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Sample records for sun-dried seedless reserve

  1. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  2. EffeCts of Direct sUn Drying of Maize Grains on Perforated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Sun drying ofmqize grains on unperforated and perforatedsurfaceswas ... and 40 mm in the field The response variables measured were weight loss at all depths and moisture con- ..... tent (on milled grains and on whole grains): The.

  3. Mycoflora and vitamin content of sun-dried food condiments in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekundayo, C A

    1987-01-01

    The fungi most frequently isolated (of 20-100% incidence) from fresh okra, pepper fruits and melon seeds are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichoderma harzianum, Mucor mucedo and Fusarium oxysporum. The major mycoflora of the fruits which had been sun-dried for twenty days are comprised of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp which initially had formed the minor components (of less than 20% incidence) of the colonising population. The effect of sun-drying on the fruits was a statistically significant (P = 0.05) decrease in the riboflavin content and a generally small and non-significant decrease in the concentrations of thiamine, niacin, biotin and ascorbic acid. The effect of mouldiness during sun-drying was to further decrease the concentration of the vitamins.

  4. Gamma irradiation of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: hussainpr@rediffmail.co [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India); Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M. [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India)

    2011-07-15

    The study is aimed at the optimization of gamma irradiation treatment of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes. Sun-dried apricots pre-treated with potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) at 2.5% w/v were procured from progressive apricot grower of district Kargil, Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state. The sun-dried apricots were packed in 250 gauge polyethylene packs and gamma irradiated in the dose range 1.0-3.0 kGy. The gamma irradiated fruit including control was stored under ambient (15{+-}2-25{+-}2 {sup o}C, RH 70-80%) conditions and periodically evaluated for physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality parameters. Radiation treatment at dose levels of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy proved significantly (p{<=}0.05) beneficial in retention of higher levels of {beta}-carotene, ascorbic acid, total sugars and color values without impairing the taste as perceived by the sensory panel analysists. The above optimized doses retained the {beta}-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to the extent of 71.2% and 72.6% compared to 63.9% in control samples after 18 months of storage. Irradiation treatment facilitated the release of residual sulfur dioxide in KMS pre-treated sun-dried apricots significantly (p{<=}0.05) below the prescribed limit for dried products. During storage, two-fold decrease in sulfur dioxide content was recorded in irradiated samples (3.0 kGy) as compared to 16.9% in control. The above optimized doses besides maintaining the higher overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots resulted in 5 log reductions in microbial load just after irradiation and 1.0 and 1.3 log reductions in yeast and mold and bacterial count after 18 months of ambient storage.

  5. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I

    2016-10-01

    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation.

  6. 75 FR 20897 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Final Free and Reserve Percentages for 2009-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... helped the industry address its marketing problems by keeping supplies in balance with domestic and... / Thursday, April 22, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Percentages for 2009-10 Crop Natural (Sun-Dried) Seedless Raisins AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  7. EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL SUN-DRYING ON PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala Chauhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi L. has various beneficial properties including antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. The effect of traditional sun drying on the stability of fresh A. bilimbi fruits was investigated by using different methanol/water extracts, and their total phenolic content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC compared. The TAC was evaluated using established in vitro models such as 1,1,diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2´-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid scavenging assay, total reducing power, phosphomolybdenum assay and metal chelating activity. All the extracts of the dried fruit showed lower TPC compared to the fresh bilimbi extracts by 23-88%, TAC of which corresponded accordingly. The investigation revealed that A. bilimbi was a good source of antioxidants; however, the drying process of the fruit significantly affected the bioactive compounds.

  8. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless raisins means raisins, the production of which includes soda dipping, sulfuring, and artificial...

  9. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective...

  10. Detecting compact binary coalescences with seedless clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, M.; Thrane, E.; Christensen, N.

    2014-10-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Although matched filtering is the optimal search method for well-modeled systems, alternative detection strategies can be used to guard against theoretical errors (e.g., involving new physics and/or assumptions about spin or eccentricity) while providing a measure of redundancy. In a previous paper, we showed how "seedless clustering" can be used to detect long-lived gravitational-wave transients in both targeted and all-sky searches. In this paper, we apply seedless clustering to the problem of low-mass (Mtotal≤10M⊙) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems. We show that seedless clustering provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting low-mass compact binaries.

  11. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin residues in fresh and sun-dried meat in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufunmilayo, Gbonjubola Oyero; Oyefolu, Akeeb Bola

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, food safety and security have generally remained basic human needs, therefore because of the largely unregulated nature of the Nigerian markets, coupled with the poor housing and feeding conditions to which animals are subjected in the abattoirs, a survey for assessing potential mycotoxin exposure through meat consumption was undertaken. Eighty Samples of meat bought randomly from 5 major markets distributed in 5 local government areas of Oyo state , Nigeria were analysed for contaminating mycoflora using the plate count and micromorphological methods, while aflatoxin detection and quantification was by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Mycological analysis of samples revealed a higher contamination level in the sun-dried samples. Eighteen fungi species belonging to 8 genera, namely, Aspergillus, Penicilliu, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Neurospora, Rhizopus and yeast were identified. The predominant genus Aspergillus yielded 7 species while the potential toxicogenic fungi represented 38% of the isolated mycoflora. The genera requiring higher water activity for growth ( Alternaria, Fusarium and yeast) were not obtained from the dried meat. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were detected in all the samples analysed. The fresh samples with the exception of the total aflatoxin G (AFG) in kidney gave the highest mean concentrations for all aflatoxins, also an exceptionally high aflatoxin content was found in all the kidney samples. Aflatoxin detection in meat should be addressed urgently to avert the possible adverse health effects like aflatoxicosis, exacerbated malnutrition, suppression of growth and immune functions on consumers. Also the animal health inspectors should pay more attention to the feeding conditions of the animals on farm and the abattoirs.

  12. 7 CFR 989.110 - Varietal types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Natural (sun-dried) Seedless includes all sun-dried seedless raisins possessing similar identifiable... Seedless includes all seedless raisins whose color generally varies from golden yellow to dark amber....

  13. Desempenho agronômico das videiras 'Crimson Seedless' e 'Superior Seedless' no norte de Minas Gerais Agronomic performance of 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' vines in the north region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Feldberg

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do vigor dos porta-enxertos '1103 Paulsen' e 'IAC-572 Jales', no desempenho agronômico das cultivares Crimson Seedless e Superior Seedless. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da Epamig, em Mocambinho, distrito de Jaíba, MG, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições em esquema fatorial 2x2. Foram analisadas a fertilidade de gemas, o número e a massa de cachos e a massa de ramos. O porta-enxerto '1103 Paulsen' proporcionou os melhores resultados nas cultivares Crimson Seedless e Superior Seedless quanto à massa e número de cachos por planta e fertilidade de gemas, com produtividade média de 31,9 e 22,4 t ha-1 ano-1 , respectivamente. O porta-enxerto 'IAC-572 Jales' proporcionou maior vigor, com maior massa de ramos por planta nas duas cultivares. O porta-enxerto '1103 Paulsen' induziu a maiores fertilidade de gemas e produtividades em 'Crimson Seedless' e 'Superior Seedless' e pode ser indicado para o cultivo na região de Jaíba, MG.The objective of this work was to study the influence of the '1103 Paulsen' and 'IAC-572 Jales' rootstocks vigor in the agronomic performance of the cultivars 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless'. The experiment was carried in the Epamig Experimental Farm located in Mocambinho, Jaíba, MG, Brazil, in completely randomized experimental design with seven replications in factorial 2x2. The following variables were studied: bud fertility, number and weight of clusters and cane weight. The '1103 Paulsen' rootstock showed better results for cultivars 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' regarding the number of clusters and their weight by plant and bud fertility, with average productivity of 31.9 and 22.4 t ha-1 year-1 , respectively. The 'IAC-572 Jales' rootstock provided higher vigor, comprising greater weight of canes per plant in both cultivars. The '1103 Paulsen' rootstock induced higher bud fertility and

  14. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless...

  15. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless...

  16. The earlier identification of the seedless characteristic of the wampee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... 2Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment of Ministry of Education, ... increase burliness rate in hybridization. ... progeny, the objective of this work is to identify molecular markers linked to seedless trait through.

  17. Comparison of selected metals content in Cambodian striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  18. Comparison of Selected Metals Content in Cambodian Striped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Using Solar Drying System and Open Sun Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS and open sun drying (OSD. The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  19. Alterations in fruit and vegetable β-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, JD; Byaruhanga, YB

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometery at 450nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of vari...

  20. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (pdrying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (pdrying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention.

  1. A seedless approach to continuous flow synthesis of gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Craig; Latter, Melissa J; D'Alonzo, Nicholas J; Willis, Glen J; Raston, Colin L

    2011-04-14

    A direct seedless method for the continuous synthesis of gold nanorods has been developed using a sequential rotating tube-narrow channel processing microfluidic configuration, with the stock feed solutions (HAuCl(4)/CTAB/acetylacetone and AgNO(3)/CTAB/carbonate buffer) being stable for weeks.

  2. Multi-component analysis in sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix by single marker quantitation and chemometric discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix before and after sulfur-fumigation using quantitative analysis of multi-components by a single marker (QAMS. Materials and Methods: The feasibility and accuracy of QAMS were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using ferulic acid as the internal reference substance, and the contents of senkyunolide A and Z-ligustilide were calculated according to relative correction factors by high-performance liquid chromatography. Meanwhile, the influence of sulfur-fumigation on these chemical components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix were evaluated and discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Results: There was no significant difference observed between the QAMS method and the external standard method. Furthermore, sulfur-fumigation reduced the contents of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix by some degree, and the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigation processing could be easily discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Conclusion: QAMS is a convenient and accurate approach to analyzing multi-component when reference substances are unavailable, simultaneously, chemometrics is an effective way to discriminate sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

  3. Effect of Robusta (Coffea canephora P.) coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on contamination by fungi and ochratoxin A (OTA) under tropical humid zone (Côte d'Ivoire).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Irène Ahou; Koffi, Louis Ban; Nemlin, Jean Gnopo; Dosso, Mireille Bretin

    2012-06-01

    The effect of coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on the kinetics of the drying, chemical components variation, fungal growth and ochratoxin A production was evaluated. The results showed that the more coffee cherries quantity on the drying area was important, the slower they dried. Indeed, the drying durations were 12, 17, 21, 26, 31 and 32 days respectively for the lots of 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg, 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area. The slowness of the drying led to the increasing of fungal development and ochratoxin A production in the cherries. Indeed, samples more contaminated were those from the lots of 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area with between 10% and 100% of infected beans and with levels of ochratoxin A ranging from 0.92 to 118.47 and 1.4 to 131.33 μg kg(-1) respectively. The slowness of the drying led also to the acidification of the cherries (pH=5.55-4.54) and the degradation of their chlorogenic acids content (13.03-11.69) while for their caffeine content (2.52-2.54), any significant difference was observed whatever the drying duration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and characterization of latent and active polyphenoloxidase in BRS Clara (CNPUV 154-147 × Centennial seedless) and BRS Morena (Marroo seedless × Centennial seedless) seedless table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Pavezzi, Fabiana Carina; Martin, Natália; Gomes, Eleni; Da Silva, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    The seedless grapes BRS Clara and BRS Morena, developed in Brazil, are currently growing in popularity due to their premium texture and taste. However, there are no reports on the polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from these cultivars. In this paper, active and latent PPO from BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless grapes were extracted using the non-ionic detergents Triton-X-100 (active) and Triton-X-114 (latent), and their catecholase activities were characterized. The PPO extracted using Triton-X-110 exhibited maximum activities at pH 6.0 and at 25 °C. Above 30 °C, a gradual decline in activities was noted, with complete inactivation at 60 °C. The PPO from grapes extracted with Triton-X-114 was activated with 0.2% of the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and exhibited maximum activities at pH 5.5 and at 30 °C. It was stable until the temperature reached 60 °C.

  5. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs.

  6. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Chichilichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05. The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  7. Cytogenetic Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sun Dried Seeds of Soursop (Annona muricata on The Male Germ Line Cells of The African Pest Grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seino RA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ethanol extract of the seeds of Annona muricata on some meiotic parameters in the pest grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. Adult grasshoppers were treated with 28μl of the Ethanol extract of sun dry seeds of Annona muricata and absolute ethanol (control for 48 hours and all the parameters (chiasma frequency, formation of rod and ring shaped bivalents and meiotic anomalies were affected by the extract. Chiasma formation was observed to significantly (P<0.05 increase following treatment and this was correlated by a significant increase in the formation of ring shaped bivalents. The incidences of meiotic anomalies such as laggards and bridges at first and second meiotic Anaphases, second meiotic Metaphase as well as in first and second meiotic Telophases were observed to increase when insects were treated with the ethanol extract. These observations indicated that the Ethanol extract of the seeds of A. muricata contain substances that could induce cytotoxicity. The importance of such property in the formulation of grasshopper pest control measures cannot be overemphasized.

  8. Antitumor-promoting effects of polyphenolic extracts from seedless and seeded Indian grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Asha G; Karibasappa, Goudar S; Pakhale, Shrirang S

    2008-01-01

    Grapes, the widely consumed fruits, are rich in polyphenols. The biological and chemopreventive activities of grape seed polyphenols have been demonstrated, while similar information regarding crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components (pulp plus skin, seeds), particularly the seedless varieties, is lacking. Cancer chemoprevention can be achieved by inhibition of either initiation or promotion/progression stages of carcinogenesis. This study involves the determination of the polyphenolic content extracted from green (Pandhari sahebi, Thompson seedless) and black cultivars (Bangalore blue, Sharad seedless) of Indian grapes and their components (whole grapes, pulp plus skin, and seeds). Comparative evaluation of antitumor-promoting effects of seedless and seeded grape polyphenolic extracts (GPEs) was carried out in carcinogen-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted S/RVCri-ba mouse skin and stomach, as well as esophagus of ICRC mice. The yield of crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components varied between 3% and 51%. The total polyphenolic content expressed as mg catechin equivalents/g crude polyphenolic extract ranged from 0.47 to 701 in seeded grapes and 1.49 to 28.30 in seedless varieties. Both seedless and seeded GPEs possessed antitumor-promoting activity in target tissues of mice as is evident from their ability to delay tumor formation along with a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity and incidence. Marked and sustained epidermal hyperplasia observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and TPA-promoted mice was greatly reduced on pretreatment with GPE or catechin. The polyphenolic extracts from Sharad seedless and seeds of Bangalore blue showed the strongest suppressing activity comparable to catechin than the corresponding whole grapes. The results suggest that the chemopreventive activity of polyphenols extracted from seedless grape cultivars was as effective as that of the

  9. Mechanism of seedlessness in a new lemon cultivar 'Xiangshui' [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Wei; Huang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Feng; He, Xin-Hua; Pan, Jie-Chun

    2012-12-01

    Seedlessness is an important economic trait of lemon. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon requires detailed data on pollen and embryo sac fertility, embryo development and compatibility mechanisms governing self- and cross-pollination. The results of the current study indicate that the fertility of pollen and mature embryo sac remains normal. When flowers were self- or cross-pollinated, pollen grains of 'Xiangshui' were able to germinate on the stigma. In the case of self-pollination, pollen tubes became twisted, tube tips enlarged and tubes ruptured in the bottom of stigma. Following cross-pollination, tubes were able to grow normally in the style and ovary and enter the embryo sac, where double fertilization took place. Embryonic development resulting from cross-pollination was normal. After cross-pollination, the zygote began to divide at 2 weeks post-pollination, with early globular embryos observed after 3 weeks, globular and heart-shaped embryos at 4 weeks, torpedo-shaped embryos at 5 weeks, cotyledonary embryos at 6 weeks and thereafter germinable seeds. After self-pollination, however, ovules began to abort at 2 weeks post-pollination, with ovules disappearing at 5 weeks, ultimately producing seedless fruits. Emasculated unpollinated flowers also developed into seedless fruits, indicating that seedlessness contributes to parthenocarpy. However, gametophytic self-incompatibility has a major role in seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon by blocking fertilization at the bottom of the stigma.

  10. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Zhou

    Full Text Available Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP. Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and metabolizable energy (ME. Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT, 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG, and dry matter intake (DMI, was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks. There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743, ADG (P = 0.425, DMI (P = 0.642, or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236 between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024 in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076 in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098. No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513, tenderness (P = 0.844, adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149, and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400; however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034. In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content.

  11. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Niu

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had similar crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and metabolizable energy. Following the feeding trial, the steers were slaughtered and ruminal liquid samples were collected to study the ruminal microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and Illumina MiSeq pyrosequencing were performed for each sample. Following sequence de-noising, chimera checking, and quality trimming, an average of 209,610 sequences were generated per sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine the selected bacterial species in the rumen. Our results showed that the predominant phyla were Bacteroidetes (43.90%, Firmicutes (39.06%, Proteobacteria (4.31%, and Tenericutes (2.04%, and the predominant genera included Prevotella (13.82%, Ruminococcus (2.51%, Butyrivibrio (2.38%, and Succiniclasticum (2.26%. Compared to the control group, EML and SMFP groups had a higher abundance of total bacteria (p < 0.001; however, the bacterial community composition was similar among the three groups. At the phylum level, there were no significant differences in Firmicutes (p = 0.7932, Bacteroidetes (p = 0.2330, Tenericutes (p = 0.2811, or Proteobacteria (p = 0.0680 levels among the three groups; however, Fibrobacteres decreased in EML (p = 0.0431. At the genus level, there were no differences in Prevotella (p = 0.4280, Ruminococcus (p = 0.2639, Butyrivibrio (p = 0.4433, or Succiniclasticum (p = 0.0431 levels among the groups. Additionally, the dietary treatments had no significant effects on the archaeal community composition in the rumen. Therefore, EML and SMFP supplementation had no significant effects on the ruminal bacterial or archaeal

  12. Morphological transformations of silver nanoparticles in seedless photochemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ya; Zhang, Congyun; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Dongjie; Fu, Yizheng; Moeendarbari, Sina; Pickering, Christopher S.; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Yaqing

    2016-05-01

    Photochemical synthesis is an easily controlled and reliable method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanoparticles with various morphologies. In this work, we have systematically investigated the seedless photochemical synthesis of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles with and without PVP as surface capping agent. The time evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles during the synthesis process are studied using UV-visible spectra, optical images and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the light irradiation precisely controls the start and termination of the reaction, and the presence or absence of PVP greatly affects the morphology evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles. With PVP as the surface capping agent, Ag nanoparticles grow into decahedra or prism by the deposition of Ag atoms on {111} or {110} facets through epitaxial growth. However, a different morphology evolution could happen when Ag nanoparticle is synthesized without PVP as surface capping agent. In this case, Ag nanoparticles can fuse into the decahedrons through an edge-selective particle fusion mechanism, which involves attachment, rotation and realignment of Ag nanoparticles. This process was evidenced with HRTEM images at the different stages of the transformation from Ag colloid to decahedra nanoparticles. Oriented attachment and Ostwald ripening also play important role in the transformation process.

  13. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M

    2006-10-04

    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage.

  14. INTRODUÇÃO DOS CULTIVARES DE UVA DE MESA "FANTASIA" E "RUIVA" NO BRASIL INTRODUCTION OF THE TABLE GRAPE CULTIVARS "FANTASY SEEDLESS" AND "CRIMSON SEEDLESS" INTO BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Valdevino Pommer

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fantasia' e `Ruiva' são dois cultivares de uva de mesa desenvolvidos pelo Departamento de Agricultura dos E.U.A., lançadas na Califórnia em 1989 e introduzidos no Brasil, no mesmo ano, pelos autores. No final do inverno de 1991, garfos dos dois cultivares foram enxertados sobre três diferentes porta-enxertos, a saber: Kober 5BB, Ripária do Traviú (106-8 Mgt e IAC 766 `Campinas', no Centro Experimental de Campinas, do IAC. Garfos também foram distribuídos para alguns viticultores selecionados em diferentes regiões paulistas. Resultados de observações preliminares são apresentados. Para a familiarização pelos viticultores, bem como facilitar a pronúncia em português, os cultivares foram renomeados como sendo `Fantasia' para "Fantasy Seedless" e `Ruiva' para "Crimson Seedless". `Fantasia' é uma uva preta, de ciclo precoce a médio, com cachos médios (350-550g, de 13-20cm de comprimento e de compacidade média a solta. Os bagos são naturalmente grandes, apesar de apirenas, pesando em média 4-9g, com diâmetro de 17 a 22mm e 20-30mm de comprimento e ovais. `Ruiva' é uma uva avermelhada, de ciclo médio, com cachos médios a grandes (460-620g, com 18-30cm de comprimento e levemente compactos. Os bagos são naturalmente grandes, apesar de apirenas, pesando em média 3,5-8,0g, diâmetro de 16-21mm e 18-30mm de comprimento e cilíndricas a ovais. A duração do ciclo vegetativo (da poda à colheita em Campinas, para ambos os cultivares foi aproximadamente o mesmo, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado. Por outro lado, o vigor, avaliado por intermédio do diâmetro do tronco e do peso de ramos podados, foi mais pronunciado para Ruiva enxertado sobre Kober 5BB. O comportamento de ambos cultivares em São Paulo, avaliado nas condições enunciadas, mostrou elevado potencial produtivo, aliado a excelentes características comerciais."Fantasy Seedless" and "Crimson Seedless" are two vinifera table grape cultivars released in 1989

  15. Seedless clustering in all-sky searches for gravitational-wave transients

    CERN Document Server

    Thrane, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The problem of searching for unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts can be thought of as a pattern recognition problem: how to find statistically significant clusters in spectrograms of strain power when the precise signal morphology is unknown. In a previous publication, we showed how "seedless clustering" can be used to dramatically improve the sensitivity of searches for long-lived gravitational-wave transients. In order to manage the computational costs, this initial analysis focused on externally triggered searches where the source location and emission time are both known to some degree of precision. In this paper, we show how the principle of seedless clustering can be extended to facilitate computationally-feasible, all-sky searches where the direction and emission time of the source are entirely unknown. We further demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a considerable reduction in computation time by using graphical processor units (GPUs), thereby facilitating more sensitive searches.

  16. Length tunable penta-twinned palladium nanorods: seedless synthesis and electrooxidation of formic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongan; Edelmann, Richard E.; Zou, Shouzhong

    2014-05-01

    Palladium nanorods with controlled lengths from 100 to 500 nm and a fixed width of 20 nm were synthesized for the first time by a seedless approach. These rods show higher peak current densities than Pd cubes for formic acid oxidation and the catalytic activity decreases with increasing rod length.Palladium nanorods with controlled lengths from 100 to 500 nm and a fixed width of 20 nm were synthesized for the first time by a seedless approach. These rods show higher peak current densities than Pd cubes for formic acid oxidation and the catalytic activity decreases with increasing rod length. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00299g

  17. Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

    2012-11-01

    A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

  18. On the use of Ethephon as abscising agent in cv. Crimson Seedless table grape production: combination of Fruit Detachment Force, Fruit Drop and metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuti, Antonino; Aguilera-Sáez, Luis Manuel; Gallo, Vito; Cafagna, Isabella; Mastrorilli, Piero; Latronico, Mario; Pacifico, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela Maria Stella; Ferrara, Giuseppe

    2015-03-15

    The effect of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon, in the following ETH) as abscising agent on cv. Crimson Seedless table grape was investigated by means of Fruit Detachment Force (FDF) and Fruit Drop (FD) analyses combined with a metabolomic study carried out by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effectiveness of ETH as abscising agent was ascertained with ETH concentration ranging from 1.4 to 4.0 g/L in a two-year study. The ETH treatments caused berry drops higher than 40% and induced an increase of tartaric acid, procyanidin P2, terpenoid derivatives and peonidin-3-glucoside as well as a decrease of catechin and epicatechin. HRMS-NMR covariance analysis was carried out to correlate the fluctuations of tartaric acid NMR signals to those of MS peaks of the secondary metabolites affected by ETH treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Gabriel Abrahão Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral biology and pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties, and to determine the best varieties to cultivate under protected environment. Three seedless (HA-5106, HA-5158, and HA-5161 and two seeded (Minipol and Polimore genotypes were tested. Flowers were monitored from the pre-anthesis stage to senescence, and fruit quality was also evaluated. The evaluated treatments were hand-geitonogamous pollination (MG, cross-pollination with pollen from the Polimore variety (MCP, cross-pollination with pollen from the Minipol variety (MCM, and restricted pollination. All varieties had monoecious plants with diclinous flowers, and the stigmas remained receptive throughout anthesis. Fruit set rates of 84.62% (MG, 61.54% (MCP, 48% (MCM, and 0% (restricted were obtained for seeded varieties, but of 0% (MG, 76.36% (MCP, 82.69% (MCM, and 0% (restricted for seedless varieties. Fruits did not differ in quality among treatments within each genotype. Therefore, all the studied varieties require a pollination agent and diploid pollen for fruit set to occur, regardless of the donor variety; and Minipol or Polimore with HA-5106 or HA-5158 are the varieties recommended for cultivation in protected environment.

  20. Gastroprotective effect ofAcacia nilotica young seedless pod extract:Role of polyphenolic constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Kumar Bansal; Rajesh Kumar Goel

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To systematically evaluate antiulcer potential ofAcacia nilotica in different ulcer models in rats.Methods:Different extracts [ethanolic,50% hydroethanolic(50:50),70% hydroethanolic(70:30) and aqueous] of young seedless pods were examined in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats.Various parameters like, volume of gastric acid secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index , mucin content and antioxidant studies were determined and were compared between extract treated, standard and vehicle control following ulcer induction. The most active extract was also evaluated in swimming stress induced andNSAID induced gastric ulceration.Results:Among different extracts of young seedless pods only hydroethanolic extracts showed significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation induced ulceration.Even more the70% hydroethanolic extract showed better protection as compared to50% hydroethanolic extract.Further70% hydroethanolic extract also showed significant mucoprotection in swimming stress induced and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs induced gastric ulceration.Conclusions:The results of present study concluded that the hydroethanolic extract of young seedless pods of Acacia nilotica has antiulcer activity in pylorus ligation, swimming stress andNSAID induced rat ulcer models.The extract containing more amount of phenolic components show high antiulcer activity, indicating the phenolic component of the extract to be responsible for the activity of the extracts.

  1. Comparative transcript profiling of gene expression between seedless Ponkan mandarin and its seedy wild type during floral organ development by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wen-Ming; Zhu, An-Dan; Wang, Yao; Chai, Li-Jun; Ge, Xiao-Xia; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2012-08-16

    Seedlessness is an important agronomic trait for citrus, and male sterility (MS) is one main cause of seedless citrus fruit. However, the molecular mechanism of citrus seedlessness remained not well explored. An integrative strategy combining suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library with cDNA microarray was employed to study the underlying mechanism of seedlessness of a Ponkan mandarin seedless mutant (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Screening with custom microarray, a total of 279 differentially expressed clones were identified, and 133 unigenes (43 contigs and 90 singletons) were obtained after sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) distribution based on biological process suggested that the majority of differential genes are involved in metabolic process and respond to stimulus and regulation of biology process; based on molecular function they function as DNA/RNA binding or have catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity. A gene encoding male sterility-like protein was highly up-regulated in the seedless mutant compared with the wild type, while several transcription factors (TFs) such as AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC and C2C2-GATA zinc-finger domain TFs were down-regulated. Our research highlighted some candidate pathways that participated in the citrus male gametophyte development and could be beneficial for seedless citrus breeding in the future.

  2. Fatty acid extraction of Thompson seedless raisin by different methods%不同方法提取无核白葡萄干中脂肪酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小梅; 李园月; 吴广枫

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To develop an effective method for the extraction of fatty acid in raisin. Methods Thompson seedless raisin was analyzed in this study, and its fatty acid composition and content were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Four extraction methods were adopted to extract the fatty acid in Thompson seedless-Sun dried raisins (TS-SD, soluble solids content is 84.69%). Results No category difference of fatty acid was detected between different methods. 16 kinds of fatty acids were determined in TS-SD, including 11 kinds of saturated fatty acids and 5 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids. When liquid-liquid extraction-methanol (LLE-M) was used as extraction method, the total content of saturated fatty acid (SFA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and the fatty acid (FA) was found to be higher. Conclusion LLE-M method is an effective way to extract fatty acid in raisins, and this will contribute to the research of flavor in raisin.%目的:确立葡萄干中脂肪酸提取的有效方法。方法采用气相色谱质谱联用技术的方法,对无核白葡萄干中的脂肪酸进行了研究。采用4种提取方法,对自然晒干工艺制成的无核白葡萄干(可溶性固形物含量84.69%)进行脂肪酸种类和含量的研究。结果当采用不同提取方法时,检测到的葡萄干中的脂肪酸种类无差异,仅存在含量上的差别。无核白葡萄干中共鉴定出16种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸11种,不饱和脂肪酸5种。当采用液液萃取-甲醇辅助提取方法提取葡萄干中脂肪酸时,不饱和脂肪酸总含量、饱和脂肪酸总含量以及脂肪酸总含量均优于其他方法提取出的脂肪酸含量。结论液液萃取-甲醇辅助提取方法是提取葡萄干中脂肪酸的有效方法,这为葡萄干中风味物质研究打下基础。

  3. Iron (III Ion Sensor Based on the Seedless Grown ZnO Nanorods in 3 Dimensions Using Nickel Foam Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Ali Abbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the seedless, highly aligned and vertical ZnO nanorods in 3 dimensions (3D were grown on the nickel foam substrate. The seedless grown ZnO nanorods were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The characterised seedless ZnO nanorods in 3D on nickel foam were highly dense, perpendicular to substrate, grown along the (002 crystal plane, and also composed of single crystal. In addition to this, these seedless ZnO nanorods were functionalized with trans-dinitro-dibenzo-18-6 crown ether, a selective iron (III ion ionophore, along with other components of membrane composition such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 2-nitopentylphenyl ether as plasticizer (NPPE, and tetrabutyl ammonium tetraphenylborate (TBATPB as conductivity increaser. The sensor electrode has shown high linearity with a wide range of detection of iron (III ion concentrations from 0.005 mM to 100 mM. The low limit of detection of the proposed ion selective electrode was found to be 0.001 mM. The proposed sensor also described high storage stability, selectivity, reproducibility, and repeatability and a quick response time of less than 10 s.

  4. The ubiquitin extension protein S27a is differentially expressed in developing flower organs of Thompson seedless versus Thompson seeded grape isogenic clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Uri; Velcheva, Margarita; Sahar, Nachman; Flaishman, Moshe; Or, Etti; Degani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2009-07-01

    In Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless, fertilization occurs but seeds abort, a type of stenospermocarpy. To clone transcripts with differential expression during flower development, suppressive subtractive hybridization was carried out using two isogenic clones 'Thompson seedless' and 'Thompson seeded', at three stages of inflorescence development (from bud break to ~20 days prior to anthesis). Differential screening and sequencing of a forward and reverse subtractive cDNA library yielded several singleton ESTs. One differentially expressed clone in 'Thompson' seeded versus seedless isogenic clones was the ubiquitin extension protein S27a. In situ hybridization demonstrated its significantly higher expression in the carpel and ovaries of 'Thompson' seedless versus seeded isogenic clones during flower development. Overexpression of this gene resulted in abnormal plant regeneration and inhibited shoot development compared to controls; its silencing in embryogenic callus induced cell necrosis and callus death, evidencing tight regulation of this gene in developing organs of grape. S27a overexpression in carpels and integuments of the seedless flower may interfere with normal development of these organs, leading to embryo abortion and seedlessness.

