WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunbathing

  1. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy...... volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when...... indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P skin temperature, which possibly...

  2. Sun protection and sunbathing practices among at-risk family members of patients with melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the increased level of familial risk, research indicates that family members of patients with melanoma engage in relatively low levels of sun protection and high levels of sun exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate a broad range of demographic, medical, psychological, knowledge, and social influence correlates of sun protection and sunbathing practices among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma patients and to determine if correlates of sun protection and sunbathing were unique. Methods We evaluated correlates of sun protection and sunbathing among FDRs of melanoma patients who were at increased disease risk due to low compliance with sun protection and skin surveillance behaviors. Participants (N = 545) completed a phone survey. Results FDRs who reported higher sun protection had a higher education level, lower benefits of sunbathing, greater sunscreen self-efficacy, greater concerns about photo-aging and greater sun protection norms. FDRs who reported higher sunbathing were younger, more likely to be female, endorsed fewer sunscreen barriers, perceived more benefits of sunbathing, had lower image norms for tanness, and endorsed higher sunbathing norms. Conclusion Interventions for family members at risk for melanoma might benefit from improving sun protection self-efficacy, reducing perceived sunbathing benefits, and targeting normative influences to sunbathe. PMID:21338483

  3. A survey of attitudes, beliefs, and behavior regarding tanning bed use, sunbathing, and sunscreen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawn, V B; Fleischer, A B

    1993-12-01

    Although cosmetic tanning and unprotected solar exposure are common, little is known about general attitudes, beliefs, and behavior regarding sunbathing, sunscreen use, and tanning salon use. We sought to determine the frequency of UV exposure in a select sample and to assess the knowledge and beliefs of the effects of UV irradiation. A written, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 477 persons in a shopping mall, at a social gathering, and on a vacation cruise ship. The instrument explored demographic information, sunscreen use, sunbathing habits, tanning bed use, and cutaneous solar effects. Forty-two percent of respondents seldom or never used sunscreen, and 33% sunbathed at least once a week. Although the three sample populations differed in education, sunbathing habits, sunscreen use, and tanning bed use, they were equally informed about UV light hazards. Compared with those who had not used tanning beds, tanning bed users were more likely to be female and more knowledgeable about the long-term effects of UV. Tanning beds were most commonly used in tanning or hair salons, (mean 23 +/- 7 minutes at 2.3 +/- 1.1 times per week). Reported positive psychologic sequelae from tanning bed use were more common than negative physical sequelae. At least 10% would continue to use tanning beds if these were proved to cause skin cancer. In this select sample, sunbathing and tanning bed use were common. No group surveyed universally practiced sun protection and avoidance. Clientele of tanning beds may be aware of the damaging effects of the sun, but may not be aware that tanning bed use is associated with skin damage.

  4. Sunless Tanning: A Safe Alternative to Sunbathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunless tanning (spray tanning) booth, ask how your eyes, lips, nose and ears will be protected and how you will be protected from inhaling the tanning spray. Options for protecting yourself while applying or having a sunless tanning ...

  5. An investigation of appearance motives for tanning: The development and evaluation of the Physical Appearance Reasons For Tanning Scale (PARTS) and its relation to sunbathing and indoor tanning intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; van den Berg, Patricia; Jacobsen, Paul B; Stark, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Motives for UV exposure have been shown to be related to appearance concerns, yet little research has examined specific tan appearance attitudes. Given this lacuna, Study 1 involved the identification of six factors among college female tanners: general attractiveness, media influence, family/friends influence, physical fitness appearance, acne reasons, and skin aging concerns. In Study 2, a separate sample of college female tanners were used to validate a higher order factor model, which demonstrated acceptable fit. Additionally, the factors converged in the expected directions, with the general attractiveness and skin aging concerns being the best correlate of UV exposure and sun-protection intentions. The relevance of these findings to skin cancer prevention is discussed.

  6. The sunless study: a beach randomized trial of a skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Oleski, Jessica; Bodenlos, Jamie S; Ma, Yunsheng

    2010-09-01

    To examine the impact of a skin cancer prevention intervention that promoted sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing. Randomized controlled trial. Public beaches in Massachusetts. Women (N = 250) were recruited to participate in the study during their visit to a public beach. Intervention The intervention included motivational messages to use sunless tanning as an alternative to UV tanning, instructions for proper use of sunless tanning products, attractive images of women with sunless tans, a free trial of a sunless tanning product, skin cancer education, and UV imaging. The control participants completed surveys. The primary outcome was sunbathing 2 months and 1 year after the intervention. Secondary outcomes included sunburns, sun protection use, and sunless tanning. At 2 months, intervention participants reduced their sunbathing significantly more than did controls and reported significantly fewer sunburns and greater use of protective clothing. At 1 year, intervention participants reported significant decreases in sunbathing and increases in sunless tanning relative to control participants but no differences in the other outcomes. This intervention, which promoted sunless tanning as an alternative to UV tanning, had a short-term effect on sunbathing, sunburns, and use of protective clothing and a longer-term effect on sunbathing and sunless tanning. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00403377.

  7. Beauty and the burn: tanning and other appearance-altering attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Meghan M; Markey, Charlotte H

    2017-12-01

    Tanning is often prompted by appearance concerns, yet little is known about associations between tanning and other appearance-altering behaviors. In the current study, we examined potential correlates of indoor and outdoor tanning that, like tanning, may enhance appearance but present health risks. College students (N = 284; Mage = 20.14, SD = 3.39) completed a survey. The main outcome measures were indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing. Participants also answered questions pertaining to piercings and tattoos, healthy and unhealthy dieting behaviors, cigarette smoking, and interest in cosmetic surgery and enhancements. Results indicate that indoor tanners were more likely to have piercings, tattoos, to engage in healthy dieting behaviors, and to express interest in cosmetic enhancements. Outdoor sunbathers were more interested in cosmetic enhancements than non-outdoor sunbathers, and female outdoor sunbathers reported more unhealthy dieting behaviors than male outdoor sunbathers. These findings provide evidence for college students' engagement in a constellation of appearance-oriented risk behaviors.

  8. Sun Exposure and Psychotic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pilecka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSun exposure is considered the single most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sun exposure and psychotic experiences (PEs in a general population sample of Swedish women.MethodsThe study population included participants from The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study. The 20-item community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPEs was administered between ages 30 and 50 to establish PEs. Sun exposure as measured by (1 sunbathing holidays and (2 history of sunburn was measured between ages 10 and 39. The association between sun exposure and PEs was evaluated by quantile regression models.Results34,297 women were included in the analysis. Women who reported no sunbathing holidays and 2 or more weeks of sunbathing holidays scored higher on the CAPE scale than women exposed to 1 week of sunbathing holidays across the entire distribution, when adjusting for age and education. Similarly, compared with women who reported a history of one sunburn, the women with none or two or more sunburns showed higher scores on the CAPE scale.ConclusionThe results of the present study suggest that, in a population-based cohort of middle aged women, both low and high sun exposure is associated with increased level of positive PEs.

  9. Psychosocial correlates of health practices in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... very occasional or no alcohol, limited red meat, and never sunbathed or used suncreen in that order. Formal education of the mother, internal locus of control and worse health status were positively associated with the health practices index. Other sociodemographic (age, SES, religion) and psychological (health value, ...

  10. 21 CFR 208.20 - Content and format of a Medication Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information on the proper use of the drug product, such as: (i) A statement stressing the importance of... special instructions on how to administer the drug product, if they are important to the drug's safety or..., including: (i) A statement that identifies activities (such as driving or sunbathing), and drugs, foods, or...

  11. Recall of UVB-induced erythema in breast cancer patient receiving multiple drug chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lindskov, R

    1984-01-01

    One day after sunbathing, a breast cancer patient received intravenous methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil and had a recall of her UV erythema over the following week. Phototesting with UVA and UVB prior to and after a subsequent chemotherapy treatment showed a UVB-induced recall...

  12. Design and methods for a cluster randomized trial of the Sunless Study: A skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning among beach visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam Philip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most prevalent yet most preventable cancer in the US. While protecting oneself from ultraviolet radiation (UVR can largely reduce risk, rates of unprotected sun exposure remain high. Because the desire to be tan often outweighs health concerns among sunbathers, very few interventions have been successful at reducing sunbathing behavior. Sunless tanning (self-tanners and spray tans, a method of achieving the suntanned look without UVR exposure, might be an effective supplement to prevention interventions. Methods and Design This cluster randomized trial will examine whether a beach-based intervention that promotes sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing and includes sun damage imaging and sun safety recommendations is superior to a questionnaire only control group in reducing sunbathing frequency. Female beach visitors (N = 250 will be recruited from 2 public beaches in eastern Massachusetts. Beach site will be the unit of randomization. Follow-up assessment will occur at the end of the summer (1-month following intervention and 1 year later. The primary outcome is average sunbathing time per week. The study was designed to provide 90% power for detecting a difference of .70 hours between conditions (standard deviation of 2.0 at 1-year with an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 and assuming a 25% rate of loss to follow-up. Secondary outcomes include frequency of sunburns, use of sunless tanning products, and sun protection behavior. Discussion Interventions might be improved by promoting behavioral substitutes for sun exposure, such as sunless tanners, that create a tanned look without exposure to UVR. Trial registration NCT00403377

  13. Is UV-A radiation a cause of malignant melanoma. Er UV-A aarsak til malignt melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moan, J. (Det Norske Radiumhospital, Oslo (Norway))

    1994-03-01

    The first action spectrum for cutaneous malignant melanoma was published recently. This spectrum was obtained using the fish Xiphophorus. If the same action spectrum applies to humans, the following statements are true: Sunbathing products (agents to protect against the sun) that absorb UV-B radiation provide almost no protection against cutaneous malignant melanoma. UV-A-solaria are more dangerous than expected so far. If people are determined to use artificial sources of radiation for tanning, they should choose UV-B solaria rather than UV-A-solaria. Fluorescent tubes and halogen lamps may have weak melanomagenic effects. Ozone depletion has almost no effect on the incidence rates of CMM, since ozone absorbs very little UV-A radiation. Sunbathing products which contain UV-A-absorbing compounds or neutral filter (like titanium oxide) provide real protection against cutaneous malignant melanoma, at least if they are photochemically inert. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Is UV-A radiation a cause of malignant melanoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moan, J.

