WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun-dried date phoenix

  1. Anti-Oxiflammatory Profile of Date Extracts (Phoenix sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintu Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit of date palm (Phoenix sylvestrisL. is edible and used as an anti-geriatric, anti-oxidant ethnomedicine. In this study, three different types ofdateextracts, methanolic, acidic ethanolic and basic ethanolicwere evaluated for their putative in vitro scavenging effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS, where scavenging of hydroxyl radicals (basic ethanolic>acidic ethanolic>methanolic, superoxide radicals (acidic ethanolic>basic ethanolic>methanolic, DPPH radicals (acidic ethanolic>methanolic>basic ethanolic, nitric oxide (NO (methanolic>acidic ethanolic>basic ethanolic and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (basic ethanolic>acidic ethanolic> methanolic were found to occur in a dose dependent manner. Their flavonoid and phenolic contents proved to be the source of this potent free radical scavenging activity and indicated a direct correlation with their total anti-oxidant capacity. On human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK and murine RAW macrophages, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced inflammation, the date extracts applied therapeutically, inhibit intracellular oxidative stress significantly. This reinstatement of cellular homeostasis presumably occurs via mitochondrial pathways. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(6.000: 297-317

  2. Efficacy of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Date Palm Creams on Healthy Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Meer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae is used in most of the countries of the world and is an essential part of the diet, especially in many Arabian countries. Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits are a rich source of sugars (glucose and fructose, vitamins (A, C, and B complex, fibers, minerals, and phenolic compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study is designed to explore the Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit for skin care. A single-blinded, placebo control trial was conducted, including 11 healthy female volunteers after their informed consent. The efficacy of the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract (4% was evaluated in cream form after one, two, three, four, six, and eight weeks of treatment compared with the baseline. Prior to the study, the composition of the extract was analyzed to understand the underlying mechanisms by which the extract affects skin. Treating facial skin with the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract significantly improved all parameters investigated, such as skin elasticity, pigmentation, redness, brightness, and hydration and led to the improvement of the facial skin. There were no adverse reactions noted during the course of the patch test, demonstrating that the extract could be safe to apply on the skin. The Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract serves as a skin care ingredient that significantly improves characteristics important for perception of skin ageing and health. The efficacy of the treatment is possibly due to a combination of numerous active substances found in the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract.

  3. The Domestication Syndrome in Phoenix dactylifera Seeds: Toward the Identification of Wild Date Palm Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Newton, Claire; Ivorra, Sarah; Pierre, Marie-Hélène; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Investigating crop origins is a priority to understand the evolution of plants under domestication, develop strategies for conservation and valorization of agrobiodiversity and acquire fundamental knowledge for cultivar improvement. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) belongs to the genus Phoenix, which comprises 14 species morphologically very close, sometimes hardly distinguishable. It has been cultivated for millennia in the Middle East and in North Africa and constitutes the keystone of oasis agriculture. Yet, its origins remain poorly understood as no wild populations are identified. Uncultivated populations have been described but they might represent feral, i.e. formerly cultivated, abandoned forms rather than truly wild populations. In this context, this study based on morphometrics applied to 1625 Phoenix seeds aims to (1) differentiate Phoenix species and (2) depict the domestication syndrome observed in cultivated date palm seeds using other Phoenix species as a "wild" reference. This will help discriminate truly wild from feral forms, thus providing new insights into the evolutionary history of this species. Seed size was evaluated using four parameters: length, width, thickness and dorsal view surface. Seed shape was quantified using outline analyses based on the Elliptic Fourier Transform method. The size and shape of seeds allowed an accurate differentiation of Phoenix species. The cultivated date palm shows distinctive size and shape features, compared to other Phoenix species: seeds are longer and elongated. This morphological shift may be interpreted as a domestication syndrome, resulting from the long-term history of cultivation, selection and human-mediated dispersion. Based on seed attributes, some uncultivated date palms from Oman may be identified as wild. This opens new prospects regarding the possible existence and characterization of relict wild populations and consequently for the understanding of the date palm origins. Finally, we

  4. The Domestication Syndrome in Phoenix dactylifera Seeds: Toward the Identification of Wild Date Palm Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Gros-Balthazard

    Full Text Available Investigating crop origins is a priority to understand the evolution of plants under domestication, develop strategies for conservation and valorization of agrobiodiversity and acquire fundamental knowledge for cultivar improvement. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. belongs to the genus Phoenix, which comprises 14 species morphologically very close, sometimes hardly distinguishable. It has been cultivated for millennia in the Middle East and in North Africa and constitutes the keystone of oasis agriculture. Yet, its origins remain poorly understood as no wild populations are identified. Uncultivated populations have been described but they might represent feral, i.e. formerly cultivated, abandoned forms rather than truly wild populations. In this context, this study based on morphometrics applied to 1625 Phoenix seeds aims to (1 differentiate Phoenix species and (2 depict the domestication syndrome observed in cultivated date palm seeds using other Phoenix species as a "wild" reference. This will help discriminate truly wild from feral forms, thus providing new insights into the evolutionary history of this species. Seed size was evaluated using four parameters: length, width, thickness and dorsal view surface. Seed shape was quantified using outline analyses based on the Elliptic Fourier Transform method. The size and shape of seeds allowed an accurate differentiation of Phoenix species. The cultivated date palm shows distinctive size and shape features, compared to other Phoenix species: seeds are longer and elongated. This morphological shift may be interpreted as a domestication syndrome, resulting from the long-term history of cultivation, selection and human-mediated dispersion. Based on seed attributes, some uncultivated date palms from Oman may be identified as wild. This opens new prospects regarding the possible existence and characterization of relict wild populations and consequently for the understanding of the date palm origins

  5. Historical evidence of the Spanish introduction of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae) into the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    America’s date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) groves can be found from 36o N Lat. (USA) to 21o S Lat. (Chile) and from 63o W Long. (Venezuela) to 117o W Long. (USA), at elevations from sea level 2000 m (Colombia). However, successful production of ripe dates is possible only in the arid regions of Pe...

  6. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)dispersal to the Americas: Historical evidence of the Spanish introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) groves are found in the Americas from the south-west USA (36°N lat.) to Chile (21°S lat.) and eastward to the Caribbean Islands; from Venezuela, 63°W long. to 117°W long. (USA) and at elevations from 0-2,000 m. However, successful production of ripe dates is possible ...

  7. Date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): an emerging medicinal food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayalil, Praveen K

    2012-01-01

    Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits are inadequate and hardly recognized as a healthy food by the health professionals and the public. In recent years, an explosion of interest in the numerous health benefits of dates had led to many in vitro and animal studies as well as the identification and quantification of various classes of phytochemicals. On the basis of available documentation in the literature on the nutritional and phytochemical composition, it is apparent that the date fruits are highly nutritious and may have several potential health benefits. Although dates are sugar-packed, many date varieties are low GI diet and refutes the dogma that dates are similar to candies and regular consumption would develop chronic diseases. More investigations in these areas would validate its beneficial effects, mechanisms of actions, and fully appreciate as a potential medicinal food for humans all around the world. Therefore, in this review we summarize the phytochemical composition, nutritional significance, and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption and discuss its great potential as a medicinal food for a number of diseases inflicting human beings.

  8. Valorization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology – Review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The date palm Phoenix dactylifera has played an important role in the day-to-day life of the people for the last 7000 years. Today worldwide production, utilization and industrialization of dates are continuously increasing since date fruits have earned great importance in human nutrition owing to their rich content of essential nutrients. Tons of date palm fruit wastes are discarded daily by the date processing industries leading to environmental problems. Wastes such as date pits represent ...

  9. Proteomic analysis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) responses to endophytic colonization by entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vidal, Sonia; Salinas, Jesús; Tena, Manuel; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2009-09-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium dimorphum and L. cf. psalliotae can survive and colonize living palm tissue as endophytes. The molecular interaction between these biocontrol agent fungi and the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. was investigated using proteomic techniques. Field date palms inoculated with these fungi were analyzed 15 and 30 days after inoculation in two independent bioassays. In vitro date palms were also inoculated with B. bassiana or L. cf. psalliotae. Qualitative and quantitative differences in protein accumulation between controls (not inoculated) and inoculated palms were found using 2-DE analysis, and some of these responsive proteins could be identified using MALDI/TOF-TOF. Proteins involved in plant defence or stress response were induced in P. dactylifera leaves as a response to endophytic colonization by entomopathogenic fungi in field date palms. Proteins related with photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also affected by entomopathogenic fungi colonization. A myosin heavy chain-like protein was accumulated in in vitro palms inoculated with these fungi. This suggests that endophytic colonization by these entomopathogenic fungi modulates plant defence responses and energy metabolism in field date palms and possibly modulates the expression of cell division-related proteins in in vitro palms at proteomic level.

  10. Identification and characterization of gene-based SSR markers in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yongli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is an important tree in the Middle East and North Africa due to the nutritional value of its fruit. Molecular Breeding would accelerate genetic improvement of fruit tree through marker assisted selection. However, the lack of molecular markers in date palm restricts the application of molecular breeding. Results In this study, we analyzed 28,889 EST sequences from the date palm genome database to identify simple-sequence repeats (SSRs and to develop gene-based markers, i.e. expressed sequence tag-SSRs (EST-SSRs. We identified 4,609 ESTs as containing SSRs, among which, trinucleotide motifs (69.7% were the most common, followed by tetranucleotide (10.4% and dinucleotide motifs (9.6%. The motif AG (85.7% was most abundant in dinucleotides, while motifs AGG (26.8%, AAG (19.3%, and AGC (16.1% were most common among trinucleotides. A total of 4,967 primer pairs were designed for EST-SSR markers from the computational data. In a follow up laboratory study, we tested a sample of 20 random selected primer pairs for amplification and polymorphism detection using genomic DNA from date palm cultivars. Nearly one-third of these primer pairs detected DNA polymorphism to differentiate the twelve date palm cultivars used. Functional categorization of EST sequences containing SSRs revealed that 3,108 (67.4% of such ESTs had homology with known proteins. Conclusion Date palm EST sequences exhibits a good resource for developing gene-based markers. These genic markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in date palm, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, and molecular breeding.

  11. Characterization and evolution of conserved MicroRNA through duplication events in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xiao

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in a wide range of species. Highly conserved miRNAs regulate ancestral transcription factors common to all plants, and control important basic processes such as cell division and meristem function. We selected 21 conserved miRNA families to analyze the distribution and maintenance of miRNAs. Recently, the first genome sequence in Palmaceae was released: date palm (Phoenix dactylifera. We conducted a systematic miRNA analysis in date palm, computationally identifying and characterizing the distribution and duplication of conserved miRNAs in this species compared to other published plant genomes. A total of 81 miRNAs belonging to 18 miRNA families were identified in date palm. The majority of miRNAs in date palm and seven other well-studied plant species were located in intergenic regions and located 4 to 5 kb away from the nearest protein-coding genes. Sequence comparison showed that 67% of date palm miRNA members were present in duplicated segments, and that 135 pairs of miRNA-containing segments were duplicated in Arabidopsis, tomato, orange, rice, apple, poplar and soybean with a high similarity of non coding sequences between duplicated segments, indicating genomic duplication was a major force for expansion of conserved miRNAs. Duplicated miRNA pairs in date palm showed divergence in pre-miRNA sequence and in number of promoters, implying that these duplicated pairs may have undergone divergent evolution. Comparisons between date palm and the seven other plant species for the gain/loss of miR167 loci in an ancient segment shared between monocots and dicots suggested that these conserved miRNAs were highly influenced by and diverged as a result of genomic duplication events.

  12. A genome-wide survey of date palm cultivars supports two independent domestication events in Phoenix dactylifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is a key fruit crop in many arid regions of the world. There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors and sizes growing mainly from the west of North Africa to India. However, the origin o...

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Date Palm (Phoenix dactlifera L.) Proteome during Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marondedze C.; Thomas L.; Gehring C.

    2012-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.),a dioecious and perennial plant,is one of the earliest domesticated fruit trees.The high-energy dates produced are dominating the fruit market in the Middle East and North Africa.Date palms offer the most sustainable agro-ecosystems in harsh dry environments,bearing fruits that are a nutrient source of essential and non-essential amino acids,sugars,minerals,and vitamins.However,date palm agriculture has developed and improved only slowly because of limited genetic resources.The recent release of the genome sequence of the date palm paves the way to further studies of the molecular mechanisms occurring during growth and development of the palm and its fruit.In this study,we investigated the changes occurring at the proteome level throughout fruit development.To this end,fruits were collected at six different fruit developmental stages and total proteins were extracted in phenol and precipitated with saturated ammonium acetate in methanol.Proteins were resolubilized in urea-thiourea based buffer,trypsinized and labeled for relative quantitation.Peptides were then analysed by tandem mass spectrometry and identified using Mascot and ScaffoldTM combined.Out of a total of 180 differentially regulated proteins (0.01% FDR and 4-fold change),70 and 110 proteins were upand down-regulated,respectively,during fruit development.Systems level analysis showed that expression of proteins associated with metabolic processes increased with fruit maturation and ripening,while the photosynthetic machinery,translation and flavonoid biosynthetic process declined with fruit development.This wide scale proteomics study provides new insights into the biology behind fruit development and opens the way to the development of tools to improve fruit quality.In addition,it provides a platform to select for cultivars with the most desirable nutrient content and to link the presence of specific proteins to some of the reported medicinal benefits of dates.

  14. Antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of aqueous extract of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayalil, Praveen K

    2002-01-30

    Fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) are very commonly consumed in many parts of the world and are a vital component of the diet in most of the Arabian countries. This preliminary study documents for the first time its antioxidant and antimutagenic properties in vitro. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by an aqueous extract of date fruit. The amount of fresh extract required to scavenge 50% of superoxide radicals was equivalent to 0.8 mg/mL of date fruit in the riboflavin photoreduction method. An extract of 2.2 mg/mL of date fruit was needed for 50% hydroxyl-radical-scavenging activity in the deoxyribose degradation method. Concentrations of 1.5 and 4.0 mg/mL completely inhibited superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Aqueous date extract was also found to inhibit significantly the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In an Fe(2+)/ascorbate system, an extract of 1.9 mg/mL of date fruit was needed for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxides. In a time course inhibition study of lipid peroxide, at a 2.0 mg/mL concentration of date extract, there was a complete inhibition of TBARS formation in the early stages of the incubation period that increased during later stages of the incubation. Similarly, in the high Fe(2+)/ascorbate induction system a concentration of 2.3 mg/mL inhibited carbonyl formation measured by DNPH reaction by 50%. Moreover, a concentration of 4.0 mg/mL completely inhibited lipid peroxide and protein carbonyl formation. Date fruit extract also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mutagenecity on Salmonella tester strains TA-98 and TA-100 with metabolic activation. Extract from 3.6 mg/plate and 4.3 mg/plate was found required for 50% inhibition of His+ revertant formation in TA-98 and TA-100, respectively. These results indicate that antioxidant and antimutagenic activity in date fruit is quite potent and implicates the presence

  15. A complete sequence and transcriptomic analyses of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. mitochondrial genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Fang

    Full Text Available Based on next-generation sequencing data, we assembled the mitochondrial (mt genome of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. into a circular molecule of 715,001 bp in length. The mt genome of P. dactylifera encodes 38 proteins, 30 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal RNAs, which constitute a gene content of 6.5% (46,770 bp over the full length. The rest, 93.5% of the genome sequence, is comprised of cp (chloroplast-derived (10.3% with respect to the whole genome length and non-coding sequences. In the non-coding regions, there are 0.33% tandem and 2.3% long repeats. Our transcriptomic data from eight tissues (root, seed, bud, fruit, green leaf, yellow leaf, female flower, and male flower showed higher gene expression levels in male flower, root, bud, and female flower, as compared to four other tissues. We identified 120 potential SNPs among three date palm cultivars (Khalas, Fahal, and Sukry, and successfully found seven SNPs in the coding sequences. A phylogenetic analysis, based on 22 conserved genes of 15 representative plant mitochondria, showed that P. dactylifera positions at the root of all sequenced monocot mt genomes. In addition, consistent with previous discoveries, there are three co-transcribed gene clusters-18S-5S rRNA, rps3-rpl16 and nad3-rps12-in P. dactylifera, which are highly conserved among all known mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms.

  16. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., a member of Arecaceae family, is one of the three major economically important woody palms--the two other palms being oil palm and coconut tree--and its fruit is a staple food among Middle East and North African nations, as well as many other tropical and subtropical regions. Here we report a complete sequence of the data palm chloroplast (cp genome based on pyrosequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After extracting 369,022 cp sequencing reads from our whole-genome-shotgun data, we put together an assembly and validated it with intensive PCR-based verification, coupled with PCR product sequencing. The date palm cp genome is 158,462 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure of the large (LSC, 86,198 bp and small single-copy (SSC, 17,712 bp regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 27,276 bp. Similar to what has been found among most angiosperms, the date palm cp genome harbors 112 unique genes and 19 duplicated fragments in the IR regions. The junctions between LSC/IRs and SSC/IRs show different features of sequence expansion in evolution. We identified 78 SNPs as major intravarietal polymorphisms within the population of a specific cp genome, most of which were located in genes with vital functions. Based on RNA-sequencing data, we also found 18 polycistronic transcription units and three highly expression-biased genes--atpF, trnA-UGC, and rrn23. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike most monocots, date palm has a typical cp genome similar to that of tobacco--with little rearrangement and gene loss or gain. High-throughput sequencing technology facilitates the identification of intravarietal variations in cp genomes among different cultivars. Moreover, transcriptomic analysis of cp genes provides clues for uncovering regulatory mechanisms of transcription and translation in chloroplasts.

  17. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chengqi; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Peng; Li, Fusen; Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Al-Amer, Ali; Mei, Hailiang; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Hu, Songnian; Al-Johi, Hasan Awad; Yu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  18. Antileishmanial Activity of Date (Phoenix dactylifera L) Fruit and Pit Extracts In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakhit, Sedighe; Khademvatan, Shahram; Doudi, Monir; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered as a major public health problem worldwide. Current drugs in treatment of leishmaniasis have some limitations; thus, the current study was aimed to assess the methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of Phoenix dactylifera against Leishmania major promastigotes. L major promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 and incubated at 25°C ± 1°C for 24, 48, and 72 hours. For obtaining the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value, MTT assay was employed. Furthermore, promastigotes were examined in terms of morphology under light microscope. About 48 hours after treatment, IC50s were estimated 23 μg/mL and 500 mg/mL for methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of P dactylifera, respectively. Both extracts exhibited a dose and time-dependent antileishmanial activity against L major parasites. Also, some visible morphological changes were seen. This finding revealed both date fruit and pit, are effective against L major promastigotes. Further studies should be designed in future based on apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Chengqi

    2015-01-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  20. Valorization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, M; Bahkali, Ali H

    2013-04-01

    The date palm Phoenix dactylifera has played an important role in the day-to-day life of the people for the last 7000 years. Today worldwide production, utilization and industrialization of dates are continuously increasing since date fruits have earned great importance in human nutrition owing to their rich content of essential nutrients. Tons of date palm fruit wastes are discarded daily by the date processing industries leading to environmental problems. Wastes such as date pits represent an average of 10% of the date fruits. Thus, there is an urgent need to find suitable applications for this waste. In spite of several studies on date palm cultivation, their utilization and scope for utilizing date fruit in therapeutic applications, very few reviews are available and they are limited to the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits and phytochemical composition, nutritional significance and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption. In this context, in the present review the prospects of valorization of these date fruit processing by-products and wastes' employing fermentation and enzyme processing technologies towards total utilization of this valuable commodity for the production of biofuels, biopolymers, biosurfactants, organic acids, antibiotics, industrial enzymes and other possible industrial chemicals are discussed.

  1. Nuclear microsatellite markers for the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): characterization and utility across the genus Phoenix and in other palm genera.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billotte, N.; Marseillac, P.; Brottier, P.; Noyer, J.L.; Jacquemoud, J.P.; Moreau, C.; Couvreur, T.L.P.; Chavallier, M.H.; Pintaud, J.C.; Risterucci, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A (GA)n microsatellite-enriched library was constructed and 16 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were characterized in Phoenix dactylifera. Across-taxa amplification and genotyping tests showed the utility of most SSR markers in 11 other Phoenix species and the transferability of some of the

  2. Chemical Analysis of Different Parts of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Using Ultimate, Proximate and Thermo-Gravimetric Techniques for Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan A. Nasser; Salem, Mohamed Z. M.; Salim Hiziroglu; Hamad A. Al-Mefarrej; Ahmed S. Mohareb; Manawwer Alam; Aref, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze chemical structure of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by employing ultimate, proximate and thermo-gravimetric techniques. Samples from different anatomical parts of date palm, namely trunk, frond base, frond midrib, leaflets, coir, fruit stem, date stone, and fruit empty bunches were considered for the experiments. Based on the findings in this work palm leaflet samples gave the highest amount of extractives content (32.9%), followed by date palm s...

  3. Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties in nine Israeli varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Greenberg, Amnon; Volkova, Nina; Rosenblat, Mira; Aviram, Michael

    2013-05-08

    Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit soluble phenolics composition and anti-atherogenic properties were examined in nine diverse Israeli grown varieties. Ethanol and acetone extracts of 'Amari', 'Barhi', 'Deglet Noor', 'Deri', 'Hadrawi', 'Hallawi', 'Hayani', 'Medjool', and 'Zahidi' fruit were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for anti-atherogenicity by measuring their effects on LDL susceptibility to copper ion- and free radical-induced oxidation, and on serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The most frequently detected phenolics were hydroxybenzoates, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonols. Significant differences in phenolics composition were established between varieties as well as extraction solvents. All extracts inhibited LDL oxidation, and most extracts also stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Considerable varietal differences were measured in the levels of the bioactivities. Also, acetone extracts exhibited a significantly higher anti-atherogenic potency for most varieties. The presence of soluble ingredients with anti-atherogenic capacities in dates and the possible involvement of phenolics are discussed.

  4. A matured fruit extract of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stimulates the cellular immune system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Koji; Uzuhashi, Yuji; Hirota, Mitsuru; Otani, Hajime

    2011-10-26

    The immunomodulatory effects of a hot water extract from matured fruit of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were investigated in comparison to those of prune and fig fruit in mice. The number of spleen IFN-γ(+)CD4(+), IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells was highest in mice given the date extract-added diet. Polyphenols identified in the date extract, such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, pelargonin and ferulic acid, stimulated IFN-γ mRNA expression significantly in mouse Peyer's patch cell cultures. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid also increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) cells significantly, while some polyphenols increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly. On the other hand, a 70% ethanol-insoluble date extract treated with trypsin increased the number of IFN-γ(+)CD49b(+) and IL-12(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly. These results indicate that some polyphenols and polysaccharides present in date fruit stimulate the cellular immune system in mice.

  5. Genetic structure of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in the Old World reveals a strong differentiation between eastern and western populations

    OpenAIRE

    Zehdi-Azouzi, Salwa; Cherif, Emira; Moussouni, Souhila; Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Abbas Naqvi, Summar; Ludeña, Bertha; Castillo, Karina; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Bouguedoura, Nadia; Bennaceur, Malika; Si-Dehbi, Farida; Abdoulkader, Sabira; Daher, Abdourahman; Terral, Jean-Frederic; Santoni, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Date palms (Phoenix dactylifera, Arecaceae) are of great economic and ecological value to the oasis agriculture of arid and semi-arid areas. However, despite the availability of a large date palm germplasm spreading from the Atlantic shores to Southern Asia, improvement of the species is being hampered by a lack of information on global genetic diversity and population structure. In order to contribute to the varietal improvement of date palms and to provide new insights o...

  6. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity effects of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pollen on neonate mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaldashtian, Maryam; Makoolati, Zohreh; Ghorbanian, Mohamad Taghi; Naghdi, Majid; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin

    2015-01-01

    There is a fast growing tendency in the use of herbal remedies in developing countries. One of the traditional medicines used for male infertility treatment is date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) pollen (DPP). Isolated spermatogonial stem cells and sertoli cells using enzymatic digestion were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 4% foetal bovine serum in the absence or presence of 0.06, 0.25 and 0.62 mg/mL concentrations of aqueous extract of DPP for 2 weeks. The assessment of mean number of the whole cells and the living cells showed that there were no significant differences between the mean viability percentage and proliferation rate between control and experimental groups (P>0.05). As there are no cytotoxicity effects of DPP in our cultural system, this system can be utilised for the enrichment or differentiation of these cells in clinical applications, cell replacement therapy, tissue regeneration and tissue engineering applications.

  8. Tissue and cellular localization of tannins in Tunisian dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by light and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Hédi; Alvarado, Camille; Bouchet, Brigitte; Kalthoum-Chérif, Jamila; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika; Guyot, Sylvain

    2014-07-16

    A histological approach including light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to provide accurate information on the localization of condensed tannins in the edible tissues and in the stone of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Light microscopy was carried out on fresh tissues after staining by 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) for a specific detection of condensed tannins. Thus, whether under light microscopy or transmission electron microscopy (TEM), results showed that tannins are not located in the epidermis but more deeply in the mesocarp in the vacuole of very large cells. Regarding the stones, tannins are found in a specific cell layer located at 50 μm from the sclereid cells of the testa.

  9. Socio-economic characterisation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) growers and date value chains in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Ghayoor; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Buerkert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Increasing food production to feed its rapidly growing population is a major policy goal of Pakistan. The production of traditional staples such as rice (Oryza sativa L.) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been intensified in many regions, but not in remote, drought-ridden areas. In these arid, marginal environments dates and their by-products are an option to complement staples given their high nutritive value and storability. To fill knowledge gaps about the role of date palm in the household (HH) income of rural communities and the structure of date value chains, this project studied date palm production across six districts in four provinces of Pakistan. During 2012-2013 a total of 170 HHs were interviewed with a structured questionnaire using a snowball sampling approach. The results showed that most of the HH were headed by males (99 %) who were married (74 %) and often illiterate (40 %). Agriculture was the main occupation of date palm growers (56 %), while a few coupled agricultural activities with business (17 %) or extra-farm employment opportunities (government 9 %; private sector 8 %). Date sales contributed >50 % to the total income of 39 % of HH and 90-100 % to 24 % of HH. Overall farmers grew a total of 39 date palm cultivars and cultivated an average of 409 ± 559 mature date palms. The majority of the respondents sold dates to commission agents (35 %), contractors (22 %) and wholesalers (21 %), while 28 % of HH cultivated date palms only for self-consumption. Date palm growers had only limited knowledge about high quality date cultivars, optimized farm management and about effective post-harvest conservation. Changes in extension and marketing efforts are needed to allow farmers to better exploit value chains in date thereby reaping higher benefits from improved market access to secure their often marginal income.

  10. Physicochemical properties and mineral contents of seven different date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties growing from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-04-01

    The date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits (Soukari, Soulag, Barhi, Khulas, Rozaiz, Soughi and Monaif) were evaluated with respect to some physical and chemical properties. While crude protein contents of fruits change between 1.51% (Soulag) to 2.41% (Soughi), crude fibre contents ranged between 1.91% (Soukari) to 3.90% (Barhi). Vitamin C contents of date samples changed between 971.82 mg/kg (Soughi) to 1,453.15 mg/kg (Barhi). Antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.07 IC50 (Soukari) to 81.21 IC50 (Soulag). The highest phenolic content was found in Khulas with a mean value of 198 mg GAE/100 g. Energy values of date fruits ranged from 3,725 kcal/kg (Soulag) to 3,870 kcal/kg (Soukari). Sucrose contents of date fruits changed between 1.02% (Soulag) to 55.71% (Soukari). Mineral contents of several date fruits were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Date samples contain potassium at a range between 7,468 mg/kg (Khulas) to 9,619 mg/kg (Soulag). Phosphorus contents of fruits were found between 1,848 mg/kg (Soulag) to 3,066 mg/kg (Rozaiz) and followed by magnesium and calcium. The highest Zn (9.33 mg/kg), Cu (4.27 mg/kg) and Mn (3.26 mg/kg) were found in Rozaiz, Soukari and Barhi samples, respectively.

  11. Protective effect of date palm fruit extract (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on dimethoate induced-oxidative stress in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saafi, Emna Behija; Louedi, Mouna; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Hammami, Mohamed; Achour, Lotfi

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, people's exposure to chemical compounds such as organophosphorus insecticides is continuously on the rise more and more. Theses compounds have induced an excessive production of free radicals which are responsible for several cell alterations in the organism. Recent investigations have proved the crucial role of nutritional antioxidants to prevent the damage caused by toxic compounds. In this study, we investigate the role of date palm fruit extract (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in protection against oxidative damage and hepatotoxicity induced by subchronic exposure to dimethoate (20mg/kg/day). Oral administration of dimethoate caused hepatotoxicity as monitored by the increase in the levels of hepatic markers enzymes (transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and lactate dehydrogenase), as well as in hepatic malondialdehyde thus causing drastic alteration in antioxidant defence system. Particularly, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were found increased by dimethoate while catalase (CAT) activity was reduced significantly. These biochemical alterations were accompanied by histological changes marked by appearance of vacuolization, necrosis, congestion, inflammation, and enlargement of sinusoids in liver section. Pretreatment with date palm fruit extract restored the liver damage induced by dimethoate, as revealed by inhibition of hepatic lipid peroxidation, amelioration of SOD, GPx and CAT activities and improvement of histopathology changes. The present findings indicate that in vivo date palm fruit may be useful for the prevention of oxidative stress induced hepatotoxicity.

  12. Date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.: An underutilized food seeking industrial valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ghnimi

    2017-03-01

    Key findings and conclusions: Date fruits contain 6.5–11.5% total dietary fibers (of which 84–94% insoluble and 6–16% soluble dietary fiber and is very rich in phenolic antioxidants (1–2% especially condensed tannin pigments based on (−-epicatechin oligomers. Date seeds contain about 15% of fiber, characterized by a high level of water-insoluble mannan fibers. Date fruits are widely available in the global market, mainly at mature Tamr stage, but there is still room for improvement. It has been suggested that date fruits and seeds can be exploited in some food applications utilizing their high levels of fiber and antioxidants. The incorporation of date fruits and seeds as food ingredients is still growing with the aim to promote the presence of dates in the modern's consumer shopping basket.

  13. EffeCts of Direct sUn Drying of Maize Grains on Perforated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Sun drying ofmqize grains on unperforated and perforatedsurfaceswas ... and 40 mm in the field The response variables measured were weight loss at all depths and moisture con- ..... tent (on milled grains and on whole grains): The.

  14. Salt Tolerance Research in Date Palm Tree (Phoenix dactylifera L., Past, Present and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud W Yaish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The date palm can adapt to extreme drought, to heat, and to relatively high levels of soil salinity. However, excessive amounts of salt due to irrigation with brackish water lead to a significant reduction in the productivity of the fruits as well as marked decrease in the viable numbers of the date palm trees. It is imperative that the nature of the existing salt adaptation mechanism be understood in order to develop future date palm varieties that can tolerate excessive soil salinity. In this perspective article, several research strategies, obstacles, and precautions are discussed in light of recent advancements accomplished in this field and the properties of this species. In addition to a physiological characterization, we propose the use of a full range of OMICS technologies, coupled with reverse genetics approaches, aimed towards understanding the salt-adaption mechanism in the date palm. Information generated by these analyses should highlight transcriptional and posttranscriptional modifications controlling the salt-adaptation mechanisms. As an extremophile with a natural tolerance for a wide range of abiotic stresses, the date palm may represent a treasure trove of novel genetic resources for salinity tolerance.

  15. Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Fruits as a Potential Cardioprotective Agent: The Role of Circulating Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Mohamed, Maged E; Ahmed, K K M; Kumar, Arun H S

    2017-01-01

    Context: Date palms, along with their fruits' dietary consumption, possess enormous medicinal and pharmacological activities manifested in their usage in a variety of ailments in the various traditional systems of medicine. In recent years, the identification of progenitor cells in the adult organ systems has opened an altogether new approach to therapeutics, due to the ability of these cells to repair the damaged cells/tissues. Hence, the concept of developing therapeutics, which can mobilize endogenous progenitor cells, following tissue injury, to enhance tissue repair process is clinically relevant. Objectives: The present study investigates the potential of date of palm fruit extracts in repairing tissue injury following myocardial infarction (MI) potentially by mobilizing circulating progenitor cells. Methods: Extracts of four different varieties of date palm fruits common in Saudi Arabia eastern provision were scrutinized for their total flavonoid, total phenolic, in vitro antioxidant capacity, as well as their effects on two different rodent MI models. Results: High concentrations of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were observed in date palm fruit extracts, which contributed to the promising antioxidant activities of these extracts and the observed high protective effect against various induced in vivo MI. The extracts showed ability to build up reserves and to mobilize circulating progenitor cells from bone marrow and peripheral circulation to the site of myocardial infraction. Conclusion: Date palm fruit extracts have the potential to mobilize endogenous circulating progenitor cells, which can promote tissue repair following ischemic injury.

  16. Molecular Genetic Diversity of Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Germplasm in Qatar based on Microsatellite Markers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Talaat

    2016-01-25

    Depending on morphological traits alone, studying the genetic diversity of date palm is a very difficult task since morphological characteristics are highly affected by the environment. DNA markers are excellent option that can help and enhance the discriminatory power of morphological characteristics. To study the genetic diversity among date palm cultivars grown in Qatar, fifteen Date palm samples were collected from Qatar University Experimental Farm. DNAs were extracted from fresh leaves by using commercial DNeasy Plant System Kit (Qiagen, Inc., Valencia, CA). Total of 18 (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) ISSR single primers were used to amplify DNA fragments using genomic DNA of the 15 samples. First screening was done to test the ability of these primers to amplify clear bands using Date palm genomic DNA. All 18 ISSR primers successfully produced clear bands in the first screening. Then, each primer was used separately to genotype the whole set of 15 Date palm samples. Total of 4794 bands were generated using 18 ISSR primers for the 15 Date palm samples. On average, each primer generated 400 bands. The Number of amplified bands varied from cultivar to cultivar. The highest number of bands was obtained using Primers 2, 5 and 12 for the 15 (470 bands), while the lowest number of bands were obtained by Primers 1, 7 and 8 where they produced only 329 bands. Markers were scored for the presence and absence of the corresponding band among the different cultivars. Data were subjected to cluster analysis. A similarity matrix was constructed and the similarity values were used for cluster analysis.

  17. Endophytic fungi associated with roots of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Mahmoud, Fadila; Krimi, Zoulikha; Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Brahim Errahmani, Mohamed; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    Symbiotic interactions with fungal endophytes are argued to be responsible for the tolerance of plants to some stresses and for their adaptation to natural conditions. In this study we aimed to examine the endophytic fungal diversity associated with roots of date palms growing in coastal dune systems, and to screen this collection of endophytes for potential use as biocontrol agents, for antagonistic activity and mycoparasitism, and as producers of antifungal compounds with potential efficacy against root diseases of date palm. Roots of nine individual date palms growing in three coastal locations in the South-East of Spain (Guardamar, El Carabassí, and San Juan) were selected to isolate endophytic fungi. Isolates were identified on the basis of morphological and/or molecular characters. Five hundred and fifty two endophytic fungi were isolated and assigned to thirty morphological taxa or molecular operational taxonomic units. Most isolates belonged to Ascomycota, and the dominant order was Hypocreales. Fusarium and Clonostachys were the most frequently isolated genera and were present at all sampling sites. Comparisons of the endophytic diversity with previous studies, and their importance in the management of the date palm crops are discussed. This is the first study on the diversity of endophytic fungi associated with roots of date palm. The isolates obtained might constitute a source of biological control agents and biofertilizers for use in crops of this plant. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of water deficit on the cell wall of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet nour', Arecales) fruit during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribaa, Ali; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud; Rihouey, Christophe; Burel, Carole; Ferchichi, Ali; Driouich, Azeddine; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2013-05-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important crop providing a valuable nutrition source for people in many countries including the Middle East and North Africa. In recent years, the amount of rain in North Africa and especially in the Tunisian palm grove areas has dropped significantly. We investigated the growth and cell wall remodelling of fruits harvested at three key development stages from trees grown with or without water supply. During development, cell wall solubilization and remodelling was characterized by a decrease of the degree of methylesterification of pectin, an important loss of galactose content and a reduction of the branching of xylan by arabinose in irrigated condition. Water deficit had a profound effect on fruit size, pulp content, cell wall composition and remodelling. Loss of galactose content was not as important, arabinose content was significantly higher in the pectin-enriched extracts from non-irrigated condition, and the levels of methylesterification of pectin and O-acetylation of xyloglucan were lower than in irrigated condition. The lower levels of hydrophobic groups (methylester and O-acetyl) and the less intensive degradation of the hydrophilic galactan, arabinan and arabinogalactan in the cell wall may be implicated in maintaining the hydration status of the cells under water deficit.

  19. Traditional utilization of wild date palm (Phoenix sylvestris) in rural Bangladesh: an approach to sustainable biodiversity management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Md. Abdul Halim; Nur Muhammed; Farhana Haque; Masao Koike

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the traditional utilization pattern and indigenous management practices of wild date palm (Phoenix sylvestris Roxb) in the rural agrarian regions of Bangladesh. A multistage sampling method with 10% intensity and a semi-structured questionnaire were used for the study. The farmers manage the palm mainly for sap production with which sugar based secondary goods are manufactured. The sap is either used fresh as drink or after some sort of processing as molasses and/or alcoholic beverage. Seven diversified sites support the palm as its habitat and most palms (20.40%) occur in orchards. Besides growing naturally, the palm is also established in orchards using the wildings as the staple planting material. Although the medium category farmers own most of the palms (33%), a considerable portion (28.68%) of it is managed by the landless farmers, who earn a substantial livelihood from the palms. The farmers practice their own indigenous wisdom in every stage of the palm's maintenance from planting through tapping for sap collection to the processing of products. If managed more scientifically on a sustainable basis with the collaboration of farmers' indigenous knowledge, this familiar palm could be able to support the rural economy of the country to a great extent. Side by side, it would also be able to contribute to the richness of biodiversity in the region.

  20. Date Palm Tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.): Natural Products and Therapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Reem A; Al-Mashiqri, Jawhara H; Al-Nadabi, Jawaher S M; Al-Shihi, Badria I; Baqi, Younis

    2017-01-01

    Many plants, including some of the commonly consumed herbs and spices in our daily food, can be safely and effectively used to prevent and/or treat some health concerns. For example, caffeine the active ingredient found in coffee beans (Coffea), shows biological activity in the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) disorders, indole-3-carbinol, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane are both broccoli (Brassica oleracea) derived phytochemicals with potential anti-cancer activity, and resveratrol, isolated from grape (Vitis vinifera), is reported to extend lifespan and provide cardio-neuro-protective, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer effects. Date palm fruits possess high nutritional and therapeutic value with significant antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-proliferative properties. This review focuses on the date fruit extracts and their benefits in individual health promoting conditions and highlights their applications as useful to the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based industrial products.

  1. Date Palm Tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.: Natural Products and Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Al-Alawi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many plants, including some of the commonly consumed herbs and spices in our daily food, can be safely and effectively used to prevent and/or treat some health concerns. For example, caffeine the active ingredient found in coffee beans (Coffea, shows biological activity in the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS disorders, indole-3-carbinol, and 3,3′-diindolylmethane are both broccoli (Brassica oleracea derived phytochemicals with potential anti-cancer activity, and resveratrol, isolated from grape (Vitis vinifera, is reported to extend lifespan and provide cardio-neuro-protective, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer effects. Date palm fruits possess high nutritional and therapeutic value with significant antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-proliferative properties. This review focuses on the date fruit extracts and their benefits in individual health promoting conditions and highlights their applications as useful to the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based industrial products.

  2. Biosorption characteristics of phosphates from aqueous solution onto Phoenix dactylifera L. date palm fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riahi, Khalifa, E-mail: khalifa_riahi31@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie and Qualite des Eaux, Departement d' Amenagement and Environnement, Ecole Superieure des Ingenieurs de l' Equipement Rural, Medjez El Bab 9070 (Tunisia); Thayer, Bechir Ben [Laboratoire de Chimie and Qualite des Eaux, Departement d' Amenagement and Environnement, Ecole Superieure des Ingenieurs de l' Equipement Rural, Medjez El Bab 9070 (Tunisia); Mammou, Abdallah Ben [Laboratoire de Ressources Minerales and Environnement, Departement de Geologie, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire Tunis-El Manar 2092 (Tunisia); Ammar, Aouatef Ben; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib [Unite de Services Communs pour la Recherche en Microscope Electronique a Transmission, Faculte de Medecine de Tunis, 15, Rue Djebel Lakhdar 1007 (Tunisia)

    2009-10-30

    Phosphates are very important basic materials in agricultural and other industrial applications. The removal of phosphates from surface waters is generally necessary to avoid problems, such as eutrophication, particularly near urban areas. This paper is focused on the sorption of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions from aqueous solution onto date palm fibers as a raw, natural and abundantly materials. A series of batch tests were conducted and the influence of contact time, initial phosphate concentration, pH of the solution and adsorbent dosage on PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} specie removal was investigated. FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the date palm fibers before and after phosphates biosorption and desorption studies were investigated to confirm the mechanism of the retention of phosphates. Results indicate that PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} uptake increased with increased initial phosphate concentration and decreased with increased pH values. The results showed that the highest phosphates adsorption capacity (4.35 mg/g) was found at pH 6.8, for an adsorbent dosage of 6 g/L, initial phosphate concentration of 50 mg/L, under a constant temperature of 18 deg. C {+-} 02, and the equilibrium state was reached within 120 min of exposure time. The relatively low cost and high capabilities of date palm fibers make them potentially attractive adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution.

  3. Biosorption characteristics of phosphates from aqueous solution onto Phoenix dactylifera L. date palm fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Khalifa; Thayer, Béchir Ben; Mammou, Abdallah Ben; Ammar, Aouatef Ben; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib

    2009-10-30

    Phosphates are very important basic materials in agricultural and other industrial applications. The removal of phosphates from surface waters is generally necessary to avoid problems, such as eutrophication, particularly near urban areas. This paper is focused on the sorption of PO4(3-) ions from aqueous solution onto date palm fibers as a raw, natural and abundantly materials. A series of batch tests were conducted and the influence of contact time, initial phosphate concentration, pH of the solution and adsorbent dosage on PO4(3-) specie removal was investigated. FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the date palm fibers before and after phosphates biosorption and desorption studies were investigated to confirm the mechanism of the retention of phosphates. Results indicate that PO4(3-) uptake increased with increased initial phosphate concentration and decreased with increased pH values. The results showed that the highest phosphates adsorption capacity (4.35 mg/g) was found at pH 6.8, for an adsorbent dosage of 6g/L, initial phosphate concentration of 50mg/L, under a constant temperature of 18 degrees C+/-02, and the equilibrium state was reached within 120 min of exposure time. The relatively low cost and high capabilities of date palm fibers make them potentially attractive adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution.

