestur Gundappa

    2016-01-01

    Continuous efforts are being made in some countries for the recovery of crude glycerin (RG/CG) and castor oil cake (COC), the two byproducts of biodiesel production. These are expected to help, not only in addressing environmental safety, but also in adding value to those byproducts, which otherwise may go to waste. Finding ways to utilize those byproducts underlines the main objective of this study. This paper presents the evaluation of (i) COC, glycerin and banana and sugarcane fibers for moisture content; (ii) COC for structural and thermal properties; and (iii) CG for its chemical characteristics. The possibility of using COC and CG with the selected fibers as reinforcement in the development of bio-composites is attempted through thermo-molding. Results revealed enhanced mechanical properties for these composites. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the observed morphology. PMID:28787878

  17. Optimization of hydrodynamic cavitations reactor efficiency for biodiesel production by response surface methods (Case study: Sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadikia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biofuels are considered as one of the largest sources of renewable fuels or replacement of fossil fuels. Combustion of plant-based fuels is the indirect use of solar energy. Biofuels significantly have less pollution than other fossil fuels and can easily generate from residual plant material. Waste and residues of foods and wastewater can also be a good source for biofuel production. Transesterification method (one of biodiesel production methods is the most common forms to produce mono-alkyl esters from vegetable oil and animal fats. The procedure aims are reduction the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. In this study, the method of transesterification with alkaline catalysts is used that it is the most common and most commercial biodiesel production method. In this study, configurations of made hydrodynamic cavitation reactor were studied to measure biodiesel fuel quality and enhanced device performance with optimum condition. The Design Expert software and response surface methodology were used to get this purpose. Materials and Methods Transesterification method was used in this study. The procedure aims were reduction of the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. Materials needed in the production of biodiesel transesterification method include: vegetable oil, alcohol and catalysts. The used oil in the production of biodiesel was sunflower oil, which was used 0.6 liters per each test in the production process base on titration method. Methanol with purity of 99.8 percent and the molar ratio of 6:1 to oil was used based on titration equation and according to the results of other researchers. The used catalyst in continuous production process was high-purity sodium hydroxide (99% that it is one of alkaline catalysts. Weight of hydroxide was 1% of the used oil weight in the

  18. Effects of partial replacement of soyabean meal or groundnut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    160 unsexed Nera day old chicks were weighed and randomly divided into 8 experimental groups such that there were 2 replicates of 10 birds each per diet. Eight diets were formulated for the starter and finisher phases. The first four diets had groundnut cake as the protein source and were gradually replaced by sunflower ...

  19. The Effects of Massage with Coconut and Sunflower Oils on Oxygen Saturation of Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated With Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Valizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays particular emphasis is placed on the developmental aspects of premature infants care. Massage therapy is one of the best-known methods of caring. Due to the minimal touch policy in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, massaging is not usually performed on premature infants. However, there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that newborn infants with complex medical conditions should not be massaged. This study aimed to determine the effects of massage with coconut and sunflower oils on oxygen saturation of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on 90 newborns who were admitted to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran. The infants were divided into control and massage therapy groups (massage with coconut and sunflower oils. Data was collected using a hospital documentation form. A 15-minute daily massage was performed for 3 days. Respiratory rate (RR, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and oxygen saturation were measured 5 minutes before the massage, 3 times during the massage, and 5 minutes after the massage. The collected data was analyzed using a mixed model. Results: In comparison to coconut oil and control groups, mean oxygen saturation of sunflower oil group was improved. In addition, the coconut massage group showed lower oxygen saturation than the control group but was all values were within the normal range. Although massage decreased oxygen saturation, there was no need to increase FiO2. Conclusion: Massage therapy can provide developmental care for infants treated with NCPAP.

  20. Oil bodies: An insight on their microstructure - maize germ vs sunflower seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiforidis, K.; Kiosseoglou, V.; Scholten, E.

    2013-01-01

    Storage triacylglycerols in oleaginous seeds are surrounded by a layer that consists of phospholipids and proteins, mainly oleosins. These entities are intracellular organelles, known as oil bodies. It is often reported that they have a spherical shape, but imaging using cryo-SEM analysis showed

  1. Studies on changes in patterns of fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols of oil during seed maturation of oil crops. Part I. Sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The variation of lipid constituents in maturing sunflower oil seeds has been investigated with the aim of determination of the proper harvesting time as well as the oil quality. Marked variations in fatty acid, sterol and tocopherol constituents of the oil were observed. Capillary gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used in the analysis which enabled the determination of major as well as minor constituents in the oil. In addition, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to confirm the structure of cycloartenol sterol. Postulations on the key compounds of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols were proposed in the frame of the main biosynthetic pathways. The proper harvesting time was found to be 118 days after plantation since the oil content was high and the constituents of the oil were balanced.

    Se ha investigado la variación de los constituyentes lipídicos en aceites de semillas de girasol en distintos estados de maduración, con el objetivo de determinar el tiempo de recolección apropiado así como la calidad del aceite. Se observaron variaciones apreciables en los ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles del aceite. La cromatografía gaseosa capilar y la cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia se usó en el análisis que permitió la determinación tanto de los componentes mayoritarios como minoritarios en el aceite. Además, se utilizó la cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a la espectrometría de masas para confirmar la estructura del esterol cicloartenol. Se han propuesto en el marco de la ruta biosintética principal postulados sobre los compuestos clave de ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles. Se encontró como tiempo de recolección apropiado el de 118 días después de la plantación, ya que el contenido de aceite fue elevado y los constituyentes fueron equilibrados.

  2. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Mureşan; Nadejda Pînzari; Andreea Puşcaş; Cristina Gherasim; Lucian Cuibus; Emil Racolţa; Sevastița Muste; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%). Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini) is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the h...

  3. Chemical, thermal and viscous characterization of high-oleic sunflower and olive pomace acid oils and derived estolides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Zapateiro, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the chemical, thermal and viscous characterization of a variety of estolides, prepared from higholeic sunflower and olive pomace acid oils, using different acid-catalyzed synthesis protocols and reaction times. Estolides with weight-average molecular weights between 1.7 and 3.4 times higher than the original acid oils were obtained. The molecular weight of the estolides was higher when using the sulphuric acid-catalyzed method and a reaction time of 3-6 h. Estolides presented higher freezing temperatures than acid oils. In general, viscosity values are related to estolide molecular weight. Significant increments in viscosities were found in comparison with acid oils. Maximum viscosity values were obtained for estolides prepared using the sulphuric acidcatalyzed method. The largest viscosity increments in olive pomace acid oil-derived estolides were observed during the first 6 hours of reaction, due to an increase in the molecular weight; longer reaction times yielded adverse results. The temperature dependence of viscosity for all estolides studied is significantly larger than for the original acid oils.Este trabajo presenta la caracterización química, térmica y viscosa de estólidos preparados a partir de oleínas ácidas de girasol alto-oleico y de orujo de oliva, utilizando diferentes métodos catalizados por ácidos y diferentes tiempos de reacción. Se obtuvieron estólidos con pesos moleculares promedios en peso entre 1,7 y 3,4 veces más altos que las oleínas de origen. El peso molecular de los estólidos aumenta cuando se utiliza el método catalizado por ácido sulfúrico y un tiempo de reacción de 3-6 h. Los estólidos obtenidos presentan temperaturas de congelación más altas que las oleínas. En general, los valores de viscosidad están relacionados con el peso molecular del estólido. Se encontraron incrementos significativos de viscosidad en comparación con las oleínas. Los valores máximos de

  4. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  5. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89–93% and 24–27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82–89%, 7.7–9.1% and 48–50%, 55–59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation. PMID:24235784

  6. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-11-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  9. The effect of supplementation of soybean oil, acidulated sunflower oil soapstock and their combinations in laying hen diets on performance, egg quality and fatty acid composition of egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Göçmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levesl of dietary soybean oil and acidulated sunflower oil soapstock on performance, egg quality and fatty acid profile of egg yolk in laying hens, . A total of 75, 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed into five treatments according to a completely randomized experimental design, consisting of soybean oil, acidulated sunflower oil soapstock (ASS dietary inclusion levels (25, 50, 75 and 100 %, with five replicates of three birds each. The experiment was lasted in 84 days. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on body weight change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass. The dietary inclusion of ASS i had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, egg shell breaking strength, egg shell weight and egg shell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk pH but haugh unit L, a, b color value. . The inclusion of different levels of soybean oil and ASS in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid contents of egg yolk. It is concluded that the soybean oil can be replaced by ASS without any adverse effect on performance and egg quality in laying hen diets.

  10. Utilization of palm oil decanter cake as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production from a new and promising strain of Ochrobactrum anthropi 2/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-03-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, isolate 2/3, was isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. It was evaluated as a potential biosurfactant producer. The highest biosurfactant production (4.52 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 25 % (v/v) palm oil decanter cake and 1 % (w/v) commercial monosodium glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. After microbial cultivation at 30 °C in an optimized medium for 96 h, the biosurfactant produced was found to reduce the surface tension of pure water to 25.0 mN/m with critical micelle concentrations of 8.0 mg/l. The stability of the biosurfactant at different salinities, pH and temperature and also its emulsifying activity was investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pH and salt concentrations. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a glycolipid type biosurfactant by using a biochemical test, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, MNR and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance polyaromatic hydrocarbons solubility.

  11. Progress on introduction of rust resistance genes into confection sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi) emerged as a serious disease in the last few years. Confection sunflower is particularly vulnerable to the disease due to the lack of resistance sources. The objectives of this project are to transfer rust resistance genes from oil sunflower to confectionery sunfl...

  12. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), from fish oil (FO), in rodents have been shown to reduce adipogenesis. Evidence of an effect on adipose tissue mass in humans is limited, and no studies have specifically aimed to elucidate this in infancy. To explore whether n-3 LCPUFA...... that dietary n-3 LCPUFA is important for infant fat mass, but future studies testing this specifically are warranted. ABBREVIATIONS::...

  13. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  14. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) / poli (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake; Misturas de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD) e poli(3-hidroxibutirato) (PHB) carregados com torta de mamona (TM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, M.C.G.; Oliveira, C.I.R. de; Sanches, M.C.; Coelho, N.N., E-mail: mrocha@iprj.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IP/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico

    2014-07-01

    Blends of PHB and LDPE were prepared by melt mixing in a Haake internal mixer. Castor oil pressed cake was used as filler for the blends. In order to improve the interfacial adhesion between the filler and the polymers, a mercerization process with 5% NaOH solution was employed. This process was evaluated by several techniques such as: X-Ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties were evaluated by traditional tensile stress-strain tests (ASTM D- 638). The obtained results showed that the mercerization process leads to better adhesion properties. The Young Modulus of the blends presented a tendency to increase with the addition of the castor oil cake.(author)

  15. Incorporation of Sunflower Oil and d-alpha-tocopherol Effect on Mechanical Properties and Permeability of Corn Starch Composite Edible Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramono Putro Utomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work sunflower oil (SO and vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol at three levels each (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% (w/vtotal and (0.18%, 0.36% and 0.54% (w/vtotal were incorporated into corn starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR properties. The addition of SO and vitamin E increased elongation at break of starch-based film while decreased tensile strength and WVTR of starch-based film. The best edible film obtained on addition of sunflower oil concentration of 0.15% and 0.54%, vitamin E with a value of 0.121 mm thickness, tensile strength of 65.38 kg/cm2, elongation at break 14.17% and WVTR 1144 g/m2 24 hours.

  16. Oligoesters and polyesters produced by the curing of sunflower oil epoxidized biodiesel with cis-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiznautt, Quelen B. [Laboratory of Instrumentation and Molecular Dynamics, Department of Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Garcia, Irene T.S. [Department of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry and Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Pelotas, 96010-900, Pelotas (Brazil); Samios, Dimitrios, E-mail: dsamios@iq.ufrgs.br [Laboratory of Instrumentation and Molecular Dynamics, Department of Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-08-31

    Oligoesters and polyesters produced from sunflower oil biodiesel were synthesized and characterized. The polymers were obtained through the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy esters (EE) with cis-1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic anhydride (CH) and triethylamine (TEA) as initiator. Some reactions were conducted by adding small amounts of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE). The intermediate products of the synthesis process, including sunflower oil, methyl ester, epoxidised methyl esters, and the oligoesters and polyesters produced, were followed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance. The products obtained from the curing of the epoxidised esters with different compositions present similar chemical structures; however, they still depend on the amount of the epoxy resin BDGE that was added in the polymerization reaction. Thermoplastic materials with molecular weights (MW) starting at 3800 g/mol and reaching very high MWs, resulted in cross linked polymers. The thermal behaviour of the different products was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the structure of the materials increases the bonding capacity, resulting in higher molecular weight materials, which present good thermal stability.

  17. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto, P.; Ansolin, M.; Follegatti-Romero, L. A.; Batista, E. A. C.; Meirelles, A. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  18. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. V. B. Dias; P. Mielke Neto; L. A. Follegatti-Romero; E. A. C. Batista; A. J. A. Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements ...

  19. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  20. The lipidome and proteome of oil bodies from Helianthus annuus (common sunflower).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furse, Samuel; Liddell, Susan; Ortori, Catharine A; Williams, Huw; Neylon, D Cameron; Scott, David J; Barrett, David A; Gray, David A

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we report the molecular profiling, lipidome and proteome, of the plant organelle known as an oil body (OB). The OB is remarkable in that it is able to perform its biological role (storage of triglycerides) whilst resisting the physical stresses caused by changes during desiccation (dehydration) and germination (rehydration). The molecular profile that confers such extraordinary physical stability on OBs was determined using a combination of (31)P/(1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry and nominal mass-tandem mass spectrometry for the lipidome, and gel-electrophoresis-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the proteome. The integrity of the procedure for isolating OBs was supported by physical evidence from small-angle neutron-scattering experiments. Suppression of lipase activity was crucial in determining the lipidome. There is conclusive evidence that the latter is dominated by phosphatidylcholine (∼60 %) and phosphatidylinositol (∼20 %), with a variety of other head groups (∼20 %). The fatty acid profile of the surface monolayer comprised palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids (2:1:0.25, (1)H NMR) with only traces of other fatty acids (C24:0, C22:0, C18:0, C18:3, C16:2; by MS). The proteome is rich in oleosins (78 %) with the remainder being made up of caleosins and steroleosins. These data are sufficiently detailed to inform an update of the understood model of this organelle and can be used to inform the use of such components in a range of molecular biological, biotechnological and food industry applications. The techniques used in this study for profiling the lipidome throw a new light on the lipid profile of plant cellular compartments.