    1994-01-01

    The first action spectrum for cutaneous malignant melanoma was published recently. This spectrum was obtained using the fish Xiphophorus. If the same action spectrum applies to humans, the following statements are true: Sunbathing products (agents to protect against the sun) that absorb UV-B radiation provide almost no protection against cutaneous malignant melanoma. UV-A-solaria are more dangerous than expected so far. If people are determined to use artificial sources of radiation for tanning, they should choose UV-B solaria rather than UV-A-solaria. Fluorescent tubes and halogen lamps may have weak melanomagenic effects. Ozone depletion has almost no effect on the incidence rates of CMM, since ozone absorbs very little UV-A radiation. Sunbathing products which contain UV-A-absorbing compounds or neutral filter (like titanium oxide) provide real protection against cutaneous malignant melanoma, at least if they are photochemically inert. 34 refs., 2 figs

  15. Sun protection use behaviour among University students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protection use behaviour among university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18,687 undergraduate university students aged 18-30 years (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 57.2% of university students reported liking to sunbathe and of those only 48.1% used sun protection when sunbathing. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, being female, coming from a wealthy or quite well off economic family background, living in an upper middle or high income country, lighter skin tone, and other health behaviours were found to be associated with sun protection use behaviour. Low sun protection use calls for health promotion programmes to prevent unprotected sun exposure.

  16. Medicinudløst hudkløe, sår og blærer hos tre patienter med pseudoporfyri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þorsteinsdóttir, Sunna; Velander, Marie Juul; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoporphyria cutanea tarda is a well described bullous skin disorder which resembles porphyria cutanea tarda. However, the levels of porphyrins in plasma, urine and faeces are normal. We present three cases of patients with classical symptoms of pseudoporhyria. Two of the patients developed ps...... pseudoporphyria after the combination of intensive sunbathing and medications well known to cause pseudoporphyria. The third case received haemodialysis and furosemide....

  17. Medicinudløst hudkløe, sår og blærer hos tre patienter med pseudoporfyri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdóttir, Sunna; Velander, Marie Juul; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoporphyria cutanea tarda is a well described bullous skin disorder which resembles porphyria cutanea tarda. However, the levels of porphyrins in plasma, urine and faeces are normal. We present three cases of patients with classical symptoms of pseudoporphyria. Two of the patients developed p...... pseudoporphyria after the combination of intensive sunbathing and medications well known to cause pseudoporphyria. The third case received haemodialysis and furosemide....

  18. Parent and Child Characteristics Associated with Child Sunburn and Sun Protection Among U.S. Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K; Stapleton, Jerod L; Natale-Pereira, Ana M; Goydos, James S; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-05-01

    Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in U.S. Hispanics over several decades and the postdiagnosis outcomes are worse for Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Parents are influential in children's health preventive behaviors, but little is known about parental factors associated with children's skin cancer-related behaviors in the U.S. Hispanic population. The present study examined parental and child correlates of skin cancer-related behaviors (sunburns, sunbathing, sun-protective clothing use, and sunscreen use) of children of Hispanic parents. This survey study included a population-based sample of 360 U.S. Hispanic parents (44.8% male) who had a child 14 years of age or younger. Measures included parental reports of parent and child demographic characteristics, parent skin cancer knowledge and linguistic acculturation, and parent and child skin cancer-related behaviors. Approximately 28% of children and 31.9% of parents experienced at least one sunburn in the past year and approximately 29% of children and 36.7% of parents were reported to sunbathe. Moderate use of sun-protective clothing and sunscreen was reported for parents and their children. Child sun-protective clothing use and sunscreen use, sunburns, and sunbathing were associated with the corresponding behaviors of their parents. Future research should consider the role of acculturation and perceived risk in the sun protection behaviors of U.S. Hispanic children, particularly in those who report a fair skin type. Hispanic parents should be included in interventions targeting their children's skin cancer-related behaviors, and it is suggested that such interventions could also encourage parents to improve their own behaviors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Photosensitivity and photodynamic events in black, red and blue tattoos are common: A 'Beach Study'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Serup, J

    2014-02-01

    To find the prevalence of complaints in people having tattoos, with emphasis on chronic complaints, photosensitivity and photodynamic events. Individuals sunbathing from June to September 2011 at the beaches of Denmark were invited to participate as they are prone to report tattoos and sun habits reliably. Sun-related and non-sun-related problems in tattoos were determined along with participants' use of sunscreen. Skin type was categorized, as were motifs and colours associated with problems. Of 467 sunbathers, 146 (31.3%) had tattoos. A total of 144 sunbathers with 301 tattoos accepted inclusion. Complaints were experienced in 60/144 (42%), of which 31/60 (52%) were sun related, such as swelling (58%), itching/stinging/pain (52%) and redness (26%). Reactions independent of sun were 29/60 (48%), such as reactions to heat 12/29 (41%) and cold 1/29 (4%). Red, blue and black tattoos predominantly caused sun-related complaints followed by the remaining colours. By number, problems in black tattoos dominated as black was far more frequent. Complaints such as swelling, itching, stinging, pain and redness are common, predominantly in black and red tattoos, but also frequent in blue tattoos, thus, not confined to one specific colour or chemical entity or class of pigment. Symptoms may switch on and off in seconds, typically not of the weal-and-flare type. Photochemical reactions to pigment or pigment-breakdown products in situ in the skin with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is presumed to be one causative mechanism. Another possible mechanism especially relevant in black may be induction of ROS due to effects of aggregation of carbon black nanoparticles. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Associations between authoritative parenting and the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewse, Avril J; Lea, Stephen E G; Ntala, Eleni; Eiser, J Richard

    2011-05-01

    Associations between the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends were examined along with the role played by authoritative parenting and other family and peer socialisation factors. Four hundred and two adolescents (198 males, 204 females) participated in the research. It was found that these adolescents and their friends shared similar sun exposure and sun protective behaviours and had similar parenting backgrounds. Parental authoritativeness was positively associated with the use of sun protection, even after the effects of other familial and peer variables were controlled, but not with the time spent sunbathing which was associated with friends' behaviours. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Ethnographies of a world-in-motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup; Larsen, Jonas

    Tourism research has too often been stuck with the tourist. It has been blind to the ‘non-humans’ and systems that afford tourist performances. Sunbathing on the beach, driving through the countryside and gazing at the pyramids are embodied performances drawing together heterogeneous bodies......, animals, imaginations, representations, objects and technologies. Tourists bring their gendered, racialised and aged body in play when performing tourism and they interact routinely with multiple material cultures. Mobile representations and technologies frame the ‘scenes’ they sense and tourist memory...

  2. Ocena ryzyka uzależnienia od opalania w wybranej populacji kobiet w wieku 15–30 lat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Szczerkowska-Dobosz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Excessive exposure to natural and artificial sources ofultraviolet radiation may lead to skin cancer, skin photoaging, as wellas tanning addiction.Objective. To evaluate sunbathing habits and risk of tanning addictionin a selected population of women.Material and methods. 496 women aged 15 to 30 years, studying atschools and universities with medical faculties and similar. On-line ordirect anonymous answers to questionnaire, which included questionsabout tanning preferences, knowledge about the danger of ultravioletradiation exposure, use of sunscreens, familial incidence of skin cancerand mCAGE questionnaire evaluating risk of tanning addiction.Results. 83.9% of respondents declared that they regularly tan. Amongthis group 18% had a positive result in the mCAGE questionnaire. Themost popular way of getting a tan was sunbathing (70.4%, but 62.7%of women had used a sunbed at least once in a lifetime and 26.6% didso regularly. The respondents using sunbeds were most often (20.2%cosmetology students. A statistically significant correlation betweenduration of sunbed session and a positive result in the mCAGE questionnairewas observed. The biggest group of women (38% thatdeclared they had never used a sunbed consisted of secondary schoolstudents.Conclusions. According to the results of our study, using natural andartificial sources of ultraviolet radiation is still popular among youngwomen. This population is also at risk of tanning addiction. Thereforewidespread educational programmes concerning health consequencesof excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation are essential.

  3. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Manne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement, lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  4. To burn or not to burn: use of computer-enhanced stimuli to encourage application of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, M

    1997-08-01

    Skin cancer affects 515,000 Americans every year, causing more than 7,000 deaths. Prior studies attempted, with scant success, to increase general knowledge about protection of the skin and to encourage use of sunscreens. The failure was attributed to the allure of the suntan as a symbol of health and affluence and to the "optimistic bias" (belief in one's own invulnerability) displayed by sunbathers. The study detailed here sought to increase the use by subjects of sunscreen by showing computer-altered images of their own faces, aged and disfigured by lesions. That stimulus was designed to counter false impressions and illusions of sunbathers about the benefits of the sun by demonstrating, immediately and personally, negative effects of sun exposure. Data were collected from thirty adolescents in the form of six weekly logs of sunscreen use and time spent outdoors between 10 AM and 3 PM. Results showed that the computer-altered images motivated increased use of sunscreen in the short term: subjects in the experimental groups used sunscreen almost three times as frequently as those in the control group during the experimental period (P = 0.000). Images of aging and disfiguring by lesions produced a more intense and prolonged modification in behavior than images of aging only.

  5. Scottish adolescents’ sun-related behaviours, tanning attitudes and associations with skin cancer awareness: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Richard G; MacMillan, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Haw, Sally; Hubbard, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe Scottish adolescents’ sun-related behaviours and tanning attitudes and assess associations with skin cancer awareness. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 20 state secondary schools in one Scottish local authority (Glasgow City). Participants 2173 adolescents (females: 50.7%, n=1102) with a mean age of 12.4 (SD=0.55). Outcome measures Sun-related behaviour (suntan, sunbathing, sunburn, sunscreen use, sunbed use), tanning attitudes, skin cancer-related symptom and risk factor awareness. Results Adolescents reported poor sun-related practice: 51% of adolescents reported sunburn the previous summer of whom 38% indicated sunburn on more than one occasion. Skin cancer awareness was low: 45% recognised ‘change in the appearance of a mole’ as a cancer symptom, and 39% agreed that ‘getting sunburnt more than once as a child’ increased cancer risk. 42% and 26% of adolescents, respectively, reported that friends and family held protanning attitudes. Compared with males, females were statistically significantly more likely to: report sunbathing (pcancer symptom (p=0.036) and sunburn more than once as a child was a skin cancer risk factor (p=0.005); perceive their friends to hold protanning attitudes (pcancer awareness. Girls adopted riskier sun-related behaviour despite greater awareness of skin cancer-related risk. Urgent action is required to promote positive sun-related behaviour and increase skin cancer awareness among Scottish adolescents. However, further research is needed to inform the development of effective sun-safe interventions. PMID:24793258

  6. Psychosocial correlates of sunburn among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S

    2012-06-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  7. Ten-year changes in sun protection behaviors and beliefs of young adults in 13 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sanderman, Robbert; Wardle, Jane

    2006-12-01

    Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n = 10,161). Sun protection behavior and beliefs about the importance of sunscreen use for health were measured. There was little change in the proportion of men and women who sunbathed, but use of sun protection increased over the 10-year interval from 52% to 63% in men and 80% to 87% in women. There was wide variation in sun protection use and strength of health beliefs between countries. The association between strength of beliefs and behavior was more marked in 2000 than 1990. Sun protection behavior was positively associated with the socioeconomic background of participants. The use of sunscreen increased among educated young Europeans from several countries over the 1990s, but important sex differences remain. Awareness of the risk to health of unprotected sunbathing is high, but there is scope of strengthening attitudes to sunscreen use.