  4. Antioxidant phenolic extracts obtained from secondary Tunisian date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by hydrothermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabet, Abdessalem; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; Sindic, Marianne; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Three common non-commercial Tunisian date varieties were treated by two thermal systems, obtaining a liquid fraction which was characterized and its antioxidant capacity determined. The concentration of total phenols in the three varieties (Smeti, Garen Gazel, and Eguwa) was increased by steam explosion treatment up to 5311, 4680, and 3832 mg/kg of fresh dates, and their antioxidant activity up to 62.5, 46.5 and 43.1 mmol Trolox/kg of fresh date, respectively. Both thermal treatments increased the content of phenolic acids. Additionally, a long scale study was carried out in a pilot plant, with steam treatment at 140 °C and 160 °C for 30 min. The liquid phase was extracted and fractionated chromatographically using adsorbent or ionic resins. The phenolic profiles were determined for each fraction, yielding fractions with interesting antioxidant activities with EC50 values of up to 0.08 mg/L or values of TEAC of 0.67 mmol Trolox/g of extract.

  5. Feasibility study of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit syrup-based natural jelly using central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benali, Sonia; Benamara, Salem; Bigan, Muriel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study of natural fruit jelly from three Algerian raw materials, namely date (Phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup and suspension of orange albedo powder (OAP) in lemon juice (LJ) was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The textural properties of the final jelly were investigated through two dependent variables: hardness and stickiness. The cooking temperature (X1), corresponding to that of thermo stated oil bath, and cooking time (X 2), taken for heating the initial fruit mixture in the oil bath (from ambient temperature without fixing however, the final temperature), were found to be the most influent factors, compared to °Brix of date syrup (X3) and temperature (X4) of the cooling stage following the cooking process. Results have also shown that the second-degree polynomial models correctly fit experimental data (R(2), adjusted R(2) (R(2) adj) and cross-validation (Q(2)) ≈ 1). Considering textural properties of commercial jellies as a reference, it was found that the cooking temperature of 155 °C for 10 min gave a jelly with suitable textural properties. On the other hand, FT-IR spectra revealed that the structure of such jelly was partially close to that of pectin molecules. Finally, the color analysis in the CIELab system of the fruit mixture over the cooking process showed that both lightness (L(*)) and a*/b* ratio were not affected by the experienced temperature range (80-155 °C).

  6. Fungal diversity in adult date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ines BEN CHOBBA; Amine ELLEUCH; Imen AYADI; Lamia KHANNOUS; Ahmed NAMSI; Frederique CERQUEIRA; Noureddine DRIRA; Nji GHARSALLAH; Tatiana VALLAEYS

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic flora plays a vital role in the colonization and survival of host plants, especial y in harsh en-vironments, such as arid regions. This flora may, however, contain pathogenic species responsible for various trou-blesome host diseases. The present study is aimed at investigating the diversity of both cultivable and non-cultivable endophytic fungal floras in the internal tissues (roots and leaves) of Tunisian date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera). Accordingly, 13 isolates from both root and leaf samples, exhibiting distinct colony morphology, were selected from potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and identified by a sequence match search wherein their 18S-28S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were compared to those available in public databases. These findings revealed that the cultivable root and leaf isolates fel into two groups, namely Nectriaceae and Pleosporaceae. Additional y, total DNA from palm roots and leaves was further extracted and ITS fragments were amplified. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ITS from 200 fungal clones (leaves: 100; roots: 100) using HaeIII restriction enzyme revealed 13 distinct patterns that were further sequenced and led to the identification of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Davidiel a (Cladosporium teleomorph), Pythium, Curvularia, and uncharacterized fungal endophytes. Both approaches confirmed that while the roots were predominantly colonized by Fusaria (members of the Nectri-aceae family), the leaves were essential y colonized by Alternaria (members of the Pleosporaceae family). Overal , the findings of the present study constitute, to the authors’ knowledge, the first extensive report on the diversity of endophytic fungal flora associated with date palm trees (P. dactylifera).

  7. Proteome Analysis for Understanding Abiotic Stress (Salinity and Drought Tolerance in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the proteome of date palm under salinity and drought stress conditions to possibly identify proteins involved in stress tolerance. For this purpose, three-month-old seedlings of date palm cultivar “Sagie” were subjected to drought (27.5 g/L polyethylene glycol 6000 and salinity stress conditions (16 g/L NaCl for one month. DIGE analysis of protein extracts identified 47 differentially expressed proteins in leaves of salt- and drought-treated palm seedlings. Mass spectrometric analysis identified 12 proteins; three out of them were significantly changed under both salt and drought stress, while the other nine were significantly changed only in salt-stressed plants. The levels of ATP synthase alpha and beta subunits, an unknown protein and some of RubisCO fragments were significantly changed under both salt and drought stress conditions. Changes in abundance of superoxide dismutase, chlorophyll A-B binding protein, light-harvesting complex1 protein Lhca1, RubisCO activase, phosphoglycerate kinase, chloroplast light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, phosphoribulokinase, transketolase, RubisCO, and some of RubisCO fragments were significant only for salt stress.

  8. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) micropropagation using completely mature female flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Walid; Sghaier-Hammami, Besma; Masmoudi-Allouche, Faïza; Benjemaa-Masmoudi, Raja; Drira, Noureddine

    2012-03-01

    This study describes an efficient and reproducible protocol for in vitro date palm propagation using mature female flowers. It focuses on the promising proliferation capacity exhibited by a number of female flower tissues taken at the final developmental stage. This capacity resided in the ability to preserve minuscule zones in a juvenile state located at the floral organ armpits (sepals and petals). The originality of this method lies in the possibility of propagation of very rare varieties, particularly the genotypes that exist in only one copy without the excision of the plant mother, the source of the tissue collected to be cultivated, which was not the case for all previous methods. The findings revealed that 2,4-D at 1mg/l, most of the varieties tested showed reactivity. The success of this technique was also noted to depend on the concurrent control of various factors pertaining mainly to the hormonal composition of the culture medium and the appropriate time of tissue transfer, which depends on the proliferation state as well as the culture period. This study describes the nature of the proliferation from the mature female flowers and their outcome, particularly those at the origin of embryogenic and budding strains and discusses the advantages of this novel multiplication method as compared to the currently available ones.

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics and fungal profile of four Saudi fresh date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Fahad; Nirmal, Nilesh; Chaliha, Mridusmita; Williams, David; Mereddy, Ram; Shelat, Kinnari; Sultanbawa, Yasmina

    2017-04-15

    Physico-chemical and microbial analyses of four commercial fresh date cultivars (Sukari, Barhi, Khalas and Rothana) grown in Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Colorimetric assay indicated that Sukari had the highest total sugar content of 13.21g/100gFW while the lowest was in Rothana with 7.96g/100gFW. Total phenolic content (TPC) ranged from 76.74 to 122.20mgGAE/100gFW in Barhi and Rothana respectively, whereas antioxidant activity was highest in Sukari (105.99μgGAE/gFW) and lowest in Khalas (90.81μgGAE/gFW). The dominant fungal genera were Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. and Sarocladium sp., occurring at 37, 18, 13 and 12% respectively. The highest fungal occurrence was in Barhi (30%) followed by Sukari (29%), Khalas (26%) and Rothana (15%). The TPC had a negative correlation with fungal occurrence whilst the total sugars had a positive correlation.

  10. Date (Phoenix dactylifera Polyphenolics and Other Bioactive Compounds: A Traditional Islamic Remedy’s Potential in Prevention of Cell Damage, Cancer Therapeutics and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi R. Yasin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of Phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. Specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. Phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. This allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage and assist these defense systems in reducing cell damage. Macroscopically, this mechanism may be relevant to the prevention of various adverse drug events common to chemotherapy including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, gastrotoxicity, and peripheral neuropathy. While such effects have only been studied in small animal systems, research suggests a potential application to more complex mammalian systems and perhaps a solution to some problems of chemotherapy in hepato-compromised and nephro-compromised patients.

  11. Mycoflora and vitamin content of sun-dried food condiments in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekundayo, C A

    1987-01-01

    The fungi most frequently isolated (of 20-100% incidence) from fresh okra, pepper fruits and melon seeds are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichoderma harzianum, Mucor mucedo and Fusarium oxysporum. The major mycoflora of the fruits which had been sun-dried for twenty days are comprised of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp which initially had formed the minor components (of less than 20% incidence) of the colonising population. The effect of sun-drying on the fruits was a statistically significant (P = 0.05) decrease in the riboflavin content and a generally small and non-significant decrease in the concentrations of thiamine, niacin, biotin and ascorbic acid. The effect of mouldiness during sun-drying was to further decrease the concentration of the vitamins.

  12. Gamma irradiation of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: hussainpr@rediffmail.co [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India); Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M. [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India)

    2011-07-15

    The study is aimed at the optimization of gamma irradiation treatment of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes. Sun-dried apricots pre-treated with potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) at 2.5% w/v were procured from progressive apricot grower of district Kargil, Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state. The sun-dried apricots were packed in 250 gauge polyethylene packs and gamma irradiated in the dose range 1.0-3.0 kGy. The gamma irradiated fruit including control was stored under ambient (15{+-}2-25{+-}2 {sup o}C, RH 70-80%) conditions and periodically evaluated for physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality parameters. Radiation treatment at dose levels of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy proved significantly (p{<=}0.05) beneficial in retention of higher levels of {beta}-carotene, ascorbic acid, total sugars and color values without impairing the taste as perceived by the sensory panel analysists. The above optimized doses retained the {beta}-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to the extent of 71.2% and 72.6% compared to 63.9% in control samples after 18 months of storage. Irradiation treatment facilitated the release of residual sulfur dioxide in KMS pre-treated sun-dried apricots significantly (p{<=}0.05) below the prescribed limit for dried products. During storage, two-fold decrease in sulfur dioxide content was recorded in irradiated samples (3.0 kGy) as compared to 16.9% in control. The above optimized doses besides maintaining the higher overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots resulted in 5 log reductions in microbial load just after irradiation and 1.0 and 1.3 log reductions in yeast and mold and bacterial count after 18 months of ambient storage.

  13. Phoenix Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Phoenix is a commercial off-the-shelf, web-based financial management system configured for USAID. Phoenix provides information about commitments, obligations, and...

  14. Chemical Analysis of Different Parts of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Using Ultimate, Proximate and Thermo-Gravimetric Techniques for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan A. Nasser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze chemical structure of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. by employing ultimate, proximate and thermo-gravimetric techniques. Samples from different anatomical parts of date palm, namely trunk, frond base, frond midrib, leaflets, coir, fruit stem, date stone, and fruit empty bunches were considered for the experiments. Based on the findings in this work palm leaflet samples gave the highest amount of extractives content (32.9%, followed by date palm stone specimens with 31.5%. Cellulose content values of 32.8% and 47.5% were obtained for date palm stone and palm coir samples, respectively. Overall the hemicellulose contents of all samples were relatively similar to those of typical wood or non-wood lignocellulosic materials with the two exceptions of palm coir and palm leaflets. Both palm coir and palm leaflet specimens had 12.6% and 16.1% hemicellulose content. Volatile matter values of 74.3% and 87.5% were determined for leaflets and fruit empty bunch samples. The ash content of the samples ranged from 1.4% for date stone to 15.2% for palm leaflet samples. The thermal decomposition was completed below a temperature of 500 °C with an exception of those samples taken from palm leaflets. Taken together the data indicate that date palm stone and palm coir revealed could be more viable for renewable energy production than the other specimens considered in this work.

  15. Study of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of date fruit as a function of ripening stages and drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdadi, F; Mirzaei, H O; Daraei Garmakhany, A

    2015-03-01

    Edible parts of two varieties of date palm (Mazfati and Kalute varieties) (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits (DPF) from Iran were analyzed to determine their phenolic compound and antioxidant activities (AA). Antioxidant activity evaluated using typical methods such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and total antioxidant method. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the DPF was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau method. The samples used in this study included samples were gathered at three stages of khalaal, rutab, tamr and dried date from Bam and Jiroft date. The TPC ranged from 2.89 to 4.82, 1074 to 856.4 and 782.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 gdw sample) for khalal, rutab and tamr stage of Mozafati variety, respectively. This work demonstrates the potential of Iranian dates as good sources of antioxidant which can be used as functional food ingredients. The influence of sun drying process and oven drying at temperature ranged 50-80 °C on phenolic compounds and AA of date palm fruits were investigated. Result of drying process showed that TPC and AA varied with temperature and decreased by increase of drying temperature (from 667.3 to 610.5 mg galic acid in sun dried dates of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively to 314.2 and 210.4 in dried dates (80 °C) of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively).

  16. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I

    2016-10-01

    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation.

  17. Physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, total phenol and mineral profile of seeds of seven different date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Ghafoor, Kashif; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2012-02-01

    The physical and chemical properties of the date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seeds from seven date samples (Soukari, Soulag, Barhi, Khulas, Rozaiz, Soughi and Monaif) were evaluated. Energy values of dried and ground seeds were found between 4340 kcal/kg (Barhi cv) and 4795 kcal/kg (Rozaiz cv). Also, while crude oil content of seeds were established between 4.68% (Khulas cv) and 7.96% (Monaif cv), crude protein contents were found at the levels between 3.71% (Soulag cv) and 5.47% (Barhi cv). The antioxidant activity of seeds obtained from different date fruits changed between 78.03 (mg/ml) (Monaif cv) and 79.94 (mg/ml) (Barhi cv). In addition, the total phenol contents of seeds were found between 1.98 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g (Barhi cv) and 4.65 mg GAE/100 g (Soughi cv). The most abundant fatty acids of the date seed oils were oleic, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. Ca, Mg, K and P contents of date seeds were found at the high concentrations.

  18. Anti-allergic properties of a matured fruit extract of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in mite-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Koji; Otani, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    The effects of oral ingestion of a hot water extract of matured fruit of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on allergic responses were investigated in mite-sensitized mice. Sneezing and nose rubbing events in mice given a date extract-added diet were significantly lower than in those given an extract-free (control) diet. The serum total and mite antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and the number of spleen interleukin-4(+)CD4(+), IgE(+)B220(+) and FcεRIα(+)CD117(+) cells was significantly lower in mice given the date extract-added diet than in those given the control diet. Chlorogenic acid, pelargonin and ferulic acid significantly reduced the number of IgE(+)B220(+) cells, while chlorogenic acid and pelargonin significantly decreased the number of FcεRIα(+)CD117(+) cells in mouse spleen cell cultures. These results suggest that some polyphenols in the date may reduce mite-induced allergic symptoms in mice via a decrease in the number of IgE-producing plasma cells and high-affinity IgE receptor-expressing mast cells.

  19. Antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of phenolic acid and flavonol fractions of fruits of 'Amari' and 'Hallawi' date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borochov-Neori, Hamutal; Judeinstein, Sylvie; Greenberg, Amnon; Volkova, Nina; Rosenblat, Mira; Aviram, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit phenolic-acid or flavonol fractions were examined in vitro for antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties. Two fractions of each subgroup were prepared from two date varieties, 'Amari' and 'Hallawi', by solid phase extraction on C18. The fractions were analyzed for phenolics composition by RP-HPLC and tested for ferric-reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation, and enhancement of HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. All four fractions exhibited variable capacities to reduce ferric ions, scavenge radicals, and inhibit LDL oxidation. Flavonol fractions were considerably better inhibitors of LDL oxidation compared to phenolic acid fractions, with IC50's of 9-31 nmol GAE mL(-1) compared to 85-116 nmol GAE mL(-1), respectively. Only the flavonol fractions stimulated cholesterol removal from macrophages. Within each subgroup, the levels of all the activities varied with fraction composition. The results demonstrated strong structure-activity relationships for date phenolics and identified date flavonols as potential antiatherogenic bioactives.

  20. Use of two bacteria for biological control of bayoud disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dihazi, Abdelhi; Jaiti, Fatima; Wafataktak; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Jaoua, Samir; Driouich, Azeddine; Baaziz, Mohamed; Daayf, Fouad; Serghini, Mohammed Amine

    2012-06-01

    The Bayoud, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa), is the most destructive disease of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) in Morocco and Algeria, with no effective control strategy yet available. In this work, two bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Ag1 (Ag) and Burkholderia cepacia strain Cs5 (Cs), were examined for their potential to control this disease. Both bacterial strains inhibited both growth and sporulation of Foa. They released compounds into the culture medium, which resulted into cytological changes in Foa's mycelial structure. When Jihel-date palm plantlets, a susceptible cultivar, were induced with these bacteria, the size of the necrosis zone, which reflected the spreading of the pathogen, was reduced by more than 70%, as compared with uninduced controls. To further investigate the mechanisms of such disease reduction, phenolic compounds and peroxidase activity were assessed. One month after inoculation, date palm defense reactions against Foa were different depending on the bacterium used, B. cepacia led to higher accumulation of constitutive caffeoylshikimic acid isomers while B. amyloliquefaciens triggered the induction of new phenolic compounds identified as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Peroxidase activity has also been stimulated significantly and varied with the bacterial strain used and with Foa inoculation. These results add to the promising field of investigation in controlling Bayoud disease.

  1. Feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecheb, Fatma; Benamara, Salem

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design. First, the mixture design was applied to optimize the cosmetic formula. The responses (dependent variables) were the spreadability (YSp) and viscosity (YVis), the factors (independent variables) being the weight proportions of the fatty phase (X1), the aqueous date seed extract (X2), and the beeswax (X3). Second, the cosmetic stability study was conducted by applying a full factorial design. Here, three responses were considered [spreadability (Sp), viscosity (Vis), and peroxide index (PI)], the independent variables being the concentration of the date seed oil (DSO) (x1), storage temperature (x2), and storage time (x3). Results showed that in the case of mixture design, the second-order polynomial equations correctly described experimental data. Globally, results show that there is a relatively wide composition range to ensure a suitable cosmetic cream from the point of view of Sp and Vis. Regarding the cosmetic stability, the storage time was found to be the most influential factor on both Vis and PI, which are considered here as indicators of physical and chemical stability of the emulsion, respectively. Finally, the elaborated and commercial cosmetics were compared in terms of pH, Sp, and centrifugation test (Ct).

  2. Evaluation of Bunch Protectors for Preventing Insect Infestation and Preserving Yield and Fruit Quality of Dates, Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perring, Thomas M; Nay, Justin E

    2015-04-01

    In experiments comparing conventional date paper wraps with polyester mesh bags, date bunches enclosed in polyester mesh bags had lower insect infestations than dates covered by paper wraps. Carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), infestations of marketable fruit were significantly lower for mesh bags (0.6-3.1%) compared with paper wraps (8.5-15.5%). Other fruit pests [raisin moth, Cadra figulilella (Gregson), and beetles in the family Nitidulidae] were less common than carob moth, and infestation by these insects was consistently lower in fruit protected by mesh bags. Date bunches in mesh bag treatments had a 21-46% net increase in marketable date fruit owing to the fact that the bags prevented marketable dates from falling to the garden floor. The number of abscised kimri fruit was higher in the mesh bag treatment than the paper wrap treatment, yet there were no differences in the incidences of other fruit maladies (black nose, fruit with fungi, shriveled fruit, abscised khalal fruit, infertile fruit, and nonripe fruit). Bunch sanitation, used just prior to bagging and wrapping dates, successfully removed abscised kimri fruit from bunches, which resulted in a significantly lower number of cull dates from one garden, but this response was not present at a second garden. These studies show that mesh bags should be included in an integrated pest management program on dates.

  3. Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria from date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and their potential role in salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; Antony, Irin; Glick, Bernard R

    2015-06-01

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedling roots, characterized and tested for their ability to help plants grow under saline conditions. Molecular characterization showed that the majority of these strains belonged to the genera Bacillus and Enterobacter and had different degrees of resistance to various antibiotics. Some of these strains were able to produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase and the plant growth regulatory hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Some strains were also able to chelate ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and solubilize potassium (K(+)), phosphorus (PO 4 (3-) ) and zinc (Zn(2+)), and produce ammonia. The results also showed that ACC deaminase activity and IAA production was slightly increased in some strains in response to an increase in NaCl concentration in the growth media. Consistent with these results, selected strains such as PD-R6 (Paenibacillus xylanexedens) and PD-P6 (Enterobacter cloacae) were able to enhance canola root elongation when grown under normal and saline conditions as demonstrated by a gnotobiotic root elongation assay. These results suggest that the isolated and characterized endophytic bacteria can alter ethylene and IAA levels and also facilitate nutrient uptake in roots and therefore have the potential role to promote the growth and development of date palm trees growing under salinity stress.

  4. Antibacterial Properties and Effects of Fruit Chilling and Extract Storage on Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Anthocyanin Content of Four Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azizan Samad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at −20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone on total phenolic content (TPC, antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at −20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW. The TAC of all extracts increased after storage. The chilling of date palm fruits for 8 weeks prior to solvent extraction elevated the TPC of all date fruit extracts, except for methanolic extracts of Mabroom and Mariami. All IC50 values of all cultivars decreased after the fruit chilling treatment. Methanol was a better solvent compared to acetone for the extraction of phenolic compounds in dates. The TPC of all cultivars extracts decreased after 5 weeks of extract storage. IC50 values of all cultivars extracts increased after extract storage except for the methanolic extracts of Safawi and Ajwa. Different cultivars exhibited different antibacterial properties. Only the methanolic extract of Ajwa exhibited antibacterial activity against all four bacteria tested: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli. These results could be useful to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based products.

  5. Antibacterial Properties and Effects of Fruit Chilling and Extract Storage on Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Anthocyanin Content of Four Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Muhammad Azizan; Hashim, Siti Hajar; Simarani, Khanom; Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati

    2016-03-26

    Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC) was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at -20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW) while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW). The TAC of all extracts increased after storage. The chilling of date palm fruits for 8 weeks prior to solvent extraction elevated the TPC of all date fruit extracts, except for methanolic extracts of Mabroom and Mariami. All IC50 values of all cultivars decreased after the fruit chilling treatment. Methanol was a better solvent compared to acetone for the extraction of phenolic compounds in dates. The TPC of all cultivars extracts decreased after 5 weeks of extract storage. IC50 values of all cultivars extracts increased after extract storage except for the methanolic extracts of Safawi and Ajwa. Different cultivars exhibited different antibacterial properties. Only the methanolic extract of Ajwa exhibited antibacterial activity against all four bacteria tested: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli. These results could be useful to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based products.

  6. Phoenix Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Phoenix Traffic and Mobile Data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Baldauf , R., V. Isakov , P. Deshmukh, and A. Venkatram. Influence of...

  7. Metabolic Analysis of Various Date Palm Fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars from Saudi Arabia to Assess Their Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ismail; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Al Jaouni, Soad; Zinta, Gaurav; Asard, Han; Hassan, Sherif; Hegab, Momtaz; Hagagy, Nashwa; Selim, Samy

    2015-07-27

    Date palm is an important crop, especially in the hot-arid regions of the world. Date palm fruits have high nutritional and therapeutic value and possess significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. In this study, we performed bioactivity analyses and metabolic profiling of date fruits of 12 cultivars from Saudi Arabia to assess their nutritional value. Our results showed that the date extracts from different cultivars have different free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. Moreover, the cultivars showed significant differences in their chemical composition, e.g., the phenolic content (10.4-22.1 mg/100 g DW), amino acids (37-108 μmol·g-1 FW) and minerals (237-969 mg/100 g DW). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation of the cultivars into four different groups. The first group consisted of the Sokary, Nabtit Ali cultivars, the second group of Khlas Al Kharj, Khla Al Qassim, Mabroom, Khlas Al Ahsa, the third group of Khals Elshiokh, Nabot Saif, Khodry, and the fourth group consisted of Ajwa Al Madinah, Saffawy, Rashodia, cultivars. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed clustering of date cultivars into two groups. The first cluster consisted of the Sokary, Rashodia and Nabtit Ali cultivars, and the second cluster contained all the other tested cultivars. These results indicate that date fruits have high nutritive value, and different cultivars have different chemical composition.

  8. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  9. The major proteins of the seed of the fruit of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): Characterisation and emulsifying properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasha, Ibrahim; Campbell, Lydia; Lonchamp, Julien; Euston, Stephen R

    2016-04-15

    Proteins were extracted from the seeds of the fruit of the date palm. Proteomic analysis and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of the extracted proteome suggested it is composed predominantly of the storage proteins glycinin and β-conglycinin, although over 300 proteins were detected, 91 of which were identified with confidence. In terms of protein type, the largest numbers of proteins were associated, not unexpectedly, with metabolism and energy functions, which reflected the requirements of the germinating and growing embryonic plant. The emulsifying properties of the extracted proteins were determined. Date seed protein exhibited a lower emulsifying activity than either whey protein concentrate or soy protein isolate, at each of the pH values tested. However, the stability of the emulsions produced with all three proteins was very similar at the different pH values. This combination of large emulsion droplet size and high emulsion stability properties suggested that the date proteins may adsorb as large protein oligomers.

  10. Execution of strands thinning improves the phytochemicals and sugars profiling in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Imtiaz; Ahmad, Saeed; Amjad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashid

    2016-07-01

    Date fruit is a rich and quick source of phytochemicals and sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) which playing a vital role to nourish the human beings worldwide. The present study therefore, was conducted to explore the role of strands thinning on phytochemicals and sugars profiling in date palm (Cvs. Hillawi and Khadrawi). The experiment was comprised of different strand thinning treatments viz. @ 20% RCS (removal of central strands), 30% RCS, 20% STT (shortening of terminal tips), 30% STT, 20% RCS + 20% STT and 30% RCS+30% STT) including control. The results obtained from the current study showed that strand thinning significantly improves the level of phytochemicals and sugars in date fruit harvested at rutab stage as compared to un-thinned fruit clusters. Higher level of phytochemicals and sugars were found in fruit clusters thinned @ 30% RCS alone and in combination of 30% RCS+30%STT than other fruit thinning intensities. In conclusion; Strand thinning should be employed as an imperative managerial approach to improve the nutritional and phytochemical value of date palm fruit and to fulfill the quick energy requirement of the human body.

  11. Acoustical detection of early instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis (Arecales: Arecaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), is of international concern due to destructive larval feeding within palm trees. Originating from tropical Asia, RPW has spread throughout the eastern hemisphere where it has become a significant economic pest to the ornamental and date...

  12. Anti-atherogenic properties of Deglet Noor Date seeds (Phoenix dactylifera) Methanol extract on Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saryono, S.; Eliyan, J.; Herdiati, D.; Khikmatullah, AA; Silvana, CP; Adi, HP

    2017-02-01

    This is the first study to investigate the completely anti-atherogenic effect of Deglet Noor Date seeds methanol extract administration on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. About 24 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. The normal control (NC) group, Hypercholesterolemic Control (HC) group was given high cholesterol diet, and Simvastatin Control (SC) group was given 0.18 mg/200g simvastatin after high cholesterol diet induction. The treatment groups of T0.25, T0.5 and T1 were given supplementation of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg of dates seed extract after high cholesterol diet induction, respectively for 21 days. Blood was collected from orbitals plexus vein for plasma lipid profile analysis. The levels of Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Atherogenic Index (AI) values were significantly decreased (p<0.05) on diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats after supplemented with date seeds extract (T0.25, T0.5 and T1) but not in Triglycerides (TG). Along with that, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (p<0.05). However, the T1 group was the best anti-atherogenic activity in compared to other groups. Results showed that plasma lipid profile was significant to get better after supplemented with date seeds extract.

  13. EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL SUN-DRYING ON PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala Chauhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi L. has various beneficial properties including antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. The effect of traditional sun drying on the stability of fresh A. bilimbi fruits was investigated by using different methanol/water extracts, and their total phenolic content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC compared. The TAC was evaluated using established in vitro models such as 1,1,diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2´-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid scavenging assay, total reducing power, phosphomolybdenum assay and metal chelating activity. All the extracts of the dried fruit showed lower TPC compared to the fresh bilimbi extracts by 23-88%, TAC of which corresponded accordingly. The investigation revealed that A. bilimbi was a good source of antioxidants; however, the drying process of the fruit significantly affected the bioactive compounds.

  14. Replacement of Fishmeal by Single Cell Protein Derived from Yeast Grown on Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Industry Waste in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2013-10-02

    Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (32% protein, 4.3 Kcal/g) were formulated to replace fishmeal by single cell protein (SCP) from two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, grown on date (Phoenix dactylifera) processing waste in diets for two size groups (avg 15.39 g and 25.14 g) of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (T1) with fishmeal and six experimental diets (S1, S2, and S3 with S. cerevisiae, and C1, C2, and C3 with C. utilis) each containing 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% yeast as SCP were prepared to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of fishmeal, respectively. Tilapia fed on the control and experimental diets (S1, S2, C1, C2) with 25% and 50% replacement of fishmeal showed better growth and feed utilization. Fish fed on diets S3 and C3 (75% fishmeal replacement) had significantly (p < 0.05) poorer growth suggesting that yeast SCP can replace up to 50% of fishmeal in juvenile tilapia diets. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  15. High-throughput sequencing-based gene profiling on multi-staged fruit development of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuxin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Fang, Yongjun; Pan, Linlin; Sun, Gaoyuan; Xin, Chengqi; Ba Abdullah, Mohammed M; Yu, Xiaoguang; Hu, Songnian; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S; Yu, Jun

    2012-04-01

    Date palm provides both staple food and gardening for the Middle East and North African countries for thousands of years. Its fruits have diversified significantly, such as nutritional content, size, length, weight color, and ripping process. Dates palm represent an excellent model system for the study of fruit development and diversity of fruit-bearing palm species that produce the most versatile fruit types as compared to other plant families. Using Roche/454 GS FLX instrument, we acquired 7.6 million sequence tags from seven fruiting stages (F1-F7). Over 99% of the raw reads are assembled, and the numbers of isotigs (equivalent to transcription units or unigenes) range from 30,684 to 40,378 during different fruiting stages. We annotated isotigs using BLASTX and BLASTN, and mapped 74% of the isotigs to known functional sequences or genes. Based on gene ontology categorization and pathway analysis, we have identified 10 core cell division genes, 18 ripening related genes, and 7 starch metabolic enzymes, which are involved as nutrition storage and sugar/starch metabolisms. We noticed that many metabolic pathways vary significantly during fruit development, and carbohydrate metabolism (especially sugar synthesis) is particularly prominent during fruit ripening. Transcriptomics study on various fruiting stages of date palm shows complicated metabolic activities during fruit development, ripening, synthesis and accumulation of starch enzymes and other related sugars. Most Genes are highly expressed in early stages of development, while late developmental stages are critical for fruit ripening including most of the metabolism associated ones.

  16. Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Leaflets and Rachis to Enhance Enzymatic Digestibility and Bioethanol Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanji Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Date palm residues are one of the most promising lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production in the Middle East. In this study, leaflets and rachis were subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of the biomass for enzymatic conversion. Evident morphological, structural, and chemical changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy after pretreatment. High glucan (>90% for both leaflets and rachis and xylan (>75% for leaflets and >79% for rachis recovery were achieved. Under the optimal condition of hydrothermal pretreatment (210°C/10 min highly digestible (glucan convertibility, 100% to leaflets, 78% to rachis and fermentable (ethanol yield, 96% to leaflets, 80% to rachis solid fractions were obtained. Fermentability test of the liquid fractions proved that no considerable inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae were produced in hydrothermal pretreatment. Given the high sugar recovery, enzymatic digestibility, and ethanol yield, production of bioethanol by hydrothermal pretreatment could be a promising way of valorization of date palm residues in this region.

  17. A kinetic modeling study of phosphate adsorption onto Phoenix dactylifera L. date palm fibers in batch mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Riahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of phosphates from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto date palm fibers (DPF has been studied in batch mode. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms that govern phosphate sorption and find an appropriate model for the kinetics of removal. In order to investigate the mechanism of sorption and potential rate controlling steps, pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich equations have been used to test experimental data. Kinetic analysis of the four models has been carried out for initial phosphate concentration in the range of 30–110 mg/L. The rate constants for the four models have been determined and the correlation coefficients have been calculated in order to assess which model provides the best fit predicted data with experimental results. Seven statistical functions were used to estimate the error deviations between experimental and theoretically predicted kinetic adsorption values, including the average relative error deviation (ARED, Marquardt’s percent standard error deviation (MPSED, the hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID, the sum of the squares of the errors (SSE and three alternative statistical functions, including the Chi-square test, the F-test and Student’s T-test. The results showed that, both Elovich equation and pseudo second-order equation provide the best fit to experimental data for different initial phosphate concentrations.

  18. Fungal Root Microbiome from Healthy and Brittle Leaf Diseased Date Palm Trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Reveals a Hidden Untapped Arsenal of Antibacterial and Broad Spectrum Antifungal Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefteh, Fedia B; Daoud, Amal; Chenari Bouket, Ali; Alenezi, Faizah N; Luptakova, Lenka; Rateb, Mostafa E; Kadri, Adel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore and compare the composition, metabolic diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi colonizing internal tissues of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (BLD) date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) widely cultivated in arid zones of Tunisia. A total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy and BLD roots of date palm trees, identified based on internal transcribed spacer-rDNA sequence analysis and shown to represent 13 species belonging to five genera. About 36.8% of isolates were shared between healthy and diseased root fungal microbiomes, whereas 18.4 and 44.7% of isolates were specific to healthy and BLD root fungal microbiomes, respectively. All isolates were able to produce at least two of the screened enzymes including amylase, cellulase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, laccase and lipase. A preliminary screening of the isolates using disk diffusion method for antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi indicated that healthy and BLD root fungal microbiomes displayed interesting bioactivities against examined bacteria and broad spectrum bioactivity against fungal pathogens. Some of these endophytic fungi (17 isolates) were fermented and their extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against bacterial and fungal isolates. Results revealed that fungal extracts exhibited antibacterial activities and were responsible for approximately half of antifungal activities against living fungi. These results suggest a strong link between fungal bioactivities and their secondary metabolite arsenal. EtOAc extracts of Geotrichum candidum and Thielaviopsis punctulata originating from BLD microbiome gave best results against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 0.78 mg/mL) and minimum bactericidal concentration (6.25 mg/mL). G. candidum gave the best result against

  19. Fungal Root Microbiome from Healthy and Brittle Leaf Diseased Date Palm Trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Reveals a Hidden Untapped Arsenal of Antibacterial and Broad Spectrum Antifungal Secondary Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefteh, Fedia B.; Daoud, Amal; Chenari Bouket, Ali; Alenezi, Faizah N.; Luptakova, Lenka; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Kadri, Adel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore and compare the composition, metabolic diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi colonizing internal tissues of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (BLD) date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) widely cultivated in arid zones of Tunisia. A total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy and BLD roots of date palm trees, identified based on internal transcribed spacer-rDNA sequence analysis and shown to represent 13 species belonging to five genera. About 36.8% of isolates were shared between healthy and diseased root fungal microbiomes, whereas 18.4 and 44.7% of isolates were specific to healthy and BLD root fungal microbiomes, respectively. All isolates were able to produce at least two of the screened enzymes including amylase, cellulase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, laccase and lipase. A preliminary screening of the isolates using disk diffusion method for antibacterial activity against four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi indicated that healthy and BLD root fungal microbiomes displayed interesting bioactivities against examined bacteria and broad spectrum bioactivity against fungal pathogens. Some of these endophytic fungi (17 isolates) were fermented and their extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against bacterial and fungal isolates. Results revealed that fungal extracts exhibited antibacterial activities and were responsible for approximately half of antifungal activities against living fungi. These results suggest a strong link between fungal bioactivities and their secondary metabolite arsenal. EtOAc extracts of Geotrichum candidum and Thielaviopsis punctulata originating from BLD microbiome gave best results against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 0.78 mg/mL) and minimum bactericidal concentration (6.25 mg/mL). G. candidum gave the best result against

  20. Essential oils as biological alternatives to protect date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. against Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Amri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of three Tunisian plants and to evaluate their biological activity against eggs, larvae, and adult insects of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller. The essential oils extracted from leaves of Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffmanns. & Link, Rosmarinus officinalis L. and needles of Pinus halepensis Mill. were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; 34, 16, and 56 constituents were identified, respectively. The major constituents were (Z-caryophyllene (23.8%, β-myrcene (20.5% and α-pinene (13.3% in P. halepensis oil, carvacrol (66.9%, p-cymene (9.1%, and δ-terpinene (6.2% in T. capitatus oil and 1,8-cineole (47.5%, camphor (14.9%, α-pinene (14.1%, and borneol (13.1% in R. officinalis oil. The insecticidal effects of essential oils on eggs, larvae, and adults of E. ceratoniae were investigated. Ovicidal activity of oils was studied by spray on eggs while larvicidal and adulticidal activities were assessed by fumigation and spray. Number of hatched eggs was verified after 10 d, larva and adult mortalities were observed after 6, 12, and 24 h. Globally, eggs and larvae were the most resistant to the three different oils, needing higher doses to obtain a higher mortality. The spray method was most effective than fumigation. Essential oil extracted from T. capitatus proved to be very toxic towards E. ceratoniae on all three phases at the dose of 20 μL mL-1 (100% inhibition, followed by the oil from R. officinalis (90-100% inhibition, nevertheless, weak activity was obtained with P. halepensis oil (68.3-85% inhibition. Results obtained may suggest that the essential oils of T. capitatus and R. officinalis possess high insecticidal activity and therefore, can be used in biotechnological application as natural preservative in stored dates and could be useful in managing populations of E. ceratoniae in field.

  1. Phoenix Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair This image is a stereo, panoramic view of various trenches dug by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The images that make up this panorama were taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager at about 4 p.m., local solar time at the landing site, on the 131st, Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). In figure 1, the trenches are labeled in orange and other features are labeled in blue. Figures 2 and 3 are the left- and right-eye members of a stereo pair. For scale, the 'Pet Donkey' trench just to the right of center is approximately 38 centimeters (15 inches) long and 31 to 34 centimeters (12 to 13 inches) wide. In addition, the rock in front of it, 'Headless,' is about 11.5 by 8.5 centimeters (4.5 by 3.3 inches), and about 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin residues in fresh and sun-dried meat in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufunmilayo, Gbonjubola Oyero; Oyefolu, Akeeb Bola

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, food safety and security have generally remained basic human needs, therefore because of the largely unregulated nature of the Nigerian markets, coupled with the poor housing and feeding conditions to which animals are subjected in the abattoirs, a survey for assessing potential mycotoxin exposure through meat consumption was undertaken. Eighty Samples of meat bought randomly from 5 major markets distributed in 5 local government areas of Oyo state , Nigeria were analysed for contaminating mycoflora using the plate count and micromorphological methods, while aflatoxin detection and quantification was by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Mycological analysis of samples revealed a higher contamination level in the sun-dried samples. Eighteen fungi species belonging to 8 genera, namely, Aspergillus, Penicilliu, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Neurospora, Rhizopus and yeast were identified. The predominant genus Aspergillus yielded 7 species while the potential toxicogenic fungi represented 38% of the isolated mycoflora. The genera requiring higher water activity for growth ( Alternaria, Fusarium and yeast) were not obtained from the dried meat. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were detected in all the samples analysed. The fresh samples with the exception of the total aflatoxin G (AFG) in kidney gave the highest mean concentrations for all aflatoxins, also an exceptionally high aflatoxin content was found in all the kidney samples. Aflatoxin detection in meat should be addressed urgently to avert the possible adverse health effects like aflatoxicosis, exacerbated malnutrition, suppression of growth and immune functions on consumers. Also the animal health inspectors should pay more attention to the feeding conditions of the animals on farm and the abattoirs.

  3. Specific Caleosin/Peroxygenase and Lipoxygenase Activities Are Tissue-Differentially Expressed in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Seedlings and Are Further Induced Following Exposure to the Toxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Hassan, Mehedi; Murphy, Denis J.

    2017-01-01

    Two caleosin/peroxygenase isoforms from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L., PdCLO2 and PdCLO4, were characterized with respect to their tissue expression, subcellular localization, and oxylipin pathway substrate specificities in developing seedlings. Both PdCLO2 and PdCLO4 had peroxygenase activities that peaked at the mid-stage (radicle length of 2.5 cm) of seedling growth and were associated with the lipid droplet (LD) and microsomal fractions. Recombinant PdCLO2 and PdCLO4 proteins heterologously expressed in yeast cells were localized in both LD and microsomal fractions. Each of the purified recombinant proteins exhibited peroxygenase activity but they were catalytically distinct with respect to their specificity and product formation from fatty acid epoxide and hydroxide substrates. We recently showed that date palm CLO genes were upregulated following exposure to the potent toxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (Hanano et al., 2016), and we show here that transcripts of 9- and 13-lipoxygenase (LOX) genes were also induced by TCDD exposure. At the enzyme level, 9-LOX and 13-LOX activities were present in a range of seedling tissues and responded differently to TCDD exposure, as did the 9- and 13-fatty acid hydroperoxide reductase activities. This demonstrates that at least two branches of the oxylipin pathway are involved in responses to the environmental organic toxin, TCDD in date palm. PMID:28111588

  4. Batch and fixed bed adsorption of levofloxacin on granular activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stones by KOH chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Teeba M; Ahmed, Muthanna J

    2017-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (KAC) was prepared from abundant Phoenix dactylifera L. stones by microwave- assisted KOH activation. The characteristics of KAC were tested by pore analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption behavior of levofloxacin (LEV) antibiotic on KAC with surface area of 817m(2)/g and pore volume of 0.638cm(3)/g were analyzed using batch and fixed bed systems. The equilibrium data collected by batch experiments were well fitted with Langmuir compared to Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The effect of flow rate (0.5-1.5ml/min), bed height (15-25cm), and initial LEV concentration (75-225mg/l) on the behavior of breakthrough curves was explained. The fixed bed analysis showed the better correlation of breakthrough data by both Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. High LEV adsorption capacity of 100.3mg/g was reported on KAC, thus being an efficient adsorbent for antibiotic pollutants to protect ecological systems.

  5. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect.

  6. Tunisian date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by-products: Characterization and potential effects on sensory, textural and antioxidant properties of dairy desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Mourad; Souissi, Nabil; Salem, Marwa Ben; Ayadi, M A; Nasri, Moncef; Azabou, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Three Tunisian date varieties, Deglet Nour, Kentichi and Allig, served to produce syrups and powders, which were then examined for their physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties. Different proportions of these sweetening-like agents were incorporated to produce nine different formulations of dairy desserts, with lower amount of added sugars to avoid any artificial flavoring or coloring agents. Sensory and color evaluation data revealed that incorporating Deglet Nour and Kentichi syrup offers the most desirable formulation. Furthermore, syrup polysaccharides and fibers contribute to better maintain the final product texture. In addition, date by-products create a good source of natural thickening agents, involved in enhancing apparent viscosity and spontaneous exudation. Thanks to their high content in phenolic compounds, date by-products considerably improve antioxidant activities of the formulated desserts. Therefore, they could be valued as natural ingredients in the formulation of novel dairy products with high nutritional-properties.

