WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun suppliers parts

  1. Improvement of Automotive Part Supplier Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongmunee, Chalermkwan; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    This research investigates the problem of the part supplier performance evaluation in a major Japanese automotive plant in Thailand. Its current evaluation scheme is based on experiences and self-opinion of the evaluators. As a result, many poor performance suppliers are still considered as good suppliers and allow to supply parts to the plant without further improvement obligation. To alleviate this problem, the brainstorming session among stakeholders and evaluators are formally conducted. The result of which is the appropriate evaluation criteria and sub-criteria. The analytical hierarchy process is also used to find suitable weights for each criteria and sub-criteria. The results show that a newly developed evaluation method is significantly better than the previous one in segregating between good and poor suppliers.

  2. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cieśla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method and a graphical method. Choosing the best offer and prioritizing suppliers allows not only the most rational decision in the field of supply logistics to be taken but also the quality of service in the metallurgical industry to be improved.

  3. Logistics Optimization of Auto Parts Supplier Embedded by Service Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue LONG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the logistics service optimization of auto parts suppliers in China, this paper proposes a logistics service optimization model of many service enterprises to one supplier. This model which takes two logistics service enterprises and one supplier as research objects includes the enterprise interests growth model based on the Lotka-Volterra model and interests distribution model using Shapley value method amended by the contribution factor. Furthermore, an example is given to testify the model. The results show that the auto parts supplier’s logistics can be improved and cost can be reduced if the logistics service alliance was established successfully with one core integrating service enterprise and a total logistics service solution was provided. The results also show that as the cost reduces, the interests of the alliance increase and the rational distribution by the integrating service enterprise will help promote the interests of all members

  4. 42 CFR 417.546 - Physicians' services and other Part B supplier services furnished under arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physicians' services and other Part B supplier....546 Physicians' services and other Part B supplier services furnished under arrangements. General principle. The amount paid by an HMO or CMP for physicians' services and other Part B supplier...

  5. 42 CFR 417.560 - Apportionment: Part B physician and supplier services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apportionment: Part B physician and supplier... B physician and supplier services. (a) Medical services furnished directly by the HMO or CMP. The total allowable cost of Part B physician and supplier services furnished by employees or partners of...

  6. 42 CFR 421.214 - Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maintain a financial system of data in accordance with the Statement of Federal Financial Accounting... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or... Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B. (a) Scope and applicability. This...

  7. A Tracking Sun Photometer Without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is small, lightweight, and consumes very little electricity as it measures the solar energy attenuated by gases and aerosol particles in the atmosphere. A Sun photometer is commonly used on the Earth's surface, as well as on aircraft, to determine the solar energy attenuated by aerosol particles in the atmosphere and their distribution of sizes. This information is used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, as well as their distribution sizes. The design for this Sun photometer uses a combination of unique optics and a charge coupled device (CCD) array to eliminate moving parts and make the instrument more reliable. It could be selfcalibrating throughout the year. Data products would be down-welling flux, the direct-diffuse flux ratio, column abundance of gas phase constituents, aerosol optical depth at multiple-wavelengths, phase functions, cloud statistics, and an estimate of the representative size of atmospheric particles. These measurements can be used to obtain an estimate of aerosol size distribution, refractive index, and particle shape. Incident light is received at a light-reflecting (inner) surface, which is a truncated paraboloid. Light arriving from a hemispheric field of view (solid angle 2 steradians) enters the reflecting optic at an entrance aperture at, or adjacent to, the focus of the paraboloid, and is captured by the optic. Most of this light is reflected from an inner surface. The light proceeds substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis, and is detected by an array detector located near an exit aperture. Each of the entrance and exit apertures is formed by the intersection of the paraboloid with a plane substantially perpendicular to the paraboloid axis. Incident (non-reflected) light from a source of limited extent (the Sun) illuminates a limited area on the detector array. Both direct and diffuse illumination may be reflected, or not reflected, before being received on

  8. Selection Model of Optional Parts in Suppliers Involved in New Product Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Lifeng; TANG Jiafu; PAN Zhendong; HAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Quality function deployment (QFD), which can translate efficiently customer requirement (CRs) into technical attributes (TAs), is widely used in new product development (NPD) as an efficient customer-driven approach. After lots of QFD application is applied in manufacturing fields, it was proved that without considering suppliers involved, it is difficult to get precise and satisfying results in each process of QFD, particularly part deployment. The paper will address the issues of a model of optional parts selection in suppliers involved in part deployment process. Further, it has been applied to an ERP system reconstruction and updating problem as an illustration.

  9. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 201 - Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for International Development (AID 282)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for International Development (AID 282) A Appendix A to Part 201 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR..., App. A Appendix A to Part 201—Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for...

  10. A hybrid analytical network process and fuzzy goal programming for supplier selection: A case study of auto part maker

    OpenAIRE

    Hesam Zande Hesami; Mohammad Ali Afshari; Seyed Ali Ayazi; Javad Siahkali Moradi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to present a hybrid model to select auto part suppliers. The proposed method of this paper uses factor analysis to find the most influencing factors on part maker selection and the results are validated using different statistical tests such as Cronbach's Alpha and Kaiser-Meyer.The hybrid model uses analytical network process to rank different part maker suppliers and fuzzy goal programming to choose the appropriate alternative among various choices. The implementa...

  11. Research on the Selection Strategy of Green Building Parts Supplier Based on the Catastrophe Theory and Kent Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the green building and housing industrialization are two mainstream directions in the real estate industry. The production of green building parts which combines green building and housing industrialization, two concepts, is to be vigorously developed. The key of quality assurance in the assembly project is choosing reliable and proper green building parts suppliers. This paper analyzes the inherent requirements of the green building, combined with the characteristics of the housing industrialization, and puts forward an evaluation index system of supplier selection for green building parts, which includes product index, enterprise index, green development index, and cooperation ability index. To reduce the influence of subjective factors, the improved method which merges Kent index method and catastrophe theory is applied to the green building parts supplier selection and evaluation. This paper takes the selection of the unit bathroom suppliers as an example, uses the improved model to calculate and analyze the data of each supplier, and finally selects the optimal supplier. With combination of the Kent index and the catastrophe theory, the result shows that it can effectively reduce the subjectivity of the evaluation and provide a basis for the selection of the green building parts suppliers.

  12. Electrification of the transportation sector: Is there a need for restructuring the automotive parts suppliers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaslan, A. Ebru

    The future of the transportation sector has significant implications for the mitigation of climate change through reduced GHG emissions as well as achieving energy efficiency and energy independence. Battery-powered, plug-in, and hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as the greatest source of a solution. This thesis analyzes the historical development and growth of the automotive industry as well as the restructuring toward the next generation technologies in comparison with the U.S. and China to shed light on the question of how a developing country can structure its strategies to be able to upgrade and be competitive over time. Conventional business models can become obsolete. Companies will find it difficult to maintain their market position unless they gain new perspectives on the outlook of the industry as a whole, and take into account the successful business models of tomorrow. The potential for further growth of the Turkish automotive supplier base particularly in the next generation of automotive technologies is therefore highly dependent on policies and strategies at the national level as much as its dependence on the global strategies of the automotive industry's major players. In this sense, the key questions that motivate this study are whether there are foreseeable technological changes and product-segmentation strategies that could significantly enhance the competitiveness of local Turkish suppliers of automotive components. The thesis builds on the theory of innovative enterprise and evolutionary agglomeration to examine the competitive potential of the Konya Auto Part Suppliers' Cluster in Turkey.

  13. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  14. A hybrid analytical network process and fuzzy goal programming for supplier selection: A case study of auto part maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Zande Hesami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present a hybrid model to select auto part suppliers. The proposed method of this paper uses factor analysis to find the most influencing factors on part maker selection and the results are validated using different statistical tests such as Cronbach's Alpha and Kaiser-Meyer.The hybrid model uses analytical network process to rank different part maker suppliers and fuzzy goal programming to choose the appropriate alternative among various choices. The implementation of the proposed model of this paper is used for a case study of real-world problem and the results are discussed.

  15. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  16. A Core Model for Parts Suppliers Selecting Method in Manufacturing Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-oriented manufacturing is the new development of manufacturing systems, and manufacturing supply chain service is also an important part of the service-oriented manufacturing systems; hence, the optimal selection of parts suppliers becomes one of key problems in the supply chain system. Complex network theories made a rapid progress in recent years, but the classical models such as BA model and WS model can not resolve the widespread problems of manufacturing supply chain, such as the repeated attachment of edge and fixed number of vertices, but edges increased with preferential connectivity, and flexible edges’ probability. A core model is proposed to resolve the problem in the paper: it maps the parts supply relationship as a repeatable core; a vertex’s probability distribution function integrating the edge’s rate and vertex’s degree is put forward; some simulations, such as the growth of core, the degree distribution characteristics, and the impacting of parameter, are carried out in our experiments, and the case study is set also. The paper proposed a novel model to analyze the manufacturing supply chain system from the insights of complex network.

  17. Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sun Microsystems, Inc. is committed to open standards,a standardization system, and sharing within the information tech nology field, focusing not only on technical innovation, but also on new ideas, practices and future development.

  18. Suppliers in the wine sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Šperková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppliers are an important part of business because they supply the company with sources for production. If a company relies solely on one supplier, it may interrupt the flow of production due to failure to deliver material. Suppliers can demonstrate its strength mainly by increasing prices or reducing the quality of supplied materials. In the wine sector, there are the following major groups of suppliers: feedstock suppliers (wine grapes, suppliers of chemical additives and other substances necessary for the production of wine, suppliers of manufacturing technology, suppliers of packaging materials, energy suppliers and other vendors.Highest bargaining power is currently available to suppliers of energy, because energy is an essential resource for the industry and there are few suppliers of this product. But their bargaining power gradually decreases depending on the liberalization of energy markets, supported by interest in this area. Overall, it can be stated that the bargaining effect is of medium importance.

  19. On the Physical Constitution of the SunPart I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye H.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Patrice Robitaille (TAV College, Montreal, Canada provides a translation of Herv ́ e August Etienne Albans Faye’s classic report Sur la constitution physique du soleil , as it appeared in February 1865 within Les Mondes ,1865, v.7, 293–306. Herv ́ e Faye (Oc- tober 1, 1814 – July 4, 1902 led a distinguished life, both in science and public ser- vice. He was widely regarded as one of the premier astronomers of his day. He had studied under the great Franc ̧ois Arago. In 1843, he became a Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur and, in 1877, served as the French Minister of Education (Catholic Ency- clopedia, 1913. Faye’s report On the Physical Constitution of the Sun was a crucial milestone in the history of astronomy. It was through this paper, that the Sun became viewed as devoid of a distinct surface. The work was also interesting as it presented Faye’s early conception of the gaseous Sun. In addition, through its submission, Faye had sought the approbation of Father Secchi relative to claims of simultaneous discov- ery (see P.M.Robitaille. A Thermodynamic History of the Solar Constitution — I: The Journey to a Gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys. , 2011, v.3, 3–25. Faye’s work would continue to impact solar physics until the 1920s.

  20. Application of factor analysis for agile supply chain classification: A case study on the Iranian automotive parts supplier (SAPKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Rafeie rad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Today automotive companies must pioneer in strategies such as the agile supply chain for competition and various demands of customers. Considering the importance of agile in choosing a supplier at the supply chain, this study tries to identify and evaluate agile activities in SAPCO Company suppliers. Then, using principal component analysis of factor analysis, a number of related activities are divided into smaller groups called factor. The results are used by SAPCO to determine agile patterns in selecting a supplier with emphasis on similarities and differences and create agile portfolio. The study can help SAPCO identify criteria and making decision in the field of agile at suppliers.