  8. Associations of Sun Exposure with 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in a Cohort of Hypertensive Patients: The Graz Endocrine Causes of Hypertension (GECOH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pilz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight-induced vitamin D, synthesis in the skin is the major source of vitamin D, but data on the relationship of sun-related behaviour with vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH levels are relatively sparse. We evaluated whether habitual sun exposure is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D and PTH levels and whether there exist seasonal variations. We examined 111 hypertensive patients in Austria (latitude 47° N. Frequent sunbathing at home and outdoor sports were associated with higher 25(OHD levels (P<0.05 for both. Red or blond scalp hair as a child, memory of sunburns, preferring sunbathing, frequent stays on the beach or in open-air pools, and solarium use were associated with lower PTH levels (P<0.05 for all. Multiple linear regression analyses including age, sex, and body mass index showed that sun exposure score was significantly associated with 25(OHD (beta coefficient=0.27; P=0.004 and by trend with PTH (beta coefficient=−0.16; P=0.09. These associations were more prominent in summer in which 25(OHD levels were significantly higher compared to winter. Translation of these findings into recommendations for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency remains a challenge for the future.

  9. Lifetime history of indoor tanning in young people: a retrospective assessment of initiation, persistence, and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lostritto Karen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite educational and public health campaigns to convey the risks of indoor tanning, many individuals around the world continue to engage in this behavior. Few descriptive studies of indoor tanning have collected information pertaining to the lifetime history of indoor tanning, thereby limiting our ability to understand indoor tanning patterns and potentially target interventions for individuals who not only initiate, but continue to persistently engage in indoor tanning. Methods In-person interviews elicited detailed retrospective information on lifetime history of indoor tanning among white individuals (n = 401 under age 40 seen by a dermatologist for a minor benign skin condition. These individuals were controls in a case-control study of early-onset basal cell carcinoma. Outcomes of interest included ever indoor tanning in both males and females, as well as persistent indoor tanning in females - defined as females over age 31 who tanned indoors at least once in the last three or all four of four specified age periods (ages 11-15, 16-20, 21-30 and 31 or older. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of ever and persistent indoor tanning in females. Results Approximately three-quarters (73.3% of females and 38.3% of males ever tanned indoors, with a median age of initiation of 17.0 and 21.5, respectively. Among indoor tanners, 39.3% of females and 21.7% of males reported being burned while indoor tanning. Female ever indoor tanners were younger, had darker color eyes, and sunbathed more frequently than females who never tanned indoors. Using unique lifetime exposure data, 24.7% of female indoor tanners 31 and older persistently tanned indoors starting as teenagers. Female persistent indoor tanners drank significantly more alcohol, were less educated, had skin that tanned with prolonged sun exposure, and sunbathed outdoors more frequently than non-persistent tanners

  10. Ultraviolet exposure from indoor tanning devices as a potential source of health risks: Basic knowledge of the proper use of these devices for practical users, physicians and solarium staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Malinowska-Borowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the adverse health effects of exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation in solarium, especially the risk of carcinogenesis, there is a need to adopt legal regulations by relevant Polish authorities. They should set out the principles for indoor tanning studios operation, supervision and service of the technical parameters of tanning devices and training programs to provide the staff with professional knowledge and other aspects of safety in these facilities. The mechanism of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation on the human body, scale of overexposure, resulting from excessive sunbathing are described. Methods for estimating UV exposure and possible actions aimed at reducing the overexposure and preventing from cancer development caused by UV are also presented in this paper. Med Pr 2017;68(5:653–665

  11. Gas cogeneration system in Sapporo Therme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Michihiko

    1988-06-01

    Sapporo Therme is a multi-purpose resort including a hot-water jumbo swimming pool having an area of about 130,000m/sup 2/ and a circumference of 800 m, 13 additional swimming pools with additional sizes, a hot-water slider, 16 types of saunas, an artificial sunbathing system, an athletic system, a restaurant, a cinema, tennis courts, and other outdoor facilities. Sapporo Therme uses a cogeneration system consisting of using LP gas(95% or more propane gas) to drive a 1,200 PS gas engine and supply motive power and lightening. At the same time, the cogeneration system collects gas engine waste heat and combines this heat with that from hot-water and steam boilers to supply hot water to swimming pools, roads, and room heaters. The ratio of waste heat collection rate to power generation efficiency is about 5.0. Sapporo Therme is thus the optimal facilities for cogeneration. (1 figs, 3 photos)

  12. "Oh yeah, they're looking": A thematic analysis of indoor UV tanning industry advertising and articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Suzanne M; Rafuse, Lindsay P

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancers are becoming more prevalent even though many can be prevented. Women are more knowledgeable than men about skin cancer, yet they are more likely to sunbathe deliberately and to use artificial tanning equipment. The purpose of this article is to examine messages that women receive about the benefits of a tan. Particularly, we focused on how the indoor UV tanning industry represents the value of a tan to women. We subjected five issues of Smart Tan Canada to thematic analysis. We examined language in advertisements and articles that promote an artificial tan to women. Four themes emerged: Be Beautiful and Sexy; Look Young; Feel Better; and Science, Health, and Nature. These themes are especially effective in a culture that routinely objectifies women and places a high degree of value on their appearance. We suggest that appearance-based interventions, media literacy training, and legislation could counteract the messages in the themes.

  13. Spectral and Broad Band Ultraviolet Measurements in Valencia (Spain): A Preliminary Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tena, F.; Marin, M.J.; Martinez-Lozano, J.A.; Utrillas, M.P.; Gomez, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Solar Radiation Group of the University of Valencia, in collaboration with the National Institute of Meteorology (INM), recently began a database of erythemal UV irradiance measurements. Such measurements are obtained by a YES UVB-1 pyranometer (280-330 nm) that measures continuously, integrates the values and stores them in a database. The measured values are being compared with those obtained by the integration of the data registered by an Optronic OL 754 spectroradiometer (250-800 nm) considering clear days and different solar zenith angles. For the present study only the data corresponding to the summer (1999) are being considered because these are the days of the year with the higher erythemal values and also the season when people enjoy sunbathing. The results are used to deduce the ultraviolet index (UVI) related to the erythemal doses and the sunburn time. (author)

  14. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  15. Spectral and Broad Band Ultraviolet Measurements in Valencia (Spain): A Preliminary Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tena, F.; Marin, M.J.; Martinez-Lozano, J.A.; Utrillas, M.P.; Gomez, J.L

    2000-07-01

    The Solar Radiation Group of the University of Valencia, in collaboration with the National Institute of Meteorology (INM), recently began a database of erythemal UV irradiance measurements. Such measurements are obtained by a YES UVB-1 pyranometer (280-330 nm) that measures continuously, integrates the values and stores them in a database. The measured values are being compared with those obtained by the integration of the data registered by an Optronic OL 754 spectroradiometer (250-800 nm) considering clear days and different solar zenith angles. For the present study only the data corresponding to the summer (1999) are being considered because these are the days of the year with the higher erythemal values and also the season when people enjoy sunbathing. The results are used to deduce the ultraviolet index (UVI) related to the erythemal doses and the sunburn time. (author)

  16. Adolescent attitudes towards tanning: does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Leslie K; Kancherla, Vijaya; Snetselaar, Linda G

    2009-12-01

    Adolescents seem to be obsessed with tanning. One third of both adolescents and adults report sunbathing. On average, about 20% of adolescents report ever-using of artificial UV tanning devices with 15% currently using them. Tanning attitudes appear similar for adolescents and adults. The top three reasons for tanning included beliefs that a tan makes them more comfortable socializing with friends, looks better and is attractive. The top reason for using artificial UV tanning devices is also aesthetics, followed by relaxation. Other reasons for using artificial UV tanning devices include vacation preparation and to gain a protective base. Attitudes related to appearance that result in more frequent tanning may be difficult to change.

  17. Association of Multiple Melanocytic Naevi with Education, Sex and Skin Type. A Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study with 46 Years Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Suvi-Päivikki; Huilaja, Laura; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha; Timonen, Markku; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2017-02-08

    Having multiple melanocytic naevi (sex, socioeconomic status (education) in childhood and adulthood, skin type and sunbathing habits. The prevalence of multiple melanocytic naevi was 11.6% (223/1,930). Higher education (odds ratio (OR) 2.11, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.51-2.96), male sex (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.06), sun-sensitive skin type (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.34-3.27) and regular use of sunscreen (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.23-3.37) were associated with increased risk of multiple naevi. Inflammatory skin diseases decreased (OR 0.49, 95 CI% 0.33-0.72) the risk of multiple naevi. In conclusion, several risk factors were found for multiple naevi among adults living in high latitudes, in Northern Finland.

  18. Cutaneous larva migrans – a threat to divers in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszański Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a dermatosis that occurs in tropical and subtropical countries. Though the definitive hosts of the cutaneous larva migrans parasite are animals, humans can become accidental hosts and they are infected when their skin comes into contact with damp soil, most frequently sand. The disease is only present in the epidermis where an itch is brought about by the mining activity of the larva. Sunbathers and divers who put on their gear on a beach, on account of the epidermis maceration caused by a prolonged exposure to water, are particularly susceptible to the penetrative activities of the larva. In Poland the cutaneous larva migrans is in most cases mistaken for nettle rash or eczema.

  19. Osteomalacia, severe thoracic deformities and respiratory failure in a young woman with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Hotta, Mari; Ichihara, Atsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The recent trends in avoiding sunbathing and eating fewer fish products have resulted in a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the general Japanese population. We herein report the case of a young woman with enduring anorexia nervosa (AN) who suffered from osteomalacia, thoracic deformities and respiratory failure. Her vitamin D deficiency had been overlooked for years. Although the serum 25-hyroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level is a marker of vitamin D stores, it is not routinely examined because the cost is not covered by the national health insurance program. However, measuring the serum 25(OH)D levels in AN patients with hypocalcemia is recommended to prevent osteomalacia and osteoporosis.

  20. Scottish adolescents' sun-related behaviours, tanning attitudes and associations with skin cancer awareness: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Richard G; Macmillan, Iona; Forbat, Liz; Neal, Richard D; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Haw, Sally; Hubbard, Gill

    2014-05-02

    To describe Scottish adolescents' sun-related behaviours and tanning attitudes and assess associations with skin cancer awareness. Cross-sectional study. 20 state secondary schools in one Scottish local authority (Glasgow City). 2173 adolescents (females: 50.7%, n=1102) with a mean age of 12.4 (SD=0.55). Sun-related behaviour (suntan, sunbathing, sunburn, sunscreen use, sunbed use), tanning attitudes, skin cancer-related symptom and risk factor awareness. Adolescents reported poor sun-related practice: 51% of adolescents reported sunburn the previous summer of whom 38% indicated sunburn on more than one occasion. Skin cancer awareness was low: 45% recognised 'change in the appearance of a mole' as a cancer symptom, and 39% agreed that 'getting sunburnt more than once as a child' increased cancer risk. 42% and 26% of adolescents, respectively, reported that friends and family held protanning attitudes. Compared with males, females were statistically significantly more likely to: report sunbathing (ptanning (p=0.009) and sunburn (pskin cancer symptom (p=0.036) and sunburn more than once as a child was a skin cancer risk factor (p=0.005); perceive their friends to hold protanning attitudes (ptan made them feel better about themselves (pskin cancer awareness. Girls adopted riskier sun-related behaviour despite greater awareness of skin cancer-related risk. Urgent action is required to promote positive sun-related behaviour and increase skin cancer awareness among Scottish adolescents. However, further research is needed to inform the development of effective sun-safe interventions.