  7. Development of molecular method for sex identification in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) plantlets using novel sex-linked microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam; Jaskani, Muhammad Jafar; Awan, Faisal Saeed; Ahmad, Saeed; Khan, Iqrar A

    2016-06-01

    Microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. Date palm is a dioecious and slow flowering and is very difficult to identify the gender of the trees until it reaches the reproductive age (5-10 years). A total of 12 microsatellite primers were used with 30 date palm samples, 14 parents (8 male + 6 females) and 16 progeny (developed from parents breeding) which showed that microsatellites were highly polymorphic, having a great number of alleles. A total of 124 alleles were characterized in 12 SSR loci. On average, there are 9.08 alleles per locus, with a range from 5 to 16 alleles, for primers mpdCIR15 and mpdCIR57, respectively. These primers produced 15 polymorphic loci specifically in male date palm samples and the seedlings harboring the unique fragments were further characterized as male plants. Increasingly, 38.46 % of these loci were scored as homozygous alleles while 61.53 % heterozygous allelic loci were determined. Primer mpdCIR48 produced a specific locus (250/250) in all male samples whereas the same locus was absent in female samples. Similarly, a locus of 300/310 bp reoccurred in 5 date palm male samples using marker DP-168 which indicated that these are the promising candidate marker to detect the sex in date palm seedlings at early stage. The data resulted from combination of 12 primers enabled the 16 seedling samples progeny (developed from parents breeding) of date palm cultivars to divide into two groups i.e., male and female regarding their sex expression comparative to the parents (male + female) using the principle coordinate analysis.

  8. Risk Levels of Invasive Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. in Areas Suitable for Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Cultivation under Various Climate Change Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Global climate model outputs involve uncertainties in prediction, which could be reduced by identifying agreements between the output results of different models, covering all assumptions included in each. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. is an invasive pathogen that poses risk to date palm cultivation, among other crops. Therefore, in this study, the future distribution of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., confirmed by CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR) GCMs, was modeled and combined with the future distribution of date palm predicted by the same GCMs, to identify areas suitable for date palm cultivation with different risk levels of invasive Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., for 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. Results showed that 40%, 37%, 33% and 28% areas projected to become highly conducive to date palm are under high risk of its lethal fungus, compared with 37%, 39%, 43% and 42% under low risk, for the chosen years respectively. Our study also indicates that areas with marginal risk will be limited to 231, 212, 186 and 172 million hectares by 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2100. The study further demonstrates that CLIMEX outputs refined by a combination of different GCMs results of different species that have symbiosis or parasite relationship, ensure that the predictions become robust, rather than producing hypothetical findings, limited purely to publication. PMID:24340100

  9. DNA barcoding based on plastid matK and RNA polymerase for assessing the genetic identity of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enan, M R; Ahamed, A

    2014-02-14

    The cultivated date palm is the most agriculturally important species of the Arecaceae family. The standard chloroplast DNA barcode for land plants recommended by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life plant working group needs to be evaluated for a wide range of plant species. Therefore, we assessed the potential of the matK and rpoC1 markers for the authentication of date cultivars. There is not one universal method to authenticate date cultivars. In this study, 11 different date cultivars were sequenced and analyzed for matK and rpoC1 genes by using bioinformatic tools to establish a cultivar-specific molecular monogram. The chloroplast matK marker was more informative than the rpoC1 chloroplast DNA markers. Phylogenetic trees were constructed on the basis of the matK and rpoC1 sequences, and the results suggested that matK alone or in combination with rpoC1 can be used for determining the levels of genetic variation and for barcoding.

  10. Comparison of selected metals content in Cambodian striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  11. Comparison of Selected Metals Content in Cambodian Striped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Using Solar Drying System and Open Sun Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS and open sun drying (OSD. The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  12. Adsorption of Lead (II) from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon prepared from Algerian dates stones of Phoenix dactylifera.L (Ghars variety) by H3PO4 activation

    OpenAIRE

    N. Chaouch; M. R. Ouahrani; S. E. Laouini

    2014-01-01

    Currently water pollution constitutes a great challenge, and activated carbon is a common adsorbent used to remove lead contaminants. Unfortunately, it is a non selective process. The main object of this study was the use of an activated carbon prepared from nuts of dates Algerian origin to remove this metal. The adsorption measurement of lead on activated carbon showed a real potential for removing this metal contaminants waste. The result showed also that the determination of lead remained ...

  13. Green Biosynthesis of Spherical Silver Nanoparticles by Using Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera) Fruit Extract and Study of Their Antibacterial and Catalytic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Saeed; Ajerloo, Bahram; Mohammadi, Abdelnassar

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we have synthesized spherical silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by a low-cost, rapid, simple and ecofriendly approach using Date palm fruit extract as a novel natural reducing and stabilizing agent. The product was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and Zeta potential measurements. The reaction conditions including time, content of reducing agent and silver nitrate, temperature and pH were investigated. The optimum yield of Ag NPs was obtained when 10 mM of silver nitrate was reacted with Date fruit extract at pH 11 and heated it to 55 °C within 10 minutes. The elemental and crystalline nature of Ag NPs were confirmed from EDX and XRD analysis. SEM and TEM images showed that the Ag NPs were spherical and with sizes in the range of 25-60 nm. On the base of FT-IR analysis, it can be stated that the functional groups present in bio-molecules of Date fruits are responsible for the reduction and stabilization of Ag NPs, respectively. The Ag NPs showed good antibacterial activity against a few human pathogenic bacteria. The catalytic activity of the Ag NPs for rapid and efficient reduction of toxic nitro compounds into less toxic corresponding amines by using NaBH4 was also investigated.

  14. Genotoxicity assessment of high concentrations of 2,4-D, NAA and Dicamba on date palm callus (Phoenix dactylifera L. using protein profile and RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Abass

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic stability and uniformity of in vitro-derived date palm plants has a major importance to ascertain true-to-typeness of produced plants. The goal of present study was to evaluate the genetic toxicity of different plant growth regulators on date palm callus at initiation stages using protein patterns and RAPD analysis. Date palm offshoots of Hillawii cultivar were dissected, apical meristems were divided into four segments and cultured on callus induction medium containing the plant growth regulators as 2,4-D at 50 and 100 mg/L; NAA at 30 mg/L and Dicamba at 10 mg/L. The changes occurred in protein profile of callus when treated with high concentration of 2,4-D (100 mg/L, including loss of normal fragments (19 and 66 KDa polypeptides in control, as well as, appearance of new fragments, while at low concentration of 2,4-D (50 mg/L and Dicamba treatment, the protein patterns showed no changes compared to control profile. Similar trends of polymorphisms were obtained with RAPD marker. The high concentration of 2,4-D produced more polymorphic fragments in comparison to control treatment. The DNA profile was identical between 2,4-D at low concentration and control. Dendrograms were generated using similarity indices of protein and RAPD results, and revealed that genetic similarity index was high between 2,4-D treatment at low concentration and control, as separated in one subcluster, followed by Dicamba and NAA, while, the highest genetic distance was obtained between 2,4-D at high concentration and control treatment and separated alone in one cluster.

  15. Determination of sucrose in date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) growing in the Sultanate of Oman by NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Boqué, Ricard; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Javid; Hafidh, A; Hind, K; Ahmed, M A G; Manzoor, A; Hussain, Hidayat; Ur Rehman, Najeeb; Iman, S H; Said, Jahina J; Hamood, Sara A

    2015-01-01

    A Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method combined with multivariate calibration was developed for the determination of the amount of sucrose in date fruits growing in the Sultanate of Oman. In this study two groups of samples were used: one group of 48 sucrose standard solutions in the concentration range from 0.01% to 50% (w/v) and another group of 54 date fruit samples of 18 different varieties. The sucrose standard samples were split in two sets, i.e. one training set of 31 samples and one test set of 17 samples. All samples were measured with a NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 700 to 2500 nm. The spectra collected were preprocessed using baseline correction and Savitzky-Golay 1st derivative. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to build the regression model with the training set of 31 samples. This model was then validated by using random leave-one-out cross-validation. Later, the PLS regression model was externally validated by using the test set of 17 samples of known sucrose concentration. The root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) was found to be of 1.5%, which shows a good prediction ability of the model. Finally, the PLS model was applied to the spectra of 54 date fruit samples to quantify their sucrose amount. It was found that the Khalas, Barnia Nizwi, Ajwa Almadina, Maan, and Khunizi varieties contain high amounts of sucrose, i.e. ranging from 36% to 60%, while Naghal, Fardh, Nashu and Qash Tabaq varieties contain the least amount of sucrose, ranging from 3.5% to 8.1%.

  16. Application of optimized large surface area date stone (Phoenix dactylifera ) activated carbon for rhodamin B removal from aqueous solution: Box-Behnken design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Mohammed; Khanday, Waheed Ahmad; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Nurul Syuhada Binti; Akhtar, Mohammad Nishat; Nizami, Maniruddin

    2017-05-01

    Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology was used to study the effect of adsorption process parameters for Rhodamine B (RhB) removal from aqueous solution through optimized large surface area date stone activated carbon. The set experiments with three input parameters such as time (10-600min), adsorbent dosage (0.5-10g/L) and temperature (25-50°C) were considered for statistical significance. The adequate relation was found between the input variables and response (removal percentage of RhB) and Fisher values (F- values) along with P-values suggesting the significance of various term coefficients. At an optimum adsorbent dose of 0.53g/L, time 593min and temperature 46.20°C, the adsorption capacity of 210mg/g was attained with maximum desirability. The negative values of Gibb(')s free energy (ΔG) predicted spontaneity and feasibility of adsorption; whereas, positive Enthalpy change (ΔH) confirmed endothermic adsorption of RhB onto optimized large surface area date stone activated carbons (OLSADS-AC). The adsorption data were found to be the best fit on the Langmuir model supporting monolayer type of adsorption of RhB with maximum monolayer layer adsorption capacity of 196.08mg/g. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Basal Medium, Explants Size and Density on the In Vitro Proliferation and Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Cultivar ‘16-bis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouaad Amine MAZRI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of basal medium, explant size and density on shoot multiplication, growth, rooting and acclimatization of date palm cv. ‘16-bis’ was evaluated. Bud clusters of different sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 buds per cluster were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 clusters on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS, woody plant medium (WPM and Nitsch medium (NM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L kinetin for three months (multiplication phase. Separated shoots of different sizes (<3 cm; 3 to 4.5 cm and 4.5 to 6 cm were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 shoots on hormone free MS medium, WPM or NM for three months (Elongation-rooting phase. The proliferation and development of shoots were affected by the basal medium, explant size and density. The optimal shoot proliferation (18.1 was observed when 4 buds clusters were cultured at the density of 2 clusters per jar in MS medium. Separated shoots of 4.5 to 6 cm length exhibited the optimal in vitro development in terms of leaf length and greening, and root number and length when cultured on MS medium. In addition, these shoots reached the highest acclimation frequency with 80%. Our results would be utilized for an efficient propagation of plantlets of cv. ‘16-bis’, a selected date palm cultivar resistant to the bayoud disease.

  18. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL(-1). Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32-37, 20-24, and 16-18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log K LB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which

  19. Variations in Hormones and Antioxidant Status in Relation to Flowering in Early, Mid, and Late Varieties of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera of United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul J. Cheruth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the status of various hormones responsible for the flower induction of Nagal, Lulu, and Khalas date palm varieties in UAE. The nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant enzymatic activities at preflowering, flowering, and postflowering stages of the date palm varieties were quantified. The ABA and zeatin concentrations were found to be significantly higher during the preflowering stage but gradually decreased during the flowering period and then increased after the flowering stage. Gibberellic acid (GA concentrations were significantly higher in the early flowering varieties and higher levels of ABA may contribute to the delayed flowering in mid and late varieties. The results on hormone profiling displayed a significant variation between seasons (preflowering, flowering, and postflowering and also between the three date palms (early, mid, and late flowering varieties. Ascorbic acid (AA concentration was low at the preflowering stage in the early flowering Nagal (0.694 mg/g dw, which is similar with the late flowering Lulu variety (0.862 mg/g dw. However, Khalas variety showed significantly higher amount of AA content (7.494 mg/g dw at the preflowering stage when compared to other varieties. In flowering stage, Nagal (0.814 mg/g dw and Lulu (0.963 mg/g dw were similar with respect to the production of AA, while the mid flowering variety showed significantly higher amount of AA (9.358 mg/g dw. The Khalas variety produced the highest tocopherol at 4.78 mg/g dw compared to Nagal and Lulu, at 1.997 and 1.908 mg/g dw, respectively, during the preflowering stage. In Nagal variety, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH at the preflowering stage was 0.507 mg/g dw, which was not significantly different from the flowering and postflowering stages at 0.4 and 0.45 mg/g dw, respectively. The GSH was significantly higher in Khalas compared to Nagal and Lulu

  20. Adsorption of Lead (II from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon prepared from Algerian dates stones of Phoenix dactylifera.L (Ghars variety by H3PO4 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chaouch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently water pollution constitutes a great challenge, and activated carbon is a common adsorbent used to remove lead contaminants. Unfortunately, it is a non selective process. The main object of this study was the use of an activated carbon prepared from nuts of dates Algerian origin to remove this metal. The adsorption measurement of lead on activated carbon showed a real potential for removing this metal contaminants waste. The result showed also that the determination of lead remained dependent on some parameters such as pH, time contact, temperature and initial concentrations of metal. Adsorption data followed Freundlich model, they were better fitted by Langmuir isotherm as compared to Freundlich.

  1. Effect of red and blue light emitting diodes "CRB-LED" on in vitro organogenesis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Alshakr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mayahi, Ahmed Madi Waheed

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of light source on enhancement of shoot multiplication, phytochemicals, as well as, antioxidant enzyme activities of in vitro cultures of date palm cv. Alshakr. In vitro-grown buds were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and incubated under a conventional white fluorescent light (control), and combinations of red + blue light emitting diode (18:2) (CRB-LED). Results revealed that the treatment of CRB-LED showed a significant increase in the number of shoots compared with the white florescent light. Total soluble carbohydrate "TSCH" (7.10 mg g(-1) DW.), starch (1.63 mg g(-1) DW.) and free amino acids (2.90 mg g(-1) DW.) were significantly higher in CRB-LED (p < 0.05). Additionally, CRB-LED induced a higher peroxidase activity (25.50 U ml(-1)) compared with the white fluorescent light treatment (19.74 U ml(-1)) as control treatment. Potassium, magnesium and sodium contents in (3.62, 13.99 and 2.76 mg g(-1) DW.) were increased in in vitro shoots under CRB-LED treatment in comparison with fluorescent light (p < 0.05). Protein profile showed the appearance of newly bands with the molecular weight of 38 and 60 kDa at the treatment CRB-LED compared with control treatment. Our results demonstrate the positive effects of CRB-LED light during the course of date palm tissue cultures.

  2. Alterations in fruit and vegetable β-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, JD; Byaruhanga, YB

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometery at 450nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of vari...

  3. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (pdrying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (pdrying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention.

  4. 77 FR 71757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Phoenix...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... on a Petition To List Phoenix dactylifera `Sphinx' (Sphinx Date Palm) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list Phoenix dactylifera `Sphinx' (sphinx... 103, Phoenix, Arizona 85021-4951. Please submit any new information, materials, comments, or...

  5. The Phoenix Phenomenon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAELO'NEILL

    2005-01-01

    Saturday evening, and as many as 50 million Chinese viewers are tuned in to the popular program ‘Entertainment Kingdom’aired by Hong Kong-based satellite broad caster Phoenix Television, The show's risqué tone,

  6. EFFECT OF COPPER SULPHATE AND COBALT CHLORIDE ON GROWTH OF THE IN VITRO CULTURE TISSUES FOR DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L. CV. ASHGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Madi Waheed AL-Mayahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of copper sulphate and cobalt chloride on propagation of date palm cv. Ashgar in vitro. The rate of callus proliferation was significantly higher in the medium supplemented with 2 µM copper sulphate and 2 µM cobalt chloride together (p<0.05. Addition of copper sulphate and Cobalt chloride to the medium was most effective for shoots regeneration from callus and enhanced regeneration frequency as well as number of shoots obtained per explant, the best result (7.12 shoot/explant was obtained by using copper sulphate and Cobalt chloride at 2.0 µM. Also the results of this experiment indicates that the maximum induction of roots can be achieved in the media containing both additives at 0.5 µM. The callus exhibited a decline in carbohydrate contents, proteins, whereas total phenol content increased at high concentration of Cu and Co. The greatest formation of chlorophylls a, b and total chlorophyll was obtained in plantlets grown in the media containing both additives at 0.5 µM. As well as Maximum survivability was noticed for plants cultured in media that containing both copper sulphate and Cobalt chloride at 0.5 µM.

  7. Evaluation of pollen germination of some palm males and pollination impact on bunch weight and fruit quality in Kadary date palm cultivar (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S S; Al-Saif, A M; Al-Obeed, R S

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons (2013-2014) at the Research and Agriculture Experiment Station, Dirab, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh. Pollen grains, used in this trial, were collected from eleven male, namely Succary, Menify, Sallag, Dikhiny, Nabout Zamel, Serry, Khalas, Shagra, Safry, Maktumi and Kadary in order to pollinate female Kadary date palm cultivar. Results indicated that pollens of Safry male followed by Succary, Menify and Serry males increased the physical and biochemical characteristics of fruits during both seasons. Also, all the studied characters were significantly affected with different pollen males used in this trial. Pollens of Safry male gave highest fruit retention and bunch weight and best fruit quality like fruit and flesh weight, fruit size and fruit length and fruit biochemical properties as compared with other male. In vitro pollen germination of eleven males was studied using various concentration of sucrose (4, 6, 8 and 10%). The results showed that best germination was achieved with 8% sucrose concentration; however, 10% sucrose resulted in reduced percentage of pollen germination. In addition, pollen tube growth of five males (Succary, Sallag, Nabout-Zamel, Khalas and Safry) at 8% sucrose was alsostudied at 2, 4, 6 and 24 hr time interval. Elongation rate of pollen tube increased significantly after 24 hrs and it was found that pollens of Safry male gave highest pollen tube growth after 24 hrs than pollens of other male.

  8. City of Phoenix - Energize Phoenix Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloudakis, Dimitrios J.

    2014-09-29

    Energize Phoenix (EPHX) was designed as an ambitious, large-scale, three-year pilot program to provide energy efficiency upgrades in buildings, along Phoenix’s new Light Rail Corridor – part of a federal effort to reduce energy consumption and stimulate job growth, while simultaneously reducing the country’s carbon footprint and promoting a shift towards a green economy. The program was created through a 2010 competitive grant awarded to the City of Phoenix who managed the program in partnership with Arizona State University (ASU), the state’s largest university, and Arizona Public Service (APS), the state’s largest electricity provider. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 provided $25M in funding for the EPHX program. The Light Rail Corridor runs through the heart of downtown Phoenix, making most high-rise and smaller commercial buildings eligible to participate in the EPHX program, along with a diverse mix of single and multi-family residential buildings. To ensure maximum impact and deeper market penetration, Energize Phoenix was subdivided into three unique parts: i. commercial rebate program, ii. commercial financing program, and iii. residential program Each component was managed by the City of Phoenix in partnership with APS. Phoenix was fortunate to partner with APS, which already operated robust commercial and residential rebate programs within its service territory. Phoenix tapped into the existing utility contractor network, provided specific training to over 100 contracting firms, and leveraged the APS rebate program structure (energy efficiency funding) to launch the EPHX commercial and residential rebate programs. The commercial finance program was coordinated and managed through a contract with National Bank of Arizona, NBAZ, which also provided project capital leveraging EPHX finance funds. Working in unison, approved contractors

  9. Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows thermal and electrical conductivity probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of date palm pollen (Phoenix dactylifera on experimentally-induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elberry Ahmed A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH is a pseudoneoplastic lesion that can mimic prostate adenocarcinoma because of its cytologic and architectural features. Suspension of date palm pollen (DPP is an herbal mixture that is widely used in folk medicine for male infertility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DPP suspension and extract on APH-induced rats. Methods APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100mg/kg, DPP suspension (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, and lyophilized DPP extract (150,300 and 600 mg/kg were given orally daily for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. Results The histopathological feature in APH-induced prostate rats showed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1 and clusterin were increased, while the expression of TGF-β1 was decreased that correlates with presence of inflammation. Moreover, histopathological examination revealed increased cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis in ventral prostate. Both saw palmetto and DPP treatment has ameliorated these histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in APH-induced rats. These improvements were not associated with reduction in the prostatic weight that may be attributed to the persistence of edema. Conclusion DPP may have a potential protective effect in APH-induced Wistar rats through modulation of cytokine expression and/or upregulation of their autocrine/paracrine receptors.

  11. Soil on Phoenix's MECA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows soil delivery to NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The image was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). At the bottom of the image is the chute for delivering samples to MECA's microscopes. It is relatively clean due to the Phoenix team using methods such as sprinkling to minimize cross-contamination of samples. However, the cumulative effect of several sample deliveries can be seen in the soil piles on either side of the chute. On the right side are the four chemistry cells with soil residue piled up on exposed surfaces. The farthest cell has a large pile of material from an area of the Phoenix workspace called 'Stone Soup.' This area is deep in the trough at a polygon boundary, and its soil was so sticky it wouldn't even go through the funnel. One of Phoenix's solar panels is shown in the background of this image. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Soil on Phoenix Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) of NASA's Phoenix Lander, shows Martian soil piled on top of the spacecraft's deck and some of its instruments. Visible in the upper-left portion of the image are several wet chemistry cells of the lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The instrument on the lower right of the image is the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer. The excess sample delivered to the MECA's sample stage can be seen on the deck in the lower left portion of the image. This image was taken on Martian day, or sol, 142, on Saturday, Oct. 19, 2008. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Clumps in Phoenix Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This sample of Martian soil was collected by the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander during the 14th Martian day after landing (June 8, 2008) for later delivery to the lander's Optical Microscope. The Robotic Arm Camera took the picture of the contents of the arm's scoop, about 9 centimeters (3.5 inches) wide. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Phoenix's Snow White Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A soil sample taken from the informally named 'Snow White' trench at NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander work site produced minerals that indicate evidence of past interaction between the minerals and liquid water. This image was taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 103, the 103rd day since landing (Sept. 8, 2008). The trench is approximately 23 centimeters (9 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Double Cups with Phoenix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    THIS cup, unearthed at the site of an aristocrat’s tomb (No. 2 Baoshan Tomb) of the Chu State, was a vessel used during weddings in ancient times. According to the earliest account of the vessel, found in the book Liji, a new couple would use it to gargle together, which meant that they would be of one heart and one mind, and that they would love and take care of each other. Shaped like a standing phoenix, the vessel is 17.6 cm. long. The phoenix holds a pearl in its beak and its wings are spread

  1. Soil on Phoenix's TEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows soil on the doors of the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by the lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). This sample delivered to TEGA was named 'Rosy Red.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission. Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil. The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  4. Multi-component analysis in sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix by single marker quantitation and chemometric discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix before and after sulfur-fumigation using quantitative analysis of multi-components by a single marker (QAMS. Materials and Methods: The feasibility and accuracy of QAMS were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using ferulic acid as the internal reference substance, and the contents of senkyunolide A and Z-ligustilide were calculated according to relative correction factors by high-performance liquid chromatography. Meanwhile, the influence of sulfur-fumigation on these chemical components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix were evaluated and discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Results: There was no significant difference observed between the QAMS method and the external standard method. Furthermore, sulfur-fumigation reduced the contents of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix by some degree, and the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigation processing could be easily discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Conclusion: QAMS is a convenient and accurate approach to analyzing multi-component when reference substances are unavailable, simultaneously, chemometrics is an effective way to discriminate sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

  5. Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    various regions visited to date on Mars that involved computing a habitability probability, defined as the product of probabilities for the presence of liquid water (P(sub lw)), energy (P(sub e)), nutrients (P(sub ch)), and a benign environment (P(sub b)). Using this formalism, they argued that the Phoenix site was the most habitable of any site visited to date by landed missions and warranted a follow up mission to search for modern evidence of life. This paper will review that conclusion in view of more recent information from the Mars Exploration Rovers and Mars Science Lander missions.

  6. Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear Bombers in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    REPORT DATE 02-04-10 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED 31-07-09 to 16-06-10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear...WARFIGHTING SCHOOL DINOSAUR OR PHOENIX: NUCLEAR BOMBERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY by John W. Morehead Colonel, United States Air Force A paper...can argue Secretary Gates’ decision to halt development of a follow-on bomber indicates the DOD views nuclear bombers as dinosaurs no longer needed as

  7. Phoenix Test Sample Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken. Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix's La Mancha Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This false color image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, was taken on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). The image shows color variations of the trench, informally named 'La Mancha,' and reveals the ice layer beneath the soil surface. The trench's depth is about 5 centimeters deep. The color outline of the shadow at the bottom of the image is a result of sun movement with the combined use of infrared, green, and blue filters. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Underneath the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this image on Oct. 18, 2008, during the 142nd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The flat patch in the center of the image has the informal name 'Holy Cow,' based on researchers' reaction when they saw the initial image of it only a few days after the May 25, 2008 landing. Researchers first saw this flat patch in an image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on May 30, the fifth Martian day of the mission. The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Soil Fills Phoenix Laboratory Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four of the eight cells in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. TEGA's ovens, located underneath the cells, heat soil samples so the released gases can be analyzed. Left to right, the cells are numbered 7, 6, 5 and 4. Phoenix's Robotic Arm delivered soil most recently to cell 6 on the 137th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 13, 2008). Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera took this image at 3:03 p.m. local solar time on Sol 138 (Oct. 14, 2008). Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery community and creating resources for survivors. Since 1977, we have partnered with survivors, families, health care professionals, burn centers, and the fire ...

  13. Animation of Phoenix's Wrist Unlatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation shows what happened underneath Phoenix's Robotic Arm wrist on Sol 3. The pin that goes through the loop is what holds the wrist in place. The rotation of the wrist pops the pin free. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Chichilichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05. The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  15. Cytogenetic Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sun Dried Seeds of Soursop (Annona muricata on The Male Germ Line Cells of The African Pest Grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seino RA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ethanol extract of the seeds of Annona muricata on some meiotic parameters in the pest grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. Adult grasshoppers were treated with 28μl of the Ethanol extract of sun dry seeds of Annona muricata and absolute ethanol (control for 48 hours and all the parameters (chiasma frequency, formation of rod and ring shaped bivalents and meiotic anomalies were affected by the extract. Chiasma formation was observed to significantly (P<0.05 increase following treatment and this was correlated by a significant increase in the formation of ring shaped bivalents. The incidences of meiotic anomalies such as laggards and bridges at first and second meiotic Anaphases, second meiotic Metaphase as well as in first and second meiotic Telophases were observed to increase when insects were treated with the ethanol extract. These observations indicated that the Ethanol extract of the seeds of A. muricata contain substances that could induce cytotoxicity. The importance of such property in the formulation of grasshopper pest control measures cannot be overemphasized.

  16. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  17. Phoenix Telemetry Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Phxtelemproc is a C/C++ based telemetry processing program that processes SFDU telemetry packets from the Telemetry Data System (TDS). It generates Experiment Data Records (EDRs) for several instruments including surface stereo imager (SSI); robotic arm camera (RAC); robotic arm (RA); microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer (MECA); and the optical microscope (OM). It processes both uncompressed and compressed telemetry, and incorporates unique subroutines for the following compression algorithms: JPEG Arithmetic, JPEG Huffman, Rice, LUT3, RA, and SX4. This program was in the critical path for the daily command cycle of the Phoenix mission. The products generated by this program were part of the RA commanding process, as well as the SSI, RAC, OM, and MECA image and science analysis process. Its output products were used to advance science of the near polar regions of Mars, and were used to prove that water is found in abundance there. Phxtelemproc is part of the MIPL (Multi-mission Image Processing Laboratory) system. This software produced Level 1 products used to analyze images returned by in situ spacecraft. It ultimately assisted in operations, planning, commanding, science, and outreach.

  18. Flyover Animation of Phoenix Workspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated 'flyover' of the workspace of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's was created from images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), or the 14th Martian day after landing. The visualization uses both of the camera's 'eyes' to provide depth perception and ranging. The camera is looking north over the workspace. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Bo Painting with Human, Dragon and Phoenix Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    During the period between the Warring States and Qin (221-207 B.C.), Han (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) dynasties in China, silk was called bo, so paintings on silk were called bohua and words on silk boshu. The bohua with a human, dragon and phoenix pattern excavated in 1949 in Changsha, Hunan Province, dates back to the Warring States. It is the earliest painting

  20. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Zhou

    Full Text Available Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP. Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and metabolizable energy (ME. Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT, 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG, and dry matter intake (DMI, was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks. There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743, ADG (P = 0.425, DMI (P = 0.642, or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236 between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024 in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076 in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098. No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513, tenderness (P = 0.844, adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149, and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400; however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034. In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content.

  1. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Niu

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had similar crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and metabolizable energy. Following the feeding trial, the steers were slaughtered and ruminal liquid samples were collected to study the ruminal microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and Illumina MiSeq pyrosequencing were performed for each sample. Following sequence de-noising, chimera checking, and quality trimming, an average of 209,610 sequences were generated per sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine the selected bacterial species in the rumen. Our results showed that the predominant phyla were Bacteroidetes (43.90%, Firmicutes (39.06%, Proteobacteria (4.31%, and Tenericutes (2.04%, and the predominant genera included Prevotella (13.82%, Ruminococcus (2.51%, Butyrivibrio (2.38%, and Succiniclasticum (2.26%. Compared to the control group, EML and SMFP groups had a higher abundance of total bacteria (p < 0.001; however, the bacterial community composition was similar among the three groups. At the phylum level, there were no significant differences in Firmicutes (p = 0.7932, Bacteroidetes (p = 0.2330, Tenericutes (p = 0.2811, or Proteobacteria (p = 0.0680 levels among the three groups; however, Fibrobacteres decreased in EML (p = 0.0431. At the genus level, there were no differences in Prevotella (p = 0.4280, Ruminococcus (p = 0.2639, Butyrivibrio (p = 0.4433, or Succiniclasticum (p = 0.0431 levels among the groups. Additionally, the dietary treatments had no significant effects on the archaeal community composition in the rumen. Therefore, EML and SMFP supplementation had no significant effects on the ruminal bacterial or archaeal

  2. Discovering Diversity Downtown: Questioning Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmage, Craig A.; Dombrowski, Rosemarie; Pstross, Mikulas; Peterson, C. Bjørn; Knopf, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Applied community learning experiences for university students are promising endeavors in downtown urban environments. Past research is applied to help better comprehend a community engagement initiative conducted in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. The initiative aimed to illuminate the socio-cultural diversity of the downtown area utilizing…

  3. Phoenix Deepens Trenches on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this false color image on Oct. 21, 2008, during the 145th Martian day, or sol, since landing. The bluish-white areas seen in these trenches are part of an ice layer beneath the soil. The trench on the upper left, called 'Dodo-Goldilocks,' is about 38 centimeters (15 inches) long and 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) deep. The trench on the right, called 'Upper Cupboard,' is about 60 centimeters (24 inches) long and 3 centimeters (1 inch) deep. The trench in the lower middle is called 'Stone Soup.' The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Declining Sunshine for Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The yellow line on this graphic indicates the number of hours of sunlight each sol, or Martian day, at the Phoenix landing site's far-northern latitude, beginning with the entire Martian day (about 24 hours and 40 minutes) for the first 90 sols, then declining to no sunlight by about sol 300. The blue tick mark indicates that on Sol 124 (Sept. 29, 2008), the sun is above the horizon for about 20 hours. The brown vertical bar represents the period from Nov. 18 to Dec. 24, 2008, around the 'solar conjunction,' when the sun is close to the line between Mars and Earth, affecting communications. The green vertical rectangle represents the period from February to November 2009 when the Phoenix lander is expected to be encased in carbon-dioxide ice.

  5. Images from Phoenix's MECA Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The image on the upper left is from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Optical Microscope after a sample informally called 'Sorceress' was delivered to its silicon substrate on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). A 3D representation of the same sample is on the right, as seen by Phoenix's Atomic Force Microscope. This is 200 times greater magnification than the view from the Optical Microscope, and the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world. The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate, which is the background plane shown in red. This image has been processed to reflect the levelness of the substrate. A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit. The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil. The Optical Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument. The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Robotic Arm connects with `Alice'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm comes into contact with a rock informally named 'Alice' near the 'Snow White' trench. This image was acquired by Phoenix's NASA's Surface Stereo Imager on July 13 during the 48th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed. For scale, the width of the scoop at the end of the arm is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Canary Island Date Palm - Orange Co. [ds349

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June,...

  8. Date palm production and pest management challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, is a monocotyledonous species belong- ing to the palm family (Arecaceae or Palmae) which is perennial and dioecious and cultivated mostly in the arid regions of the world. Date palm is important to the agrarian economy of several countries, with the ability ...

  9. The chloroplast DNA locus psbZ-trnfM as a potential barcode marker in Phoenix L. (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ballardini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Phoenix (Arecaceae comprises 14 species distributed from Cape Verde Islands to SE Asia. It includes the economically important species Phoenix dactylifera. The paucity of differential morphological and anatomical useful characters, and interspecific hybridization, make identification of Phoenix species difficult. In this context, the development of reliable DNA markers for species and hybrid identification would be of great utility. Previous studies identified a 12 bp polymorphic chloroplast minisatellite in the trnG(GCC-trnfM(CAU spacer, and showed its potential for species identification in Phoenix. In this work, in order to develop an efficient DNA barcode marker for Phoenix, a longer cpDNA region (700 bp comprising the mentioned minisatellite, and located between the psbZ and trnfM(CAU genes, was sequenced. One hundred and thirty-six individuals, representing all Phoenix species except P. andamanensis, were analysed. The minisatellite showed 2-7 repetitions of the 12 bp motif, with 1-3 out of seven haplotypes per species. Phoenix reclinata and P. canariensis had species-specific haplotypes. Additional polymorphisms were found in the flanking regions of the minisatellite, including substitutions, indels and homopolymers. All this information allowed us to identify unambiguously eight out of the 13 species, and overall 80% of the individuals sampled. Phoenix rupicola and P. theophrasti had the same haplotype, and so had P. atlantica, P. dactylifera, and P. sylvestris (the “date palm complex” sensu Pintaud et al. 2013. For these species, additional molecular markers will be required for their unambiguous identification. The psbZ-trnfM(CAU region therefore could be considered as a good basis for the establishment of a DNA barcoding system in Phoenix, and is potentially useful for the identification of the female parent in Phoenix hybrids.

  10. Bronze Dragons and Phoenix Table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The table is one of the oldest kinds of furniture in China.Most, however, haven’t survived as they were made ofbamboo or wood, The discovery of this bronze table gives usa chance to see a real object from the Warring States Periodfor the first time. This bronze table was unearthed from the tomb of a kingof the Zhongshan Kingdom during the Warring States Periodat today’s Pingshan County, Hebei Province. The stand isformed from four two-winged dragons and four phoenixes

  11. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: Chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dacty...

  12. Another Phoenix VA director leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Arizona Republic reports that the director at the Phoenix VA Medical Center, Deborah Amdur, will retire after only 9 months for health reasons (1. Amdur will be replaced by Barbara Fallen, director of the VA Loma Linda Healthcare System. Fallen will be interim director until a permanent replacement for Amdur can be found. This is the fifth hospital director since former Director Sharon Helman was removed in mid-2014 amid the nationwide veterans health-care scandal that was first exposed at the Phoenix VA. The Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN in Gilbert, which oversees the VA Medical Center in Arizona, New Mexico and West Texas has also been through a series of 4 directors since Susan Bowers retired under pressure in the wake of the VA scandal. Marie Weldon, current acting regional director, also oversees the Los Angeles-based VA Desert Pacific Healthcare System. Weldon described Fallen as “an experienced leader who ...

  13. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in vitro morphogenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... concentration of media, callus production could be supported by sucrose within the range 15 - 105 g/l but the optimum ..... has been established in many plants such as Asparagus. (Harada .... J. Exp. Bot. 119: 1275 factors.

  14. Rasp Tool on Phoenix Robotic Arm Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This close-up photograph taken at the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, shows the motorized rasp protruding from the bottom of the scoop on the engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm. The rasp will be placed against the hard Martian surface to cut into the hard material and acquire an icy soil sample for analysis by Phoenix's scientific instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix's Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars lander's robotic-arm camera took this image of the spacecraft's thermal and electrical-conductivity probe (TECP) inserted into Martian soil on day 149 of the mission. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008, landing. The robotic-arm camera acquired this image at 16:02:41 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation -72.6986 degrees and azimuth 2.1093 degrees. The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Phoenix - The First Mars Scout Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. On May 25, 2008 Phoenix conducted the first successful powered decent on Mars in over 30 years. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2008 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as performance through cruise, landing at the north pole of Mars and some of the preliminary results of the surface mission.

  17. Phoenix66 WCG之旅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byron

    2006-01-01

    WCG已经过去近两个月了,在这段时间里面各种比赛铺天盖地的涌来,是我们几乎淡忘了在意大利Monza三个中国英雄的身影。而庄传海Phoenix66(以下简称66)也为我们奉献了数场精彩的比赛,虽然身处强者之林未能成功出线,但是他在比赛中表现出来的一个职业选手所应该具有的素质十分值得我们学习。下面就让我们来感受一下比赛给我们带来的激情吧。

  18. Innovative science experiments using Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. P. Ajith; Satyanarayana, V. V. V.; Singh, Kundan; Singh, Parmanand

    2009-09-01

    A simple, flexible and very low cost hardware plus software framework for developing computer-interfaced science experiments is presented. It can be used for developing computer-interfaced science experiments without getting into the details of electronics or computer programming. For developing experiments this is a middle path between push-button systems and the develop-from-scratch approach. Emphasis is on leveraging the power of personal computers for experiment control, data acquisition and the mathematical analysis of data. The language 'Python' is chosen for data acquisition and analysis. This article explains the architecture of Phoenix (Physics with Home-made Equipment and Innovative Experiments) along with some sample experiments. The hardware design is open and the project is totally based on free software.

  19. Martian Surface after Phoenix's Conductivity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera took this image on Sol 71 (August 6, 2008), the 71st Martian day after landing. The shadow shows the outline of Phoenix's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe, or TECP. The holes seen in the Martian surface were made by this instrument to measure the soil's conductivity. A fork-like probe inserted into the soil checks how well heat and electricity move through the soil from one prong to another. The measurements completed Wednesday ran from the afternoon of Phoenix's 70th Martian day, or sol, to the morning of Sol 71. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Chlorine Salts at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Horgan, B.

    2016-09-01

    Although chlorine salts (perchlorates, chlorides) are known to exist at the Phoenix landing site, their distribution and type have not been positively identified yet. We look for these salts through a novel NIR remote sensing technique.

  1. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Phoenix, AZ EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  2. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008). The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.' The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water. The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Phoenix Telltale Movie with Clouds, Sol 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale catches a breeze as clouds move over the landing site on Sol 103 (Sept. 7, 2008), the 103rd Martian day since landing. Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took this series of images during daily telltale monitoring around 3 p.m. local solar time and captured the clouds moving over the landing site. Phoenix can measure wind speed and direction by imaging the telltale, which is about about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The telltale was built by the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Flyover Video of Phoenix Work Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This video shows an overhead view of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander and the work area of the Robotic Arm. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Phoenix Landing Site Indicated on Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission landed at 68.2 degrees north latitude, 234.2 degrees east longitude. The far-northern location of the site is indicated on this global view from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, C; Marks, J.; Jenq, J.; Cluett, Chris; DeBlasio, Allan; Lappin, Jane; Rakha, Hesham A.; Wunderlich, K

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the evaluation results of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI). The MMDI was a three-year program of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Joint Program Office of the U.S. Department of Transportation. It focused on aggressive deployment of ITS at four sites across the United States, including the metropolitan areas of San Antonio, Seattle, NY/NJ/Connecticut as well as Phoenix. The focus of the deployments was on integration of exist...

  7. Comparison of some Phoenix and gusev soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter..[], Goetz; Hviid, S.F.; Madsen, Morten Bo

    2010-01-01

    The comparison of soil particles at the Phoenix landing site and in Gusev Crater provides clues on their origin and global distribution. Some unusual Phoenix particles are possibly of (more) local origin, as they appear to be absent in Gusev dunes.......The comparison of soil particles at the Phoenix landing site and in Gusev Crater provides clues on their origin and global distribution. Some unusual Phoenix particles are possibly of (more) local origin, as they appear to be absent in Gusev dunes....

  8. Martian Dust Collected by Phoenix's Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Lander's Optical Microscope shows particles of Martian dust lying on the microscope's silicon substrate. The Robotic Arm sprinkled a sample of the soil from the Snow White trench onto the microscope on July 2, 2008, the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission after landing. Subsequently, the Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM, zoomed in one of the fine particles, creating the first-ever image of a particle of Mars' ubiquitous fine dust, the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world. The Atomic Force Microscope was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Dust Storm Moving Near Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This series of images show the movement of several dust storms near NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These images were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on the 137th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 13, 2008). These images were taken about 50 seconds apart, showing the formation and movement of dust storms for nearly an hour. Phoenix scientists are still figuring out the exact distances these dust storms occurred from the lander, but they estimate them to be about 1 to 2 kilometers (.6 or 1.2 miles) away. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Winds at the Phoenix landing site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Merrison, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Wind speeds and directions were measured on the Phoenix Lander by a mechanical anemometer, the so-called Telltale wind indicator. Analysis of images of the instrument taken with the onboard imager allowed for evaluation of wind speeds and directions. Daily characteristics of the wind data...... ± 3 mm, respectively. The Telltale wind data are used to suggest that Heimdal crater is a source of nighttime temperature fluctuations. Deviations between temperatures measured at various heights are explained as being due to winds passing over the Phoenix Lander. Events concerning sample delivery...... and frost formation are described and discussed. Two different mechanisms of dust lifting affecting the Phoenix site are proposed based on observations made with Mars Color Imager on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Telltale. The first is related to evaporation of the seasonal CO2 ice and is observed up...