  5. Relationship between Root Growth of 'Thompson Seedless' Grapevines and Soil Temperature Relación entre el Crecimiento Radical de Vid 'Thompson Seedless' y la Temperatura del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Callejas R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of characterizing the growth of the root system of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless and its relationship with soil temperature, research was carried out during the 2004-2005 growing season in vineyards in the Copiapó and Huasco Valleys. Four plants were chosen and rhizotrons were used to measure the growth of the root system. Measurements were performed once a week from September 2004 to September 2005, estimating the intensity of root growth and its annual distribution in the ranges of 0 to 40, 40 to 80 and 80 to 120 cm of soil depth. Temperature sensors were installed in four plants at 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm of soil depth, and the temperature was registered every 1 h. The thermal diffusivity of the soil was calculated based on the annual mean temperature and annual thermal amplitude values. Root growth occurred throughout the year, presenting lower intensity in July (winter. Root systems presented different patterns in the distribution of growth intensity in the three soil depths, with variations in the order of five times in maximum annual growth intensity among sites. High thermal diffusivity in soils favored root growth.Con el objetivo de caracterizar el crecimiento del sistema radical de la vid (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless y su relación con la temperatura del suelo, durante la temporada 2004-2005 se llevó a cabo un estudio en parronales ubicados en los valles de Copiapó y Huasco. Se instalaron cuatro cámaras de observación de raíces o rizotrones en plantas homogéneas, en plena producción, pie franco, sanas, y ubicadas en diferentes localidades de la región. Las mediciones del crecimiento de las raíces se efectuaron semanalmente, desde septiembre de 2004 hasta completar 1 año, estimándose la intensidad de crecimiento radical anual y su distribución en los rangos de 0 a 40, 40 a 80 y 80 a 120 cm de profundidad. Adicionalmente, se instalaron sensores de temperatura a 25, 50, 75 y

  6. AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE-DE-SOL ELABORADA COM BAIXOS TEORES DE CLORETO DE SÓDIO MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SUN DRIED MEAT WITH LOW SODIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA

    2001-08-01

    as water activity and sodium chloride were analyzed. In both groups the results obtained in microbial analysis were quite high. In the samples of the inspected establishments the averages of mesophylic counts bacterias, molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms were 6,2Log UFC/g, 3,8Log UFC/g, 7,4Log UFC/g and 1,34Log NMP/g respectively and, in the samples without inspection, the averages were 7,41Log UFC/g, 4,44Log UFC/g, 6,78Log UFC/g and 2,6Log NMP/g, respectively. The microbial results suggest errors in the processing and manipulation of both samples, and the fecal contamination was much higher in the samples collected in establishments without inspection. The variation of the sodium chloride content and water activity of the sample indicated lack of standardization during sun dried meat processing. There is the need tho establish microbiological and physical-chemical legal parameters capable of offering safe food to the consumer.

  7. Improved seedless hydrothermal synthesis of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Jinghua; Hu Jie; Li Sisi; Zhang Fan; Liu Jun; Shi Jian; Li Xin; Chen Yong [Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS-ENS-UPMC UMR 8640, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Tian Zhongqun, E-mail: yong.chen@ens.fr [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and LIA CNRS XiamENS ' NanoBioChem' , College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China)

    2011-06-17

    Seedless hydrothermal synthesis has been improved by introducing an adequate content of ammonia into the nutrient solution, allowing the fabrication of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowire arrays over large areas on a substrate. The presence of ammonia in the nutrient solution facilitates the high density nucleation of ZnO on the substrate which is critical for the nanowire growth. In order to achieve an optimal growth, the growth conditions have been studied systematically as a function of ammonia content, growth temperature and incubation time. The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) has also been studied but shown to be of no benefit to the nucleation of ZnO. Ultradense and ultralong ZnO nanowires could be obtained under optimal growth conditions, showing no fused structure at the foot of the nanowire arrays. Due to different reaction kinetics, four growth regimes could be attributed, including the first fast growth, equilibrium phase, second fast growth and final erosion. Combining this simple method with optical lithography, ZnO nanowires could be grown selectively on patterned areas. In addition, the as-grown ZnO nanowires could be used for the fabrication of a piezoelectric nanogenerator. Compared to the device of ZnO nanowires made by other methods, a more than twice voltage output has been obtained, thereby proving an improved performance of our growth method.

  8. Phenolic composition of the Brazilian seedless table grape varieties BRS Clara and BRS Morena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2011-08-10

    The detailed phenolic composition (anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, and flavan-3-ols) in the skin and flesh of the new BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless table grapes has been studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The two grapes, especially BRS Morena, contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly located in their skins and qualitatively not different from those found in Vitis vinifera grapes. In addition, BRS Morena (a teinturier variety) showed qualitatively different phenolic compositions in its skin and flesh, mainly affecting the anthocyanin and flavonol profiles. Consistent with high phenolic contents, high antioxidant capacity values were registered for both grape varieties, especially for BRS Morena. Proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acids were the major phenolic compounds found in BRS Clara and were also important in BRS Morena, although anthocyanins were the main phenolic compounds in the latter case. These results suggest that the entire grapes, including the skin, may potentially possess properties that are beneficial to human health. In this context, the BRS Morena grape can be considered as a high resveratrol producer.

  9. Development of highly transparent seedless ZnO nanorods engineered for inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Lee, Wonjoo; Mane, Rajaram S; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2014-10-21

    This work reports on inverted polymer solar cells (IPSCs) based on highly transparent (>95%), hydrophobic, seedless ZnO nanorods (NRs) as cathode buffers with extremely enhanced electrical characteristics. The transparent NR suspension with stability for more than a year is achieved by adding a small amount of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEA). The ability of the stable nanorod suspension to easily spin-coat is certainly an advance to the fabrication of films over large areas and to replace the conventional seeding method to grow one-dimensional nanostructures for use in optoelectronic devices. We observe a strong correlation between the photovoltaic performance and the transparency of ZnO NRs. IPSCs using poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixtures in the active layer and transparent (MEA-capped) ZnO NRs as cathode buffers exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.24% under simulated AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2) illumination.

  10. Seedless synthesis of nanocomposites, optical properties, and effects of additives on their surface resonance plasmon bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Zoya; Aazam, Elham Shafik

    2017-07-01

    The work describes an easy seedless competitive chemical reduction method for the synthesis of Ag@Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles by mixing AgNO3, HAuCl4 and cysteine. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the large number of irregular, cross-linking, and aggregated Ag@Au/Ag are formed in a reaction mixture (HAuCl4 + AgNO3 + cysteine), whereas flower-like nanocomposites are obtained in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which acted as a shape-directing agent. Optical images reveal that the initially reaction proceeds through formation of purple color, which changes into dark brown color with the reaction time, indicating the formation of Ag@Au/Ag nanocomposites. The Ag+ has strong tendency to form complex with cysteine. Firstly, the reduction of Ag+ ions to Ag0 occurred by the sbnd HSsbnd group of the cysteine-Ag complex. Secondly, AuCl4- ions adsorbed on the positive surface of Ag0, which undergoes reduction by potential deposition, and leads to the formation of Ag@Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles. Inorganic electrolytes (NaCl, NaBr, NaNO3 and Na2SO4) have significant impact on the stability and aggregation of Ag@Au/Ag nanocomposites.

  11. Production of ready to drink red and rosé wines from new seedless grapevine crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonacci Donato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols (proanthocyanidins content in grapes is higher in seeds compared to berry skins. Monomeric flavan-3-ols are more astringent, however, they can combine with other monomer, with anthocyanins and with mannoproteins released by yeast and therefore lose their harsh features in wines. Proanthocyanidins extracted during fermentation and maceration processes in red wines, are important for the organoleptic characteristics of the product and for its aging. There is a difference between skins and seeds proanthocyanidins, with the latter being perceived as more harsh and astringent. One of the most important purposes of refinement and aging of red wines very rich in polyphenols is the slow loss of bitterness. Instead, for wines ready to drink seeds tannins can give bitter overtones, therefore reducing their quality since consumers generally prefer a reduced astringency and attenuated bitterness. This paper investigates the possibility of employ some new seedless grapes crossings of Vitis vinifera L., obtained in recent breeding programs carried out at the CREA-VE of Turi, for the production of improved red and rosé wines made with traditionally red winemaking.

  12. Influencia de las estrategias de riego deficitario controlado en el color de uva de mesa, cv. Crisom Seedless

    OpenAIRE

    Conesa Saura, María del Rosario; Rosa Sánchez, José María de la; Corbalán Rodríguez, María Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo Miguel, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la intensidad y uniformidad del color de las bayas de Crisom Seedless. Una reducción del agua del 40% respecto a FINC (tratamiento adecuadamente regado), no dio lugar a diferencias significativas en producción ni calidad de la cosecha. Dicha reducción en el agua aplicada, indujo un adelanto en la madurez de los tratamientos deficitarios (RDC y DPR), obteniendo porcentajes de cosecha mayores que FINC en los 2 primeros cortes. Por otra parte, una ...

  13. Compost and humic substance effects on soil parameters of Vitis vinifera L cv Thompson seedless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fincheira-Robles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic amendments is common under the concept of integrated nutrient management (INM in Vi tis vinifera (Table grape to improve plant and soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate compost (C and humic substances (HS mixed with mineral fertilizer (MF in an INM program of V. vinifera cv Thompson seedless. The chemical, biochemi cal and microbiological parameters were evaluated in soil on 1 - year - old V. vinifera plants growing on Alfisol soil. Five treatments and control were evaluated: (T 1 C+MF, (T 2 HS+MF, (T 3 C, (T 4 HS, (T 5 MF and (T 6 absolute control. The results indicate d that the application of C and HS, increased β glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities, reaching values of 90.2 μg p - nitrophenol g - 1 h - 1 and 9.1 μg de TFP g - 1 24h - 1 , respectively . In addition, pH was similar in all treatments while electrical conductivity increased with application of mineral and orga nic amendments, reaching 0.41dS m - 1 in T 2 (HS+MF . Furthermore, yeast concentration increased with organic amendments or mineral. Correlation analysis indicated significant and positive relationships between PO 4 - P concentration with MF (0.579 and C (0.431 and nitrogen with MF (0.868. These results support that INM, which combines mineral fertilization and organic amendments, improve positive changes in chemical soil properties and C cycling measured in terms of enzymatic activity in V. vinifera .

  14. Synthesis and optical properties of small Au nanorods using a seedless growth technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moustafa R K; Snyder, Brian; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2012-06-26

    Gold nanoparticles have shown potential in photothermal cancer therapy and optoelectronic technology. In both applications, a call for small size nanorods is warranted. In the present work, a one-pot seedless synthetic technique has been developed to prepare relatively small monodisperse gold nanorods with average dimensions (length × width) of 18 × 4.5 nm, 25 × 5 nm, 15 × 4.5 nm, and 10 × 2.5 nm. In this method, the pH was found to play a crucial role in the monodispersity of the nanorods when the NaBH(4) concentration of the growth solution was adjusted to control the reduction rate of the gold ions. At the optimized pH and NaBH(4) concentrations, smaller gold nanorods were produced by adjusting the CTAB concentration in the growth solution. In addition, the concentration of silver ions in the growth solution was found to be pivotal in controlling the aspect ratio of the nanorods. The extinction coefficient values for the small gold nanorods synthesized with three different aspect ratios were estimated using the absorption spectra, size distributions, and the atomic spectroscopic analysis data. The previously accepted relationships between the extinction coefficient or the longitudinal band wavelength values and the nanorods' aspect ratios found for the large nanorods do not extend to the small size domain reported in the present work. The failure of extending these relationships over larger sizes is a result of the interaction of light with the large rods giving an extinction band which results mostly from scattering processes while the extinction of the small nanorods results from absorption processes.

  15. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM. Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82 transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC, when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment.

  16. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  17. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  18. The metacaspase gene family of Vitis vinifera L.: characterization and differential expression during ovule abortion in stenospermocarpic seedless grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaohong; Gong, Peijie; Wei, Rong; Li, Shuxiu; Zhang, Xutong; Yu, Yihe; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-10-10

    In both plants and animals, programmed cell death (PCD) is an indispensable process that removes redundant cells. In seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera), abnormal PCD in ovule cells and subsequent ovule abortion play key roles in stenospermocarpy. Metacaspase, a type of cysteine-dependent protease, plays an essential role in PCD. To reveal the characteristics of the metacaspase (MC) gene family and the relationship between metacaspases and the seedless trait, we identified the 6 V. vinifera metacaspases VvMC1-VvMC6, from the grape genome, using BLASTN against the 9 known Arabidopsis metacaspases. We also obtained full-length cDNAs by RT-PCR. Each of the 6 grape metacaspases contains small (p10-like) and a large (p20-like) conserved structural domains. Phylogenetic analysis of 6 grape and 9 Arabidopsis metacaspases showed that all metacaspases could be grouped into two classes: Type I and Type II. Each phylogenetic branch shares a similar exon/intron structure. Furthermore, the putative promoters of the grape metacaspases contained cis-elements that are involved in grape endosperm development. Moreover, expression analysis of metacaspases using real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that VvMC1 and VvMC2 were able to be detected in any tissue, and VvMC3, VvMC4, VvMC5 and VvMC6 exhibited tissue-specific expression. Lastly, in cv. Thompson seedless grapes VvMC1, VvMC3, and VvMC4 were significantly up-regulated at the 35 DAF during ovule development, roughly same stage as endosperm abortion. In addition, the expression trend of VvMC2 and VvMC5 was similar between cv. Pinot Noir and cv. Thompson grape ovule development and that of VvMC6 was sustained in a relatively low level except the expression of cv. Pinot Noir significantly up-regulated in 25 DAF. Our data provided new insights into PCD by identifying the grape metacaspase gene family and provide a useful reference for further functional analysis of metacaspases in grape. © 2013.

  19. Transgenic plants from shoot apical meristems of Vitis vinifera L. "Thompson Seedless" via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, M; Li, Z T; Dhekney, S A; Gray, D J

    2007-12-01

    Shoot apical meristem explants of Vitis vinifera "Thompson Seedless" were used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. It was determined that the meristems had to be subjected to a dark growth phase then wounded to obtain transgenic plants. Morphological and histological studies illustrated the role of wounding to expose apical meristem cells for transformation. A bifunctional egfp/nptII fusion gene was used to select kanamycin resistant plants that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP). Kanamycin at a concentration of 16 mg L(-1) in selection medium resulted in recovery of non-chimeric transgenic plants that uniformly expressed GFP, whereas 8 mg L(-1) kanamycin allowed non-transgenic and/or chimeric plants to develop. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of transgenes and their stable integration into the genome of regenerated plants. Up to 1% of shoot tips produced stable transgenic cultures within 6 weeks of treatment, resulting in a total of 18 independent lines.

  20. Seedless velocimetry at 100  kHz with picosecond-laser electronic-excitation tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Mance, Jason G; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Felver, Josef J; Stauffer, Hans U; Yi, Tongxun; Danehy, Paul M; Roy, Sukesh

    2017-01-15

    Picosecond-laser electronic-excitation tagging (PLEET), a seedless picosecond-laser-based velocimetry technique, is demonstrated in non-reactive flows at a repetition rate of 100 kHz with a 1064 nm, 100 ps burst-mode laser. The fluorescence lifetime of the PLEET signal was measured in nitrogen, and the laser heating effects were analyzed. PLEET experiments with a free jet of nitrogen show the ability to measure multi-point flow velocity fluctuations at a 100 kHz detection rate or higher. Both spectral and dynamic mode decomposition analyses of velocity on a Ma=0.8 free jet show two dominant Strouhal numbers around 0.24 and 0.48, respectively, well within the shear-layer flapping frequencies of the free jets. This technique increases the laser-tagging repetition rate for velocimetry to hundreds of kilohertz. PLEET is suitable for subsonic through supersonic laminar- and turbulent-flow velocity measurements.

  1. Optimization of antireflective zinc oxide nanorod arrays on seedless substrate for bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Choi, Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Alford, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    We report on the enhanced performance of hybrid photovoltaic devices consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene), (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays grown on seedless indium tin oxide (ITO) glass in aqueous zinc chloride solution. Introduction of optimized-length ZnO nanorod arrays between hole injection and ITO layers increased photocurrent density from 8.0 to 8.8 mA/cm2 and fill factor from 42% to 47%. The absence of a seed layer significantly reduced incident light reflection on the ITO glass and resulted in an overall 10% increase in photocurrent. A photovoltaic device based on a ZnO nanostructure length of 100 nm exhibited a maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.4%, 15% higher than that of an equivalent device without ZnO nanorods.

  2. Efeitos do CPPU e do ácido giberélico nas características dos cachos da uva de mesa 'Centennial Seedless' Effects of CPPU and gibberellic acid on the clusters characteristics of 'Centennial Seedless' table grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo José Paioli Pires

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em vinhedo comercial, na região de Jundiaí-SP, com o objetivo de se estudar os efeitos do CPPU e do AG3 nas características dos cachos e dos bagos de uvas 'Centennial Seedless'. No primeiro experimento, utilizou-se de CPPU a 0; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5mg.L-1. No segundo ensaio, empregou-se AG3 nas doses de 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 mg.L-1. Tanto o CPPU como o AG3 aumentaram a massa e largura dos cachos; a massa, comprimento e largura dos bagos, e o diâmetro dos pedicelos. O aumento do comprimento dos cachos só foi significativo pela aplicação de AG3. Ambos os reguladores de crescimento reduziram o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto. Aplicações de CPPU e AG3 a 5 mg.L-1 proporcionaram aumento da massa dos bagos em 59,0 e 78,7%, respectivamente, e formação de cachos soltos, com pedicelos mais flexíveis. Doses superiores levaram à formação de cachos muito grandes, excessivamente compactos, com pedicelos rijos e muito engrossados e, portanto, de valor comercial reduzido.Two trials were conducted in a commercial vineyard, in the region of Jundiaí-SP, with the objective of studying the effects of CPPU and GA3 on the clusters and berries characteristics of 'Centennial Seedless' table grape. In the first experiment, it was used CPPU at 0; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5; 15.0 and 17.5mg.L-1. In a second trial, GA3 was used at the doses of: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30mg.L-1. Both, CPPU and GA3 increased the clusters weight and width; the berries weight, length and width; and the pedicel diameter. The increase in cluster length was significant only for GA3 applications. Both growth regulators decreased the total soluble solids content. Applications of CPPU and GA3 at 5mg.L-1, provided increases in berries weight in 59.0 and 78.7%, respectively, and formation of untied clusters, with flexible pedicels. Higher doses led to formation of clusters too much large, excessively compact, with pedicels very

  3. Ovarian reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    2005-01-01

    The tendency to delay childbirth has increased the importance of ovarian reserve as a determinant of infertility treatment outcome. In the context of assisted reproduction technology, effective strategies to overcome the impact of ovarian aging and diminished ovarian reserve on pregnancy chances rem

  4. Rapid Seedless Synthesis of Gold Nanoplates with Microscaled Edge Length in a High Yield and Their Application in SERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Chen; Pengyu Xu; Yue Li; Junfei Xue; Song Han; Weihui Ou; Li Li; Weihai Ni

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile and reproducible approach toward rapid seedless synthesis of single crystalline gold nano-plates with edge length on the order of microns. The reaction is carried out by reducing gold ions with ascorbic acid in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Reaction temperature and molar ratio of CTAB/Au are critical for the formation of gold nanoplates in a high yield, which are, respectively, optimized to be 85 °C and 6. The highest yield that can be achieved is 60%at the optimized condition. The synthesis to achieve the microscaled gold nanoplates can be finished in less than 1 h under proper reaction conditions. Therefore, the reported synthesis approach is a time-and cost-effective one. The gold nanoplates were further employed as the surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates and investigated individually. Interestingly, only those adsorbed with gold nanoparticles exhibit pronounced Raman signals of probe molecules, where a maximum enhancement factor of 1.7 × 107 was obtained. The obtained Raman enhancement can be ascribed to the plasmon coupling between the gold nanoplate and the nanoparticle adsorbed onto it.

  5. Through-glass copper via using the glass reflow and seedless electroplating processes for wafer-level RF MEMS packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yong; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Seung-Ki; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel method for the fabrication of void-free copper-filled through-glass-vias (TGVs), and their application to the wafer-level radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) packaging scheme. By using the glass reflow process with a patterned silicon mold, a vertical TGV with smooth sidewall and fine pitch could be achieved. Bottom-up void-free filling of the TGV is successfully demonstrated through the seedless copper electroplating process. In addition, the proposed process allows wafer-level packaging with glass cap encapsulation using the anodic bonding process, since the reflowed glass interposer is only formed in the device area surrounded with silicon substrate. A simple coplanar waveguide (CPW) line was employed as the packaged device to evaluate the electrical characteristics and thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure. The fabricated packaging structure showed a low insertion loss of 0.116 dB and a high return loss of 35.537 dB at 20 GHz, which were measured through the whole electrical path, including the CPW line, TGVs and contact pads. An insertion loss lower than 0.1 dB and a return loss higher than 30 dB could be achieved at frequencies of up to 15 GHz, and the resistance of the single copper via was measured to be 36 mΩ. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure was also verified through thermal shock and pressure cooker test.

  6. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices

    OpenAIRE

    Workneh, T. S.; Zinash, A.; Woldetsadik, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. ...

  7. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a raw material in the production of starch, tapioca and snack foods ... The material was dried for 8 hours daily after which it was kept indoors overnight. The surface with .... statistical package (MS Office, 2007). .... preservation and marketing.

  8. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-06-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications.

  9. Comportamento de cultivares de uva sem sementes no submédio São Francisco Behavior of grape seedless varieties in the valley of São Francisco River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de introduzir, avaliar e selecionar variedades de uva sem sementes, adaptadas às condições tropicais semi-áridas e oferecer novas alternativas aos viticultores do Vale do São Francisco, implantou-se, em 1994, uma coleção com dezenove variedades de uvas sem sementes no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, da Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina - PE. Foram avaliadas treze variedades ao longo dos anos de 1997 e 1998, correspondendo a cinco ciclos de produção. As variedades utilizadas foram Vênus, Arizul, Beauty Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Marroo Seedless, Canner, CG 39915, Pasiga, Saturn, Emperatriz, A1581, Paulistinha e Loose Perlette, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572 ('Campinas'. Foram avaliados aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento vegetativo e produtivo das plantas e características e composição química dos frutos. Todas as variedades apresentaram cachos com tamanho pequeno. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless destacaram-se em relação ao diâmetro de bagas, apresentando, respectivamente, 17,83 e 18,26 mm, sem a necessidade de aplicação de reguladores de crescimento. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi elevado na maioria das variedades, enquanto a acidez total titulável foi reduzida, resultando em relações SST/ATT satisfatórias. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless foram as mais produtivas, com produtividades anuais de 24 t/ha e 20 t/ha, respectivamente.The present work aimed at evaluating and selecting seeddless grape varieties adapted to the semi-arid tropical conditions of the São Francisco River Valley, Northeastern - Brazil. The experiment was carried out in an experimental vineyard which belongs to Embrapa Semi-Árid, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil during five growing seasons in 1997 and 1998. The varieties tested were: Vênus, Arizul, Beauty Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Marroo Seedless, Canner, CG 39915, Pasiga, Saturn, Emperatriz, A1581, Paulistinha and Loose Perlette, grafted

  10. Otimização da desidratação osmótica de uva Crimson Seedless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    Full Text Available A uva Crimson Seedless (Vitis vinifera L. é uma das mais importantes variedades sem sementes, devido ao seu atraente cacho médio, e grandes bagas rosadas escuras. Apresenta característica sensorial excelente devido à sua textura firme e crocante, sabor que varia do doce ao neutro, e coloração uniforme. A desidratação osmótica apresenta-se como boa alternativa para reduzir a atividade de água desta uva, permitindo o seu armazenamento por períodos longos, melhorando a sua estabilidade e qualidade. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo relacionar as influências de diferentes parâmetros para um eficiente processo de desidratação osmótica deste fruto, com a finalidade de reduzir as perdas pós-colheita e oferecer novas alternativas para o produtor. Para otimizar a desidratação osmótica foi realizado um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: temperatura (30 a 50 ºC, tempo (1 a 4 horas e concentração (40 a 50 ºBrix, sendo constante o branqueamento (30 segundos e perfurações (8 perfurações cm-2; as variáveis dependentes foram PU (Perda de Umidade, IS (Incorporação de Sólidos e IED (Índice de Eficiência de Desidratação. As melhores condições para a desidratação osmótica utilizando o IED como parâmetro foi a aplicação de branqueamento, solução osmótica com 42 ºBrix, tempo de imersão de 1,6 horas e temperatura de 46 ºC. Os modelos de superfície de resposta obtidos foram preditivos para PU e IS, exceto para o IED. O produto selecionado ajustou melhor a equação de Page (R² = 0,995.

  11. Effect of postharvest pretreatments on organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" table grapes assigned to long term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admane, Naouel; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Di Gennaro, Domenico; Genovese, Francesco; Altieri, Giuseppe; Carlo Di Renzo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Every year a significant amount of organic table grapes is lost during postharvest mainly due to the incidence of decay, stem browning and fast alteration of the taste and aroma. The demand for this fresh product with immaculate appearance and high sensory quality in terms of flavor, is a hard challenge considering the difficulties to conserve them, with alternative safe treatments to the sulphur dioxide (SO2) which is not allowed in organic product. The aim of this experiment was to maintain the quality of organic table grapes and extend their shelf-life for medium and long term, in order to reach new distant promising markets, by using safe methods. The effectiveness of the combination of pretreatment with Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) compounds, physical means and storage under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were performed by using detached organic table grape berries as alternatives to usual industrial SO2 application. The detached organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" berries were pretreated by: i) dipping in ethanol and potassium bicarbonate; ii) massive CO2 concentrations; iii) ozone (O3) fumigation; whereas, untreated berries were included in the trial as control. Moreover, all the samples were packed in thermo-sealed ALPAK bags with MAP of 2% O2:5% CO2:93% N2 and stored at 0°C for 45 days. Initially and after 15, 30 and 45 days of storage, weight loss, decay incidence, berry/skin firmness, pedicel detachment force, skin color parameters, SSC, pH, titratable acidity and sensory evaluation scores, were monitored. After 45 days of storage, the weight loss was higher in the sample pretreated with massive CO2 concentration at 70 - 90 % and the control. The samples pretreated with CO2 at 70% and O3 at 20 ppm maintained the strength of the berry linked to its pedicel, also the berry and skin firmness were statistically higher in samples pretreated with CO2 at 90 - 70% and O3 at 20 ppm in comparison with the control. The skin color parameters and

  12. Optimization of the Production Techniques of Seedless Rosa sterilis Fruit Wine%无籽刺梨果酒酿制工艺优化初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红早; 张玉武; 刘盈盈; 孙超; 任春光

    2015-01-01

    为有效避免"果贱伤农"现象发生,促进无籽刺梨产业健康发展,开展无籽刺梨果酒酿制工艺优化研究,分别进行了全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵、无籽刺梨汁渣混合发酵等3个处理,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)对乙醇、丙三醇、乙酸、乳酸、丁二酸、柠檬酸等次生代谢产物进行了定量测定,经感官指标对3个处理的发酵产品进行了综合分析.结果表明,除乙醇产量外,无籽刺梨汁渣混合发酵,丙三醇(4.75 g/L)、乙酸(0.52 g/L)、乳酸(0.18 g/L)、丁二酸(0.55 g/L)、柠檬酸(2.06 g/L)含量均高于全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵,说明采用汁渣混合发酵,其产品品质在理化性质上明显优于全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵.无籽刺梨汁渣混合发酵的无籽刺梨果酒经陈酿后,具有和谐的无籽刺梨果香,陈酿的橡木香,醇和的酒香,幽雅浓郁;口味醇和、甘洌、沁润、细腻、丰满、绵柔,在感官上优于全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵等处理.说明汁渣混合发酵能有效浸出无籽刺梨有效成分,从而达到最佳发酵效果,对提高产品品质具有重要意义.%In order to avoid the phenomenon of"low-priced fruits hurts the farmers"and to promote sound development of seedless Rosa steril-is industry, the technical optimization of seedless Rosa sterilis fruit wine was carried out in this study. Three treatment modes including whole fruit fermentation, juice fermentation, and mixed fermentation of juice and residue were adopted respectively. HPLC was applied for quantita-tive measurement of secondary metabolites including ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, etc. And the sensory indexes of the products by different treatment mode were analyzed. The results showed that, mixed fermentation of juice and residue had higher secondary metabolites content except ethanol yield ( glycerol:4.75 g/L, acetic acid:0.52 g/L, lactic acid:0.18 g

  13. The annealing effects on the micro-structure and properties of RuMoC films as seedless barrier for advanced Cu metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Jianxiong; Liu, Bo, E-mail: liubo2009@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: gh.jiao@siat.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Jiao, Guohua, E-mail: liubo2009@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: gh.jiao@siat.ac.cn; Lu, Yuanfu; Dong, Yuming [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Qiran [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS-Université Paris Sud UMR 8622, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-09-07

    100 nm thick RuMoC films and 5 nm thick RuMoC films with Cu capping have been deposited on Si(111) by magnetron co-sputtering with Ru and MoC confocal targets. The samples were subsequently annealed at temperatures ranging from 450 to 650 °C in vacuum at a pressure of 3 × 10{sup −4} Pa to study the annealing effects on the microstructures and properties of RuMoC films for advanced seedless Cu metallization applications. The sheet resistances, residual oxygen contents, and microstructures of the RuMoC films have close correlation with the doping contents of Mo and C, which can be easily controlled by the deposition power ratio of MoC versus Ru targets (DPR). When DPR was 0.5, amorphous RuMoC film (marked as RuMoC II) with low sheet resistances and residual oxygen contents was obtained. The fundamental relationship between the annealing temperatures with the microstructures and properties of the RuMoC films was investigated, and a critical temperature point was revealed at about 550 °C where the components and microstructures of the RuMoC II films changed obviously. Results indicated that below 550 °C, the RuMoC II films remained amorphous due to the well-preserved C-Ru and C-Mo bonds. However, above 550 °C, the microstructures of RuMoC II films transformed from amorphous to nano-composite structure due to the breakage of Ru-C bonds, while the supersaturated solid solution MoC segregated out along the grain boundaries of Ru, thus hindering the diffusion of Cu and O atoms. This is the main mechanism of the excellent thermal stability of the RuMoC films after annealing at high temperatures. The results indicated great prospects of amorphous RuMoC films in advanced seedless Cu metallization applications.

  14. A poliploidia artificial na obtenção de melancia sem sementes Artificial polyploidy in the production of seedless watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixier M. Medina

    1958-01-01

    tetraplóides.Watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. are in general provided with numerous seeds: large in the "American" varieties and small in the "Japanese" varieties. Triploids (2n=33 of the "Japanese" varieties are already under cultivation by American farmers who import the hybrid seeds from Japan and seedless fruits are being produced in ever increasing amounts. In Brazil the Japanese diploid (2n=22 varieties are only of recent introduction; among the American varieties (2n=22, "Keckley Sweet" is one of the best known and preferred for its good taste. For the obtention of seedless watermelons it seemed advisable to start the work with such a variety because of its commercial significance. The first step was the obtention of tetraploids (2n=44; the adopted method consisted in the treatment of germinating seeds in an aqueous colchicine solution; best results were achieved using an 0.1% solution for 8 to 12 hours. The tetraploids are of more stunted growth, with larger leaves and flowers; the fruits are smaller, round and few-seeded. In attempting to cross tetraploids with diploids, successfull results were obtained when ♀ 4n flowers were pollinated with pollen from 2n plants. Triploid (2n=33 plants, obtained from hybrid seeds, were completely male sterile but set fruits when pollinated with pollen from 2n plants. The triploid plants are somewhat intermediate between di- and tetraploids as to the size of leaves and growth habit; the fruits are less elongated than in the diploids and not round as in the tetraploids. Some fruits are seedless, i.e. with aborted seeds that can be eaten together with the pulp; others show from few to many empty seeds which are flacid, but not quite fit to be eaten. Comparative studies have been made of pollen, stomata and seeds of 2n, 3n and 4n plants. Studies are in progress to solve some problems encountered in the mass production and germination of tetraploid and triploid seed; up to now they are handicaps to the commercial

  15. Preparation of ultra long α-MnO2 and Ag@MnO2 nanoparticles by seedless approach and their photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Salma Ahmed; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Al-Arjan, Wafa Shamsan; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad; Khan, Zaheer

    2017-06-01

    The reaction between aqueous MnO4-, cysteine, and Ag + ions constitutes a new seedless arrangement for the production of α-MnO2 and Ag@MnO2 bimetallic nanocomposites at room temperature. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurement reveals that presence of Ag+ ions in an aqueous solution of MnO4- and cysteine changes the entire shape of the α-MnO2 visible spectrum, and leads to a formation of broad band at ca. 425 nm. Thus-prepared nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. For the degradation of methyl orange and congo red, nanomaterials were used as the photocatalyst. The results show almost complete degradation (ca. 99%) of congo red in ca. 25 min. The α-MnO2 nanorods possess high photo degradation efficiency toward congo red in comparison to methyl orange.

  16. RUN1 and REN1 Pyramiding in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Crimson Seedless) Displays an Improved Defense Response Leading to Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, Mario; Schlechter, Rudolf O; Armijo, Grace; Solano, Esteban; Serrano, Carolina; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Zúñiga, Gustavo E; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera 'Dzhandzhal Kara,' respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv. 'Crimson Seedless.' We developed RUN1REN1 resistant genotypes through conventional breeding and identified them by marker assisted selection. The characterization of defense response showed a highly effective defense mechanism against powdery mildew in these plants. Our results reveal that RUN1REN1 grapevine plants display a robust defense response against E. necator, leading to unsuccessful fungal establishment with low penetration rate and poor hypha development. This resistance mechanism includes reactive oxygen species production, callose accumulation, programmed cell death induction and mainly VvSTS36 and VvPEN1 gene activation. RUN1REN1 plants have a great potential as new table grape cultivars with durable complete resistance to E. necator, and are valuable germplasm to be included in grape breeding programs to continue pyramiding with other sources of resistance to grapevine diseases.