  1. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of the Implementation and Extension of Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in Designated Geographic Locations and Lifting of the Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers in All Geographic Locations. Extension, implementation, and lifting of temporary moratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    This document announces the extension of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and Medicare home health agencies (HHAs), subunits, and branch locations in specific locations within designated metropolitan areas in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey to prevent and combat fraud, waste, and abuse. It also announces the implementation of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and Medicare HHAs, subunits, and branch locations in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey on a statewide basis. In addition, it announces the lifting of the moratoria on all Part B emergency ground ambulance suppliers. These moratoria, and the changes described in this document, also apply to the enrollment of HHAs and non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program.

  2. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part I. Energy, Society, and the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which were selected for information on solar energy is presented in this booklet. This booklet is the first of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles provide brief discussions on topics such as the power of the sun, solar energy developments for homes, solar energy versus power plants, solar access laws, and the role of utilities with respect to the sun's energy. (BCS)

  3. RFID-enabled real-time manufacturing for automotive part and accessory suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Automotive part and accessory manufacturers (APAMs) at the lower tiers of the automotive vertical have been following leading vehicle assemblers in adopting RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and ubiquitous computing technologies, aiming to alleviate their advanced manufacturing systems. RFID-enabled real-time traceability and visibility facilitate the implementation of advanced strategies such as Just-In-Time (JIT) lean / responsive manufacturing and mass customization (MC). Being typical...

  4. Supplier involvement in new product development: The preferred supplier from the purchasing, engineering and supplier perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopecka, J.A.; Santema, S.C.; Hultink, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The presented research is part of an on-going explanatory multiple case study on the information relationship between Purchasing, Engineering and Suppliers in product development. The paper addresses the question of what in the perception of Engineering, Purchasing and Suppliers constitutes a prefer

  5. Supplier Selection Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza kadhodazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppliers are one of the most vital parts of supply chain whose operation has significant indirect effect on customer satisfaction. Since customer's expectations from organization are different, organizations should consider different standards, respectively. There are many researches in this field using different standards and methods in recent years. The purpose of this study is to propose an approach for choosing a supplier in a food manufacturing company considering cost, quality, service, type of relationship and structure standards of the supplier organization. To evaluate supplier according to the above standards, the fuzzy inference system has been used. Input data of this system includes supplier's score in any standard that is achieved by AHP approach and the output is final score of each supplier. Finally, a supplier has been selected that although is not the best in price and quality, has achieved good score in all of the standards.

  6. A BSC method for supplier selection strategy using TOPSIS and VIKOR: A case study of part maker industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Azar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, provision-chain management has been one of the major concepts. The main reason that attracts attention to the concept is the increase in competition and struggle for the survival. There are different ways to increase the competition in organizations such as increasing productivity by acquiring information technology. In this paper, we present an integrated model with the balanced score card framework for supplier selection strategy. The proposed model of this paper gathers 161 important factors suggested in the literature and selects the six most important ones using different multi criteria techniques. We also propose a goal programming techniques with some hard constraints and implement the mathematical model for real-world case study of auto industry. The proposed model is solved in four different forms using TOPSIS, VIKOR and the combination of these 2 factors with factor analysis. The preliminary results indicate that a combination of VIKOR and factor analysis presented better results with 9% reduction in costs, 38% increase of quality, and 3.2% increase in acceptability.

  7. JIT 模式下设备备件供应商选择研究%Research on Spare Parts Supplier Selection under JIT Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新敏; 王宇翔; 刘设

    2015-01-01

    In the JIT mode,the low-stock risk is common for spare parts and the demand have particularities which are different from production parts.It should be paid attention to in supplier selection decision.This paper adds to index of urgent demand,fast -response time and its additional cost based on traditional evaluating indicators,and indexes are revised,establish relevant mathematical model.Finally,the model is solved by modified Genetic Algorithm.An illustrative example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed decision scheme which can involve the emergency supply capacity of suppliers.The result is consistent with actual situation in enterprises.%在JIT生产模式中,针对设备备件较常见的低库存风险和备件需求不同于生产件的特殊性,在其供应商选择决策中应予以充分考虑。文中在传统评价指标的基础上,引入紧急缺货指数、应急反应时间及其附加成本指标,并将其量化、修正,建立相应的数学模型,运用改进的遗传算法求解形成决策方案。实例验证表明,新的决策方案兼顾了供应商的紧急供货能力,与企业的设备备件供应需求实际更加符合。

  8. 42 CFR 424.56 - Payment to a beneficiary and to a supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to a beneficiary and to a supplier. 424.56... § 424.56 Payment to a beneficiary and to a supplier. (a) Conditions for split payment. If the... partly to the supplier. (b) Payment to the supplier. Payment to the supplier who submits the...

  9. Application of VIKOR Algorithm in Choice of Spare Parts Suppliers in VMI%VIKOR 算法在 VMI 备件供应商选择的评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海草; 易树平

    2014-01-01

    针对供应链环境下备件供应商选择的复杂性,在进行备件分类管理的基础上分析了供应商管理库存(VMI)对 B 类备件的适用性,构建了 VMI 备件供应商的评价指标体系,应用熵权法确定了相应评价指标的权重,并运用 VIKOR 算法对备件供应商进行了评价研究。通过实例证明了该方法在备件供应商选择中的有效性。%The suitability of VMI to the kind of B spare parts was analyzed based on the sort management of spare parts which is aimed at complexity of the selection of parts suppliers under the environment of the supply chain.A supplier evalu-ation index system was structured,with the weights of corresponding indicators determined via entropy method,and spare parts suppliers evaluated via VIKOR algorithm.Finally,the effectiveness has been proved effective in the selection of spare parts suppliers in examples.

  10. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of the Provider Enrollment Moratoria Access Waiver Demonstration of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in Moratoria-Designated Geographic Locations. Implementation of the waiver demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    This notice announces the Provider Enrollment Moratoria Access Waiver Demonstration of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in 6 states. The demonstration is being implemented in accordance with section 402 of the Social Security Amendments of 1967 and gives CMS the authority to grant waivers to the statewide enrollment moratoria on a case-by-case basis in response to access to care issues, and to subject providers and suppliers enrolling via such waivers to heightened screening, oversight, and investigations.

  11. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of the Extension of Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in Designated Geographic Locations. Extension of temporary moratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    This document announces the extension of statewide temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance providers and suppliers and Medicare home health agencies, subunits, and branch locations in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, as applicable, to prevent and combat fraud, waste, and abuse. This extension also applies to the enrollment of new non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and home health agencies, subunits, and branch locations in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program in those states.

  12. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  13. Defense Supplier Base: DOD Should Leverage Ongoing Initiatives in Developing Its Program to Mitigate Risk of Counterfeit Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    materials ranging from titanium used in aircraft engine mounts to Kevlar used in body armor plates. The following illustrates the examples of counterfeit...found that they were wired with the wrong material. Upon discovery , the parts were segregated and did not enter the supply stream. Counterfeit...took ownership of them. Body armor DLA procured non- Kevlar material that was misrepresented as Kevlar and discovered the discrepancy during testing

  14. Scintillation and irregularities from the nightside part of a Sun-aligned polar cap arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeren, Christer; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Lorentzen, Dag A.; Paxton, Larry J.; Clausen, Lasse B. N.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study the presence of irregularities and scintillation in relation to the nightside part of a long-lived, Sun-aligned transpolar arc on 15 January 2015. The arc was observed in DMSP UV and particle data and lasted at least 3 h between 1700 and 2000 UT. The arc was more intense than the main oval during this time. From all-sky imagers on Svalbard we were able to study the evolution of the arc, which drifted slowly westward toward the dusk cell. The intensity of the arc as observed from ground was 10-17 kR in 557.7 nm and 2-3.5 kR in 630.0 nm, i.e., significant emissions in both green and red emission lines. We have used high-resolution raw data from global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers and backscatter from Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars to study irregularities and scintillation in relation to the polar cap arc. Even though the literature has suggested that polar cap arcs are potential sources for irregularities, our results indicate only very weak irregularities. This may be due to the background density in the northward IMF polar cap being too low for significant irregularities to be created.

  15. Scintillation and irregularities from the nightside part of a Sun-aligned polar cap arc

    CERN Document Server

    van der Meeren, Christer; Lorentzen, Dag A; Paxton, Larry J; Clausen, Lasse B N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the presence of irregularities and scintillation in relation to the nightside part of a long-lived, Sun-aligned transpolar arc on 15 January 2015. The arc was observed in DMSP UV and particle data and lasted at least 3 h between 1700 and 2000 UT. The arc was more intense than the main oval during this time. From all-sky imagers on Svalbard we were able to study the evolution of the arc, which drifted slowly westward toward the dusk cell. The intensity of the arc as observed from ground was 10-17 kR in 557.7 nm and 2-3.5 kR in 630.0 nm, i.e., significant emissions in both green and red emission lines. We have used high-resolution raw data from global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers and backscatter from Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars to study irregularities and scintillation in relation to the polar cap arc. Even though the literature has suggested that polar cap arcs are potential sources for irregularities, our results indicate only very weak irregular...

  16. Supplier Evaluation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Ellegaard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illuminate how supplier evaluation practices are linked to supplier performance improvements. Specifically, the paper investigates how performance information travelling between the evaluating buyer and the evaluated suppliers is shaped and reshaped...... in the evaluation process. Design/methodology/approach – The paper relies on a multiple, longitudinal case research methodology. The two cases show two companies' efforts in designing, implementing, and using supplier evaluation in order to improve supplier performance. Findings – The findings show how the dynamics...... of representing, reducing, amplifying, dampening, and directing shape and reshape supplier evaluation information. In both companies, evaluation practices were defined, redefined, and re-directed by the involved actors' perception and decision making, as well as organisational structures, IT systems...

  17. Does supplier evaluation impact process improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Prasad h c

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research explores and examines factors for supplier evaluation and its impact on process improvement particularly aiming on a steel pipe manufacturing firm in Gujarat, India. Design/Methodology/approach: The conceptual research framework was developed and hypotheses were stated considering the analysis of literature and discussions with the managers and engineers of a steel pipe manufacturing company in Gujarat, India. Data was collected using in-depth interview. The questionnaire primarily involves the perception of evaluation of supplier. Factors influencing supplier evaluation and its influence on process improvement is also examined in this study. The model testing and validation was done using partial least square method. Outcomes signified that the factors that influence evaluation of the supplier are quality, cost, delivery and supplier relationship management. Findings: The study depicted that quality and cost factors for supplier evaluation are insignificant. The delivery and supplier relationship management have significant influence on evaluation of the supplier. The research also depicted that supplier evaluation has significant influence on process improvement. Research limitations/implications: The study has been made specifically for ABC steel pipe manufacturing industry in Gujarat, India and may not be appropriate to the other industries or any parts of the world. There is a possibility of response bias as the conclusions of this research was interpreted on survey responses taken from the employees of case study company, so it is suggested that future research can overcome this problem by employing various methodologies in addition to surveys like carrying out focus group and in-depth interviews, brainstorming sessions with the experts etc. Originality/value: Many researchers have considered quality, cost and delivery as the factors for evaluating the suppliers. But for a company it is quintessential to have good

  18. Supplier Assessment System (SAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sponsored by NASA Headquarters; Charter - provide information to assist the quality assurance community in evaluating and determining supplier risk; Comprehensive on-line repository of supplier information; Available to approved civil service personnel from all NASA Centers, other U.S. Government Agencies, Prime Contractors, and NASA direct support contractors; User access to specific data types or documents is controlled as needed.

  19. Supplier Resource Mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    Companies that wish to draw benefit from supplier resources beyond standard market offerings must actively make an effort to mobilize these resources. This task has been a major topic of interest in the management literature, but the continued reported problems of companies attempting to influence...... suppliers suggests that the knowledge of this challenge is yet inadequate. The purpose of this paper is therefore to establish a research agenda on supplier resource mobilization that can improve this knowledge. To fulfill the purpose we review the management literature and identify the most prevalent...... theoretical perspectives. This review, synthesis, and resultant discussion allow us to propose that future research should look closer at the resource activation process on the supplier side, the role of the buyer-supplier relationship in resource mobilization, and the approach of the buying company...