  1. Number and size of acquired melanocytic nevi and affecting risk factors in cases admitted to the dermatology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yalçınkaya İyidal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The size and number of acquired melanocytic nevi (AMN and presence of dysplastic nevi are the leading risk factors that should be recognized in the development of malignant melanoma. Aim: To evaluate AMN and risk factors in the development of AMN in all age groups admitted to a dermatology outpatient clinic. Material and methods : Four hundred and twelve patients who were admitted to the dermatology outpatient clinic for any dermatological symptom and who accepted to participate in the study were randomly included in the study. For each case, background-family history and dermatological findings were recorded. All AMN observed in the patients were dermatoscopically examined. Results : The presence of more than 50 nevi was significantly higher in males, in individuals who had a history of sunburn and smokers. The number of nevi that were 5 mm and below was found to be higher in individuals who regularly sunbathed their face/body, in individuals using sunscreen, in individuals who had a history of sunburn, smokers and alcohol users. The number of nevi that were above 5 mm was higher in smokers. The total dermatoscopy score between 4.75 and 5.45 was found to be higher in individuals who had more than 50 nevi, in individuals exposed to more than one chemical substance and in alcohol users. Conclusions : When determining the patient’s risk factors, factors such as the patient’s sunbathing habits and chemical substance exposure features should be taken into consideration besides the number and size of nevi.

  2. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children

  3. The potential carcinogenic risk of tanning beds: clinical guidelines and patient safety advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Mogensen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mette Mogensen1, Gregor BE Jemec21Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark; 2Department of Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, DenmarkIntroduction: In 2009, the WHO listed ultraviolet (UV radiation as a group 1 carcinogen. In spite of this, each year, millions of people tan indoor in Western countries. The aim of this review is to summarize evidence of tanning bed carcinogenesis and to present guidelines for use of tanning beds and patient safety advice.Methods: A narrative review of the literature was conducted based on both PubMed and Medline searches and on literature review of the retrieved papers.Results: Use of indoor tanning beds represents a significant and avoidable risk factor for the development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Frequent tanners are more often adolescent females. Tanning beds have additional potential adverse effects such as burns, solar skin damage, infection, and possibly also addictive behavior.Discussion: The effort in preventing UV light-induced carcinogenesis should currently be aimed at developing new strategies for public health information. Tanning beds are one preventable source of UV radiation. In the majority of people solar UV radiation continues to be the major factor and therefore anti-tanning campaigns must always include sunbathers.Keywords: tanning beds, skin cancers, melanoma, nonmelanoma

  4. The potential carcinogenic risk of tanning beds: clinical guidelines and patient safety advice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jemec, Gregor BE

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the WHO listed ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a group 1 carcinogen. In spite of this, each year, millions of people tan indoor in Western countries. The aim of this review is to summarize evidence of tanning bed carcinogenesis and to present guidelines for use of tanning beds and patient safety advice. A narrative review of the literature was conducted based on both PubMed and Medline searches and on literature review of the retrieved papers. Use of indoor tanning beds represents a significant and avoidable risk factor for the development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Frequent tanners are more often adolescent females. Tanning beds have additional potential adverse effects such as burns, solar skin damage, infection, and possibly also addictive behavior. The effort in preventing UV light-induced carcinogenesis should currently be aimed at developing new strategies for public health information. Tanning beds are one preventable source of UV radiation. In the majority of people solar UV radiation continues to be the major factor and therefore anti-tanning campaigns must always include sunbathers

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF A COGNITIVE SOCIAL PROGRAM TO PREVENT SKIN CANCER IN ADOLESCENT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO ALFONSO SANABRIA FERRAND

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Differential effect of three components of a social cognitive program, e.g., information, self-evaluation of risk andsubjective norms, influencing sun protective practices was established in a group of 57 female teenagers. The componentswere defined as three independent variables consisting of (i Oral information about skin cancer, (ii Self-evaluation ofthe risk of acquiring skin cancer and identification and modification of the barriers, and finally (iii Identification andrestructure of subjective norms that favor exposure and sun tanning behavior. The study design was intrasubject withmeasurements pre- and pos-test and twelve weeks of following-up after finalizing the preventive program. It wasfound that the given information about skin cancer favours negative attitudes towards sun tanning behavior, althoughcontrary to was expected, there was an increase of sunbathing and sun tanning, which just diminished after theimplementation of the preventive program’s second component. The third component was related with the decreasedof the perceived benefits of protection and the increased of severity perception towards foto-ageing. The followed-upand correlations among the psycho-social model ´s variables with protection habits reckon the effectiveness of themodel to increment the sun protection practices

  6. The Use of Various Vegetation Level by Bird Community on Mbarek Spring, Gedangan, Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparno Suparno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of correlation between vegetation and birds could show how great the impact of Figs (Ficus spp. towards wildlife. Mbarek spring has a unique microhabitat by Figs. These trees expected to provide a high potential role and benefit related to supporting bird life. This study aims to analyze the use of vegetation by birds in the sphere of Mbarek’s spring microhabitat. Study was held in Mulyosari sub-village, Sumberejo village, Gedangan subdistrict, Malang regency. The study was conducted from 26-29 October 2017. Bird observation point was chosen on Ficus racemosa, known locally as ‘Lo’, which suspected to have a major influence on the presence of birds. Each of observation results were identified, counted, and recorded. Documentation were done incidentally. The results are visualized by descriptive representations of the use of vegetation composition on 4 vegetation classifications : seedling (high = 0-1.5 m, sapling (high≥1.5 m, pole (diameter = 10-20 cm, tree (diameter> 20 cm. Sooty-headed Bulbul (Pycnonotus aurigaster is the dominant bird during observation. Most of birds observed at the canopy  with the activity of sunbathing. Figs became a favorite location for birds to rest and parenting during the day. Sedges (Cyperus sp. is the greatest importance on study site. Keywords: Birds, Figs, Mbarek, Sedges

  7. Combined basal cell carcinoma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the scrotum in a patient with occupational exposure to coal tar and dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izikson, L.; Vanderpool, J.; Brodsky, G.; Mihm, M.C.; Zembowicz, A. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (US). Massachusetts General Hospital

    2004-09-01

    The patient was a 77-year-old male former smoker, with history of several basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in sun-protected areas around the waistline, who presented with another small ulceration on the anterior right upper scrotum near the base of the penis. BCC was suspected clinically and the lesion was treated with cryosurgery. The tumor recurred, became raised, and began to bleed. An excisional biopsy was performed. It showed nodular BCC surrounded by a cellular proliferation of round histiocytic cells with convoluted, lobulated and reniform nuclei and abundant cytoplasm . The patient had no history of exposure to ionizing radiation, chemotherapy, immunosuppressive medications, prior lymphoma or other malignancy. However, he spent 4 years on a ship loading coal into the furnace of a steam engine, during which he slept in adjacent quarters that were covered with coal dust. Additionally, he had a several-year history of occupational skin exposure to machine oil, oil refinery waste, sulfur waste, hydraulic fluid, and asbestos. He also reported a history of nude sunbathing. The scrotal lesion was re-excised and the patient remains disease-free more than 1 year after the diagnosis.

  8. Skin cancer knowledge and sun protection behavior among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Medine; Yavuz, Betul; Subasi, Media; Kartal, Asiye; Celebioglu, Aysun; Kacar, Halime; Adana, Filiz; Ozyurek, Pakize; Altiparmak, Saliha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine skin cancer knowledge and sun protection behavior among nursing students. A total of 1178 nursing students in the Aegean Region of Turkey took part in this descriptive study. A score for knowledge on protection against skin cancer and a score for protective behavior against skin cancer were calculated. In this study, first year students sunbathed more in the middle of the day than fourth year students, and their knowledge of skin cancer was lower. No statistical difference was determined for protective behavior between the two groups. The knowledge levels and protective behavior of first year students were alarmingly low, but the average scores for knowledge and behavior of the fourth year university students were higher. The knowledge levels of the fourth year students were average but their protective behavior was insufficient. It was found that the knowledge levels and the levels of protective behavior of light-skinned students were higher. This study revealed that the knowledge levels and protective behavior of first year nursing students against the harmful effects of the sun and for protection against skin cancer were alarmingly low. It also showed that the knowledge levels of the fourth year nursing students were average, but that their protective behavior was very insufficient. These findings suggest that it is of extreme importance to acquire knowledge and behavior for protection against skin cancers in the education of nursing students. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. Skin Cancer-Sun Knowledge and Sun Protection Behaviors of Liver Transplant Recipients in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Meryem Ozturk; Ordin, Yaprak Sarigol; Arkan, Gulcihan

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare liver transplant recipients (LTRs) with the general population regarding their knowledge of skin cancer, sun health, sun protection behaviors, and affecting factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey between March 2016 and September 2016 with 104 LTRs and 100 participants from the general population group (GPG). The mean age of the LTRs was 53.2 ± 11.8 and that of the GPG was 42.7 ± 14.5. The LTRs' skin cancer and sun knowledge were significantly lower than in the GPG, but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their sun protection behavior scores. The most commonly used sun protection behaviors of LTRs were not being outside and not sunbathing between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., wearing clothing that covers the skin, and avoiding the solarium. Behaviors commonly practiced by the GPG were wearing sunglasses, wearing sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher before going outside, wearing sunscreen at the beach, while swimming or doing physical activity outside, and reapplying it every 2 h. Results of our study will contribute to the development of education and training programs for LTRs on skin cancer. The results also demonstrated the importance of practicing adequate sun protection behaviors which will certainly impact their future health.

  10. Biological dosimetry to determine the UV radiation climate inside the MIR station and its role in vitamin D biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Zittermann, A.; Heer, M.

    1998-11-01

    The vitamin D synthesis in the human skin, is absolutely dependent on UVB radiation. Natural UVB from sunlight is normally absent in the closed environment of a space station like MIR. Therefore it was necessary to investigate the UV radiation climate inside the station resulting from different lamps as well as from occasional solar irradiation behind a UV-transparent quartz window. Biofilms, biologically weighting and integrating UV dosimeters successfully applied on Earth (e.g. in Antarctica) and in space (D-2, Biopan I) were used to determine the biological effectiveness of the UV radiation climate at different locations in the space station. Biofilms were also used to determine the personal UV dose of an individual cosmonaut. These UV data were correlated with the concentration of vitamin D in the cosmonaut's blood and the dietary vitamin D intake. The results showed that the UV radiation climate inside the Mir station is not sufficient for an adequate supply of vitamin D, which should therefore be secured either by vitamin D supplementat and/or by the regular exposure to special UV lamps like those in sun-beds. The use of natural solar UV radiation through the quartz window for `sunbathing' is dangerous and should be avoided even for short exposure periods.