  17. Effect of different covering materials used during the pre-harvest stage on the quality and storage life of 'Sultana Seedless' grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Sen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Covering the grapevine rows to delay the maturity and harvest date became widely practiced in 'Sultana Seedless' vineyards. The research work was conducted to test different cover materials (polypropylene cross-stitch, life pack, mogul and transparent polyethylene in respect to their effects on grape quality and storability. Harvest was delayed for one month in covered plots. Harvested grapes were packed and transferred to storage rooms after pre-cooling. During packing, the grape clusters were sealed in PE bags with sulphur dioxide pads. The grapes were stored for 90 days in the first year and 120 days in the second year, at -0.5ºC and 90% RH. All the grape clusters were healthy and of marketable quality after 90 days of storage period. In the first year, at the end of the storage, only those grapes harvested from the rows covered with polypropylene cross-stitch showed fungal growth. The sensory quality scores revealed a lower level of preference after 120 days of storage. The effects of the covering materials tested were similar regarding grape quality and storage performance except the transparent polyethylene that damaged the grapevine leaves.

  18. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  19. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  20. 有机无机复混肥对无核白葡萄产量和果实品质的影响%Effect of Organic -inorganic Compound Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality of Thomson Seedless Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米热吉汗·阿不都热木; 齐曼·尤努斯; 玉山·库尔班; 艾克拜尔·伊拉洪; 谭建川

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study effects of different proportions organic - inorganic compound fertilizer on yield and quality of Turpan Thompson seedless grape, to provide theoretical and technical basis for scientific fertilization on Thompson seedless grape in this area. [Method] The 11 -years old Thompson Seedless grape was used as test materials. Four factors and 16 treatments were set in this experiment, and yield and several quality indexes were measured to determine the best formula of organic - inorganic compound fertilizer. [ Result ] After applying the different proportions of organic - inorganic compound fertilizer, the yield of 8 - 11 mus of proceed treatment was higher than that of the field by other treatments, among which the yields by treatment 10 and 11 were significantly higher than others, and the yields by treatment 1 and 16 were relatively lower; Treatments 9-12 have remarkable improvement effects on quality of Thompson seedless grapes; among them treatments 10 and 11 were the best formulas. After using fertilizer treatments 10 and 11, the 100 - grain weight, grain length and width, Vc content, soluble sugar and sugar - acid ratio of Thompson seedless grape were significantly higher than those by other formulations, and titration acid content was significantly lower than that by other treatments, while the hardness stayed at a high level. [ Conclusion]The organic - inorganiccompound fertilizer formulations 10 and 11 could significantly increase yield and quality of Thompson seedless grape, which have more popularization value in the area.%[目的]研究不同配比的有机无机复混肥对吐鲁番无核白葡萄产量、品质的影响,为该地区无核白葡萄的科学施肥提供理论技术依据.[方法]材料为11年生的无核白葡萄,实验设4个因素,16个处理,测定产量和几项品质指标,确定效果最佳的有机无机复混肥配方.[结果]施用不同配比的有机无机复混肥时,处理8~11的单产

  1. An Effective Method for Extracting Total RNA from Young Embryo of Seedless Litchi%一种有效提取无核荔枝幼胚总RNA的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴地; 郑学勤

    2008-01-01

    A total RNA extraction method for young embryo of seedless litchi was introduced.CRAB,Phenol(saturated with water),chloroform,Guanidine isothiecyanate were used as main extraction reagents.Polyphenolic compounds were removed effectively by added PVP into the extraction buffer solution.RNA was purified intensively by phenol,chloroform extraction,and ethanol deposition after deposited by LiCl.Both the results of formaldehyde denatured agarose gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometer analysis showed high integrity and purity of RNA.So the quality of extracted RNA could meet the demand of most molecular biology experiments that require higher quality RNA.

  2. 响应面法优化无核白葡萄酒澄清工艺的研究%Optimization of the Clarification of Seedless White Grape Wine by Response Surface Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅; 雷静; 郭峰; 吴斌; 韩琛

    2016-01-01

    澄清度是衡量葡萄酒外观质量的重要指标。本实验以无核白葡萄酒作为研究对象,研究不同澄清剂(皂土、果胶酶、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮)、澄清温度、澄清时间对无核白葡萄酒澄清效果的影响,采用响应曲面Box-Behnken设计方法,建立无核白葡萄酒透光率与澄清剂添加量、澄清温度、澄清时间之间的回归模型,确定最佳澄清条件。研究结果表明,皂土澄清效果最佳,最佳的澄清条件为:皂土添加量0.41 g/L、澄清温度3.8℃、澄清时间7.85 h。在此条件下,无核白葡萄酒透光率为98.70%。本研究为当地无核白葡萄酒贮藏研究提供理论支持。%Clarity is an important index in the evaluation of wine appearance. In this experiment, seedless white grape wine was used as the re-search object, and the effects of different clarifying agents (bentonite, pectinase, and polyvinylpyrrolidone), clarifying temperature and clarify-ing time on the clarification of seedless white grape wine were explored. The regression model of wine light transmittance and the adding levels of clarifying agents, clarifying temperature, and clarifying time was set up using response surface Box-Behnken design. Furthermore, the opti-mum clarifying conditions were determined as follows:the adding level of bentonite was 0.41 g/L, clarifying temperature was at 3.8℃, and clarifying time was 7.85 min. Under these conditions, the actual light transmittance of seedless white grape wine was 98.70%. This study pro-vided theoretical support for the research on the storage of local seedless white grape wine.

  3. Estimation of water requirements and Kc values of 'Thompson Seedless' table grapes grown in the overhead trellis system, using the Eddy covariance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Villagra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop evapotranspiration (ETc is essential for irrigation scheduling. The amount of water consumed can be estimated by multiplying the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 by a crop coefficient (Kc; the value of Kc is usually obtained from FAO Paper nr 56. In table grapes (Vitis vinifera L., Kc are obtained from experiments in vines trained on trellis systems; however in Chile, the most used is the overhead trellis system (parronal. Therefore, the objective was to determine water requirements and Kc values of a table grape orchard cv. Thompson Seedless trained on an overhead trellis system in Calle Larga (32°52'40" S, 70°37'45" W, 795 m a.s.l., Aconcagua Valley, Chile, using the Eddy covariance method. During the 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons, the instruments required for ET0 and ETc measurement were installed on a 4 m tower above the soil (2 m above vine canopy. The ET0 was estimated according to the FAO Penman-Monteith equation and ETc by the Eddy covariance method. The Kc was obtained by ratio between ETc and ET0. The maximum ETc was 7 mm d-1 and total water consumption was 810 mm. The season maximum Kc value of 1.2 was obtained near harvest during the first season, and 20 d before veraison in the second season. The Kc increased linearly with the percentage of intercepted solar radiation (IRS by the vine canopy at noon, suggesting that an equation to convert the IRS to Kc is more useful than Kc tabulated according to phenology. The equation obtained in this experiment was Kc = 0.012 IRS - 0.1029, R² = 0.85.

  4. 花皮无籽西瓜新品种花花牛的选育%A New Triploid Seedless Watermelon Variety "Huahuaniu"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪敏; 朱佩; 马长江

    2013-01-01

    Seedless watermelon "Huahuaniu" is a main season hybrid MD05-8 ?MD03-6 that meets watermelon production and market demand. The whole growth period is 106 d and fruit development 35 d. The fruit is round with deep green skin and dark green narrow stripes. The central soluble solids content is 10.6%-11.83%. The average fruit weight is 4.5 kg. Yield on 667 m2 is about 2 510 kg, highest yield up to 3 500 kg per 667 m2. Field trials showed that the plants are easy to set fruit, slightly susceptible to anthracnose, and tolerant to virus disease and Fusarium wilt. This variety is suitable for planting in North, Northeast, Northwest China.%花花牛无籽西瓜是根据西瓜生产和市场需求,用MD03-6×MD05-8杂交选育而成的中熟花皮无籽西瓜新品种.全生育期106 d,果实发育期35 d,圆形果,果皮灰绿覆墨绿色锯齿条带,条纹清晰;瓜瓤红色,质脆汁多,无空心;品质优,中心可溶性固形物含量10.6%~11.83%.平均单果质量4.5 kg,平均667 m2产量2 510.0 kg,高产地块在3 500 kg以上.田间表现植株易坐果,轻感炭疽病,较耐病毒病、枯萎病.适宜我国华北、东北、西北等广大瓜区种植.

  5. Overexpression of a stress-responsive U-box protein gene VaPUB affects the accumulation of resistance related proteins in Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Many U-box proteins have been identified and characterized as important factors against environmental stresses such as chilling, heat, salinity and pathogen attack in plant. Our previous research reported the cloning of a novel U-box protein gene VaPUB from Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshanyi' grape and suggested a function of it in related to cold stress in the model plant Arabidopsis system. In this study, the role of VaPUB in response to biotic and abiotic stress was further analyzed in the homologous grapevine system by studying the transcript regulation and the protein accumulation in VaPUB transgenic vines. The expression analysis assay shown that VaPUB was significantly up-regulated 6 h after cold treatment and as early as 2 h post inoculation with Plasmopara viticola, a pathogen causing downy mildew disease in grapevine. Over-expressing VaPUB in V. Vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' affected the microstructure of leaves. The proteome assay shown that the accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein PR10 and many proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism, oxidation reaction and protein metabolism were significantly altered in transgenic vines. In comparison with wild type plants, the expression level of PR10 family genes was significantly decreased in VaPUB transgenic vines under P. viticola treatment or cold stress. Results from this study showed that the U-box protein gene PUB quickly responded to both biotic stress and abiotic stress and significantly influenced the accumulation of resistance related proteins in grapevine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  7. Conservação de uvas "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália", submetidas a diferentes tipos de embalagens e dióxido de enxofre (SO2 Conservation of grapes "Crimson Seedless" and "Italia", submitted to different types of packings and sulfur dioxide (SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se o efeito de diferentes tipos de embalagens e a ação do dióxido de enxofre (SO2 na conservação pós-colheita de uvas finas de mesa var. "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália". Os frutos, colhidos em propriedade agrícola situada no município de Boa Vista-RR (Lat. 2º 50' 06" N e Long. 60º 40' 28" W, apresentavam, no momento da colheita, sólidos solúveis (SS médios de 16,50 e 14,80°Brix, para as variedades "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália", respectivamente. Antes da confecção dos tratamentos, os cachos foram higienizados em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl a 100 mg.L-1, previamente acidificada, por dez minutos. Utilizaram-se, para a atmosfera modificada passiva, sacolas de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, sem perfuração, com 0,010; 0,015 e 0,020mm de espessura,e acondicionadas em embalagens secundárias de papelão (4kg e de madeira (7,5kg. Para a geração do SO2, foram utilizados papéis Kraft de liberação rápida, com 3 e 8g de metabissulfito de sódio (Na2S2O5. Após a confecção dos tratamentos, os frutos foram armazenados em câmara frigorífica a 4 ± 1°C e 95 ± 3% de umidade relativa (U.R.. As avaliações foram realizadas no momento da colheita e, 7; 21; 35; 42 e 56 dias de armazenamento refrigerado, quanto à porcentagem de perda de massa fresca, taxa de desgrana e de bagas deterioradas, qualidade do engaço e teor de SS dos frutos. Após oito semanas, foi realizado teste de preferência para as duas variedades. Verificou-se, em ambas as variedades, que as uvas submetidas à ação do gerador de SO2 , contendo 3g de metabissulfito de sódio e acondicionamento em embalagens de PEBD de 0,020mm de espessura, independentemente do tipo de embalagem secundária, apresentaram a menor perda de massa fresca, menor taxa de desgrana e de bagas deterioradas, e melhor qualidade do engaço. Os resultados da análise sensorial concordaram com os resultados das análises físico-químicas. Não foram detectadas

  8. ‘奥迪亚’葡萄杂交后代胚挽救及无核性状分子鉴定%Embryo rescue and seedlessness molecular identification of hybrid off- springs of ‘Otilia' grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程和禾; 吴雅琴; 吴永杰; 李玉生; 陈龙; 周锡明; 赵艳华

    2012-01-01

    【目的】为了研究影响杂交后代胚挽救萌发率的主要因素,并对其无核性状进行早期鉴定,【方法】以无核、抗病葡萄品种‘奥迪亚’为母本,‘玫瑰香’、‘摩尔多瓦’和‘红地球’3个主栽品种为父本进行杂交,通过L9(3^3)正交试验,建立简单高效的胚挽救体系,并用分子标记对杂交苗无核性状进行鉴定。【结果】结果表明,影响胚挽救萌发率的最关键因素为接种时期,其次为培养基种类和NAA浓度;以‘奥迪亚’为母本的杂交胚其适宜接种程序为授粉后49~56d剥取胚珠,接种在B5或NN69培养基上充分发育70d,再转入1/2B5培养基上萌芽,‘奥迪亚’ב摩尔多瓦’杂交胚通过此程序萌发率达到了50.48%;经分子标记鉴定,各组合后代的无核株系均超过50%。【结论】利用胚挽救方法以‘奥迪亚’为杂交母本可高效创新葡萄无核种质。%[Objective]What was the main factor which influenced the embryo germination rate and whether the hybrid off-springs were seedless or not were studied in this test. [Method ]Three hybrid combi- nations were set up which were ‘Otilia' בMuscat Hamburg', ‘ Otilia' בMoldova' and ‘Otilia' × ‘Red Globe', and the female parent ‘Otilia' was seedless and disease-resistant. L9 (33) orthogonal test were designed to establish simple and efficient embryo rescue progress, and using molecular marker to identify whether the hybrid off-springs were seedless or not. [Result] The results were as follows: the most important factor that influenced the embryo germination rate was inoculation period, which is followed by the medium type and NAA concentration; the suitable embryo rescue progress for hybrid embryos, whose female parents was Otilia, was that the embryos were first inoculated at 49-56 DAF (days after fertiliza- tion), and after developed on the B5 or NN69 medium for 70 d

  9. Micropropagation of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Komal; Sharma, R; Singh, P K; Singh, Govind

    2013-01-01

    A micropropagation protocol was developed for multiplication of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) using nodal explants. The maximum shoot regeneration was observed on low level of BAP (0.1 mg l(-1)) or kinetin (0.5 mg l(-1)). BA was recorded to be better than kinetin in terms of number of days taken to bud break. The maximum number of shoots per explant was observed on 0.1 mg l(-1) BA and 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin. Shoot proliferation decreased with increasing concentration of BA alone, but in case of a combination of BA and NAA (0.1 mg l(-1) each), it increased with increasing concentration of BA up to 10.0 mg l(-1). None of the treatments including BA or kinetin alone or BA in combination with NAA produced significantly more shoots for commercial exploitation. In the case of a combination of BA + kinetin + IBA, the maximum (5.5 shoots per explants) proliferation was observed on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) BA + 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA or 0.25 mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA. Regenerated shoots showed root induction on MS basal medium or on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA. It is concluded that a five-fold increase (1.0 mg l(-1) BA + 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA) in axillary shoot proliferation, while seven-fold increase (0.25 mg/l mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA) during the second cycle of multiplication could be obtained using the two plant growth regulator combinations. PCR amplification with 14 different random primers confirmed no somaclonal variant up to two cycles of shoot multiplication.

  10. Global Reserve Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t GLOBAL RESERVE COOPERATION BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL PAMELA L. MCGAHA United States Army National Guard...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Reserve Cooperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...decade, the United States, its allies, and partner nations have greatly increased their reliance on Reserve Component forces. This global

  11. 76 FR 27921 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increase in Desirable Carryout Used To Compute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increase in Desirable Carryout Used To Compute Trade Demand AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... demand for Natural (sun-dried) Seedless (NS) raisins covered under the Federal marketing order for...

  12. Efeito do ácido giberélico, do bioestimulante crop set e do anelamento na produção e na qualidade da uva 'Thompson Seedless' no Vale do São Francisco Effect of gibberellic acid, girdling and the biostimulant crop set on yield and quality of bunches in grapes cv. Thompson Seedless in the São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricía Coelho de Souza Leão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do ácido giberélico, do bioestimulante Crop Set e do anelamento sobre o aumento do tamanho de bagas e a produtividade da uva 'Thompson Seedless' no Vale do São Francisco. O experimento foi conduzido durante dois ciclos de produção (2001 e 2002, no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, pertencente à Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina-PE. Utilizou-se do delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam à aplicação de ácido giberélico em cinco fases de desenvolvimento da videira, nas doses de 10 + 15 + 15 +50 + 50 mg.L-1, do bioestimulante Crop Set em duas doses de 0,1 e 0,2% e do anelamento no caule, isolados e combinados entre si. Os tratamentos combinados de anelamento + ácido giberélico e anelamento + ácido giberélico + Crop Set destacaram-se como aqueles que promoveram os maiores peso e tamanho de cachos e de bagas, com diferenças significativas em relação à testemunha. Entretanto, o anelamento não cicatrizou completamente, causando a morte de plantas, recomendando-se cautela na sua realização. Apesar de não se observar efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a produtividade, pode-se notar um aumento de 63% para o tratamento anelamento + ácido giberélico em relação ao ciclo de produção de 2001.The present research was aimed to evaluate the effects of the gibberellic acid, the biostimulant Crop-Set and girdling applied during bloom and post-bloom stage to improve yield and berry size of the grape cv. Thompson Seedless in the São Francisco River Valley, Northeast of Brazil. The trial was carried out throughout two growing seasons (2001 and 2002 in the Bebedouro Experimental Station, Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, PE. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates, each replicate consisting of a four-tree plot. The treatments were: gibberellic acid aplied during five

  13. Ácido giberélico no raleio de cachos de uva da cv. superior seedless, enxertada sobre o porta-enxerto 'SO4', cultivada na região do Vale do Submédio São Francisco Giberelic acid in grape cluster thinning, cv. superior seedless, grafted on the rootstock "SO4", cultivated at São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Maurício Viana Gonzaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de concentrações de ácido giberélico no raleio e melhoria da qualidade de cachos de uva da cv. Superior Seedless, foi realizado este experimento em pomar comercial na Fazenda Copa Fruit S.A., município de Petrolina-PE. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (GA3: 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0 mg.L-1, quatro repetições e duas plantas por parcela, e os dados foram interpretados por meio de análise de variância e regressão. As aplicações dos tratamentos foram realizadas em três fases, a primeira antes da antese e a segunda e terceira com aproximadamente25% e 80% de flores abertas, respectivamente, utilizando-se de um volume de calda de 2.000 litros/ha. Os cachos foram colhidos com 60 dias após a poda, e as características avaliadas foram: comprimento médio de cacho, engaço e "ombros"; densidade de bagas; massa da matéria fresca do cacho e bagas; e diâmetro e comprimento de bagas. os melhores resultados para o raleio foram obtidos com a concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1, que proporcionou uma densidade de 5,39 bagas/cm de cacho, contra 8,24 bagas/cm de cacho obtido pela testemunha. Em relação à melhoria da qualidade de cachos e bagas, aplicações de GA3 acima de 2,0 mg.L-1, apesar de mostrarem eficiência no aumento do comprimento de cachos, tiveram efeitos negativos na massa da matéria fresca de cachos e bagas, inviabilizando os cachos comercialmente.With the objective to evaluate the effect of concentrations of gibberellic acid in thinning and in the quality improvement in grape clusters cv. Superior Seedless it was carried out an experiment in a commercial orchard in Copa Fruit S.A. farm, in Petrolina-PE. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with seven treatments (GA3: 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 mg.L-1, four replications and two plants/plot, and the data were interpreted by analysis of variance and regression. The

  14. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...

  15. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  16. Forex Reserve Puzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China faces pressure of preserving the value of its $3 trillion foreign exchange reserves While already under pressure to revalue its currency,the yuan,against the U.S.dollar,China also faces the challenge of stifling vast losses to its foreign exchange reserve,mostly denominated in U.S.dollars.These losses to foreign exchange

  17. Blueprint for Energy Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhenying

    2008-01-01

    @@ The government is drafting a strategic reserve blueprint to ensure energy security-the move coming close on the heels of the construction of four oil reserve bases, according to Ma Fucai, deputy director of the Office of the National Energy Leading Group.

  18. Effects of Bag-controlled Slow Release Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality of Crimson Seedless%袋控缓释肥对克瑞森葡萄产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙占育; 郭春会; 刘小菊

    2011-01-01

    采用4个不同施肥处理,通过田间试验,研究了袋控缓释肥时克瑞森葡萄产量和品质的影响.结果表明:袋控缓释肥可提高克瑞森葡萄的产量和品质,产量达到37 257.4 kg.hm-2,比不施肥提高了51.2%,可溶性固形物含量达22.23%,高于其他处理;袋控缓释肥处理提高了叶片N、P、K含量、叶绿素含量及光合速率.袋控缓释肥简单易行,省工节肥,减少污染,有效解决了葡萄施肥中养分的平衡供应问题,是一种理想的施肥方式.%Field trial was conducted to study the effect of the bag-controlled slow release fertilizer on the yield and quality of Crimson seedless by the four treatments. The results showed that bag-controlled slow release fertilizer could improve the yield and quality of Crimson seedless. The yield was 37 257. 4 kg ? Hm~2 by applying the paper-bag-controlled slow release fertilizer, increased by 51. 2% compared with CK. Sugar content reached to 22. 23%, which was better than other treatments. The contents of N, P, K and chlorophyll and photosynthetic rate of the leaves were relatively increased by the bag-controlled slow release fertilizer. It is an ideal way of fertilization that could simply save labor and fertilizer and reduce pollution, which could effective solve the supply of nutrient balance of grape of fertilization.

  19. Acúmulo e exportação de macronutrientes em melancia sem sementes Accumulation and exportation of macronutrients in seedless watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson C. Grangeiro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar o acúmulo e a exportação de macronutrientes em melancia sem sementes, híbrido Nova, conduziu-se um experimento em Itápolis (SP, de outubro a dezembro de 2001, em um ARGISSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO Distrófico. As amostragens de plantas foram realizadas aos 15; 30; 45; 60 e 70 dias após transplantio (DAT, sendo quantificados o acúmulo de massa seca e de macronutrientes na folha, caule + ramos e frutos. O acúmulo de peso seco foi lento até 30 DAT, intensificando-se a partir deste, alcançando no final do ciclo o total de 545,1 g planta-1, onde as folhas participaram com 30%, caule + ramos com 31% e os frutos com 39%. Até 30 DAT, o acúmulo de nutrientes também foi pequeno, sendo que com a frutificação, houve um forte incremento na quantidade de nutrientes acumulados, com maior demanda no período de 45 a 60 DAT. A ordem decrescente dos macronutrientes acumulados pela cultura foi: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S. Os frutos exportaram 20,3 kg ha-1 de N; 4,0 kg ha-1 de P; 26,6 kg ha-1 de K; 1,4 kg ha-1 de Ca; 1,6 kg ha-1 de Mg e 1,4 kg ha-1 de S.The accumulation and exportation of nutrients of the seedless watermelon hybrid Nova was determined under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in Typic Paleudult soil, in the Itápolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling of the plants was done at 15; 30; 45; 60 and 70 days after transplanting date (DAT and the accumulation of dry mass and macronutrients was quantified in leaves, stem + branches and fruits. The dry mass accumulation was slow until 30 DAT, intensifying with the beginning of the fruit development. At the end of the cycle, the average contribution of leaves, stems + branches and fruits, was respectively of 30; 31 and 39%. The accumulation of nutrients followed the curve of dry mass accumulation. The larger demand for macronutrients occurred from 45 to 60 DAT. The order of nutrients accumulation for the culture was: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S. The fruits exported 20.3 kg

  20. Efeito de reguladores de crescimento em uva apirênica, cv. BRS Clara Effect of growth regulators on the seedless grape cv. BRS Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Costa Nachtigal

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações do ácido giberélico (AG3, do thidiazuron (TDZ e do forchlorfenuron (CPPU no aumento do tamanho dos cachos e das bagas e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de uva sem semente, cv. BRS Clara. As plantas foram conduzidas no sistema de latada, sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572, no espaçamento 2,5 x 2,0m e com irrigação por microaspersão. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Jales-SP. Os reguladores de crescimento foram aplicados via pulverização localizada no cacho, utilizando-se de concentrações de 0 a 4mg.L-1 de CPPU; 0 a 10mg.L-1 de TDZ, e de 0 a 90mg.L-1 de AG3, isolados ou em conjunto. De modo geral, a aplicação dos reguladores de crescimento promove a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos da cv. BRS Clara; o uso do TDZ e do CPPU em conjunto com o AG3 produz um efeito sinérgico, proporcionando melhor resposta do que o uso isolado do AG3; os tratamentos com 60mg.L-1 de AG3; 20mg.L-1 de AG3 + 4mg.L-1 de CPPU, e 10mg.L-1 de AG3 + 5mg.L-1 de TDZ proporcionam os melhores resultados para o aumento do diâmetro das bagas; a aplicação de AG3 antes da floração da cv. BRS Clara provoca abortamento excessivo, reduzindo a qualidade comercial dos cachos; a utilização de concentrações elevadas dos reguladores reduz o teor de sólidos solúveis totais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (AG3, thidiazuron (TDZ and forchlorfenuron (CPPU on the size of bunches and berries and on the total soluble solids content, when applied in different concentrations on the seedless grapes, cv. BRS Clara. The grapevines were grafted on the rootstock IAC 572, trained in the pergola system and, spaced 2.5 x 2.0m and irrigated by micro sprinklers. The experiments were carried out at the Embrapa Grape and Wine Experimental

  1. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  2. Professor reveals darter reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on on reserve population of watercress darter in Pinson, AL to help save the population in Roebuck Spring after a significant fish kill in 2008.

  3. Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Roudebush

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the female ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization and subsequent embryo development and implantation. At birth, the ovary contains a finite number of oocytes available for folliculogenesis. This finite number of available oocytes is termed “the ovarian reserve”. The determination of ovarian reserve is important in the assessment and treatment of infertility. As the ovary ages, the ovarian reserve will decline. Infertility affects approximately 15-20% of reproductive aged couples. The most commonly used biomarker assay to assess ovarian reserve is the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. However, antimüllerian hormone and inhibin-B are other biomarkers of ovarian reserve that are gaining in popularity since they provide direct determination of ovarian status, whereas day 3 FSH is an indirect measurement. This review examines the physical tools and the hormone biomarkers used to evaluate ovarian reserve.

  4. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  5. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a work ..... determine profitability of rice businesses. ..... Government of Republic of Uganda, The ... Organization and the Japanese ... Analysis of incentives.

  6. Comparative evaluation of ensiled cassava peel meal and sun-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedimo Laptop

    Animal Production Research Advances, 6(4): 291 - 295, 2010. ISSN: 0794 - 4721 www.tapasinstitute.org/journals/apra. ©Tapas Institute of Scientific Research and Development, 2010. 291 ..... Cah, Colombia, 1 - 7 August,. 1976. Ottawa ...

  7. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2017-04-01

    Green bean ( Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly ( P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  8. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  9. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2016-08-01

    Green bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly (P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  10. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin residues in fresh and sun-dried meat in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In recent times, food safety and security have generally remained basic human needs, therefore because of the largely unregulated nature of the Nigerian markets, coupled with the poor housing and feeding conditions to which animals are subjected in the abattoirs, a survey for assessing potential mycotoxin exposure through meat consumption was undertaken. Methods Eighty Samples of meat bought randomly from 5 major markets distributed in 5 local government areas of Oyo state , Nige...

  11. Utilization of sun-dried on-farm generated poultry litter as a feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... maize in diets of growing-finishing pigs on weight basis to assess its implication ... and white blood cells (WBC) while the hemoglobin, serum glucose, urea, creatinine and glutamate ... The total bacterial count was consider-.

  12. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  13. Poor ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor ovarian reserve (POR is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women.

  14. Payment of Interest on Reserves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiner, Stuart E

    1985-01-01

    .... These reserve requirements, in conjunction with control over the reserve supply, effectively place an upper limit on deposit creation and thus help the Federal Reserve System control the growth of money...

  15. 无核荔枝半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitor Gene of Seedless Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴地; 刘娜; 李明芳; 郑学勤

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] This study aimed to clone the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene of seedless litchi and analyze the sequence. [ Method] According to the EST sequence of cysteine proteinase inhibitor in constructed SSH subtractive library of seedless litchi abortion, nucleotide sequence of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene was obtained by using RACE technology and analyzed by using bioinformatics software. [ Result] A cysteine protease inhibitor gene was obtained with the sequence of 635 bp containing a 321 bp open reading frame. It was predicted that the encoded protein contained 106 amino acids with conserved domain of cysteine proteinase inhibitor and had relatively high homology with the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene of several species. [ Conclusion] This study had laid the foundation for further exploring the physiological functions of this cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene in plants.%[目的]对无核荔枝的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因进行克隆,并对其序列下进行分析.[方法]根据构建的无核荔枝胚败育SSH消减文库的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂EST序列,通过RACE技术获得半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制基因的核苷酸序列并应用生物信息学软件进行分析.[结果]获得一个635 bp的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制基因序列,预测该序列含有321 bp的开放阅读框,推导其编码的蛋白质含106个氨基酸,具有半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂保守区,与多个物种的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因具有较高的同源性.[结论]为进一步研究半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂在植物中的生理功能奠定了基础.

  16. Caracterização fenológica e requerimentos térmicos de variedades de uvas sem sementes no Vale do São Francisco Phenological evaluation and thermal requirements of five seedless grapes in the San Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento fenológico e requerimentos térmicos de variedades de uvas sem sementes foram estudados nas condições do Vale do São Francisco durante os anos de 2001-2002, em seis diferentes datas de poda (12/2000, 04/2001, 06/2001, 10/2001, 01-02/2002 e 04/2002. O experimento foi realizado no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, em Petrolina-PE. As variedades utilizadas foram Superior Seedless (Festival, Thompson Seedless, Catalunha, Perlette e Marroo Seedless, enxertadas sobre porta-enxerto IAC 572 ('Jales'. Avaliou-se a duração em dias dos estádios fenológicos, gemas dormentes (data de poda a gemas inchadas (1, gemas inchadas a início de brotação (2, início de brotação a 5-6 folhas separadas (3, 5-6 folhas separadas a início de floração (4, início de floração à plena-floração (5, plena-floração a "chumbinho" (6, "chumbinho" à "ervilha" (7, "ervilha" a ½ baga (8, ½ baga a início de maturação (9 e início de maturação à maturação plena (10. Os requerimentos térmicos foram obtidos em termos de graus-dia (GD necessários para atingir cada fase fenológica a partir da poda. O ciclo fenológico médio variou de 89 dias e 1.315 GD na variedade Superior Seedless a 105 dias e 1.514 GD na variedade Perlette, destacando-se as variedades Superior Seedless e Marroo Seedless como precoces e as demais com ciclo intermediário. Os períodos compreendidos entre o início e final da maturação, ½ baga a início de maturação e 5 a 6 folhas separadas a início de floração apresentaram a maior duração entre todos os subperíodos em todas as variedades.The phenological behaviour and heat summation requirements of seedless grapes were studied in the San Francisco River Valley during the seasons 2001-2002, for six pruning dates (12/2000, 04/2001, 06/2001, 10/2001, 01 and 02/2002 and 04/2002. The varieties evaluated were Superior Seedless (Festival, Thompson Seedless, Catalunha, Perlette and Marroo Seedless, grafted on IAC

  17. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... AD 83 Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of... Regulation D (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week...

  18. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  19. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  20. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  1. Adrenocortical reserves in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaht, Kemal; Gullu, Sevim

    2014-02-01

    Explicit data regarding the changes in adrenocortical reserves during hyperthyroidism do not exist. We aimed to document the capability (response) of adrenal gland to secrete cortisol and DHEA-S during hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, and to describe factors associated with these responses. A standard-dose (0.25 mg/i.v.) ACTH stimulation test was performed to the same patients before hyperthyroidism treatment, and after attainment of euthyroidism. Baseline cortisol (Cor(0)), DHEA-S (DHEA-S(0)), cortisol binding globulin (CBG), ACTH, calculated free cortisol (by Coolen's equation = CFC), free cortisol index (FCI), 60-min cortisol (Cor(60)), and DHEA-S (DHEA-S(60)), delta cortisol (ΔCor), delta DHEA-S (ΔDHEA-S) responses were evaluated. Forty-one patients [22 females, 49.5 ± 15.2 years old, 32 Graves disease, nine toxic nodular goiter] had similar Cor(0), DHEA-S(0), CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S(60) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid states. Cor(60), ΔCor, and ΔDHEA-S were lower in hyperthyroidism. In four (10 %) patients the peak ACTH-stimulated cortisol values were lower than 18 μg/dL. When the test repeated after attainment of euthyroidism, all of the patients had normal cortisol response. Regression analysis demonstrated an independent association of Cor(60) with free T3 in hyperthyroidism. However, the predictors of CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S levels were serum creatinine levels in hyperthyroidism, and both creatinine and transaminase levels in euthyroidism. ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol, delta cortisol, and delta DHEA-S levels are decreased during hyperthyroidism, probably due to increased turnover. Since about 10 % of the subjects with hyperthyroidism are at risk for adrenal insufficiency, clinicians dealing with Graves' disease should be alert to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency during hyperthyroid stage.