  11. Phoenix Deepens Trenches on Mars (3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took this anaglyph on Oct. 21, 2008, during the 145th Martian day, or sol. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008. The trench on the upper left, called 'Upper Cupboard,' is about 60 centimeters (24 inches) long and 3 centimeters (1 inch) deep. The trench in the middle,called 'Ice Man,' is about 30 centimeters (12 inches) long and 3 centimeters (1 inch) deep. The trench on the right, called 'La Mancha,' is about 31 centimeters (12 inches) and 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep. The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Effect of Robusta (Coffea canephora P.) coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on contamination by fungi and ochratoxin A (OTA) under tropical humid zone (Côte d'Ivoire).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Irène Ahou; Koffi, Louis Ban; Nemlin, Jean Gnopo; Dosso, Mireille Bretin

    2012-06-01

    The effect of coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on the kinetics of the drying, chemical components variation, fungal growth and ochratoxin A production was evaluated. The results showed that the more coffee cherries quantity on the drying area was important, the slower they dried. Indeed, the drying durations were 12, 17, 21, 26, 31 and 32 days respectively for the lots of 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg, 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area. The slowness of the drying led to the increasing of fungal development and ochratoxin A production in the cherries. Indeed, samples more contaminated were those from the lots of 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area with between 10% and 100% of infected beans and with levels of ochratoxin A ranging from 0.92 to 118.47 and 1.4 to 131.33 μg kg(-1) respectively. The slowness of the drying led also to the acidification of the cherries (pH=5.55-4.54) and the degradation of their chlorogenic acids content (13.03-11.69) while for their caffeine content (2.52-2.54), any significant difference was observed whatever the drying duration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Martian Soil Inside Phoenix's Robotic Arm Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) shows material from the Martian surface captured by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop during its first test dig and dump on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The test sample shown was taken from the digging area informally known as 'Knave of Hearts.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Phoenix Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab delivery funnel on Sol 29, the 29th Martian day after landing, or June 24, 2008. The soil will be delivered to the instrument on Sol 30. This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Phoenix's La Mancha Trench in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This anaglyph, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, was taken on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). The anaglyph highlights the depth of the trench, informally named 'La Mancha,' and reveals the ice layer beneath the soil surface. The trench's depth is about 5 centimeters deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This series of six images from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander records the first time that the four spikes of the lander's thermal and electrical conductivity probe were inserted into Martian soil. The images were taken on July 8, 2008, during the Phoenix mission's 43rd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The insertion visible from the shadows cast on the ground on that sol was a validation test of the procedure. The spikes on the probe are about 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long. The science team will use the probe tool to assess how easily heat and electricity move through the soil from one spike to another. Such measurements can provide information about frozen or unfrozen water in the soil. The probe is mounted on the 'knuckle' of Phoenix's Robotic Arm. It has already been used for assessing water vapor in the atmosphere when it is held above the ground. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Phoenix Conductivity Probe with Shadow and Toothmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008). The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 after the probe was lifted away from the soil. The imprint left by the insertion is visible below the probe, and a shadow showing the probe's four needles is cast on a rock to the left. The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water. The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Gender Roles in Chika Unigwe's The Phoenix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines gender roles in Chika Unigwe's The Phoenix (2007). In ... of man. The rise of feminist movements/campaigns in Africa can be traced more to ..... Ortner, Sherry B. “Reading America: Preliminary Notes on Class and Culture.

  1. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  2. More Soil Delivered to Phoenix Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, documents the delivery of a soil sample from the 'Snow White' trench to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory. A small pile of soil is visible on the lower edge of the second cell from the top.This deck-mounted lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The delivery was made on Sept. 12, 2008, which was Sol 107 (the 107th Martian day) of the mission, which landed on May 25, 2008. The Wet Chemistry Laboratory mixes Martian soil with an aqueous solution from Earth as part of a process to identify soluble nutrients and other chemicals in the soil. Preliminary analysis of this soil confirms that it is alkaline, and composed of salts and other chemicals such as perchlorate, sodium, magnesium, chloride and potassium. This data validates prior results from that same location, said JPL's Michael Hecht, the lead scientist for MECA. In the coming days, the Phoenix team will also fill the final four of eight single-use ovens on another soil-analysis instrument, the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The team's strategy is to deliver as many samples as possible before the power produced by Phoenix's solar panels declines due to the end of the Martian summer. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Date canning: a new approach for the long time preservation of date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni, Aziz; Azizi, Aslan; Keshtiban, Ata Khodavirdivand; Amini, Amir; Eslami, Ahad

    2015-04-01

    Dramatic growth in date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) production, makes it clear to apply proper methods to preserve this nutritious fruit for a long time. Numerous methods have been used to gain this goal in recent years that can be classified into non-thermal (fumigation, ozonation, irradiation, and packaging) and thermal (heat treatment, cold storage, dehydration, jam etc.) processing methods. In this paper these methods were reviewed and novel methods for date preservation were presented.

  4. Overnight Changes Recorded by Phoenix Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This graph presents simplified data from overnight measurements by the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander from noon of the mission's 70th Martian day, or sol, to noon the following sol (Aug. 5 to Aug. 6, 2008). The graph shows that water disappeared from the atmosphere overnight, at the same time that electrical measurements detected changes consistent with addition of water to the soil. Water in soil appears to increase overnight, when water in the atmosphere disappears. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. How Phoenix Creates Color Images (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This simple animation shows how a color image is made from images taken by Phoenix. The Surface Stereo Imager captures the same scene with three different filters. The images are sent to Earth in black and white and the color is added by mission scientists. By contrast, consumer digital cameras and cell phones have filters built in and do all of the color processing within the camera itself. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Robotic Arm Scoop with Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This drawing shows a side view of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's scoop with various tools for acquiring soil, icy soil and ice samples. The front blade, at left, is for scraping. A secondary blade can scrape hard materials. The motorized rasp, protruding at the bottom on the image, can penetrate the hard icy soil and acquire the cuttings produced through the rear chamber of the scoop. The rasp is a tungsten carbide cutting bit mounted within a pivoting housing that allows the bit to protrude during sample acquisition. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Phoenix Robotic Arm's Workspace After 90 Sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide. The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix's Laser Beam in Action on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation The Surface Stereo Imager camera aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander acquired a series of images of the laser beam in the Martian night sky. Bright spots in the beam are reflections from ice crystals in the low level ice-fog. The brighter area at the top of the beam is due to enhanced scattering of the laser light in a cloud. The Canadian-built lidar instrument emits pulses of laser light and records what is scattered back. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity. In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below. For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across. Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Zenith Movie showing Phoenix's Lidar Beam (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation A laser beam from the Canadian-built lidar instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander can be seen in this contrast-enhanced sequence of 10 images taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager on July 26, 2008, during early Martian morning hours of the mission's 61st Martian day after landing. The view is almost straight up and includes about 1.5 kilometer (about 1 mile) of the length of the beam. The camera, from its position close to the lidar on the lander deck, took the images through a green filter centered on light with wavelength 532 nanometers, the same wavelength of the laser beam. The movie has been artificially colored to to approximately match the color that would be seen looking through this filter on Mars. Contrast is enhanced to make the beam more visible. The lidar beam can be seen extending from the lower right to the upper right, near the zenith, as it reflects off particles suspended in the atmosphere. Particles that scatter the beam directly into the camera can be seen to produce brief sparkles of light. In the background, dust can be seen drifting across the sky pushed by winds aloft. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Digging Movie from Phoenix's Sol 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander recorded the images combined into this movie of the lander's Robotic Arm enlarging and combining the two trenches informally named 'Dodo' (left) and 'Goldilocks.' The 21 images in this sequence were taken over a period of about 2 hours during Phoenix's Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or the 18th Martian day since landing. The main purpose of the Sol 18 dig was to dig deeper for learning the depth of a hard underlying layer. A bright layer, possibly ice, was increasingly exposed as the digging progressed. Further digging and scraping in the combined Dodo-Goldilocks trench was planned for subsequent sols. The combined trench is about 20 centimeters (about 8 inches) wide. The depth at the end of the Sol 18 digging is 5 to 6 centimeters (about 2 inches). The Goldilocks trench was the source of soil samples 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear,' which were collected on earlier sols and delivered to instruments on the lander deck. The Dodo trench was originally dug for practice in collecting and depositing soil samples. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Abell 1033: birth of a radio phoenix

    CERN Document Server

    de Gasperin, F; van Weeren, R J; Dawson, W A; Brüggen, M; Bonafede, A; Simionescu, A

    2015-01-01

    Extended steep-spectrum radio emission in a galaxy cluster is usually associated with a recent merger. However, given the complex scenario of galaxy cluster mergers, many of the discovered sources hardly fit into the strict boundaries of a precise taxonomy. This is especially true for radio phoenixes that do not have very well defined observational criteria. Radio phoenixes are aged radio galaxy lobes whose emission is reactivated by compression or other mechanisms. Here, we present the detection of a radio phoenix close to the moment of its formation. The source is located in Abell 1033, a peculiar galaxy cluster which underwent a recent merger. To support our claim, we present unpublished Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and Chandra observations together with archival data from the Very Large Array and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We discover the presence of two sub-clusters displaced along the N-S direction. The two sub-clusters probably underwent a recent merger which is the cause of a moderately per...

  13. Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-11

    Oct 11, 2009 ... prevalence of 2.8% was reported in 2000 and a projected prevalence of 4.4% is ... awareness about the disease, its risk factors, complications ..... characteristics of three native sun-dried date (phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

  14. Evolution of sex chromosomes prior to speciation in the dioecious Phoenix species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, E; Zehdi-Azouzi, S; Crabos, A; Castillo, K; Chabrillange, N; Pintaud, J-C; Salhi-Hannachi, A; Glémin, S; Aberlenc-Bertossi, F

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the driving forces and molecular processes underlying dioecy and sex chromosome evolution, leading from hermaphroditism to the occurrence of male and female individuals, is of considerable interest in fundamental and applied research. The genus Phoenix, belonging to the Arecaceae family, consists uniquely of dioecious species. Phylogenetic data suggest that the genus Phoenix has diverged from a hermaphroditic ancestor which is also shared with its closest relatives. We have investigated the cessation of recombination in the sex-determination region within the genus Phoenix as a whole by extending the analysis of P. dactylifera SSR sex-related loci to eight other species within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of a date palm sex-linked PdMYB1 gene in these species has revealed that sex-linked alleles have not clustered in a species-dependent way but rather in X and Y-allele clusters. Our data show that sex chromosomes evolved from a common autosomal origin before the diversification of the extant dioecious species.

  15. Phoenix 2: a locally installable large-scale 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis pipeline with Web interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Jung; Dong, Xiaoli; Caffrey, Sean M; Voordouw, Gerrit; Sensen, Christoph W

    2013-09-20

    We have developed Phoenix 2, a ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis pipeline, which can be used to process large-scale datasets consisting of more than one hundred environmental samples and containing more than one million reads collectively. Rapid handling of large datasets is made possible by the removal of redundant sequences, pre-partitioning of sequences, parallelized clustering per partition, and subsequent merging of clusters. To build the pipeline, we have used a combination of open-source software tools and custom-developed Perl scripts. For our project we utilize hardware-accelerated searches, but it is possible to reconfigure the analysis pipeline for use with generic computing infrastructure only, with a considerable reduction in speed. The set of analysis results produced by Phoenix 2 is comprehensive, including taxonomic annotations using multiple methods, alpha diversity indices, beta diversity measurements, and a number of visualizations. To date, the pipeline has been used to analyze more than 1500 environmental samples from a wide variety of microbial communities, which are part of our Hydrocarbon Metagenomics Project (http://www.hydrocarbonmetagenomics.com). The software package can be installed as a local software suite with a Web interface. Phoenix 2 is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/phoenix2.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE-DE-SOL ELABORADA COM BAIXOS TEORES DE CLORETO DE SÓDIO MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SUN DRIED MEAT WITH LOW SODIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA

    2001-08-01

    as water activity and sodium chloride were analyzed. In both groups the results obtained in microbial analysis were quite high. In the samples of the inspected establishments the averages of mesophylic counts bacterias, molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms were 6,2Log UFC/g, 3,8Log UFC/g, 7,4Log UFC/g and 1,34Log NMP/g respectively and, in the samples without inspection, the averages were 7,41Log UFC/g, 4,44Log UFC/g, 6,78Log UFC/g and 2,6Log NMP/g, respectively. The microbial results suggest errors in the processing and manipulation of both samples, and the fecal contamination was much higher in the samples collected in establishments without inspection. The variation of the sodium chloride content and water activity of the sample indicated lack of standardization during sun dried meat processing. There is the need tho establish microbiological and physical-chemical legal parameters capable of offering safe food to the consumer.

  17. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  18. Schematic Animation of Phoenix's Microscope Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the workings of the microscope station of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Samples are delivered to the horizontal portion of the sample wheel (yellow) that pokes outside an opening in the box enclosure. The wheel rotates to present the sample to the microscopes. The Optical Microscope (red) can see particles a little smaller than one-tenth the diameter of a human hair. The Atomic Force Microscope (pink) can see particles forty time smaller. The samples are on a variety of substrate surfaces, the small circles on the beveled edge of the sample wheel. For scale, the diameter of the wheel is about 14 centimeters (5.5 inches). Each substrate is a circle 3 millimeters (0.1 inch) in diameter. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  20. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  1. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  2. Radiocarbon Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-20

    Radiocarbon dating can be used to determine the age of objects that contain components that were once alive. In the case of human remains, a radiocarbon date can distinguish between a crime scene and an archeological site. Documents, museum artifacts and art objects can be dated to determine if their age is correct for the historical context. A radiocarbon date does not confirm authenticity, but it can help identify a forgery.

  3. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  4. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix Landing Area Looking Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of panoramic images taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 15 (June 9, 2008), the 15th Martian day after landing. The panorama looks to the southeast and shows rocks casting shadows, polygons on the surface and as the image looks to the horizon, Phoenix's backshell gleams in the distance. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Power lines Phoenix and the making of the modern southwest

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In 1940, Phoenix was a small, agricultural city of sixty-five thousand, and the Navajo Reservation was an open landscape of scattered sheepherders. Forty years later, Phoenix had blossomed into a metropolis of 1.5 million people and the territory of the Navajo Nation was home to two of the largest strip mines in the world. Five coal-burning power plants surrounded the reservation, generating electricity for export to Phoenix, Los Angeles, and other cities. Exploring the postwar developments of these two very different landscapes, Power Lines tells the story of the far-reaching environmental a

  6. Working End of Robotic Arm on Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This illustration shows some of the components on and near the end of the robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Primary and secondary blades on the scoop will aid in the collection of soil samples. A powered rasp will allow the arm to sample an icy layer expected to be about as hard as concrete. The thermal and electrical conductivity probe, which is one part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, will assess how heat and electrons move through the soil from one spike to another of a four-spike electronic fork that will be pushed into the soil at different stages of digging by the arm.

  7. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Howland, Phoenix Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Howland in the Phoenix...

  8. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  9. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Ecosystem Services by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset presents environmental benefits of the urban forest in 2,434 block groups in Phoenix, Arizona. Carbon attributes, pollution removal and value, and...

  10. Molecular survey of the Texas Phoenix decline phytoplasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    symptoms of Texas Phoenix decline (TPD) in West Central Florida. The IGS region was .... DNA from a healthy plant, and a water control (no DNA template). The PCR .... supplement sequencing data which may be subject to sequencing errors.

  11. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Baker, Phoenix Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Baker in the Phoenix...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Atlas Area Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the boundary of the Phoenix, AZ Atlas Area. It represents the outside edge of all the block groups included in the EnviroAtlas Area....

  13. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Thomas, Reid C.; Varghese, Phil; Signori, Gina; Schmitz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  14. Troubles continue for the Phoenix VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. According to the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (Joint Commission, JCAHO, an independent organization that reviews hospitals, the Phoenix VA does not comply with U.S. standards for safety, patient care and management (1. The hospital was at the epicenter of the national scandal over the quality of care being afforded to the nation's veterans where the now notorious practice of double-booking patient appointments was first exposed. The hospital's indifferent management provoked congressional investigations that uncovered still more system-wide abuses leading to the removal of the hospital director and the resignation of then VA secretary, Eric Shinseki. The hospital maintains its accreditation but with a follow-up survey in 1-6 months where it must show that it has successfully addressed the 13 identified problems (1. Inspectors who conducted the review in July found that VA employees were unable to report concerns "without retaliatory action from the hospital." Other alarming ...

  15. Wind-Related Topography in Phoenix's Region of Mars (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie shifts from a global zoom indicating the Phoenix landing area on Mars to a topographical map indicating relative elevations in the landing region. The elevations could affect wind patterns at the site. In particular, Phoenix is in a broad, shallow valley. The edge of the valley, about 150 meters (500 feet) above the floor, may provide enough of a slope to the east of Phoenix to explain winds coming from the east during nights at the site. Cooler, denser air could be sinking down the slope and toward the lander. Atmospheric scientists on the Phoenix team are analyzing wind patterns to distiguish effects of nearby topography from larger-scale movement of the atmosphere in the polar region. The elevation information for this topographical mapping comes from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. The blue-coded area is the valley floor. Orange and yellow indicate relatively higher elevations. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. JPL managed the Mars Global Surveyor mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  16. 76 FR 23787 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 75D, STMicroelectronics, Inc., Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...., Phoenix, AZ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U... issued a grant of authority to the City of Phoenix (grantee of FTZ 75) authorizing the establishment of Foreign-Trade Subzone 75D at the STMicroelectronics, Inc., facility in Phoenix, Arizona (Board Order...

  17. 78 FR 78298 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Phoenix, AZ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Phoenix VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Phoenix, AZ, to facilitate...

  18. In vitro inhibitory effects on a-glucosidase and a-amylase level and antioxidant potential of seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shah Alam Khan; Amira Rashid Al Kiyumi; Manal Saif Al Sheidi; Tagreed Salim Al Khusaibi; Noura Mohammed Al Shehhi; Tanveer Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and compare the antioxidant activity,total phenolic contents(TPCs) and in vitro antidiabetic activity of various pits extracts obtained from five Omani date cultivars.Methods:Sun-dried mature fruits of five Omani date varieties,namely,Fardh,Naghal,Khalas,Khinazi and Khasab were purchased from the local market in Muscat,Oman in the month of September 2014.Four seed extracts viz.water,ethanol,methanol and acetone were prepared for each date variety and their antioxidant activities were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,hydrogen peroxide scavenging method and reducing power assay method,respectively.In vitro antidiabetic activity of the date pit extracts was evaluated by measuring their inhibitory effect on a-glucosidase and aamylase level.TPCs were also quantified colorimetrically.Results:The results indicated that TPC of date seeds was solvent dependent.Acetone,ethanol and methanol were found to be significantly better solvents than water in extracting phenolic compounds from the date seeds.Pit extracts exhibited moderate to good in vitro antioxidant activity and increased reducing power.Among all date pit extracts,water extract exhibited significant in vitro antidiabetic activity in comparison to standard drug,acarbose.Conclusions:The present study confirms that disposed waste of Omani dates is a rich source of dietary antioxidant because of its high TPC.The pits due to their inhibitory effects on a-glucosidase and a-amylase level could be used as a monotherapy along with an appropriate diabetic diet and exercise or might be in conjunction with antidiabetic therapy to manage and prevent progression of diabetes.

  19. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix's Solar Panel and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of panorama images of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's solar panel and the lander's Robotic Arm with a sample in the scoop. The image was taken just before the sample was delivered to the Optical Microscope. The images making up this animation were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager looking west during Phoenix's Sol 16 (June 10, 2008), or the 16th Martian day after landing. This view is a part of the 'mission success' panorama that will show the whole landing site in color. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix's Solar Panel and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of panorama images of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's solar panel and the lander's Robotic Arm with a sample in the scoop. The image was taken just before the sample was delivered to the Optical Microscope. The images making up this animation were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager looking west during Phoenix's Sol 16 (June 10, 2008), or the 16th Martian day after landing. This view is a part of the 'mission success' panorama that will show the whole landing site in color. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Mathematical modeling of the Phoenix Rising pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process in mammalian cells. It is important for embryogenesis, tissue homoeostasis, and cancer treatment. Apoptosis not only induces cell death, but also leads to the release of signals that promote rapid proliferation of surrounding cells through the Phoenix Rising (PR pathway. To quantitatively understand the kinetics of interactions of different molecules in this pathway, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the effects of various changes in the PR pathway on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a key factor for promoting cell proliferation. These changes include activation of caspase 3 (C3, caspase 7 (C7, and nuclear factor κB (NFκB. In addition, we simulated the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2 inhibition and C3 knockout on the level of secreted PGE2. The model predictions on PGE2 in MEF and 4T1 cells at 48 hours after 10-Gray radiation were quantitatively consistent with the experimental data in the literature. Compared to C7, the model predicted that C3 activation was more critical for PGE2 production. The model also predicted that PGE2 production could be significantly reduced when COX2 expression was blocked via either NFκB inactivation or treatment of cells with exogenous COX2 inhibitors, which led to a decrease in the rate of conversion from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 in the PR pathway. In conclusion, the mathematical model developed in this study yielded new insights into the process of tissue regrowth stimulated by signals from apoptotic cells. In future studies, the model can be used for experimental data analysis and assisting development of novel strategies/drugs for improving cancer treatment or normal tissue regeneration.

  2. Martian Arctic Dust Devil and Phoenix Meteorology Mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008. Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104. Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado. The vertical post near the left edge of this image is the mast of the Meteorological Station on Phoenix. The dust devil visible at the horizon just to the right of the mast is estimated to be 600 to 700 meters (about 2,000 to 2,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 to 5 meters (10 to 13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those. The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Thermal Design Validation of the Mars Scout Phoenix Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Lee, Chern-Jiin

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the validation of the thermal design for the Mars Scout Phoenix Payload. It includes a description of the Phoenix Mission, the science objectives, the timeline, and the flight system and payloads that were on the lander. The initial responsibility for the development and validation the thermal design was with the developers. This process lacked overall system engineering, there was a difference of thermal expertise, and the number of institutions involved complicated the interactions. The revised approach for payload thermal design validation is described.

  4. 76 FR 58035 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office, Phoenix, AZ and Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area... culturally affiliated with the human remain may contact the Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area...

  5. Endemic insular and coastal Tunisian date palm genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehdi-Azouzi, Salwa; Cherif, Emira; Guenni, Karim; Abdelkrim, Ahmed Ben; Bermil, Aymen; Rhouma, Soumaya; Salah, Mohamed Ben; Santoni, Sylvain; Pintaud, Jean Christophe; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique; Hannachi, Amel Salhi

    2016-04-01

    The breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. The Tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. We have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited Tunisian date palm genetic pool. Eighteen microsatellite loci of Phoenix dactylifera L. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal accessions from Kerkennah, Djerba, Gabès and continental date palm accessions from Tozeur. A collection of 105 date palms from the four regions was analysed. This study has provided us with an extensive understanding of the local genetic diversity and its distribution. The coastal date palm genotypes exhibit a high and specific genetic diversity. These genotypes are certainly an untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes to improve cultivated germplasm in continental date palm.

  6. ORGANOGÊNESE DIRETA DE Phoenix dactylifera L. VIA PECÍOLO COTILEDONAR DIRECT ORGANOGENESIS IN Phoenix dactylifera L. THROUGH COTILEDONAR PETIOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi Ahmed Aloufa3 Ibrahim Aloufa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Existe hoje bastante interesse com respeito ao sucesso da aplicação da cultura de tecidos para propagação de membros da família das palmeiras. A tamareira (Phoenix dactylifera L. é uma planta originária do Oriente Médio, cujo clima é quente e árido, e devido aos seus caracteres botânicos constitui-se numa boa opção para a cultura de frutas adaptadas ao Nordeste brasileiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo testar os hormônios ácido indolacético (IAA e 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP com a finalidade de micropropagar a tamareira por organogênese direta, utilizando a cultivar Khadrawy. Pecíolos cotiledonares foram inoculados em meio MS suplementado com quatro combinações de BAP e IAA, em iguais concentrações (0 mg.L-1, 0,5 mg.L-1, 1,0 mg.L-1 e 2,0 mg.L-1. As concentrações hormonais utilizadas não propiciaram a formação de brotos, mas mostraram-se relativamente eficientes na diferenciação das partes aérea e radicular, contribuindo para estratégias de conservação in vitro da espécie.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tamareira; regeneração; reguladores vegetais.

    There is much interest with respect to the success of the application of tissue culture for propagation of palm family members. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is originary from the Middle East, where climate is hot and dry, and due to its botanical characteristics constitutes a good option for cultivation of adapted fruits to Brazilian Northeast. This study had as objective to test 6-Benzilaminopurine (BAP and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA growth regulators for date palm micropropagation by direct organogenesis, using Khadrawy cultivar. Cotiledonar petioles were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with four combinations of IAA and BAP, on equal concentrations (0 mg.L-1, 0.5 mg.L-1, 1.0 mg.L-1 and 2.0 mg.L-1. The hormonal concentrations used did not propitiate the multiple

  7. The Flight of the Phoenix: Interpersonal Aspects of Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Brian J.; Kilian, Claire McCarty

    2012-01-01

    Although many classroom exercises use movies to focus on management and organizational behavior issues, none of those do so in the context of project management. This article presents such an exercise using "The Flight of the Phoenix", an incredibly rich story for any management class, which provides clear examples of organizational behavior…

  8. Comparison studies of ozone precursors in Phoenix, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, C.; Guyton, J.; Lee, C.P. [Arizona Dept. of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Parmar, S. [Atmospheric Analysis and Consulting Co., Ventura, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper will present the comparison of the ozone precursors monitoring program for Phoenix, Arizona during 1992 and 1993. Specific details and methodologies will be presented involving collection of air samples and analysis of speciated measurements for reactive VOC and carbonyl precursors responsible for ozone formation. Quality control and quality assurance techniques will also be discussed.

  9. Differences between the Texas phoenix palm phytoplasma and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ntushk

    Key words: nusA, hflB, phytoplasma, Texas Phoenix decline. INTRODUCTION .... The reagent made a total volume of 50 µL and the PCR reaction consisted of 35 cycles, ... The ligated PCR product was transformed into Top 10 chemically competent. Escherichia coli cells (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA,. USA).

  10. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  11. Vaccination Coverage among Kindergarten Children in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Jemima A.; Rivers, Patrick A.; Bae, Sejong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate school immunization records and document the immunization coverage and compliance level of children enrolled in kindergarten in Phoenix during the 2001-2002 school year. The purpose was to obtain information on: 1) immunization status by age two; 2) under-immunization in kindergarten; 3) administration error; and 4)…

  12. Telltale wind indicator for the Mars Phoenix lander

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Honstein-Rathlou, C.; Merrison, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Telltale wind indicator is a mechanical anemometer designed to operate on the Martian surface as part of the meteorological package on the NASA Phoenix lander. It consists of a lightweight cylinder suspended by Kevlar fibers and is deflected under the action of wind. Imaging of the Telltale...

  13. The Phoenix galaxy as seen by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masini, A.; Comastri, A.; Puccetti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. We study the long-term variability of the well-known Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 1210 (also known as UGC 4203, or the Phoenix galaxy). Methods. The source was observed by many X-ray facilities in the last 20 yr. Here we present a NuSTAR observation and put the results in the context of previously...

  14. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  15. The RR Lyrae Variable Population in the Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Ordoñez, Antonio J; Sarajedini, Ata

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detailed study of the RR Lyrae variable population in the Local Group dSph/dIrr transition galaxy, Phoenix, using previously obtained HST/WFPC2 observations of the galaxy. We utilize template light curve fitting routines to obtain best fit light curves for RR Lyrae variables in Phoenix. Our technique has identified 78 highly probable RR Lyrae stars (54 ab-type; 24 c-type) with about 40 additional candidates. We find mean periods for the two populations of $\\langle P_{ab}\\rangle = 0.60 \\pm 0.03$ days and $\\langle P_{c}\\rangle = 0.353 \\pm 0.002$ days. We use the properties of these light curves to extract, among other things, a metallicity distribution function for ab-type RR Lyrae. Our analysis yields a mean metallicity of $\\langle [Fe/H]\\rangle = -1.68 \\pm 0.06$ dex for the RRab stars. From the mean period and metallicity calculated from the ab-type RR Lyrae, we conclude that Phoenix is more likely of intermediate Oosterhoff type; however the morphology of the Bailey diagram for Phoenix R...

  16. The Flight of the Phoenix: Interpersonal Aspects of Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Brian J.; Kilian, Claire McCarty

    2012-01-01

    Although many classroom exercises use movies to focus on management and organizational behavior issues, none of those do so in the context of project management. This article presents such an exercise using "The Flight of the Phoenix", an incredibly rich story for any management class, which provides clear examples of organizational behavior…

  17. Phoenix Water Vapor Measurements using the SSI Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, Leslie; Lemmon, Mark T.

    2016-10-01

    The Phoenix and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft participated together in an observation campaign that was a coordinated effort to study the Martian atmosphere. These coordinated observations were designed to provide near-simultaneous observations of the same column of atmosphere over the Phoenix lander. Seasonal coverage was obtained at Ls=5-10° resolution and diurnal coverage was obtained as often as possible and with as many times of day as possible. One key aspect of this observation set was the means to compare the amount of water measured in the whole column (via the MRO Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM; Murchie et al., 2007) and the Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) with that measured at the surface (via the Phoenix Thermal and Electrical Conductivity probe (TECP; Zent et al., 2008) which contained a humidity sensor). This comparison, along with the Phoenix LIDAR observations of the depth to which aerosols are mixed (Whiteway et al., 2008, 2009), provides clues to the water vapor mixing ratio profile. Tamppari et al. (2009) showed that examination of a subset of these coordinated observations indicate that the water vapor is not well mixed in the atmosphere up to a cloud condensation height at the Phoenix location during northern summer, and results indicated that a large amount of water must be confined to the lowest 0.5-1 km. This is contrary to the typical assumption that water vapor is "well-mixed."Following a similar approach to Titov et al. (2000), we use the Phoenix SSI camera [Lemmon et al., 2008] filters to detect water vapor: LA = 930.7 nm (broad), R4 = 935.5 nm (narrow), and R5 = 935.7 nm (narrow). We developed a hybrid DISORT-spherical model (DISORT model, Stamnes et al. 1988) to model the expected absorption due to a prescribed water vapor content and profile, to search for matches to the observations. Improvements to the model have been made and recent analysis using this model and comparisons to

  18. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Burnside, Christopher G.; Bruno, Cy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program, specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. As originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single boost. For both the small

  19. The Phoenix Mission and its Current Landing Site options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, LK; Smith, P.; Arvidson, RE; Phoenix Team

    2005-08-01

    Phoenix is the 2007 Mars Scout program mission that will send a lander and suite of instruments to study the north polar region on Mars. Central goals for the Phoenix mission are to study the recent history of water as written into the high latitude soils and to search for habitable zones. In order to do this, Phoenix carries a comprehensive suite of seven instruments. This suite includes 3 cameras, an optical microscope and an atomic-force microscope, allowing imaging at spatial scales ranging from kms, for large scale geomorphological studies, to microns, for examining single grain sizes and shapes. Phoenix also has a meteorology suite, which includes atmospheric temperature measurements at 3 levels, atmospheric pressure, and an upward-looking lidar, for dust and water-ice cloud detection. A robotic arm will dig a trench into the surface near the lander to collect and deliver samples to on-board chemistry and mineralogy experiments. These experiments will allow the detection of the mineral makeup of the soil as well as its water content, pH, salt content, and organic content. An important aspect of this exciting mission is the selection of the landing site, within the 65-72 deg N latitude band. Both science and safety concerns will play into this selection. Work is ongoing to determine the most favorable location, with consideration focusing on the best ice/soil ratio, the shallowest slopes and fewest large rocks. Current sites under consideration will be discussed. Selected in 2003, Phoenix was recently confirmed to proceed into Phase C/D of spacecraft development. This research was funded by a NASA Grant and carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  20. Combustion of Organic Molecules by the Thermal Decomposition of Perchlorate Salts: Implications for Organics at the Mars Phoenix Scout Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D.W.; Morris, R.V.; Niles, B.; Lauer, H.V.; Archer, P.D.; Sutter, B.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars 2007 Phoenix Scout Mission successfully landed on May 25, 2008 and operated on the northern plains of Mars for 150 sols. The primary mission objective was to study the history of water and evaluate the potential for past and present habitability in Martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. Phoenix landed near 68 N latitude on polygonal terrain created by ice layers that are a few centimeters under loose soil materials. The Phoenix Mission is assessing the potential for habitability by searching for organic molecules in the ice or icy soils at the landing site. Organic molecules are necessary building blocks for life, although their presence in the ice or soil does not indicate life itself. Phoenix searched for organic molecules by heating soil/ice samples in the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA, [2]). TEGA consists of 8 differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) ovens integrated with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-140 daltons [2]. Endothermic and exothermic reactions are recorded by the TEGA DSC as samples are heated from ambient to 1000 C. Evolved gases, including any organic molecules and their fragments, are simultaneously measured by the mass spectrometer during heating. Phoenix TEGA data are still under analysis; however, no organic fragments have been identified to date in the evolved gas analysis (EGA). The MECA Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) discovered a perchlorate salt in the Phoenix soils and a mass 32 peak evolved between 325 and 625 C for one surface sample dubbed Baby Bear [3]. The mass 32 peak is attributed to evolved O2 generated during the thermal decomposition of the perchlorate salt. Perchlorates are very strong oxidizers when heated, so it is possible that organic fragments evolved in the temperature range of 300-600 C were combusted by the O2 released during the thermal decomposition of the perchlorate salt. The byproduct of the combustion of organic molecules is CO2. There is a prominent release of CO2 between 200

  1. SOLAR DRYING KINETICS OF DATE PALM FRUITS ASSUMING A STEP-WISE AIR TEMPERATURE CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    ABDELGHANI BOUBEKRI; HOCINE BENMOUSSA; DJAMAL MENNOUCHE

    2009-01-01

    The effect of drying using a step-wise temperature change was studied considering the case of indirect solar drying of the date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.). The followed procedure consists of building drying kinetics by stages of temperatures resulting from drying, in constant conditions, of the same variety of dates from Algerian and Tunisian origin. A law of daily temperature variation prevailed by 60°C, was deduced from a statement of temperature collected on a laboratory solar dry...

  2. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an economically important fruit tree in the Middle East and North Africa and is characterized by large cultivar diversity, making it a good model for studies on fruit development and other important traits. Here in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0....

  3. Sensitivity analysis of CLIMEX parameters in modeling potential distribution of Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Shabani

    Full Text Available Using CLIMEX and the Taguchi Method, a process-based niche model was developed to estimate potential distributions of Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm, an economically important crop in many counties. Development of the model was based on both its native and invasive distribution and validation was carried out in terms of its extensive distribution in Iran. To identify model parameters having greatest influence on distribution of date palm, a sensitivity analysis was carried out. Changes in suitability were established by mapping of regions where the estimated distribution changed with parameter alterations. This facilitated the assessment of certain areas in Iran where parameter modifications impacted the most, particularly in relation to suitable and highly suitable locations. Parameter sensitivities were also evaluated by the calculation of area changes within the suitable and highly suitable categories. The low temperature limit (DV2, high temperature limit (DV3, upper optimal temperature (SM2 and high soil moisture limit (SM3 had the greatest impact on sensitivity, while other parameters showed relatively less sensitivity or were insensitive to change. For an accurate fit in species distribution models, highly sensitive parameters require more extensive research and data collection methods. Results of this study demonstrate a more cost effective method for developing date palm distribution models, an integral element in species management, and may prove useful for streamlining requirements for data collection in potential distribution modeling for other species as well.

  4. Potentialités androgénétiques du palmier dattier Phoenix dactylifera L. et culture in vitro d'anthères

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harzallah H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic potentialities if five male date palm genotypes, and in vitro culture of anthers. The experimental results derived from the study of five date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. genotypes indicate that the ability of microspores to divide varies with genotype and culture medium. The highest frequency of microspore division is obtained with the induction medium [Murashige and Skoog (MS 1962 mineral elements, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetique (2,4-D, 2-isopentenylaminopurine (2-IP] containing activated charcoal. The pollinator T106 was considered as the most efficient genotype in our experimentation

  5. Solar Panel Buffeted by Wind at Phoenix Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Winds were strong enough to cause about a half a centimeter (.19 inch) of motion of a solar panel on NASA's Phoenix Mars lander when the lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture on Aug. 31, 2008, during the 96th Martian day since landing. The lander's telltale wind gauge has been indicating wind speeds of about 4 meters per second (9 miles per hour) during late mornings at the site. These conditions were anticipated and the wind is not expected to do any harm to the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Again Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab Cell 1 delivery funnel on Sol 41, the 42nd Martian day after landing, or July 6, 2008, after a soil sample was delivered to the instrument. The instrument's Cell 1 is second one from the foreground of the image. The first cell, Cell 0, received a soil sample two weeks earlier. This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Solar Panel Buffeted by Wind at Phoenix Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Winds were strong enough to cause about a half a centimeter (.19 inch) of motion of a solar panel on NASA's Phoenix Mars lander when the lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture on Aug. 31, 2008, during the 96th Martian day since landing. The lander's telltale wind gauge has been indicating wind speeds of about 4 meters per second (9 miles per hour) during late mornings at the site. These conditions were anticipated and the wind is not expected to do any harm to the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Dark Skies and Clouds Move in at Phoenix site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Clouds of dust and ice swirl past the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander in a series of images taken on the 132nd Martian day of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). The images show the increase in storm activity and potential for snowfall. The solar powered spacecraft was disabled by decreased light from heavy dust storms in the area a few weeks later. The last communication heard from the lander occurred on Nov. 2, 2008. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Sediment transport in the nearshore area of Phoenix Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rijun; Ma, Fang; Wu, Jianzheng; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Shenghui; Xu, Yongchen; Zhu, Longhai; Wang, Nan; Liu, Aijiang

    2016-10-01

    Based on the measured data, suspended sediment concentration, surface sediment grain size, current and waves, the sediment transport mechanisms and pathways in the Phoenix Island area were analyzed using methods of flux decomposition and Grain Size Trend Analysis (GSTA). The results show that net suspended sediment is mainly transported by average current, Stokes drift, and gravitational circulation. The transport direction of suspended sediment is varying and basically following the direction of residual tidal currents. Surface sediment transport pathways are primarily parallel to the coastline along with two convergent centers. Waves and longshore currents have a significant influence on sediment transport, but the influence is limited due to a steep and deep underwater bank. Tidal current is the main controlling factor for sediment transport, especially in the deep water area. Neither suspended nor surface sediment is transported towards the southwest. The South Shandong Coastal Current (SSCC) has little effect on sediment transport processes in the nearshore area of Phoenix Island.

  10. View from Above of Phoenix's Stowed Robotic Arm Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This artist's animation of an imaginary camera zooming in from above shows the location of the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander as it acquires an image of the scoop at the end of the arm. Located just beneath the Robotic Arm Camera lens, the scoop is folded in the stowed position, with its open end facing the Robotic Arm Camera. The last frame in the animation shows the first image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera, one day after Phoenix landed on Mars. In the center of the image is the robotic scoop the lander will use to dig into the surface, collect samples and touch water ice on Mars for the first time. The scoop is in the stowed position, awaiting deployment of the robotic arm. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. UHF Relay Antenna Measurements on Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilott, Peter; Harrel, Jefferson; Arnold, Bradford; Bliznyuk, Natalia; Nielsen, Rick; Dawson, David; McGee, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, a NASA Discovery mission which lands on Mars in the spring of 2008, will rely entirely on UHF relay links between it and Mars orbiting assets, (Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)), to communicate with the Earth. As with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) relay system, non directional antennas will be used to provide roughly emispherical coverage of the Martian sky. Phoenix lander deck object pattern interference and obscuration are significant, and needed to be quantified to answer system level design and operations questions. This paper describes the measurement campaign carried out at the SPAWAR (Space and Naval Warfare Research) Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD) hemispherical antenna range, using a Phoenix deck mockup and engineering model antennas. One goal of the measurements was to evaluate two analysis tools, the time domain CST, and the moment method WIPL-D software packages. These would subsequently be used to provide pattern analysis for configurations that would be difficult and expensive to model and test on Earth.

  12. Nutritional quality of 18 date fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the chemical and physical properties of 18 varieties of the date fruits from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), which are regarded as popular fruit commodities among the populace of the Middle Eastern peninsula. Dietary fiber, proximate analysis, micronutrients (micro-elements and macro-elements) and physical properties (weight, length, and density) of the selected 18 leading varieties of dates cultivated in the United Arab Emirates-namely Khalas, Barhe, Lulu, Shikat alkahlas, Sokkery, Bomaan, Sagay, Shishi, Maghool, Sultana, Fard, Maktoomi, Naptit saif, Jabri, Khodary, Dabbas, Raziz and Shabebe-were determined and compared. Significant differences (P date fruits, depending on the variety, contain significant but quite variable amounts of macro-elements and micro-elements. The macro-elements measured are calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium and magnesium, while the essential micro-elements and the possibly essential micro-elements are iron, zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt and molybdenum, and aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, strontium and vanadium, respectively.

  13. Antifungal activity and phytochemical screening of extracts from Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulenouar, Noureddine; Marouf, Abderrazak; Cheriti, Abdelkrim

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the rachis extracts of eight date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars were analysed by phytochemical screening and bioautography on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa). The choice of cultivars was based on their reaction to Foa (resistant, tolerant and sensitive). Phytochemical screening was realised for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and coumarins. Antifungal effects were mostly represented by dichloromethanic extracts (seven out of nine inhibition zones). The best results were represented by the dichloromethanic extract of the cultivar 'Bent-Cherk' rachis (6.50 ± 1.41 mm) and the ethyl acetate extract of the cultivar 'Rotbi' rachis (6.00 ± 1.41 mm). The date palm cultivars presented some similarities concerning phytochemical screening results related to their resistance or sensibility to Foa. From the correlation between phytochemical screening and bioautography, it was observed that the majority of bioactive compounds against Foa seem to be polyphenols. Thus, the natural defence mechanism in vivo against Foa is probably related to the action of polyphenols. The difference between resistant, tolerant and sensitive cultivars is related to their mechanism of action.

  14. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices

    OpenAIRE

    Workneh, T. S.; Zinash, A.; Woldetsadik, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. ...

  15. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a raw material in the production of starch, tapioca and snack foods ... The material was dried for 8 hours daily after which it was kept indoors overnight. The surface with .... statistical package (MS Office, 2007). .... preservation and marketing.

  16. Carpological analysis of Phoenix (Arecaceae): contributions to the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main purpose of this study was, first, to analyze the morphology of seeds of Phoenix spp. and relevant cultivars and to assess the taxonomic value of the information generated as a means of studying the systematics and evolutionary history of the genus Phoenix. We then analyzed seed morphologica...

  17. 75 FR 64708 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 75 under Alternative Site Framework; Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...; Phoenix, AZ Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U...; Whereas, the City of Phoenix, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 75, submitted an application to the Board (FTZ... Maricopa County and portions of Pinal and Yavapai Counties, Arizona, within and adjacent to the...

  18. A comprehensive sustainability appraisal of water governance in Phoenix, AZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kelli L; Wiek, Arnim; Withycombe Keeler, Lauren

    2013-02-15

    In Phoenix, Arizona and other metropolitan areas, water governance challenges include variable climate conditions, growing demands, and continued groundwater overdraft. Based on an actor-oriented examination of who does what with water and why, along with how people interact with hydro-ecological systems and man-made infrastructure, we present a sustainability appraisal of water governance for the Phoenix region. Broadly applicable to other areas, our systems approach to sustainable water governance overcomes prevailing limitations to research and management by: employing a comprehensive and integrative perspective on water systems; highlighting the activities, intentions, and rules that govern various actors, along with the values and goals driving decisions; and, establishing a holistic set of principles for social-ecological system integrity and interconnectivity, resource efficiency and maintenance, livelihood sufficiency and opportunity, civility and democratic governance, intra- and inter-generational equity, and finally, precaution and adaptive capacity. This study also contributes to reforming and innovating governance regimes by illuminating how these principles are being met, or not, in the study area. What is most needed in metropolitan Phoenix is enhanced attention to ecosystem functions and resource maintenance as well as social equity and public engagement in water governance. Overall, key recommendations entail: addressing interconnections across hydrologic units and sub-systems (e.g., land and water), increasing decentralized initiatives for multiple purposes (e.g., ecological and societal benefits of green infrastructure), incorporating justice goals into decisions (e.g., fair allocations and involvement), and building capacity through collaborations and social learning with diverse interests (e.g., scientists, policymakers, and the broader public).