  1. Avaliação do óleo de girassol adicionado de antioxidantes sob estocagem Evaluation of stored sunflower oil with the addition of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Milene Angelo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos, isolado e sinergista, dos antioxidantes, extrato de coentro e palmitato de ascorbila, em óleo de girassol submetido ao teste acelerado em estufa. Desta forma, o óleo de girassol isolado e adicionado de 1.600 mg.kg-1 de extrato de coentro, 500 mg.kg-1 de palmitato de ascorbila e da mistura destes antioxidantes foi submetido ao teste acelerado em estufa a 60 °C por 10 dias, cujas amostras foram tomadas nos intervalos de tempo de 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias e analisadas quanto ao índice de peróxidos e dienos conjugados. Os resultados obtidos das determinações analíticas foram submetidos às análises de variância e aos testes de Tukey para as médias a 5%, em esquema fatorial, no delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A partir dos resultados, verificou-se que os antioxidantes extrato de coentro, palmitato de ascorbila e a mistura dos antioxidantes quando adicionados no óleo de girassol apresentaram capacidade em retardar a formação de peróxidos em 16,4, 77,5 e 84,0% e dienos conjugados em 11,2, 56,9 e 60,9%, respectivamente. A mistura dos antioxidantes adicionada ao óleo de girassol apresentou um poder antioxidante maior que os antioxidantes aplicados isolados, comprovando o efeito sinergístico dos antioxidantes estudados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the isolated and synergistic effects of the antioxidants coriander extract and ascorbyl palmitate in sunflower oil, submitted to an accelerated storage test. Thus, sunflower oil (control and sunflower oil with the addition of 1,600 mg.kg-1 coriander extract, 500 mg.kg-1 ascorbyl palmitate and a mixture of these antioxidants were submitted to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 10 days, where samples were taken at time intervals of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days and analysed for peroxide value and conjugated dienes. The results obtained from the analytical determinations were submitted to analysis of variance and the

  2. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  3. Fatty acid composition of soybean/sunflower mix oil, fish oil and butterfat applying the AOCS Ce 1j-07 method with a modified temperature program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson, L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC methods such as AOAC Fat in foods 966.06 (2005, AOCS Official Methods Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007, allow for analyzing the fatty acids (FAs in dietary fats using highly polar liquid phase capillary columns. However, there are still difficulties in completely separating butiric acid from solvent, FA critical pairs with similar polarity, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, and long chainpolyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs. Therefore, the selection of the temperature program to be employed is important. This work aimed to improve the AOCS Ce 1j-07 Method for the FA composition of a mixture of soybean and sunflower oil, fish oil, and butterfat, using a modified temperature program, tested among five laboratories. It takes more time, but it allows to completely separate butyric acid from the solvent, trans-18:1 from cis-18:1, 20:1 isomers from 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 from 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3 from 24:0 and the main CLA isomers, thus permitting FA quantification in fats and oils for different purposes such as nutritional labeling, quality control and research.Métodos por cromatografía gas-líquido, AOAC 966.06 (2005, AOCS Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007 permiten determinar ácidos grasos (AG en matrices grasas usando columnas capilares altamente polares y distintos programas de temperatura. No obstante, aún existen dificultades para separar ácido butírico del solvente, pares críticos de AG con polaridades similares, isómeros del ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA, AG de cadena larga poliinsaturados (LC-PUFAs. El objetivo fue mejorar el Método AOCS Ce 1j-07 aplicándolo a la composición en AG de mezcla de aceite soja/girasol, aceite de pescado, mantequilla, usando un programa de temperatura modificado, entre cinco laboratorios. El programa de temperatura elegido, si bien emplea más tiempo, permite separar completamente ácido butírico del solvente, trans-18:1 de cis-18:1, isómeros 20:1 de 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 de 20:4 n-6

  4. Modulating the properties of sunflower oil based novel emulgels using castor oil fatty acid ester: prospects for topical antimicrobial drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Biswal, D; Uvanesh, K; Srivastava, A K; Bhattacharya, Mrinal K; Paramanik, K; Pal, K

    2015-04-01

    The current study describes the effect of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the properties of sunflower oil and span-40 based emulgels. The prepared emulgels contained PGPR in varied concentrations. The microstructure of the emulgels was characterized by bright-field microscopy. The molecular interactions amongst the components of the emulgels were studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The flow and mechanical behaviors of the emulgels were studied using cone-and-plate viscometer and static mechanical tester, respectively. The efficiency of the metronidazole-loaded emulgels as antimicrobial formulations was tested in vitro. E. coli was used as the model microorganism for the antimicrobial study. The emulgels were also explored for iontophoretic delivery applications. The biocompatibility of the emulgels was tested using human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The microscopic evaluation of the emulgels indicated formation of biphasic formulations. FTIR studies suggested a decrease in the hydrogen bonding amongst the components of the emulgels as the concentration of the PGPR was increased. Viscosity studies indicated shear-thinning property of the emulgels. An increase in the PGPR concentration resulted in the reduction in the mechanical properties of the emulgels. Incorporation of PGPR resulted in the decrease in the drug released (both passive and iontophoresis) from the emulgels. The emulgels were found to be cytocompatible in the presence of keratinocytes. The drug loaded emulgels showed good antimicrobial activity against E. coli. In gist, the developed emulgels can be tried for controlled delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The physical and the release properties of the emulgels can be modulated by incorporating PGPR in varied proportions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acid composition and bacterial community changes in the rumen fluid of lactating sheep fed sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2012-02-01

    Supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils and marine lipids is an effective strategy for lowering saturated fatty acid (FA) content and increasing the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 FA in ruminant milk. However, changes in populations of ruminal microorganisms associated with altered biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA are not well characterized. Twenty-five lactating Assaf ewes were allocated at random to 1 of 5 treatments composed of dehydrated alfalfa hay and concentrates containing no additional lipid (control), or supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil and 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of marine algae/kg of diet dry matter. On d 28 on diet, samples of rumen fluid were collected for lipid analysis and microbial DNA extraction. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of FA methyl esters. Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis, and real-time PCR was used to quantify the known Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce trans-11 18:1 or 18:0. Dietary supplements of sunflower oil alone or in combination with marine algae altered the FA profile of rumen fluid, which was associated with changes in populations of specific bacteria. Inclusion of marine algae in diets containing sunflower oil resulted in the accumulation of trans 18:1 and 10-O-18:0 and a marked decrease in 18:0 concentrations in rumen fluid. At the highest levels of supplementation (SOMA(2) and SOMA(3)), marine algae also promoted a shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathways toward the formation of trans-10 18:1 at the expense of trans-11 18:1. Changes in the concentration of biohydrogenation intermediates were not accompanied by significant variations in the abundance of known cultivated ruminal bacteria capable of hydrogenating unsaturated FA. However, certain

  6. Effect of inoculum size on production of compost and enzymes from palm oil mill biogas sludge mixed with shredded palm empty fruit bunches and decanter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawut Nutongkaew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inoculum size on production of compost and enzymes from palm oil mill biogas sludge (POMS mixed with shredded palm empty fruit bunches (PEFB and decanter cake (DC was studied using the mixed culture LDD1 as an inoculum. Three piles of 50 kg mixture (POMS:PEFB:DC = 2:1:1 with different inoculum sizes of 0.0075% (treatment A, 0.015% (treatment B, and 0.030% (treatment C were set up. The physicochemical parameters were measured during the composting. All the compost appeared dark brown in color, crumbly, attained an ambient temperature and had the C/N ratio of 11:1 after 40 days fermentation, indicating the maturity of the compost. The optimal inoculum size was found to be 0.030% (w/w. For enzyme production, the highest carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase activity was 3.23 Unit/g substrates at 12 days incubation whereas the highest xylanase activity was 3.11 Unit/g substrates at 6 days incubation. At the end of 60 days fermentation, the compost (treatment C had a TN-P2O5 -K2O of 3.10-1.29-2.01% (dry basis. Therefore, the compost quality complied with the national compost standard set by the Ministry of Agriculture, Thailand.

  7. Mechanochemical synthesis of CaO•ZnO.K2CO3 catalyst: Characterization and activity for methanolysis of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Željka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to prepare CaO.ZnO catalyst which contain small amount of K2CO3 and analyze its activity for biodiesel synthesis. Catalyst was prepared using the following procedure: CaO and ZnO (molar ratio of 1:2, water and K2CO3 (in various amounts were mechanochemically treated and after milling heated at 700 oC in air atmosphere for obtaining mixed CaO•ZnO/xK2CO3 oxides (x = 0, 1, 2 and 4; mole of K2CO3 per 10 mole of CaO. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma (ICP, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS, particle size laser diffraction (PSLD distribution, solubility measurement of Ca, Zn and K ions in methanol as well as by determination of their alkalinity (Hammett indicator method. Prepared CaO•ZnO/xK2CO3 composite powders were tested as catalysts for methanolysis of sunflower oil at 70ºC using molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 mas% of catalyst based on oil weight. The presence of K2CO3 in prepared samples was found to increase the activity of catalyst, and that such effect is caused by homogeneous-heterogeneous catalysis of biodiesel synthesis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45001

  8. Biorefining of by-product streams from sunflower-based biodiesel production plants for integrated synthesis of microbial oil and value-added co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Candia, D E; Tsakona, S; Kopsahelis, N; García, I L; Papanikolaou, S; Dorado, M P; Koutinas, A A

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the valorisation of crude glycerol and sunflower meal (SFM) from conventional biodiesel production plants for the separation of value-added co-products (antioxidant-rich extracts and protein isolate) and for enhancing biodiesel production through microbial oil synthesis. Microbial oil production was evaluated using three oleaginous yeast strains (Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi and Cryptococcus curvatus) cultivated on crude glycerol and nutrient-rich hydrolysates derived from either whole SFM or SFM fractions that remained after separation of value-added co-products. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures with R. toruloides led to the production of 37.4gL(-1) of total dry weight with a microbial oil content of 51.3% (ww(-1)) when a biorefinery concept based on SFM fractionation was employed. The estimated biodiesel properties conformed with the limits set by the EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. The estimated cold filter plugging point (7.3-8.6°C) of the lipids produced by R. toruloides is closer to that of biodiesel derived from palm oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

    2013-02-01

    Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60 min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5 min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA + DHA (33.16%) and in ω-3/ω-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20 min at 200 °C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ω-3/ω-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87 mg/100 g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25 mg/100 g in the samples fried for 5 min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil.

  10. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) by-products with sunflower oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Pinzón-Zarate, Lina Ximena; González-Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit by-products with sunflower oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including ultrasonic intensity (764-1528, W/m(2)), temperature (25-45°C), and the extraction time (10-30 min). According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with an ultrasonic intensity of 1528 W/m(2), extraction temperature of 35°C and extraction time of 30 min. At these conditions, extraction maximum extraction of total carotenoids as 163.47 mg/100 g dried peel. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of the soil pH on 134Cs transfer factors for soybean and sunflower plants; 134Cs fate in the extracted seed-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massas, I.; Skarlou, C.; Anoussis, J.; Haidouti, C.; Arapis, G.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of soil pH on 134 Cs TFs as well as the fate of 134 Cs in the extracted oil was studied in a greenhouse experiment with soybean and sunflower plants. A soil with pH 4.2 was used as a basis and its pH value has increased to 5.7, 6.5 and 7.6 (by the addition of different amounts of Ca(OH) 2 ). The lowest TF value was observed in the calcareous soil (pH 7.6), while the highest in the lowest pH (4.2) for the vegetative part and in the pH 6.5 for the edible part for both studied plants. TFs were practically the same for soya plants grown on the three lowest soil pH and reduced significantly only at pH 7.6 for either pods or other plant material. However, the lowest/highest TF was ∼ 4 for pods and ∼ 6 for the other plant material. For the sunflower plants while TFs for other plant material reduced from lowest to highest soil pH by only a factor of 2, for the seeds TFs remained rather constant. The difference in TF between the two studied species in each soil pH was in some cases higher than the difference due to pH effect. When an oil fraction (∼ 20 %) was extracted from seeds of both plants, no 134 Cs was detected. Refs. 4 (author)

  12. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  13. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, P; Cacciavillani, J A; Casini, L; Lo Fiego, D P; Marchetti, M; Mattuzzi, S

    2000-02-01

    The effects of seven isoenergetic dietary treatments: (1) no sunflower oil, 35 mg/kg Cu, without α-tocopheryl-acetate added; (2) to (7) 6% high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO), 35 or 175 mg/kg Cu crossed with a 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg α-tocopherol addition, were tested on quality characteristics of dry cured Parma hams from a total 84 Large White gilts. No statistically significant effect was detected on parameters of early evaluation of seasoning loss of hams. The seasoning loss and intramuscular fat content of seasoned hams averaged 28.1 and 3.3%, respectively, with no effect of the diet composition. The CIE L*a*b* colour values taken on the surface of the lean from Parma ham were not affected by dietary oil inclusion, nor by copper levels and by α-tocopherol addition in the feed mixture, except for the 'a' value that increased in HOSO groups (P<0.01) and in groups with α-tocopherol addition (P<0.01). The TBARS values in lean were reduced by the inclusion of HOSO (P<0.05) and α-tocopherol supplementation (P<0.10). Compared to the no oil group, the Parma hams in the HOSO groups showed a higher oleic acid content in the covering fat, but not different in neutral and polar fractions from semimenbranosus muscle. The oil inclusion reduced the saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids fraction from muscle to 30-34% No effect of α-tocopherol and copper levels were observed on fatty acids profiles. From the subjects fed the HOSO diet softer Parma hams were produced than those fed the control diet (χ(2)<0.05), while α-tocopherol and Cu levels did not influence the sensorial evaluation of hams. The inclusion of an oleic acid rich source in heavy pig diet brought about an improved nutritional value, but also the possible need of a prolonged ageing time to achieve an ideal firmness of Parma ham. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation improved the red colour slightly and the lipid stability in Parma ham, while the supplementation of Cu in the diet

  14. Modeling and optimization of sunflower oil methanolysis over quicklime bits in a packed bed tubular reactor using the response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miladinović, Marija R.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Banković, Predrag T.; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra D.; Jovanović, Dušan M.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sunflower oil methanolysis in a continuous packed bed reactor was optimized. • Thermally-activated, low-cost quicklime bits were used as a catalyst. • Process was optimized by 3 3 full factorial design and Box-Behnken design. • Box-Behnken design is recommended for optimizing biodiesel production processes. • FAME content in the ester phase obtained under the optimum conditions was >98%. - Abstract: The effect of the residence time (i.e. liquid flow rate through the reactor), methanol-to-oil molar ratio and reaction temperature on the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content at the output of a continuous packed bed tubular reactor was modeled by the response surface methodology (RSM) combined with the 3 3 full factorial design (FFD) with replication or the Box-Behnken design (BBD) with five center points. The methanolysis of sunflower oil was carried out at the residence time of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h, the methanol-to-oil molar ratios of 6:1, 12:1 and 18:1 and the reaction temperature of 40, 50 and 60 °C under the atmospheric pressure. Based on the used experimental designs, the model equations containing only linear and two-factor interaction terms were developed for predicting the FAME content, which were validated through the use of the unseen data. Applying the analysis of variance (ANOVA), all three factors were shown to have a significant influence on the FAME content. Acceptable statistical predictability and accuracy resulted from both designs since the values of the coefficient of determination were close to unity while the values of the mean relative percentage deviation were relatively low (<±10%). In addition, both designs predicted the maximum FAME content of above 99%, which agreed closely with the actual FAME content (98.8%). The same optimal reaction temperature (60 °C) and residence time (2.0 h) were determined by both designs while the BBD model suggested a slightly lower methanol-to-oil molar ratio (12.2:1) than the 3 3 FFD

  15. Sunflower disease and insect pests in Pakistan: A review | Mukhtar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun flower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oil seed crops and potentially fit in agricultural system and oil production sector of Pakistan. Various diseases, insects and nematodes attack damage the sunflower crop, results a wide range of loss in production and yield. Sunflower is susceptible to diseases of ...

  16. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  17. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  18. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  19. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  20. Comparison of the effects of flaxseed oil and sunflower seed oil consumption on serum glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Atefeh; Nikaein, Farzad; Babajafari, Siavash; Faghih, Shiva; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran. The participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to SO (n = 30, receiving 25 mL/d SO) and FO (n = 30, receiving 25 ml/d FO) groups using block randomization. The diets were identical for all the participants. Blood pressure (BP), serum lipid, fasting blood sugar, and malondialdehyde were measured at baseline and at the end of week 7. The results showed no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding blood lipid levels and fasting blood sugar at the end of the study. However, significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.6% in FO and 10.8% in SO), and triglyceride levels were seen within each group after treatment with FO and SO (P < .05). Nonetheless, between-group changes were significant (<0.05) for systolic BP (mean [±standard deviation {SD}] changes were -14.0 ± 22.41 in the FO group [P = .004] and 0.92 ± 8.70 in the SO group [P = .594]) and diastolic BP (mean [±SD] changes were -4.26 ± 7.44 in the FO group [P = .007] and 1.30 ± 6.91 in the SO group [P = .344]), but marginally significant (P = .053) for malondialdehyde level (mean [±SD] changes were -1.29 ± 1.48 in the FO group [P < .001] and -0.52 ± 1.34 in the SO group [P = .52]). A significant decrease in weight was also found in both groups. However, waist circumference decreased significantly only in the FO group at the end of the study (P < .05). Our results indicated

  1. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  2. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  3. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation, characterization, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of MgO-La2O3 nanocatalysts for biodiesel production from sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Nahid; Yaghobi, Nakisa; Ezzati, Rohollah

    2017-06-01

    A series of MgO-La2O3 nanocatalysts were prepared via a co-precipitation method and used for biodiesel production from sunflower oil. The results showed that with increasing Mg/La weight percent the catalytic activity increases obviously. Also the results showed that the catalyst with Mg/La = 60 wt.% (based on weight of La) is an optimal nanocatalyst. The best operational conditions were the CH3OH/oil = 18/1 at 338 K with mechanical stirring 700 rpm for 5 h. Furthermore, the optimal nanocatalyst showed high catalytic activity for biodiesel production and the biodiesel yield reached 97.7% under the optimal conditions. Furthermore, this nanocatalyst was used for 4 runs in biodiesel production without significant decrease of catalytic performance. Also kinetic and thermodynamic of reaction has been studied in the presence of optimal nanocatalyst. From the kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Ea = 77.6 kJ·mol-1, A = 3.5 × 107 l·mol-1 s-1, ΔrHθ = 162 kJ·mol-1 K-1, ΔrSθ = 0.54 kJ·mol-1 K-1 were obtained. Characterization of catalysts was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurement methods.