  2. Reserve requirements: A modern perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Hein; Jonathan D. Stewart

    2002-01-01

    The discussion in many money and banking textbooks would suggest that the Federal Reserve requires depository institutions to hold a minimum level of non-interest-earning reserves because (1) reserve requirements are a monetary policy tool that allows the Fed to expand the money supply and lower interest rates, and (2) reserve requirements improve the safety and soundness of depository institutions. This article argues that this "conventional wisdom" view is too narrow. ; The Fed often uses r...

  3. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  4. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  5. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... 3. One commentator also agreed with the change to the reserve account requirements as the change... regulation to change the Reserve Account for new construction for the Sections 514/516 Farm Labor Housing... Development based its reserve account on a set percentage of a property's total development cost (TDC). With...

  6. Anelamento e reguladores de crescimento: efeitos sobre as medidas biométricas e qualidade de cachos da videira 'Superior Seedless' Girdling and growth regulators: effects on the biometric measurements and quality of bunches of vine 'Superior Sedless'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se obter maior tamanho de baga, peso médio de cacho e produtividade, os cachos da variedade Superior Seedless foram pulverizados com ácido giberélico (1 + 20 mg.L-1, bioestimulante Crop Set® nas doses de 0,1 e 0,2% e com ou sem anelamento no caule. Esses tratamentos foram aplicados de forma isolada ou combinados entre si. O trabalho foi conduzido durante o período 2001-2002 (dois ciclos de produção, no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro da Embrapa Semi-Árido em Petrolina-PE. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e três repetições, sendo duas plantas por parcela. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos nos dois ciclos de produção. Entretanto, quando o ácido giberélico foi associado ao Crop Set® 0,1% e anelamento, observou-se uma tendência de aumento no peso de cachos, bem como no peso e tamanho de bagas na safra de 2001. Os cachos tratados com ácido giberélico apresentaram engaços mais grossos e pesados, embora não se observem diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Algumas plantas submetidas ao anelamento apresentaram problemas de cicatrização, o que provocou a morte das mesmas, recomendando-se evitar a realização desta prática nas condições em que se realizou este trabalho.Aiming to increase the berry size, weight of bunches and yield, the bunches of the cv. Superior Seedless was powdered with gibberelic acid (1 + 20 mg.L-1, bio-stimulant Crop Set® in the dosis of 0.1 and 0.2%. In adition was used the treatment known as girdling. Those treatments were applied in an isolated way or combined to each other. The work was carried out during 2001-2002 (two harvest seasons, in the Experimental Station of Bebedouro, Semi-arid Embrapa in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design were in randomized blocks with 12 treatments and three replications. The differences among the treatments were not statistical significant in the two

  7. Field performance of "marsh seedless" grapefruit on trifoliate orange inoculated with viroids in Brazil Desempenho do pomeleiro "marsh seedles" enxertado em trifoliata inoculado com viróides no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Some viroids reduce citrus tree growth and may be used for tree size control aiming the establishment of orchards with close tree spacing that may provide higher productivity than conventional ones. To study the effects of citrus viroids inoculation on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. grafted on trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], an experiment was set up in January 1991, in Bebedouro, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments with two plants per plot: viroid isolates Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd + Hop stunt viroid (HSVd - CVd-II, a non cachexia variant + Citrus III viroid (CVd-III and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd - CVd-II, a non cachexia variant + Citrus III viroid (CVd-III and controls: two healthy buds (control, and no grafting (absolute control. Inoculation was done in the field, six months after planting by bud grafting. Both isolates reduced tree growth (trunk diameter, plant height, canopy diameter and volume. Trees not inoculated yielded better (average of eleven harvests than inoculated ones but the productivity was the same after 150 months. Fruit quality was affected by viroids inoculation but not in a restrictive way. The use of such severe dwarfing isolates for high density plantings of grapefruit on trifoliate orange rootstock is not recommended.Alguns viróides reduzem o crescimento dos citros e podem ser usados para o controle do tamanho das plantas objetivando a instalação de pomares adensados que podem ter maior produtividade que os pomares com espaçamentos convencionais. Para estudar o efeito da inoculação de viróides no desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade dos frutos de pomeleiro 'Marsh Seedless' (Citrus paradisi Macf. enxertado em trifoliata [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], foi instalado um experimento em Janeiro de 1991, em Bebedouro, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O delineamento

  8. 克瑞森无核葡萄简化栽培配套技术集成与应用研究%Integration and Application of Crimson Seedless Grapes Simplified Cultivation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭绍杰; 李铭; 陈新德; 杨卫忠; 兰小军; 李鹏程; 苏学德

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to simplify the operational measures and raise the level of mechanization in grape orchard management. [Method] Full adoption of orchard mechanization technology; aspects of culture in the tree, choose a compact easy to buried winter trunk type, the shoot was the level of leaves in the bondage of the main vine on both sides of the pinnate horizontal screen, and shoots load 4.50 x 10 ind/hm about; simplified tree cultivation and shoot management practices, long put of the pre-shoots and axillary shoot, axillary shoot thinning of the late crown density; change the traditional clean tillage system, the implementation of the orchard grass, straw mulching, and other measures. [Result] With this technique, the second annual output of Crimson seedless grape planting is 0.75 x 10 4 kg/m2, the third years is 1. 80 x 10 4 kg/hm2 or more, which achieved water saving36% , fertilizer saving41%. [Conclusion] Applying the model can optimize the production and management methods, reduce labor intensity, improve labor productivity, and enhance the level of the grape industry, perfect the quality of Crimson seedless grape.%[目的]提高葡萄园管理的机械化水平,简化操作措施.[方法]全面采用果园机械化生产技术;在树型培养方面,选择便于埋土越冬的紧凑龙干型,新梢在主蔓两侧羽状水平绑缚呈水平叶幕,新梢负载量4.50万个/hm2左右;简化树型培养和枝梢管理措施,前期对新梢和副梢长放,后期疏除造成树冠郁闭的副梢;改变传统的清耕制,实行果园生草、覆草等措施.[结果]采用该技术,克瑞森无核葡萄定植第2年产量达0.75万kg/hm2,3年以后1.80万kg/hm2以上,实现了节水36%、节肥41%.[结论]应用该模式能够优化生产管理方式,降低工人劳动强度,提高劳动生产率,提升葡萄产业化水平,改善克瑞森无核葡萄品质.

  9. Clarification effects of different clarifier on Papaya and seedless orange juice%不同澄清剂对番木瓜柑桔果汁澄清效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋侬辉; 钟云; 林秉斌

    2009-01-01

    以番木瓜和无核椪柑为主要原料.对番木瓜柑桔复合澄清果汁生产工艺进行了研究,采用正交试验法获得混合果汁的最优配方:番木瓜原汁20%、柑橘原汁20%、蔗糖8%、柠檬酸0.08%.试验表明,采用0.03%的果胶酶能明显提高果汁的出汁率和澄清度,采用1.0 g/L壳聚糖和2.0 g/L的明胶也有较好的澄清效果,3种澄清方法中以果胶酶的澄清效果最好.%A new tape of compound and clarified juice using papaya and seedless orange as the main material was made in this paper, the optimum process technics and the best reeipe of the beverage was screened out by an orthogonal test, and the best recipe was: papaya juice 20%, orange juice 20%, sugar 8%, citric aeid 0.08%. A content of 0.03% pectase improved the transmittance, natural layered rate and juice yield of compound juice, and the other clarifier such as 1.0 g/L ehitosan and 2.0 g/L glutin also have a good clarification effect ,but clarification with peetase is the best among them.

  10. 蜜童无籽小西瓜种植密度及整枝留果方式试验%Experiment of Plant Density and Fruit Pruning and Rentention Mothds of Mitong Small Seedless Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琪玖

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present work was to study plant density and fruit pruning and rentention mothds of Mitong seedless watermelon, the design of two factors were randomly divided into 4 groups, repeated 3 times, residential area of 15 m2 with a total of A and B factors. The results showed that optimum group of A2B4 with 400 plant/667 m2, the yield were to 5 818.47 kg by the mothds of 5 climbing and fruits pruning. We may conclude that plant density is the main factors effecting the fruit yield, the best combination of plant density and fruit pruning to stay is an important regulator of the factors to ob-tain high yield.%对蜜童无籽小西瓜种植密度及留瓜方式进行试验,采用复因素随机区组试验设计,重复3次,小区面积15 m2,设A、B共2个因素(各4个处理).结果表明:最优的处理为A284,即定植密度为400株/667 m2,采用5蔓留5果的整枝方式,产量达到5 818.47 kg.试验中密度是影响产量的主导因素,密度和整枝留果的最佳组合是获取高产重要调节因素.

  11. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  13. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... liabilities of depository institutions for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation... monetary policy. If the Federal Reserve changes its monetary policy framework, which includes the payment... affect the Federal Reserve's ability to implement monetary policy in the event that all depository...

  14. Marine reserves with ecological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, R Quentin; Kompas, Tom; Lindenmayer, David

    2005-09-01

    To help manage the fluctuations inherent in fish populations scientists have argued for both an ecosystem approach to management and the greater use of marine reserves. Support for reserves includes empirical evidence that they can raise the spawning biomass and mean size of exploited populations, increase the abundance of species and, relative to reference sites, raise population density, biomass, fish size and diversity. By contrast, fishers often oppose the establishment and expansion of marine reserves and claim that reserves provide few, if any, economic payoffs. Using a stochastic optimal control model with two forms of ecological uncertainty we demonstrate that reserves create a resilience effect that allows for the population to recover faster, and can also raise the harvest immediately following a negative shock. The tradeoff of a larger reserve is a reduced harvest in the absence of a negative shock such that a reserve will never encompass the entire population if the goal is to maximize the economic returns from harvesting, and fishing is profitable. Under a wide range of parameter values with ecological uncertainty, and in the 'worst case' scenario for a reserve, we show that a marine reserve can increase the economic payoff to fishers even when the harvested population is not initially overexploited, harvesting is economically optimal and the population is persistent. Moreover, we show that the benefits of a reserve cannot be achieved by existing effort or output controls. Our results demonstrate that, in many cases, there is no tradeoff between the economic payoff of fishers and ecological benefits when a reserve is established at equal to, or less than, its optimum size.

  15. Major Nature Reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At the end of 2010,China had 2,588 nature reserves,covering 14.9 percent of its land area.These nature reserves have effectively protected more than 90 percent of land ecosystems,85 percent of wild animals and 65 percent of higher plant species

  16. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  17. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  18. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  19. Qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes em função de fontes e doses de potássio Quality of seedless watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em propriedade rural próxima à cidade de Borborema - SP, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai, híbrido Shadow, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo utilizadas as fontes: cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e as doses: 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Foram avaliados: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT e espessura da casca. O teor de sólidos solúveis aumentou à medida que se aumentou a dose de potássio, enquanto a relação SST/ATT reduziu. A acidez titulável não foi influenciada pelos fatores estudados. A maior espessura da casca foi obtida ao se utilizar a dose de 202 kg ha-1 de K2O na forma de KNO3, seguida pela dose de 300 kg ha-1 de K2O, na forma de KCl.The experiment was carried out in the Borborema region, State of São Paulo, in the period of February the April to 2002, with the objective to evaluate the quality of seedless watermelon fruits (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai as a function of sources and doses of potassium. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with three replications, in 3 x 4 factorial scheme, being evaluated sources: potassium chloride, nitrate and sulphate and doses 50, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O. Total soluble solids (TSS, total titrable acidity (TTA, ratio TSS/TTA and rind thickness were evaluated. Soluble solids increased and ratio TSS/TTA decreased with increment of K dose. Sources and doses of potassium did not affect total titrable acidity. The biggest rind thickness was achieved with 202 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O of KNO3 and KCl, respectively.

  20. 叶面肥组配喷施对克瑞森无核葡萄产量和品质的影响%Effect of different combination of foliar fertilizers on the yield and quality of Crimson seedless grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车俊峰; 郭春会; 苏婷; 孙锋; 张乐; 骆强伟; 王跃进

    2011-01-01

    以氨基酸、腐殖酸、平衡营养肥、钙液肥为基础,根据当地土壤特性和葡萄需肥规律,设计在不同时期喷布不同组配叶面肥,研究其对克瑞森无核葡萄产量和品质的影响.结果表明,喷施组配叶面肥均可明显提高叶片的叶绿素含量(SPAD值),促进果穗发育,促使果实膨大,提高穗重和百粒重,增加葡萄产量(增幅为12.03%~27.58%),同时提高浆果硬度、可溶性固形物含量、还原型Vc含量和糖酸比,明显降低可滴定酸,其中按处理2喷施,浆果外观品质和糖/酸较适宜,而按处理5喷施,增产率最高.%Based on amino acid, humic acid, balanced nutrition, calcium-based liquid fertilizer, the effect of different groups of foliar fertilizers sprayed in different periods on the yield and qulity of Crimson seedless grape was studied.The result showed that sprayed with different combination of foliar fertilizers, the chlorophyll content (SPAD value) was significantly increased, the cluster growth and fruit enlargement were promoted, the yield was increased (the growth rate was 12.03% ~27.58% ), and the weight per panicle, 100-fruit weight, the berry hardness, soluble solids proportion,Vc content and sugar-acid rate were all increased, at the same time, the titrable acidity (TA) was significantly reduced.The appearance quality and sugar-acid rate of treatment 2 (amino acid + balanced nutrition, amino acid + calciumbased liquid fertilizer) were good, and the growth rate of treatment 5 (10 days prior to flowering: amino acid + humic acid + balanced nutrition, young fruit enlargement period and the second period of berry enlargement: amino acid +humic acid + calcium-based liquid fertilizer + balanced nutrition, 20 days before the fruit harvested: amino acid +humic acid + calcium-based liquid fertilizer) was the highest.

  1. 杀菌方式对无核雪柑汁香气成分的影响%Effects of Sterilization Methods on Aromatic Components of Orange Juice from Seedless ‘Xuegan’ Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉; 黄明发; 吴厚玖; 王华; 沈海亮; 何朝飞

    2012-01-01

    采用固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分析橙汁香气成分,内标法半定量,研究了巴氏杀菌和微波杀菌对无核雪柑汁香气成分的影响。结果表明:无核雪柑鲜榨汁、巴氏杀菌汁、微波杀菌汁分别检测出56种、57种和53种香气成分,含量分别为1304.70、991.51mg/kg和887.67mg/kg,巴氏杀菌后橙汁香气成分总含量高于微波杀菌汁,但微波杀菌后叶醇、十二碳醛、γ-芹子烯等含量均高于巴氏杀菌处理,且未检出异味物质β-松油醇,2种杀菌处理后烃类、酯类物质总含量均下降,酮类物质上升。%Solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(SPME-GC-MS) and internal standard method for semi-quantification were used to study the effects of pasteurization and microwave sterilization on aromatic components of seedless ‘Xuegan’ sweet orange juice.The results showed 56,57 and 53 aromatic compounds were respectively identified from native sweet orange juice,pasteurized sweet orange juice and microwave sterilized sweet orange juice,with respective contents of 1.30,0.99 mg/g and 0.89 mg/g.Although pasteurized sweet orange juice was richer in total aromatic compounds than microwave sterilized sweet orange,microwave sterilized sweet orange contained more cis-3-hexenol,dodecanal and γ-selinene than pasteurized sweet orange juice but no β-terpineol,responsible for off-odor.Pasteurization and microwave sterilization resulted in a decrease in the total content of esters and hydrocarbons and an increase in ketones.

  2. 千岛无核柿发展存在的问题与对策%Development Status-quo, Existing Problems and Countermeasures of Thousand-isle Seedless Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 蒋念亮; 王晓玉; 徐高福

    2011-01-01

    千岛无核柿是浙江省淳安县特有柿树优良品种,论述千岛无核柿在原产地的生产现状和外地引种情况以及栽培技术研究现状。由于零星分布、分散经营,难以形成规模化生产;管理粗放,技术推广不到位,难以实施可持续经营;贮藏保鲜、产品加工滞后,销售市场组织化程度低,难以实现产业化。提出加强宣传与技术培训;加大良种生产和种源保护力度;优化栽培技术,实施标准化生产;优化政策和布局,扩大产业规模;加快产品加工和开发,积极开拓销售市场等发展对策。%Thousand-isle Seedless Persimmon is a special and fine persimmon variety in Chunan county Zhejiang province. This paper introduces the production status in origin, its out-of-town cultivating situation and planting technology research status. Scale-production is difficult to come into being due to scattered distribution and mainly dispersedly operation. Sustainable management is difficult to be putted into practice due to extensive operation and inadequate popularized technology. Industrialization is difficult to come true due to lagging storage, preservation, products manufacturing and low level organizational market. Furthermore, this paper puts forward development countermeasures such as strengthening propaganda and technology training, striving to produce fine breed and protect breed origin, implementing standardization production through optimizing cultivating technology, expanding industry scale through optimizing policy and layout, actively opening up markets through speeding up products process and development.

  3. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  4. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  5. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek; Ola I. Saleh; Howida A. Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH) level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound throug...

  6. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  7. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  8. The Coal Reserves Database Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonskowski, R. (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) initiated the Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program in October, 1990 in order to update and improve the inherent applicability of EIA's national coal reserves database. Currently, EIA's database is derived from the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal, a compilation of data from published sources, unified by adherence to standardized physical criteria of minability, but never intended for the detailed coal supply and policy analyses demanded today. The CRDB Program is designed to engage the expertise available at State geological surveys in compiling best current State-level estimates of both quantities and quality of available coal reserves through cooperative agreements with EIA. The CRDB emphasizes integration of more data on coal quality, use of data from unpublished sources, cooperation with industry and other government sources, and flexibility of criteria to take into account local accessibility and mining conditions and utilize computerized geographic information systems or coal resource software. The results of pilot projects in Ohio and Wyoming are summarized. Areas nominated for support in the program include 15 additional priority coal regions in 14 States, which comprise 95 percent of the current reserve estimates and most of the coal-bearing areas of low sulfur potential. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Leveraging the Reserve Component: Associating Active and Reserve Aviation Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    capabilities, forces for large-scale conventional campaigns, balance stress across the Total Force, include a larger portion of American citizenry defending...Integration will also relieve stress on the Active Duty force and provide a cost-effective force multiplier. Finally, it will leverage the high...heavily.18 Other identified organizational challenges included cross- acculturation between active and reserve component career

  10. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  11. Cognitive reserve: The warehouse within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is characterized by progressive and mostly irreversible memory loss. Other neuropsychiatric disorders affect cognition in varying manner. Are all people affected with such disorders manifest clinically in similar manner or does our brain have some reserve to tolerate insults? Relevant researches over the last two decades were scrutinized to understand brain reserve, appreciate the conceptual change in the same over years, and how the same can be improved for better cognition and memory over the year. Literature evidence suggests that the cognitive reserve (CR is a dynamic and functional concept. There is adequate evidence to suggest that enriched environment and various other measures are likely to improve CR across all age. Improving CR may delay or reverse the effects of aging or brain pathology.

  12. China's Ultimate Recoverable Reserves Calculated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Hong

    2003-01-01

    @@ A nationwide project is being launched to assess the potential capacity of China's oil and natural gas resources, a senior official from the Ministry of Land and Resources said in early December. Based on the existing data, China's oil and natural gas reserves are estimated at 106.9 billion tons and 53trillion cubic meters respectively at the present time.

  13. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  14. FEA Reports on Proved Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)

  15. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...

  16. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  17. Removal of cyanogens from cassava roots. Studies on domestic sun-drying and solid-substrate fermentation in rural Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop, but its potential toxicity has led to some health problems in Africa. The potential toxicity comes from endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, mainly linamarin, which may degrade by linamarase to cyanohydrins and subsequently to hydrocyanic acid (HCN). A study into a

  18. Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    batteries – Environmental concerns, lack of business – Non-availability of some critical materials • Lithium Oxyhalides are systems of choice – Good...exhibit good corrosion resistance to neutral electrolytes (LiAlCl4 in thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride ) • Using AlCl3 creates a much more corrosive...Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries Jeff Swank and Allan Goldberg Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 301-394-3116 jswank@arl.army.mil ll l

  19. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  20. Neurotransplantation therapy and cerebellar reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendelin, Jan; Mitoma, Hiroshi; Manto, Mario

    2017-08-10

    Neurotransplantation has been recently the focus of interest as a promising therapy to substitute lost cerebellar neurons and improve cerebellar ataxias. However, since cell differentiation and synaptic formation are required to obtain a functional circuitry, highly integrated reproduction of cerebellar anatomy is not a simple process. Rather than a genuine replacement, recent studies have shown that grafted cells rescue surviving cells from neurodegeneration by exerting trophic effects, supporting mitochondrial function, modulating neuroinflammation, stimulating endogenous regenerative processes, and facilitating cerebellar compensatory properties thanks to neural plasticity. On the other hand, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that the self-recovery capacity is still preserved even if the cerebellum is affected by a diffuse and progressive pathology. We put forward the period with intact recovery capacity as "restorable stage" and the notion of reversal capacity as "cerebellar reserve". The concept of cerebellar reserve is particularly relevant, both theoretically and practically, to target recovery of cerebellar deficits by neurotransplantation. Reinforcing the cerebellar reserve and prolonging the restorable stage can be envisioned as future endpoints of neurotransplantation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  2. Traumatic brain injury and reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    The potential role of brain and cognitive reserve in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is reviewed. Brain reserve capacity (BRC) refers to preinjury quantitative measures such as brain size that relate to outcome. Higher BRC implies threshold differences when clinical deficits will become apparent after injury, where those individuals with higher BRC require more pathology to reach that threshold. Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to how flexibly and efficiently the individual makes use of available brain resources. The CR model suggests the brain actively attempts to cope with brain damage by using pre-existing cognitive processing approaches or by enlisting compensatory approaches. Standard proxies for CR include education and IQ although this has expanded to include literacy, occupational attainment, engagement in leisure activities, and the integrity of social networks. Most research on BRC and CR has taken place in aging and degenerative disease but these concepts likely apply to the effects of TBI, especially with regards to recovery. Since high rates of TBI occur in those under age 35, both CR and BRC factors likely relate to how the individual copes with TBI over the lifespan. These factors may be particularly relevant to the relationship of developing dementia in the individual who has sustained a TBI earlier in life.

  3. Optimal Reserve Management Pattern for Turkish Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Talasli; Suheyla Ozyildirim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we model a representative bank’s optimal reserve management pattern by adopting institutional aspects of the Turkish required reserve regime. The cost minimization problem, in general, takes into account the expected opportunity cost of holding reserves and penalty costs for not fulfilling the liability of reserve requirement. We extend this problem for reserve carry-over provision and use of late liquidity window facility and compute the optimal reserve pattern by dynamic progr...

  4. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  5. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  6. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  7. Deposit Reserve Rate No Panacea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark; A.DeWeaver

    2006-01-01

    To rein in runaway investment, China's central bank, the People's Bank of China (PBOC), took several measures in mid-June, including the most dramatic step of raising the deposit reserve rate by 0.5 percentage point According to Mark A. DeWeaver, who manages Quantrarian Asia Hedge, a fund that invests in Asian equities, the PBOC's measures may lower money supply growth in the short term; that is, the effect of these measures "may be only temporary." He believes that "attempts to slow money supply growth ...

  8. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  9. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  10. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  11. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  12. Marine reserves: size and age do matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning.

  13. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  14. Detecting larval export from marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, R A; Warner, R R; Gaines, S D; Paris, C B

    2010-10-26

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves.

  15. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  16. Marine reserve effects on fishery profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Crow; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven; Siegel, David A; Costello, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    Some studies suggest that fishery yields can be higher with reserves than under conventional management. However, the economic performance of fisheries depends on economic profit, not fish yield. The predictions of higher yields with reserves rely on intensive fishing pressures between reserves; the exorbitant costs of harvesting low-density populations erode profits. We incorporated this effect into a bioeconomic model to evaluate the economic performance of reserve-based management. Our results indicate that reserves can still benefit fisheries, even those targeting species that are expensive to harvest. However, in contrast to studies focused on yield, only a moderate proportion of the coast in reserves (with moderate harvest pressures outside reserves) is required to maximize profit. Furthermore, reserve area and harvest intensity can be traded off with little impact on profits, allowing for management flexibility while still providing higher profit than attainable under conventional management.

  17. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  18. Mordovia State Nature Reserve's 80th anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Elena V. Vargot

    2016-01-01

    Brief physical-geographical characteristics, history of creation and development of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve territory are presented. We listed aims and objectives assigned for the Mordovia Reserve in different periods. During the first years of the Mordovia Reserve the forest conservation was aimed at reforestation of the southern area of the taiga zone; the investigation of harmful insect fauna to timely response on infection foci of trees; enriching of the fauna of the Reserve. At...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under § 35.2025. The Regional Administrator may waive this reserve requirement where a State can... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserves. 35.2020 Section 35.2020... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2020 Reserves. In developing its priority list the...

  20. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  1. Micro-level stochastic loss reserving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Plat, R.

    2010-01-01

    To meet future liabilities general insurance companies will set-up reserves. Predicting future cash-flows is essential in this process. Actuarial loss reserving methods will help them to do this in a sound way. The last decennium a vast literature about stochastic loss reserving for the general insu

  2. 42 CFR 417.934 - Reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve requirement. 417.934 Section 417.934 Public... PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.934 Reserve requirement. (a) Timing... section 1305 of the PHS Act was required to establish a restricted reserve account on the earlier of...

  3. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  4. 5 CFR 890.503 - Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any, of the contingency reserve over the preferred minimum balance. OMP must authorize this payment... charge consists of the rate approved by OPM for payment to the plan for each enrollee, plus 4 percent, of... charge set aside for the administrative reserve. The administrative reserve is available for payment of...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2123 - Reserve capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve capacity. 35.2123 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2123 Reserve capacity. EPA will limit grant assistance for reserve capacity as follows: (a) If EPA awarded a grant for a Step...

  6. Army Reserve (AR) Educational Assistance (EA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army TRADOC Analysis Center Ft. Lee, VA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...Programs REAP: Reserve Education Assistance Program; MGIB-SR: Montgomery GI Bill – Selected Reserve; SRK: Selected Reserve Kicker ; OFF: Officer; EM

  7. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  8. Accounting for system dynamics in reserve design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Cumming, Steve G; Lessard, Robert B; Nagy, John

    2007-10-01

    Systematic conservation plans have only recently considered the dynamic nature of ecosystems. Methods have been developed to incorporate climate change, population dynamics, and uncertainty in reserve design, but few studies have examined how to account for natural disturbance. Considering natural disturbance in reserve design may be especially important for the world's remaining intact areas, which still experience active natural disturbance regimes. We developed a spatially explicit, dynamic simulation model, CONSERV, which simulates patch dynamics and fire, and used it to evaluate the efficacy of hypothetical reserve networks in northern Canada. We designed six networks based on conventional reserve design methods, with different conservation targets for woodland caribou habitat, high-quality wetlands, vegetation, water bodies, and relative connectedness. We input the six reserve networks into CONSERV and tracked the ability of each to maintain initial conservation targets through time under an active natural disturbance regime. None of the reserve networks maintained all initial targets, and some over-represented certain features, suggesting that both effectiveness and efficiency of reserve design could be improved through use of spatially explicit dynamic simulation during the planning process. Spatial simulation models of landscape dynamics are commonly used in natural resource management, but we provide the first illustration of their potential use for reserve design. Spatial simulation models could be used iteratively to evaluate competing reserve designs and select targets that have a higher likelihood of being maintained through time. Such models could be combined with dynamic planning techniques to develop a general theory for reserve design in an uncertain world.

  9. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaz Sinem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  10. How to Maintain an Operational Reserve? Further Engaging Army Reserve Component Forces in the Coming Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    with mobilizing Reserve Component units for overseas missions. This flexibility will allow the Army to meet ongoing mission requirements , while... reserve will impose an increased cost on the Army. First (and most obviously), the Army will have to fund the additional pay and allowances required ...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HOW TO MAINTAIN AN OPERATIONAL RESERVE ? FURTHER ENGAGING ARMY RESERVE COMPONENT FORCES IN

  11. China has proven 2974 iron ore reserve and 1248 copper reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently national mineral resource evaluation has achieved preliminary progress. At present a total of 2974 iron ore reserves have been proven, including 121 large-scale reserves; as well as 1248 copper reserves, including 37 large-scale reserves. Preliminary findings of the evaluation have indicated that retained iron re-

  12. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  13. A general business model for marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Sala

    Full Text Available Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models.

  14. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  15. A general business model for marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models.

  16. CHINA'S RESERVE REQUIREMENTS: PRACTICES, EFFECTS, AND IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    GUONAN MA; XIANDONG YAN; XI LIU

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of reserve requirements as a cheaper substitute for the open-market operations of the People's Bank of China (PBC) to sterilize foreign exchange interventions in recent years. China's reserve requirements have also been used to address a range of other policy objectives, not least macroeconomic management, financial stability, and credit policy. The preference for reserve requirements reflects the size of China's FX sterilization and the associated costs, in a qua...

  17. The Euro as a Reserve Currency

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Marzena

    2010-01-01

    There has been an unusual accumulation of foreign exchange reserves in recent years. Central banks have to diversify their reserves away from the US dollar, especially towards the euro. The same situation is in a private sector, where investors reduce the share of dollar denominated assets. This process has progressed gradually, but it is possible that the euro’s role as a reserve currency will continue to increase. The purpose of ...

  18. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  19. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  20. Naval Reserve: an organization in transition.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazza, Richard Charles

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to examine the issues facing the Naval Reserve as it transitions from its cold war mission to new and, possibly, expanded roles under the New National Military Strategy. The thesis further provides an overview of the changed strategic environment and budgetary concerns that serve as drivers for change within the Naval Reserve. The evolution of the present Naval Reserve organization, manpower an...

  1. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  2. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  3. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid

    2012-01-05

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  4. 21 CFR 216.23 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 216.23 Section 216.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PHARMACY COMPOUNDING Compounded Drug Products § 216.23 [Reserved] ...

  5. The dynamics of the primordial follicle reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jeffrey B; Myers, Michelle; Anderson, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    The female germline comprises a reserve population of primordial (non-growing) follicles containing diplotene oocytes arrested in the first meiotic prophase. By convention, the reserve is established when all individual oocytes are enclosed by granulosa cells. This commonly occurs prior to or around birth, according to species. Histologically, the 'reserve' is the number of primordial follicles in the ovary at any given age and is ultimately depleted by degeneration and progression through folliculogenesis until exhausted. How and when the reserve reaches its peak number of follicles is determined by ovarian morphogenesis and germ cell dynamics involving i) oogonial proliferation and entry into meiosis producing an oversupply of oocytes and ii) large-scale germ cell death resulting in markedly reduced numbers surviving as the primordial follicle reserve. Our understanding of the processes maintaining the reserve comes primarily from genetically engineered mouse models, experimental activation or destruction of oocytes, and quantitative histological analysis. As the source of ovulated oocytes in postnatal life, the primordial follicle reserve requires regulation of i) its survival or maintenance, ii) suppression of development (dormancy), and iii) activation for growth and entry into folliculogenesis. The mechanisms influencing these alternate and complex inter-related phenomena remain to be fully elucidated. Drawing upon direct and indirect evidence, we discuss the controversial concept of postnatal oogenesis. This posits a rare population of oogonial stem cells that contribute new oocytes to partially compensate for the age-related decline in the primordial follicle reserve.