  19. Whaling: will the Phoenix rise again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Sidney J

    2007-08-01

    It is argued that Japan's authorities and entrepreneurs involved in whaling and the whale-meat trade have a long-term goal of rebuilding a large and profitable industry of pelagic whaling, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, in the next 20 years or so. They have made large investments in this enterprise since the so-called moratorium on commercial whaling was adopted by the International Whaling Commission in 1982. These include, but are not confined to, state subsidizing of an expanding and diversifying 20-year programme of commercial whaling under provisions in all relevant international agreements since 1937 that permit unlimited and unilaterally decreed whaling, supposedly for scientific purposes, provided that the commodities from the whales killed are fully utilized. The context of this is the monopoly of technical knowledge, special skills and the market for valuable whale-meat that Japanese enterprises acquired in the post-world war II period, having broken - in 1937 - the strongly defended de facto Anglo-Norwegian monopoly of technology, skills, access to Antarctic whaling grounds and the market for whale-oil that had existed until then. The attraction of 'scientific whaling' is not only that it by-passes any internationally agreed catch-limits but that it also circumvents all other rules - many dating fr/om the League of Nations whaling convention of 1931 - regarding protected species, closed areas, killing of juveniles, less inhumane killing methods, etc. The groundwork is being laid to justify that resumed whaling on partially recovered whale stocks will be at the unsustainable levels that will be profitable again. This justification is based on spurious assertions that numerous and hungry whales threaten the world's fisheries, and that the abundance and possible increase in some whale species is impeding the recovery of other, severely depleted, and potentially more valuable species such as the blue whale. If the scenario presented here is correct

  20. Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mapping of generalized land use (level 1) from ERTS 1 images was shown to be feasible with better than 95% accuracy in the Phoenix quadrangle. The accuracy of level 2 mapping in urban areas is still a problem. Updating existing maps also proved to be feasible, especially in water categories and agricultural uses; however, expanding urban growth has presented with accuracy. ERTS 1 film images indicated where areas of change were occurring, thus aiding focusing-in for more detailed investigation. ERTS color composite transparencies provided a cost effective source of information for land use mapping of very large regions at small map scales.

  1. Use of Python and Phoenix-M Interface in Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Shubham

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I will show how to use Python programming with a computer interface such as Phoenix-M 1 to drive simple robots. In my quest towards Artificial Intelligence(AI) I am experimenting with a lot of different possibilities in Robotics. This one will try to mimic the working of a simple insect's nervous system using hard wiring and some minimal software usage. This is the precursor to my advanced robotics and AI integration where I plan to use a new paradigm of AI based on Machine Learning and Self Consciousness via Knowledge Feedback and Update Process.

  2. Analysis of Effectiveness of Phoenix Entry Reaction Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Glass, Christopher E.; Desai, Prasun, N.; VanNorman, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between the external flowfield and the reaction control system (RCS) thruster plumes of the Phoenix capsule during entry has been investigated. The analysis covered rarefied, transitional, hypersonic and supersonic flight regimes. Performance of pitch, yaw and roll control authority channels was evaluated, with specific emphasis on the yaw channel due to its low nominal yaw control authority. Because Phoenix had already been constructed and its RCS could not be modified before flight, an assessment of RCS efficacy along the trajectory was needed to determine possible issues and to make necessary software changes. Effectiveness of the system at various regimes was evaluated using a hybrid DSMC-CFD technique, based on DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) code and General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), the LAURA (Langley Aerothermal Upwind Relaxation Algorithm) code, and the FUN3D (Fully Unstructured 3D) code. Results of the analysis at hypersonic and supersonic conditions suggest a significant aero-RCS interference which reduced the efficacy of the thrusters and could likely produce control reversal. Very little aero-RCS interference was predicted in rarefied and transitional regimes. A recommendation was made to the project to widen controller system deadbands to minimize (if not eliminate) the use of RCS thrusters through hypersonic and supersonic flight regimes, where their performance would be uncertain.

  3. After Rasping by Phoenix in 'Snow White' Trench, Sol 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used the motorized rasp on the back of its robotic arm scoop during the mission's 60th Martian day, or sol, (July 26, 2008) to penetrate a hard layer at the bottom of a trench informally called 'Snow White.' This view, taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager and presented in approximately true color, shows the trench later the same sol. Most of the 16 holes left by a four-by-four array of rasp placements are visible in the central area of the image. A total 3 cubic centimeters, or about half a teaspoon, of material was collected in the scoop. Material in the scoop was collected both by the turning rasp, which threw material into the scoop through an opening at the back of the scoop, and by the scoop's front blade, which was run over the rasped area to pick up more shavings. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Vulnerability assessment of climate-induced water shortage in Phoenix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gober, Patricia; Kirkwood, Craig W

    2010-12-14

    Global warming has profound consequences for the climate of the American Southwest and its overallocated water supplies. This paper uses simulation modeling and the principles of decision making under uncertainty to translate climate information into tools for vulnerability assessment and urban climate adaptation. A dynamic simulation model, WaterSim, is used to explore future water-shortage conditions in Phoenix. Results indicate that policy action will be needed to attain water sustainability in 2030, even without reductions in river flows caused by climate change. Challenging but feasible changes in lifestyle and slower rates of population growth would allow the region to avoid shortage conditions and achieve groundwater sustainability under all but the most dire climate scenarios. Changes in lifestyle involve more native desert landscaping and fewer pools in addition to slower growth and higher urban densities. There is not a single most likely or optimal future for Phoenix. Urban climate adaptation involves using science-based models to anticipate water shortage and manage climate risk.

  5. Phoenix Lander Self Portrait on Mars, Vertical Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines hundreds of exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above. The black circle is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm appears cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Polar Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a polar projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above. The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The lander's meteorology mast extends above the southwest horzon and is topped by the telltale wind gauge. The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. This view in approximately true color comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Vertical Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above. The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The height of the lander's meteorology mast, extending toward the southwest, appears exaggerated because that mast is taller than the camera mast. This view in approximately true color covers an area about 30 meters by 30 meters (about 100 feet by 100 feet). The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Physics Simulations of fluids - a brief overview of Phoenix FD

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Nikolov, Svetlin

    2014-01-01

    The presentation will briefly describe the simulation and rendering of fluids with Phoenix FD, and then proceed into implementation details. We will present our methods of parallelizing the core simulation algorithms and our utilization of the GPU. We will also show how we take advantage of computational fluid dynamics specifics in order to speed up the preview and final rendering, thus achieving a quick pipeline for the creation of various visual effects. About the speakers Ivaylo Iliev is a Senior Software developer at Chaos Group and is the creator of the Phoenix FD simulator for fluid effects. He has a strong interest in physics and has worked on military simulators before focusing on visual effects. He has a Master?s degree from the Varna Technical University. Svetlin Nikolov is a Senior Software developer at Chaos Group with keen interest in physics and artificial intelligence and 7 years of experience in the software industry. He comes from a game development background with a focu...

  9. The Thermal Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Campbell, Gaylon S.; Campbell, Colin S.; Cardell, Greg; Foote, Marc C.; Wood, Stephen E.; Mehta, Manish

    2009-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) is a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) payload on the Phoenix Lander. TECP will measure the temperature, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the regolith. It will also detect and quantify the population of mobile H2O molecules in the regolith, if any, throughout the polar summer, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the regolith, as well as the dielectric permittivity. In the vapor phase, TECP is capable of measuring the atmospheric H2O vapor abundance, as well as augment the wind velocity measurements from the meteorology instrumentation. TECP is mounted near the end of the 2.3 m Robotic Arm, and can be placed either in the regolith material or held aloft in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development and calibration of the TECP. In addition, substantial characterization of the instrument has been conducted to identify behavioral characteristics that might affect landed surface operations. The greatest potential issue identified in characterization tests is the extraordinary sensitivity of the TECP to placement. Small gaps alter the contact between the TECP and regolith, complicating data interpretation. Testing with the Phoenix Robotic Arm identified mitigation techniques that will be implemented during flight. A flight model of the instrument was also field tested in the Antarctic Dry Valleys during the 2007-2008 International Polar year. 2

  10. Delivery of ibuprofen by natural macroporous sporopollenin exine capsules extracted from Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Saad M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad; Al-Farraj, Eida; Alhokbany, Norah; Issa, Zuheir; Alhousine, Sami; Ahamad, Tansir

    2016-06-10

    Sporopollenin macroporous capsules (SMCs) were extracted from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) spores and coated by a natural polymer composite (chitosan with glutaraldehyde). The polymer coated macroporous capsules SMC@poly were used in the in vitro-controlled delivery of ibuprofen. The materials obtained were characterized through spectral, thermal, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The IBU loading and releasing was studied by investigating the changes in various factors such as pH, temperature, and initial concentration. The results revealed that the loading of IBU increased when the concentration of IBU was decreased, following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum loading of the IBU was observed at pH6.0 (97.2%, with 50mg/mL). The releasing results indicate that IBU was released faster when the pH was changed from 1.4 to 7.4. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the SMC, SMC@poly, and SMC@poly-IBU were tested against human intestinal Caco-2 cell line using MTT assay, and the results revea'led that all the materials in this study were biocompatible.

  11. Identification of pheromone synergists for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus trapping systems from Phoenix canariensis palm volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; Abad-Payá, María; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2014-07-01

    Trapping systems for the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, rely on the use of natural plant odor sources to boost the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone. The identification of the key odorants involved in attraction is essential in the development of a synthetic pheromone synergist to replace the nonstandardized use of plant material in traps. Canary Islands date palms (Phoenix canariensis) have become preferred hosts for R. ferrugineus in Europe; thus, the volatile profile of different P. canariensis plant materials, including healthy and infested tissues, is investigated in the present work by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC-MS), aimed to identify pheromone synergists. The electroantennography (EAG) response of the compounds identified was recorded, as well as the preliminary field response of several EAG-active compounds. The so-called "palm esters" (ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, and propyl butyrate) elicit the strongest EAG responses but performed poorly in the field. Mixtures of esters and alcohols give evidence of better performance, but release rates need further optimization.

  12. ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L. POLLEN USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF INFERTILITY PROBLEMS IN ALGERIAN OASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmani, Cherifa; Chabane, Djamila; Bouguedoura, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm) is known for its traditional medicinal properties across the history of native population in Algerian Sahara. There is a large trend of consumption of date palm pollen preparations in many human infertility cases in our country. However, the validity has not been scientifically tested. There has been no direct scientific research on this application. This study was undertaken to identify cultivars with greater potential in the traditional medicine uses. To evaluate the effects of date palm pollen on some sexual behavioural parameters of male adult rats, we tested the role of pollen powder from Deglet Nour cultivar on some male reproductive parameters. An Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in 17 oases in southern Algeria to identify all cultivars with medicinal interest. Local people were interviewed with open questions. A questionnaire and personal interviews for data collection were designed to record important cultivars, parts used and preparations. To determine the active constituents of date palm pollen used in traditional medicine, a phytochemical screening was performed. The effects of oral administration of date palm pollen suspension on male adult rats were investigated on body and testicle weights, serum testosterone level. 131 prominent cultivars were found within 12 cultivars containing various parts with medicinal effects. Some primary and secondary metabolites were detected by phytochemical screening. The pollen increased the weight of the body, testicles and enhanced the serum testosterone level of male rats treated. The present survey has provided the identification and recognition of date palm cultivars used in traditional Saharan medicine. Date palm pollen could improve sexual activities in male infertility cases and may be attempted to derive drugs.

  13. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Date Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Date Rape A A ... Rape en español Violaciones durante citas What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might ...

  14. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Dynamic Conservation of Date Palms: The Future of a Genetic Resource at the Nexus of Climate Change, Desertification and Salinity Stress in Oasis Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is the only indigenous, wild desert plant definitely domesticated in its native harsh environment, and along with the camel (Camelus dromedarius), was responsible for opening the vast desert territories for human activity and the development of oasis ecosystems, w...

  17. Transit fare prepayment demonstrations in Austin, TX and Phoenix, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, P.; Crain, J.

    1979-06-01

    Two matched demonstration projects testing transit fare prepayment innovations in Austin, Texas and Phoenix, Arizona were conducted. The innovations consisted of two consecutive sales of prepaid tickets and passes at discounts of 20% and 40%, accompanied by expansion of sales outlet networks and intensive advertising and promotional campaigns. The demonstrations measured the impacts of these innovations on: (1) the volume and mix of sales of the various transit fare prepayment instruments, (2) transit-riding levels, and (3) transit costs and operations. In addition, special attention was to be given to evaluating the relative cost-effectiveness of the special advertising and promotional campaigns conducted in both sites. Although beyond the scope of the demonstrations, some evaluation information was obtained on the cost and effectiveness of regular transit fare prepayment programs, in their role as adjuncts to transit service.

  18. Photoelastic stress analysis on a Phoenix 7. 9-meter blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W D; Jenks, M D; Osgood, R M; Johnson, J A

    1991-10-01

    Photoelastic tests were conducted on the Phoenix 7.9-meter blade to develop the basic methodology for locating critical strain areas on full-scale composite structures. Under relatively low elastic loading the strain fields over various regions on the blade planform were documented with 35mm photographs under different loading conditions at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Structural Test Facility (STF). Strain concentrations were easily located and quantified. Principal strain magnitudes and directions were determined at the highest strain areas using separator gages. Results were compared to measured operating loads. This experiment demonstrated the value of experimental stress analysis using the photoelastic technique for the evaluation of composite blade designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Phoenix Mars Scout Parachute Flight Behavior and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Douglas S.; Witkowski, Allen; Kandis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The data returned from the successful Phoenix Mars Scout mission are analyzed in order to determine characteristics and behaviors of the supersonic parachute that was used to slow the entry body during its descent to the surface. At least one significant drag reduction event was observed when the vehicle was traveling at Mach 1.6; this is consistent with previously reported terrestrial high altitude testing and is likely associated with an area oscillation of the parachute. The parachute is shown to possess some lateral instability relative to the anti-velocity vector that is also at a level that is consistent with the same historic data. Ramifications of the lateral instability and, in particular, the unsteadiness in the parachute drag are discussed as energizing elements of the entry body wrist mode. The apparent coefficient of drag for the parachute is calculated and shown to have relatively small variations on an average basis over the supersonic portion of flight.

  20. Developing Carbon Budgets for Cities: Phoenix as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, M. R.; Baker, L. A.; Koerner, B. A.; Grimm, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Studies have shown that cities can alter regional carbon dynamics through changing ecosystem productivity, overall carbon cycling rate, and total carbon storage in vegetation and soils. Furthermore, people in urban regions import a large amount of carbon in food and fuel, as well as release an exceptional amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. Numerous studies have attempted to quantify some sources and sinks of carbon in urban areas, although a complete carbon budget for a city that accounts for total inputs, outputs, and storage within the ecosystem has yet to be fully accomplished. One challenge is associated with attaining the data necessary to accurately account for all carbon dynamics in these heterogeneous and complex ecosystems. Our goal was to estimate a budget for the Phoenix metropolitan area while developing methodology to calculate carbon dynamics in urban systems that can be applied to cities across the US. Only with comparable carbon budgets for multiple cities will we finally begin to understand the influence of urbanization on carbon dynamics. Our analysis shows when calculating certain variables like transportation emissions, results can vary radically (up to 250%) depending on the data source and methodology implemented (i.e. bottom-up vs. top-down). A common assumption is that productivity and carbon storage will increase with urbanization in arid systems due to water and nutrient inputs, as well as changes in vegetation structure; however, our results indicated that this may not actually be the case in Phoenix where a large number of residents design landscapes to conserve water. Even if all urban expansion was dedicated to landscapes designed for carbon sequestration and storage, vegetation and soils will unlikely have a large effect on the C budget without significant changes in transportation and lifestyle choices.

  1. How Neoliberal Imperialism is Expressed by Programming Strategies of Phoenix TV: A Critical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This project is a case study of Phoenix Television, which is a Hong Kong-based satellite TV network broadcasting to the global Chinese-speaking community, primarily to the mainland of China. In the theoretical framework of media imperialism and neoliberal imperialism, this study focuses on the programming strategies of Phoenix TV and examines how the global trend of neoliberalism, the Chinese government’s tight control of the media, and the sophisticated ownership of Phoenix TV intertwined to influence on its programming. The analysis of the format, content, naming, and scheduling reveals that US-inspired neoliberalism is expressed in the network’s programming strategies. This expression, in fact, is the balance that Phoenix found between the tension of global and Chinese interests, the tension between revenue making and public service, and the tension between Party-control and profit seeking.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - BenMAP Results by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 2,434 block groups in Phoenix, AZ. The US EPA's...

  3. Landing Site Dispersion Analysis and Statistical Assessment for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Adams, Douglas; Craig, Lynn; Spencer, David A.; Strauss, William; Seelos, Frank P.; Seelos, Kimberly D.; Arvidson, Ray; Heet, Tabatha

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander launched on August 4, 2007 and successfully landed on Mars 10 months later on May 25, 2008. Landing ellipse predicts and hazard maps were key in selecting safe surface targets for Phoenix. Hazard maps were based on terrain slopes, geomorphology maps and automated rock counts of MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. The expected landing dispersion which led to the selection of Phoenix's surface target is discussed as well as the actual landing dispersion predicts determined during operations in the weeks, days, and hours before landing. A statistical assessment of these dispersions is performed, comparing the actual landing-safety probabilities to criteria levied by the project. Also discussed are applications for this statistical analysis which were used by the Phoenix project. These include using the statistical analysis used to verify the effectiveness of a pre-planned maneuver menu and calculating the probability of future maneuvers.

  4. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010) Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The EnviroAtlas Phoenix, AZ...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Phoenix, AZ Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) data and map were generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red,...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Phoenix, AZ land cover (LC) data and map were generated from USDA NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) four band (red, green, blue and...

  7. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Howland, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Howland, Phoenix...

  8. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Baker, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Baker, Phoenix Islands...

  9. Phoenix light - Heating and cooling with phase-change materials; Phoenix light: Heizen und Kuehlen mit PCM - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haechler, E. [Suiselectra Ingenieurunternehmung AG, Basel (Switzerland); Schneider, B. [Hochschule Esslingen, University of Applied Sciences, Esslingen (Germany)

    2002-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the use of phase-change materials (PCM) in buildings in order to help provide cooling in summer and heating in winter. General information on PCM and its use in the automotive industry, clothing, heating systems and office materials as well as in the electronics industry is provided. The physical and chemical basics are discussed and examples of PCM use in practice are provided. Also, work done in research institutes is mentioned. PCM systems from various manufacturers are noted. The 'phoenix light' system concept is discussed. The 'comfort cooler' concept is introduced and laboratory measurements made at the University of Applied Sciences in Esslingen, Germany, are discussed. Further, measurements made at an installation in an existing building are presented and discussed. Knowledge gained and the optimisation of the system are discussed. Finally, proposals for further work to be done are noted.

  10. Mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin OZER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruit is fruit that is preserved by removing the original water content naturally, through sun drying or artificially, by the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value and long shelf life. Traditional dried fruits such as raisins, figs, dates, apricots and prunes have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. The Mediterranean region is very favourable for production of dried fruits, not only with its climatic conditions, but also its exceptional fertile lands. Additionally, proximity to trade routes historically has allowed Mediterranean countries more access to dried fruits than landlocked countries. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold throughout the world are raisins, followed by dates, prunes (dried plums, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. Dates, prunes, apricots, figs and raisins are the major dried fruits produced in the Mediterranean area. Dried fruits are not perishable but can support mold growth, some of which can produce mycotoxins. Occurence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on these dried fruits can be a problem in the Mediterranean basin, as in the other parts of the world, being a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local products. Although the most important mycotoxins occuring in Mediterranean crops are aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and ochratoxin A, the type and level of mycotoxins and toxigenic molds vary by crop and also by country and in some cases geographic location within a country. In this review mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops are reported and discussed.

  11. In Silico Mining of Microsatellites in Coding Sequences of the Date Palm (Arecaceae Genome, Characterization, and Transferability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Aberlenc-Bertossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: To complement existing sets of primarily dinucleotide microsatellite loci from noncoding sequences of date palm, we developed primers for tri- and hexanucleotide microsatellite loci identified within genes. Due to their conserved genomic locations, the primers should be useful in other palm taxa, and their utility was tested in seven other Phoenix species and in Chamaerops, Livistona, and Hyphaene. Methods and Results: Tandem repeat motifs of 3–6 bp were searched using a simple sequence repeat (SSR–pipeline package in coding portions of the date palm draft genome sequence. Fifteen loci produced highly consistent amplification, intraspecific polymorphisms, and stepwise mutation patterns. Conclusions: These microsatellite loci showed sufficient levels of variability and transferability to make them useful for population genetic, selection signature, and interspecific gene flow studies in Phoenix and other Coryphoideae genera.

  12. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prior to its consumption to determine if the product shows signs of spoilage. [ Top of Page ] What Types of Food are Dated? Open dating is found on most foods including meat, poultry, egg and dairy products. "Closed or coded ...

  13. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  14. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Betül; Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Agramonte, Natasha M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Yusufoglu, Hasan S; Demirci, Fatih; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Tabanca, Nurhayat

    2013-12-01

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dactylifera was obtained by hydrodistillation from the spathe, a specialized leaf structure that surrounds the pollinating organs of the palm. The oil was subsequently analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The oil showed promising repellent activity against yellow fever mosquito - Aedes aegypti. Sixteen components were characterized, constituting 99% of the oil. The main components were 3,4-dimethoxytoluene (73.5%), 2,4-dimethoxytoluene (9.5%), β-caryophyllene (5.5%), p-cresyl methyl ether (3.8%), and caryophyllene oxide (2.4%). The minimum effective dosage (MED) for repellency for the P. dactylifera oil was 0.051mg/cm(2), which had moderately lower potency compared to reference standard N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET (0.018mg/cm(2)) in the "cloth patch assay". The five major compounds were individually assayed for repellency to determine to what extent each is responsible for repellency from the oil. 3,4-Dimethoxytoluene and 2,4-dimethoxytoluene showed the best repellent activity with the same MED value of 0.063mg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicate that these two constituents which comprise a large proportion of the P. dactylifera oil (83%) are likely responsible for the observed repellent activity. In this aspect, the P. dactylifera spathe oil is a sustainable, promising new source of natural repellents.

  15. The Aqueous Chemistry of the Soils at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Quinn, R.; West, S. J.; Young, S. M.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Gospodinova, K.; Kapit, J.; Deflores, L. P.; Smith, P. H.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The MECA Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) analyses on the Phoenix Mars Lander have provided the first direct evidence of the soluble ionic components of the Martian soil. The analyses were performed on samples acquired from the surface (Rosy Red) and at the soil/ice interface approximately 4-5 cm under the surface (Sorceress). Even though the samples are from a rather unique site because of the high polar latitude and the polygon-patterned ground, they present a picture of a geochemical environment different from some previously hypothesized. Addition of 25mL of a water/calibrant solution to approximately 1cc of each of the soil samples resulted in the detection of a variety of ionic species, increased solution conductivity, and a slightly alkaline pH. The major constituent cations identified and quantified to date include Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, while the anions included Cl- and ClO4-. Sulfate analysis was performed using a Ba2+ titration method. Even though carbonate and bicarbonate were not directly measured, their presence and quantification is supported by the alkaline pH of the solution, its buffering capacity after the addition of an acid, common ion effects, conductivity, and the modeled equilibrium species distribution of the system. The species distribution resulting from the modeling and consideration of additional interactions; dissolution, precipitation, ion exchange, ads/desorption, charge balance, the behavior over the several hours of monitoring, provided constraints for carbonate speciation and concentration and was used to formulate and test soil simulants. Results from the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) also support the presence of a significant amount of calcite in the soil.

  16. The effect of late pregnancy consumption of date fruit on labour and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuran, O; Al-Mehaisen, L; Bawadi, H; Beitawi, S; Amarin, Z

    2011-01-01

    We set out to investigate the effect of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) consumption on labour parameters and delivery outcomes. Between 1 February 2007 and 31 January 2008 at Jordan University of Science and Technology, a prospective study was carried out on 69 women who consumed six date fruits per day for 4 weeks prior to their estimated date of delivery, compared with 45 women who consumed none. There was no significant difference in gestational age, age and parity between the two groups. The women who consumed date fruit had significantly higher mean cervical dilatation upon admission compared with the non-date fruit consumers (3.52 cm vs 2.02 cm, p dates, compared with 79% women in the non-date fruit consumers (p = 0.024). Use of prostin/oxytocin was significantly lower in women who consumed dates (28%), compared with the non-date fruit consumers (47%) (p = 0.036). The mean latent phase of the first stage of labour was shorter in women who consumed date fruit compared with the non-date fruit consumers (510 min vs 906 min, p = 0.044). It is concluded that the consumption of date fruit in the last 4 weeks before labour significantly reduced the need for induction and augmentation of labour, and produced a more favourable, but non-significant, delivery outcome. The results warrant a randomised controlled trial.

  17. Identification of phosphate granules occurring in seedling tissue of two palm species (Phoenix dactylifera and Washingtonia filifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demason, D A; Stillman, J I

    1986-03-01

    Haustoria of two palm species, Phoenix dactylifera L. (date) and Washingtonia filifera (Lindl.) Wendl were carefully dissected from seeds, and the ultrastructural characteristics of the large, electron-opaque granules present in the cells of this tissue were compared using standard aldehyde and OsO4 fixations. In Washingtonia, the granules were smaller than those in date and were more variable in size and presence of non-opaque inclusions. All granules appeared to be membrane bounded although they often filled the bounded space. No protein, lipid, carbohydrate or tannins were found in the granules by standard staining procedures. The granules stained positively with two different metallic-phosphate stains which contained either bismuth or lead. Energy dispersive X-ray microprobe analysis, done on aldehyde-fixed granules and those stained with both phosphate stains, confirmed the fact that phosphorus and calcium were present in the granules. The granules also bound the metallic stains as expected. All procedures consistently confirmed the presence of phosphate in the granules. The data are most consistent with the hypothesis that the granules are composed of polyphosphate.

  18. Characteristic Profiles of an Original Drink Sap from Male and Female Deglet Nour Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. during Collection Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality of a typical natural drink from male and female Deglet Nour (DN date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. during the collection period. Dry matter, protein, amino acids, and sugar profiles were determined using AFNOR norm, Kjeldahl method, HPLC, and HPAEC-PAD, respectively. The male sap dry matter content was higher than that of the female. It decreased significantly through the tapping period. During the harvest, the male sap protein content decreased but increased significantly in the female sap. Finally, sugar fraction, for both male and female DN sap, was dominated by sucrose, glucose, fructose, and a small amount of myo-inositol. During the collection time, sugar content is affected by the sex especially for myo-inositol content that increased significantly in the female date sap, unlike that of the male one. This may be related to the fact that the male palm is more resistant to physiological stress, inducing myo-inositol formation during tapping.

  19. 3D Visualization for Phoenix Mars Lander Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laurence; Keely, Leslie; Lees, David; Stoker, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Planetary surface exploration missions present considerable operational challenges in the form of substantial communication delays, limited communication windows, and limited communication bandwidth. A 3D visualization software was developed and delivered to the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) mission. The components of the system include an interactive 3D visualization environment called Mercator, terrain reconstruction software called the Ames Stereo Pipeline, and a server providing distributed access to terrain models. The software was successfully utilized during the mission for science analysis, site understanding, and science operations activity planning. A terrain server was implemented that provided distribution of terrain models from a central repository to clients running the Mercator software. The Ames Stereo Pipeline generates accurate, high-resolution, texture-mapped, 3D terrain models from stereo image pairs. These terrain models can then be visualized within the Mercator environment. The central cross-cutting goal for these tools is to provide an easy-to-use, high-quality, full-featured visualization environment that enhances the mission science team s ability to develop low-risk productive science activity plans. In addition, for the Mercator and Viz visualization environments, extensibility and adaptability to different missions and application areas are key design goals.

  20. Photochemical Age Determinations in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Nunnermacker, L. J.; Springston, S. R.; Weinstein-Lloyd, J.; Hyde, P.; Doskey, Paul; Rudolph, Jochen; Fast, Jerome D.; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2003-02-05

    An extensive VOC data set was gathered as part of a photochemical oxidant field campaign conducted in the Phoenix air basin in the late spring of 1998. Sampling was done at the surface and by aircraft at mid-boundary layer height; in regions with emission sources and downwind in the urban plume. VOC concentration ratios were used to calculate photochemical age, defined as the time integrated exposure of an air mass to OH radical. Based on the VOC ratios of 15 compounds (with OH reactivity varying between acetylene and p,m-xylene), we present estimates for photochemical age and dilution factors for several regions within the air basin. Geographic trends are in agreement with the expectation that pollutants are transported in a generally eastward direction so that older and more dilute mixtures occur to the east of the city. Photochemical ages determined from aircraft samples agree with those determined at a downwind surface site. The bias in photochemical age that occurs because fresh pollutants are added to an aged mixture has been quantified by using a particle trajectory model. A combination of trajectory results (actual age of the pollutants in an air mass) and photochemical age yields an estimate of the average OH concentration experienced by the air parcel. OH obtained in this way is somewhat lower, but has the same trends as OH concentrations calculated using a photochemical box model that is constrained with observed concentrations coincident with the VOC samples.

  1. Propulsive Maneuver Design for the 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raofi, Behzad; Bhat, Ramachandra S.; Helfrich, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander (PHX) successfully landed in the northern planes of Mars in order to continue and complement NASA's "follow the water" theme as its predecessor Mars missions, such as Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Exploration Rovers, have done in recent years. Instruments on the lander, through a robotic arm able to deliver soil samples to the deck, will perform in-situ and remote-sensing investigations to characterize the chemistry of materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. Lander instruments will also identify the potential history of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics within any accessible water ice. Precise trajectory control and targeting were necessary in order to achieve the accurate atmospheric entry conditions required for arriving at the desired landing site. The challenge for the trajectory control maneuver design was to meet or exceed these requirements in the presence of spacecraft limitations as well as other mission constraints. This paper describes the strategies used, including the specialized targeting specifically developed for PHX, in order to design and successfully execute the propulsive maneuvers that delivered the spacecraft to its targeted landing site while satisfying the planetary protection requirements in the presence of flight system constraints.

  2. Navigation Challenges of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portock, Brian M.; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Raofi, Behzad; Ryne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander mission was launched on August 4th, 2007. To land safely at the desired landing location on the Mars surface, the spacecraft trajectory had to be controlled to a set of stringent atmospheric entry and landing conditions. The landing location needed to be controlled to an elliptical area with dimensions of 100km by 20km. The two corresponding critical components of the atmospheric entry conditions are the entry flight path angle (target: -13.0 deg +/-0.21 deg) and the entry time (within +/-30 seconds). The purpose of this paper is to describe the navigation strategies used to overcome the challenges posed during spacecraft operations, which included an attitude control thruster calibration campaign, a trajectory control strategy, and a trajectory reconstruction strategy. Overcoming the navigation challenges resulted in final Mars atmospheric entry conditions just 0.007 deg off in entry flight path angle and 14.9 sec early in entry time. These entry dispersions in addition to the entry, descent, and landing trajectory dispersion through the atmosphere, lead to a final landing location just 7 km away from the desired landing target.

  3. Knox named Phoenix associate dean of faculty affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix has announced the appointment of nationally recognized physician-scientist Kenneth S. Knox, MD, as the associate dean of faculty affairs. Dr. Knox who has been at the University of Arizona-Tucson since 2008, will oversee the Faculty Affairs Office whose charge is to promote an engaged, diverse community of faculty and scholars that sustain a culture of engagement, professionalism and inclusion. He also will serve as director of research at the Banner Lung Institute. Dr. Knox is a pulmonologist known for his research in sarcoidosis, fungal diagnostics and immunologic lung disease. His work includes developing treatments for HIV, AIDS and valley fever. The division chief of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine in Tucson, Knox was responsible for dramatic growth. His accomplishments include increasing the number of clinical and basic science faculty from five to 30 and fellowship trainings from six to 20, rekindling …

  4. February 2014 Phoenix critical care journal club: subgroup analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Sun X, Ioannidis JP, Agoritsas T, Alba AC, Guyatt G. How to use a subgroup analysis: users' guide to the medical literature. JAMA. 2014;311(4:405-11. One of Dr. Raschke's pet peeves is unplanned subgroup analysis. In the September 2013 Banner Good Samaritan / Phoenix VA Critical Care Journal Club (1 he commented on an article by Hung et al. (2 that used a post hoc subgroup analysis. He felt strongly enough to write to the editor about why post hoc subgroup analysis should not be acceptable as a basis for scientific conclusions and his letter was published this month (3. Therefore, we have been on the lookout for a review article to discuss subgroup analysis and came across this timely publication in JAMA. The authors cite a number of examples and provide 5 criteria to use when assessing the validity of subgroup analyses: 1. Can chance explain the apparent subgroup effect ...

  5. Massive NLTE models for X-ray novae with PHOENIX

    CERN Document Server

    van Rossum, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    X-ray grating spectra provide the confirmation of continued mass loss from novae in the super-soft source (SSS) phase of the outburst. In this work expanding nova atmosphere models are developed and used to study the effect of mass loss on the SSS spectra. The very high temperatures combined with high expansion velocities and large radial extension make nova in the SSS phase very interesting but also difficult objects to model. The radiation transport code PHOENIX was applied to SSS novae before, but careful analysis of the old results has revealed a number of problems which lead to new methods and improvements to the code: 1) an improved NLTE module (a new opacity formalism, rate matrix solver, global iteration scheme, and temperature correction method); 2) a new hybrid hydrostatic-dynamic nova atmosphere setup; 3) the models are treated in pure NLTE (no LTE approximation for any opacity). With the new framework a modest amount of models (limited by computation time) are calculated. These show: 1) systematic...

  6. Alexander's and Phoebe's stars: Two New Exotic Phoenix Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Song, I.; Rhee, J. H.; Bessell, M. S.; Murphy, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix Giants are first-ascent giant stars orbited by substantial dusty and gaseous disks that are sometimes accreting onto the central star. We present the characterization of two dusty first-ascent giant stars identified through cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and IRAS catalogs. CD-30 11814 (hereafter Alexander's star) is a high-velocity Pop II star that exhibits rapid accretion and outflowing gas. Multiple epochs of spectroscopic observations show that the double-peaked Ca II infrared triplet emission from this source has variable morphology and strength. TYC 596 145 1 (hereafter Phoebe's star) is a lithium-rich K2.5 III star orbited by a substantial icy disk as indicated by water-ice features detected in Spitzer IRS and IRTF/SpeX infrared spectroscopy. Each source can yield interesting insights into binary star evolution and planetary systems. Funding for this research came from NASA grants and an LLNL-Minigrant to UCLA and from the Spitzer Visiting Graduate Student Program.

  7. The Phoenix galaxy as seen by NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Masini, A; Puccetti, S; Baloković, M; Gandhi, P; Guainazzi, M; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Boorman, P G; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Farrah, D; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Koss, M J; LaMassa, S M; Ricci, C; Stern, D; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We study the long-term variability of the well-known Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 1210 (a.k.a. UGC 4203, or the Phoenix galaxy). Methods. The source was observed by many X-ray facilities in the last 20 years. Here we present a NuSTAR observation and put the results in context of previously published observations. Results. NuSTAR observed Mrk 1210 in 2012 for 15.4 ks. The source showed Compton-thin obscuration similar to that observed by Chandra, Suzaku, BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton over the past two decades, but different from the first observation by ASCA in 1995, in which the active nucleus was caught in a low flux state - or obscured by Compton-thick matter, with a reflection-dominated spectrum. Thanks to the high-quality hard X-ray spectrum obtained with NuSTAR and exploiting the long-term spectral coverage spanning 16.9 years, we can precisely disentangle the transmission and reflection components and put constraints on both the intrinsic long-term variability and hidden nucleus scenarios. In the former case, t...

  8. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe for Phoenix Mars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will assess how heat and electricity move through Martian soil from one spike or needle to another of a four-spike electronic fork that will be pushed into the soil at different stages of digging by the lander's Robotic Arm. The four-spike tool, called the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, is in the middle-right of this photo, mounted near the end of the arm near the lander's scoop (upper left). In one type of experiment with this tool, a pulse of heat will be put into one spike, and the rate at which the temperature rises on the nearby spike will be recorded, along with the rate at which the heated spike cools. A little bit of ice can make a big difference in how well soil conducts heat. Similarly, soil's electrical conductivity -- also tested with this tool -- is a sensitive indicator of moisture in the soil. This device adapts technology used in soil-moisture gauges for irrigation-control systems. The conductivity probe has an additional role besides soil analysis. It will serve as a hunidity sensor when held in the air.

  9. The Phoenix galaxy as seen by NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, A.; Comastri, A.; Puccetti, S.; Baloković, M.; Gandhi, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Boorman, P. G.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M. J.; LaMassa, S. M.; Ricci, C.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We study the long-term variability of the well-known Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 1210 (also known as UGC 4203, or the Phoenix galaxy). Methods: The source was observed by many X-ray facilities in the last 20 yr. Here we present a NuSTAR observation and put the results in the context of previously published observations. Results: NuSTAR observed Mrk 1210 in 2012 for 15.4 ks. The source showed Compton-thin obscuration similar to that observed by Chandra, Suzaku, BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton over the past two decades, but different from the first observation by ASCA in 1995, in which the active nucleus was caught in a low flux state or was obscured by Compton-thick matter with a reflection-dominated spectrum. Thanks to the high-quality hard X-ray spectrum obtained with NuSTAR and exploiting the long-term spectral coverage spanning 16.9 yr, we can precisely disentangle the transmission and reflection components and put constraints on both the intrinsic long-term variability and hidden nucleus scenarios. In the former case, the distance between the reflector and the source must be at least 2 pc, while in the latter the eclipsing cloud may be identified with a water maser-emitting clump.

  10. The Phoenix stream: a cold stream in the Southern hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Balbinot, E; Li, T S; Santiago, B; Marshall, J L; Finley, D A; Pieres, A; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Estrada, J; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; March, M; Martini, P; Miquel, R; Nichol, R C; Ogando, R; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Tucker, D; Walker, A R

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its residing constellation. Through the subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age $\\tau=11.5\\pm0.5$ Gyr and ${\\rm [Fe/H]}<-1.6$ located 17.5$\\pm$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$^{\\circ}$.1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $\\sim$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along...

  11. The Phoenix TECP Relative Humidity Sensor: Revised Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The original calibration function of the RH sensor on the Phoenix mission's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Sensor (TECP), has been revised to correct the erroneously-published original calibration equation, to demonstrate the value of this unique data set, and to improve characterization of H2O exchange between the martian regolith and atmosphere. TECP returned two data streams, the temperature of the electronics analog board (Tb) and the digital 12-bit output of the RH sensor (DN), both of which are required to uniquely specify the H2O abundance. Because the original flight instrument calibration was performed against a pair of hygrometers that measured frost point (Tf), the revised calibration equation is also cast in terms of frost point. The choice of functional form for the calibration function is minimally constrained. A series of profiles across the calibration data cloud at constant DN and Tb does not reveal any evidence of a complex functional form. Therefore, a series of polynomials in both DN and Tb was investigated, along with several non-linear functions of DN and Tb.

  12. Velocity Variations in the Phoenix-Hermus Star Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Carlberg, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and density perturbations along stellar streams in the Milky Way provide a time integrated measure of dark matter substructure at larger galactic radius than the complementary instantaneous inner halo strong lensing detections of dark matter sub-halos in distant galaxies. An interesting case to consider is the proposed Phoenix-Hermus star stream, which is long, thin and on a nearly circular orbit, making it a particular good target to study for velocity variations along its length. In the presence of dark matter sub-halos the distribution of velocities is significantly perturbed in a manner that is readily understood with the impulse approximation. A set of simulations show that only sub-halos above a few $10^7 \\msun$ lead to reasonably long lived observationally detectable velocity variations of amplitude of order 1 \\kms, with an average of about one visible hit per (two-armed) stream. An implication is that globular clusters themselves will not have a visible impact on the stream. R...

  13. Velocity Variations in the Phoenix-Hermus Star Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Grillmair, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of velocity and density perturbations along stellar streams in the Milky Way provide a time-integrated measure of dark matter substructure at larger galactic radius than the complementary instantaneous inner-halo strong lensing detection of dark matter sub-halos in distant galaxies. An interesting case to consider is the proposed Phoenix-Hermus star stream, which is long, thin, and on a nearly circular orbit, making it a particular good target to study for velocity variations along its length. In the presence of dark matter sub-halos, the stream velocities are significantly perturbed in a manner that is readily understood with the impulse approximation. A set of simulations shows that only sub-halos above a few 107 M ⊙ lead to reasonably long-lived observationally detectable velocity variations of amplitude of order 1 km s-1, with an average of about one visible hit per (two-armed) stream over a 3 Gyr interval. An implication is that globular clusters themselves will not have a visible impact on the stream. Radial velocities have the benefit of being completely insensitive to distance errors. Distance errors scatter individual star velocities perpendicular and tangential to the mean orbit, but their mean values remain unbiased. Calculations like these help build the quantitative case to acquire large, fairly deep, precision velocity samples of stream stars.

  14. Community Background Reports: Three Boarding Schools (Phoenix Indian School, Phoenix, Arizona; Theodore Roosevelt School, Fort Apache, Arizona; Chemawa Indian School, Salem, Oregon). National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 15, Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesemann, Ralph E.; And Others

    Three Bureau of Indian Affairs off-reservation boarding schools (Phoenix Indian School in Phoenix, Arizona; Theodore Roosevelt School in Fort Apache, Arizona; and Chemawa Indian School in Salem, Oregon) are the subjects for this report, which is a part of the National Study of American Indian Education. Brief descriptions of the physical plant,…

  15. Mars Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation Design and Modelling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander was launched in August of 2007 on a ten month cruise to reach the northern plains of Mars in May 2008. Its mission continues NASA s pursuit to find evidence of water on Mars. Phoenix carries upon it a slew of science instruments to study soil and ice samples from the northern region of the planet, an area previously undiscovered by robotic landers. In order for these science instruments to be useful, it was necessary for Phoenix to perform a safe entry, descent, and landing (EDL) onto the surface of Mars. The EDL design was defined through simulation and analysis of the various phases of the descent. An overview of the simulation and various models developed to characterize the EDL performance is provided. Monte Carlo statistical analysis was performed to assess the performance and robustness of the Phoenix EDL system and are presented in this paper. Using these simulation and modelling tools throughout the design and into the operations phase, the Mars Phoenix EDL was a success on May 25, 2008.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Phoenix dwarf galaxy RV and [Fe/H] catalog (Kacharov+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacharov, N.; Battaglia, G.; Rejkuba, M.; Cole, A. A.; Carrera, R.; Fraternali, F.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Gallart, C. G.; Irwin, M.; Tolstoy, E.