  5. Phytobenthos and phytoplankton community changes upon exposure to a sunflower oil spill in a South African protected freshwater wetland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas africana, cyanobacteria, chlorophyll a and b 52 concentrations, light intensity, algal bioassay 53 54 Introduction 55 56 When a petroleum or non-petroleum oil spill occurs, adverse effects on the 57 surrounding ecosystem can occur as a... the environmental fate and toxicity of the transformed products differ 67 from that of the parent depends upon the specific oil and product that were formed. 68 Generally, vegetable oils and petroleum oils are of low viscosity and the spread of 69 these oils over...

  6. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared.

  7. Studies on the effects of storage stability of bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum deoiled seed cake on the performance and emission characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Sakthivel; Kasimani, Ramesh

    2018-04-19

    The highly unbalanced nature of bio-oil composition poses a serious threat in terms of storage and utilization of bio-oil as a viable fuel in engines. So it becomes inevitable to study the variations in physicochemical properties of the bio-oil during storage to value its chemical instability, for designing stabilization methodologies. The present study aims to investigate the effects of storage stability of bio-oil extracted from pyrolyzing Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) deoiled seed cake on the engine operating characteristics. The bio-oil is produced in a fixed bed reactor at 500 °C under the constant heating rate of 30 °C/min. All the stability analysis methods involve an accelerated aging procedure based on standards established by ASTM (D5304 and E2009) and European standard (EN 14112). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to analytically characterize the unaged and aged bio-oil samples. The results clearly depict that stabilizing Calophyllum inophyllum bio-oil with 10% (w/w) methanol improved its stability than that of the unstabilized sample thereby reducing the aging rate of bio-oil to 0.04 and 0.13 cst/h for thermal and oxidative aging respectively. Engine testing of the bio-oil sample revealed that aged bio-oil samples deteriorated engine performance and increased emission levels at the exhaust. The oxidatively aged sample showed the lowest BTE (24.41%), the highest BSEC (20.14 MJ/kWh), CO (1.51%), HC (132 ppm), NOx (1098 ppm) and smoke opacity (34.8%).

  8. Effects of storage and industrial oilseed extraction methods on the quality and stability characteristics of crude sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of industrial oilseed extraction methods on the quality and stability of crude sunflower oil (pre-pressed, solvent-extracted, full-pressed and mixed oils was studied by means of the determination of free fatty acids, peroxide value, color value, iron, phosphorus, total and individual tocopherol contents, their stability against oxidation (Rancimat induction time and the fatty acid composition with special emphasis on trans fatty acids. In addition, these crude oils were stored for a period of four months at 40 ± 2°C and analyzed at monthly intervals for free fatty acids, peroxide value, and Rancimat induction time to evaluate their storage stability. The results revealed that the crude sunflower oils obtained by the full-pressed extraction method had worse quality and stability parameters than the crude oils obtained by other extraction methods. Tocopherol content showed a drastic decrease with full-pressed extraction. Also, the crude sunflower oils obtained by the full-pressed extraction presented a higher total trans fatty acid content than the others. On the contrary, the solvent extraction method influenced the phosphorus and iron contents more than the others. The results indicated, however, that pre-pressing the oil appeared to be better than other methods. This study suggests that it is absolutely necessary for the vegetable oil industry to reevaluate the full pressing method as well as the solvent extraction conditions used for sunflowerseeds in order to retain both nutritive value and oxidative stability.La influencia de los métodos industriales de extracción de semillas oleaginosas sobre la calidad y la estabilidad de aceites crudos de girasol (pre-prensado, extraídos con disolventes, prensado completo y mezclas de aceites se ha estudiado mediante la determinación de los ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxidos, valor del color, hierro, fósforo, contenido de tocoferoles totales e individuales, así como su

  9. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durge, S. M.; Tripathi, M. K.; Dutta, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.) levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs) on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 µmol/g oil free dry matter (DM) and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 µmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (pgas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, pmustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052) of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (pmustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production. PMID:27847426

  10. Biocatalytic behaviour of immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the 1,3-selective ethanolysis of sunflower oil to obtain a biofuel similar to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Verdugo, Cristóbal; Sancho, Enrique D; Luna, Diego; Calero, Juan; Posadillo, Alejandro; Bautista, Felipa M; Romero, Antonio A

    2014-08-04

    A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt %) support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively). Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses) without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  11. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayati, Talib M., E-mail: talib-albyati@yahoo.com [University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Iraq); Doyle, Aidan M., E-mail: a.m.doyle@mmu.ac.uk [Manchester Metropolitan University, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  12. Biocatalytic Behaviour of Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in the 1,3-Selective Ethanolysis of Sunflower Oil to Obtain a Biofuel Similar to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt % support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively. Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  13. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction

  14. Effect of heating at frying temperature on the quality characteristics of regular and high-oleic acid sunflower oils

    OpenAIRE

    M Abbas Ali; Ali Hassan Ali Najmaldien; Razam Abd Latip; Noor Hidayu Othman; Fadzilah Adibah Abdul Majid; Liza Md Salleh

    2013-01-01

    Background.Understanding of oil deterioration during heating/frying process is important as oils are nor- mally kept hot at commercial food outlets during intermittent frying cycles. An increased level of consumer awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could have an effect on selection of fats in the food industry. The rate of quality deterioration during heating depends on fatty acid composition and also the content and composition of minor components. Therefore, the...

  15. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  16. SUNFLOWER SUPPLY INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gineo, Wayne M.; Sundquist, W. Burt

    1981-01-01

    This report is concerned with a discussion of the sunflower production sector. It summarizes and discusses the North American sunflower production sector in terms of area, acreage, total production, yields and prices. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of the potential level of sunflower production is made.

  17. A high oleic sunflower oil fatty acid esters of plant sterols mixed with dietary diacylglycerol reduces plasma insulin and body fat accumulation in Psammomys obesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelled Dori

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is associated with subsequent development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is characterized by reduced response to insulin, central obesity, and dyslipidemia. Intake of plant sterols (PS has been shown to confer a healthier lipid profile and ameliorate cardiovascular disease risk factors in experimental animals and humans. In this study we used an animal model of type 2 diabetes to assess the effects of a preparation of PS esterified to high oleic sunflower oil fatty acids mixed with dietary diacylglycerol (PS-HOSO on diabetic related metabolic parameters. Psammomys obesus (P. obesus were fed high energy (HE diet supplemented by either PS-HOSO or control oil. Following 4.5 weeks of intervention, animals were divided into fasting and non-fasting modes prior to outcome measurements. Glucose and insulin levels as well as blood lipid profile, body weight, and fat accumulation were evaluated in fasting and non-fasting modes. Results P. obesus fed with a HE diet displayed a characteristic heterogeneity in their blood glucose and insulin levels with a subset group displaying type 2 diabetes symptoms. PS-HOSO treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol (24%, P P P P Conclusion PS-HOSO supplementation to diabetes-prone gerbils counteracts the increase in body weight and epididymal fat accumulation, and also results in a drop in circulating insulin levels. These effects are pointing out that PS-HOSO may serve as a functional ingredient for metabolic syndrome or diabetic sufferers, which not only influences body weight, but also prevents or reverses insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia.

  18. Effect of dietary treatment with olive oil by-product (olive cake on physico-chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of beef during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR, CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1, and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2. Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days. At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system, peroxide value (PV, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage.

  19. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Olive Oil By-Product (Olive Cake) on Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Characteristics of Beef During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-11-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR), CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1), and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2). Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days). At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage.

  20. Variability in oil tocopherol concentration and composition of traditional and high oleic sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L. in the Pampean region (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Carmen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols are natural antioxidants that increase the stability of food fat and fulfill an important biological requirement in humans. There are no previous studies on the variability of tocopherol concentration and composition in the oil of sunflower traditional hybrids (TH and high oleic sunflower hybrids (HOH from different environments in Argentina. The objective of this work was to detect and  examine that variability. Seed samples were obtained from i seven TH grown in four locations (Experiment I and, ii five hybrids (three HOH and two traditional ones grown in three locations (Experiment II. Concentrations of total tocopherol in oil ranged from 634 to 1054 μg g oil–1. α-tocopherol accounted for 90.8 to 97% of the total tocopherols. Total and α-tocopherol concentrations were highly genetically determined (more than 80%. In Experiment I, a significant, although low in value, interaction between hybrid and location was found for total and α-tocopherol concentrations. In Experiment II, mean values for total tocopherol concentration in HOH and in each environment were larger than in TH. Significant differences for total and α-tocopherol concentration were not found among HOH and environments. The variation of tocopherol concentration for each hybrid across environments was higher than the variation among hybrids in the same environment. To obtain oil with high tocopherol concentration, both hybrid and environment must be selected.Los tocoferoles son antioxidantes naturales que aumentan la estabilidad de los aceites y cumplen una importante actividad biológica en humanos. No son conocidos estudios sobre la variabilidad del contenido y composición de tocoferoles en el aceite de híbridos de girasol tradicionales (HT y “alto oleico” (HAO sembrados en diferentes ambientes en Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar y examinar esa variabilidad. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de a 7 HT sembrados en 4 localidades

  1. Analytical characterization of products obtained from slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum seed cake: study on performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with bio-oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Sakthivel; Kasimani, Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to analyse the characteristics and properties of the fractions obtained from slow pyrolysis of non-edible seed cake of Calophyllum inophyllum (CI). The gas, bio-oil and biochar obtained from the pyrolysis carried out at 500 °C in a fixed bed batch type reactor at a heating rate of 30 °C/min were characterized by various analytical techniques. Owing to the high volatile content of CI biomass (72.61%), it was selected as the raw material in this present investigation. GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of bio-oil showed the presence of higher amount of oxygenated compounds, phenol derivatives, esters, acid and furans. The physicochemical properties of the bio-oil were tested as per ASTM norms which imply that bio-oil is a highly viscous liquid with lower heating value as compared to that of diesel fuel. The chemical composition of evolved gas was analysed by using GC testing which revealed the presence of combustible components. The FT-IR characterization of biochar showed the presence of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons whereas the elevated amount of carbon in biochar indicates its potential to be used as solid fuel. The performance and emission characteristics of CI engine were assessed with different CI bio-oil blends and compared with baseline diesel fuel. The results showed that addition of bio-oil leads to decreased brake thermal efficiency and increased brake specific energy consumption. Meanwhile, increase in blend ratio reduces harmful pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and smoke in the exhaust. From the engine testing, it is suggested to employ 20% of CI bio-oil blends in CI engine to obtain better operation.

  2. Sunflower seed: a potential source of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Ali, S.; Javed, M.A.; Javad, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition of seven varieties of sunflower seeds and seed fractions i.e., kernels, hulls and meals was determined. Sunflower meals (SFM) contained 44.00 to 49.52% crude protein, 1.25 to 1.50% fat, 3.43 to 6.75% crude fibre, 7.50 to 8.51% ash, 27.30 to 36.09% nitrogen free extract, 3.12 to 3.51% phytic acid and 2.45 to 3.01% chlorogenic acid. Fatty acid profile of sunflower oil with respect to other vegetable oils (i.e., soybean, mustard, canola, cotton, corn oils) and protein solubility profile of sunflower meal as compared to soybean and mustard meals, indicate that its oil and meal have a great nutritional potential. (author)

  3. Layer-Cake Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  4. A comparison of the European renewable energy directive default emission values with actual values from operating biodiesel facilities for sunflower, rape and soya oil seeds in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) set a binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target for transportation biofuels and other bioliquids. In this study, the GHG emissions of biodiesel chain from sunflower, rapeseed and soybean were calculated in compliance with the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). Input data used for the agricultural step were referred to the Umbrian region for sunflower and rapeseed and to the Veneto region for soybean, while data obtained from the main Italian biodiesel plants were employed for the processing step. Results showed that GHG emissions were higher than default values reported in the RED for sunflower and rapeseed and lower for soybean. Only sunflower biodiesel does not reach the minimum value of GHG saving (35%). The main differences with data used in the RED concern cultivation step, while the processing step has overall the same values of GHG emissions. Finally, three case studies were examined in order to identify possible improvements to make the analyzed supply chains more sustainable. -- Highlights: ► GHG balance of biodiesel from sunflower, rapeseed and soya was analyzed. ► Cultivation has the highest environmental impact for sunflower and rapeseed chains. ► Typical Italian data were adopted for cultivation and processing steps. ► GHG emissions were lower than RED default values for soya biodiesel. ► Cogeneration for the processing plant can greatly increase GHG saving.

  5. Selective ethanolysis of sunflower oil with Lipozyme RM IM, an immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase, to obtain a biodiesel-like biofuel, which avoids glycerol production through the monoglyceride formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan; Verdugo, Cristóbal; Luna, Diego; Sancho, Enrique D; Luna, Carlos; Posadillo, Alejandro; Bautista, Felipa M; Romero, Antonio A

    2014-12-25

    The obtaining of Ecodiesel, a biofuel applicable to diesel engines which keeps the glycerin as monoglyceride (MG), was achieved through a selective ethanolysis process of sunflower oil, by application of Lipozyme RM IM, a Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilized on macroporous anion exchange resins. This biocatalyst that was already described in the synthesis of conventional biodiesel has also shown its efficiency in the present selective enzymatic process, after optimization of the influence of various reaction parameters. Thus, an adequate activity is obtained that is maintained throughout five successive reuses. Quantitative conversions of triglycerides (TG) with high yields to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were obtained under mild reaction conditions that correspond to the transformation of TG in a mixture of two moles of FAEE and a mole of MG, thus avoiding the glycerol production. Thus, the selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with absolute ethanol can be carried out under standard conditions with oil/ethanol volume ratio 12/3.5 (mL), at constant pH obtained by the addition of 50 μl of aqueous solution of 10 N NaOH, reaction temperature of 40 °C and 40 mg of Lipozyme RM IM. Under these experimental conditions six successive reactions can be efficiently carried out. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Olive cake dietary supplementation in rabbit: immune and oxidative status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taticchi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the effect of three different types of dehydrated olive cakes on immunitary and oxidative status of growing rabbits. One hundred and sixty New Zealand White weaned rabbits, 30 day old, were divided into four homogeneous groups. To experimental groups was administered a similar diet integrated with 5% of three types of olive cake (A, B, C obtained from local olive oil mills. The olive cakes A and C were both of high quality (C better than A, while the by-product B had the lowest level of total polyphenols, o-diphenols and oleic acid and the highest peroxide number. The aspecific immunitary and oxidative status was improved in animals fed olive cakes richer in antioxidant components.