  6. A Guide to Federal Reserve Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of New York, NY.

    The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Banks administer more than two dozen regulations affecting a wide variety of financial activities. The regulations concern the functions of the central bank and its relationships with financial institutions, the activities of commercial banks and bank holding companies,…

  7. Marine reserves demonstrate trophic interactions across habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Timothy J; Anderson, Marti J; Babcock, Russell C; Kato, Shin

    2006-02-01

    Several infaunal bivalve taxa show patterns of decreased biomass in areas with higher densities of adjacent reef-associated predators (the snapper, Pagrus auratus and rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii). A caging experiment was used to test the hypothesis that patterns observed were caused by predation, using plots seeded with a known initial density of the bivalve Dosinia subrosea to estimate survivorship. The caging experiment was replicated at several sites inside and outside two highly protected marine reserves: predators are significantly more abundant inside these reserves. Survivorship in fully caged, partially caged and open plots were then compared at sites having either low (non reserve) or high (reserve) predator density. The highest rates of survivorship of the bivalve were found in caged plots inside reserves and in all treatments outside reserves. However, inside reserves, open and partially caged treatments exhibited low survivorship. It was possible to specifically attribute much of this mortality to predation by large rock lobsters, due to distinctive marks on the valves of dead D. subrosea. This suggests that predation by large rock lobster could indeed account for the distributional patterns previously documented for certain bivalve populations. Our results illustrate that protection afforded by marine reserves is necessary to investigate how depletion through fishing pressure can change the role of upper-level predators and trophic processes between habitats.

  8. 75 FR 6539 - Healthy Forests Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Conservation Service 7 CFR Part 625 RIN 0578-AA52 Healthy Forests Reserve Program AGENCY: Natural Resources... amends Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) regulations for the Healthy Forests Reserve Program... benefit cost assessment has not been undertaken. Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of...

  9. CNGC Secured More Copper Reserves in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to China Land and Resources Newspaper, the reporter learnt from the work- ing conference of China National Gold Group Corporation (CNGC) that the corporation has again achieved great achievements in terms of its reserve increase strategy in 2011. The corporation increased its reserves by 215 tons of gold, 370,000 tons of copper and 580,000 tons

  10. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

  11. Body reserves in intra-African migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaogu, Chima; Cresswell, Will

    Avian migration has been shown to be a life history strategy for surviving environmental resource variability, but it requires increased body reserves for long distance flight. Fat reserves make excellent energy stores for barrier crossing, whereas proteins generate less energy for the same mass of

  12. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) As projects age, the required reserve account level may be adjusted to meet anticipated “life-cycle... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.306 Reserve account. (a) Purpose. To meet the major capital expense needs of a housing project, borrowers must establish and...

  13. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  14. On the optimal size of marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenane, M; Moussaoui, A; Auger, P

    2013-03-01

    The excessive and unsustainable exploitation of our marine resources has led to the promotion of marine reserves as a fisheries management tool. Marine reserves, areas in which fishing is restricted or prohibited, can offer opportunities for the recovery of exploited stock and fishery enhancement. This study examines the impact of the creation of marine protected areas, from both economic and biological perspectives. The consequences of reserve establishment on the long-run equilibrium fish biomass and fishery catch levels are evaluated. We include reserve size as control variable to maximize catch at equilibrium. A continuous time model is used to simulate the effects of reserve size on fishing catch. Fish movements between the sites is assumed to take place at a faster time scale than the variation of the stock and the change of the fleet size. We take advantage of these two time scales to derive a reduced model governing the dynamics of the total fish stock and the fishing effort. Simulation results suggest that the establishment of a protected marine reserve will always lead to an increase in total fish biomass, an optimal size of a marine reserve can achieve to maximize the catch at equilibrium.

  15. US coal reserves: A review and update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is the third in series of ``U.S. Coal Reserves`` reports. As part of the Administration of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) program to provide information on coal, it presents detailed estimates of domestic coal reserves, which are basic to the analysis and forecasting of future coal supply. It also describes the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates and explain terminology related to recent data programs. In addition, the report provides technical documentation for specific revisions and adjustments to the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal in the United States and for coal quality and reserve allocations. It makes the resulting data available for general use by the public. This report includes data on recoverable coal reserves located at active mines and on the estimated distribution of rank and sulfur content in those reserves. An analysis of the projected demand and depletion in recoverable reserves at active mines is used to evaluate the areas and magnitude of anticipated investment in new mining capacity.

  16. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun; Yi

    2008-01-01

      Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.……

  17. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.

  18. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  19. CRISIS FOCUS Forex Reserves to The Rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When Premier Wen Jiabao told this year’s World Economic Forum in Davos that the Chinese Government was explor- ing more efficient ways to use its massive foreign exchange (forex) reserves to boost the domestic economy, he empha- sized that the reserves could only be used overseas. Zuo Xiaolei, Chief Economist of Beijing-based China Galaxy Securities Co. Ltd., recently wrote an article in the Securities Times explaining why the country’s forex reserves can only be used overseas and how they can help stimulate domestic development. Edited excerpts follow:

  20. 光质对火焰无核葡萄胚挽救及试管苗生长发育的影响%Effect of light quality on embryo rescue and test-tube plantlets growth and development of Flame Seedless

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 王勇; 郭平峰; 伍国红; 骆强伟

    2015-01-01

    以火焰无核自交胚珠为试材,研究了红光、蓝光、白光及暗处理对胚发育、胚萌发及试管苗生长发育的影响。结果表明:3种光质处理对胚发育均有一定促进作用,但与对照未达到显著性水平。在胚萌发阶段,红光对胚萌发有明显的促进作用。在试管苗发育成苗阶段,以蓝光处理的试管苗最为矮壮,红光下葡萄胚挽救苗试管苗节间最长,发育最高,叶绿素含量最低;各处理试管苗继代后移栽成活率均可达到90%以上。%The open pollination ovules from flame Seedless were used to investigate the effect of diffierent light quality on the proportion of embryo development and germination ,and test-tube plantlets growth and development in vitro, including red light, blue light, white light and dark condition. The results showed that three lights had positive effect on embryo during ovule development, but did not significantly; Red light could promote obsively embryo germination; the plantlets were the most stocky under blue light. Red light was favorable to the longitudinal growth of the test-tube Plantlets, Chlorophyll content were the lowest. Each treatment plantlets transplant survival rate could reach 90%.

  1. Historical beginnings.. the Federal Reserve System

    OpenAIRE

    Roger T. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Traces the history of the banking system in the United States from 1789, discusses the banking problems of the 19th century, and describes the legislation that led to the formation of the Federal Reserve System.

  2. U.S. Federal Reserve Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset is comprised of forty-five entities that are part of the United States Federal Reserve System according to the United States Department of Treasury. The...

  3. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  4. Scientists Call for Strengthening Nature Reserve Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ China has more than 10% of the total species of vascular plants and terrestrial vertebrates in the world, of which about half are endemic to this country. To protect its biodiversity, China has made remarkable achievements in nature reserve establishment.

  5. Conservation Reserve Program Acreage by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains information regarding the acreages of land currently (as of 2004) enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) distributed by county and...

  6. 75 FR 67731 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...://www.fdic.gov/news/news/press/2010/pr10229.html . Table 6 shows the imputed PSAF elements, including... Advantage , FedLine Web , FedMail , and FedPhone .\\45\\ The Reserve Banks package these channels into...

  7. Suicides on a Southwestern American Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marv

    1979-01-01

    Results showed suicides clustered by day of the week, season, and reservation location, and typical victims as young, unmarried males holding unskilled or semiskilled jobs. Suggested are strategies maximizing suicide prevention efforts. Journal availability: see RC 503 481. (DS)

  8. Angiosperms, Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandujano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Los Tuxtlas Reserve has been heavily deforested and fragmented since the 1970’s. Although the floraof Los Tuxtlas has been described previously, most floristic lists come from the large forest reserve of the Los Tuxtlasfield station. Here we present a check list of Angiosperms recorded in 45 rainforest fragments (< 1 to 266 ha located inthree landscapes with different levels of deforestation. We sampled all trees, shrubs, lianas, palms and herbs withdiameter at breast height (dbh

  9. Exmoor - Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, S.

    2011-12-01

    On 2011 October 9 Exmoor National Park in the southwest of England was designated as Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve by the International Dark Skies Association. This is a huge achievement, and follows three years of work by park authorities, local astronomers, lighting engineers and the resident community. Exmoor Dark Sky Reserve follows in the footsteps of Galloway Forest Dark Sky Park, set up in 2009, and Sark Dark Sky Island, established in January 2011.

  10. Required reserves as a credit policy tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mimir, Yasin; Sunel, Enes; Taskin, Temel

    2012-01-01

    This paper conducts a quantitative investigation of the role of reserve requirements as a macroprudential policy tool. We build a monetary DSGE model with a banking sector in which (i) an agency problem between households and banks leads to endogenous capital constraints for banks in obtaining funds from households, (ii) banks are subject to time-varying reserve requirements that countercyclically respond to expected credit growth, (iii) households face cash-in-advance constraints, requiring ...

  11. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Bagus; David Howden

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  12. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Bagus; David Howden

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  13. Transformation of Taiwan’s Reserve Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report also includes an appendix with a brief comparative analysis of reserve force transformation in other countries (Finland, Singapore, Japan ...retention.18 Barring developments that offer Taiwan a substantive role in the emerging Asian security architecture and that make available, with...forces of other countries, we briefly reviewed the reserve forces of Finland, Singapore, Japan , and Georgia. We find that Finland and Singapore

  14. Statistical Method of Estimating Nigerian Hydrocarbon Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey O. Oseh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon reserves are basic to planning and investment decisions in Petroleum Industry. Therefore its proper estimation is of considerable importance in oil and gas production. The estimation of hydrocarbon reserves in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been very popular, and very successful, in the Nigerian oil and gas industry for the past 50 years. In order to fully estimate the hydrocarbon potentials in Nigerian Niger Delta Region, a clear understanding of the reserve geology and production history should be acknowledged. Reserves estimation of most fields is often performed through Material Balance and Volumetric methods. Alternatively a simple Estimation Model and Least Squares Regression may be useful or appropriate. This model is based on extrapolation of additional reserve due to exploratory drilling trend and the additional reserve factor which is due to revision of the existing fields. This Estimation model used alongside with Linear Regression Analysis in this study gives improved estimates of the fields considered, hence can be used in other Nigerian Fields with recent production history

  15. Design and implementation of land reservation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

    2009-10-01

    Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

  16. Repolarization reserve, arrhythmia and new drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Repolarization-related lethal arrhythmias have led to the concept of “repolarization reserve”, which may help elucidate the relationship between K+ currents and other components of repolarization. Pharmacological manipulation as well as congenital and cardiac disease may affect repolarization and alter the repolarization reserve, leading to the development of arrhythmias. Pharmacological enhancement of outward currents or suppression of inward currents has been shown to be of therapeutic value. A number of newly found selective ion channel inhibitors or agonists have been investigated for their ability to enhance repolarization reserve and decrease the incidence of arrhythmia. In this paper we review the development, potential mechanisms, clinical application, and pharmacological significance of repolarization reserve in order to better understand, predict and prevent unexplained adverse cardiac events.

  17. Marine reserves can enhance ecological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lewis A K; Baskett, Marissa L

    2015-12-01

    The goals of ecosystem-based management (EBM) include protecting ecological resilience, the magnitude of a perturbation that a community can withstand and remain in a given state. As a tool to achieve this goal, no-take marine reserves may enhance resilience by protecting source populations or reduce it by concentrating fishing in harvested areas. Here, we test whether spatial management with marine reserves can increase ecological resilience compared to non-spatial (conventional) management using a dynamic model of a simplified fish community with structured predation and competition that causes alternative stable states. Relative to non-spatial management, reserves increase the resilience of the desired (predator-dominated) equilibrium state in both stochastic and deterministic environments, especially under intensive fishing. As a result, spatial management also increases the feasibility of restoring degraded (competitor-dominated) systems, particularly if combined with culling of competitors or stock enhancement of adult predators.

  18. Are All Measures of International Reserves Created Equal? An Empirical Comparison of International Reserve Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; Yuk-Pang Wong, Clement

    2007-01-01

    Using available annual data of 174 economies since 1957, we examine the similarities and differences of seven international reserve ratios. While individual international reserve ratios display substantial variations across economies, they are associated with an economy?s characteristics including geographic location, income level, stage of development, degree of indebtedness, and exchange rate regime. The association pattern varies across time and type of international reserve ratios. Intere...

  19. Running on Empty? The Compensatory Reserve Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Running on empty? The compensatory reserve index Steven L. Moulton, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic, PhD, and Victor A. Convertino, PhD, San...reserve index. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Moulton S. L., Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V...2003;196:679Y684. 25. Convertino VA, Grudic GZ, Mulligan J, Moulton S. Estimation of individual-specific progression to cardiovascular instability using

  20. A critique of full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Montagnoli, A; S Dow; Johnsen, G.

    2015-01-01

    Proposals for full reserve banking have been put forward as a radical way of preventing further financial crises. They rest on the argument that crises are caused by excessive money supply growth brought about by inadequately controlled bank credit creation. Our aim is to provide a critique of the theoretical assumptions underlying the plans for full reserve banking. In particular some of the plans rely on the view that the money supply is a key causal variable and that it is feasible for cen...

  1. Working marginal reserves using Auger technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celada Tamames, B.

    1988-03-01

    Following up an idea put forward at a meeting of the PEN (National Energy Plan) R and D working party held in Ponferrada in the province of Leon, Ocicarbon contracted Geocontrol SA to carry out a study on the possible use of Auger technology for working marginal coal reserves. This article summarises the most important points in the final report on this project: current state of Auger technology, inventory of marginal coal reserves in Spain and the use of Auger technology in Spain. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taboada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.

  3. Oil Reserve Project Picks Up Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China will ratchet up its efforts to construct the second phase of the national crude oil reserve base project in 2011, as part of the country's endeavor to secure strategically important natural resources and stabilize the petroleum market."We will accelerate the construction pace of the project and ensure its quality, aiming to put it into operation as early as possible," the National Energy Administration (NEA) said in its annual energy work target for 2011.The agency, which is under China's top economic planner, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), will strengthen supervision to guarantee the safe operation of oil reserve bases.

  4. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional...... offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both...

  5. Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet FORMAT : Civilian Research Paper DATE: 25 February 2009 WORDS: 10,172 PAGES: 56 CLASSIFICATION... Barrancas , Florida, in 1910. Unfortunately, on its first test flight, it flew only 500 yards at an altitude of 100 feet before crashing. This flight

  6. 25 CFR 162.500 - Crow Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crow Reservation. 162.500 Section 162.500 Indians BUREAU... sections of this part 162, Crow Indians classified as competent under the Act of June 4, 1920 (41 Stat. 751...), as amended by the Act of March 15, 1948 (62 Stat. 80). However, at their election Crow Indians...

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a government-owned stockpile of crude oil intended to serve as a buffer against possible oil market disruptions. The overall purpose of this project is to develop and apply improved models and tools for SPR management. Current project efforts emphasize developing new modeling tools to explicitly and flexibly portray oil market uncertainty and SPR planning risk.

  8. 49 CFR 193.2003 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 193.2003 Section 193.2003 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2015 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 193.2015 Section 193.2015 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  10. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  11. Energy Law to Highlight Corporate Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The proposed Energy Law is expected to focus on fuel security by regulating commercial oil reserves at the corporate level, according to the reports extensively released by news media. As known to all, the law is being drafted as the country's energy demand, and dependency on imports, is increasing.

  12. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB system is possible and that precautionary reserves consequently do not pose a necessary limit. We discuss various instances in which a FRFB system may expand credit without a prior increase in real savings. These facets all demonstrate why a fractional reserve banking system – even a free banking one – is inherently unstable, and incentivized to impose a stabilizing central bank. We find that at the root of our disagreements with Selgin lies a different approach to monetary theory. Selgin subscribes to the aggregative equation of exchange, which impedes him from seeing the microeconomic problems that the stabilization of “MV” by a FRFB system causes.

  13. The Location Model with Reservation Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a variant of the standard Hotelling model of spatial competition where firms first choose locations along the line and then, given these locations, compete in prices.Consumers have a finite reservation price and incur a quadratic transportation cost.We show that there exist

  14. Is a Forex Reserves Handout Feasible?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s rapid economic development over the past decades has brought in huge social wealth, amassing the largest foreign exchange (forex) reserves in the world at $2 trillion. When financial turbulence crippled the global economy, the mammoth foreign currency holdings quickly shrank in value as a result of the U.S. dollar’s devaluation.

  15. Study on Online Hotel Reservation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alleweldt, Frank; Tonner, Klaus; McDonald, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This study, conducted by Civic Consulting, looks at both pre-contractual and contractual matters concerning online hotel reservation systems, examines relevant Community rules, identifies gaps and, where needed, discusses possible policy options. Key conclusions The study shows that the impact of Community law on online hotel

  16. 7 CFR 1940.590 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] 1940.590 Section 1940.590 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Methodology and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940...

  17. Appropriate reserves in the health care sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, D.W.; Helden, G.J. van

    1999-01-01

    Organizations in the health care sector are increasingly managed and judged on the basis of economic criteria. At the same time they are faced with growing risks which necessitate ‘appropriate’ reserves. Various major risks are mentioned in this paper. Health care organizations are allowed to form p

  18. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    align reserve capabilities with active component requirements. See prepared statement of Vice Admiral John C. Harvey , Chief of Naval Personnel...before the Senate Armed Services Personnel Subcommittee, February 27, 2008, p. 5, http://armed-services.senate.gov/ statemnt/2008/February/ Harvey %2002-27...security and disaster relief missions in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

  19. 31 CFR 308.5 - Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservations. 308.5 Section 308.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING FULL-PAID...

  20. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  1. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...

  2. 76 FR 64250 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... institutions for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation D (Reserve Requirements of... role of reserve requirements in the implementation of monetary policy. The Board believes that these... institutions to enable the Board to conduct monetary policy). \\7\\ The exemption amount is the amount of an...

  3. Mosses from Kakenauwe Natural Reserve and Lambusango Game Reserve, Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORENTINA INDAH WINDADRI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity of Bryophyte in Kakenauwe Natural Reserve and Lambusango Game Reserve has never reported before. Recent floristic study recorded 14 species belong to 12 genus and 8 families occur in this area. Five species of them indicated as a new record for Sulawesi.

  4. 12 CFR 204.4 - Computation of required reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.4 Computation of required reserves. (a) In determining the reserve requirement under this part, the amount of cash items in process of... reserves are computed by applying the reserve requirement ratios below to net transaction...

  5. Money Multiplier under Reserve Option Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Halit AKTURK; Gocen, Hasan; Duran, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a generalized money (M2) multiplier formula to the literature for a monetary system with Reserve Option Mechanism (ROM). Various features of the proposed multiplier are then explored using monthly Turkish data during the decade 2005 to 2015. We report a step increase in the magnitude and a slight upward adjustment in the long-run trend of the multiplier with the adoption of ROM. We provide evidence for substantial change in the seasonal pattern of the multiplier, cash ra...

  6. Liquidity and reserve requirements in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Robitaille

    2011-01-01

    The international reform initiative that followed the global financial crisis of 2008-09 has resulted in the introduction of liquidity requirements for banks. Under one requirement, the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR), banks will need to hold enough highly liquid assets to survive for a month in a stress scenario. Banks' required reserve balances can be used to fulfill this liquidity requirement and this may be seen as an attractive option for emerging market economies, where financial sectors...

  7. OVARIAN RESERVE IN HEALTHY ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Buralkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preserving reproductive health of girls is a pressing issue for the modern healthcare industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the metrics of ovarian reserve in healthy adolescent girls aged 15 to 17 in the Republic of Mordovia. 49 healthy adolescent girls aged 15 to 17 were examined in the study. A medical and social audit was conducted at the first state to study their medical history and hereditary factors. Their physical and sexual development (sexual form, characteristic of menstrual cycle, general and gynecological exam was assessed at the second stage. Hormonal status and ovarian reserve metrics were examined at the third stage. Ultrasonic examination of pelvic organs was conducted and concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH in blood were determined. The study results obtained suggest that a reduced size of ovary in girls aged 16 compared with 15-year-old girls is accompanied with the tendency toward a reduced level of AMH and increased concentration of FSH in blood serum. A significant increase in the average size of both ovaries in 17-year-old adolescents is accompanied with the tendency toward increased AMH, and, by contrast, the tendency toward a reduced level of FSH. The level of estradiol significantly increases over age, i.e. over the period from 15 to 17 years. Hence, at ages 15 and 16 all reproductive system components continue to actively adjust to cyclical functioning. By age 17, a close relationship between ovarian reserve and hormonal status is established.Key words: reproductive health, ovarian reserve, hormonal status, girls. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:38-43

  8. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  9. Exploring the neural basis of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov; Zarahn, Eric; Hilton, H John; Flynn, Joseph; DeLaPaz, Robert; Rakitin, Brian

    2003-08-01

    There is epidemiologic and imaging evidence for the presence of cognitive reserve, but the neurophysiologic substrate of CR has not been established. In order to test the hypothesis that CR is related to aspects of neural processing, we used fMRI to image 19 healthy young adults while they performed a nonverbal recognition test. There were two task conditions. A low demand condition required encoding and recognition of single items and a titrated demand condition required the subject to encode and then recognize a larger list of items, with the study list size for each subject adjusted prior to scanning such that recognition accuracy was 75%. We hypothesized that individual differences in cognitive reserve are related to changes in neural activity as subjects moved from the low to the titrated demand task. To test this, we examined the correlation between subjects' fMRI activation and NART scores. This analysis was implemented voxel-wise in a whole brain fMRI dataset. During both the study and test phases of the recognition memory task we noted areas where, across subjects, there were significant positive and negative correlations between change in activation from low to titrated demand and the NART score. These correlations support our hypothesis that neural processing differs across individuals as a function of CR. This differential processing may help explain individual differences in capacity, and may underlie reserve against age-related or other pathologic changes.

  10. 76 FR 2083 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... requirement and sets a course for successful implementation of the goals and objectives of the Reserve. Since... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Estuarine Research Reserve System AGENCY: Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean...

  11. 17 CFR 229.1202 - (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including standardized futures prices or management's own forecasts. (3) If the registrant provides...) Preparation of reserves estimates or reserves audit. Disclose and describe the internal controls...

  12. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF FRACTIONAL RESERVE BANKING AND FULL RESERVE BANKING: WHERE ISLAMIC BANKING SHOULD STAND?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yaser Taufik Syamlan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives – this research is aimed to compare those epistemological bases to the mindset of Islamic Bank and try to drive the philosophy in practical operation whether based on the Fractional Reserve Banking Sytem (RBS) or 100...

  13. Ready, Reliable, and Relevant: The Army Reserve Component as an Operational Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    33 Stephen Everett and L. Martin Kaplan, Department of the Army Historical Summary: Fiscal Year 1993, Center of...1992 and 1993, Public Law 102- 190, 102nd Cong. (December 5, 1991): 1352-1353. 35 Dennis Chapman , “Planning for Employment of the Reserve...not acronyms. These terms are referenced in Chapman , “Planning for Employment of the Reserve Components,” 1-4; 6-9; 11-12. 40 Chapman , “Planning

  14. Reserve Component Programs. Fiscal Year 1999 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    border with Mexico in southern San Diego county as part of project Task Force Grizzly Border Road. In New York’s Operation Straight Shoot, the...1992, which was signed by six states: Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico , Nevada, and Utah. The third such compact was the Southern Regional...Reserve par- ticipated in the 1999 Copa Telemundo, a youth soccer tournament and fiesta for boys age 15 to 19. The Naval Reserve is actively

  15. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2017-09-06

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure. Classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses investigated psychometric characteristics of the Reserve-Building Measure. This North American sample (n = 592) included both patients and caregivers [mean age = 44, SD 19)]. Psychometric analyses revealed distinct subscales measuring current reserve-building activities (Active in the World, Games, Outdoors, Creative, Religious/Spiritual, Exercise, Inner Life, Shopping/Cooking, Passive Media Consumption,), past reserve-building activities (Childhood Activities, Achievement), and reserve-related person-factors (Perseverance, Current and Past Social Support, and Work Value). Test-retest stability (n = 101) was moderately high for 11 of 15 subscales (ICC range 0.78-0.99); four were below 0.59 indicating a need for further refinement. IRT analyses supported the item functioning of all subscales. Correlational analyses suggest the measure's subscales tap distinct constructs (range r = 0.11-0.46) which are not redundant with QOL, well-being, or personality (range r = 0.11-0.48). The Reserve-Building Measure provides a measure of activities and person-factors related to reserve that may potentially be useful in prospective research.

  16. Reserve Officer Commissioning Program (ROCP) Officer andReserve Personnel Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-07

    Cleared for Public Release DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Reserve Officer...Commissioning Program (ROCP) Officer and Reserve Personnel Readiness Jennifer Griffin and Michelle Dolfini-Reed April 2017 This work was...performed under Federal Government Contract No. N00014-16-D-5003. Copyright © 2017 CNA This document contains the best opinion of CNA at the time of

  17. Root carbon reserve dynamics in aspen seedlings: does simulated drought induce reserve limitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, David A; Landhäusser, S M; Tyree, M T

    2011-03-01

    In a greenhouse study we quantified the gradual change of gas exchange, water relations and root reserves of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) seedlings growing over a 3-month period of severe water stress. The aim of the study was to quantify the complex interrelationship between growth, water and gas exchange, and root carbon (C) dynamics. Various growth, gas exchange and water relations variables in combination with root reserves were measured periodically on seedlings that had been exposed to a continuous drought treatment over a 12-week period and compared with well-watered seedlings. Although gas exchange and water relations parameters significantly decreased over the drought period in aspen seedlings, root reserves did not mirror this trend. During the course of the experiment roots of aspen seedlings growing under severe water stress showed a two orders of magnitude increase in sugar and starch content, and roots of these seedlings contained more starch relative to sugar than those in non-droughted seedlings. Drought resulted in a switch from growth to root reserves storage which indicates a close interrelationship between growth and physiological variables and the accumulation of root carbohydrate reserves. Although a severe 3-month drought period created physiological symptoms of C limitation, there was no indication of a depletion of root C reserve in aspen seedlings.

  18. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-González, Carmina E; Gómez-Ramírez, Miguel A; López-González, Carlos A; Doherty, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca) population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i) private reserve creation ii) later reserve expansions, and iii) cattle ranches' conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively) in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively). Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability.

  19. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina E Gutiérrez-González

    Full Text Available We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i private reserve creation ii later reserve expansions, and iii cattle ranches' conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively. Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability.

  20. Reserve, flowing electrolyte, high rate lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M.; Harris, P.

    Flowing electrolyte Li/SOCl2 tests in single cell and multicell bipolar fixtures have been conducted, and measurements are presented for electrolyte flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures, fixture temperatures at several points, and the pressure drop across the fixture. Reserve lithium batteries with flowing thionyl-chloride electrolytes are found to be capable of very high energy densities with usable voltages and capacities at current densities as high as 500 mA/sq cm. At this current density, a battery stack 10 inches in diameter is shown to produce over 60 kW of power while maintaining a safe operating temperature.

  1. Demand as Frequency-controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian Brandt; Østergaard, Jacob

    with great enthusiasm from all DFR project members who have shown a memorable dedication to their work. Active control of electricity demand is a key technology when creating a more dynamic, wind power friendly energy system. In this demonstration project, we have developed and tested devices, which use...... electric loads to provide frequency controlled primary reserves. The devices collected data from domestic households and industrial loads covering i.e. circulation pumps, electrical domestic heating, bottle coolers, a wastewater treatment plant etc., that have been analysed and used for the papers...

  2. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-01-01

    The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N), with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In t...

  3. Essays in the California electricity reserves markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    This dissertation examines inefficiencies in the California electricity reserves markets. In Chapter 1, I use the information released during the investigation of the state's electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to diagnose allocative inefficiencies. Building upon the work of Wolak (2000), I calculate a lower bound for the sellers' price-cost margins using the inverse elasticities of their residual demand curves. The downward bias in my estimates stems from the fact that I don't account for the hierarchical substitutability of the reserve types. The margins averaged at least 20 percent for the two highest quality types of reserves, regulation and spinning, generating millions of dollars in transfers to a handful of sellers. I provide evidence that the deviations from marginal cost pricing were due to the markets' high concentration and a principal-agent relationship that emerged from their design. In Chapter 2, I document systematic differences between the markets' day- and hour-ahead prices. I use a high-dimensional vector moving average model to estimate the premia and conduct correct inferences. To obtain exact maximum likelihood estimates of the model, I employ the EM algorithm that I develop in Chapter 3. I uncover significant day-ahead premia, which I attribute to market design characteristics too. On the demand side, the market design established a principal-agent relationship between the markets' buyers (principal) and their supervisory authority (agent). The agent had very limited incentives to shift reserve purchases to the lower priced hour-ahead markets. On the supply side, the market design raised substantial entry barriers by precluding purely speculative trading and by introducing a complicated code of conduct that induced uncertainty about which actions were subject to regulatory scrutiny. In Chapter 3, I introduce a state-space representation for vector autoregressive moving average models that enables

  4. Forty Defective Criticisms of Full Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The basics of full reserve banking (FR) are set out below, followed by forty defective criticisms of FR. Each of those forty sections has: 1. A heading. 2. Where the heading does not adequately capture the nature of the criticism, there is a paragraph below the heading starting “I.e…”, which expands on the heading. 3. There are references to one or more economists who have put the relevant criticism. 4. The answer to each criticism which starts with a paragraph beginning with the wo...

  5. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  7. Extended-reach wells tap outlying reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazzal, G. (Eastman Teleco, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Extended-reach drilling (ERD) is being used to exploit fields and reserves that are located far from existing platforms. Effective wellbore placement from fewer platforms can reduce development costs, maximize production and increase reserve recovery. Six wells drilled offshore in the US, North Sea and Australia illustrate how to get the most economic benefit from available infrastructure. These wells are divided into three categories by depth (shallow, medium and deep). Vertical depth of these wells range from 963 to 12,791 ft TVD and displacements range from 4,871 to 23,917 ft. Important factors for successful extended-reach drilling included: careful, comprehensive pre-planning; adequate cuttings removal in all sections; hole stability in long, exposed intervals; torque and drag modeling of drilling BHAs, casing and liners; buoyancy-assisted casing techniques where appropriate; critical modifications to drilling rig and top drive, for medium and deep ERD; modified power swivels for shallow operations; drill pipe rubbers or other casing protection during extended periods of drill string rotation; heavy-wall casting across anticipated high-wear areas; survey accuracy and frequency; sound drilling practices and creativity to accomplish goals and objectives. This paper reviews the case history of these sites and records planning and design procedures.

  8. Engineering, geology hike Black Bayou reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1971-01-04

    New wells drilled in strategic locations, combined with well-engineered attic-oil recovery projects, have added more than 20 million bbl of recoverable oil to Shell Oil Co's reserves in Black Bayou field, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Development wells discover the small reservoirs in the highly faulted field and up dig gas injection assures Shell of getting all the oil possible. A continuous review of the field's geology, constantly updated with information from each new well, contributes to the program's sucess. In the last 10 yr, the combination of reservoir engineering and geology came up with 71 new wells, added 20 million bbl to the field's reserves, and increased production rate from 1,000 to 9,000 bpd. All this from a field that is celebrating its forty-first anniversary. Black Bayou is the oldest Shell-discovered field in Louisiana. It is a piercement-type salt dome with production confined to narrow bands around the periphery of the salt. The dome is bisected by a major NW.-dipping fault, and is further complicated by at least 30 radial faults. There are 26 productive oil sands of sands of Miocene and Oligocene age. Cumulative production from the field as of Nov. 1, 1970, is approx. 34 million bbl oil. Ultimate recovery for the field is estimated at 50 million bbl oil.

  9. 26 CFR 1.801-5 - Total reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its highest aggregate reserve by taking State A's requirement of 10 against its life insurance business and adding it to State B's requirement of 7 against its annuity business. (b) Reserves required by...) The reasons for the change in basis of such reserve; and (6) Whether such change in the reserve has...

  10. 12 CFR 204.6 - Charges for reserve deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... waives the penalty for failing to satisfy a liquidity requirement, the Reserve Bank in the District where... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charges for reserve deficiencies. 204.6 Section 204.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...

  11. 24 CFR 81.95 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of..., Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars, this subpart H, and procedures established by the...

  12. 31 CFR 210.7 - Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Reserve Banks. 210.7 Section... CLEARING HOUSE General § 210.7 Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Fiscal Agents. Each Federal Reserve Bank serves... under this part. As Fiscal Agent, each Federal Reserve Bank shall be responsible only to the...

  13. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1) The...

  14. 7 CFR 981.51 - Requirements for reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for reserve. 981.51 Section 981.51... Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.51 Requirements for reserve. Each handler may satisfy his reserve... include grade requirements for reserve almonds delivered to human consumption outlets....

  15. 12 CFR 204.9 - Emergency reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency reserve requirement. 204.9 Section... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.9 Emergency reserve requirement. (a..., additional reserve requirements on depository institutions at any ratio on any liability upon a finding by...

  16. 5 CFR 842.210 - Military reserve technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military reserve technicians. 842.210... reserve technicians. (a) A military reserve technician as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8401(30) who is separated from civilian service because of ceasing to qualify as a member of a military reserve component...