    2017-01-01

    This catalogue provides photometry, radial velocities, metallicities, and the Ca triplet (CaT) equivalent widths of 228 stars in the field of the Phoenix dwarf galaxy observed with the FORS2 spectrograph at the VLT. 194 stars are confirmed Phoenix members. (1 data file).

  17. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Pollinated and Non Pollinated Date Fruit of District Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Bux Jatoi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Elemental patterns are often used for the classification or identification of date fruit varieties. Five ripening stages of six date varieties were collected and studied from the pre ripening to the post ripening stage. Pollinated and non-pollinated date fruit of the same varieties were compared for their physical and chemical parameters. Physical parameters such as size, mass, colour, moisture, and pH were measured. In case of chemical characteristics the mineral composition of six different varieties of district Khairpur dates palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit (Gorho, Asul Khurmo, Nur Aseel, Ghuray Wari, Toto, and Allah Wari were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Generally, size, moisture and mineral content of the pollinated fruit increased up to 3rd and 4th stage then declined.

  18. 3D Modeling of Spectra and Light Curves of Hot Jupiters with PHOENIX; a First Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Torres, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    A detailed global circulation model was used to feed the PHOENIX code and calculate 3D spectra and light curves of hot Jupiters. Cloud free and dusty radiative fluxes for the planet HD179949b were modeled to show differences between them. The PHOENIX simulations can explain the broad features of the observed 8 μm light curves, including the fact that the planet-star flux ratio peaks before the secondary eclipse. The PHOENIX reflection spectrum matches the Spitzer secondary-eclipse depth at 3.6 μm and underpredicts eclipse depths at 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 μm. These discrepancies result from the chemical composition and suggest the incorporation of different metallicities in future studies.

  19. 3D MODELING OF SPECTRA AND LIGHT CURVES OF HOT JUPITERS WITH PHOENIX; A FIRST APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Jiménez-Torres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed global circulation model was used to feed the PHOENIX code and calculate 3D spectra and light curves of hot Jupiters. Cloud free and dusty radiative fluxes for the planet HD179949b were modeled to show differences between them. The PHOENIX simulations can explain the broad features of the observed 8 µm light curves, including the fact that the planet-star flux ratio peaks before the secondary eclipse. The PHOENIX reflection spectrum matches the Spitzer secondary-eclipse depth at 3.6 µm and underpredicts eclipse depths at 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 µm. These discrepancies result from the chemical composition and suggest the incorporation of different metallicities in future studies.

  20. Independent Review Support for Phoenix Mars Mission Robotic Arm Brush Motor Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamen, John P.; Pellicciotti, Joseph; DeKramer, Cornelis; Dube, Michael J.; Peeler, Deborah; Muirhead, Brian K.; Sevilla, Donald R.; Sabahi, Dara; Knopp, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix Project requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent peer review of the Robotic Arm (RA) Direct Current (DC) motor brush anomalies that originated during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project and recurred during the Phoenix Project. The request was to evaluate the Phoenix Project investigation efforts and provide an independent risk assessment. This includes a recommendation for additional work and assessment of the flight worthiness of the RA DC motors. Based on the investigation and findings contained within this report, the IRT concurs with the risk assessment Failure Cause / Corrective Action (FC/CA) by the project, "Failure Effect Rating "3"; Major Degradation or Total Loss of Function, Failure Cause/Corrective Action Rating Currently "4"; Unknown Cause, Uncertainty in Corrective Action."

  1. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Vertical Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground in the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. North is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible just north of the lander. This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a vertical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Floral stalk on date palm: a new discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is harvested for its sweet fruit mainly in the middle east and other parts of the world. It has been cultivated for several thousand years and is known to be found in Mesopotamia as well. Besides the fruit, the various parts of the tree are employed for variety of uses. The stalks of the fruit, which connect the fruit to the spikelet, are very beautiful, colourful flower like structures, which have never been described earlier. These fruit stalks could be used for decorations in houses and would then add to more economic gain to the farmer. We observed these stalks and describe here this interesting finding hitherto unreported in the world literature.

  3. Results from the Mars Phoenix Lander Robotic Arm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Bonitz, R. G.; Robinson, M. L.; Carsten, J. L.; Volpe, R. A.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Mellon, M. T.; Chu, P. C.; Davis, K. R.; Wilson, J. J.; Shaw, A. S.; Greenberger, R. N.; Siebach, K. L.; Stein, T. C.; Cull, S. C.; Goetz, W.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Keller, H. U.; Lemmon, M. T.; Sizemore, H. G.; Mehta, M.

    2009-10-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander was equipped with a 2.4 m Robotic Arm (RA) with an Icy Soil Acquisition Device capable of excavating trenches in soil deposits, grooming hard icy soil surfaces with a scraper blade, and acquiring icy soil samples using a rasp tool. A camera capable of imaging the scoop interior and a thermal and electrical conductivity probe were also included on the RA. A dozen trench complexes were excavated at the northern plains landing site and 31 samples (including water-ice-bearing soils) were acquired for delivery to instruments on the Lander during the 152 sol mission. Deliveries included sprinkling material from several centimeters height to break up cloddy soils on impact with instrument portals. Excavations were done on the side of the Humpty Dumpty and the top of the Wonderland polygons, and in nearby troughs. Resistive forces encountered during backhoe operations show that soils above the 3-5 cm deep icy soil interfaces are stronger with increasing depth. Further, soils are similar in appearance and properties to the weakly cohesive crusty and cloddy soils imaged and excavated by the Viking Lander 2, which also landed on the northern plains. Adsorbed H2O is inferred to be responsible for the variable nature and cohesive strength of the soils. Backhoe blade chatter marks on excavated icy soil surfaces, combined with rasp motor currents, are consistent with laboratory experiments using grain-supported icy soil deposits, as is the relatively rapid decrease in icy soil strength over time as the ice sublimated on Mars.

  4. Neural cell protective compounds isolated from Phoenix hanceana var. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Pei; Chen, Tai-Yuan; Tseng, Hsiang-Wen; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2009-06-01

    A platform for screening drugs for their ability to protect neuronal cells against cytotoxicity was developed. Nerve growth factor (NGF) differentiates PC12 cells into nerves, and these differentiated PC12 cells enter apoptosis when challenged with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). A screening spectrophotometer was used to assay cytotoxicity in these cells; pretreatment with test samples allowed identification of compounds that protected against this neuronal cytotoxicity. The 95% ethanol extract of Phoenix hanceana Naudin var. formosana Beccari. (PH) showed potential neuroprotective activity in these assays. The PH ethanol extract was further fractionated by sequential partitioning with n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Subsequent rounds of assaying resulted in the isolation of ten constituents, and their structures were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and identified by comparison with previous data as: isoorientin (1), isovitexin (2), veronicastroside (3), luteolin-7-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), tricin-7-neohesperidoside (6), tricin-7-O-beta-d-gluco-pyranoside (7), (+)-catechin (8), (-)-epicatechin (9), and orientin 7-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (10). Among these compounds, isovitexin (2), luteolin-7-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4) and (+)-catechin (8) showed significant neuroprotective activity in cell viability (WST-8 reduction), anti-apoptosis (Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double-labeled flow cytometry), and cellular ROS scavenging assays (besides isovitexin (2)), as well as a decreased caspase-8 activity in 6-OHDA-induced PC12 cells. Hence, isovitexin (2), luteolin-7-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), and (+)-catechin (8) protected PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic neurotoxicity.

  5. The Phoenix Stream: A Cold Stream in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinot, E.; Yanny, B.; Li, T. S.; Santiago, B.; Marshall, J. L.; Finley, D. A.; Pieres, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age τ = 11.5 ± 0.5 Gyr and [Fe/H] < -1.6, located 17.5 ± 0.9 kpc from the Sun, gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8.°1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of ˜54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster (GC) is a probable progenitor. There is no known GC within 5 kpc that is compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities (ODs) along the stream, however, no obvious counterpart-bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find ODs along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed—consistent with the epicyclic OD scenario for the formation of cold streams—as well as a misalignment between the northern and southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe OD.

  6. Establishment, management, and maintenance of the phoenix islands protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotjan, Randi; Jamieson, Regen; Carr, Ben; Kaufman, Les; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Obura, David; Pierce, Ray; Rimon, Betarim; Ris, Bud; Sandin, Stuart; Shelley, Peter; Sumaila, U Rashid; Taei, Sue; Tausig, Heather; Teroroko, Tukabu; Thorrold, Simon; Wikgren, Brooke; Toatu, Teuea; Stone, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati's Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), located in the equatorial central Pacific, is the largest and deepest UNESCO World Heritage site on earth. Created in 2008, it was the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) of its kind (at the time of inception, the largest in the world) and includes eight low-lying islands, shallow coral reefs, submerged shallow and deep seamounts and extensive open-ocean and ocean floor habitat. Due to their isolation, the shallow reef habitats have been protected de facto from severe exploitation, though the surrounding waters have been continually fished for large pelagics and whales over many decades. PIPA was created under a partnership between the Government of Kiribati and the international non-governmental organizations-Conservation International and the New England Aquarium. PIPA has a unique conservation strategy as the first marine MPA to use a conservation contract mechanism with a corresponding Conservation Trust established to be both a sustainable financing mechanism and a check-and-balance to the oversight and maintenance of the MPA. As PIPA moves forward with its management objectives, it is well positioned to be a global model for large MPA design and implementation in similar contexts. The islands and shallow reefs have already shown benefits from protection, though the pending full closure of PIPA (and assessments thereof) will be critical for determining success of the MPA as a refuge for open-ocean pelagic and deep-sea marine life. As global ocean resources are continually being extracted to support a growing global population, PIPA's closure is both timely and of global significance.

  7. Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Phoenix Tree Residues as a Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By using a thermogravimetric analyser under argon atmosphere, the pyrolysis process and the kinetic model of phoenix tree residues (the little stem, middle stem, and leaf at a 30 °C min−1 heating rate and the phoenix tree mix at three different heating rates (10 °C min−1, 30 °C min−1, and 50 °C min−1 were examined. The catalyst and the co-pyrolysis samples were at a 30 °C min−1 heating rate. The catalysts were Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and CaO in a mass fraction of 5 %. The experimental results revealed that the phoenix tree residues pyrolysis process consisted of three stages: dehydration stage, main pyrolysis stage, and the slow decomposition of residues. As the heating rate increased, the pyrolysis characteristic temperature of the phoenix tree grew, there was a backward-shift of the pyrolysis rate curve, and the mass loss rate gradually increased. The phoenix tree residues’ activation energy changed throughout the whole pyrolysis process, and the pyrolysis temperature ranges of the three main components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin existed in overlapping phenomenon. As compared to the little stem, middle stem, and leaf, the phoenix tree mix was more likely to be pyrolysed under the same heating rate. Different catalysts had a different impact on the pyrolysis: ZnCl2 moved the start point of the reaction to the lower temperatures, but did not speed up the reaction; Na2CO3 speeded up the reaction without changing the start point of the reaction; CaO speeded up the reaction, moved the start point of the reaction to higher temperatures.

  8. Rhizosphere effects of PAH-contaminated soil phytoremediation using a special plant named Fire Phoenix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Nan; Wei, Shuhe; Zhao, Lixing; An, Jing

    2014-03-01

    The rhizosphere effect of a special phytoremediating species known as Fire Phoenix on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated, including changes of the enzymatic activity and microbial communities in rhizosphere soil. The study showed that the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs by Fire Phoenix was up to 99.40% after a 150-day culture. The activity of dehydrogenase (DHO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly, especially after a 60-day culture, followed by a gradual reduction with an increase in the planting time. The activity of these enzymes was strongly correlated to the higher degradation performance of Fire Phoenix growing in PAH-contaminated soils, although it was also affected by the basic characteristics of the plant species itself, such as the excessive, fibrous root systems, strong disease resistance, drought resistance, heat resistance, and resistance to barren soil. The activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) decreased during the whole growing period in this study, and the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs in the rhizosphere soil after having planted Fire Phoenix plants had a significant (R(2)=0.947) negative correlation with the change in the activity of PPO. Using an analysis of the microbial communities, the results indicated that the structure of microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil could be changed by planting Fire Phoenix plants, namely, there was an increase in microbial diversity compared with the unplanted soil. In addition, the primary advantage of Fire Phoenix was to promote the growth of flora genus Gordonia sp. as the major bacteria that can effectively degrade PAHs.

  9. American Flag and Mini-DVD Attached to Deck of Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, released on Memorial Day, May 26, 2008, shows the American flag and a mini-DVD on the Phoenix's deck, which is about 3 ft. above the Martian surface. The mini-DVD from the Planetary Society contains a message to future Martian explorers, science fiction stories and art inspired by the Red Planet, and the names of more than a quarter million earthlings. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Magnetic and optical properties of airborne dust and settling rates at the Phoenix landing site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drube, Line; Leer, Kristoffer; Walter, Goetz

    2010-01-01

    The Magnetic Properties Experiment (referred to as iSweep or Caltarget) onboard the Phoenix lander was executed in the arctic region of Mars during the mission's 152 sols lifetime. The iSweep experiment involved periodic multispectral imaging of a series of permanent ring magnets. It was designed...... on the precursor Sweep Magnet Experiment onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers near Mars' equator, and also this dust is found to be brighter than both surface soil near the lander and soil in the region surrounding the lander. As most other dust and soils on Mars, the Phoenix dust lacks strong spectral signatures...

  11. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  12. 'Wiggle matching' radiocarbon dates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsey, CB; van der Plicht, J; Weninger, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper covers three different methods of matching radiocarbon dates to the 'wiggles' of the calibration curve in those situations where the age difference between the C-14 dates is known. These methods are most often applied to tree-ring sequences. The simplest approach is to use a classical Chi

  13. Date with Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑慧敏

    2016-01-01

    Have you ever heard about a popular movie called date with an angel? It must be sweet and lovely. But have you ever imagine about dating with death? What is your feeling when you have a chance to talk with death? Excited or afraid? I believe that many people definitely do not think about this question and neither do I.

  14. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  15. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  16. Pests of stored dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dates are a major food crop across a large band of Africa and Eurasia, and to a lesser extent elsewhere. In most of its growing range, dates are threatened with infestation in the field by a complex of pests including nitidulid beetles and pyralid moths of the Subfamily Phycitinae. They are further ...

  17. In Retrospect, Five Year's Splendid Journey of Wind and Rain,Look into the Future, Five Year's Grand Prospect--Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      On January 21, 2006, ShanxiPhoenix Conveyor Belt Co.,Ltd. held the 2005 Honor Convention. Those who attended the conference were Mr. Ren Runhou, Board Chairman of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd., Board Chairman & General Manager of Shanxi Luan Mining Group, Mr. Shi Wenlin, Director of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.,Vice General Manager of Shanxi Luan Mining Group, Dr. Feng Weimin, General Manager of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd. and Mr. Feng Qiang,Administrative General Manager of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.The conference was presided by Vice General Manager Zhu Junhong.……

  18. In Retrospect, Five Year's Splendid Journey of Wind and Rain,Look into the Future, Five Year's Grand Prospect--Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On January 21, 2006, ShanxiPhoenix Conveyor Belt Co.,Ltd. held the 2005 Honor Convention. Those who attended the conference were Mr. Ren Runhou, Board Chairman of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd., Board Chairman & General Manager of Shanxi Luan Mining Group, Mr. Shi Wenlin, Director of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.,Vice General Manager of Shanxi Luan Mining Group, Dr. Feng Weimin, General Manager of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd. and Mr. Feng Qiang,Administrative General Manager of Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co., Ltd.The conference was presided by Vice General Manager Zhu Junhong.

  19. (Ca,Mg)-Carbonate and Mg-Carbonate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Evaluation of the Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Data Using Laboratory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Niles, P. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium carbonate (4.5 wt. %) was detected in the soil at the Phoenix Landing site by the Phoenix Lander s The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer [1]. TEGA operated at 12 mbar pressure, yet the detection of calcium carbonate is based on interpretations derived from thermal analysis literature of carbonates measured under ambient (1000 mbar) and vacuum (10(exp -3) mbar) conditions [2,3] as well as at 100 and 30 mbar [4,5] and one analysis at 12 mbar by the TEGA engineering qualification model (TEGA-EQM). Thermodynamics (Te = H/ S) dictate that pressure affects entropy ( S) which causes the temperature (Te) of mineral decomposition at one pressure to differ from Te obtained at another pressure. Thermal decomposition analyses of Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-bearing carbonates at 12 mbar is required to enhance the understanding of the TEGA results at TEGA operating pressures. The objectives of this work are to (1) evaluate the thermal and evolved gas behavior of a suite of Fe-, Mg-, Ca-carbonate minerals at 1000 and 12 mbar and (2) discuss possible emplacement mechanisms for the Phoenix carbonate.

  20. Ability of aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera to effectively alleviate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental Wister albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ogboma Dania

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the preventive, protective and ameliorative activity of the aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. (P. dactylifera against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: A total of 50 male albino rats were used for the study and 2 g/kg body weight of paracetamol and 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of P. dactylifera were administered orally for the study. They were divided into 5 groups, namely group A (vehicle control, group B (paracetamol control, group C (preventive, group D (ameliorative and group E (protective, with 10 rats in each group. Group B was administered with paracetamol for 7 days; group C was administered with the extract for 7 days before administering with paracetamol for 7 days; group D was administered with paracetamol for 7 days, then the extract for 7 days; while group E was administered with paracetamol and the extract simultaneously for 7days. Results: The study revealed that the extracts of date palms contained active chemical compounds such as anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids and flavonoids. The levels of antioxidant enzymes activity such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase were found to be reduced while malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in the paracetamol-treated group. This trend was reversed in groups where the extract was administered, as the antioxidant enzymes level in the liver was raised. Conclusions: This study has shown that the aqueous extract of P. dactylifera can mitigate the hepatotoxicity effect of paracetamol with a better ameliorating effect than protective or preventive

  1. Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization of Phoenix dactylifera leaf litter in a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg(-1) soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg(-1) soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil. Likewise, ZnO NPs also reduced CO2 emission by 10% in aforementioned treatment but this was higher than control (soil only). Labile Zn was only detected in the microbial biomass of nanoparticles-litter applied soil indicating that microorganisms consumed this element from freely available nutrients in the soil. In this treatment, dissolved organic carbon and mineral nitrogen were 25 and 34% lower respectively compared to litter-amended soil. Such toxic effects of nanoparticles on litter decomposition resulted in 130 and 122% lower carbon and nitrogen mineralization efficiency respectively. Hence, our results entail that ZnO NPs are toxic to soil microbes and affect their function i.e., carbon and nitrogen mineralization of applied litter thus confirming their toxicity to microbial associated soil functions.

  2. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  3. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  4. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Expiration Dates Matter ... Should Know CDER FOIA Electronic Reading Room Related Consumer Updates How to Dispose of Unused Medicines Identifying ...

  5. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video, FDA Pharmacist Ilisa Bernstein explains how expiration dates help determine if medicine is safe to use and will work as intended. ... Lock it Up: Medicine Safety in Your Home Giving Medicine to ...

  6. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  7. Geologie study off gravels of the Agua Fria River, Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.

    2010-01-01

    The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.

  8. Arpaio Doesn't Control Anything: A Summer with El Hormiguero in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Juan F.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from observations and interview data, this essay examines the role of "hormiguero agency" in nurturing empowered identities amongst Latin@s in Phoenix, Arizona. Specific links are made to how dehumanizing state level policies are resisted in multiple spaces, including schools, activist organizations, and within underground business…

  9. Industrial Design: A Phoenix Reborn from the Ashes of Technology Education--A Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Martin; Feigler, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Like the "phoenix," technology education (TE) can, under the right circumstances, give life to new programs--curricula with different emphases and directions from technology education, yet sharing a common heritage: the belief that applied technology will continue to shape the world. How that shaping process takes place--and the problems that it…

  10. Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Mélanie

    2008-02-01

    We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of (61)Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of (61)Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given.

  11. Industrial Design: A Phoenix Reborn from the Ashes of Technology Education--A Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Martin; Feigler, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Like the "phoenix," technology education (TE) can, under the right circumstances, give life to new programs--curricula with different emphases and directions from technology education, yet sharing a common heritage: the belief that applied technology will continue to shape the world. How that shaping process takes place--and the problems that it…

  12. Phoenix: A Collaborative Location-Based Notification System for Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Location-based notification (LBN aims to alert the users in a target area to their interested information. With a wide range of applications, LBN has been gaining more and more attraction among wireless users and service providers. The mainstream centralized solution based on cellular networks may incur high service cost. In this paper, we present an innovative scheme called Phoenix, which does not rely on any infrastructure, to implement location-based notification service. In our design, devices (users across the target area form a dynamic peer-to-peer network, where a user can be a message source, a message carrier, or a message subscriber. When a user meets the message carrier, he will get a copy of the message. Phoenix keeps messages of interest being circulated in the target area; hence users are being notified. To achieve desired notification performance, Phoenix adaptively controls when a user should take the carrier role and help disseminating a message in order to keep the message “alive,” given the fact that message carriers may leave the target area and drop the message. Extensive simulations have been conducted to show the efficacy of Phoenix notification system.

  13. Phoenix Conductivity Probe after Extraction from Martian Soil on Sol 99

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008). The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 after the probe was lifted away from the soil. This imaging served as a check of whether soil had stuck to the needles. The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water. The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. An Extraordinary Partnership between Arizona State University and the City of Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The Arizona State University Downtown Phoenix campus is a grand-scale exemplar of a city-university partnership. Its demonstrated impacts are economic, social, and educational, transforming both the city and the university. The magnitude of the investment of $223 million by the citizens of a city in a state university is unparalleled in higher…

  15. Greater Phoenix Forward: Sustaining and Enhancing the Human-Services Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides descriptive data for understanding the status of human services in Greater Phoenix, describes provocative issues that certain populations and providers face, and offers a starting point for determining Maricopa Valley's aspirations for tomorrow's human-services infrastructure. This report describes an array of populations that…

  16. Tuhast tõusnud Phoenix jõudis Marsile elu võimalikkust uurima / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 27. mai, lk. 8. Marsile jõudnud NASA automaatjaam Phoenix maandus naaberplaneedi põhjapoolusele lähemale kui ükski inimese leiutatud masin kunagi varem. Lisa: Marsi uurimiste ajalugu

  17. [Allergic responses to date palm and pecan pollen in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisel, Y; Keynan, N; Gil, T; Tayar, D; Bezerano, A; Goldberg, A; Geller-Bernstein, C; Dolev, Z; Tamir, R; Levy, I

    1994-03-15

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees are commonly planted in Israel for fruit, for shade, or as ornamental plants. Pollen grains of both species are allergenic; however, the extent of exposure to such pollen and the incidence of allergic response have not been studied here. We therefore investigated skin-test responses to pollen extracts of 12 varieties of palm and 9 of pecan in 705 allergic patients living in 3 cities and 19 rural settlements. Sensitivity to the pollen extracts of both species was much higher among residents of rural than of urban communities. Moreover, there was a definite relationship between the abundance of these trees in a region and the incidence of skin responders to their pollen. Sensitivity was frequent in settlements rich in these 2 species, such as those with nearby commercial date or pecan plantations. In general, sensitivity to date pollen extracts was lower than to pecan. However, differences in skin responses to pollen extracts of various clones were substantiated. Air sampling revealed that pollen pollution decreased considerably with distance from the trees. At approximately 100 m from a source concentrations of airborne pollen were low. Since planting of male palm and pecan trees in population centers would increase pollen pollution, it should be avoided.

  18. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B. [Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW (Australia). School of Resource Science and Management; Torrence, R. [Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Division of Anthropology

    1999-11-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO{sub 2}nH{sub 2}0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  19. Merged dust climatology in Phoenix, Arizona based on satellite and station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hang; Wang, Julian X. L.; Tong, Daniel Q.; Lee, Pius

    2016-11-01

    In order to construct climate quality long-term dust storm dataset, merged dust storm climatology in Phoenix is developed based on three data sources: regular meteorological records, in situ air quality measurements, and satellite remote sensing observations. The result presented in this paper takes into account the advantages of each dataset and integrates individual analyses demonstrated and presented in previous studies that laid foundation to reconstruct a consistent and continuous time series of dust frequency. A key for the merging procedure is to determine analysis criteria suitable for each individual data source. A practical application to historic records of dust storm activities over the Phoenix area is presented to illustrate detailed steps, advantages, and limitations of the newly developed process. Three datasets are meteorological records from the Sky Harbor station, satellite observed aerosol optical depth data from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System particulate matter data of eight sites surrounding Phoenix. Our purpose is to construct dust climatology over the Phoenix region for the period 1948-2012. Data qualities of the reconstructed dust climatology are assessed based on the availability and quality of the input data. The period during 2000-2012 has the best quality since all datasets are well archived. The reconstructed climatology shows that dust storm activities over the Phoenix region have large interannual variability. However, seasonal variations show a skewed distribution with higher frequency of dust storm activities in July and August and relatively quiet during the rest of months. Combining advantages of all the available datasets, this study presents a merged product that provides a consistent and continuous time series of dust storm activities suitable for climate studies.

  20. Phxnlme: An R package that facilitates pharmacometric workflow of Phoenix NLME analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chay Ngee; Liang, Shuang; Feng, Kevin; Chittenden, Jason; Henry, Ana; Mouksassi, Samer; Birnbaum, Angela K

    2017-03-01

    Pharmacometric analyses are integral components of the drug development process, and Phoenix NLME is one of the popular software used to conduct such analyses. To address current limitations with model diagnostic graphics and efficiency of the workflow for this software, we developed an R package, Phxnlme, to facilitate its workflow and provide improved graphical diagnostics. Phxnlme was designed to provide functionality for the major tasks that are usually performed in pharmacometric analyses (i.e. nonlinear mixed effects modeling, basic model diagnostics, visual predictive checks and bootstrap). Various estimation methods for modeling using the R package are made available through the Phoenix NLME engine. The Phxnlme R package utilizes other packages such as ggplot2 and lattice to produce the graphical output, and various features were included to allow customizability of the output. Interactive features for some plots were also added using the manipulate R package. Phxnlme provides enhanced capabilities for nonlinear mixed effects modeling that can be accessed using the phxnlme() command. Output from the model can be graphed to assess the adequacy of model fits and further explore relationships in the data using various functions included in this R package, such as phxplot() and phxvpc.plot(). Bootstraps, stratified up to three variables, can also be performed to obtain confidence intervals around the model estimates. With the use of an R interface, different R projects can be created to allow multi-tasking, which addresses the current limitation of the Phoenix NLME desktop software. In addition, there is a wide selection of diagnostic and exploratory plots in the Phxnlme package, with improvements in the customizability of plots, compared to Phoenix NLME. The Phxnlme package is a flexible tool that allows implementation of the analytical workflow of Phoenix NLME with R, with features for greater overall efficiency and improved customizable graphics. Phxnlme is

  1. Prolate rotation and metallicity gradient in the transforming dwarf galaxy Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacharov, Nikolay; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Rejkuba, Marina; Cole, Andrew A.; Carrera, Ricardo; Fraternali, Filippo; Wilkinson, Mark I.; Gallart, Carme G.; Irwin, Mike; Tolstoy, Eline

    2017-04-01

    Transition type dwarf galaxies are thought to be systems undergoing the process of transformation from a star-forming into a passively evolving dwarf, which makes them particularly suitable to study evolutionary processes driving the existence of different dwarf morphological types. Here we present results from a spectroscopic survey of ∼200 individual red giant branch stars in the Phoenix dwarf, the closest transition type with a comparable luminosity to 'classical' dwarf galaxies. We measure a systemic heliocentric velocity Vhelio = -21.2 ± 1.0 km s-1. Our survey reveals the clear presence of prolate rotation that is aligned with the peculiar spatial distribution of the youngest stars in Phoenix. We speculate that both features might have arisen from the same event, possibly an accretion of a smaller system. The evolved stellar population of Phoenix is relatively metal-poor ( = -1.49 ± 0.04 dex) and shows a large metallicity spread (σ[Fe/H] = 0.51 ± 0.04 dex), with a pronounced metallicity gradient of -0.13 ± 0.01 dex arcmin-1 similar to luminous, passive dwarf galaxies. We also report a discovery of an extremely metal-poor star candidate in Phoenix and discuss the importance of correcting for spatial sampling when interpreting the chemical properties of galaxies with metallicity gradients. This study presents a major leap forward in our knowledge of the internal kinematics of the Phoenix transition type dwarf galaxy and the first wide area spectroscopic survey of its metallicity properties. A table containing the measured velocities, metallicities, and CaT equivalent widths of all spectroscopic targets is available online at the CDS.

  2. 76 FR 77831 - 2012 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... 2012 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates To...: Notice of matching fund submission dates and submission dates for statements of net outstanding campaign... fund submission dates for publicly funded 2012 presidential primary candidates. Eligible candidates...

  3. Exploration of making date seed’s flour and its nutritional contents analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahini, M.

    2016-04-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) is one of the oldest fruit plants that identical with people’s lives in the Middle East including The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since ancient times.The date palm is known and consumed by most of people in the form of fruit flesh, while its seed is discarded tough it is rich in nutrient. Therefore, need to be explored the potential of date seed through product innovation of foodstuffs with a high nutritional value. The aims of this study were to 1) know how to make flour from date seed, and 2) determine nutritional content of date seed’s flour. This study was experiment and conducted in July, 2015 at the laboratory of food technology, Family Welfare Education department. Chemical analysis was used to determine nutrients content. The results showed that 1) the flour of date seed produced from the process of washing, soaking, flushing, boiling, draining, drying, grinding, and sieving; 2) the flour of date seed’s flour have a macro nutrients value. This study explains that date seed is regarded as rubbish, in fact, it has a high value that can be an alternative substitution of wheat flour.

  4. Cold Tolerance of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Date and Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Yoav; Akiva, Ruti; Gavriel, Sagi

    2014-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is an endemic pest in Israel and there can be low levels of infestation of dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Because C. capitata is considered a quarantine pest by several major importing countries, the export of fresh dates requires the elimination of this pest. For mandarin, cold storage at 1.11°C for 15 d is considered to be an effective treatment for the elimination of C. capitata. In this study, we compared the cold tolerance of C. capitata in "Barhi" dates to that of C. capitata in mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch, "Satsuma"). In Barhi dates, we found the third instars to be the most cold-tolerant as compared with other life stages. Ceratitis capitata in date fruits were significantly less cold-tolerant than C. capitata in Satsuma mandarins. The last viable larvae in dates and mandarins were found after 8 and 13 d of treatment, respectively, and the calculated mortality curves in the two crops were significantly different. These results demonstrate that C. capitata is more sensitive to cold treatment when in date fruits than in mandarins. Therefore, the quarantine cold treatments used to eliminate C. capitata from mandarins should be sufficiently effective if applied to fresh date fruits.

  5. Martian Multimedia: The Agony and Ecstasy of Communicating Real-Time, Authentic Science During the Phoenix Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, C.; Buxner, S. R.

    2009-03-01

    The Phoenix Mars Mission faced robust communication challenges requiring real-time solutions. Managing the message from Mars and ensuring the highest quality of science data and news releases were our top priorities during mission surface operations.

  6. Adsorption Driven Regolith-Atmospheric Water Vapor Transfer on Mars: Analysis of Phoenix TECP and MSL REMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, H. N.; Conner, M. B.; Chevrier, V. F.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.

    2016-09-01

    BET adsorption theory is implemented to explain sol-to-sol dependencies of temperature and humidity at the Phoenix landing site and along the MSL traverse and thus, the implications for transient, adsorbed, liquid water at the surface.

  7. Influence of Noise Barriers on Near-Road and On-Road Air Quality: Results from Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation describes field study results quantifying the impact of roadside barriers under real-world conditions in Phoenix, Arizona. Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has ...

  8. BD PHOENIX-100全自动微生物鉴定仪对葡萄球菌鉴定能力的评价%Evaluation of the BD PHOENIX-100 Automated Microbiology System for Identification of Staphylococcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王原; 曹俊敏; 陈益民; 许江燕

    2009-01-01

    [目的]评价BD PHOENIX-100全自动微生物鉴定仪(PHOENIX-100)对葡萄球菌的鉴定能力.[方法]收集从我院病人标本中分离的葡萄球菌81株.常规细菌培养后,用PHOENIX-100和API Staph系统进行检测,以API Staph系统为参照,评价PHOENIX-100的优势和不足.[结果]PHOENIX-100和API Staph系统的总体鉴定符合率为86.4%,其中金黄色葡萄球菌的鉴定符合率为100%,凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌的鉴定符合率为73.8%.[结论]PHOENIX-100鉴定系统能够基本满足临床工作的需求,其中对金黄色葡萄球菌的鉴定率较高,在进行凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌鉴定时有局限性.

  9. Extraction optimization and in vitro and in vivo anti-postprandial hyperglycemia effects of inhibitor from Phoenix dactylifera L. parthenocarpic fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abed, Hanen; Chakroun, Mouna; Fendri, Imen; Makni, Mohamed; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Drira, Noureddine; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Khemakhem, Bassem

    2017-04-01

    Phoenix dactylifera L. plays an important role in social, economic, and ecological Tunisian sectors. Some date palms produce parthenocarpic fruit named Sish. The aqueous ethanolic extract from P. dactylifera parthenocarpic dates demonstrated a potent inhibition of the enzymes related to type II diabetes. In this work, extraction optimization of amylase inhibitors was carried out using Box-Behnken Design. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the 70% aqueous ethanol extract was performed to identify the active compounds. The physicochemical results by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed the presence of 13 phenolic compounds. The in vitro study showed that the extract exhibited a more specific inhibitor of α-glucosidase than α-amylase with an IC50 value of 0.6 and 2.5mg/mL, respectively. The in vivo study of this extract effect on the postprandial hyperglycemia activity showed a decrease in plasma glucose levels after 30min stronger than the Acarbose effect. These results confirmed the anti-postprandial hyperglycemia activity of the aqueous ethanolic extract from P. dactylifera parthenocarpic dates, which could lend support for its pharmaceutical use.

  10. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem by gathering and studying data. Step 2: Identify risk and protective factors It is not enough to ... DM, Breiding M. Beyond correlates: A review of risk and protective factors for adolescent dating violence perpetration. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2013; 42:633-649. ...

  11. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Updates Expiration Dates Matter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Get Consumer Updates by E-mail | ... Updates RSS Feed If your medicine has expired, it may not provide the treatment you need. In ...

  12. The antibacterial activity of date syrup polyphenols against S. aureus and E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajer eTaleb

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a threat to health care worldwide; this has resulted in a revived interest in plant products as adjunct antimicrobial agents to control pathogenic microorganisms. A major plant group used for traditional medicinal applications is Phoenix Dactylifera L, more commonly known as the date palm. Fruit of the date palm have been used customarily in the treatment of intestinal disturbances, hypertension, oedema and gastrointestinal disease, the nomadic tribes in the Middle East have been known to use traditional date syrup as an antimicrobial agent for wound healing. In some cases these ailments can be attributed to or are strongly associated with a variety of bacterial infections and inflammation. Plant-derived products such as date syrup have demonstrated antibacterial activity and can inhibit bacteria through numerous different mechanisms, which may be attributed to bioactive compounds including plant-derived phenolic molecules. Many such products derive their inherent antimicrobial activity from the presence of polyphenols, which cause oxidative damage. This investigation demonstrated that date syrup, and polyphenols extracted from date syrup, the most abundant bioactive constituent of date syrup are bacteriostatic to both Gram positive and Gram negative Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. We have further shown that the extracted polyphenols independently suppress the growth of bacteria and have observed that date syrup behaves as a prooxidant by generating hydrogen peroxide that mediates bacterial growth inhibition as a result of oxidative stress. at sub-lethal MIC concentrations date syrup demonstrated antioxidative activity by reducing hydrogen peroxide, and at lethal concentrations date syrup demonstrated prooxidant activity that inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. The high sugar content naturally present in date syrup did not significantly contribute to this effect. These

  13. Physico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L., also known as “legmi”, is a fresh juice extracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD, respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry.

  14. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  15. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  16. Truly Blind Dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Compared to parties,bars and nightclubs,in many countries parks are a site for family leisure and recreation and not a spot to find a date.It is not the case in China.Spouse-hunting fairs in big city parks organized by parents eager to see their children tie the knot have made parks in China a haven for relationshiphunters and their parents.

  17. What's the date of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘京西

    2009-01-01

    @@ A:What's the date of our final examination? B:I'm not sure.I'll have to look it up.I'll let youknow tomorrow. A:Thank you. A:我们期末考试是哪一天? B:我也说不清.我给你查查,明天告诉你. A:谢谢你.

  18. Multibody Modeling and Simulation for the Mars Phoenix Lander Entry, Descent and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Eric M.; Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    A multi-body flight simulation for the Phoenix Mars Lander has been developed that includes high fidelity six degree-of-freedom rigid-body models for the parachute and lander system. The simulation provides attitude and rate history predictions of all bodies throughout the flight, as well as loads on each of the connecting lines. In so doing, a realistic behavior of the descending parachute/lander system dynamics can be simulated that allows assessment of the Phoenix descent performance and identification of potential sensitivities for landing. This simulation provides a complete end-to-end capability of modeling the entire entry, descent, and landing sequence for the mission. Time histories of the parachute and lander aerodynamic angles are presented. The response of the lander system to various wind models and wind shears is shown to be acceptable. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented.

  19. Implementation of a quality management system at the PHOENIX facility (CryoMaK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.urbach@kit.edu; Bagrets, Nadezda; Weiss, Klaus-Peter

    2013-10-15

    Within a variety of mechanical tests in the Cryogenic Material Test Facility Karlsruhe (CryoMaK) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) the PHOENIX facility was prepared for multiple standard tensile tests in liquid helium, liquid nitrogen and at room temperature. With the multiple specimens holder 10 specimens can be tested within one cool down one after another. A quality management system is needed for ensuring reproducible preconditions. For the guarantee of the competence of the laboratory and the measurement equipment, a quality management system was implemented and prepared for accreditation according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 (ISO 17025). The implementation of a quality management system allows high precision test results included the estimation of measurement uncertainty. This paper gives an overview of the management and technical requirements for the accreditation of the PHOENIX testing facility.

  20. Sediment dating in review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Dept. of Mathematical Physics

    1997-12-31

    The paper will comment on a few issues of particular relevance to Australasia. Thermoluminescent (TL) methods applied to open sites have been demonstrated to be effective. A particularly good example of this is to be found in the South East of South Australia, where a sequence of low ranges runs roughly parallel with the coast. They represent relict sand dunes left behind, on a slowly rising land surface by successive interglacial incursions of the sea at roughly 120 ka intervals. Comparison with ages established on independent geological grounds allows a test of quartz TL and IRSL ages that is believable back to 500 ka. Older than this, we do not yet understand the physics of the quartz well enough to go unequivocally forward (backward?). Similar results are emerging elsewhere. With dating limits being pushed ever further back, the time variation of the environmental radiation giving rise to the stored luminescent energy needs to be addressed. Particularly at wet sites, radioactive disequilibrium must be considered. In any case, a time profile of the radiation dose rate needs to be determined.In dating a given site or sites the value of ages obtained by any dating method,including C-14, is enhanced by parallel measurements with an different method. Paper no. 10; extended abstract. 6 refs.

  1. Date and Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJingxian

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays the pace of social life is very fast.TO make clear date and time is very important to everyone,especially those who are away fromhome.You need to learn ways to express date and time in Chinese.Otherwise how can you make arrangements with your Chinese friends?41.请问,今天(是)几号?Qǐngwèn,jīntiān(shǐ)jǐ hào?(May I ask,what is the date today?)In Chinese,jǐntiān.míngtiān,hòutiān and dàhòutiān are used to express today,tomorrow,the day after tomorrow,and the fourth day fromnow.jǐ(how many)is a character used in questioning the number from two to nine.If one asks the number above nine,then shí(ten),bǎi

  2. Phoenix is required for mechanosensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behra, Martine; Bradsher, John; Sougrat, Rachid; Gallardo, Viviana; Allende, Miguel L; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-04-01

    In humans, the absence or irreversible loss of hair cells, the sensory mechanoreceptors in the cochlea, accounts for a large majority of acquired and congenital hearing disorders. In the auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia of the inner ear, hair cells are accompanied by another cell type called supporting cells. This second cell population has been described as having stem cell-like properties, allowing efficient hair cell replacement during embryonic and larval/fetal development of all vertebrates. However, mammals lose their regenerative capacity in most inner ear neuroepithelia in postnatal life. Remarkably, reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish are different in that they can regenerate hair cells throughout their lifespan. The lateral line in amphibians and in fish is an additional sensory organ, which is used to detect water movements and is comprised of neuroepithelial patches, called neuromasts. These are similar in ultra-structure to the inner ear's neuroepithelia and they share the expression of various molecular markers. We examined the regeneration process in hair cells of the lateral line of zebrafish larvae carrying a retroviral integration in a previously uncharacterized gene, phoenix (pho). Phoenix mutant larvae develop normally and display a morphologically intact lateral line. However, after ablation of hair cells with copper or neomycin, their regeneration in pho mutants is severely impaired. We show that proliferation in the supporting cells is strongly decreased after damage to hair cells and correlates with the reduction of newly formed hair cells in the regenerating phoenix mutant neuromasts. The retroviral integration linked to the phenotype is in a novel gene with no known homologs showing high expression in neuromast supporting cells. Whereas its role during early development of the lateral line remains to be addressed, in later larval stages phoenix defines a new class of proteins implicated in hair cell regeneration.

  3. Phoenix is required for mechanosensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Behra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In humans, the absence or irreversible loss of hair cells, the sensory mechanoreceptors in the cochlea, accounts for a large majority of acquired and congenital hearing disorders. In the auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia of the inner ear, hair cells are accompanied by another cell type called supporting cells. This second cell population has been described as having stem cell-like properties, allowing efficient hair cell replacement during embryonic and larval/fetal development of all vertebrates. However, mammals lose their regenerative capacity in most inner ear neuroepithelia in postnatal life. Remarkably, reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish are different in that they can regenerate hair cells throughout their lifespan. The lateral line in amphibians and in fish is an additional sensory organ, which is used to detect water movements and is comprised of neuroepithelial patches, called neuromasts. These are similar in ultra-structure to the inner ear's neuroepithelia and they share the expression of various molecular markers. We examined the regeneration process in hair cells of the lateral line of zebrafish larvae carrying a retroviral integration in a previously uncharacterized gene, phoenix (pho. Phoenix mutant larvae develop normally and display a morphologically intact lateral line. However, after ablation of hair cells with copper or neomycin, their regeneration in pho mutants is severely impaired. We show that proliferation in the supporting cells is strongly decreased after damage to hair cells and correlates with the reduction of newly formed hair cells in the regenerating phoenix mutant neuromasts. The retroviral integration linked to the phenotype is in a novel gene with no known homologs showing high expression in neuromast supporting cells. Whereas its role during early development of the lateral line remains to be addressed, in later larval stages phoenix defines a new class of proteins implicated in hair cell regeneration.