  20. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Mobli, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  1. Supplier Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Eric; Gutheinz, Sandy; Brison, James; Ho, Anita; Allen, James; Ceritelli, Olga; Tobar, Claudia; Nguyen, Thuykien; Crenshaw, Harrel; Santos, Roxann

    2008-01-01

    Supplier Management System (SMS) allows for a consistent, agency-wide performance rating system for suppliers used by NASA. This version (2.0) combines separate databases into one central database that allows for the sharing of supplier data. Information extracted from the NBS/Oracle database can be used to generate ratings. Also, supplier ratings can now be generated in the areas of cost, product quality, delivery, and audit data. Supplier data can be charted based on real-time user input. Based on these individual ratings, an overall rating can be generated. Data that normally would be stored in multiple databases, each requiring its own log-in, is now readily available and easily accessible with only one log-in required. Additionally, the database can accommodate the storage and display of quality-related data that can be analyzed and used in the supplier procurement decision-making process. Moreover, the software allows for a Closed-Loop System (supplier feedback), as well as the capability to communicate with other federal agencies.

  2. Supplier Directory Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These are the official datasets used on the Medicare.gov Supplier Directory provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. They provide names,...

  3. CERN recognises LHC suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN has just presented the first awards recognising LHC suppliers. The Russian institute BINP, the Belgian firm Cockerill-Sambre and the US company Wah-Chang are the recipients of the first 'Golden Hadrons'.

  4. Industrial excellence is rewarded by CMS : as part of the sixth annual ceremony to honour its top suppliers, the CMS collaboration presented awards to nine firms

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2005-01-01

    Photo 31 : the representatives of the firms that received the CMS best supplier awards displaying their awards on 5 April. From left to right: C. Fulvia (Plyform), K. Sato and K. Yamamura (Hamamatsu Photonics), G. Roveta (Criotec Impianti), M. Fornari (Telema), H. P. Reinhardt (Reinhardt Microtech), M. Sonninen (Planar Systems), E. Dyakov (Lutch), M. Mottier (NGK Instulators) and J. Vital (Chipidea Microelectronics).

  5. Evaluating supplier quality performance using analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimuthu Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ahmad, Nazihah

    2013-09-01

    This paper elaborates the importance of evaluating supplier quality performance to an organization. Supplier quality performance evaluation reflects the actual performance of the supplier exhibited at customer's end. It is critical in enabling the organization to determine the area of improvement and thereafter works with supplier to close the gaps. Success of the customer partly depends on supplier's quality performance. Key criteria as quality, cost, delivery, technology support and customer service are categorized as main factors in contributing to supplier's quality performance. 18 suppliers' who were manufacturing automotive application parts evaluated in year 2010 using weight point system. There were few suppliers with common rating which led to common ranking observed by few suppliers'. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a user friendly decision making tool for complex and multi criteria problems was used to evaluate the supplier's quality performance challenging the weight point system that was used for 18 suppliers'. The consistency ratio was checked for criteria and sub-criteria. Final results of AHP obtained with no overlap ratings, therefore yielded a better decision making methodology as compared to weight point rating system.

  6. Buyer-supplier relationships and planning solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.; Steger-Jensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on supply chain relationships and segmented planning and ICT concepts. Major supplier segments are distinguished based on literature: capacity suppliers, standard suppliers, system suppliers and key suppliers. Next, current supply chain planning solutions are distinguished: vendor

  7. Buyer-supplier relationships and planning solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.; Steger-Jensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on supply chain relationships and segmented planning and ICT concepts. Major supplier segments are distinguished based on literature: capacity suppliers, standard suppliers, system suppliers and key suppliers. Next, current supply chain planning solutions are distinguished: vendor

  8. Sun为eCommerce提供高可用性平台--记电子商务外包资源领先提供商Digital River对Sun平台的选用%Provision of Highly Applicable Platform by Sun for E-Commerce:Selection of Sun Platform by Digital River, the Leading Supplier of E-Commerce Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN公司北京分公司

    2004-01-01

    @@ Digital River公司是全球领先的电子商务外包资源提供商,在Sun StorEdge 9960磁盘阵列、Sun Fire 6800服务器,以及Sun 420R/280R架装式服务器等系统的采用,成功地提高了网络系统的性能,并扩展了客户服务项目.

  9. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  10. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a combined multi-phase supplier selection model. The process repeatedly revisits the criteria and sourcing decision as the development process continues. This enables a structured adoption of product and production system innovation from strategic suppliers, where...... strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...... the literature on working with strategic suppliers. Specifically, we explicitly articulate the previously unreported issue of whether a supplier chosen for its innovation capabilities at the start of the new product development process will also be the most appropriate supplier during the production system...

  11. Ranking green electronic supplier in auto industry using fuzzy Delphi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sarmad Saeidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to rank different green supplier involved in supplement of electronic parts in auto industry using fuzzy Delphi. The proposed study uses the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process for weighing criteria and VIKOR method to rank the suppliers. The results show that measures of corporate social responsibility, environmental management system, green procurement and green production are the most important criteria for green supplier selection. In addition, product quality, online tracking of orders, delivery time and quality of online information are the most important criteria for choosing a green electronic supplier.

  12. ATLAS recognises its best suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has recently rewarded two of its suppliers in the construction of very major detector components, fabricated in Japan. The ATLAS Supplier Award in recognition of excellent supplier performance has just been attributed to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, while Toshiba Corporation received the award two months ago at their headquarters in Japan.

  13. SUPPLIER ISSUES FOR LEAN IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHIM SINGH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Applying lean manufacturing philosophy is one of the most important concepts that help enterprises to gain competitive advantage in the world market. Suppliers are an important factor contributing to thesuccess of going lean. Major businesses in India as well as in other world, have been trying to integrate its suppliers to give better performance. In Indian small & medium scale enterprises (SME,application of lean manufacturing strategies especially in terms of supplier integration, have been far fewer. Indian SMEs are still resisting accepting the role of their suppliers to make them leaner. The aim of this study was to identify the supplier issues and their weightage in implementing the lean philosophy in Indian SMEs. The research hypothesizes that there are big opportunities for improvement in the Indian SMEs if it is made leaner by integrating its suppliers in its manufacturing system. Author identified total 21 supplier issues and divided these 21 supplier issues in four categories on conceptual basis named as Supplier Management strategy, Information Sharing with supplier, Supplier Integration, Capability to deal with uncertainty. Mean scores of all four categorized groups of supplier issues are ranked.

  14. Two ATLAS suppliers honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recognised the outstanding contribution of two firms to the pixel detector. Recipients of the supplier award with Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN Secretary-General.At a ceremony held at CERN on 28 November, the ATLAS collaboration presented awards to two of its suppliers that had produced sensor wafers for the pixel detector. The CiS Institut für Mikrosensorik of Erfurt in Germany has supplied 655 sensor wafers containing a total of 1652 sensor tiles and the firm ON Semiconductor has supplied 515 sensor wafers (1177 sensor tiles) from its foundry at Roznov in the Czech Republic. Both firms have successfully met the very demanding requirements. ATLAS’s huge pixel detector is very complicated, requiring expertise in highly specialised integrated microelectronics and precision mechanics. Pixel detector project leader Kevin Einsweiler admits that when the project was first propo...

  15. 面向绿色供应链的汽车零部件供应商选择研究%Study on Selecting Suppliers of Auto Components and Parts Based on Green Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小鹏; 路忻

    2014-01-01

    Green supply chain is an important means to enhance auto manufacturers harmonious with the environment, it’s the foundation for auto manufacturers establishing green system and developing green products that choosing suppliers of auto components and parts correctly based on green supply chain. According to the feature of green supply chain, this essay establishes the evaluate index system for suppliers of auto components and parts, and builds the evaluate model applying threshold method and the gray relational analysis.%绿色供应链是提升汽车制造企业与环境友好的重要手段,面向绿色供应链正确选择零部件供应商是汽车制造企业发展绿色产品、打造绿色体系的基础。文中根据绿色供应链的特征,构建了汽车零部件供应商评价指标体系,并采用阈值法和灰色关联法建立了评价模型,通过算例具体分析了选择供应商的过程,证实了该评价模型的有效性。

  16. Innovation During the Supplier Selection Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Pedraza, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Established ideas on supplier selection have not moved much from the original premise of how to choose between bidders. Whilst we have added many different tools and refinements to choose between alternative suppliers, its nature has not evolved. We move the original selection process approach...... observed through an ethnographic embedded researcher study has refined the selection process and has two selection stages one for first supply covering tool/process developed and another later for resupply of mature parts. We report the details of the process, those involved, the criteria employed...... and identify benefits and weaknesses of this enhanced selection process....

  17. Risk sharing in the supplier relationship: new evidence from the Japanese automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Okamuro, Hiroyuki

    1997-01-01

    The Japanese corporate system is assumed to contain an implicit insurance mechanism in various aspects. This paper proves the existence of risk sharing mechanism in supplier relations in a different way from the previous studies, using a unique data set of Japanese automotive parts suppliers. The results suggest that the auto makers absorb a part of the business risk of the suppliers, in spite of recent structural changes in the supplier system: The relative stability of their profit rate is ...

  18. Did Jupiter's core form in the innermost parts of the Sun's protoplanetary disk?

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, Sean N; Bitsch, Bertram; Jacobson, Seth A

    2016-01-01

    Jupiter's core is generally assumed to have formed beyond the snow line. Here we consider an alternative scenario, that Jupiter's core may have accumulated in the innermost parts of the protoplanetary disk. A growing body of research suggests that small particles ("pebbles") continually drift inward through the disk. If a fraction of drifting pebbles is trapped at the inner edge of the disk a several Earth-mass core can quickly grow. Subsequently, the core may migrate outward beyond the snow line via planet-disk interactions. Of course, to reach the outer Solar System Jupiter's core must traverse the terrestrial planet-forming region. We use N-body simulations including synthetic forces from an underlying gaseous disk to study how the outward migration of Jupiter's core sculpts the terrestrial zone. If the outward migration is fast (Tmig~10^4 years), the core simply migrates past resident planetesimals and planetary embryos. However, if its migration is slower (Tmig~10^5 years) the core removes solids from th...

  19. Unveiling the importance of being a preferred customer in order to develop innovations with suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Schiele, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this research is to understand why early supplier integration in new product development repeatedly fails and how to select the right suppliers to avoid supplier obstructionism. We review the literature on early supplier integration. Research method: We conducted a consortial benchmarking study, involving seven firms as part of the research consortium and benchmarking visits to six best-practice firms. Research findings: Literature...

  20. Fit, Healthy, and Ready To Learn: A School Health Policy Guide. Part II: Policies To Promote Sun Safety and Prevent Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Katherine

    This publication is a supplementary chapter to "Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide; Part I: General School Health Policies, Physical Activity, Healthy Eating, and Tobacco-Use Prevention." It discusses various aspects of a complete school policy and plan to promote sun safety. The first section "Purpose…

  1. Fit, Healthy, and Ready To Learn: A School Health Policy Guide. Part II: Policies To Promote Sun Safety and Prevent Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Katherine

    This publication is a supplementary chapter to "Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide; Part I: General School Health Policies, Physical Activity, Healthy Eating, and Tobacco-Use Prevention." It discusses various aspects of a complete school policy and plan to promote sun safety. The first section "Purpose…

  2. Outsourcing and supplier learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing agreement that Indian software firms are making the transition from competitive advantage based on low cost to competitive advantage based on innovation. However, there are few insights about how this transition process works. This paper seeks to bring together the outsourcing......, global value chains and firm capability literatures. It draws on empirical material focused on learning and innovation ‘events’ in Indian software firms – their inputs and sources – and makes headway in opening the ‘black box’ of supplier learning in outsourcing relationships. This paper suggests...... that learning from customers was important but insufficient for making the transition. Capability formation depended significantly on other channels and mechanisms outside or independent of outsourcing relationships. This paper shows how firms actively mobilised and combined internal and external sources...