  17. STEM Summer Academy on the Navajo Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission, an ESA cornerstone mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While the project's outreach efforts span multi-media, and a variety of age and ethnic groups, a special emphasis has been made to find a way to provide meaningful outreach to the reservation communities. Because language preservation is an issue of urgent concern to the reservation communities, and because Rosetta, uniquely among NASA missions, has been named after the notion that keys to missing understanding of elements of the ancient past were found in the language on the original Rosetta stone, the US Rosetta Project has embarked upon outreach with a focus on STEM vocabulary in ancient US languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Ojibwe, and other tribal communities as the project expands. NASA image and science are used and described in the native language, alongside lay English and scientific English curriculum elements. Additionally, science (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). In this paper we will report on the most recent Summer Science Academy [2012], a four week summer course for middle school children, created in collaboration with teachers and administrators in the Chinle Unified School District. The concept of the Academy was initiated in 2011, and the first Academy was conducted shortly thereafter, in June 2011 with 14 children, 3 instructors, and a NASA teacher workshop. The community requested three topics: geology, astronomy, and botany. The 2012 Academy built on the curriculum already developed with more robust field trips, addressed to specific science topics, additional quantitative measurements and activities, with more written material for the cultural components from

  18. A public finance analysis of multiple reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Vega, Marco; Russell, Steven

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes multiple reserve requirements of the type that have been imposed by a number of developing countries. We show that previous theoretical work on this topic has not succeeded in providing a social welfare rationale for the existence of multiple reserve requirements: in the basic reserve requirements model, any allocation that can be supported by a multiple-reserves regime can also be supported by a single-bond reserve requirement. We go on to present extended versions of the...

  19. A public finance analysis of multiple reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Vega, Marco; Russell, Steven

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes multiple reserve requirements of the type that have been imposed by a number of developing countries. We show that previous theoretical work on this topic has not succeeded in providing a social welfare rationale for the existence of multiple reserve requirements: in the basic reserve requirements model, any allocation that can be supported by a multiple-reserves regime can also be supported by a single-bond reserve requirement. We go on to present extended versions of the...

  20. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-03-01

    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  1. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N, with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In the neighbouring Karatau ridge there is a palaeontological site with an area of 2.2 km2 with deposits of flora and fauna of the Jurassic period. The absolute heights above sea level are 1300–4200 m. The relief is alpine – deep canyons with steep slopes. The middle mountain zone (1300–2000 m is occupied by meadow-steppe formations with juniper sparse forests (Juniperus semiglobosa, J. seravschanica; subalpine meadows (2000–3000 m are alternated by creeping juniper thickets (Juniperus turkestanica and rocky outcrops; the alpine zone (higher than 3000 m is dominated by rocks and snowfields, and glaciers above 3500 m. The nature reserve's flora constitutes almost half of all West Tien Shan's flora and counts 1737 species, including: 235 species of fungi, 64 lichens, 63 species each of algae and mosses, as well as 1312 species of higher plants. Among those, 200 species are medicinal and 57 species are listed in the Red Data Books of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The vertebrates fauna includes 320 species: mammals – 52 species, birds – 247 (130 of them are nesting, reptiles and amphibians – 14, fishes – 7 species. Animals inhabiting the territory include argali (Ovis ammon karelini, mountain goat (Capra sibirica, bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus, snow leopart (Uncia uncia, Turkestan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus; birds – bearded vulture (Gypaёtus barbatus, Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis, chukar (Alectoris chukar, blue

  2. Beurteilungsmöglichkeiten der ovariellen Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebl O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Überprüfung der Funktionstüchtigkeit der Ovarien ist für die Beratung und Planung einer IVF-Behandlung von besonderer Bedeutung. Die Funktionstüchtigkeit wird im Allgemeinen als ovarielle Reserve bezeichnet. Diese setzt sich aus der Anzahl der im Rahmen einer kontrollierten ovariellen Stimulation gewonnenen Eizellen und der Qualität eben dieser zusammen. Es gibt verschiedene Möglichkeiten, diese zu bestimmen, jedoch keinen Parameter, der beide Kriterien optimal erfüllt. Auch zeigen sich viele Parameter als nicht unabhängig voneinander oder als zu aufwendig für die routinemäßige Verwendung bei Frauen mit Kinderwunsch. Die Kombination einzelner Parameter erlaubt jedoch eine gute Aussage über die zu erwartende Antwort der Ovarien auf eine kontrollierte ovarielle Stimulation und somit die Anpassung der Stimulation.

  3. Coronary flow velocity reserve by echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Snoer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    reserve (MFR) measured by PET in overweight and obese patients. METHODS: Participants with revascularized coronary artery disease were examined by CFVR. Subgroups were examined by repeated CFVR (reproducibility) or Rubidium-82-PET (agreement). To account for time variation, results were computed for scans...... %, and reliability 0.97. Agreement with MFR of the LAD territory (n = 35) was without significant bias and overall LOA were (-1.40;1.46). Agreement was best for examinations performed within 1-week of participants without MI of the LAD-territory (n = 12); LOA = (-0.68;0.88). CONCLUSIONS: CFVR was highly feasible...... with a good reproducibility on par with other contemporary measures applied in cardiology. Agreement with MFR was acceptable, though discrepancy related to prior MI has to be considered. CFVR of LAD is a valid tool in overweight and obese patients....

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1989. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1989 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1. 16 figs., 194 tabs.

  5. Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1990. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1990 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1.

  6. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  7. Macrofungi of the Zasavica special nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Marko S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of biodiversity investigation of the Republic of Serbia, the investigation of the presence and the diversity of macrofungi of the Zasavica Special Nature Reserve (North Serbia has been undertaken. Relatively poor generic diversity of macrofungi was recorded with domination of ecological group of wood-decaying species. Even though being preliminary, our results point to the necessity of conservation and protection of recent fungal diversity but, in our opinion, not by making a so-called 'Red list of endangered species', which, due to the lack of information and very poor evidence on this group of organisms in our country, are extremely unreliable and therefore disputable, but rather through the very short list of a few not endangered species, conditionally called 'White list of not endangered fungal species', if such species recently exist et all.

  8. Tissue carnitine reserves of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai, J P; Borum, P R

    1984-07-01

    This study assessed the tissue reserves of carnitine at birth in a group of neonates (n = 22) of varying gestational age dying within 24 h of birth, prior to possible changes in carnitine status induced by postnatal intervention. Tissue carnitine concentration was highest in the muscle in each infant. The mean (+/- SD) muscle carnitine concentration of 8.4 +/- 3.6 nmol/mg noncollagen protein (NCP) in very immature infants (less than or equal to 1000 g birth weight) was significantly lower than the corresponding mean (+/- SD) values of 14.0 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg NCP in larger preterm infants (1001-2500 g; P less than 0.01) and 19.4 +/- 2.6 nmol/mg NCP in term infants (greater than or equal to 2501 g; P less than 0.001). Muscle carnitine concentration correlated positively with gestational age (r = 0.832; P less than 0.001) and with body dimensions. Liver and heart carnitine concentrations did not correlate significantly with gestation or body dimensions. The mean (+/- SD) liver carnitine concentration for all the neonates as a group was 4.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg NCP. The mean (+/- SD) heart carnitine concentration was 4.7 +/- 1.3 nmol/mg NCP. In comparison to adult controls, tissue carnitine concentrations were markedly lower in neonates, particularly in immature newborns. These data suggest that newborn infants, especially premature babies, are born with limited tissue reserves of carnitine and are therefore at an increased risk for developing carnitine deficiency and its adverse effects in the postnatal period, particularly if maintained on carnitine-free intravenous nutrition for prolonged periods of time.

  9. Marine reserves as linked social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollnac, Richard; Christie, Patrick; Cinner, Joshua E; Dalton, Tracey; Daw, Tim M; Forrester, Graham E; Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Timothy R

    2010-10-26

    Marine reserves are increasingly recognized as having linked social and ecological dynamics. This study investigates how the ecological performance of 56 marine reserves throughout the Philippines, Caribbean, and Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is related to both reserve design features and the socioeconomic characteristics in associated coastal communities. Ecological performance was measured as fish biomass in the reserve relative to nearby areas. Of the socioeconomic variables considered, human population density and compliance with reserve rules had the strongest effects on fish biomass, but the effects of these variables were region specific. Relationships between population density and the reserve effect on fish biomass were negative in the Caribbean, positive in the WIO, and not detectable in the Philippines. Differing associations between population density and reserve effectiveness defy simple explanation but may depend on human migration to effective reserves, depletion of fish stocks outside reserves, or other social factors that change with population density. Higher levels of compliance reported by resource users was related to higher fish biomass in reserves compared with outside, but this relationship was only statistically significant in the Caribbean. A heuristic model based on correlations between social, cultural, political, economic, and other contextual conditions in 127 marine reserves showed that high levels of compliance with reserve rules were related to complex social interactions rather than simply to enforcement of reserve rules. Comparative research of this type is important for uncovering the complexities surrounding human dimensions of marine reserves and improving reserve management.

  10. Estimation of in situ resources, recoverable reserves and marketable reserves from a coal quality perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, B.; Whitby, K.; Meyers, A. [A & B Mylec Pty. Ltd., Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    The competitive nature of the coal industry currently has meant that attention to detail in estimating coal resources, and recoverable and marketable reserves is of greater importance now than probably at any other time in the history of the Australian coal industry. This paper describes the mechanisms applied in deriving the best possible resource and reserve estimates in evaulating a coal lease, largely from the coal quality perspective. It attempts to show one way of uniting the geological model of a coal deposit to quality aspects such as in situ density and tonnage and ultimately to the anticipated product coal tonnes. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Establishment of nature reserves in administrative regions of mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Guo

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature

  12. Avaliações microclimáticas e das características de qualidade da uva de mesa 'Romana' com proteção individual dos cachos Microclimatic and quality characteristics evaluations for the 'Romana' seedless table grape bunch grown under individual protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do uso de proteção individual de cachos, contra incidência de chuvas durante o período de maturação, no microclima, no controle de rachaduras e podridões e, principalmente, nas características de qualidade, foi realizado um experimento, em vinhedo da cultivar de uva de mesa sem sementes Romana (A1105, na região de Jundiaí (SP. Os tratamentos, constituídos pelo tipo de proteção individual dos cachos, foram: sem proteção; saco plástico transparente com fundo aberto; saco de papel impermeável com fundo aberto e papel impermeável translúcido (chapéu-chinês. Medições de temperatura do ar e umidade relativa foram efetuadas no nível do cacho nos tratamentos sem proteção e com proteção durante o período de maturação das uvas até a colheita. Os valores obtidos de temperatura foram: 23,9; 22,9 e 22,0 ºC, respectivamente, para os tratamentos saco plástico; chapéu-chinês e sem proteção. Os valores médios de umidade relativa foram mais elevados próximo dos cachos sem proteção (86,1% quando comparados aos tratamentos: saco plástico (76,0% e chapéu-chinês (73,2%. Em relação aos itens de qualidade dos cachos e controle de podridões, os tratamentos chapéu-chinês e saco de papel impermeável foram mais eficientes quando comparados ao tratamento sem proteção.A field trial was carried out at Jundiaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a 'Romana' (A1105 seedless table grape vineyard aiming to evaluate the influence of individual bunch protection on microclimate and bunch quality, mainly for rot control. The different individual bunch protection against rain during the maturation period were: impermeable paper and polyethylene bunch cover. Measurements of temperature and relative humidity in the protected and unprotected bunchs were taken from beginning of maturation process to harvest. The obtained values of mean temperature were: 23.9; 22.9 and 22.0ºC, respectively for the treatments

  13. Características de produção de frutos de melancia sem sementes em função de fontes e doses de potássio Fruit yield characteristics of seedless watermelon as influenced by sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson C Grangeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em uma propriedade rural, próxima à cidade de Borborema - SP, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de frutos de melancia sem sementes, híbrido Shadow, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo avaliadas as fontes cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e as doses 50, 100, 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de K2O, em Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo Distrófico. O maior número de frutos por planta (1,7 foi obtido com as fontes KNO3 e KCl, respectivamente nas doses de 172 e 182 kg ha-1 de K2O. A massa do fruto foi influenciada somente pela dose de potássio e a maior massa foi obtida com 158 kg ha-1 K2O. As produtividades máximas foram obtidas com 94,1; 183 e 193,4 kg ha-1 de K2O, respectivamente, nas fontes K2SO4, KCl e KNO3. Para cada 1 kg de K2O utilizado na fonte K2SO4, obteve-se 201,6 kg de frutos, enquanto a mesma quantidade de K2O nas fontes KCl e KNO3 proporcionou a produção de 111,5 e 109,6 kg ha-1 de frutos.The experiment was carried out on a farm, in the Borborema County, State of São Paulo, from February to April 2002, in Typic Paleudult. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of sources and doses of potassium on fruit yield characteristics of seedless watermelon. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three replications, in 3 x 4 factorial scheme, corresponding respectively to potassium sources (potassium chloride, nitrate, and sulphate and doses (50, 100, 200, and 300 kg K2O ha-1. The highest number of fruits per plant (1,7 was achieved with 172 and 182 kg ha-1 K2O, using respectively KNO3 and KCl as fertilizers. Fruit weight was influenced only for potassium doses and 158 kg ha-1 K2O promoted the largest weight. Maximum yield were obtained with 94.1, 183.0, and 193.4 kg ha-1 K2O, using respectively K2SO4, KCl

  14. Standards for Teaching about the Federal Reserve System: An Initiative by Two Federal Reserve Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, William D.; Grimes, Paul W.; Suiter, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta and St. Louis began a systematic evaluation of their economic and personal finance educational outreach programs. Both banks were interested in developing tools to assess the success of their existing economic and financial education programs. However, before any assessment could begin, a…

  15. Investigating Textbook Reserves: A Case Study of Two Models for Reserves Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Noggle, Stephanie; Rafferty, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the behaviors and preferences of medical and nursing students in relation to their required textbooks and library reserves. The findings are based on an April 2015 survey at the University of Illinois-Chicago satellite Library of the Health Sciences in Urbana, where the library provides access to textbooks through traditional…

  16. Accumulation of nutrients and agronomic performance of grafted seedless watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Simone dos Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fertilizing is one of the main inputs that increase watermelon production costs. Watermelon grafting with compatible rootstocks and a vigorous root system may increase the efficiency of nutrients absorption. This study aimed at determining the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients, as well as the agronomic performance of grafted watermelon. The triploid 'Precious Petite' watermelon was used as graft and the Line BGCIA941 (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides as rootstock. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, in a split-plot, with six replicates. The 'Precious Petite' grafted onto Line BGCIA941, ungrafted 'Precious Petite' and ungrafted Line BGCIA941 were evaluated in the plot, while the subplot corresponded to the sampling time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 days after transplanting. 'Precious Petite' grafted onto Line BGCIA 941 accumulated more macro and micronutrients than the ungrafted plants, increasing fruit yield, flesh firmness and rind thickness, but it did not affect the soluble solids contents. The decreasing order for nutrient accumulation in the grafted plants was N > K > Ca > Mg > P > S > Fe > Mn > Zn > B > Cu, whereas for ungrafted 'Precious Petite' it corresponded to N > K > Ca > Mg > P > S > Mn > Fe > B > Zn > Cu.

  17. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient as... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or...

  18. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden...

  19. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden...

  20. Marginal reserves of energy and environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raveloson, E.A.; Rakotomaria, E. [Universite d`Antananarivo (Madagascar); Gazerian, J.P. [Universite d`Aix-Marseille (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Madagascar is a country which has a variety of energy fields that present limited reserves in quantity and quality. Up till now, these fields were not economically viable. When and how to change this situation? In the classical project management approach, there will not be any chance to drive up the development of these energy fields. Nowadays, the economical crisis is general at a world-wide level, but for each developing country it appears that poverty is closely linked to environmental problems. Drought, starvation, deforestation, intensive migration of population without taking into account the standard constraints of under-development, non existence of roads or of modern agriculture and industry, limitation of financing availability, etc. The preliminary conditions to answer efficiently the common problems of development and of environment should be the reduction of the project size to a reasonable investment, the splitting of the field to a small zones of {open_quotes}development and environment,{close_quotes} identifying the economic potential (agriculture, industry, tourism, trade, and consumer centers), then determining the model of energy production adapted to the in situ available raw material. Project management methods and competitive intelligence methods should be combined to find the right solution in due time for the southern part of Madagascar. From the logical framework method, the Logiframe software has been designed to be an efficient tool for developing countries project managers and decision makers to solve the projects integratability problems on behalf of a regional development program.

  1. Measures of cognitive reserve in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Sobral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cognitive reserve (CR, a hypothetical construct used to obtain information about cognitive aging, describes the capacity of the adult brain to cope with the effects of neurodegenerative processes. This study evaluated CR using a CR questionnaire (CRQ and a set of variables (education, leisure activities, lifelong occupation that inform CR. It also developed a CR index, validated the CRQ, and examined the correlation between the different CR measures.METHODS: Functional and neuropsychological capacities of 75 outpatients (mean age: 80.2 years with a probable AD diagnosis were evaluated. Socio-demographic data and clinical variables were collected. Patients completed two questionnaires: the Participation in Leisure Activities throughout Life questionnaire, and the CRQ.RESULTS: Participants with a greater CR had higher scores in cognitive tests than the elderly with a lower CR. A CR index was developed. CRQ reliability was 0.795 (Cronbach's alpha. There was a close association between the CR Index and the CRQ.CONCLUSIONS: This study found an association between CR measures and education, occupation and participation in leisure activities. The CRQ seems to be a suitable instrument to measure CR in Portuguese populations.

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the public about the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the public and the environment. It describes the environmental surveillance and monitoring activities conducted at and around the DOE facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Preparation and publication of this report is in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1. The order specifies a publication deadline of June of the following year for each calendar year of data. The primary objective of this report is to summarize all information collected for the previous calendar year regarding effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and estimates of radiation and chemical dose to the surrounding population. When multiple years of information are available for a program, trends are also evaluated. The first seven sections of Volume 1 of this report address this objective. The last three sections of Volume 1 provide information on solid waste management, special environmental studies, and quality assurance programs.

  3. Amyloid positron emission tomography and cognitive reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Bauckneht; Agnese Picco; Flavio Nobili; Silvia Morbelli

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease(AD) is characterized by a nonlinear progressive course and several aspects influence the relationship between cerebral amount of AD pathology and the clinical expression of the disease. Brain cognitive reserve(CR) refers to the hypothesized capacity of an adult brain to cope with brain damage in order to minimize symptomatology. CR phenomenon contributed to explain the disjunction between the degree of neurodegeneration and the clinical phenotype of AD. The possibility to track brain amyloidosis(Aβ) in vivo has huge relevance for AD diagnosis and new therapeutic approaches. The clinical repercussions of positron emission tomography(PET)-assessed Aβ load are certainly mediated by CR thus potentially hampering the prognostic meaning of amyloid PET in selected groups of patients. Similarly, amyloid PET and cerebrospinal fluid amyloidosis biomarkers have recently provided new evidence for CR. The present review discusses the concept of CR in the framework of available neuroimaging studies and specifically deals with the reciprocal influences between amyloid PET and CR in AD patients and with the potential consequent interventional strategies for AD.

  4. Marine ecological reserves research program: research results 1996-2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    This is a collection of results of research done through the Marine Ecological Reserves Research Program, a competitive, peer-review research program focusing on the four new marine ecological reserves...

  5. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to increase the amount of reserves maintained to a level essential for the conduct of monetary policy... reserve ratios established by the Monetary Control Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-221) in effect on September 1...

  6. Relaxed resource advance reservation policy in grid computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Peng; HU Zhi-gang

    2009-01-01

    The advance reservation technique has been widely applied in many grid systems to provide end-to-end quality of service (QoS). However, it will result in low resource utilization rate and high rejection rate when the reservation rate is high. To mitigate these negative effects brought about by advance reservation, a relaxed advance reservation policy is proposed, which allows accepting new reservation requests that overlap the existing reservations under certain conditions. Both the benefits and the risks of the proposed policy are presented theoretically. The experimental results show that the policy can achieve a higher resource utilization rate and lower rejection rate compared to the conventional reservation policy and backfilling technique. In addition, the policy shows better adaptation when the grid systems are in the presence of a high reservation rate.

  7. Marine ecology: reserves do have a key role in fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum

    2012-06-05

    A new study of the Great Barrier Reef proves a 100-year old conjecture correct: marine reserves do replenish populations in surrounding fishing grounds, while modern reserve networking theory is validated by exchange of offspring of animals among protected areas.

  8. Marine Ecology: Reserve Networks Are Necessary, but Not Sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R

    2015-04-20

    New work reveals that the large network of no-take marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef is working splendidly. However, bold, global action is needed to eliminate threats that reserves cannot guard against.

  9. 7 CFR 930.57 - Secondary inventory reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Regulations § 930.57 Secondary inventory reserve. (a) In the event the inventory reserve... accordance with the annual marketing policy and with § 930.54....

  10. Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohelski, J.T.; Kammerer, P.A.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, were investigated during the period October 1981 through September 1987. The report presents baseline data and some interpretation of ground- and surface-water hydrology and quality of the Reservation.

  11. The petroleum reserves: a peak oil or a plate?; Les reserves de petrole: pic ou plateau?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-09-15

    With 1100 to 1200 Gbl of proved petroleum reserves, the world can still consume petroleum for 35 to 40 years; if we add 1000 to 1200 Gbl of reserves potentially recoverable and if the politico economical conditions allow it, it is 35 supplementary years that can be considered. In this context and while hydrocarbons will still represent 50% of the world 'energetic mixing' in 2030, the production capacity will reach its maximum at about 100 Mbl/day in 2020-2030 with a potential problem in 2015 due to the investment delays resulting of the crisis. Nevertheless, the detection, exploitation and disposal of these resources will imply non only gigantic investments (about 6000 milliards of dollars from now to 2030) but advanced experts and technologies too. (O.M.)

  12. Development and Status of Forestry Nature Reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The primary conservation objective in China is to establish nature reserves to protect biological resources and natural heritage, protect ecosystems which are of global importance or have unique regional features, protect endangered and threatened species and their habitat, and safeguard the genetic resources. By 2000, the number of nature reserves increased to 1,276, while at the same time, the total area protected in nature reserves was up to 123 million ha. Of the total number of reserves, 908 sites ...

  13. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  14. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  15. International Reserve Holdings with Sovereign Risk and Costly Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Nancy P. Marion

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the international reserve-holding behavior of developing countries. It shows that political-economy considerations modify the optimal reserve level determined by efficiency criteria. A country characterized by volatile output, inelastic demand for fiscal outlays, high tax collection costs and sovereign risk will want to accumulate international reserves as well as external debt. Efficiency considerations imply that reserves are optimal when the benefits they provide for in...

  16. VO2 Reserve vs. Heart Rate Reserve During Moderate Intensity Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Tanner J; Keller, Brad G; Fountaine, Charles J

    VO2 and heart rate (HR) are widely used when determining appropriate training intensities for clinical, healthy, and athletic populations. It has been shown that if the % reserve (%R) is used, rather than % of max, HR and VO2 can be used interchangeably to accurately prescribe exercise intensities. Thus, heart rate reserve (HRR) can be prescribed if VO2 reserve (VO2R) is known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare VO2 R and HRR during moderate intensity exercise (50%R). Physically active college students performed a maximal treadmill test to exhaustion. During which VO2 and HR were monitored to determine max values. Upon completion of the maximal test, calculations were made to determine the % grade expected to yield approximately 50% of the subjects VO2R. Subjects then returned to complete the submaximal test (50%R) at least two days later. The %VO2R and %HRR were calculated and compared to the predicted value as well as to each other. Statistical analysis revealed that VO2 at 50%R was significantly greater than the actual VO2 achieved, p VO2 could be more accurately predicted than HR during moderate intensity exercise. The weak correlation between VO2R and HRR indicates that caution should be used when relying on a HR to determine VO2.

  17. Policy analysis for tropical marine reserves: challenges and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.; Folmer, H.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are considered to be a central tool for marine ecosystem-based management in tropical inshore fisheries. The arguments supporting marine reserves are often based on both the nonmarket values of ecological amenities marine reserves provide and the pragmatic cost-saving advantages rela

  18. 12 CFR 209.3 - Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of stock on merger or change in location—(1) Merger of member banks in the same Federal Reserve... any Reserve Bank's capital stock in any calendar year, unless the Board waives these requirements. ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock. 209.3...

  19. 75 FR 9093 - Extensions of Credit by Federal Reserve Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... CFR Part 201 Extensions of Credit by Federal Reserve Banks AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... primary credit rate at each Federal Reserve Bank. ] The secondary credit rate at each Reserve Bank automatically increased by formula as a result of the Board's primary credit rate action. DATES: The...

  20. 12 CFR 615.5134 - Liquidity reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidity reserve requirement. 615.5134 Section... requirement. (a) Each Farm Credit bank must maintain a liquidity reserve, discounted in accordance with... and other borrowings of the bank at all times. The liquidity reserve may only be funded from...

  1. 12 CFR 204.5 - Maintenance of required reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... institutions are Federal Home Loan Banks, the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of required reserves. 204.5 Section 204.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...

  2. 7 CFR 1124.11 - Cooperative reserve supply unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative reserve supply unit. 1124.11 Section 1124... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.11 Cooperative reserve supply unit. Cooperative reserve supply unit means any cooperative association or its agent that is a handler pursuant to §...

  3. Policy analysis for tropical marine reserves: challenges and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.; Folmer, H.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are considered to be a central tool for marine ecosystem-based management in tropical inshore fisheries. The arguments supporting marine reserves are often based on both the nonmarket values of ecological amenities marine reserves provide and the pragmatic cost-saving advantages rela

  4. 12 CFR 811.1 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of Reserve Banks. 811.1 Section 811.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR FEDERAL FINANCING BANK SECURITIES § 811.1 Authority of Reserve Banks. Each Reserve Bank is hereby authorized, in accordance with...

  5. 39 CFR 761.2 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Reserve Banks. 761.2 Section 761.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.2 Authority of Reserve Banks. Each Reserve Bank is hereby...

  6. 18 CFR 1314.3 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Banks. 1314.3 Section 1314.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES FOR TVA POWER SECURITIES ISSUED THROUGH THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.3 Authority of Reserve Banks. (a) Each Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of TVA to perform the...

  7. 50 CFR 640.26 - Tortugas marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tortugas marine reserves. 640.26 Section... Measures § 640.26 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited within the Tortugas marine reserves: Fishing for any species and anchoring by fishing vessels. (a) EEZ portion of...

  8. 7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a) After NRCS has accepted the applicant for enrollment in the...

  9. 25 CFR 91.11 - Domestic animals in village reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic animals in village reserves. 91.11 Section 91.11... VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.11 Domestic animals in village reserves. (a) No livestock shall... owner of the animal, if known, by certified mail or by posting in the village square. The notice...

  10. 24 CFR 904.111 - Nonroutine Maintenance Reserve (NRMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the annual reserve requirement, and (3) show the total reserve requirements for all the listed items... reserve requirements for 90 days the LHA shall invest the excess in federally insured savings accounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroutine Maintenance...

  11. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve pool requirements. 985.57 Section 985.57... Reserve pool requirements. (a) On November 1, or such other date as the Committee, with the approval of the Secretary may establish, the Committee shall pool identified excess oil as reserve oil in...

  12. 26 CFR 1.166-4 - Reserve for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve for bad debts. 1.166-4 Section 1.166-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-4 Reserve for bad debts. (a) Allowance of deduction. A taxpayer who has established the reserve method of treating...

  13. 14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727... Construction Landing Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in § 23.723(b) is shown by free drop tests, the drop height may not be...

  14. In Plain English: Making Sense of the Federal Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, MO.

    The Federal Reserve was created in 1913 in response to recurring banking panics in the United States. Its mission has since expanded into fostering a healthy economy. The Federal Reserve consists of three parts: (1) the Board of Governors; (2) Reserve Banks; and (3) the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). The Board of Governors is the federal…

  15. 78 FR 26617 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... changes in water quality. Since the last management plan, the reserve has built out its core programs and... the approval of this management plan, the Grand Bay Reserve will decrease their total acreage from 18... management plan, the Delaware Reserve will increase their total acreage from 4,930 acres to 6,206. The change...

  16. 78 FR 53732 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... changes in water quality. Since the last management plan, the reserve has built out its core programs and... the approval of this management plan, the Grand Bay Reserve will decrease their total acreage from 18... management plan, the Delaware Reserve will increase their total acreage from 4,930 acres to 6,206. The change...

  17. Synchronization of the Reserve Officer Professional Development and Promotion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t SYNCHRONIZATION OF THE RESERVE OFFICER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION SYSTEMS BY...PROJECT SYNCHRONIZATION OF THE RESERVE OFFICER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION SYSTEMS by Lieutenant Colonel Roy...Colonel Roy M. Jewell TITLE: Synchronization of the Reserve Officer Professional Development and Promotion Systems FORMAT: Strategy Research

  18. 5 CFR 214.402 - Career reserved positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Career reserved positions. 214.402... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Types of Positions § 214.402 Career reserved positions. (a) The head of each agency is responsible for designating career reserved positions in accordance with the regulations in this section....

  19. Integrating power and reserve trade in electricity networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höning, N.F.; Noot, H.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In power markets, the trade of reserve energy will become more important as more intermittent generation is traded. In this work, we propose a novel bidding mechanism for the integration of power and reserve markets. It adds expressivity to reserve bids and facilitates planning.

  20. 76 FR 77229 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012. Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio...

  1. 78 FR 62633 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014. Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio...

  2. 77 FR 74662 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013. Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio...

  3. 40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy... renewable energy reserve. The Administrator will allocate 300,000 allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of the Acid Rain Data System. Allowances from this Reserve will...

  4. Active power reserves evaluation in large scale PVPPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crăciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    contribute to the total amount of Frequency Containment Reserves (FCR) required by TSOs, reserves which are released during transients. To realize this PVPPs have to operate below their maximum available power and operate in Frequency Sensitive Mode (FSM). The reserve can also be used to fulfill future grid...... of the ancillary services have to be shared by the renewable plants. The main focus of the proposed paper is to technically and economically analyze the possibility of having active power reserves in large scale PV power plants (PVPPs) without any auxiliary storage equipment. The provided reserves should...... codes (GCs) requirements such as Power Ramp Limitation (PRL) during high slopes of irradiance....

  5. [Cognitive reserve and neuronal changes associated with aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Sylvia; Belleville, Sylvie

    2010-06-01

    The severity of brain lesions is not a perfect predictor of the severity of cognitive deficits in age-related brain disorders, an observation which has led to the cognitive reserve hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, cognitive reserve modulates the relationship between cerebral lesions and their clinical manifestations by limiting the negative impact of cerebral lesions on cognition. Thus, individuals with high cognitive reserve could sustain a greater amount of neuropathological lesions before they reach the criteria for dementia. The goal of this review is to present and discuss the notion of cognitive reserve, a hypothesis that brings a novel perspective to the complexity of normal and pathological cognitive aging. The present article describes the neuronal mechanisms proposed to underlie cognitive reserve and the factors that increase and decrease reserve. In addition, influent studies that have measured the cognitive reserve hypothesis in clinical populations are presented.

  6. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance.

  7. Estimating cognitive reserve in healthy adults using the Cognitive Reserve Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    Full Text Available The concept of cognitive reserve emerged from observed disparities between brain pathology and clinical symptoms. It may explain better neuropsychological performance in healthy individuals. The objectives of this study were to measure reserve in healthy subjects using a new Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS, analyze the internal consistency of the CRS, and analyze validity evidence. A total of 117 healthy individuals were divided into two groups: 87 adults (aged 18-64 years and 30 elderly adults (≥65 years. All subjects completed the CRS and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The internal consistency of the scale was satisfactory (α = 0.77. No significant differences were observed between genders (t = 0.51, p = 0.611, and age was corrected by averaging the CRS score. The study of validity evidence showed that education affected the CRS (t = -2.98, p = 0.004, partial h2 = 0.07 and there was no significant relationship between the CRS and IQ (r = 0.09, p = 0.33. Occupational attainment and the CRS were not related (F2,116 = 0.11, p = 0.898. In line with previous studies on reserve, heterogeneity was observed in the analyses of relationships between the CRS and cognitive performance. There were significant relationships between CRS score and the Verbal Learning Spanish-Complutense Test last trial (r = 0.24, p = 0.009, sum (r = 0.32, p = 0.000, short-term (r = 0.29, p = 0.002 and long-term memory (r = 0.22, p = 0.018, Matrix Reasoning subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.027 and Block Design subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.029. No other neuropsychological variables correlated with the CRS (p>0.05. The CRS is a reliable instrument that reflects the frequency of participation in brain-stimulating activities across the lifetime. The associations between the CRS and education and neuropsychological performance support validity evidence.