  4. Project Phoenix: A Summary of SETI Observations and Results, 1995 - 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, P. R.; Project Phoenix Team

    2004-05-01

    Project Phoenix was a Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) that observed nearly 800 stars within about 80 parsecs over the available frequencies in the microwave spectrum from 1200 to 3000 MHz with a resolution of 0.7 Hz. The search had three major observing campaigns using the Parkes 64 meter, the NRAO 140 Foot, and the Arecibo 305 meter antennas. Phoenix used real time signal detection and immediate verification of possible ETI signals. The search looked for narrowband signals that were continuously present, or pulsed regularly, and allowed for frequency drift rates of up to about 1 Hz per second. A database of terrestrial signals found in the previous week was used to match against detections for each observation. Candidate signals, i.e., those not in the database, were checked immediately with a "pseudo-interferometric" observation using a second, distant antenna, or by simple on-off observations if the second antenna was unavailable. While millions of signals were detected, all proved to be from terrestrial technology. In conclusion, we can set upper limits on the power of narrowband transmitters in the vicinity of nearby stars. Project Phoenix was the privately-funded continuation of the NASA Targeted Search SETI program and we gratefully acknowledge the use of NASA equipment on long term loan through 2002. The search was supported by contributions from Bernard M. Oliver, William and Rosemary Hewlett, Gordon and Betty Moore, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and the Paul G. Allen Foundation.

  5. In aftermath of financial investigation Phoenix VA employee demoted after her testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A previous Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care Journal editorial commented on fiscal mismanagement at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Medical Center in Phoenix (1. Now Paula Pedene, the former Phoenix VA public affairs officer, claims she was demoted for testimony she gave to the VA Inspector General’s Office (OIG regarding that investigation (2. In 2011, the OIG investigated the Phoenix VA for excess spending on private care of patients (3. The report blamed systemic failures for controls so weak that $56 million in medical fees were paid during 2010 without adequate review. The report particularly focused on one clinician assigned by the Chief of Staff to review hundreds of requests per week and the intensive care unit physicians for transferring patients to chronic ventilator units (1,3. After the investigation, the director and one of the associate directors left the VA and the chief of staff was promoted …

  6. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Lander Deck and Landing Site on Northern Mars, Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This view combines more than 500 images taken after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. This movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image including the landscape and the spacecraft's science deck. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Phoenix : Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) engineering version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Thomas W.; Quach, Tu-Thach; Detry, Richard Joseph; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Kelic, Andjelka; Starks, Shirley J.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Sunderland, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy; Maffitt, S. Louise; Finley, Patrick D.; Russell, Eric Dean; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Reedy, Geoffrey E.; Mitchell, Roger A.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Linebarger, John Michael

    2011-08-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to pervasive interdependencies and attendant vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. Phoenix was initiated to address this high-impact problem space as engineers. Our overarching goals are maximizing security, maximizing health, and minimizing risk. We design interventions, or problem solutions, that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving the principles and discipline of CASoS Engineering while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it. Both grounded in reality and working to extend our understanding and control of that reality, Phoenix is at the same time a solution within a CASoS and a CASoS itself.

  8. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars, Polar Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. South is toward the top. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the lower half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a polar projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Full-Circle Color Panorama of Phoenix Landing Site on Northern Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Mission Success Pan Click on image to view the movie This view combines more than 400 images taken during the first several weeks after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander arrived on an arctic plain at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The movie makes a slow tour around highlights of the image. The full-circle panorama in approximately true color shows the polygonal patterning of ground at the landing area, similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The center of the image is the westward part of the scene. Trenches where Phoenix's robotic arm has been exposing subsurface material are visible in the right half of the image. The spacecraft's meteorology mast, topped by the telltale wind gauge, extends into the sky portion of the panorama. This view comprises more than 100 different camera pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. It is presented here as a cylindrical projection. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Discovery of a Stellar Overdensity in Eridanus-Phoenix in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T. S.; Balbinot, E.; Mondrik, N.; Marshall, J. L.; Yanny, B.; Bechtol, K.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Oscar, D.; Santiago, B.; Simon, J. D.; Vivas, A. K.; Walker, A. R.; Wang, M. Y.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D.; Zhang, Y.; DES Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of an excess of main-sequence turnoff stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first-year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l˜ 285^\\circ and b˜ -60^\\circ and spans at least 30° in longitude and 10° in latitude. The Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9σ . The stellar population in the overdense region is similar in brightness and color to that of the nearby globular cluster NGC 1261, indicating that the heliocentric distance of EriPhe is about d˜ 16 {{kpc}}. The extent of EriPhe in projection is therefore at least ˜4 kpc by ˜3 kpc. On the sky, this overdensity is located between NGC 1261 and a new stellar stream discovered by DES at a similar heliocentric distance, the so-called Phoenix Stream. Given their similar distance and proximity to each other, it is possible that these three structures may be kinematically associated. Alternatively, the EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the Virgo overdensity and the Hercules-Aquila cloud, which also lie at a similar Galactocentric distance. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ˜120° and may share a common origin. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of the stars in EriPhe are required to fully understand the nature of this overdensity.

  11. Visual Analytics for the Food-Water-Energy Nexus in the Phoenix Active Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.; Ruddell, B. L.; Aggarwal, R.; Sarjoughian, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Phoenix Active Management Area (AMA) is an administrative region of 14,500 km2 identified by the Arizona Department of Water Resources with the aim of reaching and maintaining the safe yield (i.e. balance between annual amount of groundwater withdrawn and recharged) by 2025. The AMA includes the Phoenix metropolitan area, which has experienced a dramatic population growth over the last decades with a progressive conversion of agricultural land into residential land. As a result of these changes, the water and energy demand as well as the food production in the region have significantly evolved over the last 30 years. Given the arid climate, a crucial role to support this growth has been the creation of a complex water supply system based on renewable and non-renewable resources, including the energy-intensive Central Arizona Project. In this talk, we present a preliminary characterization of the evolution in time of the feedbacks between food, water, and energy in the Phoenix AMA by analyzing secondary data (available from water and energy providers, irrigation districts, and municipalities), as well as satellite imagery and primary data collected by the authors. A preliminary visual analytics framework is also discussed describing current design practices and ideas for exploring networked components and cascading impacts within the FEW Nexus. This analysis and framework represent the first steps towards the development of an integrated modeling, visualization, and decision support infrastructure for comprehensive FEW systems decision making at decision-relevant temporal and spatial scales.

  12. 西门子与Phoenix Contact加强合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Phoenix Contact公司与西门子A&D公司日前宣布今后将继续保持良好的战略伙伴关系,并进一步加大他们在接线盒和过电压防护产品上的合作。Phoenix Contact公司将为西门子公司进一步研制和生产接线盒产品,并且获得目前西门子公司该产品的使用权及其在希腊的生产权。而西门子公司未来将只从Phoenix Contact公司那里获取相应地以西门子品牌进行销售的产品,从而为其客户提供该领域里的全套产品。

  13. Discovery of a Stellar Overdensity in Eridanus-Phoenix in the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Li, T S; Mondrik, N; Marshall, J L; Yanny, B; Bechtol, K; Drlica-Wagner, A; Oscar, D; Santiago, B; Simon, J D; Vivas, A K; Walker, A R; Wang, M Y; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Estrada, J; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Maia, M A G; March, M; Martini, P; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Tucker, D; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an excess of main sequence turn-off stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l~285 deg and b~-60 deg and spans at least 30 deg in longitude and 10 deg in latitude. The Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9 sigma. The stellar population in the overdense region is similar in brightness and color to that of the nearby globular cluster NGC 1261, indicating that the heliocentric distance of EriPhe is about d~16 kpc. The extent of EriPhe in projection is therefore at least ~4 kpc by ~3 kpc. On the sky, this overdensity is located between NGC 1261 and a new stellar stream discovered by DES at a similar heliocentric distance, the so-called Phoenix Stream. Given their similar distance and proximity to each other, it is possible that these three structures may be kinematically associated. Alternatively, the EriPhe overdensity is morph...

  14. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  15. 210Pb dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Roughly fifty years ago, a small group of scientists from Belgium and the United States, trying to better constrain ice sheet accumulation rates, attempted to apply what was then know about environmental lead as a potential geochronometer. Thus Goldberg (1963) developed the first principles of the 210Pb dating method, which was soon followed by a paper by Crozaz et al. (1964), who examined accumulation history of Antarctic snow using 210Pb. Shortly thereafter, Koide et al. (1972, 1973) adapted this technique to unravel sediment deposition and accumulation records in deep-sea environments. Serendipitously, they chose to work in a deep basin off California, where an independent and robust age model had already been developed. Krishanswami et al. (1971) extended the use of this technique to lacustrine deposits to reconstruct depositional histories of lake sediment, and maybe more importantly, contaminant inputs and burial. Thus, the powerful tool for dating recent (up to about one century old) sediment deposits was established and soon widely adopted. Today almost all oceanographic or limnologic studies that address recent depositional reconstructions employ 210Pb as one of several possible geochronometers (Andrews et al., 2009; Gale, 2009; Baskaran, 2011; Persson and Helms, 2011). This paper presents a short overview of the principles of 210Pb dating and provides a few examples that illustrate the utility of this tracer in contrasting depositional systems. Potential caveats and uncertainties (Appleby et al., 1986; Binford, 1990; Binford et al., 1993; Smith, 2001; Hancock et al., 2002) inherent to the use and interpretation of 210Pb-derived age-models are also introduced. Recommendations as to best practices for most reliable uses and reporting are presented in the summary.

  16. Vulcanism and Radiocarbon Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, L. M.; Libby, W. F.

    1972-10-01

    We consider whether the long term perturbation of radiocarbon dates, which is known to be approximately a sin function of period about 8000 years and amplitude of about 8% peak-to-peak, could have been caused in any major part by vulcanism. We conclude that this is not the case. On the contrary, present day volcanoes are a far less important source of inert CO{sub 2} (about 100 fold less) than is man's burning of fossil fuels which has caused the Suess dilution of about 2%. (auth)

  17. Ability of aqueous extract ofPhoenix dactylifera to effectively alleviate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental Wister albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Ogboma Dania; John Ezerioha

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the preventive, protective and ameliorative activity of the aqueous extract ofPhoenix dactylifera L. (P. dactylifera) against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: A total of 50 male albino rats were used for the study and 2 g/kg body weight of paracetamol and 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract ofP. dactylifera were administered orally for the study. They were divided into 5 groups, namely group A (vehicle control), group B (paracetamol control), group C (preventive), group D (ameliorative) and group E (protective), with 10 rats in each group. Group B was administered with paracetamol for 7 days; group C was administered with the extract for 7 days before administering with paracetamol for 7 days; group D was administered with paracetamol for 7 days, then the extract for 7 days; while group E was administered with paracetamol and the extract simultaneously for 7days. Results:The study revealed that the extracts of date palms contained active chemical compounds such as anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids and flavonoids. The levels of antioxidant enzymes activity such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase were found to be reduced while malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in the paracetamol-treated group. This trend was reversed in groups where the extract was administered, as the antioxidant enzymes level in the liver was raised. Conclusions:This study has shown that the aqueous extract ofP. dactylifera can mitigate the hepatotoxicity effect of paracetamol with a better ameliorating effect than protective or preventive.

  18. Comparison of BD phoenix to vitek 2, microscan MICroSTREP, and Etest for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittman, Scott A; Huard, Richard C; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Whittier, Susan

    2009-11-01

    The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems) was compared to those of the Vitek 2 (bioMérieux), the MicroScan MICroSTREP plus (Siemens), and Etest (bioMérieux) for antibiotic susceptibility tests (AST) of 311 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The overall essential agreement (EA) between each test system and the reference microdilution broth reference method for S. pneumoniae AST results was >95%. For Phoenix, the EAs of individual antimicrobial agents ranged from 90.4% (clindamycin) to 100% (vancomycin and gatifloxacin). The categorical agreements (CA) of Phoenix, Vitek 2, MicroScan, and Etest for penicillin were 95.5%, 94.2%, 98.7%, and 97.7%, respectively. The overall CA for Phoenix was 99.3% (1 very major error [VME] and 29 minor errors [mEs]), that for Vitek 2 was 98.8% (7 VMEs and 28 mEs), and those for MicroScan and Etest were 99.5% each (19 and 13 mEs, respectively). The average times to results for Phoenix, Vitek 2, and the manual methods were 12.1 h, 9.8 h, and 24 h, respectively. From these data, the Phoenix AST results demonstrated a high degree of agreement with all systems evaluated, although fewer VMEs were observed with the Phoenix than with the Vitek 2. Overall, both automated systems provided reliable AST results for the S. pneumoniae-antibiotic combinations in half the time required for the manual methods, rendering them more suitable for the demands of expedited reporting in the clinical setting.

  19. Neogene kinematic history of Nazca-Antarctic-Phoenix slab windows beneath Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsprecher, Katrin; Thorkelson, Derek J.

    2009-01-01

    The Patagonian slab window is a subsurface tectonic feature resulting from subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic spreading-ridge system (Chile Rise) beneath southern South America. The geometry of the slab window had not been rigorously defined, in part because of the complex nature of the history of ridge subduction in the southeast Pacific region, which includes four interrelated spreading-ridge systems since 20 Ma: first, the Nazca-Phoenix ridge beneath South America, then simultaneous subduction of the Nazca-Antarctic and the northern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge systems beneath South America, and the southern Phoenix-Antarctic spreading-ridge system beneath Antarctica. Spreading-ridge paleo-geographies and rotation poles for all relevant plate pairs (Nazca, Phoenix, Antarctic, South America) are available from 20 Ma onward, and form the mathematical basis of our kinematic reconstruction of the geometry of the Patagonia and Antarctic slab windows through Neogene time. At approximately 18 Ma, the Nazca-Phoenix-Antarctic oceanic (ridge-ridge-ridge) triple junction enters the South American trench; we recognize this condition as an unstable quadruple junction. Heat flow at this junction and for some distance beneath the forearc would be considerably higher than is generally recognized in cases of ridge subduction. From 16 Ma onward, the geometry of the Patagonia slab window developed from the subduction of the trailing arms of the former oceanic triple junction. The majority of the slab window's areal extent and geometry is controlled by the highly oblique (near-parallel) subduction angle of the Nazca-Antarctic ridge system, and by the high contrast in relative convergence rates between these two plates relative to South America. The very slow convergence rate of the Antarctic slab is manifested by the shallow levels achieved by the slab edge (< 45 km); thus no point on the Antarctic slab is sufficiently deep to generate "normal" mantle-derived arc-type magmas

  20. Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer: Differential Scanning Calorimeter and Mass Spectrometer Database Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Lauer, H. V.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Scout Phoenix lander will land in the north polar region of Mars in May, 2008. One objective of the Phoenix lander is to search for evidence of past life in the form of molecular organics that may be preserved in the subsurface soil. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was developed to detect these organics by coupling a simultaneous differential thermal analyzer (SDTA) with a mass spectrometer. Martian soil will be heated to approx.1000 C and potential organic decomposition products such as CO2, CH4 etc. will be examined for with the MS. TEGA s SDTA will also assess the presence of endothermic and exothermic reactions that are characteristic of soil organics and minerals as the soil is heated. The MS in addition to detecting organic decompositon products, will also assess the levels of soil inorganic volatiles such as H2O, SO2, and CO2. Organic detection has a high priority for this mission; however, TEGA has the ability to provide valuable insight into the mineralogical composition of the soil. The overall goal of this work is to develop a TEGA database of minerals that will serve as a reference for the interpretation of Phoenix-TEGA. Previous databases for the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander (MPL)-TEGA instrument only went to 725 C. Furthermore, the MPL-TEGA could only detect CO2 and H2O while the Phoenix-TEGA MS can examine up to 144 atomic mass units. The higher temperature Phoenix-TEGA SDTA coupled with the more capable MS indicates that a higher temperature database is required for TEGA interpretation. The overall goal of this work is to develop a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) database of minerals along with corresponding MS data of evolved gases that can used to interpret TEGA data during and after mission operations. While SDTA and DSC measurement techniques are slightly different (SDTA does not use a reference pan), the results are fundamentally similar and thus DSC is a useful technique in providing comparative data for the TEGA

  1. Molecular characterization of Syrian date palm cultivars using plasmid-like DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Nabulsi, I

    2012-02-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important domesticated fruit trees in the Near East and North African countries. This tree has been, for several decades, in serious threat of being completely destroyed by the "Bayoud" disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. In this study, 18 Syrian date palm cultivars and four male trees were analyzed according to the identity of mitochondrial plasmid-like DNAs. A PCR strategy that employs plasmid-like DNAs-specific primer pair was used. These primers amplify a product of either 373-bp or 265-bp that corresponds to the S-(Bayoud-susceptible) or the R-plasmid (Bayoud-resistant), respectively. Generated data revealed that only six cultivars ('Medjool', 'Ashrasi', 'Gish Rabi', 'Khineze', and yellow- and red-'Kabkab') have the S-plasmid, suggesting their susceptibility to the fusariosis, while the remaining 12 cultivars and the four male trees contain the R-plasmid, suggesting their resistance to the fusariosis. The PCR process applied here has been proved efficient for the rapid screening for the presence of the S and R DNAs in Syrian date palm. PCR markers developed in this study could be useful for the screening of date palm lines growing in the field. The availability of such diagnostic tool for plasmid characterization in date palm would also be of great importance in establishing propagation and breeding programs of date palm in Syria.

  2. Phoenix Mars Lander: Vortices and Dust Devils at the Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellehoj, M. D.; Taylor, P. A.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Gheynani, B. T.; Drube, L.; von Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Whiteway, J.; Lemmon, M.; Madsen, M. B.; Fisher, D.; Volpe, R.; Smith, P.

    2008-12-01

    Near continuous measurements of temperatures and pressure on the Phoenix Mars Lander are used to identify the passage of vertically oriented vortex structures at the Phoenix landing site (126W, 68N) on Mars. Observations: During the Phoenix mission the pressure and temperature sensors frequently detected features passing over or close to the lander. Short duration (order 20 s) pressure drops of order 1-2 Pa, and often less, were observed relatively frequently, accompanied by increases in temperature. Similar features were observed from the Pathfinder mission, although in that case the reported pressure drops were often larger [1]. Statistics of the pressure drop features over the first 102 sols of the Phoenix mission shows that most of the events occur between noon and 15:00 LMST - the hottest part of the sol. Dust Raising: By assuming the concept of a vortex in cyclostrophic flow as well as various assumptions about the atmosphere, we obtain a pressure drop of 1.9 - 3.2 Pa if dust is to be raised. We only saw few pressure drops this large in Sols 0-102. However, the features do not need to pass directly over the lander and the pressures could be lower than the minima we measure. Furthermore, the response time of the pressure sensor is of order 3-5 s so it may not capture peak pressure perturbations. Thus, more dust devils may have occurred near the Phoenix site, but most of our detected vortices would be ghostly, dustless devils. Modelling: Using a Large Eddy Simulation model, we can simulate highly convective boundary layers on Mars [2]. The typical vortex has a diameter of 150 m, and extends up to 1 km. Further calculations give an incidence of 11 vortex events per day that could be compatible with the LES simulations. Deeper investigation of this is planned -but the numbers are roughly compatible. If the significant pressure signatures are limited to the center of the vortex then 5 per sol might be appropriate. The Phoenix mission has collected a unique set of

  3. Molecular characterization and evolution studies of a SERK like gene transcriptionally induced during somatic embryogenesis in Phoenix Dactylifera L v Deglet Nour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekik Imen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase like (SERKL cDNA, designated PhSERKL, was isolated from date palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L using RACE PCR. PhSERKL protein shared all the characteristic domains of the SERK family, including five leucine-rich repeats, one proline-rich region motif, a transmembrane domain, and kinase domains. Phylogenetic analyses using PHYLIP and Notung 2.7 programs suggest that the SERK proteins of some plant species resulted from relatively ancient duplication events. We predict an ancestor protein of monocots and dicots SERK using FASTML program. Somatic embryogenic cultures of date palm were established following transfer of callus cultures to medium containing 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The role of PhSERKL gene during establishment of somatic embryogenesis in culture was investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. PhSERKL gene was highly expressed during embryogenic competence acquisition and globular embryo formation in culture. Overall, levels of expression of PhSERKL gene were lower in nonembryogenic tissues and organs than in embryogenic callus.

  4. Flirting in Online Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2017-01-01

    Various fields have examined the activity of flirting, predominantly based on experimental and reported data; the interactional workings are therefore often overlooked. Based on emails and chats from two Danish online dating sites, this article investigates how users negotiate romantic connections...... through the flirting strategy of ‘imagined togetherness’, linguistically constructing imagery of a shared future. Using the notion of the chronotope (Bakhtin 1981), turn-by-turn analysis demonstrates how users, embedded in the activity of getting to know each other, tenuously communicate romantic interest...... by alluding to future points at which they might be together. Central to the strategy is a sequential pattern of avoiding closure and thereby preserving the imagery’s implicitness. The article concludes by arguing that while imagined togetherness functions a way of probing interests and thus protecting...

  5. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Bailey, K.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Zappala, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport processes in the terrestrial environment, the long-lived noble-gas isotope 81Kr (half-life = 230 kyr) is the ideal tracer for studying old water and ice in the age range of 10^5-10^6 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr dating, a concept pursued in the past four decades by numerous laboratories employing a variety of techniques, is now available for the first time to the earth science community at large. This is made possible by the development of ATTA-3 (Jiang et al., GCA 91, 1-6; 2012), an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis method (Chen et al., Science 286, 1139-1141; 1999). The instrument is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10^-14-10^-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 - 1,500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 - 10 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 - 200 kg of water or 40 - 80 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the required sample size is generally smaller by an order of magnitude because of the isotope's higher initial abundance in the atmosphere. The Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is currently equipped to analyze up to 120 samples per year. With future equipment upgrades, this limit can be increased as demand grows. In the period since November 2011, the Laboratory has measured both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios in over 50 samples that had been extracted by collaborators from six different continents. The samples were from groundwater wells in the Great Artesian Basin (Australia), Guarani Aquifer (Brazil), and Locust Grove (Maryland); from brine wells of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (New Mexico); from geothermal steam vents in Yellowstone National Park; from near-surface ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica; and from deep mines in South Africa. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Illinois at Chicago, University

  6. The heart of date palm: its nutritional and functional constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Movahed

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is one of the three important fruit crops in the palm family. Kabkub is the main cultivated species in southern part of Iran, Bushehr. Every part of this tree has its own uses. The tree's terminal buds (heart of palm or palmitos are believed to have many nutritional values. As a folk medicine, it has been used for the improvement of stamina and treatment of sexual weakness. In order to evaluate the nutritional values of this product of date palm, we analyzed the total carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and fats in the sample. Methods: The palm hearts were obtained from local trees, minced, dried, and ground to powder. Fats were extracted and analyzed using Bligh-Dyer method and gas chromatography. Total proteins and carbohydrates were determined by Kjeldahl and Lane-Eynon methods, respectively. The minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The total fat content of the sample was 0.27g/28g. The unsaturated fatty acids present in the sample were mainly linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids, all together comprised 27.2% of the fats. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fat. The total protein estimated was 0.3g/28g. The carbohydrate content of the palm heart was 2.29 g and the minerals present in the sample were mainly Zn, Fe, Mg, P, Mn, Ca, Cu, Na, K, and Se. Conclusion: Date palm contains many essential fatty acids and known anti-inflammatory nutrients including zinc. The amount of crude fiber present in the heart of palm makes it as a valuable dietary product to be used as a tasty fat-cholesterol free nutrient.

  7. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Results from the Phoenix Urban Heat Island (UHI) experiment: effects at the local, neighbourhood and urban scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Sabatino, S.; Leo, L. S.; Hedquist, B. C.; Carter, W.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of results from a large urban heat island experiment (UHI) performed in Phoenix (AZ) in April 2008. From 1960 to 2000, the city of Phoenix experienced a minimum temperature rise of 0.47 °C per decade, which is one of the highest rates in the world for a city of this size (Golden, 2004). Contemporaneously, the city has recorded a rapid enlargement and large portion of the land and desert vegetation have been replaced by buildings, asphalt and concrete (Brazel et al., 2007, Emmanuel and Fernando, 2007). Besides, model predictions show that minimum air temperatures for Phoenix metropolitan area in future years might be even higher than 38 °C. In order to make general statements and mitigation strategies of the UHI phenomenon in Phoenix and other cities in hot arid climates, a one-day intensive experiment was conducted on the 4th-5th April 2008 to collect surface and ambient temperatures within various landscapes in Central Phoenix. Inter alia, infrared thermography (IRT) was used for UHI mapping. The aim was to investigate UHI modifications within the city of Phoenix at three spatial scales i.e. the local (Central Business District, CBD), the neighborhood and the city scales. This was achieved by combining IRT measurements taken at ground level by mobile equipment (automobile-mounted and pedicab) and at high elevation by a helicopter. At local scale detailed thermographic images of about twenty building façades and several street canyons were collected. In total, about two thousand images were taken during the 24-hour campaign. Image analysis provides detailed information on building surface and pavement temperatures at fine resolution (Hedquist et al. 2009, Di Sabatino et al. 2009). This unique dataset allows us several investigations on local air temperature dependence on albedo, building thermal inertia, building shape and orientation and sky view factors. Besides, the mosaic of building façade temperatures are being analyzed

  9. Thermoluminescence dating of flint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladas, H.

    Our ancestors have been making flint tools for over a million years. The tools or the flakes left by the flint-knappers have become important markers of prehistoric habitats. The imperishable and ubiquitous nature of flint explains why generations of prehistorians have used it to build a stone age chronology. To be dateable by TL flint must be heated to at least 450°C. While human use of fire may be as old as half a million years, the first true hearths appear late during the Lower Paleolithic period. At Terra-Amata, one of the oldest hearths discovered in France was dated to 230 ± 40 ka BP by Wintle and Aitken (1977). By the dawn of the Middle Paleolithic fire must have become fully domesticated, judging by the accumulations of charred debris that henceforth litter human habitats. For example, at the Middle Paleolithic site of Kebara the profusion of hearths is vividly illustrated by numerous superposed white ash and black charcoal layers extending to a depth of 4 m (Meignen et al., 1989).

  10. SOLAR DRYING KINETICS OF DATE PALM FRUITS ASSUMING A STEP-WISE AIR TEMPERATURE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELGHANI BOUBEKRI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drying using a step-wise temperature change was studied considering the case of indirect solar drying of the date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.. The followed procedure consists of building drying kinetics by stages of temperatures resulting from drying, in constant conditions, of the same variety of dates from Algerian and Tunisian origin. A law of daily temperature variation prevailed by 60°C, was deduced from a statement of temperature collected on a laboratory solar dryer prototype. Two drying curve equation models were used and some comparisons were discussed. The results obtained for dates from the two origins highlighted different response times by changing the air temperature and showed the possibility of reaching a fruit with standard moisture content in only one day of drying on the basis of initial water contents ranging from 0.40 to 0.65. This moisture range is in practice allotted to rehydrated dates by water immersion in order to enhance their quality. Experiments conducted in a laboratory solar drier under temperatures oscillating around 50°C and 60°C led to the same end up regarding the drying time ensuring a visually appreciable fruit quality. Results obtained by a simple sensorial test revealed a better quality of date fruits treated by solar drying comparing to those issued from industrial heat treatment units.

  11. Drug susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci by the Phoenix automated microbiology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokeng Gertrude

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance is an emerging problem among streptococcal and enterococcal species. Automated diagnostic systems for species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST have become recently available. We evaluated drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of streptococci and enterococci using the recent Phoenix system (BD, Sparks, MD. Diagnostic tools included the new SMIC/ID-2 panel for streptococci, and the PMIC/ID-14 for enterococci. Two-hundred and fifty isolates have been investigated: β-hemolytic streptococci (n = 65, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 50, viridans group streptococci (n = 32, Enterococcus faecium (n = 40, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 43, other catalase-negative cocci (n = 20. When needed, species ID was determined using molecular methods. Test bacterial strains were chosen among those carrying clinically-relevant resistance determinants (penicillin, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides. AST results of the Phoenix system were compared to minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values measured by the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Results Streptococci: essential agreement (EA and categorical agreement (CA were 91.9% and 98.8%, respectively. Major (ME and minor errors (mE accounted for 0.1% and 1.1% of isolates, respectively. No very major errors (VME were produced. Enterococci: EA was 97%, CA 96%. Small numbers of VME (0.9%, ME (1.4% and mE (2.8% were obtained. Overall, EA and CA rates for most drugs were above 90% for both genera. A few VME were found: a teicoplanin and high-level streptomycin for E. faecalis, b high-level gentamicin for E. faecium. The mean time to results (± SD was 11.8 ± 0.9 h, with minor differences between streptococci and enterococci. Conclusion The Phoenix system emerged as an effective tool for quantitative AST. Panels based on dilution tests provided rapid and accurate MIC values with regard to clinically-relevant streptococcal and enterococcal

  12. Subsurface ices at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Assessing emplacement mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Mellon, M. T.; Skemer, P. A.; Shaw, A.; Morris, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the emplacement of subsurface ices on Mars: vapor diffusion from the atmosphere, freezing of bodies of surface water (e.g., lakes or oceans), buried glaciers, or accumulation and burial of packed snow. These formation mechanisms predict different physical properties for the subsurface ices: vapor diffusion should produce pore ice, whereas other mechanisms should produce massive, relatively pure ice. NASA's Phoenix Lander uncovered two types of ice at its 2008 landing site on the northern plains of Mars: a light-toned ice (Dodo-Goldilocks) that broke into pieces during backhoe operations; and a hard, darker icy surface that had to be scraped to provide particulate materials for sampling (Snow White). Here, we use spectra from Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) and a non-linear mixing model with ice and soil components to determine the ice to soil ratio of the ices exposed at the Phoenix landing site. We find Dodo-Goldilocks consists of almost pure water ice. The darker icy material contains ~30 wt% ice (~55 vol%), indicating that it probably formed as pore ice between grains of soil. We conclude that these two types of ice represent two different emplacement mechanisms and periods of deposition. Snow White ice was probably deposited via vapor diffusion from the atmosphere. Dodo-Goldilocks ice was probably deposited through an ice-lens or needle ice mechanism. Buried snow or glacial ice is unlikely for Dodo-Goldilocks, given its restricted spatial extent and the fact that the site is covered by large rocks.

  13. A Physical Taxonomy of Martian Sand and Dust Grainsat the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Stoker, Carol

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative taxonomy of martian sand and dust grains for soil samples at the Phoenix lander site has been developed from the mission’s optical microscope data with a resolution of 4 μm per pixel. Approx. 3-4000 grains were analyzed for color, hue, size, shape, surface texture, aspect ratio, and optical properties. At least 26 types of sand and dust grains have been identified. Grain colors include black, brown, orange, red, white, and clear. Most grains are opaque, but many are translucent or transparent. Grain shapes range from botryoidal, blackberry-like, bead-like and rounded, to subrounded, elongate, angular, and highly irregular forms. Surface textures range from knobbly, rough, and multifaceted to smooth and polished. Surface reflectivity varied from dull to shiny to specularly reflective. Materials may include augite, pyroxenes, olivine, volcanic glass, hematite, other iron oxides, and salts. Grain size of the sand has a modal value of ~90 μm, but there is no gradation into dust sizes, indicating a bimodal distribution of the samples. The dust was probably imported into the region from aeolian dust storms. This accords with a mineralogical dissimilarity between the sand and dust grain populations. The sand is dominated by black and brown grains; the dust is dominated by orange grains. The Phoenix site also has centimeter and larger stones in abundance that again have no apparent gradation into the sand size material. Thus, the Phoenix landing site soil appears multimodal. The soil appears to be magnetically susceptible, but it is unclear what the source of magnetism might be. Specific magnetic minerals were not identified in the samples with the possible exception of paramagnetic microbotryoidal hematite. The soil was nevertheless adhesive to the substrates and internally cohesive (forming spherical aggregates) owing to van der Waals forces and possibly salt/moisture bonding.

  14. Oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Hanene; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Ferjani, Raoudha; Fusi, Marco; Soussi, Asma; Mapelli, Francesca; Blilou, Ikram; Borin, Sara; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ouzari, Hadda

    2015-08-01

    Oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. At present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (PGP) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. Considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resistance to drought. Here, the ecology of date palm root endophytes from oases in the Tunisian Sahara was studied with emphasis on their capacity to promote growth under drought. Endophytic communities segregated along a north-south gradient in correlation with geo-climatic parameters. Screening of 120 endophytes indicated that date palm roots select for bacteria with multiple PGP traits. Bacteria rapidly cross-colonized the root tissues of different species of plants, including the original Tunisian date palm cultivar, Saudi Arabian cultivars and Arabidopsis. Selected endophytes significantly increased the biomass of date palms exposed to repeated drought stress periods during a 9-month greenhouse experiment. Overall, results indicate that date palm roots shape endophytic communities that are capable to promote plant growth under drought conditions, thereby contributing an essential ecological service to the entire oasis ecosystem. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought

    KAUST Repository

    Cherif, Hanene

    2015-07-21

    Oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (Phoenix dactyliferaL.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. At present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (PGP) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. Considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resistance to drought. Here, the ecology of date palm root endophytes from oases in the Tunisian Sahara was studied with emphasis on their capacity to promote growth under drought. Endophytic communities segregated along a north-south gradient in correlation with geo-climatic parameters. Screening of 120 endophytes indicated that date palm roots select for bacteria with multiple PGP traits. Bacteria rapidly cross-colonized the root tissues of different species of plants, including the original Tunisian date palm cultivar, Saudi Arabian cultivars and Arabidopsis. Selected endophytes significantly increased the biomass of date palms exposed to repeated drought stress periods during a 9-month greenhouse experiment. Overall, results indicate that date palm roots shape endophytic communities that are capable to promote plant growth under drought conditions, thereby contributing an essential ecological service to the entire oasis ecosystem. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Crater Morphology in the Phoenix Landing Ellipse: Insights Into Net Erosion and Ice Table Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Stoker, C. R.; McKay, C. P.; Davila, A. F.; Krco, M.

    2015-01-01

    Icebreaker [1] is a Discovery class mission being developed for future flight opportunities. Under this mission concept, the Icebreaker payload is carried on a stationary lander, and lands in the same landing ellipse as Phoenix. Samples are acquired from the subsurface using a drilling system that penetrates into materials which may include loose or cemented soil, icy soil, pure ice, rocks, or mixtures of these. To avoid the complexity of mating additional strings, the drill is single-string, limiting it to a total length of 1 m.

  17. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV and V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of patterns in IV&V findings and their correlation with post-launch anomalies allowed GRAIL to make more efficient use of IV&V services . Fewer issues. . Higher fix rate. . Better communication. . Increased volume of potential issues vetted, at lower cost. . Hard to make predictions of post-launch performance based on IV&V findings . Phoenix made sound fix/use as-is decisions . Things that were fixed eliminated some problems, but hard to quantify. . Broad predictive success in one area, but inverse relationship in others.

  18. Design, Simulation, and Analysis of Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fresart, Edouard Thomas

    Research was conducted to quantify the energy and cost savings of two different domestic solar water heating systems compared to an all-electric water heater for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona. The knowledge gained from this research will enable utilities to better align incentives and consumers to make more informed decisions prior to purchasing a solar water heater. Daily energy and temperature data were collected in a controlled, closed environment lab. Three mathematical models were designed in TRNSYS 17, a transient system simulation tool. The data from the lab were used to validate the TRNSYS models, and the TRNSYS results were used to project annual cost and energy savings for the solar water heaters. The projected energy savings for a four-person household in Phoenix, Arizona are 80% when using the SunEarthRTM system with an insulated and glazed flat-plate collector, and 49% when using the FAFCO RTM system with unglazed, non-insulated flat-plate collectors. Utilizing all available federal, state, and utility incentives, a consumer could expect to recoup his or her investment after the fifth year if purchasing a SunEarth RTM system, and after the eighth year if purchasing a FAFCO RTM system. Over the 20-year analysis period, a consumer could expect to save 2,519 with the SunEarthRTM system, and 971 with the FAFCORTM system.

  19. Possible Calcite and Magnesium Perchlorate Interaction in the Mars Phoenix Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, K. M.; Sutter, B.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.; Quinn, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander's TEGA instrument detected a calcium carbonate phase decomposing at high temperatures (approx.700 C) from the Wicked Witch soil sample [1]. TEGA also detected a lower temperature CO2 release between 400 C and 680 C [1]. Possible explanations given for this lower temperature CO2 release include thermal decomposition of Mg or Fe carbonates, a zeolitictype desorption reaction, or combustion of organic compounds in the soil [2]. The detection of 0.6 wt % soluble perchlorate by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on Phoenix [3] has implications for the possibility of organic molecules in the soil. Ming et al. [4] demonstrated that perchlorates could have oxidized organic compounds to CO2 in TEGA, preventing detection of their characteristic mass fragments. Here, we propose that a perchlorate salt and calcium carbonate present in martian soil reacted to produce the 400 C - 680 C TEGA CO2 release. The parent salts of the perchlorate on Mars are unknown, but geochemical models using WCL data support the possible dominance of Mg-perchlorate salts [5]. Mg(ClO4)2 6H2O is the stable phase at ambient martian conditions [6], and breaks down at lower temperatures than carbonates giving off Cl2 and HCl gas [7,8]. Devlin and Herley [7] report two exotherms at 410-478 C and 473-533 C which correspond to the decomposition of Mg(ClO4)2.

  20. Morning Frost in Trench Dug by Phoenix, Sol 113 (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows morning frost inside the 'Snow White' trench dug by the lander, in addition to subsurface ice exposed by use of a rasp on the floor of the trench. The camera took this image at about 9 a.m. local solar time during the 113th Martian day of the mission (Sept. 18, 2008). Bright material near and below the four-by-four set of rasp holes in the upper half of the image is water-ice exposed by rasping and scraping in the trench earlier the same morning. Other bright material especially around the edges of the trench, is frost. Earlier in the mission, when the sun stayed above the horizon all night, morning frost was not evident in the trench. This image is presented in false color that enhances the visibility of the frost. The trench is 4 to 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) deep, about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide. Phoenix landed on a Martian arctic plain on May 25, 2008. The mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Mars Phoenix Scout Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) Database: Thermal Database Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Archer, D.; Niles, P. B.; Stein, T. C.; Hamara, D.; Boynton, W. V.; Ming, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Lander mission in 2008 examined the history of water, searched for organics, and evaluated the potential for past/present microbial habitability in a martian arctic ice-rich soil [1]. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument measured the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 and detected volatile bearing mineralogy (perchlorate, carbonate, hydrated mineral phases) in the martian soil [2-7]. The TEGA data are archived at the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node but are reported in forms that require further processing to be of use to the non-TEGA expert. The soil and blank TEGA thermal data are reported as duty cycle and must be converted to differential power (mW) to allow for enthalpy calculations of exothermic/endothermic transitions. The exothermic/endothermic temperatures are also used to determine what phases (inorganic/organic) are present in the sample. The objectives of this work are to: 1) Describe how interpretable thermal data can be created from TEGA data sets on the PDS and 2) Provide additional thermal data interpretation of two Phoenix soils (Baby Bear, Wicked Witch) and include interpretations from three unreported soils (Rosy Red 1, 2, and Burning Coals).

  2. Phoenix flagships: Conservation values and guanaco reintroduction in an anthropogenic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindon, Adrien; Root-Bernstein, Meredith

    2015-09-01

    Multiple forms of valuation contribute to public acceptance of conservation projects. Here, we consider how esthetic, intrinsic, and utilitarian values contribute to public attitudes toward a proposed reintroduction of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in a silvopastoral system of central Chile. The nexus among landscape perceptions and valuations, support for reintroductions, and management of anthropogenic habitats is of increasing interest due to the proliferation of conservation approaches combining some or all of these elements, including rewilding and reconciliation ecology, for example. We assessed attitudes and values through an online questionnaire for residents of Santiago, Chile, using multiple methods including photo-montages and Likert scale assessments of value-based statements. We also combined the questionnaire approach with key informant interviews. We find strong support for the reintroduction of guanacos into the Chilean silvopastoral system ('espinal') in terms of esthetic and intrinsic values but less in terms of utilitarian values. Respondents preferred a scenario of espinal with guanacos and expressed interest in visiting it, as well as support for the reintroduction project on the basis that guanacos are native to central Chile. We suggest that reintroduced guanacos could serve as a 'phoenix flagship species' for espinal conservation, that is, a flagship species that has gone regionally extinct and is known but not associated with the region in the cultural memory. We consider how the lack of local cultural identity can both help and weaken phoenix flagships, which we expect to become more common.

  3. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV & V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA IV&V was established in 1993 to improve safety and cost-effectiveness of mission critical software. Since its inception the tools and strategies employed by IV&V have evolved. This paper examines how lessons learned from the Phoenix project were developed and applied to the GRAIL project. Shortly after selection, the GRAIL project initiated a review of the issues documented by IV&V for Phoenix. The motivation was twofold: the learn as much as possible about the types of issues that arose from the flight software product line slated for use on GRAIL, and to identify opportunities for improving the effectiveness of IV&V on GRAIL. The IV&V Facility provided a database dump containing 893 issues. These were categorized into 16 bins, and then analyzed according to whether the project responded by changing the affected artifacts or using as-is. The results of this analysis were compared to a similar assessment of post-launch anomalies documented by the project. Results of the analysis were discussed with the IV&V team assigned to GRAIL. These discussions led to changes in the way both the project and IV&V approached the IV&V task, and improved the efficiency of the activity.

  4. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P. J.; Drury, J. A.; Bell, M. E.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1 mJy beam-1 at 1.4 GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1 mJy beam-1. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on time-scales of decades that is a factor of ˜4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on time-scales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be ρ = 0.98 deg-2 on time-scales of 6 months to 8 yr. We make use of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an active galactic nucleus of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time-scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1.4 GHz is greatest on time-scales of 2-5 yr.

  5. Radio variability in the Phoenix Deep Survey at 1.4GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, Paul; Bell, Martin; Murphy, Tara; Gaensler, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    We use archival data from the Phoenix Deep Survey to investigate the variable radio source population above 1mJy/beam at 1.4GHz. Given the similarity of this survey to other such surveys we take the opportunity to investigate the conflicting results which have appeared in the literature. Two previous surveys for variability conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) achieved a sensitivity of 1mJy/beam. However, one survey found an areal density of radio variables on timescales of decades that is a factor of ~4 times greater than a second survey which was conducted on timescales of less than a few years. In the Phoenix deep field we measure the density of variable radio sources to be $\\rho =0.98\\mathrm{deg}^{-2}$ on timescales of 6 months to 8 years. We make use of WISE infrared cross-ids, and identify all variable sources as an AGN of some description. We suggest that the discrepancy between previous VLA results is due to the different time scales probed by each of the surveys, and that radio variability at 1....