  11. Solar Wear Tattoo – Combining Functional Materials Taking Advantage of Different UPF of Textiles, to Create Healthier Tattooing Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing process can be a painful experience whether achieving a permanent or temporary body art on skin, and there can be horrible consequences. By taking advantage of UV protection factor variables of fashion clothing materials, it is possible to create this kind of body art in a much healthier way. The material performance is key, besides UPF materials that relies on the material behaviour when combined, layer sequence of these materials used for the desired function is equally as important, if not, even more important so. When properly combined in the correct order, making use of the right technology it may be possible to test different combinations. The advantages are, besides creating a temporary tattoo, that the user can benefit from moderate sun bathing advantages, that can provide the desired body art design on skin and the sunbathing health benefits. All of this can only be possible with a deep understanding of the UV protection factor of fashion materials, and how it can be tested and used in the manufacturing process for the desired function.

  12. Unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliney, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the risks from unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and to consider hazard control regulation, one must face first the problem of their state of scientific knowledge and the public's perception of UVR. Few people in the general public would question the health benefits of sunlight. Many flock to the beaches each summer to develop a healthy tan. Since the 1920's scientists have recognized that most of the benefits--and risks--of sunlight exposure result from the UVR present in sunlight. Dermatologists warn sunbathers to avoid exposure or protect themselves against the intense midday UVR or risk skin cancer. A growing number of scientists warn of hazards to the eye if UVR--perhaps even shorter visible wavelengths--are not filtered by lenses. In addition to any intentional exposure for health or cosmetic purposes, many people are also exposed to UVR without being aware of it or without their intent to be exposed. Outdoor workers are exposed to sunlight, many industrial workers (e.g., welders) are exposed to UVR from arc sources, some UVR penetrates clothing, and people indoors are exposed to UVR from artificial lighting

  13. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  14. A possible connection between thermal comfort and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, John L.

    2004-05-20

    It is a well-established fact that cardiovascular health requires periodic exercise during which the human body often experiences significant physical discomfort. It is not obvious to the exerciser that the short-term pain and discomfort has a long-term positive health impact. Many cultures have well-established practices that involve exposing the body to periodic thermal discomfort. Scandinavian saunas and American Indian sweat lodges are two examples. Both are believed to promote health and well-being. Vacations often intentionally include significant thermal discomfort as part of the experience (e.g., sunbathing, and downhill skiing). So people often intentionally make themselves thermally uncomfortable yet the entire foundation of providing the thermal environment in our buildings is done to minimize the percentage of people thermally dissatisfied. We must provide an environment that does not negatively impact short-term health and we need to consider productivity but are our current thermal comfort standards too narrowly defined and do these standards actually contribute to longer-term negative health impacts? This paper examines the possibility that the human body thermoregulatory system has a corollary relationship to the cardiovascular system. It explores the possibility that we have an inherent need to exercise our thermoregulatory system. Potential, physiological, sociological and energy ramifications of these possibilities are discussed.

  15. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Heydenreich, Jakob; Young, Antony Richard; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-08-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined by daily skin examinations by the same observer. Erythemally effective ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure was assessed with time-stamped personal dosimeters worn on the wrist. Volunteers reported their clothing cover and sunscreen use in diaries, and this information was used to determine body site-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data clearly support a substantial skin cancer risk from sun holidays. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sunscreen-Based Photocages for Topical Drugs: A Photophysical and Photochemical Study of A Diclofenac-Avobenzone Dyad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Aparici-Espert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitization by drugs is a problem of increasing importance in modern life. This phenomenon occurs when a chemical substance in the skin is exposed to sunlight. Photosensitizing drugs are reported to cause severe skin dermatitis, and indeed, it is generally advised to avoid sunbathing and to apply sunscreen. In this context, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID diclofenac is a photosensitive drug, especially when administered in topical form. In this work, efforts have been made to design and study an innovative pro-drug/pro-filter system containing diclofenac and the UVA filter avobenzone in order to develop a safer use of this topical drug. The design is based on the presence of a well-established photoremovable phenacyl group in the avobenzone structure. Steady-state photolysis of the dyad in hydrogen-donor solvents, monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC, confirms the simultaneous photorelease of diclofenac and avobenzone. Laser flash photolysis and phosphorescence emission experiments allow us to gain insight into the photoactive triplet excited-state properties of the dyad. Finally, it is shown that avobenzone provides partial photoprotection to diclofenac from photocyclization to carbazole derivatives.

  17. UV filters are an environmental threat in the Gulf of Mexico: a case study of Texas coastal zones

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    Hamidreza Sharifan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available UV filters are the main ingredients in many cosmetics and personal care products. A significant amount of lipophilic UV filters annually enters the surface water due to large numbers of swimmers and sunbathers. The nature of these compounds cause bioaccumulation in commercial fish, particularly in estuarine areas. Consequently, biomagnification in the food chain will occur. This study estimated the amount of four common UV filters (ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC; butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, BM-DBM; and benzophenone-3, BP3, which may enter surface water in the Gulf of Mexico. Our data analysis was based on the available research data and EPA standards (age classification/human body parts. The results indicated that among the 14 counties in Texas coastal zones, Nueces, with 43 beaches, has a high potential of water contamination through UV filters; EHMC: 477 kg year−1; OC: 318 kg year−1; BM-DBM: 258 kg year−1; and BP by 159 kg year−1. Refugio County, with a minimum number of beaches, indicated the lowest potential of UV filter contamination. The sensitive estuarine areas of Galveston receive a significant amount of UV filters. This article suggests action for protecting Texas estuarine areas and controlling the number of tourists and ecotourism that occurs in sensitive areas of the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of sun protection and skin self-examination practices among cutaneous malignant melanoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Lessin, Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Little is known about the level of engagement and correlates of sun protection and skin self-exam among individuals diagnosed with melanoma. Participants (N = 229) completed measures of skin self-exam and sun protection practice and knowledge and attitudes. Approximately eighty-four percent of patients reported engaging in skin self-examination at least once in the past year. Engagement in sun protection practices was moderate. Self-exam practice was associated with gender, physician recommendation about self-exam, and perceived benefits and barriers of self-exam. Sun protection was associated with gender, age, medical status and health care access, physician recommendation, knowledge, and a number of psychological factors. Behavioral interventions to improve skin surveillance and sun protection may benefit from an emphasis on physician education regarding self-exam and sun protection, education regarding the efficacy of sunscreen and the risks associated with sunbathing, reducing perceived barriers to self-exam and sun protection, and reducing reliance on social influences on sun protection practices.

  19. Review of interventions to reduce ultraviolet tanning: Need for treatments targeting excessive tanning, an emerging addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Hillhouse, Joel; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Manne, Sharon L

    2017-12-01

    Millions of Americans engage in tanning each year, defined as intentional ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in the form of sunbathing or the use of indoor tanning beds. An emerging body of research suggests that UVR has addictive properties and some tanners engage in excessive tanning. This article provides an overview of the evidence of tanning addiction and a systematic review of existing tanning interventions with the goal of evaluating their potential to impact addicted tanners. Our search identified 24 intervention studies that were summarized and discussed according to 3 primary themes. First, there is a dearth of tanning interventions that target excessive tanning or are designed as treatments for tanning addiction. Second, tanning interventions are primarily educational interventions designed to increase knowledge of the risks of tanning. Third, there are notable aspects of existing tanning interventions that are relevant to addiction science, including the use of brief motivational and cognitive-behavioral-based interventions. Future directions are considered including recommendations for utilizing the existing evidence base to formulate interventions targeting excessive tanners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Local supervision of solariums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In Norway, new regulations on radiation protection and application of radiation came into force on the first of January 2004. Local authorities may now perform the supervision of solariums. There are over 500 solar studios in Norway, with over 5000 solariums accessible to the public. An unknown number of solariums are in private homes, on workplaces, and in hotels and fitness studios. Norway currently has the highest frequency of skin cancer in Europe. The frequency of mole cancer has increased sixfold during the last 30 years, and 200 people die each year of this type of cancer. The Nordic cancer registers estimate that 95 per cent of the skin cancer incidences would have been avoided by limiting sunbathing. It is unknown how many cases are due to the use of solariums. But several studies indicate increased risk of mole cancer caused by solariums. It was found in previous inspection of 130 solariums that only 30 per cent had correct tubes and lamps. Only one solarium satisfied all the requirements of the regulations. But this has since improved. With the new regulations, all solarium businesses offering cosmetic solariums for sale, renting out or use have an obligation to submit reports to the Radiation Protection Authority

  1. Assessment of the Academic Staff’s Knowledge, Attitudes and Habits Related to Sun Protection and Sunscreen Use

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    Emine Tuğba Alataş

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, the risk of cutaneous melanoma, skin cancers and photo sensitive skin diseases is increasing with the rise in unconscious sunbathe. The aim of our study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and habits of academic staff related to sun protection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 438 academic staff participated (a response rate 30.4%. The academic staff was asked to fill out our survey of 26 questions. Results: One hundred ninety-six women (44.7% and 242 men (55.3% participated in the study. Among the sun protection methods applied by the academic staff were applying sun protection cream, using sun glasses and avoiding sunlight as the first three methods, respectively. When the academic staff’s knowledge levels of sunscreen creams, sun protection factor (SPF, ultraviolet A (UVA and ultraviolet B (UVB assessed, it was determined that 11.2% of the participants knew the definition of SPF 30. In the question about UVA and UVB, 27.9% answered correctly. Conclusion: The use of sun protective cream among the sun protection methods by the academic staff is the first place. However, it has been determined that this method of protection is not conscious and regularly. Academic staff’s knowledge of sun protective creams, SPF, UVB and UVA was found to be inadequate.

  2. KARAKTERISTIK, MOTIVASI DAN NIAT WISATAWAN SURFING DI PANTAI KECAMATAN KUTA UTARA

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    Ni Putu Windy Pramita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black sandy beach tourist attraction of Kuta Northen region that is Batu Bolong beach and Batu Mejan beach which has potential a beautifull oncean, sunset, sunbathing and surfingthe purpose of this study was to determinethe characteristics, motivasi, and intentions rating surfing at Kuta Northen beach. The method used observation, questionnaires, interviews, literature study, and documentation. 213 respondens rating surfing with quantitative descriptive and regression linier analisys. The result obtained in this study are based on age characteristics surfing travelers will see the most travelers age between 18-29 years, male gender, country of origin Australia, and is a businessman, a master degree educational level, and marital status is not married. Surfing tourist motivation using push and pull factor with the highest scores on the social interaction. And Intention surfing tourist with the highest score there is positive world of mouth with Variabel tourist have the effect of 13,20% with a probability level of sig. 0,000, the motivation positive and significant efeect on the intention tourist but in small quantities. Therefore to improve the intention tourist come to the beach district of north kuta from the motivation pull and push should also improve the quality of beaches such as keeping the beach becomes the most importans thing that will directly make tourist feel comfortable. advice for managers is to add a lifeguard to keep the beach.