  3. Outsourcing and supplier learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing agreement that Indian software firms are making the transition from competitive advantage based on low cost to competitive advantage based on innovation. However, there are few insights about how this transition process works. This paper seeks to bring together the outsourcing......, global value chains and firm capability literatures. It draws on empirical material focused on learning and innovation ‘events’ in Indian software firms – their inputs and sources – and makes headway in opening the ‘black box’ of supplier learning in outsourcing relationships. This paper suggests...... that learning from customers was important but insufficient for making the transition. Capability formation depended significantly on other channels and mechanisms outside or independent of outsourcing relationships. This paper shows how firms actively mobilised and combined internal and external sources...

  4. LHC: seven golden suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The fourth CERN Golden Hadron awards saw seven of the LHC's best suppliers receive recognition for the high quality of their work, compliance with delivery deadlines, flexibility and adaptability to the demanding working conditions of the project. The representatives of the seven companies which received awards during the Golden Hadron ceremony, standing with Lyn Evans, LHC Project Leader. 'The Golden Hadron awards are a symbol of our appreciation of not only the quality and timely delivery of components but also the collaborative and flexible way the firms have contributed to this very difficult project,' said Lyn Evans, head of the LHC project. The awards went to Kemppi-Kempower (Finland), Metso Powdermet (Finland), Transtechnik (Germany), Babcock Noell Nuclear (Germany), Iniziative Industriali (Italy), ZTS VVU Kosice (Slovakia), and Jehier (France). Babock Noell Nuclear (BNN) successfully produced one-third (416 cold dipole masses) of the LHC's superconducting dipole magnets, one of the most critical an...

  5. CMS and ATLAS honour their suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    In order to motivate the hundreds of companies building their detectors, the CMS and ATLAS collaborations have recently been handing out awards of excellence to their top suppliers. At its second ceremony of this kind, CMS honoured four of its suppliers, while ATLAS for the first time paid tribute to two of its contractors. The atmosphere in the Council Chamber was festive rather than formal at the start of CMS week on Monday 5 March. Before embarking upon a long series of seminars and presentations, the Collaboration held its second awards ceremony to honour its top suppliers. By paying tribute to the exceptional efforts of certain suppliers, the Collaboration's aim is to motivate all the firms, some 500 in total, taking part in the experiment's construction. The CMS Awards panel thus singles out contractors who have not only provided full satisfaction in terms of compliance with specifications, quality and deadlines, but have in addition provided original solutions to delicate problems. Four firms came away...

  6. Supplier Selection: An Intelligent Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, A.; Ray, A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a generic model of intelligence and cognitive science-based method that can play an active role in selecting the best supplier in the supply chain management system. In this paper, an intelligent system was conceived for prediction of the best supplier from the set of suppliers in the supply chain management system. Initially, the proposed system incorporates the tangible and intangible data as inputs to the system in the fuzzy environment and acts as the source case. The target case consists of several criteria that influence the supplier selection process. The system calculates the similarities between the source and target cases and decides the best supplier by using fuzzy rule-based system. Finally, the weights of each supplier optimize the order quantities in the unstructured environment. The proposed expert system is superior to the traditional supplier selection and allocation of the ordered quantities and assists inexperienced users in predicting the best supplier within the shortest possible time.

  7. The competition for supplier resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Suppliers can have a major influence on the overall competitiveness of a firm. When firms lack certain capabilities or resources within their own organization, collaborations with suppliers can help them to acquire these resources and capabilities externally and improve competitive advantage. Howeve

  8. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  9. The Strategic Importance of Supplier Relationships in the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Brandes

    2013-06-01

    stakeholders, and who can outsource a large part of the technical development to the suppliers in areas also close to the core competences. The automakers must accept that their suppliers have competing automakers as their customers and search for synergies in their product portfolio. Theoretically, there is a need for conceptual development through deeper studies of the firm’s relational capability and its implications.

  10. ATLAS recognises its best suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    The ATLAS Collaboration has recently rewarded two of its suppliers in the construction of very major detector components, fabricated in Japan. The ATLAS Supplier Award in recognition of excellent supplier performance was attributed on 2nd September 2002 during a ceremony in Hall 180 to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, while Toshiba Corporation received the award two months before at their headquarters in Japan. The ATLAS experiment will become a reality thanks to a large international collaboration partnership. The industrial suppliers for the components all over the world play a major role in the construction of this gigantic jigsaw for the LHC. And sometimes they perform so well, that their work deserves specially to be recognised. This is the case for Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Toshiba Corporation, producers of the Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat and of the Superconducting Central Solenoid, respectively. With these awards, the ATLAS Collaboration wants to congratulate Kawasaki and Toshiba for fulfilling the hi...

  11. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming was used to determine the best supplier. In this analysis, several suppliers’ criteria were considered, namely quality, delivery, completeness, quality loss and environmental management. By maximizing the suppliers’ performances based on each criterion and aggregating the suppliers’ performances based on the overall criteria, the best supplier was determined. Keywords: supplier selection, taguchi loss function, AHP, fuzzy linear programming,environment

  12. Study on Influence Factors of SCP Relationship Satisfaction for Spare Part Suppliers Based on SEM%基于SEM的零件供应商SCP关系满意度影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范佳慧; 霍艳芳

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of a literature review, the paper analyzes the factors influencing SCP relationship satisfaction from the perspective of spare parts suppliers and formulates a conceptual model between the factors and the relationship satisfaction. Then using questionnaire survey, the paper employs the SEM software AMOS to verify the model and yield the effect of each factor upon the relationship satisfaction.%在文献综述的基础上,分析了零件供应商角度供应链合作伙伴关系满意度的影响因素,建立了零件供应商角度的影响因素与关系满意度之间的概念模型.以调查问卷的数据为基础,运用结构方程软件AMOS对概念模型进行验证,并得出了影响因素对满意度的效应.

  13. 78 FR 69602 - Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1 RIN 0910-AG64 Foreign Supplier Verification... entitled ``Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals'' that... 45730), we published a proposed rule entitled ``Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers...

  14. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  15. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  16. Evaluating the bases of supplier segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Marc; Magnan, Gregory M.; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2010-01-01

    A taxonomy of segmentation bases is presented which builds a multi-disciplinary approach to the categorization of suppliers. Supplier segmentation, from a purchasing perspective, still appears to be in the early stages of providing a coherent strategic intent behind supplier assessment. Whilst fr...... segmentation covering supply market conditions, product/service characteristics, supplier characteristics, buyer characteristics, and buyer-supplier relational factors.......A taxonomy of segmentation bases is presented which builds a multi-disciplinary approach to the categorization of suppliers. Supplier segmentation, from a purchasing perspective, still appears to be in the early stages of providing a coherent strategic intent behind supplier assessment. Whilst...... opportunism. We augment existing approaches with reference to inter-organisational theory and the resource-based view to show different modes of inter-firm value creation that act as constituents of a strategic intent for segmentation. Our resulting taxonomy draws together a holistic view of supplier...

  17. Supplier relationship management leverages intellectual capital for increased competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how supplier relationship management (SRM enables the capture and creation of intellectual capital, thereby attaining and sustaining a strategic competitive advantage and increasing supply chain profitability. In order to achieve this purpose, a large part of the article is devoted to exploring the relatively new and unknown field of SRM. It is shown that an organisation must possess a thorough understanding of good supplier characteristics and of the drivers, benefits and requirements for the successful implementation of SRM, in order to enable that organisation to leverage their supplier relationships to ensure the capture of supplier expertise, patents, experiences etc. (i.e. their intellectual capital. The article then explores how the integration of technology in SRM applications can improve the efficiency of supplier collaboration and intellectual capital capture and creation. It is then demonstrated how efficient and collaborative supplier relationships improve supply chain profitability and competitiveness. Lastly, the article explores the implementation pitfalls and trends of SRM that must be constantly considered and monitored by an organisation in order to continually capture and create intellectual capital and reap the full benefits of SRM. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that SRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater supply chain efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the mutual unlocking, sharing and leveraging of intellectual capital.

  18. Supplier Outreach and Process Control (SOPC) and Supplier Rating Initiative (SRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Harrel

    2003-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation presents an overview of NASA's Supplier Outreach and Process Control (SOPC) and Supplier Risk Initiatives. The discussion of the SOPC examines its importance, current groups who are involved, provides a mission statement, and describes outreach activities and how suppliers are selected. The discussion of the Supplier Risk Initiative examines the variety of ways that integrity, availability, and assurance factor in to supplier risk and describes a new supplier rating program.

  19. The influence of information sharing, supplier trust and supplier synergy on supplier performance: The case of small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pooe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of supplier performance is an important activity for small to medium enterprises (SMEs as they adopt and implement plans and policies aimed at enhancing their performance in order to achieve sustainable competitive advantages.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of information sharing, supplier trust and supplier synergy on supplier performance in SMEs.Method: A quantitative research design was adopted in which a survey questionnaire was administered to a sample of 309 owners and managers of SMEs based in southern Gauteng, South Africa. A confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken to assess the properties of the measurement scale. Hypotheses were tested using the path modelling technique.Results: Information sharing exerted a moderate positive and significant influence on supplier trust and a weak but sigificant influence on supplier synergy. Supplier synergy had a strong positive and significant influence on supplier performance. However, the influence of supplier trust on supplier performance was weak and insignificant.Conclusion: The study provides a useful framework for analysing the interplay between information sharing, supplier trust, supplier synergy and supplier performance in SMEs.

  20. Optimal supplier choice with discounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, B.; Keane, J.; Kuzmenko, V.; Tso, M. K-S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates a model for pricing the demand for a set of goods when suppliers operate discount schedules based on total business value. We formulate the buyers's decision problem as a mixed binary integer program, which is a generalization of the capacitated facility location problem (CFL

  1. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  2. Meeting US and European supplier control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Medical device manufacturers operating under European quality system requirements are sometimes surprised to learn that their supplier control procedures do not fully meet United States (US) requirements. This article discusses important differences between US and European requirements for controlling suppliers.

  3. Green Supplier Network Manufacturer Commitment Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online form expressing interest in committing to be a Green Supplier; this form expresses your intent to participate in a confidential Green Suppliers Network assessment, implement recommended environmental improvements and complete a NIST MEP follow-up.

  4. Medicare Provider Data - Physician and Other Supplier

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File (Physician and Other Supplier PUF) provides information on services and procedures provided to Medicare...