  7. Effects of partial replacement of corn and soybean meal with sunflower cake in pig diets on ham fatty acid composition/ Efeitos da substituição parcial de milho e farelo de soja por torta de girassol na dieta de suínos sobre a composição em ácidos graxos do pernil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight pigs (24 barrows and 24 gilts, Landrace X Large White with initial liveweight of 22.69 kg were subjected to four treatments: diets with 0, 5, 10, and 15% of sunflower cake (SFC. No significant (P > 0.05 effect of dietary treatment was observed on crude protein (19.6%, total fat (15.3%, ash (0.89%, and moisture (63.9% contents of ham. Fatty acids in all ham (Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus were significantly influenced by diets. Palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids in both diets and pork meat. Linoleic acid (18:2n-6 was the most abundant fatty acid under SFC-based diets. Its levels were also higher in ham of pigs fed SFC diets (T2, T3, and T4 with 15.79, 18.66, and 22.85%, respectively than in that of pig fed the control diet (13.73%. Incorporation of 5, 10, and 15% SFC in pig diet markedly decreased the proportion of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and increased polyunsaturated fatty acids in ham (P Quarenta e oito suínos (24 fêmeas e 24 machos, Landrace x Large White com peso vivo inicial de 22.69 kg foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos: dietas com 0 , 5, 10 e 15% de torta de girassol (SFC. Não foram observados efeitos significativos (p > 0.05 nas dietas para os teores de proteína total (19,6%, gordura total (15,3%, cinzas (0,89% e umidade (63,9% nos pernis. Os ácidos graxos foram significativamente influenciados pelas dietas. Os ácidos palmítico, oléico e linoléico foram os ácidos graxos mais abundantes tanto nas dietas como no pernil como um todo (Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus. Ácido linoléico (18:2n-6 foi o ácido graxo mais abundante nas dietas SFC. Seus níveis também foram maiores em pernis de suínos alimentados com dietas com SFC (T2, T3 e T4 com 15,8, 18,7 e 22,9%, respectivamente em relação aos suínos que se alimentaram com a dieta controle (13,7%. Incorporação de 5, 10, 15% de SFC em dietas de suínos, diminuem a propor

  8. Main aspects of sunflower production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world, since its grains have high oil content (38% to 50%, primarily used for the production of high quality oil. The production of sunflower increases the supply of protein meal for animal feeding, which enables the increase of protein production, more specifically meat, eggs and milk. Grain production systems in Brazil have peculiarities, since two to three different crops are grown in a special arrangement, in the same area and year. Notwithstanding the small cultivated area in Brazil of 62.3 thousand hectares, sunflower is used in succession or rotation with other grain crops such as soybean or maize, showing an enormous potential for expansion and can be cultivated from latitudes 33°S to 5°N, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Sunflower cultivation in succession to soybean as a second summer crop can also reduce environmental impacts because of the more efficient usage of production factors, such as land and sharing of agricultural inputs, machinery, infrastructure and workforce. The success of establishing the sunflower is associated with the adequate management of soil fertility, use of cultivars adapted to different environments, plant arrangement, seed quality and adequate phytosanitary management, among other factors. It also needs strategic actions, planning and, long-term research and technology diffusion.

  9. Genetic progress in sunflower crop in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, D N; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Lorentz, L H; Boligon, A A; Caraffa, M; Wartha, C A

    2017-04-13

    The sunflower has adaptability to growing regions with different climatic and soil characteristics, showing drought tolerance and high-quality oil production. The State of Rio Grande do Sul is the third largest sunflower producer in Brazil, with research related to the sunflower breeding initiated after the decade of 1950. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic progress for grain yield, oil content, and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Data of grain yield, oil content, and oil yield obtained from 58 sunflower cultivar yield trials in 19 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul during the period from 2005 to 2014 were used. Genetic progress was studied according to the methodology proposed by Vencovsky and data from sunflower cultivar yield trials were used. Annual genetic progress of sunflower during the period of 10 years (2005-2014) was 132.46 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for grain yield, -0.17%/year for oil content, and 48.11 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for oil yield. The sunflower-breeding programs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were efficient for the traits grain yield and oil yield and presented no efficiency for oil content.

  10. Response surface modeling of acid activation of raw diatomite using in sunflower oil bleaching by: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouci, M; Safa, M; Meddah, B; Aoues, A; Sonnet, P

    2015-03-01

    The optimum conditions for acid activation of diatomite for maximizing bleaching efficiency of the diatomite in sun flower oil treatment were studied. Box-Behnken experimental design combining with response surface modeling (RSM) and quadratic programming (QP) was employed to obtain the optimum conditions of three independent variables (acid concentration, activation time and solid to liquid) for acid activation of diatomite. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95 % confidence limits (α = 0.05). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained by solving the quadratic regression model, as well as by analyzing the response surface contour plots. The experimental conditions at this global point were determined to be acid concentration = 8.963 N, activation time = 11.9878 h, and solid to liquid ratio = 221.2113 g/l, the corresponding bleaching efficiency was found to be about 99 %.

  11. Development of a Lipid Particle for β-Carotene Encapsulation Using a Blend of Tristearin and Sunflower Oil: Choice of Lipid Matrix and Evaluation of Shelf Life of Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela V. L. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid particles are colloidal carriers that have been studied for almost 20 years in the pharmaceutical field and recently have been investigated by food researchers due to their capacity to enhance the incorporation of lipophilic bioactives and their bioavailability in aqueous formulations. The aims of this study are to choose a suitable lipid matrix to produce solid lipid particles, which would be used to encapsulate β-carotene, and to evaluate the capacity of dispersions to protect the incorporated carotenoid. Bulk lipid mixtures of tristearin and sunflower oil were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, and the mixture with the highest degree of structural disorganisation was chosen. β-Carotene was then encapsulated in solid lipid particles produced with this mixture, composed of 70 % tristearin and 30 % sunflower oil (6 % total lipid and stabilised with hydrogenated soy lecithin and Tween 80 (3 % total surfactant by hot pressure homogenisation. Two types of particles were produced, using one or two passages in the homogenisation step. Average particle size, zeta potential, thermal behaviour, crystallinity and β-carotene concentration were monitored over 4 months of storage (under refrigerated conditions. The results showed minor differences between the systems in terms of size distribution, although the particles produced with one passage through the homogeniser were slightly more efficient at protecting the β-carotene from degradation and also suffered few microstructural alterations after 4 months.

  12. Influence of fatty acid composition on the formation of polar glycerides and polar fatty acids in sunflower oils heated at frying temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, N.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils as well as 50% mixture of both of them were heated at different temperatures under well-controlled conditions. Total polar compounds, the main groups of polar glycerides, total polar fatty acids, the main groups of polar fatty acids and the loss of initial fatty acids were quantitated. The most outstanding results demonstrated the primacy of the formation of glyceridic polymerization compounds during heating at high temperatures. After transesterification of the samples dimeric fatty acids was the most significant group of compounds obtained. As expected, linoleic acid was preferentially involved in the formation of polar fatty acids, although the participation of oleic acid became very important at low concentration of linoleic acid. Finally good statistical figures were obtained for the regression of polar fatty acids on polar compounds.

    Aceites de girasol convencional y alto oleico así como una mezcla al 50% de ambos fueron calentados a diferentes temperaturas bajo condiciones controladas. Se cuantificaron los compuestos polares totales, los grupos principales de glicéridos, ácidos grasos polares totales, los grupos principales de ácidos grasos polares y la pérdida de ácidos grasos iniciales. Los resultados más relevantes demostraron la primacía de la formación de compuestos de polimerización glicerídicos durante el calentamiento a altas temperaturas. Después de la transesterificación de las muestras, los ácidos diméricos constituyeron el grupo más significativo de compuestos obtenidos. Como era esperado, el ácido linoleico contribuyó preferentemente en la formación de los ácidos grasos polares, si bien la participación del ácido oleico fue muy importante a bajas concentraciones de ácido linoleico. Finalmente, se obtuvieron buenos resultados estadísticos para la regresión entre ácidos grasos polares y compuestos polares.

  13. Perancangan Promosi Amelia Cake & Bakery Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Susanti Aprillia; Bramantya, Bramantya; Sutanto, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Amelia Cake & Bakery meupakan sebuah bakery di Surabaya yang sudah berdiri sejak tahun 1984. Amelia Cake& Bakery memiliki beberapa produk andalan di antaranya Spikoe Resep Kuno, Walnut Cake, Pandan Kukus, danMascovis Cake. Tidak adanya promosi yang dilakukan oleh Amelia Cake & Bakery membuat bakery ini kurangdi kenal di kota Surabaya. Dengan adanya perancangan promosi ini diharapkan dapat membuat Amelia Cake &Bakery dikenal dan mampu bersaing dengan kompetitor-kompetitornya.

  14. The Effects Of Replacing Groundnut Cake With Cottonseed Cake On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with cottonseed cake (CSC) at 0, 50 and 100% levels in starter and finisher diets on broiler performance, carcass characteristics and gut morphology were evaluated in a 56 - day feeding trial. Average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, and feed/gain ratio were ...

  15. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E.; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Van Geem, Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.; Thybaut, Joris W.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas

  16. Co-composting of oil exhausted olive-cake, poultry manure and industrial residues of agro-food activity for soil amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, F; Jarboui, R; Hachicha, S; Medhioub, K; Ammar, E

    2008-03-01

    The co-composting of exhausted olive-cake with poultry manure and sesame shells was investigated. These organic solid wastes were watered by the confectionary wastewater which is characterized by its high content of residual sugars raising its COD. Four aerated windrows were performed to establish the effects of confectionary by-products on the compost process. Different mixtures of the agro-industrial wastes were used. During the composting process, physico-chemical parameters (temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, total carbon and total nitrogen) were studied. The stability of the biological system was noticed after 70 days. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 14-17. The humidification of the windrows with the wastewater seemed to have accelerated the composting process in comparison to a windrow humidified with water. In addition, the organic matter degradation was enhanced to reach 55-70%. The application of the obtained composts to soil appeared to significantly improve the soil fertility. Indeed, field experiments showed an increase in potato yield; the production was 30.5-37.5 tons ha(-1), compared to 30.5 tons ha(-1) with farm manure.

  17. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  18. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  19. Comportamento de cristalização de lipídios estruturados obtidos a partir de gordura do leite e óleo de girassol Crystallization behavior of structured lipids by chemical interesterification of milkfat and sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Neves Rodrigues-Ract

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade do estudo foi avaliar o comportamento de cristalização de misturas binárias de gordura do leite e óleo de girassol em diversas proporções, bem como de seus correspondentes lipídios estruturados obtidos por interesterificação química. Foram usados conteúdo de gordura sólida, consistência, ponto de amolecimento e microscopia sob luz polarizada para avaliar as misturas antes e após a interesterificação. A adição de óleo de girassol e a interesterificação modificaram a cristalização da gordura do leite, pelos efeitos de diluição e rearranjo dos triacilgliceróis. Arquivos de vídeo em formato WMV foram compilados para estudar a cristalização a 20 ºC. Os vídeos tornaram possível a observação da estrutura cristalina formada e representaram uma ferramenta de grande importância para a pesquisa de cristalização de óleos e gorduras.The aim of this study was to evaluate the crystallization behavior of binary mixtures of milkfat and sunflower oil in different ratios and their respective structured lipids obtained by chemical interesterification. Solid fat content, consistency, softening point and polarized light microscopy were used to analyze the mixtures before and after interesterification. The addition of sunflower oil and the interesterification changed the milkfat crystallization, through the effect of the dilution and rearrangement of the triacylglycerols. Video files in WMV format were made in order to study the crystallization at 20 ºC. The videos made it possible to observe crystal structure formation and they represent a tool of great importance in the fats and oils crystallization research.

  20. Feeding olive cake to ewes improves fatty acid profile of milk and cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vera, R. R.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil extraction yields a residual cake rich in oil that can be used in animal diets as a source of monounsaturated fat. Milk and cheese from sheep are high in saturated fatty acids (FA) thus, it was hypothesized that supplementing olive cake to lactating ewes would result in naturally enhanced...... milk and cheese with healthier FA profiles for human consumption. Nine lactating ewes were randomly assigned to a replicated (n= s3) 3. ×. 3 Latin square design. Diets were supplemented with 0, 10 or 25% of dry olive cake. Except for total solids, dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were...

  1. "Toilet cake" encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhentao; Moreno, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Paradichlorobenzene (PDB) is an aromatic compound found in several household insect repellents and deodorizers. Paradichlorobenzene may cause dependence and damage when inhaled or ingested. Prior cases of PDB neurotoxicity involved ingestion or inhalation of mothballs or occupational exposure. We report the first case of PDB neurotoxicity from chronic toilet bowl deodorizers ("toilet cake") sniffing. A 19-year-old woman, 4 weeks postpartum, presented with gradual mental status deterioration, lethargy, and general weakness for 2 weeks. On physical examination, the patient was found to have a strong odor of deodorizer and diffuse hyperpigmented skin lesions, with scratch marks in neck, axillae, trunk, and 4 limbs. She was alert but unable to communicate or follow commands. Ataxia, hyporeflexia, cogwheel rigidity, and decreased muscle tone were also noted. Laboratory tests revealed only normocytic anemia. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan showed enhancement within the splenium of the corpus callosum. Postpartum depression, psychosis, and panhypopituitarism were excluded. Family members reported on further questioning that the patient was a habitual "toilet cake" sniffer for an unknown period. A urine test for 2,5-dichlorophenol (a PDB metabolite) level was 620 mg/L (3100 times higher than the average concentration with household exposure). Her clinical condition and body odor remained unchanged during the 30-day hospitalization and the skin findings improved.

  2. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Durge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L. levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 μmol/g oil free dry matter (DM and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 μmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (p<0.05 in the total gas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, p<0.01. The degradability of DM and organic matter (OM of concentrate mixtures did not change, however, pH and NH3-N concentrations of the fermentation medium showed linear (p<0.05 reductions with increased mustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052 of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (p<0.05. However, the pH, NH3-N, and total volatile fatty acid levels decreased linearly (p<0.05 with increased levels of concentrate in CFMs. Conclusion: Reduction in methane production was evidenced with the inclusion of mustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production.

  3. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  4. Improving Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture by Controlling Tahini Particle Size Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Mureşan; Lucian Cuibus; Anna Olari; Emil Racolţa; Carmen Socaciu; Sabine Danthine; Sevastița Muste; Christophe Blecker

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower halva is an appreciated product, but shows currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers, having a hard texture and oil exuded on the surface (low stability). The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture and stability. Eight different particle size sunflower tahini samples were produced at pilot plant scale, the higher the number of passes through the colloidal mill, the smaller the particle size ...

  5. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  6. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    -producing Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus has been applied on olive cake supplemented with glucose in order to evaluate any inhibitory effect that olive cake might have on the microbial growth and metabolism. It was shown that the strain was able to grow and produce ethanol up to a TS content of 100 g per L. Further...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  7. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Dimitrijevic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare

  8. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2017-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi , or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  9. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2018-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  10. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Bonnet, M; Chilliard, Y

    2012-04-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d experimental periods. Treatments were a grass hay-based diet with a high level of forage (F) or a high level of concentrate with either maize grain (CM) or flattened wheat (CW) as source of starch and supplemented with 130 g/d sunflower-seed oil. Milk yield was enhanced (Pmilk fat content was decreased on the CM and CW diets compared with the F diet, resulting in similar milk fat secretion. Both high-concentrate diets increased (Pmilk yield of 10 : 0-16 : 0 and decreased trans-9,11-18 : 1 and cis-9, trans-11-18 : 2. The CW diet decreased (Pmilk. The expression and/or activity of fourteen proteins involved in the major lipogenic pathways in mammary tissues and of lipogenic genes in adipose and liver tissues were similar among treatments. In conclusion, high starch concentrates alter milk FA yield via mechanisms independent of changes in mammary, liver or adipose tissue lipogenic gene expression. Furthermore, data provided indications that mammary lipogenic responses to starch-rich diets differ between caprine and bovine ruminants.

  11. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  12. Let Them Eat Faux Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Suze

    2012-01-01

    In this article, students create a "faux" cake sculpture. It is a three-dimensional artwork made of paper, colored with markers, and decorated with old marker caps and polystyrene packing peanuts for icing swirls.

  13. Solubility and Permeability Studies of Aceclofenac in Different Oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dissolved quantity of aceclofenac in each of the oils (almond oil, oleic acid, castor oil, paraffin oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, canola oil, sesame oil, isopropyl myristate (ipm), sunflower oil, corn oil, coconuts oil and eucalyptus oil) at 25 °C. The in-vitro permeability of aceclofenac in each of these oils was determined at 32 ± 0.5 ...

  14. Cake Division by Majority Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Gersbach; Bernhard Pachl

    2006-01-01

    We consider a collective choice process where three players make proposals sequentially on how to divide a given quantity of resources. Afterwards, one of the proposals is chosen by majority decision. If no proposal obtains a majority, a proposal is drawn by lot. We establish the existence of the set of subgame perfect equilibria, using a suitable refinement concept. In any equilibrium, the first agent offers the whole cake to the second proposal-maker, who in turn offers the whole cake back ...