  3. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D deficiency in patients with widespread musculoskeletal pain

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    Muharrem Çidem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide common health problems. Vitamin D deficiency in adults has been associated with proximal muscle weakness, skeletal mineralization defect, and an increased risk of falling. Patients with vitamin D deficiency commonly complain of widespread pain in the body. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in patients complaining of widespread musculoskeletal pain. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 8457 patients with widespread musculoskeletal pain (7772 females, 685 males, aged 46.7 (range 20-100 years were included. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured with ELISA method. Patients were classified into two groups: 1 Patients with vitamin D deficiency (20 ng/ml. Results: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was found to be 71.7%. A binary logistic regression model showed that low 25(OHVit D level was associated with gender, age and month in which 25(OH hypovitaminosis was determined. The risk of low 25(OH Vit D was found to be 2.15 times higher in female patients and 1.52 times higher on March and 1.55 times higher on April. Conclusion: This study indicates that Vitamin D deficiency should be taken into consideration in patients with widespread musculoskeletal pain, and some precautions such as sunbathe during summer should be recommended patients having risk of vitamin D deficiency. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 48-491

  5. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and Bone Turnover in Elderly with Bone Loss - Original Investigation

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    Nurdan Peker

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss is common in the elderly. Parathyroid hormone (PTH, which regulates serum calcium levels,calcitonin and vitamin D metabolites have various effects on skeletal system. The aim of this study was to assess secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPTH and bone turnover in elderly with bone loss. Fifty-five patients (9 men,46 women older than 65 years with bone loss were included in the study. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiomety (DXA at L1-4 vertebrae and proximal femur regions. Patients with T scores <-1.5 at one of the measurement sites were included in the study. Study subjects were assessed in terms of fracture history, sunbathing and walking activity. Routine biochemical tests, serum osteocalcin (OC and C-telopeptide type 1 collagen (CTX and lateral thoracal and lumbar vertebrae radyographic evaluation was performed. Our results showed that 70.9% of the patients had HPTH. Total femur BMD values and femur neck T scores were significantly lower in HPTH group than PTH normal one (p=0.05, p=0.03. Serum OC and CTX levels were higher in both groups. There was a negative correlation with femur neck BMD and CTX (r=0,321. There was no correlation between serum PTH levels and lumbar vertebrae and proximal femur BMD values. Serum PTH and alkaline phosphatase levels showed a significant positive correlation. In conclusion secondary HPTH and increased bone turnover is common elderly with bone loss. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake is important the older people. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2006; 12: 70-3

  6. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of tanning dependence in white non-Hispanic females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmel, B; Bale, A E; Mayne, S T; Gelernter, J E; DeWan, A T; Spain, P; Leffell, D J; Pagoto, S; Ferrucci, L M

    2017-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that some individuals may exhibit symptoms of dependence on ultraviolet (UV) light, a known carcinogen, in the context of tanning; however, few studies have investigated predictors of tanning dependence (TD). To identify predictors of TD. Non-Hispanics of European ancestry who had previously participated in a case-control study of early-onset basal cell carcinoma completed an online survey to ascertain TD and other behaviours (alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), exercise 'addiction' and depression). Information on host factors, such as skin and eye colour and history of sunbathing and indoor tanning, was obtained from a study in which the participants were previously enrolled. Lifetime TD was assessed using the modified Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (mCAGE) and the modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (mDSM-IV-TR) questionnaires. Participants were classified as 'TD' if positive on both questionnaires and not TD if negative on both questionnaires. In total, 499 individuals completed the online survey (81.9% participation rate), and 24.4% were classified as 'TD'. In the multivariate model, women were more likely to be TD [odds ratio (OR) 6.93; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) (3.36-14.27)] than men. Alcohol dependence (OR 6.55: 95% CI 3.19-13.42), SAD (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.26-6.09) and exercise 'addiction' (OR 5.47; 95% CI 1.15-26.06) were all significant predictors for TD. Increased knowledge of those at risk for TD will allow appropriate interventions to be designed. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Knowledge about Ultraviolet Radiation Hazards and Tanning Behavior of Cosmetology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba, Ewelina Bogumiła; Francuzik, Wojciech; Malicki, Przemysław; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Jenerowicz, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    (SPF), and tanorexia. The students were additionally asked to mention possible side effects of solar radiation and contraindications to sunbeds and drugs, which may induce photosensitivity. Statistical analysis was performed using The R Project for Statistical Computing. Chi-squared test was used to compare both sun-risk knowledge and tanning behaviors between medical and cosmetology students. Pstudents to define skin phototype, cosmetology students more frequently gave a correct definition. In the group of students who stated they knew the definition of skin phototype, medical students were significantly more frequently wrong when we asked them to explain the term in their own words. Cosmetology students correctly answered significantly more knowledge checking questions (Table 2). When we asked students to list photosensitizing agents, students of the cosmetology program gave twice as many correct answers per respondent as students of the medicine program (see Table 3). Cosmetology students more frequently listed retinoids, while medical students listed tetracyclines as the main photosensitizing drug. The most common answer in the cosmetology group was the herb of Hypericum perforatum, although it is not considered a drug. Psoralens were identified by only 4 medical students as a possible cause of phototoxicity. When students were asked to list adverse effects of sunbathing, we specifically looked for three responses (see Table 4). Cosmetology students listed those answers significantly more often than medical students. Students of the cosmetology program gave significantly more correct answers when asked to list contraindications for sunbathing. While medical students reported mainly pregnancy (as a contraindication for most medical procedures), cosmetology students reported history of skin cancer as the most frequent answer (Table 5). Cosmetology students (89.04%) stated they visited a tanning salon more often than medical students (46.55%) (Pstudents. Cosmetology

  9. Sun protection among Spanish beachgoers: knowledge, attitude and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercato, M C; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Asensio-Pascual, A; Ribes, I; Guillén, C; Nagore, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the level of awareness on the risks related to sun exposure, attitude towards sun protection and sun protection behaviour in Spanish beachgoers. During the summer of 2009, trained assistants conducted a structured interview with 630 sunbathers at the beaches of Valencia, Spain, via administrating a questionnaire including the following: (a) general data (age, gender, education, profession), (b) "knowledge" and "attitude" items and (c) self-assessed sun sensitivity, sun exposure and sun protection characteristics. The health belief model was used to evaluate factors that may influence on engaging healthy behaviour. The median age was 30 (2-82) years; the M/F ratio was 0.60. Despite the widespread regular ("often" or "always", 80%) use of high (>15) sun-protective factor sunscreens, current recommendations on sun protection were not regularly followed, and a history of sunburns is very common (70%). At multivariate analysis, female gender, age, fair hair, freckles, all-day use of sunscreens and wearing sunglasses were independent factors associated with having sunburn history. A high knowledge and a fairly good attitude emerged (median scores, 6/7 and 22/30, respectively). Age class (p = 0.032), educational level (p < 0.0001), sunscreen use (p = 0.048) and adequate timing of the first application of sunscreens (p = 0.015) were predictors of awareness, while factors associated with a more favourable attitude were educational level (p < 0.0001) and regular use of hats (p = 0.001). Wrong beliefs mainly concern sunscreens (false safety); the attractiveness of a tanned look is the main unfavourable attitude. Physical and motivational barriers are common (80%). The findings by highlighting constitutional and psychosocial factors involved in unhealthy behaviour provide useful information to promote sun-safe interventions in this population.

  10. Evaluation of sun holiday, diet habits, origin and other factors as determinants of vitamin D status in Swedish primary health care patients: a cross-sectional study with regression analysis of ethnic Swedish and immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Anne; Andersson, Åsa; Johansson, Gunnar; Björkegren, Karin; Bardel, Annika; Kristiansson, Per

    2013-09-03

    Determinants of vitamin D status measured as 25-OH-vitamin D in blood are exposure to sunlight and intake of vitamin D through food and supplements. It is unclear how large the contributions are from these determinants in Swedish primary care patients, considering the low radiation of UVB in Sweden and the fortification of some foods. Asian and African immigrants in Norway and Denmark have been found to have very low levels, but it is not clear whether the same applies to Swedish patients. The purpose of our study was to identify contributors to vitamin D status in Swedish women attending a primary health care centre at latitude 60°N in Sweden. In this cross-sectional, observational study, 61 female patients were consecutively recruited between January and March 2009, irrespective of reason for attending the clinic. The women were interviewed about their sun habits, smoking, education and food intake at a personal appointment and blood samples were drawn for measurements of vitamin D and calcium concentrations. Plasma concentration of 25-OH-vitamin D below 25 nmol/L was found in 61% (19/31) of immigrant and 7% (2/30) of native women. Multivariate analysis showed that reported sun holiday of one week during the last year at latitude below 40°N with the purpose of sun-bathing and native origin, were significantly, independently and positively associated with 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations in plasma with the strongest association for sun holiday during the past year. Vitamin D deficiency was common among the women in the present study, with sun holiday and origin as main determinants of 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations in plasma. Given a negative effect on health this would imply needs for vitamin D treatment particularly in women with immigrant background who have moved from lower to higher latitudes.

  11. Life-threatening coma and full-thickness sunburn in a patient treated with transdermal fentanyl patches: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindali Katia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fentanyl transdermal patches have been widely used in the treatment of chronic pain and in palliative care settings since 1991 in cases where prolonged opioid use is often necessary. Transdermal drug delivery is deemed safe and effective with the advantages of delivering a steady dose of the drug and improving patient compliance due to its ease of use. However, intentional and unintentional misuse and overdose using transdermal opioid patches has been widely reported in the literature. Case presentation We describe the case of a 77-year-old Caucasian woman who developed severe opioid toxicity while sun tanning, likely due to altered fentanyl transdermal patch function in a heated environment. As a result of prolonged sun exposure due to an opioid-induced coma she then sustained hyperthermia and severe burns to her abdomen and lower limbs. This inadvertent fentanyl overdose necessitated initial treatment in intensive care and follow on care in a specialist burn unit. Conclusion Patients who are using fentanyl patches and their relatives should be educated about how to use the patch safely. Healthcare practitioners should warn patients about the possibility of overdosing on transdermally delivered drugs if used incorrectly. They should avoid strenuous activities and external heat sources such as warming blankets, hot water bottles, saunas, hot tubs or sunbathing and should seek medical attention if they develop a fever. Additionally, any burns sustained in the context of altered consciousness levels such as in this case with opioid overdose should raise suspicion about a potential deeper burn injury than is usually observed.