  8. Marine reserve design theory for species with ontogenetic migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Models for marine reserve design have been developed primarily with 'reef fish' life histories in mind: sedentary adults in patches connected by larval dispersal. However, many fished species undertake ontogenetic migrations, such as from nursery grounds to adult spawning habitats, and current theory does not fully address the range of reserve options posed by that situation. I modelled a generic species with ontogenetic migration to investigate the possible benefits of reserves under three alternative scenarios. First, the fishery targets adult habitat, and reserves can sustain yields under high exploitation, unless habitat patches are well connected. Second, the fishery targets the nursery, and reserves are highly effective, regardless of connectivity patterns. Third, the fishery targets both habitats, and reserves only succeed if paired on adjacent, well-connected nursery and adult patches. In all cases, reserves can buffer populations against overexploitation but would not enhance fishery yield beyond that achievable by management without reserves. These results summarize the general situations in which management using reserves could be useful for ontogenetically migrating species, and the type of connectivity data needed to inform reserve design.

  9. Land Use Change Around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. J.; Defries, R.; Curran, L.; Liu, J.; Reid, R.; Turner, B.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of land use change outside of reserves on biodiversity within reserves is not well studied. This paper draws on research from Yellowstone, East Africa, Yucatan, Borneo, and Wolong, China to examine land use effects on nature reserves. Objectives are: quantify rates of change in land use around reserves; examine consequences for biodiversity within the context of specific ecological mechanisms; and draw implications for regional management. Within each of the study regions, semi-natural habitats around nature reserves have been converted to agricultural, rural residential, or urban land uses. Rates vary from 0.2-0.4 %/yr in Yucatan, to 9.5 %/yr in Borneo. Such land use changes may be important because nature reserves are often parts of larger ecosystems that are defined by flows in energy, materials, and organisms. Land use outside of reserves may disrupt these flows and alter biodiversity within reserves. Ecological mechanisms that connect biodiversity to these land use changes include habitat size, ecological flows, crucial habitats, and edge effects. For example, the effective size of the East African study area has been reduced by 45% by human activities. Based on the species area relationship, this reduction in habitat area will lead to a loss of 14% of bird and mammal species. A major conclusion is that the viability of nature reserves can best be ensured by managing them in the context of the surrounding region. Knowledge of the ecological mechanisms by which land use influences nature reserves provides design criteria for this regional management.

  10. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  11. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeney, J Marion; Christensen, Norman L; Pimm, Stuart L

    2009-01-01

    Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  12. Spillover effects of a community-managed marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Marques da Silva

    Full Text Available The value of no-take marine reserves as fisheries-management tools is controversial, particularly in high-poverty areas where human populations depend heavily on fish as a source of protein. Spillover, the net export of adult fish, is one mechanism by which no-take marine reserves may have a positive influence on adjacent fisheries. Spillover can contribute to poverty alleviation, although its effect is modulated by the number of fishermen and fishing intensity. In this study, we quantify the effects of a community-managed marine reserve in a high poverty area of Northern Mozambique. For this purpose, underwater visual censuses of reef fish were undertaken at three different times: 3 years before (2003, at the time of establishment (2006 and 6 years after the marine reserve establishment (2012. The survey locations were chosen inside, outside and on the border of the marine reserve. Benthic cover composition was quantified at the same sites in 2006 and 2012. After the reserve establishment, fish sizes were also estimated. Regression tree models show that the distance from the border and the time after reserve establishment were the variables with the strongest effect on fish abundance. The extent and direction of the spillover depends on trophic group and fish size. Poisson Generalized Linear Models show that, prior to the reserve establishment, the survey sites did not differ but, after 6 years, the abundance of all fish inside the reserve has increased and caused spillover of herbivorous fish. Spillover was detected 1 km beyond the limit of the reserve for small herbivorous fishes. Six years after the establishment of a community-managed reserve, the fish assemblages have changed dramatically inside the reserve, and spillover is benefitting fish assemblages outside the reserve.

  13. Rethinking Fast Growth in China's Foreign Exchange Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanlong Wang

    2006-01-01

    The sustained surpluses in the current and capital accounts of balance of payments are the main reason for the continuing rapid expanse of China's foreign exchange reserves in recent years. However, flaws in the formation of the renminbi exchange rate regime are the institutional root cause of the sustained high growth in foreign exchange reserves. Various theoretical misconceptions about the scale of foreign exchange reserves have swayed policies and contributed to its sustained fast growth. Sustained high growth of China's foreign exchange reserves, and its extraordinary large scale, carry tremendous risks.Because the security of foreign exchange reserves affects a country's financial safety, China urgently needs to adjust its foreign exchange reserve policies.

  14. Adequacy of Frequency Reserves for High Wind Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new methodology is developed to assess the adequacy of frequency reserves to handle power imbalances caused by wind power forecast errors. The goal of this methodology is to estimate the adequate volume and speed of activation of frequency reserves required to handle power...... imbalances caused due to high penetration of wind power. An algorithm is proposed and developed to estimate the power imbalances due to wind power forecast error following activation of different operating reserves. Frequency containment reserve requirements for mitigating these power imbalances...... are developed through this methodology. Furthermore, the probability of reducing this frequency containment reserve requirement is investigated through this methodology with activation of different volumes and speed of frequency restoration reserve. Wind power generation for 2020 and 2030 scenarios...

  15. Analyzing the layout of China's strategic petroleum reserve base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Huiqing; Zhang, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    With the development of China's economy, its dependence on foreign oil increases every year. Therefore, oil reserves play a vital role in ensuring China's energy security. The selection of a base site for the construction of strategic oil reserves is a priority. This study analyzes the status quo as well as future development trends for oil processing conditions, pipeline transportation conditions, consumption and production in the base radiation area, crude oil loading and unloading capacity of the port, reserve modes, and other factors. Preliminary planning of the spatial layout of the petroleum strategic reserve base is also detailed in this study. Strategic oil reserve bases can be positioned at the Pearl River Delta, the crude oil pipelines of Central and Southwest China and the large refineries and locations near the crude oil port terminals. Meanwhile, ground and underground reserve modes should be combined.

  16. Reserves and Valuation using Multiples for Oil and Gas Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pontual Ribeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate the effect of oil and gas reserve increases on firm market value. The estimates are based on Olson’s market value prediction model – that nests the multiples P/E (price-earnings, P/B (price-book value and in the oil industry, the P/R (price-reserves ratio. Reserves are an important characteristic of these firms, but they are not part of equity under usual accounting practices. Using data from firms listed on NYMEX, the results suggest that reserves are positively correlated with firm equity market price. Yet, reserve increases without profit or equity expansions will be penalized by the market, if the reserve increases do not boost profits or the book value of the firm. The evaluation using price multiples appears inefficient, as earnings (or equity and price proportionality is rejected in our empirical model.

  17. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  18. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Xi; Ning Ding; Yougui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  19. Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorenza Micheli; Andrea Saenz-Arroyo; Ashley Greenley; Leonardo Vazquez; Jose Antonio Espinoza Montes; Marisa Rossetto; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine pop...

  20. Tried And True Integrating Active And Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    requirements through maximizing the strengths of each component, maintain relevancy for the Active, Guard and Reserve , and cost savings. The...water faucet. The faucet cannot be turned on to meet ever changing requirements for reserve manning and turned off when those demands are met. The...Senior leadership has advocated for integrating the active and reserve forces to maximize capabilities and execute the mission in a more efficient, cost

  1. Mental Health Among Reserve Component Military Service Members and Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Gregory H.; Fink, David S.; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, the US military has increasingly relied on National Guard and reserve component forces to meet operational demands. Differences in preparation and military engagement experiences between active component and reserve component forces have long suggested that the psychiatric consequences of military engagement differ by component. We conducted a systematic review of prevalence and new onset of psychiatric disorders among reserve component forces and a meta-analysis of prevalence est...

  2. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Xi; Ning Ding; Yougui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  3. Measuring the policy effects of changes in reserve requirement ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph H. Haslag; Scott E. Hein

    1995-01-01

    The monetary base is the sum of high-powered money and an adjustment factor that measures changes in reserve requirement ratios. This adjustment factor is calculated so that it responds to changes in deposit levels in addition to changes in reserve requirements. Consequently, researchers and policymakers using the monetary base are seeing a mixture of changes implemented through open market operations, discount window borrowings, and reserve requirements, together with nonpolicy actions actin...

  4. Reserve growth during financial volatility in a technologically challenging world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth (growth-to-known) is the addition of oil and gas quantities to reported proved or proved-plus-probable reserves in discovered fields. The amount of reserve growth fluctuates through time with prevailing economic and technological conditions. Most reserve additions are the result of investment in field operations and in development technology. These investments can be justified by higher prices of oil and gas, the desire to maintain cash flow, and by greater recovery efficiency in well established fields. The price/cost ratio affects decisions for field abandonment and (or) implementation of improved recovery methods. Although small- to medium-size fields might show higher percentages of reserve growth, a relatively few giant fields contribute most volumetric reserve growth, indicating that companies may prefer to invest in existing fields with low geologic and production risk and an established infrastructure in order to increase their price/cost relationship. Whereas many previous estimates of reserve growth were based on past trends of reported reserves, future reserve growth is expected to be greatly affected by financial volatility and fluctuating economic and technological conditions.

  5. How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  6. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, N; Wang, Y; Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  7. Relationship Among Reserve Ratio, Government Spending and Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; ZHOU Sheng-Wu

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among reserve ration, government spending and economic growth was analyzed. A monetary endogenous growth model is well developed by taking into account the growth-enhancing effects of reserve-augmenting seigniorage. If the government spends all the seigniorage revenue on the provision of a public input which has positive externality on the private sector's production, some results to be utterly different from Bronx's have been obtained: the economy has a unique saddle-balanced growth path, but it has nothing to do with reserve ratio. However, the higher reserve ratio, the faster speed of economic convergence.

  8. Study on Disturbances and Its Effects on Nature Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Linying; Zhou Yongzhang; Xu Songjun

    2006-01-01

    As a widespread natural phenomenon,disturbances are considered a discrete event occurring in a natural ecosystem within various spatial and temporal scales. The present paper discusses the types of disturbances and their influence on the ecologic system in nature reserves. It is shown that nature reserves are facing a great challenge dealing with these disturbances.A rational control for disturbances should be improved in order to promote the healthy development of nature reserves this could be done by enhancing the publicity and training of environment protection, coupling management. with communities around and other nature reserves, effective management methods, rational planning, and supporting nature servers.

  9. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  10. Coal: resources, reserves and production - Panorama 2008; Charbon: ressources, reserves et production - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the French, whose last coal mine closed in 2004, the 'comeback' of coal as a political issue may seem a bit surprising. Even if coal is still used in domestic industry and to produce electricity, it is many years since it was used as the primary energy source for electricity production. This situation, specific to France and certain European countries, is not at all typical of the world situation: in the face of surging energy demand, coal - whose reserves have been estimated by the World Energy Council to cover 145 years of consumption at the current rate - seems to be an energy of the future and an alternative to oil, natural gas and nuclear power for the production of electricity.

  11. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  12. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  13. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  14. Species-specific spatial characteristics in reserve site selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting reserve sites cost-effectively, taking into account the mobility and habitat area requirements of each species. Many reserve site selection problems are analyzed in mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) models due to the mathematical solvers available

  15. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration.

  16. 49 CFR 392.51 - Reserve fuel; materials of trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve fuel; materials of trade. 392.51 Section... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Fueling Precautions § 392.51 Reserve fuel; materials of trade. Small amounts of... Group II (including gasoline), Packing Group III (including aviation fuel and fuel oil), or ORM-D,...

  17. 1 CFR 21.12 - Reservation of numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reservation of numbers. 21.12 Section 21.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND... Reservation of numbers. In a case where related parts or related sections are grouped under a heading,...

  18. 24 CFR 201.32 - Insurance coverage reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lender's reserve account to accompany the loan transfers reported by lenders under § 201.30. (1) In all... coverage for the loan under the applicable requirements of this paragraph. (d) Recovery shall not affect... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage reserve account...

  19. 12 CFR 965.3 - Liquidity reserves for deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidity reserves for deposits. 965.3 Section 965.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES SOURCE OF FUNDS § 965.3 Liquidity reserves for deposits. Each Bank shall at all times have at least an...

  20. When is spillover from marine reserves likely to benefit fisheries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Colin D; Hartmann, Klaas; Kearney, Robert; Gardner, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    The net movement of individuals from marine reserves (also known as no-take marine protected areas) to the remaining fishing grounds is known as spillover and is frequently used to promote reserves to fishers on the grounds that it will benefit fisheries. Here we consider how mismanaged a fishery must be before spillover from a reserve is able to provide a net benefit for a fishery. For our model fishery, density of the species being harvested becomes higher in the reserve than in the fished area but the reduction in the density and yield of the fished area was such that the net effect of the closure was negative, except when the fishery was mismanaged. The extent to which effort had to exceed traditional management targets before reserves led to a spillover benefit varied with rates of growth and movement of the model species. In general, for well-managed fisheries, the loss of yield from the use of reserves was less for species with greater movement and slower growth. The spillover benefit became more pronounced with increasing mis-management of the stocks remaining available to the fishery. This model-based result is consistent with the literature of field-based research where a spillover benefit from reserves has only been detected when the fishery is highly depleted, often where traditional fisheries management controls are absent. We conclude that reserves in jurisdictions with well-managed fisheries are unlikely to provide a net spillover benefit.

  1. 12 CFR 998.3 - Reservation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reservation of authority. 998.3 Section 998.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DISCLOSURES REGISTRATION OF FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK EQUITY SECURITIES § 998.3 Reservation of authority. The requirements of this...

  2. 26 CFR 1.801-4 - Life insurance reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recognized mortality or morbidity tables and assumed rates of interest; (2) Which are set aside to mature or..., regardless of the rate of interest (if any) specified in the contract in respect of such reserves. (d... to law as guaranty or reserve funds, and (2) Any funds maintained, under the charter or articles of...

  3. 38 CFR 11.81 - Rediscounts with Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reserve Banks. 11.81 Section 11.81 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS LOANS BY BANKS ON AND PAYMENT OF ADJUSTED SERVICE CERTIFICATES Loans by Banks on Adjusted Service... Reserve Banks. Upon the endorsement of any bank, which shall be deemed a waiver of demand, notice...

  4. 50 CFR 654.28 - Tortugas marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tortugas marine reserves. 654.28 Section 654.28 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited within the Tortugas marine...

  5. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF THE TECHNICAL RESERVES OF INSURANCE ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA MIHAELA NAGY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation, increase, release and reduction of technical reserves are accounting transactions that are only found in insurance companies. Technical reserves are established for each line of insurance as special funds so that the stability and solvency of insurance companies are not affected.

  6. 75 FR 27165 - Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program AGENCY... amending the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to add provisions for incentives to retired or... farmer or rancher for production. The Transition Incentives Program involves new and mandatory provisions...

  7. 47 CFR 80.917 - Reserve power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... during charging. (g) The cooling system of each internal combustion engine used as a part of the reserve... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.917 Reserve...

  8. 7 CFR 930.55 - Primary inventory reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary inventory reserves. 930.55 Section 930.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Regulations § 930.55 Primary inventory reserves. (a) Whenever the Secretary has fixed the free...

  9. Does bilingualism contribute to cognitive reserve? Cognitive and neural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were used as keywords for study retrieval: "bilingual AND reserve," "reserve AND neural mechanisms," and "reserve AND multilingualism." Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency, and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. The Federal Reserve System discussed: a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fase, M.M.G.; Vanthoor, W.F.W.

    2000-01-01

    In the first half of 2000 the authors of this paper visited the twelve District Reserve Banks in the United States which was followed by a discussion at the Board in Washington. The aim of this visit was to get a deeper insight into the working of the American Federal Reserve System in order to see

  11. 25 CFR 227.12 - Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral reserves in nonmineral entries. 227.12 Section 227.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to Acquire...

  12. Possibilities and limits of ovarian reserve testing in ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Argento, Cindy; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Grisendi, Valentina; Carbone, Marilena; D'Ippolito, Giovanni; Artenisio, Alfredo Carducci; Stabile, Gaspare; Volpe, Annibale

    2012-03-01

    Markers of ovarian reserve are associated with ovarian aging as they decline with chronologic age, and hence may predict stages of reproductive aging including the menopause transition. Assessment of ovarian reserve include measurement of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-M�llerian hormone (AMH), and inhibin-B. Ultrasound determination of antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian vascularity and ovarian volume also can have a role. The clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT), exogenous FSH ovarian reserve test (EFORT), and GnRH-agonist stimulation test (GAST) are dynamic methods that have been used in the past to assess ovarian reserve. In infertile women, ovarian reserve markers can be used to predict low and high oocyte yield and treatment failure in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. However the markers may have limitations when an in depth analysis of their accuracy, cost, convenience, and utility is performed. As ovarian reserve markers may permit the identification of both the extremes of ovarian stimulation, a possible role for their measurement may be in the individualization of treatment strategies in order to reduce the clinical risk of ART along with optimized treatment burden. It is fundamental to clarify the cost/benefit of its use in the ovarian reserve testing before initiation of an IVF cycle and whether the ovarian reserve markers-determined strategy of ovarian stimulation for assisted conception may be associated to improved live birth rate.

  13. 40 CFR 52.150 - Yavapai-Apache Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), the Yavapai-Apache Indian Reservation is...) The provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yavapai-Apache Reservation....

  14. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  15. 5 CFR 317.402 - Career reserved positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Career reserved positions. 317.402 Section 317.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Qualifications Standards § 317.402 Career reserved positions....

  16. Habitat damage, marine reserves, and the value of spatial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2013-07-01

    The biological benefits of marine reserves have garnered favor in the conservation community, but "no-take" reserve implementation is complicated by the economic interests of fishery stakeholders. There are now a number of studies examining the conditions under which marine reserves can provide both economic and ecological benefits. A potentially important reality of fishing that these studies overlook is that fishing can damage the habitat of the target stock. Here, we construct an equilibrium bioeconomic model that incorporates this habitat damage and show that the designation of marine reserves, coupled with the implementation of a tax on fishing effort, becomes both biologically and economically favorable as habitat sensitivity increases. We also study the effects of varied degrees of spatial control on fisheries management. Together, our results provide further evidence for the potential monetary and biological value of spatial management, and the possibility of a mutually beneficial resolution to the fisherman-conservationist marine reserve designation dilemma.

  17. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    Full Text Available Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs, with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  18. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudney-Bueno, Richard; Lavín, Miguel F; Marinone, Silvio G; Raimondi, Peter T; Shaw, William W

    2009-01-01

    Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs), with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  19. Mental health among reserve component military service members and veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Gregory H; Fink, David S; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, the US military has increasingly relied on National Guard and reserve component forces to meet operational demands. Differences in preparation and military engagement experiences between active component and reserve component forces have long suggested that the psychiatric consequences of military engagement differ by component. We conducted a systematic review of prevalence and new onset of psychiatric disorders among reserve component forces and a meta-analysis of prevalence estimates comparing reserve component and active component forces, and we documented stage-sequential drivers of psychiatric burden among reserve component forces. We identified 27 reports from 19 unique samples published between 1985 and 2012: 9 studies reporting on the reserve component alone and 10 reporting on both the reserve component and the active component. The pooled prevalence for alcohol use disorders of 14.5% (95% confidence interval: 12.7, 15.2) among the reserve component was higher than that of 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 10.9, 12.6) among the active component, while there were no component differences for depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. We observed substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates reported by the reserve component. Published studies suggest that stage-sequential risk factors throughout the deployment cycle predicted alcohol use disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and, to a lesser degree, depression. Improved and more standardized documentation of the mental health burden, as well as study of explanatory factors within a life-course framework, is necessary to inform mitigating strategies and to reduce psychiatric burden among reserve component forces.

  20. Asymptotic Analysis of a Loss Model with Trunk Reservation I: Trunks Reserved for Fast Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Morrison

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a model for a single link in a circuit-switched network. The link has C circuits, and the input consists of offered calls of two types, that we call primary and secondary traffic. Of the C links, R are reserved for primary traffic. We assume that both traffic types arrive as Poisson arrival streams. Assuming that C is large and R=O(1, the arrival rate of primary traffic is O(C, while that of secondary traffic is smaller, of the order O(C. The holding times of the primary calls are assumed to be exponentially distributed with unit mean. Those of the secondary calls are exponentially distributed with a large mean, that is, O(C. Thus, the primary calls have fast arrivals and fast service, compared to the secondary calls. The loads for both traffic types are comparable (O(C, and we assume that the system is “critically loaded”; that is, the system's capacity is approximately equal to the total load. We analyze asymptotically the steady state probability that n1 (resp., n2 circuits are occupied by primary (resp., secondary calls. In particular, we obtain two-term asymptotic approximations to the blocking probabilities for both traffic types.

  1. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF FRACTIONAL RESERVE BANKING AND FULL RESERVE BANKING: WHERE ISLAMIC BANKING SHOULD STAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Taufik Syamlan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – this research is aimed to compare those epistemological bases to the mindset of Islamic Bank and try to drive the philosophy in practical operation whether based on the Fractional Reserve Banking Sytem (RBS or 100% RBS and analyze the challenges in deploying the 100%RBS. Methods - This research will be conducted based on an extensive literature review.Results - Based on the epistemological analysis of money and the business cycle as well as the views of Islamic scholars, 100%RBS should be the best for Islamic Bank. There are four types of 100% RBS namely Pure Commodity Money, Sovereign Money, Narrow Banking, and Limited Purpose Banking. To deploy it into the economic system, another philosophical work should be done to choose one of the types and strengthen it so that the theory of 100%RBS can be implemented for the goodness of Islamic Bank.  Conclusion - In Conclusions, Based on the epistemology defined by Islamic Scholars, FractRBS has more mafsadah if we compare to the maslahah. Therefore, 100% RBS should be better for the Islamic Bank.

  2. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation.

  3. A Flexible Reservation Algorithm for Advance Network Provisioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-04-12

    Many scientific applications need support from a communication infrastructure that provides predictable performance, which requires effective algorithms for bandwidth reservations. Network reservation systems such as ESnet's OSCARS, establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits for a certain bandwidth and length of time. However, users currently cannot inquire about bandwidth availability, nor have alternative suggestions when reservation requests fail. In general, the number of reservation options is exponential with the number of nodes n, and current reservation commitments. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks taking advantage of user-provided parameters of total volume and time constraints, which produces options for earliest completion and shortest duration. The theoretical complexity is only O(n2r2) in the worst-case, where r is the number of reservations in the desired time interval. We have implemented our algorithm and developed efficient methodologies for incorporation into network reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm the theoretical predictions.

  4. Option to Operate a Reserve of Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urate, Kengo; Sekozawa, Teruji

    In this paper, the value generated by releasing petroleum reserves at the time of a crude oil price spike is analyzed to show the utility of releasing petroleum reserves. Japan's petroleum reserve currently only releases oil for the purpose of coping with a crude oil supply disruption. However, at present no disruptions to the supply of crude oil are occurring. To determine the value of the petroleum reserve if reserves are released when crude oil price spikes occur, option theory based on financial engineering is used to quantitatively calculate the value of a release into a market with stochastically changing prices. In addition, by examining the value that would have been generated as a function of release price if petroleum reserves had been released at the time of the crude oil price spike of 2008, it is possible to demonstrate the utility of such a release. Furthermore, input-output analysis is used to measure the impact on petrochemical product industries and other industries affected by price increases when crude oil price spikes occur to determine the degree of the price mitigation effect of a petroleum reserve with a release function.

  5. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, J.; Kwok, P.

    2017-04-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices, such as emergency devices or remote sensors that need to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries sometimes require more than 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources are needed to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper, the development of a hybrid reserve power source that is constructed by integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery to provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  6. Connectivity within and among a network of temperate marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A Coleman

    Full Text Available Networks of marine reserves are increasingly being promoted as a means of conserving marine biodiversity. One consideration in designing systems of marine reserves is the maintenance of connectivity to ensure the long-term persistence and resilience of populations. Knowledge of connectivity, however, is frequently lacking during marine reserve design and establishment. We characterise patterns of genetic connectivity of 3 key species of habitat-forming macroalgae across an established network of temperate marine reserves on the east coast of Australia and the implications for adaptive management and marine reserve design. Connectivity varied greatly among species. Connectivity was high for the subtidal macroalgae Ecklonia radiata and Phyllospora comosa and neither species showed any clear patterns of genetic structuring with geographic distance within or among marine parks. In contrast, connectivity was low for the intertidal, Hormosira banksii, and there was a strong pattern of isolation by distance. Coastal topography and latitude influenced small scale patterns of genetic structure. These results suggest that some species are well served by the current system of marine reserves in place along this temperate coast but it may be warranted to revisit protection of intertidal habitats to ensure the long-term persistence of important habitat-forming macroalgae. Adaptively managing marine reserve design to maintain connectivity may ensure the long-term persistence and resilience of marine habitats and the biodiversity they support.

  7. Connectivity within and among a network of temperate marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Melinda A; Chambers, Justine; Knott, Nathan A; Malcolm, Hamish A; Harasti, David; Jordan, Alan; Kelaher, Brendan P

    2011-01-01

    Networks of marine reserves are increasingly being promoted as a means of conserving marine biodiversity. One consideration in designing systems of marine reserves is the maintenance of connectivity to ensure the long-term persistence and resilience of populations. Knowledge of connectivity, however, is frequently lacking during marine reserve design and establishment. We characterise patterns of genetic connectivity of 3 key species of habitat-forming macroalgae across an established network of temperate marine reserves on the east coast of Australia and the implications for adaptive management and marine reserve design. Connectivity varied greatly among species. Connectivity was high for the subtidal macroalgae Ecklonia radiata and Phyllospora comosa and neither species showed any clear patterns of genetic structuring with geographic distance within or among marine parks. In contrast, connectivity was low for the intertidal, Hormosira banksii, and there was a strong pattern of isolation by distance. Coastal topography and latitude influenced small scale patterns of genetic structure. These results suggest that some species are well served by the current system of marine reserves in place along this temperate coast but it may be warranted to revisit protection of intertidal habitats to ensure the long-term persistence of important habitat-forming macroalgae. Adaptively managing marine reserve design to maintain connectivity may ensure the long-term persistence and resilience of marine habitats and the biodiversity they support.

  8. Reserves as tools for alleviating impacts of marine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Joleah B; Wenger, Amelia S; Devlin, Michelle J; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Williamson, David H; Willis, Bette L

    2016-03-05

    Marine protected areas can prevent over-exploitation, but their effect on marine diseases is less clear. We examined how marine reserves can reduce diseases affecting reef-building corals following acute and chronic disturbances. One year after a severe tropical cyclone, corals inside reserves had sevenfold lower levels of disease than those in non-reserves. Similarly, disease prevalence was threefold lower on reserve reefs following chronic exposure to terrestrial run-off from a degraded river catchment, when exposure duration was below the long-term site average. Examination of 35 predictor variables indicated that lower levels of derelict fishing line and injured corals inside reserves were correlated with lower levels of coral disease in both case studies, signifying that successful disease mitigation occurs when activities that damage reefs are restricted. Conversely, reserves were ineffective in moderating disease when sites were exposed to higher than average levels of run-off, demonstrating that reductions in water quality undermine resilience afforded by reserve protection. In addition to implementing protected areas, we highlight that disease management efforts should also target improving water quality and limiting anthropogenic activities that cause injury.

  9. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Jahangir; Pereira, Carlos M.; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices such as emergency devices or remote sensors that have to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries require sometimes in excess of 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources have to be provided to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper the development of a hybrid reserve power source obtained by the integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery that can provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is also provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  10. Wildlife reserves, populations and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    There is a very small natural resource economic literature on natural reserves and hunting that consider potential stress effects of hunting on the game population and its migration in and out of hunting and reserve areas. In this literature private optimal solution with and without stress effect...... from the wildlife reserve to the hunting area in the social optimum. The total effect is, therefore, ambiguous. For the private optimum open-access is assumed and exactly the same results arise as in the social optimum when comparing a situation with and without stress effects....

  11. Extended Reconstruction Approaches for Saturation Measurements Using Reserved Quantization Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peng; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a reserved quantization indices method for saturated measurements in compressed sensing. The existing approaches tailored for saturation effect do not provide a way to identify saturated measurements, which is mandatory in practical implementations.We introduce a method using...... reserved quantization indices to mark saturated measurements, which is applicable to current quantizer models. Two extended approaches based on the proposed method have been investigated compared to the existing approaches. The investigation shows that saturated measurements can be identified by reserved...... quantization indices without adding extra hardware resources while maintaining a comparable reconstruction quality to the existing approaches....

  12. New approaches to e-reserve linking, sharing and streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Ophelia; Patrick, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at academic library practitioners, this book describes how e-reserve services can evolve and adapt to the changing virtual learning environment of higher education. New approaches discussed include: the integration of subscribed, free, and copyrighted resources within course management systems; innovative employment of open URL link resolvers to connect e-reserve with library e-resources and services; video streaming within course documents; and the creative use of bibliographic software to produce customized reading lists. New Approaches to E-Reserve includes detailed descriptions and e

  13. The Power Reserves Market Creation For The Participants Maximum Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolij Mahnitko

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known, that the main task of the electric power system (EPS control is the power supply providing with the minimum expenses for the electric power production. In this case the requirement to the electric power quality, power supply reliability and the limitationson the energy resources cost must be observed. The power reserve presence into EPS is the necessary condition of the guaranteeing the normal operation from the point of view of the regime parameters values. In the proposed paper the problem of the developing the power reserve, presented to sale by the electric power producers, is examined. It is considered the procedure of the power reserve pricedetermination.

  14. Biomarkers of ovarian reserve in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Heather Gibson

    2013-11-01

    Recent years have seen an acceleration of research on biomarkers of ovarian reserve, with most inquiries targeted toward what these markers tell us about fertility and the reproductive lifespan. However, in the patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), ovarian reserve markers may provide information about the condition itself. This review will consider the use of common markers of functional ovarian reserve, including antral follicle count, ovarian volume, and anti-Müllerian hormone in the PCOS population for the purposes of diagnosing PCOS, characterizing the PCOS phenotype, and predicting response to fertility treatment.

  15. Reactive Power Compensation Method Considering Minimum Effective Reactive Power Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yiyu; Zhang, Kai; Pu, Zhang; Li, Xuenan; Zuo, Xianghong; Zhen, Jiao; Sudan, Teng

    2017-05-01

    According to the calculation model of minimum generator reactive power reserve of power system voltage stability under the premise of the guarantee, the reactive power management system with reactive power compensation combined generator, the formation of a multi-objective optimization problem, propose a reactive power reserve is considered the minimum generator reactive power compensation optimization method. This method through the improvement of the objective function and constraint conditions, when the system load growth, relying solely on reactive power generation system can not meet the requirement of safe operation, increase the reactive power reserve to solve the problem of minimum generator reactive power compensation in the case of load node.

  16. evaluation of the contributions of ikere forest reserve to sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    The use of forest products in the recent times has involved provision of employment opportunity, provision of food and .... Table 3: List of products collected/harvested in the forest reserve. Products .... Fencing pole, electricity pole, construction ...

  17. Wildlife reserves, populations, and hunting outcome with smart wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Strange, Niels

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hunting area and a wildlife reserve and answer the question: How does clever migration decision affect the social optimal and the private optimal hunting levels and population stocks? We analyze this in a model allowing for two-way migration between hunting and reserve areas, where...... the populations’ migration decisions depend on both hunting pressure and relative population densities. In the social optimum a pure stress effect on the behavior of smart wildlife exists. This implies that the population level in the wildlife reserve tends to increase and the population level in the hunting area...... and hunting levels tend to decrease. On the other hand, the effect on stock tends to reduce the population in the wildlife reserve and increase the population in the hunting area and thereby also increase hunting. In the case of the private optimum, open-access is assumed and we find that the same qualitative...

  18. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a... comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable adjustment program; or (B) Whether...

  19. 31 CFR 317.9 - Role of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... area served Federal Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, P.O. Box 961, Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT... and control of bond stock, and the accounting for and remittance of sales proceeds; and (4)...

  20. Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

    2012-08-31

    This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

  1. Marine biosphere reserves - Need of the 21st century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    Worldwide awareness for the creation of Marine Biosphere Reserves has increased considerably due to the human depredation in many coastal areas and natural changes. Many important and unique plant and animal species have been extinct and whatever...

  2. The Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... in particular the development of a new decision-making process for resource .... Ecological Reserve (water to maintain aquatic ecosystems in a defined state). ..... or intermittently, wetlands, lakes and dams into or from which.