  5. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  6. Sustaining Competitiveness Through product Development Activities Within Malaysian Automotive Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The local automotive suppliers are facing a number of important challenges such asglobalisation, new requirement in market specifications and the competition brought about by theAsean Free Trade Area (AFTA agreements. In an effort to enhance the competitiveness of themanufacturing sector, the government has implemented the Second Industrial Master Plan, IMP2(1996-2005. The focus of the IMP2 is more on innovation and applications of new technologies, sothat industries can move up the value chain of their activities. Innovative capabilities achieved fromcompanies’ new product development activities have been recognized to be crucial for companies tosustain their competitiveness and organisational success. The importance of product development ismost obvious in the context of the discussion on the competitiveness of the Malaysian automotivesuppliers. The study will focus on the small medium enterprises (SMEs that make up more than 60 %of these automotive suppliers. The study is to determine the extensiveness of the suppliers’ productdevelopment activities by examining the involvement of the suppliers in customer’s productdevelopment activities. Consequently, the impact of this involvement to the competitiveness of thesuppliers is examined. The results were established based from a survey to parts and componentssuppliers of Proton, the Malaysian car national assembler. The study has shown that the SMEs wereinvolved from the early stages of the product development process that is during the design stage. Theproduct development efforts have shown to contribute towards increasing firms’ market share andfirms were also able to gain a better understanding of future product demand. A significant number ofthe suppliers have managed to penetrate the export market. Unfortunately, among the respondents,there is only one system supplier. This indicates that, either the technological capabilities of theSMEs still needed upgrading for the requirement as

  7. Sustaining Competitiveness Through product Development Activities Within Malaysian Automotive Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The local automotive suppliers are facing a number of important challenges such asglobalisation, new requirement in market specifications and the competition brought about by theAsean Free Trade Area (AFTA agreements. In an effort to enhance the competitiveness of themanufacturing sector, the government has implemented the Second Industrial Master Plan, IMP2(1996-2005. The focus of the IMP2 is more on innovation and applications of new technologies, sothat industries can move up the value chain of their activities. Innovative capabilities achieved fromcompanies’ new product development activities have been recognized to be crucial for companies tosustain their competitiveness and organisational success. The importance of product development ismost obvious in the context of the discussion on the competitiveness of the Malaysian automotivesuppliers. The study will focus on the small medium enterprises (SMEs that make up more than 60 %of these automotive suppliers. The study is to determine the extensiveness of the suppliers’ productdevelopment activities by examining the involvement of the suppliers in customer’s productdevelopment activities. Consequently, the impact of this involvement to the competitiveness of thesuppliers is examined. The results were established based from a survey to parts and componentssuppliers of Proton, the Malaysian car national assembler. The study has shown that the SMEs wereinvolved from the early stages of the product development process that is during the design stage. Theproduct development efforts have shown to contribute towards increasing firms’ market share andfirms were also able to gain a better understanding of future product demand. A significant number ofthe suppliers have managed to penetrate the export market. Unfortunately, among the respondents,there is only one system supplier. This indicates that, either the technological capabilities of theSMEs still needed upgrading for the requirement as

  8. 22 CFR 130.7 - Supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplier. 130.7 Section 130.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.7 Supplier. Supplier means any person who enters into a contract with the Department of...

  9. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  10. A Two-Supplier Inventory Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.B.S.L.P.; de Kok, T.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider an inventory system with two suppliers.A supply agreement is made with one of the suppliers, to deliver a xed quantity Q every review period.The replenishment decisions for the other supplier are governed by a (R; S) replenishment policy; that is, when the inventory positio

  11. 22 CFR 228.53 - Suppliers of services-privately owned commercial suppliers and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suppliers of services-privately owned commercial suppliers and nonprofit organizations. 228.53 Section 228.53 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR... Waivers § 228.53 Suppliers of services—privately owned commercial suppliers and nonprofit...

  12. Midnight sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, A.P.; Lambert, S.B.; Gagnon, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    Midnight Sun, the University of Waterloo's solar-electric car, was designed and built by about 30 engineering, kinesiology and physics students for the GM Sunrayce USA held in July 1990. The car measures 2 m by 4.2 m, weighs 224 kg, can collect about 1000 W of solar electricity in full sun, and had a top speed of 79 km/h. The race took 11 days to cover the 1644 miles from the Epcot Center in Lake Buena Vista, Florida to the GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Thirty-two cars, powered only by solar energy, competed in this race. Midnight Sun showed its potential during the race qualifying runs by completing the required qualifying course with the 12th fastest time of 52.83 seconds, and the 6th fastest trap speed of 63 km/h. During the Sunrayce, Midnight Sun came in second on day 1 of the race, tenth on day 6, and eighth on day 7, and was one of only 17 solar cars that were able to make it up the toughest hill in the race on day 8. The most serious problems encountered by the car were a weak rear suspension, power losses, and failure of bypass diodes in the photovoltaic array. Midnight Sun was in 17th place overall at the end of day 9. At about 11:00 am on day 10 in Ohio, the Waterloo car was moving at 60 km/h when it was bumped off the road by an out of control pickup truck. The solar car driver was not hurt. Despite the difficulties, the next day Midnight Sun was repaired and driven across the finish line at the ceremonial finish. After receiving time penalties for not completing the last day and a half of the race, Midnight Sun was awarded 24th place with an official cumulative time of 114 h 37 min 15 s. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  14. An integrated model for supplier selection process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In today's highly competitive manufacturing environment, the supplier selection process becomes one of crucial activities in supply chain management. In order to select the best supplier(s) it is not only necessary to continuously tracking and benchmarking performance of suppliers but also to make a tradeoff between tangible and intangible factors some of which may conflict. In this paper an integration of case-based reasoning (CBR), analytical network process (ANP) and linear programming (LP) is proposed to solve the supplier selection problem.

  15. PROPOSAL OF AN EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR SUPPLIERS SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ávila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of selecting suppliers/partners is a crucial and important part in the process of decision making for companies that intend to perform competitively in their area of activity. The selection of supplier/partner is a time and resource-consuming task that involves data collection and a careful analysis of the factors that can positively or negatively influence the choice. Nevertheless it is a critical process that affects significantly the operational performance of each company. In this work, trough the literature review, there were identified five broad suppliers selection criteria: Quality, Financial, Synergies, Cost, and Production System. Within these criteria, it was also included five sub-criteria. Thereafter, a survey was elaborated and companies were contacted in order to answer which factors have more relevance in their decisions to choose the suppliers. Interpreted the results and processed the data, it was adopted a model of linear weighting to reflect the importance of each factor. The model has a hierarchical structure and can be applied with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method or Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART. The result of the research undertaken by the authors is a reference model that represents a decision making support for the suppliers/partners selection process.

  16. Little Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  17. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  18. Affecting the value chain through supplier kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, C R; Vargas, D H

    1999-02-01

    In the aerospace industry, typically 60 percent of a product's cost and 70 percent of the lead time are due to purchased material. To affect price and customer responsiveness, improvement initiatives must be extended into the supply chain. Many companies have developed supply base management systems that include long-term agreements with suppliers, partnering with suppliers in risk taking and product design, information sharing, and quality and delivery rating systems. The premise is that suppliers are an extension of the factory. But to take full advantage of customer-supplier relationships, the suppliers must be "developed" in the same manner as a manufacturing unit. Supplier kaizen is a method of bringing suppliers to the same level of operations as the parent company, through training and improvement projects, to ensure superior performance and nurture the trust that is required for strong partnerships. This article describes Sikorsky Aircraft's use of kaizen to improve its supply base management.

  19. 22 CFR 201.31 - Suppliers of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... CFR parts 500 through 599, as from time to time amended, are complied with; and (6) The purchase price... customs of the trade shall be made by the supplier in the form of a dollar payment to USAID. Any...

  20. An American Vital Interest: Preserving the Nuclear Enterprise Supplier Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    machined parts, and printed wire boards (PWBs). Honeywell maintains the nuclear enterprise’s Master Approved Supplier List containing all qualified...and technologies that have experienced significant decline include aerospace, semiconductors, PWBs, machine tools, and advanced materials (e.g...re-energized their relationship with Brush Wellman on Beryllium Supply, and undertaken energetic materials development with Roxcel. It is

  1. A Hybrid Multiple Criteria Decision Making Model for Supplier Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Min Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable supplier selection would be the vital part in the management of a sustainable supply chain. In this study, a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM model is applied to select optimal supplier. The fuzzy Delphi method, which can lead to better criteria selection, is used to modify criteria. Considering the interdependence among the selection criteria, analytic network process (ANP is then used to obtain their weights. To avoid calculation and additional pairwise comparisons of ANP, a technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to rank the alternatives. The use of a combination of the fuzzy Delphi method, ANP, and TOPSIS, proposing an MCDM model for supplier selection, and applying these to a real case are the unique features of this study.

  2. ATLAS rewards two pixel detector suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, presented the ATLAS supplier award to Herbert Reichl, IZM director, and to Simonetta Di Gioia, from the SELEX company.Two of ATLAS’ suppliers were awarded prizes at a ceremony on Wednesday 13 June attended by representatives of the experiment’s management and of CERN. The prizes went to the Fraunhofer Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM) in Berlin and the company SELEX Sistemi Integrati in Rome for the manufacture of modules for the ATLAS pixel detector. SELEX supplied 1500 of the modules for the tracker, while IZM produced a further 1300. The modules, each made up of 46080 channels, form the active part of the ATLAS pixel detector. IZM and SELEX received the awards for the excellent quality of their work: the average number of faulty channels per module was less than 2.10-3. They also stayed within budget and on schedule. The difficulty they faced was designing modules based on electronic components and sensor...

  3. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  4. Supplier selection in the Malaysian telecommunications industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahim, Suzari

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Supplier selection plays an important role in any organisation. This study investigates and examines supplier selection criteria and the impacts on buying firm performance; specifically focusing on the telecommunications industry in Malaysia. Previous studies in this area have focussed on the criteria such as quality, price, delivery, supplier relationship management and decision making tools...

  5. ATLAS Award for Shield Supplier

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS technical coordinator Dr. Marzio Nessi presents the ATLAS supplier award to Vojtech Novotny, Director General of Skoda Hute.On 3 November, the ATLAS experiment honoured one of its suppliers, Skoda Hute s.r.o., of Plzen, Czech Republic, for their work on the detector's forward shielding elements. These huge and very massive cylinders surround the beampipe at either end of the detector to block stray particles from interfering with the ATLAS's muon chambers. For the shields, Skoda Hute produced 10 cast iron pieces with a total weight of 780 tonnes at a cost of 1.4 million CHF. Although there are many iron foundries in the CERN member states, there are only a limited number that can produce castings of the necessary size: the large pieces range in weight from 59 to 89 tonnes and are up to 1.5 metres thick.The forward shielding was designed by the ATLAS Technical Coordination in close collaboration with the ATLAS groups from the Czech Technical University and Charles University in Prague. The Czech groups a...

  6. Supplier certification modified for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C F

    1997-11-01

    There have been numerous articles written in detail regarding industrial-based supplier certification programs. These programs generally concentrate on suppliers of raw materials. After reviewing them, it is difficult to visualize how these programs could support the ambulatory or inpatient operations of a healthcare institution. The University of Maryland Medical Center, a 747-bed teaching hospital in Baltimore, took on the challenge to adapt the supplier certification program to support its healthcare institution. After months of struggle, a program emerged by expanding the Medical Center's current process management philosophy, to include its suppliers. Documentation from the program developed by the Medical Center indicates the level of supplier support has increased. Through this certification program, the supplier is aware of the Medical Center's expectations and needs. In turn, the Medical Center has become aware of how its internal processes can hinder the supplier's operation. The supplier certification program has provided a valuable communication conduit. This article covers a brief summation of the industrial-based supplier certification program and how the University of Maryland Medical Center has adapted the program to support all its operations.

  7. TRI P2 and Automotive Suppliers: Supplier information specific to the automotive industry sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRI’s Pollution Prevention (P2) Search Tool is one source of information to identify how facilities work with their suppliers and how suppliers work with their customers to achieve environmental improvement.

  8. Supplier innovativeness and supplier pricing: the role of preferred customer status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Veldman, Jasper; Hüttinger, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we study the antecedents of supplier innovativeness and supplier pricing. Based on an extensive literature review, we identify different types of antecedents: (1) 'technical' antecedents, which include the capabilities of suppliers to innovate (such as their level of R&D investment)

  9. From Governance to Supplier development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla Normann

    Sustainable sourcing has been on the purchasing and supply chainmanagement research agenda for more than a decade and is among the mostpopular topics in the field today. Meanwhile, companies have developed arange of methods and tools for managing sustainable sourcing, which hasgrown to be an inte......Sustainable sourcing has been on the purchasing and supply chainmanagement research agenda for more than a decade and is among the mostpopular topics in the field today. Meanwhile, companies have developed arange of methods and tools for managing sustainable sourcing, which hasgrown...... such as codes of conduct, certificates, andmonitoring is used on a large scale, and often results in a lack of suppliersustainability compliance. This Ph.D. dissertation aims to explore and expandknowledge about the causes underlying this lack of supplier compliance. Thefocus is on suppliers’ perception...... of buying companies’ used assessment-basedmethods and how these affect the supplier–buyer relationship and hence thesuppliers’ ability toward sustainability compliance....