  12. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L M; Cartmel, B; Molinaro, A M; Leffell, D J; Bale, A E; Mayne, S T

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiological studies. To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Basal cell carcinoma cases (n = 380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n = 390) under 40 years of age were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage, during an in-person interview. Self-reported data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall [above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·69-1·73)] or in women only (OR 1·21, 95% CI 0·73-2·01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or spirits and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (P(interaction) = 0·003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping CIs. Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Ultraviolet-B phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis: intraocular and crystalline lens photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainster, Martin A; Turner, Patricia L

    2010-04-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can cause phototoxic macular injuries in young people who have been sunbathing but not sungazing and in welders. Welders have a reportedly increased risk of uveal melanoma. We analyze phakic and pseudophakic risks for solar and welding arc UV-B exposure. Optical radiation measurement, analysis, and perspective. Spectral transmittances were measured for UV-transmitting, UV-blocking, and blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs). The photoprotective performances of crystalline and intraocular lenses were analyzed using relevant epidemiologic and laboratory data and action spectra for acute retinal phototoxicity and melanoma photocarcinogenesis. Crystalline lens UV-B retinal protection is deficient in children and young adults, increasing their potential susceptibility to acute retinal phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis. UV-B radiation has sufficient energy/photon to induce primary melanomagenic DNA lesions, unlike blue light or UV-A radiation. UV-blocking and blue-blocking IOLs have negligible UV-B transmittance. UV-transmitting IOL transmittance of UV-B radiation is equivalent to that of a 15-year-old crystalline lens. If optical radiation exposure is responsible for welders' increased risk of uveal melanoma, then UV-B radiation is the most probable causative agent and spectacle wear is a potential confounding factor in epidemiologic studies of ocular melanoma. Welders under 30 years of age are at greater risk for welding maculopathy than older welders. Children, adults under 30 years of age, and pseudophakic individuals with UV-transmitting IOLs should wear sunglasses in bright environments because of the UV-B window in their crystalline lenses or IOLs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of multiple viewings of an ultraviolet photo on sun protection behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H I M

    2018-05-02

    To determine whether multiple viewings of one's ultraviolet (UV) facial photo differentially affects subsequent sun protection behaviors relative to a single viewing. Pretest-posttest control group. Southern California college students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to be shown their UV facial photo one time, multiple times over the course of 2 weeks, or not at all. Emotional reactions, perceived susceptibility to skin damage, and sun protection intentions were assessed immediately, and sun protection behaviors were assessed during a surprise telephonic follow-up 1 month later. Immediately after viewing a UV photo of their face, participants reported significantly greater perceived susceptibility to skin damage, greater intentions to engage in future sun protection, and more negative emotions than those who had not seen a UV photo. Moreover, 1 month later, those who had viewed their UV photo were less likely to report having sunbathed and reported significantly greater sun protection than did controls. There were no differences in sun protection behaviors between those who had been shown their UV photo only once during the initial intervention session and those who had been sent their UV photo several times thereafter. However, among those who had been sent their UV photo several times, those who reported having viewed their photo on additional occasions reported significantly greater sun protection behaviors than those who had not. Being randomly assigned to view a UV facial photo multiple times generally neither strengthened nor weakened effects on subsequent sun protection behaviors relative to being shown the photo just once. However, among those who were sent their photo and thus had the option of viewing it more often than they had been assigned to, those who chose to view their photo more frequently also engaged in more sun protection behaviors. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikkala, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Leszczynski, K.; Paile, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  16. Piscina cubierta, en Viena, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünberger, Friedrich

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available This project includes the following: The main building contains the basement, a laundry, the heating and air conditioning installations. The ground floor has men's dressing rooms and showers. The first floor has ladies dressing rooms and individual bathrooms. On the 2nd and 3rd floors there are sauna facilities for men and women and also ladies and gentlemen's hairdressing saloons. The top level is utilized for sunbathing. The intermediate building has two swimming pools, one for learners, and the other for children. Finally the covered swimming pool itself has a full sized pool and a diving structure, 5 m in height. The most outstanding features of this sporting facility are the structures of the buildings, which are made with prestressed concrete.El conjunto construido comprende: El edificio principal, que alberga en el sótano: una lavandería, los cuartos para la calefacción y aire acondicionado; en la planta baja: los vestuarios para hombres, con sus duchas correspondientes; en la 1.ª planta: los vestuarios y duchas para mujeres y los servicios de «baños» individuales; en las plantas 2.ª y 3.ª: «saunas» para mujeres y para hombres, y una peluquería masculina y otra femenina. El nivel superior es utilizado para tomar «baños de sol». El pabellón intermedio contiene las piscinas: para los que aprenden a nadar, y de niños. Finalmente, el edificio de la «Piscina cubierta» propiamente dicha aloja: una piscina reglamentaria y su correspondiente torre de saltos de 5 m de altura. Lo más destacable de este complejo son las estructuras de los edificios y de la piscina, realizadas con hormigón pretensado.

  17. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles and sunscreens on coastal marine microalgae: Ultraviolet radiation is key variable for toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendra, M; Sánchez-Quiles, D; Blasco, J; Moreno-Garrido, I; Lubián, L M; Pérez-García, S; Tovar-Sánchez, A

    2017-01-01

    Given the large numbers of sunbathers on beaches, sunscreen compounds are being released into the coastal aquatic environment in significant amounts. Until now the effect of these potential pollutants on microbiota has been not well-known. Phytoplankton is a key component of the microbiota community. It forms the basis of the aquatic trophic networks, and any change in the natural population of phytoplankton can affect the structure of aquatic biota. This paper describes an experiment performed outdoors (in natural sunlight conditions including ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and with UVR blocked) on mixed microalgae populations (four species from different key marine taxonomic groups, Nannochloropsis gaditana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Pleurochrysis roscoffensis and Amphidinium carterae), for three days, exposed to a range of concentrations of three commercial sunscreens (with variable TiO 2 concentrations: highest concentration for sunscreen C, followed by sunscreen A; and sunscreen B did not contain TiO 2 in its composition). With regard to UVR effect, in the absence of sunscreens, the most sensitive species is the centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, and the least is Nannochloropsis gaditana; this last species presented the same behavior in the absence of UVR and with high sunscreen concentrations. The toxicity gradient obtained for sunscreens and nanoparticles under UVR is: TiO 2 NPs>Sunscreen C>Sunscreen A>Sunscreen B. The differential sensitivity of microalgae to sunscreens and TiO 2 NPs can produce a change in the dynamics of phytoplankton populations and provoke undesirable ecological effects (such as giving dinoflagellates more prominence). The effects of UVR, commonly neglected in bioassays, could alter the results in important ways and should be considered when performing environmentally-relevant bioassays. The toxicity mediated by hydrogen peroxide production associated with the concentration of TiO 2 NPs cannot be considered the only factor responsible for

  18. Cancer incidence in professional flight crew and air traffic control officers: disentangling the effect of occupational versus lifestyle exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Silva, Isabel; De Stavola, Bianca; Pizzi, Costanza; Evans, Anthony D; Evans, Sally A

    2013-01-15

    Flight crew are occupationally exposed to several potentially carcinogenic hazards; however, previous investigations have been hampered by lack of information on lifestyle exposures. The authors identified, through the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records, a cohort of 16,329 flight crew and 3,165 air traffic control officers (ATCOs) and assembled data on their occupational and lifestyle exposures. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated to compare cancer incidence in each occupation to that of the general population; internal analyses were conducted by fitting Cox regression models. All-cancer incidence was 20-29% lower in each occupation than in the general population, mainly due to a lower incidence of smoking-related cancers [SIR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.27-0.38) and 0.42 (0.28-0.60) for flight crew and ATCOs, respectively], consistent with their much lower prevalence of smoking. Skin melanoma rates were increased in both flight crew (SIR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.45-2.38) and ATCOs (2.66; 1.55-4.25), with rates among the former increasing with increasing number of flight hours (p-trend = 0.02). However, internal analyses revealed no differences in skin melanoma rates between flight crew and ATCOs (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI = 0.37-1.66) and identified skin that burns easily when exposed to sunlight (p = 0.001) and sunbathing to get a tan (p = 0.07) as the strongest risk predictors of skin melanoma in both occupations. The similar site-specific cancer risks between the two occupational groups argue against risks among flight crew being driven by occupation-specific exposures. The skin melanoma excess reflects sun-related behaviour rather than cosmic radiation exposure. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. Acne vulgaris: Perceptions and beliefs of Saudi adolescent males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, Sahar H.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13–22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0. Results of subjects with acne, a family history of acne, and parents' educational levels were compared. Differences between the analyzed groups were assessed by a Chi-square test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Over half (58.9%) of the participants considered acne a transient condition not requiring therapy. Only 13.1% knew that the proper treatment of acne could take a long time, even several years. Over half (52%) thought acne can be treated from the first or after few visits to the doctor. Popular sources of information were television/radio (47.7%), friends (45.6%), and the internet (38%). Only 23.4% indicated school as a source of knowledge. Reported causal factors included scratching (88.5%) and squeezing (82.1%) of pimples, poor hygiene (83.9%), poor dietary habits (71.5%), and stress (54.1%). Ameliorating factors included frequent washing of the face (52.9%), exercise (41.1%), sunbathing (24.1%), and drinking of mineral water (21%). The correlations of these facts are discussed. CONCLUSION: Results of this study point out that misconceptions of acne are widespread among Saudi youth. A health education program is needed to improve the understanding of the condition. PMID:28163574

  20. Nested case-control study of night shift work and breast cancer risk among women in the Danish military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina F

    2012-08-01

    Growing but limited evidence suggests that night shift work is associated with breast cancer. The authors conducted a nationwide case-control study nested within a cohort of 18,551 female military employees born in 1929-1968 to investigate the risk for breast cancer after night shift work and to explore the role of leisure time sun exposure and diurnal preference. The authors documented 218 cases of breast cancer (1990-2003) and selected 899 age-matched controls from the cohort by incidence density sampling. Information on shift work, sun exposure habits, diurnal preference and other potential confounders was obtained from a structured questionnaire. ORs were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Overall, the authors observed an adjusted OR of 1.4 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.1) among women with ever compared with never night shifts. The RR for breast cancer tended to increase with increasing number of years of night shift work (p=0.03) and with cumulative number of shifts (p=0.02),with a neutral risk for fewer than three night shifts per week. The OR for the group with the highest tertile of cumulative exposure was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.6). The most pronounced effect of night shift work on breast cancer risk was observed in women with morning chronotype preference and intense night shifts (OR=3.9, 95% CI 1.6 to 9.5). Night shift workers tended to sunbathe more frequently than day workers. The results indicate that frequent night shift work increases the risk for breast cancer and suggest a higher risk with longer duration of intense night shifts. Women with morning preference who worked on night shifts tended to have a higher risk than those with evening preference.