  15. ω-3 PUFA rich camelina oil by-products improve the systemic metabolism and spleen cell functions in fattening pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionelia Taranu

    Full Text Available Camelina oil-cakes results after the extraction of oil from Camelina sativa plant. In this study, camelina oil-cakes were fed to fattening pigs for 33 days and its effect on performance, plasma biochemical analytes, pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and antioxidant detoxifying defence in spleen was investigated in comparison with sunflower meal. 24 crossbred TOPIG pigs were randomly assigned to one of two experimental dietary treatments containing either 12% sunflower meal (treatment 1-T1, or 12.0% camelina oil-cakes, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (ω-3 PUFA (treatment 2-T2. The results showed no effect of T2 diet (camelina cakes on feed intake, average weight gain or feed efficiency. Consumption of camelina diet resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose concentration (18.47% with a trend towards also a decrease of plasma cholesterol. In spleen, T2 diet modulated cellular immune response by decreasing the protein and gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin (IL-8 and cyclooxigenase 2 (COX-2 in comparison with T1 diet. By contrast, T2 diet increased (P<0.05 in spleen the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1 by 3.43, 2.47 and 1.83 fold change respectively, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS (4.60 fold, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS (3.23 fold and the total antioxidant level (9.02% in plasma. Camelina diet increased also peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ mRNA and decreased that of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38α MAPK and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB. At this level of inclusion (12% camelina oil-cakes appears to be a potentially alternative feed source for pig which preserves a high content of ω-3 PUFA indicating antioxidant properties by the stimulation

  16. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  17. Filter Cake Oil-Wax as Raw Material for the Production of Biodiesel: Analysis of the Extraction Process and the Transesterification Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    L. Casas; Y. Hernández; C. Mantell; N. Casdelo; E. Martinez de la Ossa

    2015-01-01

    The viability of using the waste obtained in the manufacture of sugar from sugarcane for the production of biodiesel has been analyzed. Two fundamental stages are necessary to obtain biodiesel; the first stage is the extraction process from the waste oil materials and the second is the transesterification reaction. Four techniques, Soxhlet, orbital shaker extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, have been analyzed. For Soxhlet, orbital shaker extraction,...

  18. Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (2n=17 belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae. Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers. We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.

  19. Sunflowers to decontaminate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Sunflowers offer a new method of decontamination. 55 kilograms (dry weight) of sunflowers are able to decontaminate all the cesium 137 and the strontium 90 polluting a pond situated at one kilometer from Tchernobyl. These flowers are able to decrease 95% in 24 hours the uranium concentration in the american site of Ashtabula in Ohio getting this water from 350 parts by milliards to less than 5 parts by milliards. The radioactivity should stocked in the roots at concentrations 5 000 to 10 000 times higher than water concentration. The cost is cheaper than micro filtration and precipitation (2-6 dollars for 4 000 liters of water against 80 dollars for others technologies). when sunflowers are radioactive they can be reduced in dust and vitrified and stocked as solid radioactive wastes. (N.C.)

  20. Sunflower seed allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  2. Biochemical Characterization of Coriander Cakes Obtained by Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazia Sriti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effect of operating conditions such as nozzle diameter on fatty acid, sterol, and tocol composition of coriander cakes. Eight fatty acids were identified, with petroselinic acid accounting for 75–77% of the total fatty acids, followed by linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids, accounting for 12-13%, 5%, and 3%, respectively, of the total fatty acids. β-Sitosterol was the major sterol in all oils with 33–35% of total sterols. The next major sterols in all oils were stigmasterol (24% of total sterols and Δ7-stigmasterol (15% of total sterols. Coriander cake contained higher amounts of total tocotrienol where γ-tocotrienol was the main compound.

  3. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; Melo, E.J.T. de; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10 5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH) 2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained

  4. Urea-nitrate combustion synthesis of MgO/MgAl2O4 nanocatalyst used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil: Influence of fuel ratio on catalytic properties and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani Vahid, Behgam; Haghighi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: As a base catalyst for biodiesel production, MgAl 2 O 4 spinel was successfully synthesized by combustion method with MgO, as the active phase, dispersed on the catalyst surface. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. Analyzing the effect of fuel ratio on the combustion synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 , it was revealed that the synthesized base catalyst with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was of the best specifications for biodiesel production process. Future researches may investigate the catalyst reusability and mild reaction conditions, so as to achieve more economical production of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Efficient synthesis of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel by solution combustion method. • Improvement of catalytic activity and stability by optimum ratio fuel. • Enhanced dispersion of MgO over MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. • Production of biodiesel over MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 at relatively mild reaction conditions. - Abstract: MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 nanocatalyst was synthesized by a simple, cost-effective and rapid method and used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil. MgAl 2 O 4 was synthesized by combustion method at different fuel ratios and then active phase of MgO was dispersed on the samples by impregnation method. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. The physicochemical properties of the nanocatalyst confirmed the sample synthesized with fuel ratio of 1.5 has high surface area, effective morphology and texture properties. Finally, in order to evaluate catalytic activity of the samples in biodiesel production, the transesterification reaction was performed. The results indicated the catalyst prepared by combustion synthesis with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was optimum specifications for biodiesel production. Using this

  5. utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunjo Samuel

    greenhouse gas emissions [2]. Biodiesel is a non-conventional energy source produced from edible oil such as soya bean oil, corn oil, groundnut oil, palm oil, and sunflower oil and non-edible oil such as animal fat, waste vegetable oil, jatropha oil, algae oil, and castor oil. It is produced through transesterification process.

  6. Effect of saponified high fat sunflower oilcake and lipoic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are toxic to cellulolytic bacteria and are also saturated in the rumen. Stabilization of residual oil in sunflower oilcake by conversion into calcium salts would be advantageous. Alpha lipoic acid acts as an anti-oxidant to ...

  7. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  8. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  9. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  10. Decanter cake as a feedstock for biodiesel production: A first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Hindryawati, Noor; Nurfitri, Irma; Jose, Rajan; Ab. Rahim, Mohd Hasbi; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Yusoff, Mashitah M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Decanter cake as a potential waste feedstock for biodiesel production. • Ultrasound-aided transesterification achieving nearly 86% conversion in 1 h. • Boiler ash, a waste product, was successfully used as a catalyst. - Abstract: Decanter cake (DC), with an oil content of 11.5 ± 0.18 wt.%, was subjected to ultrasound-aided transesterification using boiler ash as a base catalyst, petroleum ether and hexane as co-solvents. Optimization work revealed that at MeOH:oil mass ratio of 6:1 and 2.3 wt.% catalyst (based on DC weight) with 1:2 co-solvents:DC mass ratio as the optimal reaction conditions. Both decanter cake and boiler ash, waste materials from oil palm mill, were successfully utilized to produce methyl ester (biodiesel) with highest conversion of 85.9 wt.% in a 1 h reaction period at 55 °C

  11. Deadly Sunflower Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  12. Sunflower-based Feedstocks in Nonfood Applications: Perspectives from Olefin Metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassie B. Marvey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. oil remains under-utilised albeit one of the major seed oils produced world-wide. Moreover, the high oleic sunflower varieties make the oil attractive for applications requiring high temperature processes and those targeting the C=C double bond functionality. Herein an overview of the recent developments in olefin metathesis of sunflower-based feedstocks is presented. The improved performance of olefin metathesis catalysts leading to high turnover numbers, high selectivity and catalyst recyclability, opens new opportunities for tailoring sunflower-based feedstocks into products required for possible new niche market applications. Promising results in biofuel, biopolymers, fragrances and fine chemicals applications have been reported.

  13. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to

  14. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  15. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlat, M. S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of decreasing rate. The influence of the main parameters on drying kinetics is studied.El orujo es un importante subproducto de la industria del aceite de oliva ya que puede contener hasta el 12 % del aceite, el cual puede ser extraído usando un disolvente apropiado. El uso del disolvente es a menudo inmiscible con el agua. Esta es la razón por la que su efecto está limitado por la humedad del orujo, haciendo su secado imperativo. En este artículo se presenta el comportamiento del orujo sometido a un secado por convección. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que la velocidad de secado frente a la humedad, presenta un solo período de disminución de dicha velocidad. Se ha estudiado la influencia de los principales parámetros sobre la cinética de secado.

  16. Effects of addition of different fibers on rheological characteristics of cake batter and quality of cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ayca; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of dietary fibers on rheological properties of batter and cake quality. Wheat flour was replaced by 5 and 10% (wt%) oat, pea, apple and lemon fibers. All cake batters showed shear thinning behavior. Incorporation of fibers increased consistency index (k), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). As quality parameters, specific volume, hardness, weight loss, color and microstructure of cakes were investigated. Cakes containing oat and pea fibers (5%) had similar specific volume and texture with control cakes which contained no fiber. As fiber concentration increased, specific volume decreased but hardness increased. No significant difference was found between weight loss of control cake and cakes with oat, pea and apple fibers. Lemon fiber enriched cakes had the lowest specific volume, weight loss and color difference. When microstructural images were examined, it was seen that control cake had more porous structure than fiber enriched cakes. In addition, lemon and apple fiber containing cakes had less porous crumb structure as compared to oat and pea containing ones. Oat and pea fiber (5%) enriched cakes had similar physical properties (volume, texture and color) with control cakes.

  17. Deterioration of edible oils during food processing by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, F; Grondin, I; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Smadja, J

    2004-01-01

    During food emulsification and processing of sunflower oil (most used edible oil), a metallic and rancid odour has been detected only for insonated oil and foods. Some off-flavour compounds (hexanal and hept-2-enal) resulting from the sono-degradation of sunflower oil have been identified. A wide variety of analytical techniques (GC determination of fatty acids, UV spectroscopy, free fatty acids and GC/MS) were used to follow the quality of insonated sunflower oil and emulsion. Different edible oils (olive, sunflower, soybean, em leader ) show significant changes in their composition (chemical and flavour) due to ultrasound treatment.

  18. Evaluation of different combinations of palm kernel cake - and cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sole palm kernel cake based diets than those fed combinations of palm kernel cake and cottonseed cake. It is concluded that palm kernel cake alone (without any combination with cottonseed cake) is adequate as protein source in compounding protein supplements for West African Dwarf goats for profitable performance.

  19. Impurities enhance caking in lactose powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpin, M.; Bertelsen, H.; Dalberg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Caking of lactose and other dry ingredients is a common problem in the dairy and food industries. The lactose production process includes different purification steps, depending on the type of lactose produced. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the remaining impurities (i.......e. non-lactose components) affect the caking tendency of the final powder. The results from a combination of different methods, including dynamic vapor sorption, characterization of the physicochemical composition and assessment of caking with a ring shear tester, suggested humidity caking. Larger...... amounts of impurities in the lactose powder resulted in enhanced moisture sorption and greater caking tendency. These findings emphasize the importance of controlling the washing and purification steps throughout the production process in order to limit caking in the final product...

  20. Cultivation of sunflower and its utilization in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Hussain, A.; Khan, S.

    2008-01-01

    The sunflower is valuable from economic, as well as ornamental point of view. Every part of the plant may be utilized for some economic purpose. The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The seed is rich in oil, which is said to be more near to olive oil, than any other vegetable oil known, and to be largely used as a substitute. In prewar days, sunflower seed was sometimes grown in this country, especially on sewage farms, as an economical crop for pheasants, as well as poultry. The flowers contain a yellow dye. The oil extracted from the seeds is of citron yellow colour and sweet in taste. Sunflower seeds have a high feedings value the analysis in round figures in 16 per cent albumen and 21 per cent fat. Being so rich in oil, they are too stimulating to use alone and should only be used in combination with other feeding stuffs. Mixed with oats in equal quantities, they make a perfectly balanced ration. (author)

  1. GOSSYPOL CONTENTS IN COTTONSEED CAKES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT DISTRICTS OF THE PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zahid, L. A. Lodhil, Z. I. Qureshil, N. Ahmadl, N.U. Rehmanl and M. S. Akhtar2

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes (CSC, prepared from different varieties of cotton grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan, were determined. For this purpose, cottonseed cake samples were collected from 14 districts of the Punjab including Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad, Jhang, Kasur, Khanewal, Lahore, Multan, Okara, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Toba Tek Singh and Vehari. These samples were analyzed for the free and the total gossypol contents applying American Oil Chemist Society Official Methods, Ba 7-58 and Ba 8-78, respectively. The results showed that the free and the total gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes averaged 0.28 ± 0.02 and 1.44 ± 0.04 per cent, respectively. The highest values of the free and the total gossypol contents, 0.36 ± 0.02 and 1.59 ± 0.03 per cent respectively, were recorded in cottonseed cake samples collected from Vehari district, while the lowest values, 0.21 ± 0.01 and 1.29 ± 0.01 per cent respectively, were found in those collected from Lahore district. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences (P<0.05 in the free and the total gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes among districts. It was concluded that the free and the total gossypol contents of cottonseed cakes available in different parts of the province differed significantly (P<0.05

  2. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  3. RXLR and CRN Effectors from the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii Induce Hypersensitive-Like Responses in Resistant Sunflower Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Buendia, Luis; Pecrix, Yann; Blanchet, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Vear, Felicity; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g., plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower) strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analyzed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances. PMID:28066456

  4. Comportamento dos óleos de girassol, soja e milho em frituras de produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado Sunflower, soybean and corn oils behavior in frozen pre-fried coated meat product frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização crescente de alimentos rápidos determinou a expansão de uma indústria de produtos fritos e pré-fritos. A compreensão das mudanças que o óleo sofre durante os processos de fritura é importante, pois pode levar à otimização destes processos, e a melhoria da qualidade do óleo de fritura e do produto final. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar os níveis de alteração de diferentes óleos vegetais, girassol, soja e milho, no processo de fritura dos snacks produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado. As frituras foram conduzidas em temperatura de 180°C, relação superfície/volume (S/V de 0,3 cm-1 e tempo total de aquecimento de 12 horas. Nos snacks procederam-se as análises de teor de umidade e lipídios; nos óleos as determinações de compostos polares totais, ácidos graxos livres e índice de peróxidos. Nenhuma análise apresentou alteração acima dos limites recomendados por alguns países. Desta forma, concluiu-se que as condições estabelecidas no processo de fritura são seguras, indicando que todos os óleos foram adequados à fritura, sendo o óleo de milho de maior estabilidade oxidativa.The ever growing utilization of fast food determined the expansion of an industry of pre-fried and fried products. The understanding of the changes that the oil undergoes during the frying processes is outstanding because it may lead to the optimization of such processes as well as to improvements on the quality of both frying oil and the finished product. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alteration levels of different vegetable oils, sunflower, soybean and corn, in the frying process of snacks frozen pre-fried meat coated product. The frying sessions were carried out at 180ºC temperature, 0.3 cm-1surface/volume ratio and 12 hours overall heating time. As for the snacks, the moisture rate and lipids analyses were performed; for the oils, total polar compounds, free fatty acids and peroxide

  5. Feeding sunflower oil to partially defaunate the rumen increases nitrogen retention, urea-nitrogen recycling to the gastrointestinal tract and the anabolic use of recycled urea-nitrogen in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doranalli, Kiran; Mutsvangwa, Timothy

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to delineate how interactions between feeding sunflower oil (SFO) to partially defaunate the rumen and altering dietary ruminally fermentable carbohydrate may alter urea-N kinetics and N metabolism in lambs. In a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, four Suffolk ram lambs (61·5 (se 4·0) kg) were used. Treatments were 0 ( - SFO) v. 6 % (+SFO) SFO and dry-rolled barley (DRB) v. pelleted barley (PB). N balance was measured over 4 d, with concurrent measurement of urea-N kinetics using continuous intra-jugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Feeding SFO decreased (P = 0·001) ruminal protozoa and NH3-N concentrations. Urinary N excretion was lower (P = 0·003), and retained N was higher (P = 0·002) in +SFO lambs compared with - SFO lambs. Endogenous production of urea-N (urea-N entry rate; UER) was similar across treatments. Urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) (GIT entry rate; GER), expressed as absolute amounts (16·4 v. 13·1 g/d) or as a proportion of the UER (0·693 v. 0·570), its anabolic use (9·0 v. 6·0 g/d) and microbial N supply (14·6 v. 10·9 g/d) were higher (P ≤ 0·001) in +SFO lambs compared with -SFO lambs. As a proportion of the UER, GER was higher, whereas urinary urea-N loss was lower, in lambs fed PB compared with those fed DRB (P = 0·01). In summary, feeding SFO increased urea-N recycling to the GIT and microbial non-NH(3)-N supply, thus providing new evidence that the improved efficiency of N utilization in partially defaunated ruminants could be partly mediated by an increase in urea-N recycling.