  10. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...... to create a better understanding of the nature of the supply task. The operating task concerns the use of the existing supply system, while the system development task concerns the appropriate development of the company’s supply system. Finally, the management task concerns creating consistency between...... of the company’s products and (production) processes, the product and process development task. A number of contingency variables have been identified and described for the delivery task, the product and process development task and the system development task. The contingency variables are used to characterise...

  11. Fuzzy Multicriteria ABC Supplier Classification in Global Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the optimal purchasing strategy in enterprise that is a part of global supply chain could be performed in two steps. In step one, a classification of potential suppliers is performed in order to determine the optimal portfolio of suppliers. This is delivered by using the fuzzy multicriteria proposed ABC classification method. Uncertainties in relative importance of criteria and their values are described by linguistic expressions. Modelling of linguistic expressions is based on the fuzzy sets theory. In the second step, ranking of optimal portfolio of suppliers is performed by using the modified ELECTRE method. The obtained results represent valuable input for determining the long time purchasing strategy and building partnership with the best suppliers. The developed two-step model is verified on real life data. The obtained results indicate good compliance with the opinions management in this type of industry. It is worth to mention that the proposed model can be easily extended and adopted to the analysis of other issues of management which could be applicable in different research areas.

  12. Why it pays to 'grill' your supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Joe

    2010-03-01

    When it comes to ensuring that your cold storage operation and maintenance meets MHRA requirements, it pays to ensure that your service supplier knows what it is doing. So says Joe Fudge, instrumentation service manager for ABB's instrumentation business in the U.K., who outlines some of the key factors to consider when selecting a supplier of cold chain mapping services.

  13. The Sun, Its Extended Corona, the Interplanetary Space, the Earth's Magnetosphere, Ionosphere, Middle and Low Atmosphere, are All Parts of a Complex System - the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Various manifestations of solar activity cause disturbances known as space weather effects in the interplanetary space, near-Earth environment, and all the Earth's "spheres. Longterm variations in the frequency, intensity and relative importance of the manifestations of solar activity are due to the slow changes in the output of the solar dynamo, and they define space climate. Space climate governs long-term variations in geomagnetic activity and is the primary natural driver of terrestrial climate. To understand how the variable solar activity affects the Earth's environment, geomagnetic activity and climate on both short and long time scales, we need to understand the origins of solar activity itself and its different manifestations, as well as the sequence of coupling processes linking various parts of the system. This session provides a forum to discuss the chain of processes and relations from the Sun to the Earth's surface: the origin and long-term and short-term evolution of solar activity, initiation and temporal variations in solar flares, CMEs, coronal holes, the solar wind and its interaction with the terrestrial magnetosphere, the ionosphere and its connection to the neutral dominated regions below and the plasma dominated regions above, the stratosphere, its variations due to the changing solar activity and its interactions with the underlying troposphere, and the mechanisms of solar influences on the lower atmosphere on different time-scales. Particularly welcome are papers highlighting the coupling processes between the different domains in this complex system.

  14. Penerapan Metode Ahp untuk Subsistem Pendukung Pemilihan Supplier pada Outhouse Costing Integrated System (Ocis di Pt Adm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surja Surjandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In general automotive development, especially car, PT Astra Daihatsu Motor (ADM continuously improves quality and service to supply vehicles in Indonesia. To support the improvement of quality and service, PT ADM continues to improve technology-based system to assist in providing vehicle parts of production process requirements. Therefore Purchasing division is very important in this process. Besides, supplier is a very important role in making and supplying parts for the company. PT ADM has a new system used to improve bidding process. Based on the discussion, price was not the only thing significant. There were other things to consider, especially in selecting the right supplier.  Realizing the system does not cover all areas, therefore, it needs Decision Support System with AHP method to filter suppliers. So that, the company will automatically have good supplier. At least, the supplier meets company standard, especially purchasing department. This research concludes that using AHP Method is very effective for filtering supplier so that the company can make sure that only capable supplier or supplier which meets company standard may join the tender to supply the goods or parts. This paper combined AHP Methodology as the first selection using pairwise scoring and Analysis Sensitivity Methodology used to take decision which supplier is in line with project requirements.

  15. PrimeSupplier Cross-Program Impact Analysis and Supplier Stability Indicator Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calluzzi, Michael

    2009-01-01

    PrimeSupplier, a supplier cross-program and element-impact simulation model, with supplier solvency indicator (SSI), has been developed so that the shuttle program can see early indicators of supplier and product line stability, while identifying the various elements and/or programs that have a particular supplier or product designed into the system. The model calculates two categories of benchmarks to determine the SSI, with one category focusing on agency programmatic data and the other focusing on a supplier's financial liquidity. PrimeSupplier was developed to help NASA smoothly transition design, manufacturing, and repair operations from the Shuttle program to the Constellation program, without disruption in the industrial supply base.

  16. Factors Contributing to SMEs Failure in Meeting Supplier Performance Standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Louise van Scheers

    2016-01-01

    ...) in meeting supplier performance standards. Suppliers are faced with the challenge of SMEs failing to meet supplier performance standards because they rely on these providers of products and services, mainly SMEs, for their operations...

  17. Colaboração cliente-fornecedor no processo de desenvolvimento de produto: estudo de casos na indústria de autopeças Collaboration between customers and suppliers in the product development process: case studies in auto parts industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Capaldo Amaral

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das práticas utilizadas pelas empresas, visando o aumento da produtividade, qualidade e diminuição do lead time do desenvolvimento de produto, é a inclusão dos fornecedores neste processo. Apesar de já demonstrado que esta participação tem impactos importantes no processo de desenvolvimento, ainda existe pouca compreensão sobre seus reais efeitos no desempenho deste processo, principalmente quanto aos efeitos na qualidade do projeto do produto. Analisa-se, sob a ótica do fornecedor, as variáveis escopo e integração, em dois casos específicos deste tipo de colaboração na indústria automobilística brasileira. Para cada caso, analisa-se essas variáveis em projetos de desenvolvimento conjunto entre a empresa de autopeça e seus clientes-montadoras e discute-se a relação destas variáveis com a qualidade do projeto do produto. Como resultados principais, válidos para os casos analisados, tem-se que: os mecanismos formais da colaboração cliente-fornecedor no desenvolvimento de produto foram homogêneos, entre cada autopeça e seus clientes-montadoras; e o aumento do escopo afetou positivamente a qualidade do projeto do produto.One of the current practices used by businesses, regarding increased productivity, quality and the reduction of product development lead time, is the involvement of suppliers. There are strong indications that this participation increases productivity and reduces both the development lead time and the possibility of delays in the project, and facilitates the incorporation of new technologies. One of the most conflicting points is how great the effect is in terms of quality of the product design. To evaluate this two case studies in automotive suppliers were conducted. In each one, the variables of integration and scope in development projects were compared between the company which produces specific auto parts and four of its clients which assemble vehicles, evaluating their influence on the quality

  18. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each...

  19. Interpersonal attraction in buyer–supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The concept of attraction is not reserved for the study of interpersonal relationships between husband and wife, family members, or lifelong friends. On the contrary, it contains much potential as a variable describing interpersonal business exchange relationships. This potential has been noted...... future research efforts on interpersonal attraction in the buyer– supplier context. Finally, the managerial value and challenges of applying attraction to buyer–supplier exchange relationships are discussed....... by well-known industrial marketing scholars in the past, and recent theoretical advances have incorporated attraction to describe buyer– supplier exchange, although primarily at the interorganizational level of analysis. The in-depth understanding of interpersonal attraction between boundary spanners...

  20. 信息动态%Diagnosis and Detection of Critical Quality Resources for Complex Products Based on Supplier GERT Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The success of leading products depends on the quality of the entire supply chain. Improving the quality of the entire supply chain can help a company stay competitive in today's complex product market. In order to understand the importance of critical quality resources in the complex product supply chain, this study adopts the supplier graph evaluation and review technology (S-GERT) model to assess the quality loss between suppliers. Based on the S-GERT model, we propose a relative algorithm and use it to diagnose quality fluctuations on the supplier side and detect critical quality resources in a complex supply chain.In the first part of this paper, we formulated the Artiles-leon Quality Loss Function, a supplier multi-variety quality loss function to measure the quality loss values of suppliers. In the second part, we analyzed the quality loss delivering principal between upstream and downstream suppliers. In the third part, we researched the parallel and hybrid system structures to detect the fluctuation of supplier's quality and diagnose critical quality resources. In the fourth part, we used a pattern aircraft production system to examine the quality of suppliers. Our study showed that the quality management of complex products on the supplier side is one of core problems in the supply chain management area. The quality loss can be accumulated in the complex paths between suppliers because of the complexity of managing supply chain networks.From the perspective of quality loss delivery, the proposed supplier GERT model and detection algorithm design provide a new research method to understand quality management in the “main manufacturer-supplier” production system.

  1. 跨国公司海外子公司的能力演化过程研究——以跟随韩国现代汽车来华的韩国零部件供应商为例%Capabilities Evolution Process of Foreign Subsidiaries——The Case of Korean Automotive Part Suppliers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜彦福; 金景泰; 张久春; 吴重山

    2009-01-01

    本文在动态能力观点的基础上,构建了新的能力演化过程的分析框架--成本一市场能力框架,利用它分析了跟随韩国现代汽车来华的4个韩国零部件供应商的子公司的采购、生产、销售和研发能力的演化过程,并对其进行了比较.在此基础上,从能力演化的角度,我们总结了这些韩国零部件供应商的子公司在中国的三种演化类型:市场追逐型、出口导向型、依附客户型.%This study has built new analytical framework of cost-market capabilities in order to examine the evolution process of local subsidiaries from the perspective of dynamic capability. Using that framework, we conducted an in-depth analysis of four local subsidiaries of Korean automotive part suppliers, which followed Hyundai Motor Corporation (HMC), in four functional (procurement, manufacturing, marketing, and R&D) areas. Based on the result of analysis, we also identified three distinctive evolutionary patterns of those suppliers in China: market-seeking, off-shoring, and followed-client-depending.

  2. SUPPLIER SELECTION CRITERIA IN A POWER UTILITY IN MALAYSIA: ENGINEERS’ PERCEPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivadass Thiruchelvam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection of electricity generating, transmitting and distributing systems is part of the problem-solving environment in a power utility because it is a long-term investment for the organisation. Therefore, the decision over supplier selection directly influences the operational and financial position of a power utility. In addition, the supplier selection of a power-related system is a complex multi-criteria decision problem. While some criteria may be common across different industries, there are some criteria unique to the power industry. This research aims to understand what constitutes the suitable supplier selection criteria for a power utility. This study reveals some interesting findings of how engineers perceive the importance of each criterion and suggests strongly that product quality, price and delivery are key determinants in the supplier evaluation process. The eighteen criteria considered for this study were mapped onto their respective cluster, namely: supplier’s organisational system and technology, buyer-supplier relationship and economic value. The findings of this study should assist various groups of stakeholders (e.g., suppliers, buyers and end users to gain a better understanding of social behaviour in making purchase decisions, particularly with regard to power utilities.

  3. Coordination buyer-supplier in supply chain models from net present value perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hamontree, Chaowalit

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines four parts of production and inventory models for buyer-supplier in the supply chain under deterministic conditions. The main objective is to find optimal lot-sizing decisions and inventory policies which derive from the classical inventory and Net Present Value (NPV) framework. Firstly, we study the production and inventory models from the classical framework to identify how to value the holding cost for buyer and supplier in the average profit or cost functions. Secondl...