  3. The effects of calcium regulation of endosperm reserve protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... The effects of steep liquor calcium ion on sorghum endosperm reserve protein mobilization were ... ularly calcium ion exerted a strong regulatory influence ... determined spectrophotometrically as ammonia using Nessler's.

  4. Free Banking and Precautionary Reserves: Some Technical Quibbles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan Mahoney

    2011-01-01

      In this article we consider an argument put forth by Selgin (1988) in support of the claim that there exists a mechanism for limiting coordinated expansions of fiduciary media under a system of fractional reserve free banking...

  5. Mapping forest transition trends in Okomu reserve using Landsat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ALEX O. ONOJEGHUO

    From the results generated we were able to determine the effectiveness level of forest protected ... expansion of large rubber and oil-palm plantations within the reserve, .... Mapper Plus (ETM+) and United Kingdom - Disaster Monitoring and ...

  6. BSYCHAB -- Habitat polygons for the Big Sycamore reserve area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Benthic habitat polygon coverages have been created for marine reserve locations surrounding the Santa Barbara Basin. Diver, ROV and submersible video transects,...

  7. Nature Reserve and Ecotourism Development in China's Wuzhishan Mountain Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Genzong; Qiu Penghua; Tang Shaoxia

    2007-01-01

    As the protected areas of land and coastal environment,nature reserves are designed to address how to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity, the quest for economic and social development and the maintenance of cultural values. This paper establishes a framework for nature reserve development that seeks to incorporate ecotourism into its strategies. The overall purpose was to identify the information needs required for a comprehensive nature reserve that incorporates ecotourism related values. It also illustrates the utility of this framework in the context of the Wuzhishan Mountain Region of China. A literature review, the first phase of a visionary strategy and a subsequent gap analysis for available management information were undertaken in order to achieve this paper's purpose. Finally, recommendations are presented for integrating ecotourism into nature reserve development in the Wuzhishan Mountain Region

  8. Options for meeting the ecological Reserve for a raised Clanwilliam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-14

    Jul 14, 2010 ... ments in the requirements that form the ecological Reserve can greatly enhance the possibility, and ... however, new bulk infrastructure or any changes to existing ... The Olifants-Doring Basin is located on the west coast of.

  9. 76 FR 40338 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... quality (non-point source pollution), invasive species, habitat loss and regional ecosystem impacts of... area dominated by mixed hardwoods. Incorporating these lands increases the size of the reserve to...

  10. 76 FR 16620 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... reserve related to water quality (non-point source pollution), invasive species, habitat loss and regional... Cornus sp.) and will become an area dominated by mixed hardwoods. Incorporating these lands increases...

  11. trophy hunting and trophy size in ugalla game reserve, western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    the Ugalla Game Reserve (UGR) of western Tanzania, in relation to hunting success (animals shot species-1 quota-1) ... take, which through effective management is considered to be ... are several requirements for a successful trophy hunting ...

  12. Maximum currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  13. Indian Reservations, Published in unknown, S&ME Inc..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Indian Reservations dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Mercator projection; The extent of...

  14. Against monetary disequilibrium theory and fractional reserve free banking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davidson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The theory of monetary disequilibrium, as espoused by Selgin (1988), White (1989), Horwitz (2000), and others, has been used to justify the issuance of fiduciary media under a system of fractional reserve "free" banking...

  15. Special Taxing Districts, Forest Reserve, Published in 2005, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. It is described as 'Forest Reserve'. Data by...

  16. Seismic Lines in National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska, NPR-A

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a part of U.S. Geological Survey Central Region Energy Resources Team National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska, Legacy Data Archive. The National Petroleum...

  17. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. 75 FR 65613 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... ecological communities in support of the Bay's growing population: climate change, species interactions... Ocean Service, Estuarine Reserves Division, 1305 East-West Highway, N/ORM5, 10th floor, Silver...

  19. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF "TREATING VITALITY" AND "RESERVING VITALITY"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "Treating vital ity "and" reserving vital ity"are very important manipulations during acupuncture treatment of diseases. "Treating vitality" comprises adjusting and treating both the acupuncture doctor's and the patient's vitality; while "reserving vitality" demands the acupuncture doctor carefully to experience the sponses, and then perform reducing or reinforcing needling manipulations in accordance with the state of excess- or deficiency- syndrome. "Treating vitality" and "reserving vitality" impenetrate the whole process of acupuncture treatment all along. Through years' clinical practice, the author of the present paper discusses the functions of the two aspects in every stage of acupuncture treatment, including before acupuncture, during needle insertion, during retention and withdrawal of the needle. The purpose of this paper is to explain the clinical significance of treating and reserving vitality and arouse many acupuncture doctors' attention.

  20. Updating the Reserve Price in Common Value Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    We consider a common value auction model with bidder participation determined jointly by nature and by bidder optimization. In this framework, an increase in the reserve price as two effects: it deters marginal bidders and it deters bidders from becoming informed. We then derive a test statistic for establishing when it is optimal to raise the reserve price. This statistic is independent of the distribution of valuations. We then apply the analysis to U.S. offshore oil sales and find evidence...

  1. Reserve Requirements as Implicit Taxation of Commercial Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Eromenko, Igor

    2002-01-01

    Reserve requirements is viewed as very important instrument of the monetary policy, with the help of which Central Bank can influence at money supply and credit creation. At the same time this instrument imposes implicit tax on financial institutions, which are subject to this regulation. Reserve requirements in Ukraine stay at quite high level and the topic of this paper is analysis of such implicit taxation, its impact on economy and possible path of reforms in Ukraine. We argue that faced ...

  2. Multivariate Skew-Normal Individual Excess-of-Loss Reserving

    OpenAIRE

    Pigeon, Mathieu; Denuit, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In excess-of-loss reinsurance, only claims with incurred loss above a reporting threshold speci_ed in the treaty are noti_ed to the reinsurer. The data available for reinsurance pricing and reserving are, thus, incomplete and failing to account for this limitation may bias the actuarial analysis. The collective approach based on aggregate development triangles cannot deal with this kind of incompleteness. This is why we develop here an individual reserving method combining paid and incurred l...

  3. Use and Limitations of the Reserve Requirement Policy in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Velibor

    2014-01-01

    Since reserve requirement is the only monetary policy instrument used in Montenegro, it has been subject to frequent amendments since the global crisis outbreak. The analysis of the monetary demand model showed that there is an active transmission mechanism of change in the reserve requirement rate on the deposits trend reflects on lending activity. Also, there is a significant impact of FDIs on deposits trending in the banking system, as well as the positive impact of turnover on stock excha...

  4. Spermatophyte Flora Distribution in Hubei Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhengyu; Cai, Jingyong; Bai, Tao; Jiang, Jianguo; Wang, Shaoming

    2013-01-01

    A basic ingredient analysis of flora and geographic elements of plant genera and families in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve was conducted through the field survey and specimen collection, based on the system investigation of plant flora, and an R/T ratio comparison between the flora in Daqi Mountain and adjacent mountain floras was made. Plant taxonomy identification indicates that spermatophytes in the nature reserve comprises 1035 species of 534 genera, falling in 140families, of which 10 gym...

  5. Reserve Manpower Statistics, 1 January - 31 March 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-31

    T6 7 70 71 60 s1 63 64 as 11 2 FSCAL YEAR *kllddull Rl %a* P wtlOW lld 3i RESERVE STRENGTH TRENDS BY RESERVE COMPONENT a/ DATE ARNG USAR...i 0- ."- .-’" " ~~~~~~~~~- ------------------------------------------------ 76 77 73 ŝ o0 81 82 63 64 as vIs FSCAL YEAR & mill Im i ( i i7

  6. Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Mumby

    Full Text Available The fisheries and biodiversity benefits of marine reserves are widely recognised but there is mounting interest in exploiting the importance of herbivorous fishes as a tool to help ecosystems recover from climate change impacts. This approach might be particularly suitable for coral reefs, which are acutely threatened by climate change, yet the trophic cascades generated by reserves are strong enough that they might theoretically enhance the rate of coral recovery after disturbance. However, evidence for reserves facilitating coral recovery has been lacking. Here we investigate whether reductions in macroalgal cover, caused by recovery of herbivorous parrotfishes within a reserve, have resulted in a faster rate of coral recovery than in areas subject to fishing. Surveys of ten sites inside and outside a Bahamian marine reserve over a 2.5-year period demonstrated that increases in coral cover, including adjustments for the initial size-distribution of corals, were significantly higher at reserve sites than those in non-reserve sites. Furthermore, macroalgal cover was significantly negatively correlated with the change in total coral cover over time. Recovery rates of individual species were generally consistent with small-scale manipulations on coral-macroalgal interactions, but also revealed differences that demonstrate the difficulties of translating experiments across spatial scales. Size-frequency data indicated that species which were particularly affected by high abundances of macroalgae outside the reserve had a population bottleneck restricting the supply of smaller corals to larger size classes. Importantly, because coral cover increased from a heavily degraded state, and recovery from such states has not previously been described, similar or better outcomes should be expected for many reefs in the region. Reducing herbivore exploitation as part of an ecosystem-based management strategy for coral reefs appears to be justified.

  7. Tourism environmental attitudes in Berlengas Biosphere Reserve, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Nelson; Vasconcelos, João; Lopes, Maria Sofia; Mouga, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Berlengas archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean, on the Portuguese continental shelf, on the western side of Iberian Peninsula. Berlengas is a marine reserve since 1981, a marine protected area since 1998 and, in 2011, it was included into the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR). As Berlengas is a relatively accessible archipelago from the west coast, it attracts all sorts of visitors during summer period. As a consequence, Berlengas has been facing a stronger demand for tour...

  8. Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Peter J; Harborne, Alastair R

    2010-01-11

    The fisheries and biodiversity benefits of marine reserves are widely recognised but there is mounting interest in exploiting the importance of herbivorous fishes as a tool to help ecosystems recover from climate change impacts. This approach might be particularly suitable for coral reefs, which are acutely threatened by climate change, yet the trophic cascades generated by reserves are strong enough that they might theoretically enhance the rate of coral recovery after disturbance. However, evidence for reserves facilitating coral recovery has been lacking. Here we investigate whether reductions in macroalgal cover, caused by recovery of herbivorous parrotfishes within a reserve, have resulted in a faster rate of coral recovery than in areas subject to fishing. Surveys of ten sites inside and outside a Bahamian marine reserve over a 2.5-year period demonstrated that increases in coral cover, including adjustments for the initial size-distribution of corals, were significantly higher at reserve sites than those in non-reserve sites. Furthermore, macroalgal cover was significantly negatively correlated with the change in total coral cover over time. Recovery rates of individual species were generally consistent with small-scale manipulations on coral-macroalgal interactions, but also revealed differences that demonstrate the difficulties of translating experiments across spatial scales. Size-frequency data indicated that species which were particularly affected by high abundances of macroalgae outside the reserve had a population bottleneck restricting the supply of smaller corals to larger size classes. Importantly, because coral cover increased from a heavily degraded state, and recovery from such states has not previously been described, similar or better outcomes should be expected for many reefs in the region. Reducing herbivore exploitation as part of an ecosystem-based management strategy for coral reefs appears to be justified.

  9. Advance Reservation of Resources for Task Execution in Grid Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Moise, Eliza; Pop, Florin; Cristea, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a solution for the Grid scheduling problem, addressing in particular the requirement of high performance an efficient algorithm must fulfill. Advance Reservation engages a distributed, dynamic, fault-tolerant and efficient strategy which reserves resources for future task execution. The paper presents the main features of the strategy, the functioning mechanism the strategy is based on and the methods used for evaluating the algorithm.

  10. Computerized estimation of coal reserves of underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solymosi, F.; Kiss, J.

    1988-01-01

    No standardized methodology for long term planning exists in Hungary in the coal industry. A computerized method of coal reserve estimation based on normatives is described. The method has been applied in the Maza-South-Varalja-South region (Transdanubia, South Hungary). The applicability of the method is outlined and the error limit that was missing in coal reserve estimations is suggested to be introduced.

  11. Balance sheet effects, foreign reserves and public policies

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Gong

    2014-01-01

    Based on a theoretical model, this paper shows that foreign reserves are useful for a country to enhance the resilience of its domestic economy against balance sheet effects in the context of external financing strains. Using foreign reserves, the government can either lend in foreign currency to the private sector or conduct expenditure-switching policy to increase fiscal spending on domestic goods. Both policies cam remove the bad equilibrium represented by a large depreciation of the domes...

  12. Reserve Site Selection in a Limited-Entry Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchirico, James

    2002-01-01

    Marine reserves are gaining attention around the world as a tool to both conserve ocean resources and improve the productivity of fisheries. Using simulation analysis, we investigate in a limited-entry fishery comprising nine subpopulations the inherent bioeconomic trade-offs associated with cost-effective designs of marine reserve networks—that is, the trade-offs between the degree of connectedness of a site and the biological and economic heterogeneity. We find in many cases that closing tw...

  13. Status of Nature Reserves in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are an important component of the strategy to halt biodiversity loss caused by habitat fragmentation and loss, climate change and other anthropogenic factors. In the past decades, 184 nature reserves were designed for biodiversity conservation in Inner Mongolia. However, no studies have quantified the general condition of these reserves. In this paper, we summarized the history, distribution and effects of human interference on these reserves in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that: (1 The total area of nature reserves is 138,047 km2 in Inner Mongolia. This constitutes 11.7% of its geographic area, which is lower than the national (14.9%, and the global average (13%. These reserves are mainly forest (68 and inland wetland (31 ecosystems. However, in terms of area, desert (40,948 km2, forest (26,141 km2 and inland wetland ecosystems (25,540 km2 are predominant; (2 nature reserves have increased rapidly in number and area since 1995, especially at the province, city, and county levels; (3 the evergreen coniferous (26.4%, wetland (20.2% and deciduous needle-leaf forests (19.6% were sufficiently protected according to the 2020 target of 17% set by the Convention on Biological Diversity, while the other eight natural vegetation types, i.e., evergreen broad-leaved forests (14.2%, shrubs (13.5%, meadow vegetation (12.5%, typical steppe (10.2%, open forests (8.9%, desert vegetation (6.2%, desert steppe (2.9%, and sand vegetation (1.6% were insufficiently protected; (4 the effects of human activities on these vegetation types were different. Open forest, sand vegetation, shrub, typical steppe, meadow steppe, evergreen broad-leaved, and evergreen coniferous forest were more affected than other vegetation types. Our results indicated that a more scientific approach is needed to effectively manage nature reserves in Inner Mongolia.

  14. Evidence that marine reserves enhance resilience to climatic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection.

  15. Evidence that marine reserves enhance resilience to climatic impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection.

  16. Poaching, enforcement, and the efficacy of marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, James E; Noonburg, Erik G

    2007-10-01

    Marine reserves are promoted as an effective supplement to traditional fishery management techniques of harvest quotas and effort limitation. However, quantitative fishery models have ignored the impact of noncompliance (poaching). Here we link a model of a harvested fish population to a game-theoretic representation of fisherman behavior to quantify the effect of poaching on fishery yield and the enforcement effort required to maintain any desired level of reserve effectiveness. Although higher fish densities inside reserves will typically entice fishermen to poach, we show that the initial investment in enforcement efforts provides the greatest return on maintaining the benefits of the reserve to the fishery. Furthermore, we find that poaching eliminates the positive effect of fish dispersal on yield that is predicted by traditional models that ignore fisherman behavior. Our results broaden a fundamental insight from previous models of marine reserves, the effective equivalence of the harvest quota and reserve fraction, to the more realistic scenario in which fishermen attempt to maximize their economic payoffs.

  17. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum M; Hawkins, Julie P; Gell, Fiona R

    2005-01-29

    Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy. Marine reserves should be incorporated into modern fishery management because they can achieve many things that conventional tools cannot. Only complete and permanent protection from fishing can protect the most sensitive habitats and vulnerable species. Only reserves will allow the development of natural, extended age structures of target species, maintain their genetic variability and prevent deleterious evolutionary change from the effects of fishing. Species with natural age structures will sustain higher rates of reproduction and will be more resilient to environmental variability. Higher stock levels maintained by reserves will provide insurance against management failure, including risk-prone quota setting, provided the broader conservation role of reserves is firmly established and legislatively protected. Fishery management measures outside protected areas are necessary to complement the protection offered by marine reserves, but cannot substitute for it.

  18. Renewable Energy Development on Fort Mojave Reservation Feasiblity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell Gum, ERCC analytics LLC

    2008-03-17

    The Ft. Mojave tribe, whose reservation is located along the Colorado River in the states of Arizona, California, and Nevada near the point where all three states meet, has a need for increased energy supplies. This need is a direct result of the aggressive and successful economic development projects undertaken by the tribe in the last decade. While it is possible to contract for additional energy supplies from fossil fuel sources it was the desire of the tribal power company, AHA MACAV Power Service (AMPS) to investigate the feasibility and desirability of producing power from renewable sources as an alternative to increased purchase of fossil fuel generated power and as a possible enterprise to export green power. Renewable energy generated on the reservation would serve to reduce the energy dependence of the tribal enterprises on off reservation sources of energy and if produced in excess of reservation needs, add a new enterprise to the current mix of economic activities on the reservation. Renewable energy development would also demonstrate the tribe’s support for improving environmental quality, sustainability, and energy independence both on the reservation and for the larger community.

  19. Farmers' Perceptions of a Mountain Biosphere Reserve in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid Humer-Gruber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored farmers’ perceptions of a biosphere reserve in the Austrian Alps with the goal of promoting better understanding among different stakeholders involved in the agricultural sector in a biosphere reserve. Biosphere reserves have a variety of functions and serve as models of sustainable regional development and involve stakeholders in decision-making on and development of protected areas. In the Alpine biosphere reserve selected for this study, the conservation of cultural landscapes plays a major role; therefore, farmers feature prominently, and this study focuses on their points of view. Farmers rely heavily on natural resources, but structural changes in agriculture determine their work to a large degree, and they often refuse to support protected area management. This situation calls for a closer integration of social-scientific knowledge in regional development programs. Qualitative research methods based on grounded theory can help identify sources of conflict and social strengths. The study found substantial support for the reserve but also a noticeable lessening of the original excitement about it, pointing to the need for further outreach and to the importance, when establishing future reserves, of handling the start-up phase with heightened sensitivity.

  20. Does Bilingualism Contribute to Cognitive Reserve? Cognitive and Neural Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology in order to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve in order to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. Method Pubmed and PsychINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were employed as keywords for study retrieval: ‘bilingual AND reserve’, ‘reserve AND neural mechanisms’, and ‘reserve AND multilingualism’. Results Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Conclusions Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PMID:24933492

  1. Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection. PMID:22855690

  2. Community participation in the management of wetland nature reserve: a case study of Nanjishan Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more and more conflicts have emerged in the management of nature reserves, of which the main problem is that how to carry out the campaign of conservation along with the promotion of development of local economics. To resolve the actual problem in Nanjishan National Wetland Nature Reserve and explore the idiographic method of the management of the wetland reserve, some studying methods including face-to-face interviews, informal discussion with local leaders and officials, group discussion with local fishers, questionnaire, and job of the conversation station have been carried out. The results show that the education level of the local people is low; only 5% of the local people have an opportunity to the junior college; the main income of the local people is fishing, which accounts for 70%more or less; and the income is coming down year by year because of the unreasonable way of fishing. To cope with the problems, some reformative way of management and the development of the reserve are introduced, such as establishing an NOG that constitutes of local fishermen to achieve the goal of community co-management, developing Bed and Breakfiast and so on. Through practice of the management of the participation of the local people, we draw the conclusion that the local people have a great desire to improve their life level, and to make the co-management of the reserve easy,it is important for the managers to play the role of pilot including engrafting the new ideas, giving some subsidy to encourage the local people to take part in the management. In addition, making local people perceive value of the reserve and the close relation between reserve conservation and the promotion of level of their life. On this basis, they incline to take part in the management of the reserve.

  3. National Guard and Reserves: Air Force Needs to Consistently Assess Personnel Requirements to Appropriately Size Its Headquarters Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Headquarters Reserve Components Report to Congressional Committees August 2016 GAO-16-538 United States Government Accountability Office...United States Government Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-538, a report to congressional committees August 2016 NATIONAL...Report 114-49 included a provision for GAO to review DOD’s Army and Air Force Reserve Components’ headquarters. Among other things, this report (1

  4. Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueck, Nils C.; Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Riginos, Cynthia; Treml, Eric A.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%–20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity. Our analysis assumes that fishers have no viable alternative to fishing, such that total fishing effort remains constant (at best). We find that realistic reserve networks, which protect 10%–30% of fished habitats in 1–20 km wide reserves, should benefit the long-term productivity of almost any complex fishery. We discover a “rule of thumb” to safeguard against the long-term catch depletion of particular species: individual reserves should export 30% or more of locally produced larvae to adjacent fishing grounds. Specifically on coral reefs, where fishers tend to overexploit species whose dispersal distances as larvae exceed the home ranges of adults, decisions on the size of reserves needed to meet the 30% larval export rule are unlikely to compromise the protection of resident adults. Even achieving the modest Aichi Target 11 of 10% “effective protection” can then help rebuild depleted catch. However, strictly protecting 20%–30% of fished habitats is unlikely to diminish catch even if overfishing is not yet a problem while providing greater potential for biodiversity conservation and fishery rebuilding if overfishing is substantial. These findings are important because they suggest that doubling or tripling the only globally enforced marine reserve target will

  5. Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueck, Nils C; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Possingham, Hugh P; Riginos, Cynthia; Treml, Eric A; Mumby, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%-20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity. Our analysis assumes that fishers have no viable alternative to fishing, such that total fishing effort remains constant (at best). We find that realistic reserve networks, which protect 10%-30% of fished habitats in 1-20 km wide reserves, should benefit the long-term productivity of almost any complex fishery. We discover a "rule of thumb" to safeguard against the long-term catch depletion of particular species: individual reserves should export 30% or more of locally produced larvae to adjacent fishing grounds. Specifically on coral reefs, where fishers tend to overexploit species whose dispersal distances as larvae exceed the home ranges of adults, decisions on the size of reserves needed to meet the 30% larval export rule are unlikely to compromise the protection of resident adults. Even achieving the modest Aichi Target 11 of 10% "effective protection" can then help rebuild depleted catch. However, strictly protecting 20%-30% of fished habitats is unlikely to diminish catch even if overfishing is not yet a problem while providing greater potential for biodiversity conservation and fishery rebuilding if overfishing is substantial. These findings are important because they suggest that doubling or tripling the only globally enforced marine reserve target will benefit

  6. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  7. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in

  8. University students' reservations about dietetics as a career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordly, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Dietetics students' reservations about their career choice were investigated. In several dietetics programs in various provinces, an in-class or online survey was administered to students in the early or late stages of their education (n=397). Data were coded and analyzed, using descriptive statistics. Chi-square testing for independence was used to establish significant relationships. Forty-three percent (n=149) of those responding to the research question (n=344) indicated they had reservations about a dietetics career, primarily because of internship, salary, and employment concerns. Students enrolled in a coordinated internship/degree program experienced no reservations about internship. Students experienced fewer career reservations when they had made their career decision before grade 12, were influenced by a dietitian, or were in the later stages of their education. Findings have implications for dietetics recruitment, retention, research, and education. An understanding of sources of reservations about career choice will allow policy-makers, researchers, and educators to address issues to ensure that potential professionals are well informed about career components and that educational programs meet students' needs.

  9. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-05

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically.

  10. Effect of planning for connectivity on linear reserve networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentini, Pia E; Gibbons, Philip; Carwardine, Josie; Fischer, Joern; Drielsma, Michael; Martin, Tara G

    2013-08-01

    Although the concept of connectivity is decades old, it remains poorly understood and defined, and some argue that habitat quality and area should take precedence in conservation planning instead. However, fragmented landscapes are often characterized by linear features that are inherently connected, such as streams and hedgerows. For these, both representation and connectivity targets may be met with little effect on the cost, area, or quality of the reserve network. We assessed how connectivity approaches affect planning outcomes for linear habitat networks by using the stock-route network of Australia as a case study. With the objective of representing vegetation communities across the network at a minimal cost, we ran scenarios with a range of representation targets (10%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) and used 3 approaches to account for connectivity (boundary length modifier, Euclidean distance, and landscape-value [LV]). We found that decisions regarding the target and connectivity approach used affected the spatial allocation of reserve systems. At targets ≥50%, networks designed with the Euclidean distance and LV approaches consisted of a greater number of small reserves. Hence, by maximizing both representation and connectivity, these networks compromised on larger contiguous areas. However, targets this high are rarely used in real-world conservation planning. Approaches for incorporating connectivity into the planning of linear reserve networks that account for both the spatial arrangement of reserves and the characteristics of the intervening matrix highlight important sections that link the landscape and that may otherwise be overlooked. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Habitat damage, marine reserves, and the value of spatial management

    KAUST Repository

    Moeller, Holly V.

    2013-07-01

    The biological benefits of marine reserves have garnered favor in the conservation community, but "no-take" reserve implementation is complicated by the economic interests of fishery stakeholders. There are now a number of studies examining the conditions under which marine reserves can provide both economic and ecological benefits. A potentially important reality of fishing that these studies overlook is that fishing can damage the habitat of the target stock. Here, we construct an equilibrium bioeconomic model that incorporates this habitat damage and show that the designation of marine reserves, coupled with the implementation of a tax on fishing effort, becomes both biologically and economically favorable as habitat sensitivity increases. We also study the effects of varied degrees of spatial control on fisheries management. Together, our results provide further evidence for the potential monetary and biological value of spatial management, and the possibility of a mutually beneficial resolution to the fisherman-conservationist marine reserve designation dilemma. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dobre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH is such a software control system. It is designed to assist and automate the use of a highway lane as a reserved lane. The idea is to allow and support drivers to travel at a speed higher, if in return they are willing to pay a small fee to reserve an empty virtual slot on the reserved lane. This slot is valid for a portion and of the highway and a time window, so each driver pays the fee depending thier its travelling needs. In return, drivers are guaranteed a congestion-free travel on that portion. In this paper, we present the proposed architecture of the ILRSH and its subsystems. The system is based on several proposed algorithms designed to assist the drivers, enter or exit the reserved lane, based on real-world driving observations. We present extensive simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach, that can easily be implemented with little costs on already-existing highways, and the increase in traffic efficiency.

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual report for calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was established in 1975 as an emergency response to the 1973 Arab oil embargo. It is authorized by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), and by the comprehensive energy plans of all Administrations since 1975, in recognition of the long-term dependence of the US on imported crude oil and petroleum products. Section 165 of EPCA requires the Secretary of Energy to submit an Annual Report to the President and the Congress. On May 13, 1998, the Department published a Statement of Administration Policy which reaffirmed its commitment to maintain a Government-owned and controlled, centrally located Strategic Petroleum Reserve of crude oil. The Reserve is to be used solely for responding to the types of severe oil supply interruptions presently contemplated in EPCA. Over the past twenty years, the Reserve has grown as large as 592 million barrels--a peak reached in 1994. From 1994 to 1996, nearly 28 million barrels were sold to raise revenues for the U S Treasury. As of December 31, 1998, the crude oil inventory was 561,108,127 barrels which equated to 60 days of net oil imports during 1998. The US now relies on a combination of both the Reserve and private stocks to meet its oil storage obligations to the International Energy Agency.

  14. Cognitive and Brain Reserve in Prodromal Huntington Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner-Jackson, Aaron; Long, Jeffrey D.; Westervelt, Holly; Tremont, Geoffrey; Aylward, Elizabeth; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Huntington disease (HD) is associated with decline in cognition and progressive morphological changes in brain structures. Cognitive reserve may represent a mechanism by which disease-related decline may be delayed or slowed. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive reserve and longitudinal change in cognitive functioning and brain volumes among prodromal (gene expansion-positive) HD individuals. Methods Participants were genetically-confirmed individuals with prodromal HD enrolled in the PREDICT-HD study. Cognitive reserve was computed as the composite of performance on a lexical task estimating premorbid intellectual level, occupational status, and years of education. Linear mixed effects regression (LMER) was used to examine longitudinal changes on 4 cognitive measures and 3 brain volumes over approximately 6 years. Results Higher cognitive reserve was significantly associated with a slower rate of change on one cognitive measure (Trail Making Test, Part B) and slower rate of volume loss in two brain structures (caudate, putamen) for those estimated to be closest to motor disease onset. This relationship was not observed among those estimated to be further from motor disease onset. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a relationship between cognitive reserve and both a measure of executive functioning and integrity of certain brain structures in prodromal HD individuals. PMID:23702309

  15. Economic perspective of marine reserves in fisheries: a bioeconomic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kunal; Kar, T K

    2012-12-01

    The present paper describes a prey-predator type fishery model with prey dispersal in a two-patch environment, one of which is a free fishing zone and other is protected zone. The objective of the paper is to maximize the net economic revenue earn from the fishery through implementing the sustainable properties of the fishery to keep the ecological balance. Biological measures are introduced to increase the understanding of the mechanisms in the bioeconomic system. The importance of marine reserve is analyzed through the obtained results of the numerical simulations of proposed model system. The results depict that reserves will be most effective when coupled with harvesting controls in adjacent fisheries. The paper also incorporates the induced cost and premium from establishing a marine protected area in a fishery. It is found that premium of marine protected area (MPA) increases with the increasing size of the reserve. Results are analyzed with the help of graphical illustrations.

  16. Uranium - raw material reserves for coming generations. [Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keutner, H.

    1981-06-01

    Large uranium occurences have been discovered in the South of Mexico. The deposits are situated in the Sierra Mixteca. Reserves of 9.400 tons had been at Mexico's disposal even before these new discoveries. The quantitiy discovered recentyl amounts to 20.000 tons. The uranium reserves available apart from those in centrally controlled economic systems are presently estimated at five million tons. Meanwhile American scientists have found out that all the rivers of the world transport about 16.000 tons of uranium from the continents into the oceans per annum. The energy value of this washed out amount of uranium corresponds to the 25-fold world power demand of today. US scientists have discovered that the oceans can provide uranium for about seven million years of the present world energy demand. While the petroleum reserves decrease worldwide it seems that the exploration of uranium has just been started.

  17. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN DEMENTIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR COGNITIVE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eMondini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is a potential mechanism to cope with brain damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive reserve on a cognitive training (CT in a group of patients with dementia. 86 participants with mild to moderate dementia were identified by their level of CR quantified by the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq and underwent a cycle of CT. A global measure of cognition (MMSE was obtained before (T0 and after (T1 the training. Multiple linear regression analyses highlighted CR as a significant factor able to predict changes in cognitive performance after the CT. In particular, patients with lower CR benefited from a CT program more than those with high CR. These data show that CR can modulate the outcome of a CT program and that it should be considered as a predictive factor of neuropsychological rehabilitation training efficacy in people with dementia.

  18. An approach to studying the neural correlates of reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to review my current understanding of the concepts of cognitive reserve (CR), brain reserve and brain maintenance, and to describe our group's approach to using imaging to study their neural basis. I present a working model for utilizing data regarding brain integrity, clinical status, cognitive activation and CR proxies to develop analyses that can explore the neural basis of cognitive reserve and brain maintenance. The basic model assumes that the effect of brain changes on cognition is mediated by task-related activation. We treat CR as a moderator to understand how task-related activation might vary as a function of CR, or how CR might operate independently of these differences in task-related activation. My hope is that this presentation will spark discussion across groups that study these concepts, allowing us to come to some common agreement on definitions, methodology and approaches.

  19. Influence Of Different Methods Of Operative Treatment On Ovarian Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Simrok

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the results of ovarian reserve estimation for 125 women with the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS who have undergone various methods of surgical treatment - resection of the ovaries, thermokauterisation and drilling by laser (Ho-Yag. Ovarian reserve was estimated according to the amount of antral follicles, level of follitropin and Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS, also named anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH. Blood flow in ovarian tissue was also examined after various methods of surgical treatment. The study has shown that the gentlest method of surgical treatment is drilling by Ho-Yag laser, which is least likely to injure the tissue of ovaries, and also this method is most effective in enhancing and preserving ovarian reserve.

  20. Reliability assessment of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available Water disposal constructions are one of the most responsible constructions of reservoir hydrosystem, that’s why the a lot of attention was always paid to the problems of estimating and providing their reliability and safety. The most important function of such objects is providing reliability and safety of other hydraulic constructions and economic assets in afterbay and water head. The authors offer estimation method for reliability and faultless performance of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug on low-head water development. In order to estimate the reliability of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug the Bayesian treatment was used. The calculation of diagnoses (states of reserved water disposal isoffered in case of diagnostic properties k 1 and k 2. One of the main demands placed onreserved water disposals is erosion of soil plug in case of flood discharge exeedance over the estimated frequency with the full opening of the waste sluice.