  6. Lipídios modificados obtidos a partir de gordura do leite, óleo de girassol e ésteres de fitosteróis para aplicação em spreads Modified lipids obtained from milk fat, sunflower oil, and phytosterol esters for application in tablespreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Neves Rodrigues Ract

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to evaluate the modifications in milkfat properties with the addition of sunflower oil (SO and phytosterol esters (PE and chemical interesterification. Fatty acid composition, softening point and consistency were determined. The saturation degree of milkfat decreased with the addition of SO and PE. Consequently, milkfat presented lower softening point and consistency. Chemical interesterification caused an increase in softening point due to the formation of higher amounts of trissaturated triacylglycerols with rearrangement. The incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids from SO and PE by milkfat triacylglycerols after chemical reaction caused linearization of consistency curves.

  7. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  8. Solar drying in greenhouse of mixture of olive mill wastewater and olive cake in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhytar, H.; Ismaili-Alaoui, M.; Perraud-Gaime, L.; Macarie, H.; Roussos, S.

    2009-01-01

    Morocco is a country which produces olive oil extensively and this industry within the country is currently under huge expansion. This particular industry, which is usually realized with triphasic processes using the technique of pressing, generates tons of wastes: olive mill wastewater (OMWW) (liquid waste) and olive cake (solid waste). (Author)

  9. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  10. Synthesis and refining of sunflower biodiesel in a cascade of continuous centrifugal contactor separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Abu Ghazali, Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik; Teddy, T; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol was studied in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like oil and methanol flow rate, rotational speed and catalyst

  11. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K V; Deus-de-Oliveira, N; Godoy, M G; Guimarães, Z A S; Nascimento, V V; Melo, E J T de; Freire, D M G; Dansa-Petretski, M; Machado, O L T

    2012-11-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5) cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  12. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  13. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  14. Confectionery products (halva type obtained from sunflower: production technology and quality alterations. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower "halva" is a popular and widely enjoyed confectionery product specific to the countries of Eastern Europe. Conventional halva has historically been produced from sesame seeds in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, in the production of halva in Eastern Europe, sesame seeds have been largely replaced by sunflower seeds, due to the high availability of sunflower in this region and the comparable taste of the final product. Due to the importance of the cost of raw materials in the food industry, utilization of sunflower seeds in halva production may be of great interest worldwide because it offers the possibility of significantly lowering production costs. Nevertheless, oil separation and storage techniques must be perfected if sunflower halva is to fulfill its promise of becoming a cost effective alternative to sesame seed halva on a worldwide scale. The aims of this review are firstly, to describe the current state of sunflower halva technology, secondly, to isolate the main problems affecting the quality of the final product, and thirdly, to suggest areas of further research necessary to move sunflower halva production closer to reaching its full potential on the world market.

  15. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  16. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leachable metal content may still pose a contamination concern and potential human and ecological exposure if uncontrollably released to the environment. As a result, salt cake should always be managed at facilities that utilize synthetic liner systems with leachate collection (the salt content of the leachate will increase the hydraulic conductivity of clay liners within a few years of installation). The mineral phase analysis showed that various species of aluminum are present in the salt cake samples with a large degree of variability. The relative abundance of various aluminum species was evaluated but it is noted that the method used is a semi-quantitative method and as a result there is a limitation for the data use. The analysis only showed a few aluminum species present in salt cake which does not exclude the presence of other crystalline species especially in light of the variability observed in the samples. Results presented in this document are of particular importance when trying to understand concerns associated with the disposal of salt cake in MSW landfills. From the end-of-life management perspective, data presented here suggest that salt cake should not be size reduce

  17. Integrated pest management of the banded sunflower moth in cultivated sunflower in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key insect pest of cultivated sunflowers in North Dakota. We investigated pest management strategies to reduce feeding injury caused by the banded sunflower moth in commercial oilseed and confection sunflower fields l...

  18. The effects of agricultural subsidies on sunflower cultivation and farmers income: evidence from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of both premium support application on sunflower cultivation area, production amount and support payments on producer income are investigated. In this study it is concluded that premium supports are inefficient on increasing sunflower cultivation area and production whereas it is concluded that it has an important role on producer income and in the determination of the market price. In fact, from a survey that we have carried out, it emerges that the area-based support (diesel oil, fertilizer etc. support) together with premium support increase the revenue of sunflower up to 27.74% per unit area and the gross profit in the proportion of 98.87%. This study indicates that in order to increase the sunflower production in Turkey the amounts of sunflower premium support, diesel oil and fertilizer should be rearranged in compliance with current market conditions. Moreover, for other agricultural products, the use of certified seed should also be included into agricultural support programmes. Production on well irrigated areas should be widened and the use of oil crops varieties with high oil ratio should be extended. (author)

  19. Utilisation of Jatropha press cake as substrate in biomass and lipase production from Aspergillus niger 65I6 and Rhizomucor miehei CBS 360.62

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hidayat, C.; Hastuti, P.; Heeres, Hero; van der Maarel, Marc

    Jatropha curcas L. is a tropical plant that grows well on poor soils in arid regions and produces oil-rich, unedible seeds. The oil from these seeds can be used in the production of biodiesel. In addition, the press-cake waste that is left after oil extraction contains approximately 40% of protein.

  20. Properties of Cakes of Different Starch Content

    OpenAIRE

    Ikawa, Yoshiko; Shiratuti, Hiroko

    1995-01-01

    Effects of five levels of substitution (0, 30, 50, 70, 100%) of wheat starch or corn starch for wheat flour on the properties of the sponge cakes and batters were investigated. The results were as follows: 1) Increase in starch ratio caused the decrease of batter viscosity and the increase of cake layer expansion during baking. While, replacement to corn starch induced greater shrinkage after maximum expansion according to increase of starch ratio, and consequently, there were no differen...

  1. Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elangovan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M 2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M 3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

  2. FORTIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS FORTIFICATION OF SUNFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Škarpa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element which in small amounts is necessary for human and animal nutrition. In the organism it helps a number of antioxidant enzymes to function normally. In many parts of the world, including the Central European region, its content in agricultural products is very low. Attempts are therefore made to increase its content and cover human requirements with biologically valuable products by incorporating selenium into the system of plant nutrition. In a vegetation trial established in 2010 and 2011 we explored the effect of foliar applications of Se (IV on achenes yields and on content of selenium in the seeds and the uptake of selenium by the sunflower stand. Solutions of sodium selenite at 0.16 and 0.5 g Se.he-1 were applied at rates 50 and 150 g Se.ha-1 at the beginning of elongation growth (stage R-1. Sunflower achenes yields were significantly influenced by the weather in the experimental years. In 2011 sunflower production was by 29.4% lower than in 2010. Se fortification in dose 50 g Se.ha-1 increased sunflower achenes yield by 3.1%. The higher dose of selenium (150 g Se.ha-1 reduced yields by 6.8% compared with the no-fertilized treatment. Due to the effect of foliar Se nutrition the content of selenium in sunflower achenes increased highly significantly from 123 µg.kg-1 to 6,004 µg.kg-1 of achenes. The weight of 1000 achenes, oil content and content of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic acids were not significantly affected by selenium application. Fortification of Se increased stearic acid content from 3.16% to 3.47%.

  3. Characterization of the Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Valin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Georgiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A male sterile two-linear sunflower hybrid was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo using the method of inter-linear hybridization. The mother component is line 10517 which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father component is line 10595R, a fertility restorer of branched type. Both parental forms have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Valin is medium early, with vegetation period of 110 – 115 days, plant height 165 – 175 cm and head diameter 17 – 18 cm. The percent of kernel in seed is within the range of 65 – 73%. Seeds have absolute weight 50 – 55 g, and oil content in seed is 46 – 50%. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and moderately resistant to phoma and phomopsis. The resistance to downy mildew is as high as 95 % up to race 700, and the resistance to the parasite Orobanche is 100% (races A-F. In the breeding fields of DAI the hybrid went through threeyear testing according to a scheme and growing technology approved for this crop. During the first two years of the control testing it exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 11.0% and 14.4%, respectively. During the third year, hybrid Valin was above the mean standard with 10.9% by seed yield and with 6.6% by oil yield in a unified competitive varietal testing. The maximum yield obtained at DAI was 4483 kg/ha, and the maximum oil content was 50.1%. In 2007 and 2008 hybrid Valin went through official testing within the structure of the Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control of Bulgaria. By the index seed yield, the exceeding of the mean standard was 23.6 % in the first year, and in the second the yield was with 1.4 % below the standard. Oil content was a little below the standard in both years. The aim of this investigation was to make as full as possible a characterization of the new registered sunflower hybrid Valin on the base of biological, phytopatological and

  4. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  5. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  6. Optimized extraction of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds from Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) cake and evaluation of the polyphenol profile by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre G

    2016-06-01

    The solid residue (cake) of pressed Brazil nut oil has high energy value and contains high levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. However, little is known about these components in this by-product. Extraction is the first step in investigating the phenolic compounds in Brazil nut cake because extraction conditions might impact the yields of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to select the best phenolic compound extraction conditions for Brazil nut cake by using factorial experimental design and to characterize the phenolic compounds in the extract. The optimal extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Brazil nut cake was achieved under the following conditions: ethanol-water (40:60; v/v); 2.5 min homogenization; and 1 h extraction at 60 °C. The phenolic compound profile of the Brazil nut cake extract using the optimized extraction was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Six phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid) and one flavonoid ((+)-catechin) were identified, and the contents of the phenolic compounds varied from 70.0 to 421 mg kg(-1) . Knowledge of the potential bioactivity of Brazil nut cake identified in the present study might promote its use in the food industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P

  8. Determinação do teor de óleo em sementes de girassol pelos métodos de ressonância magnética nuclear e "soxhlet" Analysis of oil content in sunflower seeds with nuclear magnetic ressonance and "Soxhlet" methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Gonçalves Ungaro

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Progênies e sementes individuais de algumas populações de girassol foram utilizadas em um estudo da adequação da técnica da ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN para determinação do teor de óleo das sementes. Foram feitas análises de correlação entre essa técnica e o método de extração por "Soxhlet". Os resultados indicaram que o óleo contido nas sementes de girassol comporta-se como líquido na análise pela RMN; o fator geométrico não influiu nas medições pela RMN; houve alta correlação entre os teores de óleo obtidos por "Soxhlet" e pelo método da RMN; os valores obtidos com o uso da RMN foram estatisticamente superiores aos obtidos por "Soxhlet"; não houve correlação significativa entre massa da semente e teor de óleo; houve uma variação de teor de óleo maior entre as sementes de um mesmo capítulo que entre capítulos de uma população. A amplitude de variação do teor de óleo entre as sementes de um mesmo capítulo indica a importância. de se proceder à análise individual do teor de óleo das sementes, pela técnica da RMN, para o melhoramento visando aumento no conteúdo de óleo.Individual and group of seeds of some sunflower populations were utilized in order to evaluate the feasibility of oil content evaluations by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method (NMR. Correlation analysis with the extractive method ("Soxhlet was performed. The results showed that: 1 the oil in the seeds behaved like a liquid in the NMR analysis; 2 there was a high and positive correlation (r = 0.93 between NMR and "Soxhlet" and data obtained by NMR were statistically higher than those obtained by "Soxhlet"; 3 there was no correlation between seed weight and oil content; 4 the observed variability in oil content among seeds of a plant were higher than between plants of a population; these values indicate the importance of making individual analysis of oil content by the NMR method for the sunflower breeding for oil content.

  9. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying; Seguimiento de las características fisicoquímicas de aceite de girasol y patatas durante frituras repetidas mediante microondas y freidora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [Spanish] Se estudia los efectos de frituras repetidas mediante microondas a diferentes niveles de potencia (360W, 600W, 900W) y frituras en freidora sobre la estabilidad del aceite de girasol y la calidad de las patatas fritas. El ciclo de fritura intermitente se repitió 15 veces al día durante cinco días consecutivos. Se determinó el perfil de ácidos grasos y las propiedades fisicoquímicas incluyendo ácidos grasos libre (FFA), coeficiente de extinción (K270

  10. CASTOR BEAN AND SUNFLOWER INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN ROW ARRANGEMENT: BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Miranda Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment field was carried in the agricultural seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010, with aim of studying the response of castorbean (Ricinus communis L. intercropping with sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in row arrangement in the dryland farming conditions. In addition, it was evaluated the biological efficiency of plants in intercropping systems.The design used in the experiment was randomized block with seven treatement and four replications. The treatments were represented by rows of castor oil (Ma and sunflower (Gi listed below: 1Ma:1Gi; 1Ma:2Gi; 1Ma:3Gi; 2Ma:2Gi; 2Ma:3Gi; castor and sunflower in the monoculture. The efficiency of intercropping was measured by LER, ATER, LEC, average between LER and ATER, SPI and CoR. The grain yield of castor bean and sunflower were reduced in intercropped row arrangements. The row arrangement 1Ma:2Gi showed the smallest reduction of average productivity of castor beans and sunflower in the evaluation period of the experiment. The castor bean was the dominant crop in relation to sunflower.

  11. The effects of topical application of sunflower-seed oil on open wound healing in lambs Efeitos da aplicação tópica de óleo de semente de girassol em feridas cutâneas, em carneiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Romero Marques

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effects of the use of sunflower seed oil on the treatment of skin wounds. METHODS: Eighteen male Saint Inês lambs were divided in 3 groups according to the pos-operative (7, 14 and 21 days. After antisepsis and local anestesia, two 4cm² wounds on each side of the thoracic region, close to the scapule were surgically produced. The experimental wounds were treated with sunflower seed oil, with high concentration of linoleic acid (LA, and the control ones with sterilized Vaseline. Biopsies of the pos-operative wounds tissue were performed on the 7th, 14th, 21st days and histologically evaluated. RESULTS: Topic application of sunflower seed oil accelerated healing process at the 7th and 21st days, reducing wound area and increasing wound contraction. Granulation tissue increased faster on treated wounds. The epidermis of the treated wounds was completely recovered when compared to control wounds. CONCLUSION: The topic use of sunflower seed oil accelerated the healing process, and it can be used as an alternative therapy on second intention wound healing.OBJETIVO: Demonstrar os efeitos do uso de óleo de semente de girassol no tratamento de feridas cutâneas. MÉTODOS: Dezoito carneiros da raça Santa Inês foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o pós-cirúrgico (7, 14, e 21 dias. Após antisepsia e anestesia local foram produzidas cirurgicamente duas feridas de 4 cm² em cada lado da região torácica próxima escápula. As feridas experimentais foram tratadas com óleo de semente de girassol, com alta concentração de ácido linoléico (LA e as controles com vaselina esterilizada. Biopsias dos tecidos das feridas pós-cirúrgicas foram realizadas no 7º, 14º e 21º dias e avaliadas histologicamente. RESULTADOS: A aplicação tópica do óleo de semente de girassol acelerou o processo de cicatrização no 7ºe 21º dias, reduzindo a área e aumentando a contração das feridas. O tecido de granulação se

  12. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  13. Sunflower crop and climate change: vulnerability, adaptation, and mitigation potential from case-studies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaeke Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is characterized by higher temperatures, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, extreme climatic hazards, and less water available for agriculture. Sunflower, a spring-sown crop often cultivated in southern and eastern regions of Europe, could be more vulnerable to the direct effect of heat stress at anthesis and drought during its growing cycle, both factors resulting in severe yield loss, oil content decrease, and fatty acid alterations. Adaptations through breeding (earliness, stress tolerance, crop management (planting dates, and shifting of growing areas could be developed, assessed and combined to partly cope with these negative impacts. New cultivation opportunities could be expected in northern parts of Europe where sunflower is not grown presently and where it could usefully contribute to diversify cereal-based cropping systems. In addition, sunflower crop could participate to the mitigation solution as a low greenhouse gas emitter compared to cereals and oilseed rape. Sunflower crop models should be revised to account for these emerging environmental factors in order to reduce the uncertainties in yield and oil predictions. The future of sunflower in Europe is probably related to its potential adaptation to climate change but also to its competitiveness and attractiveness for food and energy.