  4. Selection of suppliers. An approach to the state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the search for better competitive performance, there is a world trend towards the management of supply chains. As part of this trend, the selection of suppliers has become a strategic decision with a high impact on organisational performance. For this reason, this article makes an approach to the state of the art in supplier selection, taking major international specialised magazines as the point of reference. The objective of this document is to offer support as a point of reference for f...

  5. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  6. CMS rewards eight of its suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    At the third awards ceremony to honour its top suppliers, the CMS collaboration presented awards to eight firms. Seven of them are involved in the manufacture of the magnet. The winners of the third CMS suppliers' awards visit the assembly site for the detector. Unsurprisingly, the CMS magnet was once again in the limelight at the third awards ceremony in honour of the collaboration's top suppliers. 'Unsurprisingly', because this magnet, which must produce an intense field of 4 Tesla inside an enormous volume (12 metres in diameter and 13 metres in length) is the detector's key component. As a result, many firms are involved in its construction. The CMS suppliers' awards are an annual event aimed at rewarding the exceptional efforts of certain companies. Firms are only eligible once they have delivered at least 50% of their supplies. This year, the collaboration honoured eight firms at a ceremony held on Monday 4 March in the main auditorium. Seven of th...

  7. ATLAS Rewards Russian Supplier for Scintillating Tile Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At a ceremony held at CERN on 30 July, the ATLAS collaboration awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Suppliers Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule.   Representatives of Russian firm Luch Podolsk received the ATLAS Suppliers Award in the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one Tile Calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, Tile Calorimeter Project Leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN Tile Calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia. Scintillating tiles form the active part of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter, which will measure the energy and direction of particles produced in LHC collisions. They are emb...

  8. LHC suppliers win Golden Hadron awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    In a ceremony on 30 July, three of the 200 suppliers for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) were presented with Golden Hadron awards. It is the third year that the awards have been presented to suppliers, not only for their technical and financial achievements but also for their compliance with contractual deadlines. This year the three companies are all involved in the supplies for the LHC's main magnet system.

  9. Modelling of the dynamics of the vessel and circuits of recirculation of a BWR type nucleo electric as part of the SUN-RAH university simulator; Modelado de la dinamica de la vasija y circuitos de recirculacion de una nucleoelectrica tipo BWR como parte del simulador universitario SUN-RAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, R.A. [DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rsanchez_15@yahoo.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    In the present project, the development of a model for the dynamics of the process of energy transport generated in the nuclear fuel until the main steam lines of a nucleo electric central with BWR type nuclear reactor, using mathematical models of reduced order is presented. These models present the main characteristics of the reactor vessel and of the recirculation system, defined by the main phenomena that intervene in those physical processes. Likewise, the objective of the general project of the one University student nucleo electric simulator with Boiling Water Reactor (SUN-RAH) for later on to establish the modeling equations for each part of the nuclear reactor as well as of the load pursuit system. Also, its were described the graphic interfaces implemented in an three layers architecture in which the different measuring variables are presented in the monitor. It fits signalize that the advantage presented by the University student nucleo electric simulator is the possibility to carry out changes in the magnitudes of those different variables that intervene in the physical processes made in the one reactor and in the recirculation system in execution time of the same one. Of same way, the creation of a graphic intuitive interface, friendly, and designed with the same technology with the one that the video games are programmed in the present time. Besides all the above mentioned, the pending goals inside of the project are exposed, as well as the developments in construction process or conceptualized to be included in future versions of the simulator. Finally its are thinking about possible scenarios of applications of SUN-RAH, as well as their reaches. (Author)

  10. Supplier Involvement in Product Development: a Multidisciplinary Perspective. Working Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopecka, J.A.; Santema, S.C.; Hultink, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the preliminary findings of four current case studies on supplier involvement in product development from the respective perspectives of Engineering, Purchasing and Suppliers. The supplier involvement is studied from the viewpoint of how supplier information and knowledge are deplo

  11. 49 CFR 583.13 - Supplier certification and certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier certification and certificates. 583.13... § 583.13 Supplier certification and certificates. Each supplier shall certify the information on each... supplier in any mode (e.g., paper, electronic) provided the mode contains all information in...

  12. 42 CFR 424.55 - Payment to the supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to the supplier. 424.55 Section 424.55... Payment to the supplier. (a) Medicare pays the supplier for covered services if the beneficiary (or the person authorized to request payment on the beneficiary's behalf) assigns the claim to the supplier...

  13. 47 CFR 68.320 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. 68.320... Approval § 68.320 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. (a) Supplier's Declaration of Conformity is a... Supplier's Declaration of Conformity attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible...

  14. A New Methodology of Multicriteria Decision-Making in Supplier Selection Based on Z-Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyi Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is a significant issue of multicriteria decision-making (MCDM, which has been heavily studied with classical fuzzy methodologies, but the reliability of the knowledge from domain experts is not efficiently taken into consideration. Z-number introduced by Zadeh has more power to describe the knowledge of human being with uncertain information considering both restraint and reliability. In this paper, a methodology for supplier selection using Z-numbers is proposed considering information transformation. It includes two parts: one solves the issue of how to convert Z-number to the classic fuzzy number according to the fuzzy expectation; the other solves the problem of how to get the optimal priority weight for supplier selection with genetic algorithm (GA, which is an efficient and flexible method for calculating the priority weight of the judgement matrix. Finally, an example for supplier selection is used to illustrate the effectiveness the proposed methodology.

  15. An Integrated Model for Supplier Selection for a High-Tech Manufacturer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy H. I.; Kang, He-Yau; Lin, Chun-Yu

    2011-11-01

    Global competitiveness has become the biggest concern of manufacturing companies, especially in high-tech industries. Improving competitive edges in an environment with rapidly changing technological innovations and dynamic customer needs is essential for a firm to survive and to acquire a decent profit. Thus, the introduction of successful new products is a source of new sales and profits and is a necessity in the intense competitive international market. After a product is developed, a firm needs the cooperation of upstream suppliers to provide satisfactory components and parts for manufacturing final products. Therefore, the selection of suitable suppliers has also become a very important decision. In this study, an analytical approach is proposed to select the most appropriate critical-part suppliers in order to maintain a high reliability of the supply chain. A fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) model, which incorporates the benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) concept, is constructed to evaluate various aspects of suppliers. The proposed model is adopted in a TFT-LCD manufacturer in Taiwan in evaluating the expected performance of suppliers with respect to each important factor, and an overall ranking of the suppliers can be generated as a result.

  16. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  17. Product service system product design task planning with supplier participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Product service system is a new-type production system with high-degree integration and overall optimization of product and service. The participation of suppliers in product service system development will greatly shorten the development cycle and enhance the production efficiency. The task planning of product design is one of the key phases of product service system development process, which mainly contains the design task decomposition and the design task allocation. Aiming at product service system product design, this article conducts the decomposition of design tasks, performs the recognition of coupling design task set, and realizes the structured modeling of design tasks. Outsourcing decision-making analysis is conducted on the design tasks obtained through decomposition process so as to confirm the design tasks that need the participation of suppliers. The allocation model of design tasks is constructed, and the suppliers that take part in product service system development are confirmed based on genetic algorithm. Taking the numerical control machine tool as an example, this article conducts the instance analysis and verifies the feasibility of the forenamed methods.

  18. Supplier selection an MCDA-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present a comprehensive review of the latest research and development trends at the international level for modeling and optimization of the supplier selection process for different industrial sectors. It is targeted to serve two audiences: the MBA and PhD student interested in procurement, and the practitioner who wishes to gain a deeper understanding of procurement analysis with multi-criteria based decision tools to avoid upstream risks to get better supply chain visibility. The book is expected to serve as a ready reference for supplier selection criteria and various multi-criteria based supplier’s evaluation methods for forward, reverse and mass customized supply chain. This book encompasses several criteria, methods for supplier selection in a systematic way based on extensive literature review from 1998 to 2012. It provides several case studies and some useful links which can serve as a starting point for interested researchers. In the appendix several computer code wri...

  19. Supplier Evaluation Process by Pairwise Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to assess suppliers by using consistency-driven pairwise comparisons for tangible and intangible criteria. The tangible criteria are simpler to compare (e.g., the price of a service is lower than that of another service with identical characteristics. Intangible criteria are more difficult to assess. The proposed model combines assessments of both types of criteria. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of an extension framework for the selection of suppliers in a procurement process. The final weights are computed from relative pairwise comparisons. For the needs of the paper, surveys were conducted among Polish managers dealing with cooperation with suppliers in their enterprises. The Polish practice and restricted bidding are discussed, too.

  20. Supplier-induced demand for newborn treatment: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeoka, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2014-05-01

    We estimate the degree of supplier-induced demand for newborn treatment by exploiting changes in reimbursement arising from the introduction of the partial prospective payment system (PPS) in Japan. Under the partial PPS, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) utilization became relatively more profitable than other procedures, since it was excluded from prospective payments. We find that hospitals have responded to PPS adoption by increasing NICU utilization and by more frequently manipulating infants' reported birth weights which in large part determine their maximum allowable stay in the NICU. This induced demand substantially increases the reimbursements received by hospitals.

  1. Supplier evaluation: The first step in effective sourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Pikousová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation and selection of suppliers are important tasks in any organisation. Each organisation needs to have a supplier evaluation matrix or model in place. The goal of this article is not only to give an overview of supplier performance evaluation techniques but also to present an example of such a supplier evaluation matrix used in practice. The article shows that suppliers’ qualities, strategies and abilities affect a buying company’s business. Reliable suppliers can help to develop stabile, long-term relationships that will be beneficial to both parties. Effective sourcing and purchasing require high-quality suppliers.

  2. Benchmarking Supplier Development: An Empirical Case Study of Validating a Framework to Improve Buyer-Supplier Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Khuram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, firms are required to utilize efficiently and effectively all the useful resources to gain competitive advantage. Supplier development has evolved as an important strategic instrument to improve buyer supplier relationships. For that reason, this study focuses on providing the strategic significance of supplier development approaches to improve business relationships. By using qualitative research method, an integrated framework of supplier development and buyer-supplier relationship development has been tested and validated in a Finnish case company to provide empirical evidence. It particularly investigates how supplier development approaches can develop buyer-supplier relationships. The study present a set of propositions that identify significant supplier development approaches critical for the development of buyer-supplier relationships and develop a theoretical framework that specifies how these different supplier development approaches support in order to strengthen the relationships. The results are produced from an in-depth case study by implementing the proposed research framework. The findings reveal that supplier development strategies i.e., supplier incentives and direct involvements strongly effect in developing buyer-supplier relationships. Further research may focus on considering in-depth investigation of trust and communication factors along with propositions developed in the study to find out general applicability in dynamic business environment. Proposed integrated framework along with propositions is a unique combination of useful solutions for tactical and strategic management’s decision making and also valid for academic researchers to develop supplier development theories.

  3. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  4. PPP Projects – Sources and Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Man

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the problems of Public Private Partnerships (PPP projects as alternative sources of finance for public services and infrastructure. It concerns itself with the attitude and reactions of suppliers towards PPP projects and their ability to ensure finance. The article also summarises the research projects concerning PPP and draws conclusions based on original analysis and research.

  5. 22 CFR 228.36 - Ineligible suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ineligible suppliers. 228.36 Section 228.36 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR... Geographic Code 935, and firms and organizations located in, organized under the laws of, or owned in any...

  6. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...

  7. Evaluating the bases of supplier segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Marc; Magnan, Gregory M.; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2010-01-01

    fragmentary in nature, current portfolio models are grouped into two principal taxonomic constructs of power and dependence and relational factors. In particular, the prevalent use of transaction cost economics (TCE) in portfolio modelling provides a foundation for purchasers to appraise risks from supplier...