  1. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  2. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-01

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  3. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P O; Bergstroem, S O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  4. Zachowania ryzykowne młodzieży = Risky behaviors of teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Baranowska

    2016-06-01

          Streszczenie W artykule została podjęta problematyka zachowań ryzykownych przejawianych przez współczesną młodzież. Autorka tekstu dokonała zwięzłej charakterystyki najczęściej występujących wśród młodych ludzi zachowań problemowych, takich jak: palenie papierosów, nadużywanie alkoholu, narkotyków i dopalaczy; ryzykowna aktywność seksualna; okaleczanie własnego ciała (autoagresja; nadmierne opalanie się. Następnie, odwołując się do teorii czynników ryzyka i czynników chroniących, koncepcji resilience, modelu ekologicznego Bronfenbrennera oraz Teorii Zachowań Problemowych, zwróciła uwagę na czynniki, które intensyfikują prawdopodobieństwo występowania zachowań ryzykownych u adolescentów oraz na czynniki, które wzmacniają ogólny potencjał zdrowotny człowieka i tym samym jego odporność na działanie tych pierwszych. Opracowanie kończy ilustracja zadań, jakie stoją przed osobami prowadzącymi działania profilaktyczne, w związku z rozpowszechnianiem się wśród nastolatków zachowań problemowych.   Słowa klucze: zachowanie ryzykowne, adolescenci, czynniki ryzyka, czynniki chroniące, profilaktyka.   Summary The article touches upon risky behaviors manifested by contemporary teenagers. The article characterizes the most frequent types of risky behaviors among young people, such as: smoking cigarettes, alcohol, drugs and designer drugs abuse, risky sexual contacts, self-mutilation (self-injury and excessive sunbathing. The author also appeals to the theory of risk and protective factors, notion of resilience, ecologic model of Bronfenbrenner, and the theory of problem behavior in order to point out to the factors which intensify the probability of risky behaviors of adolescents as well as the factors which enhance the overall health potential of a person and thus his resistance to such factors. The research ends with a list of tasks that people responsible for preventive actions are facing due to the

  5. Aggregate consumer exposure to UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate via personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manová, Eva; von Goetz, Natalie; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are substances designed to protect our skin from UV-induced damage and can be found in many categories of personal care products (PCPs). The potential endocrine-disrupting effects attributed to UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) are being debated. We evaluated the aggregate exposure of the Swiss-German population (N=1196; ages ≤1-97years) to EHMC via the use of PCPs; thus we provide the first comprehensive information about the current EHMC exposure sources and aggregate exposure levels. In our probabilistic modeling method performed at an individual level, PCP use data obtained by a postal questionnaire were linked to concentration data on EHMC gained from chemical analyses of PCPs used by the questionnaire respondents. The modeled median and 99.9th percentile of the internal aggregate exposure for the general population were 0.012 and 0.873mgday(-1)kg(-1) and 0.008 and 0.122mgday(-1)kg(-1) for the summer/autumn and winter/spring period, respectively. The major contributors to internal aggregate exposure were sunscreen products in summer/autumn (females: 64%; males: 85%; children aged ≤12years 93%). In winter/spring, lip care dominated for females (30%) and sunscreen for males (38%) and children aged ≤12years (50%). Overall, the internal aggregate exposure estimates for the studied population are shown to be below the Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) for EHMC i.e., the level of exposure above which humans should not be exposed; however, when an intense short-term exposure via sunscreen is accounted for during a sunbathing day, at the high-end percentiles (99.9th) the predicted aggregate exposure exceeds the DNEL for thyroid-disrupting effects such as for children aged ≤4years, who might be particularly susceptible to endocrine disrupting events. It is nevertheless critical to acknowledge that quantitative data on transdermal penetration of EHMC from PCPs are currently insufficient. Since long-term effects of endocrine

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of UK university students in relation to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and their sun-related behaviours: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Lucy; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-03-13

    To explore whether knowledge about the harms of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) influences UK university students' sun-related behaviours and examine in depth their attitudes towards: sun protection, natural and artificial tanning behaviours. Qualitative methodology with 15 semistructured, individual interviews. Thematic analysis using the Framework Method with analyst triangulation and member validation. One university in the West Midlands, UK. 15 Caucasian male (n=4) and female (n=11) students, aged 18-22 years, from a UK university. Participants were recruited using convenience sampling from the university's main campus followed by purposive sampling for: gender, course and sun-related behaviours. Five main themes emerged: (1) knowledge of UVR; (2) sun-protection practices; (3) attitudes towards tanning; (4) external influences and (5) internal influences . All students knew the associated skin cancer risks from the sun and sunbed use, but this did not appear an important influence in their sun-related behaviours. Body image strongly motivated sun-protection practices and the desire to tan naturally or artificially, across both genders. However, participants' final decision-making appeared to be influenced by their beliefs that practising known harmful sun-related behaviours would not affect them or the perceived susceptibility to sunburn. Beliefs about sunbathing and sunscreen use prompted improper use of sun protection and inadvertently caused more harmful practices. Participants' peers, family and the media had dual roles influencing the development of attitudes towards sun protection and tanning, which contributed to how participants behaved in the sun and their engagement in tanning methods. Knowledge about the risk of skin cancer associated with UVR did not strongly influence sun-related behaviours, whereas body image appeared as a key motivator. Attitudes towards sun protection and tanning stemmed from the media, peers and family, and particularly from

  7. Effect of long-wave UV radiation on mouse melanoma: An in vitro and in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastila, R.

    2006-04-15

    differentially expressed genes that are involved in angiogenesis, cell cycle, stress-response, and cell motility. These results suggest that observed genes might be involved in cellular response to UVA and a physiologically relevant UVA dose have previously unknown cellular implications. The novel results presented in this thesis offer evidence that UVA exposure might increase the metastatic potential of the melanoma cells present in blood circulation. Considering the well-known UVA-induced deleterious effects on cellular level, this study further supports the notion that UVA radiation might have more potential impact on health than previously suggested. The possibility of the pro-metastatic effects of UVA exposure might not be of very high significance for daily exposures. However, UVA effects might gain physiological significance following extensive sunbathing or solaria tanning periods. Whether similar UVA-induced pro-metastatic effects occur in people sunbathing or using solaria remains to be determined. In the light of the results presented in this thesis, the avoidance of solaria use could be well justified. (orig.)

  8. Effect of long-wave UV radiation on mouse melanoma: An in vitro and in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastila, R.

    2006-04-01

    differentially expressed genes that are involved in angiogenesis, cell cycle, stress-response, and cell motility. These results suggest that observed genes might be involved in cellular response to UVA and a physiologically relevant UVA dose have previously unknown cellular implications. The novel results presented in this thesis offer evidence that UVA exposure might increase the metastatic potential of the melanoma cells present in blood circulation. Considering the well-known UVA-induced deleterious effects on cellular level, this study further supports the notion that UVA radiation might have more potential impact on health than previously suggested. The possibility of the pro-metastatic effects of UVA exposure might not be of very high significance for daily exposures. However, UVA effects might gain physiological significance following extensive sunbathing or solaria tanning periods. Whether similar UVA-induced pro-metastatic effects occur in people sunbathing or using solaria remains to be determined. In the light of the results presented in this thesis, the avoidance of solaria use could be well justified. (orig.)

  9. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    continuing expansion of the nearby Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region has degraded or destroyed many woodlots, upland fields, and wetlands. In numerous instances, degradation of natural habitats has influenced the abundance and distribution of bird species. Because of these changes, both the Federal government and State Departments of Natural Resources have listed several species in various categories based on their current status. In the St. Croix River Valley, seven species are endangered, eight are threatened, and 29 are watch or priority status in either or both states. Data presented in this report are of value to land managers, land use specialists, and ornithologists, in assessing current and projected habitat alterations on the avifauna of this valley. The St. Croix River bisects a large region of western Wisconsin and east central Minnesota that exhibits a wide range of habitat types. This region supports not only birds, but many mammals, fishes, reptiles and amphibians, and several thousand species of vascular and nonvascular plants. The river itself is relatively clean through most of its course, and its natural flow is interrupted by only two small dams. Because the river lies within a 1-day drive of nearly 10 million people (Waters 1977), use of the area for recreational purposes is extremely heavy. Recreational pursuits include sunbathing, boating, and wild river kayaking in the summer, and ice fishing and cross-country skiing in the winter. The large number of unique and highly fragile habitats that exist there may never be compatible with the uses and abuses of the land that go with expanding human populations. Through the efforts of a number of citizens concerned with the quality of their environment and the foresightedness of several local, State, and Federal legislators, a portion of the upper St. Croix River Valley (hereafter termed 'the Valley') was established as a National Wild and Scenic River. Through establishment of t

  10. Uso del hábitat por Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae durante la estación seca en Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attademo, Andrés

    2004-07-01

    through radio-tracking. Habitat use was evaluated at a microhabitat level during dry season at El Quemado, in the department of Pocho, Córdoba. Fourteen adult individuals were implanted with radio transmitters: 5 reproductive females, 4 non-reproductive females and 5 reproductive males. There were differences in the use of the habitat among these conditions. The differences observed in relation to reproductive functions during the dry season should reveal different thermoregulation requirements in lampalagua. In reptiles, these requirements are among the most influential causes in the selection of a particular habitat. The habitat choice made by reproductive females would allow them to choose adequate places to sunbathe and get higher and optimum temperatures for embryo development.

  11. Coţofeni-Kostolac culture on the territory of north-eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    returned to these settlements en route to lowlands and river terraces, while other groups probably continued their journey to gathering centres in valleys near the Danube and the Timok rivers. The next type of settlement belongs to high, multi-layered settlements (Arija baba-Košobrdo, Čoka Kormaroš, Field of Z. Brzanović, Varzari and Smedovac-Grabar-Svračar which represent sunbathed dominant positions, with a good view of the surrounding area, well suited to long-term occupation. Settlements on high elevations of this type are usually linked with landscapes that predominate in grazing areas and in which there are no large forests. The last type of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlement is characteristic of lowland settlements positioned on river terraces. The settlements on the right bank of the Danube, around Ključ (Kladovo- Brodoimpeks, Mala Vrbica, Zbradila-Fund, Korbovo- Obala, Vajuga-Pesak, Jakomirski potok estuary, Velesnica, Ljubič evac-river bank, Ljubičevac-Island, Brzi prun, Slatinska reka estuary, Knjepište, Ruženjka, Kusjak-Bordjej, Kusjak-Motel, Kusjak-Vrkalj, represented points at which shepherd’s flocks could remain for longer periods, waiting for favourable conditions for crossing to the other side of the river. This assumption is based on old maps predating the construction of the accumulation lake. These maps indicate that in the immediate vicinity of these settlements were located small sand islands linked to the river bank, pointing to shallows and crossing points. These sections of the river bank, during prolonged droughts or during cold winters, when ice was formed, could have been places where the river was crossed from one side to the other. Residential architecture cannot be precisely defined, given that the discovered remains of houses are very meagre and lack sufficient elements for reconstruction. The most recent excavations on the Bubanj-Staro Selo settlemant at Niš, indicate an identical type of architectural construction as discovered at