  14. Pyrolysis of Waste Castor Seed Cake: A Thermo-Kinetics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Muhammad Sokoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical conversion process that is of both industrial and ecological importance. The efficient chemical transformation of waste biomass to numerous products via pyrolysis reactions depends on process kinetic rates; hence the need for kinetic models to best design and operate the pyrolysis. Also, for an efficient design of an environmentally sustainable pyrolysis process of a specific lignocellulosic waste, a proper understanding of its thermo-kinetic behavior is imperative. Thus, pyrolysis kinetics of castor seed de-oiled cake (Ricinus communis using thermogravimetric technique was studied. The decomposition of the cake was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere with a flow rate of 100mL min-1 from ambient temperature to 900 °C. The results of the thermal profile showed moisture removal and devolatilization stages, and maximum decomposition of the cake occurred at a temperature of 200-400 °C. The kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and order of reaction were determined using Friedman (FD, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS, and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO kinetic models. The average apparent activation energy values of 124.61, 126.95 and 129.80 kJmol-1 were calculated from the slopes of the respective models. The apparent activation energy values obtained depends on conversion, which is an evidence of multi-step kinetic process during the pyrolytic decomposition of the cake. The kinetic data would be of immense benefit to model, design and develop a suitable thermo-chemical system for the conversion of waste de-oil cake to energy carrier.

  15. Effects of Dietary Substitution of Rubber Seed Cake for Groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) five weeks old, Anak broilers were used in a 4-week experiment to determine the effect of dietary substitution of rubber seed cake for groundnut cake on the performance of broilers at the finisher phase. Graded levels of rubber seed cake (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) substituted corresponding levels of ...

  16. Comparison of fried and baked fish Oreochromis niloticus cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Akinsiku, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus fish-in-cake were made to improve its food value as well as create new menu. Fried fish-in-cake was 66.2% appealing in its colour, taste, texture and odour to assessors than the 64% rating for baked fish-in-cake.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index. The best combination for sunflower oil was with coconut oil (lower acidity, higher stability to autoxidation. For a supplementary improvement of properties, especially for the preservation of oils and oil blends, we tested the lovage (Levisticum officinale extract as additive. The obtained additivated mixtures demonstrated better quality characteristics, which recommend them for the human consumption.

  18. Nutritive value of flakes products with sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Jelena; Košutić, Milenko; Jević-Mučibabić, Rada; Nježić, Zvonko; Filipović, Vladimir; Nićetin, Milica

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of sunflower addition (3, 6 or 9 g/100 g of sample) on the essential amino acids pattern of flakes products. The nutritive value of proteins in flakes products is expressed by the amino acid score (AAS) and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). The results obtained indicate that the AAS and PDCAAS values in flakes products increased with an increase in the sunflower share. Sunflower in flakes products positively contributed to the...

  19. Sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Škorić D.

    2009-01-01

    Due to a specific structure of its main organs (root, stem, leaves, head), sunflower can be successfully grown on marginal soils and in semi-arid conditions and it is more resistant to abiotic stresses than other field crops. In sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses, the greatest progress has been made in selection for drought resistance. Breeders use over 30 different parameters in sunflower screening for drought resistance, with physiological ones being the predominant type....

  20. Industrial uses of vegetable oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erhan, Sevim Z

    2005-01-01

    ..., cotton, sunflower, flax, and rape. Although a major part of these oils are used for food products such as shortenings, salad and cooking oils and margarines, large quantities serve feed and industrial applications. Other vegetable oils widely used industrially include palm, palm kernel, coconut, castor, and tung. However, these are not of domestic or...

  1. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  2. Sunflower growth according to seed inoculation with endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernandes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower crop has a great importance worldwide, due to the oil of excellent quality extracted from its seeds and in natura grains that are consumed in various ways. However, drought is one of the main environmental factors that limit its yield. An experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized experimental design, in order to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria inoculation (Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter cloacae on the growth and contents of nutrients and organic solutes, in sunflower leaves and roots under water deficit. Plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry biomass of shoot and roots, as well as contents of N, P, K, soluble carbohydrates, free proline, free amino acids and soluble proteins, were determined at 35 days after the plant emergence. The water deficit reduced plant growth regardless inoculation. However, under optimum conditions of soil moisture, the combination of both endophytic bacteria increased the sunflower growth. The water deficit also increased the N and K contents in leaves, as well as the organic solutes content in shoots, especially in inoculated plants. These results suggest that the inoculation of endophytic bacteria may increase the capacity of drought stressed plants to perform the osmotic adjustment through a higher accumulation of organic solutes, when compared to plants not inoculated.

  3. Storage stability of value added products from sunflower kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttagi, Gopika C; Joshi, Neena; Shadakshari, Y G; Chandru, R

    2014-09-01

    Shelf life of two products namely chikki and oilseed butter were evaluated. Sunflower was substituted for groundnut at three levels (0, 50 and 100 %). Products were stored up to 2 months in ambient conditions (25-30 °C; RH 40-60 %). Chikki was packed in Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and laminated pouches and oil seed butter was stored in glass and plastic jars. Products were evaluated for sensory characteristics, absence of rancidity; per cent free fatty acid and peroxide value. Stored chikki was evaluated for microbial load. Products were acceptable for sensory attributes even at the end of storage period. Product chikki stored in laminated pouches had higher per cent free fatty acid and peroxide value compared to that stored in Low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches. Oilseed butter stored in glass jar had higher per cent free fatty acid when compared to that stored in plastic jar. Stored chikki had higher microbial load in the Low density polyethylene (LDPE) when compared to that stored in laminated pouches. Products made with groundnut alone (control) were preferred over those made in combination with sunflower and groundnut (1:1) or sunflower alone. However all products were highly acceptable at the end of storage period.

  4. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  5. OCCURRENCE OF DISEASES ON SUNFLOWER STEMS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During a three–year period (2001-2003, occurrence of diseases on sunflower stems was monitored in fields of PIK Vinkovci (on the Sopot location. The experiment involved 24 genotypes planted in 2001, 30 genotypes in 2002, and 20 genotypes in 2003, each of them repeated in two trials: treated and non-treated. The Konker fungicide preparation, dosed 1.5 l/ha, was used for sunflower protection. The treatment was applied at the R1-R2 development stage of sunflower (the size of immature bud was up to 2 cm. Based on the conducted survey, it was found out that Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was the most dominant disease agent to sunflower stems in 2001. Percentage of infection for the non-treated and treated trials was between 0 and 32.5%, and 0 and 17.5%, respectively. In 2002 and 2003, Phomopsis helianthi was the most dominant disease agent. Average value rate in 2002 fluctuated between 0.65 and 4.00 in non-treated trial and between 0.05 and 2.60 in treated trial. In 2003, occurrence of P. helianthi was of weak intensity, mostly because of unfavorable weather conditions for parasite development. Average ratings were 0.35 to 3.30 in the non-treated trial, and 0.20 to 1.85 in the treated trial. Application of fungicide during the whole experiment period had positive effects on the decrease of infection intensity and the increase of grain and oil yields.

  6. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder dan telur yakni resep pertama dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 6 gram, telur 100 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan tanpa penambahaan air; dan resep ke dua dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 2 gram, telur 80 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan air 16 gram. Jumlah telur yang digunakaan dalam kedua resep tersebut cukup jauh berkurang dari resep umum yang menggunakan 180 gram telur untuk 100 gram tepung terigu. Temuan penelitian ini akan berimplikasi pada sponge cake dengan harga yang lebih murah, tetapi dengan kualitas yang tetap relatif baik dapat dihadirkan ke pasar.   Kata-kata kunci: spong cake,  kualitas, baking powder, biaya produksi

  7. A Dictatorship Theorem for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2015-01-01

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates the e...

  8. Indirect Revelation Mechanisms for Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider discrete protocols for the classical Steinhaus cake cutting problem. Under mild technical conditions, we show that any deterministic strategy-proof protocol in the standard Robertson-Webb query model is dictatorial, that is, there is a fixed agent to which the protocol allocates...

  9. Gravimetric Analysis of Uranium in Yellow Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Jantha, Suwat

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The gravimetric analysis of uranium in yellow cake is composed of several stages. The analysis takes a long time, which is the disadvantage of this method. However, this gravimetric method provides accurate result for determining the major content of sample. Uranium is the main composition of yellow cake, while Thorium, rare earths and other elements are minor and trace elements. In this work, anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from other elements to yield highly pure uranium suitable for precipitation. This pure uranium was burnt to U3O8, a form that is stable enough to be weighed. From the optimal condition, the recovery of U3O8 after separating uranium from rare earths and iron is 99.85 ± 0.21%. The application of anion exchange separation was used to analyze uranium in yellow cake obtained from monazite digestion process. It was found that U3O8 in yellow cake is 78.85 ± 2.03%

  10. Storage stability of value added products from sunflower kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Muttagi, Gopika C.; Joshi, Neena; Shadakshari, Y. G.; Chandru, R.

    2014-01-01

    Shelf life of two products namely chikki and oilseed butter were evaluated. Sunflower was substituted for groundnut at three levels (0, 50 and 100 %). Products were stored up to 2 months in ambient conditions (25–30 °C; RH 40–60 %). Chikki was packed in Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and laminated pouches and oil seed butter was stored in glass and plastic jars. Products were evaluated for sensory characteristics, absence of rancidity; per cent free fatty acid and peroxide value. Stored chik...

  11. PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG SINGKONG SEBAGAI SUBSTITUSI TERIGU UNTUK VARIASI CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Panti Ariani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini untuk memperoleh variasi cake dari tepung singkong dengan mensubstitusi terigu. Karena terigu merupakan produk impor olahan dari gandum, sebagai usaha mendukung peningkatan ketahanan pangan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian eksperimental semu di laboratorium karena keterbatasan untuk mengontrol semua variabel yang relevan. Instrumen pengumpulan data menggunakan lembar observasi untuk memperoleh data uji kualitas dari panelis terlatih, sedangkan data uji selera diperoleh dari masyarakat umum untuk mengetahui keberterimaan variasi cake singkong. Analisis data penelitian dilakukan secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian memperoleh kualitas cake singkong pada kriteria yang sempurna pada, (a pound cake dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, (b roll cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas tekstur terendah, (c chiffon cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta pengembangan (volume maksimal, (d bolu kukus dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas aroma terendah, (e sponge cake dengan substitusi 80% bahan utama, tetapi semua kriteria terendah, (f brownies dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta semua kriteria tertinggi, (g fruit cake menggunakan buah-buahan lokal dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, serta semua kriteria tertinggi, dan (g rainbow cake dengan substitusi 100% bahan utama, tetapi kualitas tekstur terendah. Secara umum keberterimaan masyarakat sangat menyukai variasi cake singkong, tetapi sponge cake dan rainbow cake memperoleh keberterimaan terendah. Dengan demikian 8 jenis cake dapat menggunakan tepung singkong sebagai substitusi terigu untuk mendukung peningkatan ketahanan pangan. Kata kunci: tepung singkong, variasi cake, substitusi terigu Abstract The purpose of this study to obtain a cake variation of substituting wheat with cassava flour. Because wheat is imported products processed from wheat, in an effort to support increased food security. This study uses a

  12. Envy-free two-player m-cake and three-player two-cake divisions

    OpenAIRE

    Lebert, Nicolas; Meunier, Frédéric; Carbonneaux, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Cloutier, Nyman, and Su (Mathematical Social Sciences 59 (2005), 26--37) initiated the study of envy-free cake-cutting problems involving several cakes. The classical result in this area is that when there are q players and one cake, an envy-free cake-division requiring only q-1 cuts exists under weak and natural assumptions. Among other results, Cloutier, Nyman, and Su showed that when there are two players and two or three cakes it is again possible to find envy-free...

  13. Genetic parameters, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations and genetic variability on sunflower in the Brazilian Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Grippi Lira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an annual crop that stands out for its production of high quality oil and for an efficient selection, being necessary to estimate the components of genetic and phenotypic variance. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations and genetic variability on sunflower in the Brazilian Savannah, evaluating the characters grain yield (YIELD, days to start flowering (DFL based on flowering date in R5, chapter length (CL, weight of a thousand achenes (WTA, plant height (H and oil content (OilC of 16 sunflower genotypes. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, situated at 15º 35’ 30”S latitude, 47º 42’ 30”W longitude and 1.007m above sea level, in soil classified as dystroferric Oxisol. The experimental design used was a complete randomized block with four replicates. The nature for the effects of genotypes and blocks was fixed. Except for the character chapter length, genetic variance was the main component of the phenotypic variance among the genotypes, indicating high genetic variability and experimental efficiency with proper environmental control. In absolute terms, the genetic correlations were superior to phenotypic and environmental. The high values reported for heritability and selective accuracy indicated efficiency of phenotypic selection. Results showed high genetic variability among genotypes, which may contribute to the genetic improvement of sunflower.

  14. Effect of some Evaporation Matters on Storability of Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saidy, Aml E A; El-Hai, K M Abd

    This study focuses on finding compounds that are safe to humans and environment, such as propionic and acetic acids that may provide an alternative control of seed-borne pathogens and decrease seed deterioration during storage. The objectives of this study were to reduce sunflower seed deterioration and improve the viability of sunflower seed using environmentally safe organic acids. Propionic and acetic acids were applied on sunflower seed at different concentrations under laboratory conditions during different storage periods. After 6 months storage period, the viability of sunflower seed as well as morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design and randomized complete block design for greenhouse experiment. Propionic and acetic acids at different concentrations showed inhibitory effects on the presence of different fungal genera in all storage periods. Propionic acid was most effective followed by acetic acid. Increasing storage periods from 0-6 months significantly decreased germination percentage, germination energy, seedling characters, survived healthy seedlings and seed oil and protein percentages but dead and rotted seeds, as well as rotted seedlings were increased. Treating sunflower seeds with propionic acid (100%) improved germination criteria, seedling characters and seed chemical characters as well as survival seedlings and minimized the dead seeds, rotted seeds and rotted seedlings as compared with the control under all storage periods. Under greenhouse conditions, the maximum growth parameter and physiological characters (chlorophylls a, b, carotenoids and total phenols) were recorded from seed treated with 100% propionic acid after 6 months of storage. It may be concluded that propionic and acetic acids vapors can have considerable fungicidal activity against sunflower pathogens and improve seed viability

  15. Improving Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture by Controlling Tahini Particle Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower halva is an appreciated product, but shows currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers, having a hard texture and oil exuded on the surface (low stability. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture and stability. Eight different particle size sunflower tahini samples were produced at pilot plant scale, the higher the number of passes through the colloidal mill, the smaller the particle size (P1- coarsest → P8 - finest. Halva prototypes (25g / piece, including also an industrial sample (H0, were obtained at laboratory scale by mixing the nougat with tahini. The texture was evaluated on Stable micro systems TA.HD Plus texture analyzer equipped either with a cylinder probe or with a blade set. All samples were stored for 60 days at 4°C, room temperature (~25°C or 40°C. During storage, the colloidal stability of all samples was assessed by a gravimetric technique. Tahini samples P6 → P8 were not suitable for halva production while due to the low viscosities, the product was impossible to be shaped. Among obtained sunflower halva prototypes (H1 → H5 it was shown that decreasing tahini particle size decreased sunflower halva hardness and stability. For each sample, the increase of storage temperature decreased sunflower halva stability. Sunflower halva H3 was the most efficient, while was more stable and showed smaller hardness values than H0.