  6. What a Tangled Web We Weave: Hermus as the Northern Extension of the Phoenix Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Grillmair, Carl J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether the recently discovered Phoenix stream may be part of a much longer structure that includes the previously discovered Hermus stream. Using a simple model of the Galaxy with a disk, bulge, and a spherical dark matter halo, we show that a nearly circular orbit, highly inclined with respect to the disk, can be found that fits the positions, orientations, and distances of both streams. While the two streams are somewhat misaligned in the sense that they do not occupy the same plane, nodal precession due to the Milky Way disk potential naturally brings the orbit into line with each stream in the course of half an orbit. We consequently consider a common origin for the two streams as plausible. Based on our best fitting orbit, we make predictions for the positions, distances, radial velocities, and proper motions along each stream. If our hypothesis is borne out by measurements, then at ~183 degrees (~235 degrees with respect to the Galactic center) and ~76 kpc in length, Phoenix-Hermus would...

  7. What a Tangled Web We Weave: Hermus as the Northern Extension of the Phoenix Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillmair, Carl J.; Carlberg, Raymond G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether the recently discovered Phoenix stream may be part of a much longer stream that includes the previously discovered Hermus stream. Using a simple model of the Galaxy with a disk, bulge, and a spherical dark matter halo, we show that a nearly circular orbit, highly inclined with respect to the disk, can be found that fits the positions, orientations, and distances of both streams. While the two streams are somewhat misaligned in the sense that they do not occupy the same plane, nodal precession due to the Milky Way disk potential naturally brings the orbit into line with each stream in the course of half an orbit. We consequently consider a common origin for the two streams as plausible. Based on our best-fitting orbit, we make predictions for the positions, distances, radial velocities, and proper motions along each stream. If our hypothesis is borne out by measurements, then at ≈183° (≈235° with respect to the Galactic center) and ≈76 kpc in length, Phoenix-Hermus would become the longest cold stream yet found. This would make it a particularly valuable new probe of the shape and mass of the Galactic halo out to ≈20 kpc.

  8. Luminescence dating of Netherlands’ sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we review: 1) the development of the methodology; 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands’ sediments; and 3) geological applications of the method in the Netherlands. Our review shows that optically stimulated luminescence dating of quartz grains using the single aliquot regenerative dose method yi...

  9. Metabolome based volatiles profiling in 13 date palm fruit varieties from Egypt via SPME GC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed N A; Fekry, Mostafa I; Farag, Mohamed A

    2017-02-15

    Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) are distributed worldwide as major food complement providing a source of sugars and dietary fiber as well as macro- and micronutrients. Although phytochemical analyses of date fruit non-volatile metabolites have been reported, much less is known about the aroma given off by the fruit, which is critical for dissecting sensory properties and quality traits. Volatile constituents from 13 date varieties grown in Egypt were profiled using SPME-GCMS coupled to multivariate data analysis to explore date fruit aroma composition and investigate potential future uses by food industry. A total of 89 volatiles were identified where lipid-derived volatiles and phenylpropanoid derivatives were the major components of date fruit aroma. Multivariate data analyses revealed that 2,3-butanediol, hexanal, hexanol and cinnamaldehyde contributed the most to classification of different varieties. This study provides the most complete map of volatiles in Egyptian date fruit, with Siwi and Sheshi varieties exhibiting the most distinct aroma among studied date varieties.

  10. Tentative Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds in the Male Flowers of Phoenix dactylifera by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry and DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Ridha; Arafa I., Hamed; Usam A., Mahalel; Abdullah Sulaiman, Al-Ayed; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Moldoch, Jaroslaw; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Phoenix dacylifera is an ancient palm species rich in (poly)phenols. These phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC/MS/MS) with negative ion detection. Negative identification of the compounds was based on their retention times and mass spectra in full scan mode (MS), and in different MS/MS modes. For the first time, complete hypothesis, and routs for both p-coumaroylshikimic acids (CoSA) and caffeoylshikimic acids (CSA) were suggested and confirmed by Density Fonctional Theory (DFT) study. Notably, of the 53 compounds characterized, 19 hydroxycinnamates derivatives were tentativelycharacterized in male flowers of date palm and 15 of them were recorded for the first time. In addition, five organic acids, six B-type proanthocyanidins, two anthocyanidin and 21 flavonoid derivatives have been tentatively characterized. Identification of B-type proanthocyanidins were based on the diagnostic ions resulting from heterocyclic ring fission (HRF) and retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reaction of flavan-3-ol provided information on the hydroxylation pattern and the type of inter-flavan bond proanthocyanidins. The sequence of proanthocyanidins was detected through ions extracted from quinone methide (QM) cleavage of the inter-flavan bond. PMID:28257091

  11. Tentative Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds in the Male Flowers of Phoenix dactylifera by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry and DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Ben Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phoenix dacylifera is an ancient palm species rich in (polyphenols. These phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC/MS/MS with negative ion detection. Negative identification of the compounds was based on their retention times and mass spectra in full scan mode (MS, and in different MS/MS modes. For the first time, complete hypothesis, and routs for both p-coumaroylshikimic acids (CoSA and caffeoylshikimic acids (CSA were suggested and confirmed by Density Fonctional Theory (DFT study. Notably, of the 53 compounds characterized, 19 hydroxycinnamates derivatives were tentativelycharacterized in male flowers of date palm and 15 of them were recorded for the first time. In addition, five organic acids, six B-type proanthocyanidins, two anthocyanidin and 21 flavonoid derivatives have been tentatively characterized. Identification of B-type proanthocyanidins were based on the diagnostic ions resulting from heterocyclic ring fission (HRF and retro-Diels-Alder (RDA reaction of flavan-3-ol provided information on the hydroxylation pattern and the type of inter-flavan bond proanthocyanidins. The sequence of proanthocyanidins was detected through ions extracted from quinone methide (QM cleavage of the inter-flavan bond.

  12. Tentative Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds in the Male Flowers of Phoenix dactylifera by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry and DFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Ridha; Hamed, Arafa I; Mahalel, Usam A; Al-Ayed, Abdullah Sulaiman; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Moldoch, Jaroslaw; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2017-03-02

    Phoenix dacylifera is an ancient palm species rich in (poly)phenols. These phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in tandem mode (LC/MS/MS) with negative ion detection. Negative identification of the compounds was based on their retention times and mass spectra in full scan mode (MS), and in different MS/MS modes. For the first time, complete hypothesis, and routs for both p-coumaroylshikimic acids (CoSA) and caffeoylshikimic acids (CSA) were suggested and confirmed by Density Fonctional Theory (DFT) study. Notably, of the 53 compounds characterized, 19 hydroxycinnamates derivatives were tentativelycharacterized in male flowers of date palm and 15 of them were recorded for the first time. In addition, five organic acids, six B-type proanthocyanidins, two anthocyanidin and 21 flavonoid derivatives have been tentatively characterized. Identification of B-type proanthocyanidins were based on the diagnostic ions resulting from heterocyclic ring fission (HRF) and retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reaction of flavan-3-ol provided information on the hydroxylation pattern and the type of inter-flavan bond proanthocyanidins. The sequence of proanthocyanidins was detected through ions extracted from quinone methide (QM) cleavage of the inter-flavan bond.

  13. Deep Chandra, HST-COS, and Megacam Observations of the Phoenix Cluster: Extreme Star Formation and AGN Feedback on Hundred Kiloparsec Scales

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, M; van Weeren, R J; Applegate, D E; Bayliss, M; Bautz, M W; Benson, B A; Carlstrom, J E; Bleem, L E; Chatzikos, M; Edge, A C; Fabian, A C; Garmire, G P; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Jones-Forman, C; Mantz, A B; Miller, E D; Stalder, B; Veilleux, S; Zuhone, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present new ultraviolet, optical, and X-ray data on the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). Deep optical imaging reveals previously-undetected filaments of star formation, extending to radii of ~50-100 kpc in multiple directions. Combined UV-optical spectroscopy of the central galaxy reveals a massive (2x10^9 Msun)), young (~4.5 Myr) population of stars, consistent with a time-averaged star formation rate of 610 +/- 50 Msun/yr. We report a strong detection of OVI(1032,1038) which appears to originate primarily in shock-heated gas, but may contain a substantial contribution (>1000 Msun/yr) from the cooling intracluster medium. We confirm the presence of deep X-ray cavities in the inner ~10 kpc, which are amongst the most extreme examples of radio-mode feedback detected to date, implying jet powers of 2-7 x10^45 erg/s. We provide evidence that the AGN inflating these cavities may have only recently transitioned from "quasar-mode" to "radio-mode", and may currently be insufficient to completely offset ...

  14. A Comparison of Lu You’s Phoenix Hairpin and Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s Sonnets from the Portuguese (43)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷华

    2010-01-01

    Both Lu You and Elizabeth Barrett Browning enjoy great popularity as a poet.In this paper I compare and contract Lu You’s well-known love ci-poem Phoenix Hairpin with Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s famous Sonnets from the Portuguese (43) in respect of theme,style,and way of expression.

  15. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays confirm bioactive compounds in Ajwa date fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Aldosari, Saleh A; Vidyasagar, Polana S P V; Nair, Karun M; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2013-06-19

    Ajwa, a variety of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L., produces the most expensive date fruits. Percentages of seed, moisture, fructose, glucose, soluble protein, and fiber in Ajwa dates were 13.24, 6.21, 39.06, 26.35, 1.33, and 11.01, respectively. The ethyl acetate, methanolic, and water extracts of Ajwa dates, active at 250 μg/mL in the MTT assay, inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 88, 70, and 91% at 250 μg/mL and cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 30, 31, and 32% and COX-2 by 59, 48, and 45% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Bioactivity-guided purifications afforded compounds 1-7, in addition to phthalates and fatty acids. Compounds 1-3 showed activity at 100 μg/mL in the MTT assay; inhibited COX-1 enzyme by 59, 48, amd 50% and COX-2 enzyme by 60, 40, amd 39% at 50 μg/mL; and inhibited LPO by 95, 58, amd 66% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. The soluble protein fraction was also very active in both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays.

  16. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3] for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1 SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2 AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3 SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10–30% relative to Control experiments. [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern

  17. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  18. 75 FR 16516 - Dates Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Office of the Federal Register Dates Correction Correction In the Notices section... through 15499, the date at the top of each page is corrected to read ``Monday, March 29, 2010''....

  19. BD Phoenix and Vitek 2 detection of mecA-mediated resistance in Staphylococcus aureus with cefoxitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkins, Alan D; Lockhart, Shawn R; Heilmann, Kristopher P; Dohrn, Cassie L; Von Stein, Diana L; Winokur, Patricia L; Doern, Gary V; Richter, Sandra S

    2009-09-01

    The BD Phoenix (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) and Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) automated susceptibility testing systems have implemented the use of cefoxitin to enhance the detection of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To assess the impact of this change, 620 clinically significant S. aureus isolates were tested in parallel on Phoenix PMIC/ID-102 panels and Vitek 2 AST-GP66 cards. The results for oxacillin and cefoxitin generated by the automated systems were compared to those generated by two reference methods: mecA gene detection and MICs of oxacillin previously determined by broth microdilution according to CLSI guidelines. Testing of isolates with discordant results was repeated to attain a majority or consensus final result. There was 100% final agreement between the results of the two reference methods. For the 448 MRSA and 172 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates tested, the rates of categorical agreement of the results obtained with the automated systems with those obtained by the reference methods were 99.8% for the Phoenix panels and 99.7% for the Vitek 2 cards. A single very major error occurred on each instrument (0.2%) with different MRSA isolates. The only major error was attributed to the Vitek 2 system overcalling oxacillin resistance. In 16 instances (9 on the Phoenix system, 7 on the Vitek 2 system), an oxacillin MIC in the susceptible range was correctly changed to resistant by the expert system on the basis of the cefoxitin result. The inclusion of cefoxitin in the Phoenix and Vitek 2 panels has optimized the detection of MRSA by both systems.

  20. Molecular analysis of commercial date palm cultivars in Lybia using ISSR and SRAP PCR-based markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Noha S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular structure of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. despite its importance as invaluable drought tolerant crop. Intervarietal variation and cultivar identification are crucial for breeding and gene bank conservation of this plant worldwide. In this work, two PCR based marker systems (ISSR and SRAP were applied on top quality eight commercial cultivars in Libya (Umfetity, Bekrary, Alhamraya, Sufeer Genab, Alsaeedy Show, Farag Barameel, Majhool Alheelo and Alkhadraya. DNA variations were explored using eleven ISSR and nine combinations of SRAP markers. All markers used generated polymorphic bands among the different cultivars that can be used as molecular markers for their differentiation. The genetic distance between cultivars was also estimated from banding patterns. Our results indicate that ISSR and SRAP systems can efficiently identify and differentiate between the selected cultivars. This work can be used as a model to establish a road map for all date palm cultivars worldwide.

  1. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a work ..... determine profitability of rice businesses. ..... Government of Republic of Uganda, The ... Organization and the Japanese ... Analysis of incentives.

  2. Comparative evaluation of ensiled cassava peel meal and sun-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedimo Laptop

    Animal Production Research Advances, 6(4): 291 - 295, 2010. ISSN: 0794 - 4721 www.tapasinstitute.org/journals/apra. ©Tapas Institute of Scientific Research and Development, 2010. 291 ..... Cah, Colombia, 1 - 7 August,. 1976. Ottawa ...

  3. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2017-04-01

    Green bean ( Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly ( P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  4. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  5. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2016-08-01

    Green bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly (P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  6. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin residues in fresh and sun-dried meat in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In recent times, food safety and security have generally remained basic human needs, therefore because of the largely unregulated nature of the Nigerian markets, coupled with the poor housing and feeding conditions to which animals are subjected in the abattoirs, a survey for assessing potential mycotoxin exposure through meat consumption was undertaken. Methods Eighty Samples of meat bought randomly from 5 major markets distributed in 5 local government areas of Oyo state , Nige...

  7. Utilization of sun-dried on-farm generated poultry litter as a feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... maize in diets of growing-finishing pigs on weight basis to assess its implication ... and white blood cells (WBC) while the hemoglobin, serum glucose, urea, creatinine and glutamate ... The total bacterial count was consider-.

  8. RS-34 Phoenix In-Space Propulsion System Applied to Active Debris Removal Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    In-space propulsion is a high percentage of the cost when considering Active Debris Removal mission. For this reason it is desired to research if existing designs with slight modification would meet mission requirements to aid in reducing cost of the overall mission. Such a system capable of rendezvous, close proximity operations, and de-orbit of Envisat class resident space objects has been identified in the existing RS-34 Phoenix. RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC has obtained permission from the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. The MSFC Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) was commissioned to lead a study for evaluation of the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an active debris removal design reference mission for resident space object targets including Envisat. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy payloads at multiple orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study lead by sought to further understand application for a similar orbital debris design reference mission to provide propulsive capability for rendezvous, close proximity operations to support the capture phase of the mission, and deorbit of single or multiple large class resident space objects. Multiple configurations varying the degree of modification were identified to trade for dry mass optimization and

  9. Phoenix Risen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In 1974, John G. Sperling left a tenured position at San Jose State University with $26,000 in savings to start an academic program for working adults. In the beginning, he ran the operation out of his house. The program soon outgrew the house, Sperling relocated to Arizona, and the program adopted the name of that state's capital. Now the…

  10. Ethyl Formate Fumigation of Dry and Semidry Date Fruits: Experimental Kinetics, Modeling, and Lethal Effect on Carob Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessi, Haithem; Bellagha, Sihem; Lebdi, Kaouthar Grissa; Bikoba, Veronique; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2015-06-01

    Ethyl formate (EF) was studied as a fumigant agent with the objective to replace methyl bromide (MB) for date fruit disinfestations. Date fruits Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet Nour' with different initial moisture content (16% for dry dates, 20% for semidry dates, and a mixture of the two types) were separately fumigated with EF at different concentrations: 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 for 2 h. Experimental data of EF sorption during fumigation was successfully fitted to Peleg's model. This model allows the prediction of the effects of date moisture content and EF concentration on sorption behavior. Samples with different moisture content showed similar EF sorption behavior. Dates were artificially infested with carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller)) at different life stages. Eggs, third- and fifth-instars, and pupae were exposed to 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 EF for 2 h. Among these life stages, fifth-instars were the most resistant to EF fumigation. A 2-h fumigation with 114.6 g/m3 EF provided complete control of eggs, third-instars, and pupae of carob moth, and generated 91.6% mortality of fifth-instars. A longer fumigation time or higher EF concentration may provide complete control of all life stages of carob moth.

  11. Phoenix Scrapes Up Water Ice Samples%"凤凰"铲起火星冰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Thompson; 胡德良

    2009-01-01

    @@ 美国国家航空航天管理局星期二宣布:该局的"凤凰"号火星着陆器(Phoenix Mars Lan-der)刮起了一些冰土,以供其携带的仪器进行分析. 星期六,也就是该着陆器在这颗红色星球上大约第33个火星日的时候,"凤凰"号拓宽了被称为"仙境(Wonderland)"的区域中的沟壑--"白雪公主(Snow White)".两天前,"凤凰"号用机械手挖到表层泥土以下的坚硬冰层.

  12. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  13. Phoenix dactylifera L. leaf extract phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles; controlled synthesis and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mervat F; Eisa, Wael H

    2014-01-01

    A green synthesis route was reported to explore the reducing and capping potential of Phoenix dactylifera extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The processes of nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles were followed by monitoring the absorption spectra during the reaction. The size and morphology of these nanoparticles was typically imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size ranged between 32 and 45 nm and are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis suggests that the synthesized gold nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in the carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids present in P. dactylifera. The as-synthesized Au colloids exhibited good catalytic activity for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol.

  14. Parallel Implementation of the PHOENIX Generalized Stellar Atmosphere Program; 2, Wavelength Parallelization

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, E A; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    1997-01-01

    We describe an important addition to the parallel implementation of our generalized NLTE stellar atmosphere and radiative transfer computer program PHOENIX. In a previous paper in this series we described data and task parallel algorithms we have developed for radiative transfer, spectral line opacity, and NLTE opacity and rate calculations. These algorithms divided the work spatially or by spectral lines, that is distributing the radial zones, individual spectral lines, or characteristic rays among different processors and employ, in addition task parallelism for logically independent functions (such as atomic and molecular line opacities). For finite, monotonic velocity fields, the radiative transfer equation is an initial value problem in wavelength, and hence each wavelength point depends upon the previous one. However, for sophisticated NLTE models of both static and moving atmospheres needed to accurately describe, e.g., novae and supernovae, the number of wavelength points is very large (200,000--300,0...

  15. ESTSS at 20 years: "a phoenix gently rising from a lava flow of European trauma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orner, Roderick J

    2013-01-01

    Roderick J. Ørner, who was President between 1997 and 1999, traces the phoenix-like origins of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) from an informal business meeting called during the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress (ECOTS) in 1987 to its emergence into a formally constituted society. He dwells on the challenges of tendering a trauma society within a continent where trauma has been and remains endemic. ESTSS successes are noted along with a number of personal reflections on activities that give rise to concern for the present as well as its future prospects. Denial of survivors' experiences and turning away from survivors' narratives by reframing their experiences to accommodate helpers' theory-driven imperatives are viewed with alarm. Arguments are presented for making human rights, memory, and ethics core elements of a distinctive European psycho traumatology, which will secure current ESTSS viability and future integrity.

  16. Airborne dust and soil particles at the Phoenix landing site, Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M. B.; Drube, L.; Goetz, W.

    . Because of the multiple background colors of the iSweeps the effect of the translucence of thin dust layers can be studied. This is used to estimate the rate of dust accumulation and will be used to evaluate light scattering properties of the particles. Some particles raised by the retro-rockets during......The three iSweep targets on the Phoenix lander instrument deck utilize permanent magnets and 6 different background colors for studies of airborne dust [1]. The name iSweep is short for Improved Sweep Magnet experiments and derives from MER heritage [2, 3] as the rovers carried a sweep magnet......, which is a very strong ring magnet built into an aluminum structure. Airborne dust is attracted and held by the magnet and the pattern formed depends on magnetic properties of the dust. The visible/near-infrared spectra acquired of the iSweep are rather similar to typical Martian dust and soil spectra...

  17. PhoenixCloud: Provisioning Resources for Heterogeneous Workloads in Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Jianfeng; Shi, Weisong; Gong, Shimin; Zang, Xiutao

    2010-01-01

    As more and more service providers choose Cloud platforms, which is provided by third party resource providers, resource providers needs to provision resources for heterogeneous workloads in different Cloud scenarios. Taking into account the dramatic differences of heterogeneous workloads, can we coordinately provision resources for heterogeneous workloads in Cloud computing? In this paper we focus on this important issue, which is investigated by few previous work. Our contributions are threefold: (1) we respectively propose a coordinated resource provisioning solution for heterogeneous workloads in two typical Cloud scenarios: first, a large organization operates a private Cloud for two heterogeneous workloads; second, a large organization or two service providers running heterogeneous workloads revert to a public Cloud; (2) we build an agile system PhoenixCloud that enables a resource provider to create coordinated runtime environments on demand for heterogeneous workloads when they are consolidated on a C...

  18. Proceeding On : Parallelisation Of Critical Code Passages In PHOENIX/3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkenberg, Mario; Wichert, Viktoria; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2016-10-01

    Highly resolved state-of-the-art 3D atmosphere simulations will remain computationally extremely expensive for years to come. In addition to the need for more computing power, rethinking coding practices is necessary. We take a dual approach here, by introducing especially adapted, parallel numerical methods and correspondingly parallelising time critical code passages. In the following, we present our work on PHOENIX/3D.While parallelisation is generally worthwhile, it requires revision of time-consuming subroutines with respect to separability of localised data and variables in order to determine the optimal approach. Of course, the same applies to the code structure. The importance of this ongoing work can be showcased by recently derived benchmark results, which were generated utilis- ing MPI and OpenMP. Furthermore, the need for a careful and thorough choice of an adequate, machine dependent setup is discussed.

  19. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  20. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  1. Martian airfall dust on smooth, inclined surfaces as observed on the Phoenix Mars Lander telltale mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, John E.; Ha, Taesung; Lemmon, Mark T.; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur Páll

    2015-10-01

    The telltale mirror, a smooth inclined surface raised over 1 m above the deck of the Phoenix Mars Lander, was observed by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) several times per sol during the Phoenix Mars Lander mission. These observations were combined with a radiative transfer model to determine the thickness of dust on the wind telltale mirror as a function of time. 239 telltale sequences were analyzed and dustiness was determined on a diurnal and seasonal basis. The thickness of accumulated dust did not follow any particular diurnal or seasonal trend. The dust thickness on the mirror over the mission was 0.82±0.39 μm, which suggests a similar thickness to the modal scattering particle diameter. This suggests that inclining a surface beyond the angle of repose and polishing it to remove surface imperfections is an effective way to mitigate the accumulation of dust to less than a micron over a wide range of meteorological conditions and could be beneficial for surfaces which can tolerate some dust but not thick accumulations, such as solar panels. However, such a surface will not remain completely dust free through this action alone and mechanical or electrical clearing must be employed to remove adhered dust if a pristine surface is required. The single-scattering phase function of the dust on the mirror was consistent with the single-scattering phase function of martian aerosol dust at 450 nm, suggesting that this result is inconsistent with models of the atmosphere which require vertically or horizontally separated components or broad size distributions to explain the scattering behavior of these aerosols in the blue. The single-scattering behavior of the dust on the mirror is also consistent with Hapke modeling of spherical particles. The presence of a monolayer of particles would tend to support the spherical conclusion: such particles would be most strongly adhered electrostatically.

  2. Thermal and Evolved Gas Behavior of Calcite Under Mars Phoenix TEGA Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D.W.; Niles, P.B.; Morris, R.V.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.; Lauer, H.V.; Sutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Mission with its diverse instrument suite successfully examined several soils on the Northern plains of Mars. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was employed to detect organic and inorganic materials by coupling a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (MS). Martian soil was heated up to 1000 C in the DSC ovens and evolved gases from mineral decomposition products were examined with the MS. TEGA s DSC has the capability to detect endothermic and exothermic reactions during heating that are characteristic of minerals present in the Martian soil. Initial TEGA results indicated the presence of endothermic peaks with onset temperatures that ranged from 675 C to 750 C with corresponding CO2 release. This result suggests the presence of calcite (CaCO3. CaO + CO2). Organic combustion to CO2 is not likely since this mostly occurs at temperatures below 550 C. Fe-carbonate and Mg-carbonate are not likely because their decomposition temperatures are less than 600 C. TEGA enthalpy determinations suggest that calcite, may occur in the Martian soil in concentrations of approx.1 to 5 wt. %. The detection of calcite could be questioned based on previous results that suggest Mars soils are mostly acidic. However, the Phoenix landing site soil pH was measured at pH 8.3 0.5, which is typical of terrestrial soils where pH is controlled by calcite solubility. The range of onset temperatures and calcite concentration as calculated by TEGA is poorly con-strained in part because of limited thermal data of cal-cite at reduced pressures. TEGA operates at calcite literature thermal data was obtained at 1000 mbar or higher pressures.

  3. Characterization of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter species isolated during the Mars Phoenix spacecraft assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derecho, I; McCoy, K B; Vaishampayan, P; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2014-10-01

    The microbiological inventory of spacecraft and the associated assembly facility surfaces represent the primary pool of forward contaminants that may impact the integrity of life-detection missions. Herein, we report on the characterization of several strains of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter, which were isolated during the Mars Phoenix lander assembly. All Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter strains possessed very high catalase specific activities, and the specific strain, A. gyllenbergii 2P01AA, displayed a survival against hydrogen peroxide (no loss in 100 mM H2O2 for 1 h) that is perhaps the highest known among Gram-negative and non-spore-forming bacteria. Proteomic characterizations reveal a survival mechanism inclusive of proteins coupled to peroxide degradation (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy/redox management (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), protein synthesis/folding (EF-G, EF-Ts, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, DnaK), membrane functions (OmpA-like protein and ABC transporter-related protein), and nucleotide metabolism (HIT family hydrolase). Together, these survivability and biochemical parameters support the hypothesis that oxidative tolerance and the related biochemical features are the measurable phenotypes or outcomes for microbial survival in the spacecraft assembly facilities, where the low-humidity (desiccation) and clean (low-nutrient) conditions may serve as selective pressures. Hence, the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter, due to the conferred oxidative tolerances, may ultimately hinder efforts to reduce spacecraft bioburden when using chemical sterilants, thus suggesting that non-spore-forming bacteria may need to be included in the bioburden accounting for future life-detection missions.

  4. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  5. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of terrestrial carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Rink, W. Jack; Thompson, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbonates encompass a wide range of materials that potentially could be used for radiocarbon (14C) dating. Biogenic carbonates, including shells and tests of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods, bivalves, ostracodes, and foraminifera, are preserved in a variety of late Quaternary deposits and may be suitable for 14C dating. Primary calcareous deposits (marls, tufa, speleothems) and secondary carbonates (rhizoliths, fracture fill, soil carbonate) may also be targeted for dating when conditions are favorable. This chapter discusses issues that are commonly encountered in 14C dating of terrestrial carbonates, including isotopic disequilibrium and open-system behavior, as well as methods used to determine the reliability of ages derived from these materials. Recent methodological advancements that may improve the accuracy and precision of 14C ages of terrestrial carbonates are also highlighted.

  7. 31 CFR 536.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 536.302 Section 536... Definitions § 536.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... of specially designated narcotics traffickers designated after that date, the earlier of the date...

  8. 31 CFR 595.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 595.302 Section 595... § 595.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... of specially designated terrorists designated after that date, the earlier of the date on which...

  9. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  10. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  11. God's will, Favorable Geographical Position and Support of People Shanxi Phoenix Road of Rain and Shine, Song of Work Energetically for the Prosperity of the Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co.,Ltd. situated at the beautiful garden city, Changzhi. which is at the south side of Taihang Mountain with convenient transportation, preponderant geographical position and one of the national key energy chemical industry bases, known as "home to coal". The output of coal in Shanxi and Shaanxi accounts for 50% of the national coal output. So, the "Foreign Phoenix"settled down in this city.

  12. God's will, Favorable Geographical Position and Support of People Shanxi Phoenix Road of Rain and Shine, Song of Work Energetically for the Prosperity of the Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Shanxi Phoenix Conveyor Belt Co.,Ltd. situated at the beautiful garden city, Changzhi. which is at the south side of Taihang Mountain with convenient transportation, preponderant geographical position and one of the national key energy chemical industry bases, known as "home to coal". The output of coal in Shanxi and Shaanxi accounts for 50% of the national coal output. So, the "Foreign Phoenix"settled down in this city.……

  13. Improvement of In Vitro Date Palm Plantlet Acclimatization Rate with Kinetin and Hoagland Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mona M

    2017-01-01

    In vitro propagation of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. is an ideal method to produce large numbers of healthy plants with specific characteristics and has the ability to transfer plantlets to ex vitro conditions at low cost and with a high survival rate. This chapter describes optimized acclimatization procedures for in vitro date palm plantlets. Primarily, the protocol presents the use of kinetin and Hoagland solution to enhance the growth of Barhee cv. plantlets in the greenhouse at two stages of acclimatization and the appropriate planting medium under shade and sunlight in the nursery. Foliar application of kinetin (20 mg/L) is recommended at the first stage. A combination between soil and foliar application of 50% Hoagland solution is favorable to plant growth and developmental parameters including plant height, leaf width, stem base diameter, chlorophyll A and B, carotenoids, and indoles. The optimum values of vegetative growth parameters during the adaptation stage in a shaded nursery are achieved using planting medium containing peat moss/perlite 2:1 (v/v), while in a sunlight nursery, clay/perlite/compost at equal ratio is the best. This protocol is suitable for large-scale production of micropropagated date palm plantlets.

  14. Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Alhaj, Omar Amin; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (AAs) in edible fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) AAs and amino components are scarce. With emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, HPLC employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and GC-MS of total hydrolysates using the chiral stationary phases Chirasil(®)-L-Val and Lipodex(®) E. Besides common proteinogenic AAs, relatively large amounts of the following non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected: (2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid (1.4-4.0 g/kg dry matter, DM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (1.3-2.6 g/kg DM), γ-amino-n-butyric acid (0.5-1.2 g/kg DM), (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (130-230 mg/kg DM), L-pipecolic acid (40-140 mg/kg DM), and 2-aminoethanol (40-160 mg/kg DM) as well as low or trace amounts (amino acids in date fruits is briefly addressed.

  15. GE推出适用于电子制造业的高性能X射线检测系统——phoenix xlaminer%Phoenix Xlaminer of GE for Electronics Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE检测控制技术

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2011年5月12日,GE检测控制技术宣布最新推出的新型phoenix xlaminer是一个微焦点X射线检测系统,有5个轴,主要用于电子元件分装的质量控制,并适用于焊点的可靠精确检测.phoenix xlaminer具有2M像素的高分辨率和高放大率的特点.此外,强大的成像软件更具人性化设计,使用鼠标键盘操作,精确又简单.

  16. Adobe, rammed earth and wood: An energy-based environmental analysis of residential construction in Phoenix, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossen, C.L.

    1996-10-01

    More than 90% of the new single-family dwellings built in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area consists of wood frame construction. Using adobe and rammed earth as alternatives in residential wall construction are the main focus of this study. The study examines the process of home construction, concentrating on the environmental impacts of energy embodied in the four stages: extraction, transportation, construction, and operation. These four stages were applied to three prototypes built in the Phoenix Area throughout one year. The results are compared to determine which has the lowest environmental costs and most likely to benefit sustainability. The study requires a comparative analysis rather than a definite choice of a better prototype. The information provides assistance to the builder/designer with options about environmental impacts and the whole energy spectrum. Wherein previous research was based on performance standards of operation, one must also consider environmental impacts and externalities.

  17. Urban effects on regional climate: a case study in the Phoenix and Tucson ‘sun’ corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao Yang,; Francina Dominguez,; Hoshin Gupta,; Xubin Zeng,; Norman, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) due to urban expansion alter the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban regions is different from that of natural surfaces. To evaluate the changes in regional climate that could arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, Arizona, we applied the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM (which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme) to this region. Land cover changes were represented using land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050, and historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data were used to specify the lateral boundary conditions. Results suggest that temperature changes will be well defined, reflecting the urban heat island (UHI) effect within areas experiencing LULCC. Changes in precipitation are less robust, but seem to indicate reductions in precipitation over the mountainous regions northeast of Phoenix and decreased evening precipitation over the newly-urbanized area.

  18. Development of a binomial sampling plan for the carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Joon; Perring, Thomas M

    2010-08-01

    The seasonal density fluctuations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were determined in a commercial date, Phoenix dactylifera L. garden. Four fruit categories (axil, ground, abscised green, and abscised brown) were sampled, and two carob moth life stages, eggs and immatures (larvae and pupae combined), were evaluated on these fruits. Based on the relative consistency of these eight sampling units (four fruit categories and two carob moth stages), four were used for the development of a binomial sampling plan. The average number of carob moth eggs and immatures on ground and abscised brown fruit was estimated from the proportion of infested fruit, and these binomial models were evaluated for model fitness and precision. These analyses suggested that the best sampling plan should consist of abscised brown dates and carob moth immatures by using a sample size of 100 dates. The performance of this binomial plan was evaluated further using a resampling protocol with 25 independent data sets at action thresholds of 7, 10, and 15% to represent light, medium and severe infestations, respectively. Results from the resampling program suggested that increasing sample size from 100 to 150 dates improved the precision of the binomial sampling plan. Use of this sampling plan will be the cornerstone of an integrated pest management program for carob moth in dates.

  19. Effect of center cut strand thinning on fruit abscission and Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestation in California date gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Perring, Thomas M

    2009-06-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), infests different date, Phoenix dactylifera L., fruit stages during the summer months in southern California. Abscised fruit in the kimri stage become heavily infested when they get stuck in tight date bunches and do not fall to the ground. Previous work on date palm horticulture found that the percentage of fruit abscission could be reduced by thinning fruit out of the bunch. Our objective in this study was to determine whether center cut strand thinning reduced fruit abscission and, if so, to determine any concurrent effect on carob moth summer population densities. We found that the center cut treatment did not alter fruit abscission at any of the four date gardens used in the study. However, thinning in May reduced July carob moth densities at the four date gardens by 54-97%. The percentage reduction was apparent into September, ranging from 30 to 81%. This reduction was significant in two of the four fields, and we believe that center cut thinning in these fields altered the bunch architecture, allowing abscised fruit to fall to the ground. Implications for field management of the carob moth are discussed.

  20. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  1. Kimberley rock art dating project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, G.L. [Takarakka Rock Art Research Centre, NT, (Australia); Morwood, M. [New England University, Armidale, NSW, (Australia). Dept of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology

    1997-12-31

    The art`s additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a `window` into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it`s potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological `big picture` still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of `apparently old paintings`; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art.

  2. Possibilities for the detection of hydrogen peroxide-water-based life on Mars by the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtkooper, Joop M.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed on Mars on 25 May 2008. It has instruments on board to explore the geology and climate of subpolar Mars and to explore if life ever arose on Mars. Although the Phoenix mission is not a life detection mission per se, it will look for the presence of organic compounds and other evidence to support or discredit the notion of past or present life. The possibility of extant life on Mars has been raised by a reinterpretation of the Viking biology experiments [Houtkooper, J. M., Schulze-Makuch, D., 2007. A possible biogenic origin for hydrogen peroxide on Mars: the Viking results reinterpreted. International Journal of Astrobiology 6, 147-152]. The results of these experiments are in accordance with life based on a mixture of water and hydrogen peroxide instead of water. The near-surface conditions on Mars would give an evolutionary advantage to organisms employing a mixture of H 2O 2 and H 2O in their intracellular fluid: the mixture has a low freezing point, is hygroscopic and provides a source of oxygen. The H 2O 2-H 2O hypothesis also explains the Viking results in a logically consistent way. With regard to its compatibility with cellular contents, H 2O 2 is used for a variety of purposes in terran biochemistry. The ability of the anticipated organisms to withstand low temperatures and the relatively high water vapor content of the atmosphere in the Martian arctic, means that Phoenix will land in an area not inimical to H 2O 2-H 2O-based life. Phoenix has a suite of instruments which may be able to detect the signatures of such putative organisms.

  3. Nucleated succession by an endemic palm Phoenix pusilla enhances diversity of woody species in the arid Coromandel Coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Kinhal, Vijayalaxmi; Parthasarathy, N

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Phoenix pusilla, an endemic shrubby palm, was used as a model nurse plant in degraded tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) landscapes. This choice was informed by traditional ecological knowledge of the Irula tribe of south India. We tested whether the presence of P. pusilla in water-stressed arid regions improves conditions for other species to establish, resulting in nucleated succession. Success would point the way forward for establishing species-rich woodland in aband...

  4. The complexity behind the date

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    For the waiting world, and indeed for most of us here at CERN, ‘the LHC schedule’ simply means the date that the LHC will restart - and we only take notice when that end-date changes. But in fact the schedule is a constantly evolving intricate document coordinating all the repairs, consolidation and commissioning in every part of the machine. So, what actually goes on behind the scenes in timing and planning all the work on one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built?

  5. 31 CFR 593.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 593.302 Section 593... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date...)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of such person's designation....

  6. 31 CFR 548.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 548.302 Section 548....302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... pursuant to § 548.201(a), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice that such...

  7. 21 CFR 1312.25 - Expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration date. 1312.25 Section 1312.25 Food and... SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.25 Expiration date. An export permit shall not be valid after the date specified therein, which date shall conform to the expiration date specified in...

  8. 31 CFR 541.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 541.302 Section 541... § 541.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable....201(a)(2), the earlier of the date on which either actual notice or constructive notice is received...

  9. 31 CFR 544.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 544.302 Section 544... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date... property are blocked pursuant to § 544.201(a)(2), (a)(3), or (a)(4), the earlier of the date of actual...

  10. 31 CFR 547.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 547.303 Section 547... General Definitions § 547.303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the... blocked pursuant to § 547.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of...

  11. 31 CFR 551.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 551.302 Section 551....302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... the date of actual or constructive notice that such person's property and interests in property...

  12. 31 CFR 546.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 546.303 Section 546....303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... § 546.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of such person's designation....

  13. 31 CFR 543.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 543.303 Section 543... Definitions § 543.303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... § 543.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of such person's designation....

  14. 31 CFR 537.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 537.303 Section 537....303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... property of persons designated pursuant to § 537.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date on which either...

  15. 31 CFR 594.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 594.302 Section 594... Definitions § 594.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... to § 594.201(a)(2), (a)(3), or (a)(4), the earlier of the date on which is received actual...

  16. 31 CFR 588.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 588.302 Section 588... Definitions § 588.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... § 588.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date on which is received actual or constructive notice of...

  17. Climate change impacts on the future distribution of date palms: a modeling exercise using CLIMEX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Shabani

    Full Text Available Climate is changing and, as a consequence, some areas that are climatically suitable for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivation at the present time will become unsuitable in the future. In contrast, some areas that are unsuitable under the current climate will become suitable in the future. Consequently, countries that are dependent on date fruit export will experience economic decline, while other countries' economies could improve. Knowledge of the likely potential distribution of this economically important crop under current and future climate scenarios will be useful in planning better strategies to manage such issues. This study used CLIMEX to estimate potential date palm distribution under current and future climate models by using one emission scenario (A2 with two different global climate models (GCMs, CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS and MIROC-H (MR. The results indicate that in North Africa, many areas with a suitable climate for this species are projected to become climatically unsuitable by 2100. In North and South America, locations such as south-eastern Bolivia and northern Venezuela will become climatically more suitable. By 2070, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and western Iran are projected to have a reduction in climate suitability. The results indicate that cold and dry stresses will play an important role in date palm distribution in the future. These results can inform strategic planning by government and agricultural organizations by identifying new areas in which to cultivate this economically important crop in the future and those areas that will need greater attention due to becoming marginal regions for continued date palm cultivation.

  18. Climate change impacts on the future distribution of date palms: a modeling exercise using CLIMEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit; Taylor, Subhashni

    2012-01-01

    Climate is changing and, as a consequence, some areas that are climatically suitable for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivation at the present time will become unsuitable in the future. In contrast, some areas that are unsuitable under the current climate will become suitable in the future. Consequently, countries that are dependent on date fruit export will experience economic decline, while other countries' economies could improve. Knowledge of the likely potential distribution of this economically important crop under current and future climate scenarios will be useful in planning better strategies to manage such issues. This study used CLIMEX to estimate potential date palm distribution under current and future climate models by using one emission scenario (A2) with two different global climate models (GCMs), CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR). The results indicate that in North Africa, many areas with a suitable climate for this species are projected to become climatically unsuitable by 2100. In North and South America, locations such as south-eastern Bolivia and northern Venezuela will become climatically more suitable. By 2070, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and western Iran are projected to have a reduction in climate suitability. The results indicate that cold and dry stresses will play an important role in date palm distribution in the future. These results can inform strategic planning by government and agricultural organizations by identifying new areas in which to cultivate this economically important crop in the future and those areas that will need greater attention due to becoming marginal regions for continued date palm cultivation.

  19. Online Dating and Conjugal Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dannagal Goldthwaite; Caplan, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-presentation in the online dating profiles of 241 widowed and 280 divorced individuals between 18 and 40 years old. A content analysis of open-ended user-generated profiles assessed the presence or absence of various themes, including the user's marital status, the backstory of their lost relationship, and whether they…

  20. Physical Properties of the Icy Soil at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Goetz, W.; Mellon, M. T.; El Maarry, M.; Madsen, M. B.; Smith, P.; Pike, W.; Zent, A.; Hecht, M. H.; Ming, D.; Staufer, U.

    2008-12-01

    The geomorphological setting of the subpolar terrain at the landing site is characterized by polygonal structures. These structures are generated by long term and periodic cycles of contraction and expansion of the subsurface icy soil. The physical properties of the covering soil layer effectively control the details of this process that has its counterpart on earth in (sub) polar regions including the Siberian tundra and in Antartica. One of the prime science goals of the Phoenix mission is to investigate the physical properties of the icy soil, how these processes are influenced by water vapour diffusion in the regolith and exchange of the water vapour with the atmosphere. It is important to understand these processes on diurnal, seasonal, and climatic time scales. Phoenix landed in the middle of one of the polygons. Its retro rockets cleared the ice table of the polygon underneath the jet assemblies from ca. 5 to 10 cm of loose cloddy regolith. Soil was piled up in the centre. The fact that the soil looked still cloddy similar to that in undisturbed areas suggests strong cohesiveness of the matrix material. The clumps were not destroyed by the blast. Excavated regolith material imaged in the scoop was made up of agglomerates of grains smaller than the best resolution of the Robotic Arm Camera (20 micron). Higher resolution images (4 micron) of the microscope corroborate that the soil is predominantly composed of agglomerates of very small particles with a mean size comparable to those observed in the Martian atmosphere. The Atomic Force Microscope reveals micron sized particles and smaller, partly of plate-like shape, indicating clay like particles. The matrix material of the soil is of reddish colour probably due to iron oxideadmixture. Only about 10% by volume of the soil are most often rounded grains between 40 to 100 micrometers of diameter. Some are glassy resembling micro tektites, and most of these are magnetic. The cohesiveness of the clumps and clods of