  16. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  17. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  18. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils; Propriedades termicas e eletricas de polimeros produzidos a partir do oleato de metila e amostras de biodiesel do oleo de girassol e oleo de linhaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  19. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  20. New sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvejić Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl enabled the use of wider palette of herbicides to control effectively weeds during the growing season. Moreover, thanks to this tolerance, chemical control of broad-leaves weeds in sunflower, especially Cirsium arvense, is more efficient. The Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops offers four new hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl: NS SUMO SUN, NS SUMO STAR, NS SUMO SjAj and NS SUMO SOL, released in 2016. Hybrids belong to early and medium-early maturity groups; have high yield potential and high oil content. They are adapted for cultivation in different environmental conditions. All hybrids are resistant to broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr races from A-E and have a high level of tolerance to Phomopsis, white rot (Sclerotinia sclorotiorum, rust (Puccinia helianthi and others. The paper presents the results of seed and oil yield from the official trials of the Department of variety registration within the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia.

  1. Catfish (Pangasius Hypophthalmus) Protein Concentrat Fortification in Brownies Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati, Wirda; Buchari, Dewita; Loekman, Suardi

    2014-01-01

    This research was intended to evaluate consumer acceptance of brownies cakefortified with catfish (Pangasius hipophthalmus) protein concentrat. Four brownies cake weremade from a mixture of 12% wheat flour, 36% eggs, 10% chocolate ,24% sugar, 15%margarine, 0,1% vanila dan 0,06% salt. Each cake then was fortified with catfish proteinconcentrat at a level of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of wheat flour. Brownies cakes wereecaluated for consumer acceptance and proximate composition (moisture, protein and ...

  2. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaves and roots under drought stress by RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunbo; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Jing; Ma, Jun; Li, Cen; Zhou, Fei; Zhang, Shuquan; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Liguo; Li, Weizhong; Huang, Xutang

    2017-10-25

    Sunflower is recognized as one of the most important oil plants with strong tolerance to drought in the world. In order to study the response mechanisms of sunflower plants to drought stress, gene expression profiling using high throughput sequencing was performed for seedling leaves and roots (sunflower inbred line R5) after 24 h of drought stress (15% PEG 6000). The transcriptome assembled using sequences of 12 samples was used as a reference. 805 and 198 genes were identified that were differentially expressed in leaves and roots, respectively. Another 71 genes were differentially expressed in both organs, in which more genes were up-regulated than down-regulated. In agreement with results obtained for other crops or from previous sunflower studies, we also observed that nine genes may be associated with the response of sunflower to drought. The results of this study may provide new information regarding the sunflower drought response, as well as add to the number of known genes associated with drought tolerance.

  3. physical, chemical, technological and biological properties of some mutant oil seeds induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to evaluated sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds induced by gamma rays, as plant breeding unit, plant research department, radioisotope application division, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority Inshas. the obtained results indicate the following : chemical composition of mutant seeds: the radiation mutation caused a significant increase in both oil and ash content total carbohydrates showed a significant decreased in sesame seeds. radiation mutation induced significant increase in oil and protein content of sunflower and safflower seeds. while the total carbohydrate showed a significant decrease. physiochemical properties of oils extracted mutant seeds: the radiation mutation had no real effect on the refractive index and A.V of oils extracted from control and mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds. while it caused a slight increase in red color and P.V. of sesame oil, the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of mutant sesame oil was not alter upon radiation mutation, but it induced a slight decrease in TBA of mutant sunflower and safflower oils. the unsaponifiable matter percentage of oils extracted from mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds were slightly increased by radiation mutation .radiation mutation of seeds had no real effect on the total SFA and USFA of sesame oil. however, radiation mutation induced a remarkable changes in fatty acid profiles of sunflower and safflower oil as total SFA decreased, while USFA increased. Uric acid was only detected in oil extracted from mutant sunflower seeds

  4. Anaerobic digestion of residues from production and refining of vegetable oils as an alternative to conventional solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Thalla, Arun Kumar; Sousbie, P; Bosque, F; Delgenès, J P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the anaerobic digestion of by-products generated during the production and refining of oil with the objective of proposing an alternative solution (methanisation) to the conventional solutions while reducing the energy consumption of fossil origin on refinery sites. The production of sunflower oil was taken as example. Glycerine from the production of biodiesel was also included in this study. The results show that glycerine has a high potential for methanisation because of its high methane potential (465 ml CH4/g VS) and high metabolization rates (0.42 g VS/g VSS.d). The use of oil cake as substrate for anaerobic digestion is not interesting because it has a low methane potential of 215 ml CH4/g VS only and because it is easily recovered in animal feed. Six residues have quite a high methane potential (465 to 850 ml CH4/g VS) indicating a good potential for anaerobic digestion. However, they contain a mixture of rapidly and slowly biodegradable organic matter and the loading rates must remain quite low (0.03 to 0.09 g VS/g VSS.d) to prevent any accumulation of slowly biodegradable solids in the digesters. IWA Publishing 2008.

  5. Interaction between rancidity and organoleptic parameters of anchovy marinade (Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758) include essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Hülya; Kocatepe, Demet; Keskin, İrfan; Altan, Can Okan; Köstekli, Bayram; Candan, Canan; Ceylan, Asuman

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the lipid oxidation and sensory attributes of anchovy marinated with 10% NaCl+4% alcohol vinegar+0.2% citric acid solution and 0.1% different essential oils. Group A Control: only sunflower seed oil, Group B: sunflower seed oil+0.1% rosemary oil, Group C: sunflower seed oil+0.1% coriander oil, Group D: sunflower seed oil+0.1% laurel oil and Group E: sunflower seed oil+0.1% garlic oil. During storage, lipid oxidation as indicated by the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values of the control group were significantly higher than the other groups containing essential oils. The results showed that the essential oils have retarding effect on lipids oxidation. This effect was the highest in laurel oil during initial 3 months; and it was similar to laurel oil and rosemary oil in the fourth month; in all the essential oil added groups in 6 month. L*(brightness) values were similar for all groups in first fourth months but, at the last 2 months, group using laurel oil was found better. Yellowness (b*) was similar in all groups during the intial 3 months whereas, after that lower values in the groups that used laurel and rosemary oils were detected. The study concluded that marination with 0.1% laurel oil of anchovy can retard lipid oxidation and improve the sensory attributes of the product during refrigerated storage.

  6. Effect of nitrogen on achene protein, oil, fatty acid profile, and yield of sunflower hybrids Efecto de nitrógeno en la proteína, aceite, y perfil de ácidos grasos del aquenio y rendimiento de híbridos de girasol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed yield and achene oil yield are the main determinants for N application rates rather than seed composition. Nitrogen plays a critical role in producing unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids, which are the main factors determining sunflower oil quality (Helianthus annuus L.. Studies were conducted on the effect of N fertilization on seed yield, achene oil yield, and quality parameters of sunflower hybrids for two successive years (2010 and 2011 in a split plot arrangement under a randomized complete block design. The hybrids (Hysun-33 & S-278 and N levels (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg ha-1 were allotted in main and sub-plots, respectively. Increasing N levels resulted in steady increases in yield, protein contents and linoleic acid, whereas oil contents and percentage of oleic acid responded negatively during both years. At the same time, crop oil yield was positively related to increased N supply with higher achene yield (AY. Palmitic acid varied from 5.27 to 6.42 % and stearic acid ranged from 2.27 to 2.95%. Hybrid S-278 exhibited significantly (P Parece racional que el rendimiento de semilla y rendimiento de aceite de aquenio sigan siendo el foco determinante para tasas de aplicación de N en lugar de la composición de la semilla. El N parece jugar un papel imprescindible en la proporción de ácidos grasos insaturados (ácidos oleico y linoleico, factor principal que determina el aceite de girasol (Helianthus annuus L.. Los estudios fueron realizados para evaluar el efecto de la fertilización N en el rendimiento de semilla, rendimiento de aceite de aquenio, y parámetros de calidad de híbridos de girasol por 2 anos sucesivos (2010 y 2011 en un diseno de bloques completos al azar con arreglo de parcelas divididas. Los híbridos (Hysun-33 y S-278 y niveles de N (0, 75, 150 y 225 kg ha-1 fueron asignados a parcelas principales y sub parcelas, respectivamente. Niveles crecientes de N aumentaron de manera estable el rendimiento

  7. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  8. The Effects of Dehulling on Physicochemical Properties of Seed Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important cash crop for production of edible oil in Tanzania. The annual production of sunflower seeds ranges between 75,000 to. 100,000 tons from 2001 to 2005 with Singida and Rukwa region being the leading producers. The production has been dramatically increasing to more ...

  9. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  10. Response and utilization of phosphorus by sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Reddy, P.; Sreenivasa Raju, A.; Prasad Rao, A.; Sultana, Fatima

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to find the response and utilization of applied P by sunflower at different levels of N, in the light soils of Andhra Pradesh using 32 P labelled fertilizer. The results of the experiment clearly brought out the significant effects of N and P application on the dry matter yield, per cent Pdff and P utilization of sunflower at flowering and seed yield at harvest

  11. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Daniel Gomes Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some people are born with the wish of being different: some want to be politicians to mark the History in their country, others want to be football players, others want to have an “ability” that makes them special, like flying, reading people’s minds, mind control, etc, but aren’t we perfect as we are? Normality is the only perfection in our lives, but the thirst for power prevents us from doing the right thing. Even if we have a good heart, we are always prone to corruption, so as to fulfill our thirst for power.  We have the example of some politicians and other people in charge of enterprises who had power but used it for their own good, even if that meant harming people others. The short story that I present is completely original, but it’s a criticism of the corruptive influence of power. We can say that “If you want to know a man, give him power”.

  13. Effect of replacing Palm Kernel Cake with Sheabutter Cake on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shea butter cake at 20% dietary level significantly (P 0.05) decreased shell thickness, shell weight, egg mass and shell surface area. Haugh unit and yolk index were not affected by the treatments. Shell weight and shell thickness were positively correlated. Yolk cholesterol and hen day egg production decreased as dietary ...

  14. Production of Itaconic Acid from Jatropha curcas Seed Cake by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina M. AHMED EL-IMAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Submerged substrate fermentation of Jatropha seed cake, a by-product of oil extraction from Jatropha curcas seed was carried out using Aspergillus terreus for the production of itaconic acid. The Jatropha seed cake was initially converted into fermentable sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis using 50% sulphuric acid. The rate of hydrolysis was 1.04 gL-1. The fermentation process was carried out at room temperature, agitation of 400 rpm and three physico-chemical parameters (pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration were varied. Itaconic acid and glucose assays were carried out by spectrophotometry and Dinitrosalicylic acid methods respectively daily. Maximum yield of itaconic acid was 48.70 gL-1 at 5 ml of inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and pH 1.5. The residual glucose concentration increased for the first two days of fermentation after which it began to decrease as the itaconic acid concentration increased. The least concentration of itaconic acid observed was 6.00 gL-1, obtained after 24 hours of fermentation with 4 ml inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and at pH 1.5. The findings of this work indicate that Jatropha curcas seed cake is a suitable substrate for itaconic acid production.

  15. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, G.; Sánchez, N.; Encinar, J.M.; González, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  16. On the shape of wedding cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Joachim

    1997-05-01

    The large-scale morphology of a growing surface is characterized for a simple model of crystal growth in which interlayer transport is completely suppressed due to the Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect. In the limit where the ratio of the surface diffusion coefficient to the deposition rate D/F→∞ the surface consists of wedding-cake-like structures whose shape is given by the inverse of an error function. The shape can be viewed as a separable solution of the singular diffusion equation u 1=[ u -2 u x ] x . As an application, expressions for the number of exposed layers as a function of coverage and diffusion length are derived.

  17. Aplicação de óleo fúsel na erradicação química da cana-de-açúcar e seu efeito na cultura do girassol em sucessão Oil fusel application on the sugarcane chemical eradication and its effect on sunflower sequential crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mathias Azania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O óleo fúsel é o único resíduo da indústria sucroalcooleira que não é utilizado na agricultura; assim, foram iniciados trabalhos envolvendo seu uso na agricultura, evidenciando o potencial herbicida. O trabalho objetivou estudar a erradicação das soqueiras de cana-de-açúcar submetidas a diferentes concentrações de óleo fúsel, pulverizado e aplicado via solo, além da sucessão do girassol. O estudo foi realizado em Ribeirão Preto (SP, de 2006 a 2007, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. A primeira etapa constou de 22 tratamentos em esquema fatorial 7 x 3 constituído pelas concentrações do óleo fúsel (6,5; 12; 25; 50; 75 e 100% e glifosato (2520 g ha-1 e pelos volumes de calda (250, 350 e 450 L ha-1 mais testemunha adicional; a segunda etapa foi constituída por 12 tratamentos (0; 0,1; 0,5; 01; 05; 10; 25; 50; 75; 100; 125; 150 m-3 ha-1 e a terceira etapa por oito tratamentos (05; 10; 25; 50; 75; 100; 125; 150 m-3 ha-1. O óleo fúsel aplicado via pulverização na cana-de-açúcar não erradicou as soqueiras, no entanto, a aplicação diretamente no solo foi eficiente na erradicação das soqueiras e não prejudicou o desenvolvimento de plantas de girassol em sucessão.The fusel oil is the only residue of sugarcane industry that is not used in agriculture, thus the work has started involving use in agriculture, showing the herbicide potential. The study investigated the sugarcane ratoons eradication under different fusel oil concentrations, sprayed and applied under soil and the sunflower succession. The study was conducted in Ribeirão Preto region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2007, in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. The first stage consisted of 22 treatments arranged in a factorial arrangement 7 x 3 consists of the fusel oil concentrations (6.5, 12, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and glyphosate (2520 g ha-1 and the water volumes (250 , 350, and 450 L ha-1 with additional

  18. Effect of Palm Kernel Cake Replacement and Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted for twelve weeks was conducted to study the performance of finisher pigs fed five different levels of palm kernel cake replacement for maize (0%, 40%, 40%, 60%, 60%) in a maize-palm kernel cake based ration with or without enzyme supplementation. It was a completely randomized design ...

  19. Sensorial, chemical and microbiological quality of anchovy cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... In addition, as the values obtained from sensorial, chemical and microbiological values were evaluated, the shelf-life of the anchovy cake during cold storage (4 ± 1°C) was found to be 6 days. Key words: Anchovy cake, shelf-life, chemical, sensorial, microbiological, Engraulis encrasicolus. INTRODUCTION.

  20. Removal of tannin from Shea nut cake by Pseudomonas strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria were grown in mineral salt medium supplemented with 2% shea nut cake as sole source of carbon. The bacteria isolate was identified biochemically as Pseudomonas aerugenosa and reduced total tannin concentration in shea nut cake from 54.58 g Kg-1 to 8.71 g Kg-1 (84%) in 10 days and 92% in 20 days.

  1. Biodegradation of shea nut cake by indigenous soil bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is to isolate bacteria with high shea nut cake degrading ability and consequently select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The bacteria were grown in mineral salt medium supplemented with 2% shea nut cake as sole source of carbon. More Gram negative bacteria were involved in shea nut ...

  2. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  3. Quality Properties of Cakes Containing Gamma-Irradiated Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Seo, J.H.; Ahn, H.J; Byun, M.W; Kim, Y.H.; Choi, J.M.; Yook, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    As a research on the practical approaches of gamma irradiation for the reduction of egg allergy, cakes including gamma-irradiated egg white were manufactured, and rheological characteristics and sensory qualities of the cakes were evaluated. Egg white was separated from whole egg and then gamma-irradiated with the absorbed dose of 10 or 20 kGy

  4. The rapeseed and sunflower biodegradable oils to the Erika's pollution assistance; Les huiles biodegradables de colza et de tournesol au secours de la pollution de l'Erika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This technical paper presents the practical use of vegetable oils methyl esters (EMHV) in the coasts cleaning, after a black tide. In the case of the Erika's shipwreck the EMHV allowed to fluidify the heavy fuel oil at 120 meters deep in order to realize the pumping. The characteristics of the product, the cleaning by thinner action and the example of the EMHV utilization at Belle-ile are presented. (A.L.B.)

  5. New formulations of sunflower based bio-lubricants with high oleic acid content – VOSOLUB project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leao J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available VOSOLUB project is a demonstration project supported by Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME that aims at testing under real operating conditions new formulations of sunflower-based biolubricants with high oleic acid content. These biolubricant formulations (including hydraulic fluids, greases, and neat oil metal-working fluids will be tested in three European demonstrating sites. Their technical performance will be evaluated and compared to corresponding mineral lubricants ones. In order to cover the demand for the sunflower</