  8. An Approach for Modeling Supplier Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    of ingredient branding of complex products in the manufacturing industry. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 19(2), 84–97. Luo, X...echelon techniques (2nd ed.). Kluwer Academic . Stueland, V. J. (2004, April). Supplier evaluations: Best practices and creating or improving own

  9. Power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorton, Matthew; Angell, Robert; Dries, Liesbeth; Urutyan, Vardan; Jackson, Elizabeth; White, John

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a Multiple Indicators and MultIple Causes (MIMIC) model for explaining the relationships between buyer-seller power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier satisfaction / performance. The model draws on an organizational supply chain perspective of power and is verified using data

  10. Power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorton, Matthew; Angell, Robert; Dries, Liesbeth; Urutyan, Vardan; Jackson, Elizabeth; White, John

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a Multiple Indicators and MultIple Causes (MIMIC) model for explaining the relationships between buyer-seller power, buyer trustworthiness and supplier satisfaction / performance. The model draws on an organizational supply chain perspective of power and is verified using data

  11. A review of methods supporting supplier selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Luitzen; Labro, Eva; Morlacchi, Pierangela

    2001-01-01

    this paper we present a review of decision methods reported in the literature for supporting the supplier selection process. The review is based on an extensive search in the academic literature. We position the contributions in a framework that takes the diversity of procurement situations in terms

  12. Sun's rap song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M.; Lee, W.

    1995-07-01

    We present a rap song composed for the Sun, our star. This Sun's Rap Song can be utilized in classroom teaching to spark the students' interest and facilitate the students' learning of the relevant subjects.

  13. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  14. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  15. Sourcing for Quality: Cooperating with a Single Supplier or Developing Two Competing Suppliers?

    OpenAIRE

    Jingxian Chen

    2016-01-01

    Supplier efforts regarding product quality are an important issue in outsourcing and play a critical role in a manufacturer’s choice of sourcing strategy. Consider a manufacturer that wants to outsource the manufacturing of two substitute products to external suppliers. This paper studies the strategic interactions under two sourcing strategies: single and dual sourcing. A four-stage noncooperative game model is established to describe each member’s decisions. We further propose four decision...

  16. Suppliers Showcase Their Latest Eco Collections%Suppliers Showcase Their Latest Eco Collections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Planet Textiles debut - conference on sustainability with internationally renowned speakers confirmed As demanct for sustainably produced fashion increases worldwide, designers and buyers attending Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics can expect to find a number of suppliers showcasing their latest eco fabric collections. In addition to a growing number of eco suppliers participating at the fair, which takes place from 18 - 21 October 2011, there will be special trend forums, designer fabrics and zones for:

  17. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  18. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  19. Sourcing for Quality: Cooperating with a Single Supplier or Developing Two Competing Suppliers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier efforts regarding product quality are an important issue in outsourcing and play a critical role in a manufacturer’s choice of sourcing strategy. Consider a manufacturer that wants to outsource the manufacturing of two substitute products to external suppliers. This paper studies the strategic interactions under two sourcing strategies: single and dual sourcing. A four-stage noncooperative game model is established to describe each member’s decisions. We further propose four decision scenarios: single sourcing with and without manufacturer quality investment sharing and dual sourcing when suppliers cooperate or do not cooperate on quality decisions. By the backward induction approach, we obtain analytical equilibrium solutions for each decision scenario. By comparing each pair of equilibrium profiles, we find that an appropriate proportion of quality investment sharing by the manufacturer can enable a cooperating strategy with a single supplier to be the dominant strategy. When the manufacturer does not want to share or does not want to share a relatively large portion of its supplier’s quality investment, it will always prefer to develop two competing suppliers when the cost of dual sourcing is sufficiently low. However, dual sourcing can be extremely risky for the manufacturer because the suppliers could provide a relatively low product quality level by cooperating on the quality decision to extract the manufacturer’s profit.

  20. Organisational Supplying Behaviour: Understanding supplier needs, wants and preferences

    OpenAIRE

    RAMSAY, John; Wagner, Beverly A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding in the P&SM field of supplier behaviour by exploring their needs, wants and preferences. The characteristics of customers that suppliers need, want and prefer have been conceptualised as ‘Sources of Supplier Value’ (SOSV) and the article seeks to establish a vocabulary for describing supplier needs, wants and preferences and their impact on buyer attractiveness. To achieve this a pilot study was conducted using face-to-face interviews wi...

  1. Supplier Selection Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of suppliers had always been a key point of the supply chain management, directly impact the operation of supply chain. In this context, firstly introduced the study situation of supplier selection, established the evaluation index system based on the research and then puts forward a new method for supplier selection based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Finally, using an example to illustrate the application of indicators and the method provides a new method for supplier selection.

  2. An integrated MCDM approach to green supplier selection

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Yazdani

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection management has been considered as an important subject for industrial organizations. In order to remain on the market, to gain profitability and to retain competitive advantage, business units need to establish an integrated and structured supplier selection system. In addition, environmental protection problems have been big solicitudes for organizations to consider green approach in supplier selection problem. However, finding proper suppliers involves several variables a...

  3. A MULTI-VARIABLE APPROACH TO SUPPLIER SEGMENTATION.

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Jafar; Ortt, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to develop a new approach to supplier segmentation that considers the various variables used in existing literature to segment suppliers. A literature review reveals a serious problem from a management perspective. The problem is that many different supplier segmentation methods have been proposed in the last three decades, each of which uses different segmentation variables and hence results in different segments. An overarching supplier segmentat...

  4. 22 CFR 201.21 - Notice to supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to supplier. 201.21 Section 201.21 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... supplier. The importer is responsible for providing the supplier with the following information...

  5. Supplier Diversity: A Missing Link in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Bertie M.; Maltbia, Terrence E.; Scott, Chaunda L.

    2006-01-01

    By examining supplier diversity programs and comparing their components with the role of the diversity practitioners, we highlight the important role that diversity practitioners can have in supplier diversity programs. In reviewing the U.S. auto industry and its successful supplier diversity model, our findings suggest that diversity…

  6. 42 CFR 424.545 - Provider and supplier appeal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provider and supplier appeal rights. 424.545... Maintaining Medicare Billing Privileges § 424.545 Provider and supplier appeal rights. (a) General. A prospective provider or supplier that is denied enrollment in the Medicare program, or a provider or...

  7. 7 CFR 17.9 - CCC payment to suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CCC payment to suppliers. 17.9 Section 17.9... to suppliers. (a) General. (1) The supplier shall request payment from CCC for the amount of the commodity price or the ocean freight or ocean freight differential to be financed by CCC. (2) The...

  8. 22 CFR 201.82 - Rights of USAID against suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rights of USAID against suppliers. 201.82... of USAID against suppliers. Without limiting the responsibility of the borrower/grantee or other parties, USAID may require an appropriate refund to it by a supplier under any transaction which...

  9. 48 CFR 52.213-3 - Notice to Supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice to Supplier. 52.213-3 Section 52.213-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Notice to Supplier. As prescribed in 13.302-5(c), insert the following clause: Notice to Supplier...

  10. 21 CFR 1307.12 - Distribution to supplier or manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution to supplier or manufacturer. 1307.12... supplier or manufacturer. (a) Any person lawfully in possession of a controlled substance listed in any... known, of the supplier or manufacturer. In the case of returning a controlled substance in Schedule I...

  11. 42 CFR 410.41 - Requirements for ambulance suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for ambulance suppliers. 410.41... § 410.41 Requirements for ambulance suppliers. (a) Vehicle. A vehicle used as an ambulance must meet the... ALS services. (c) Billing and reporting requirements. An ambulance supplier must comply with...

  12. 75 FR 39911 - Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China from November 7-17, 2010. The 2010 Aerospace Supplier... industry. It is intended to include representatives from a variety of U.S. aerospace industry...

  13. Ethical beliefs and information asymmetries in supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.D.; Johnson, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Heightened ethical concerns involving upstream suppliers (e.g., Peanut Corporation of America, dairy suppliers to Chinese infant formula manufacturers) have sparked interest in how managers' knowledge of suppliers' behavior influences decision making. This article explores the role of managers' ethi

  14. In Chains? Automotive Suppliers and Their Product Development Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. von Corswant; J.Y.F. Wynstra (Finn); M. Wetzels (Alex)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA conceptual framework is developed and tested in which supplier downstream position in the supply chain, supplier innovation strategy and customer development commitment are seen as the antecedents of supplier product development activity. Using partial least squares (PLS), we analyze t

  15. Supplier Education--Deere & Company Partners with Black Hawk College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Describes the partnership between Deere & Company and Black Hawk College that provided a training program for John Deere suppliers, resulting in a cost-effective approach to upgrading supplier skills and improving Deere product quality. Lists benefits of supplier development and training. (YKH)

  16. Qualification Requirements for Foreign Suppliers in Public Procurement – Evidence from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyklický Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualification requirements for foreign suppliers in Public Procurement (PP are quite different in each European Union (EU member state. The most complex requirements for foreign suppliers in the context of public purchases are included in the Czech PP law. The aim of this paper is to make an overview of the problem of qualification requirements for foreign suppliers in the PP law of the CR. Its sub-objectives are the identification and explanation of solutions to the problem in the PP legislation of neighboring countries of the CR that are also members of the EU. The methodological part of the contribution is based mainly on the analysis and critical evaluation of the current state of legal issues relating to the proof of qualification of foreign suppliers in PP orders of the CR; with examples of fairly extensive decision-making practices of the Office for the Protection of Competition and law courts, including the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice. The paper highlights the unnecessary complexity of qualification requirements that, on purely formal grounds, inhibits submissions of tenders from potential foreign suppliers that would otherwise be able to submit a bid for a public contract without any problems whatsoever. The authors are using and applying a comparative-legal method in the context of the comparison of the PP legislation of neighboring countries of the CR that are also members of the EU. The case study of foreign suppliers bidding for above-threshold public tenders in the CR at the minimum legal requirements of the contracting authority (CA for proof of qualification, the comparation study with selected EU countries or analysis of the development of the proportion of public contracts awarded to foreign suppliers in 2010–2014 shows that there is legislation uncertainty in EU PP law that should be reduced and simplified on an EC basis.

  17. Gold awards for CERN's top suppliers!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN's awards to the LHC project's best suppliers are now into their second year. Three companies received 'Golden Hadrons' for 2003. The Golden Hadron awards were presented to the delighted representatives of the winning firms by LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans on Friday 16 May. Only three out of the LHC's four hundred suppliers were lucky enough to receive a gold award. The consortium IHI (Japan)-Linde Kryotechnik (Switzerland), the Belgian company JDL Technologies and the Japanese firm Furukawa Electric Company were rewarded not only for their technical and financial achievements but also for their compliance with contractual deadlines. The 2003 Golden Hadron winners with Lyn Evans. From left to right: Armin Senn, Thomas Voigt, Kirkor Kurtcuoglu of LINDE KRYOTECHNIK ; Tadaaki Honda, Project Leader and Motoki Yoshinaga, Associate Director of IHI Corporation ; Lyn Evans, LHC Project Leader; Shinichiro Meguro, Managing Director of FURUKAWA ELECTRIC COMPANY ; Nobuyoshi Saji, Consulting Engineer of IHI Corporatio...

  18. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  19. The LHC's suppliers come up trumps

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Four of the LHC Project's most exceptional suppliers have just been honoured in the fifth Golden Hadron awards ceremony. For the first time, a CERN team was among the prize-winners. The CERN main workshop (Mechanical and Materials Engineering group, TS/MME) received the Golden Hadron Award at the prize-giving ceremony held at the Globe. From left to right, Saïd Atieh (TS/MME), Vincent Vuillemin (TS/MME group leader), Michel Caccioppoli (TS/MME), Lyn Evans (LHC Project Leader), Marc Polini (TS/MME-MS section leader), Jean-Luc Gayraud (Cegelec), Jean-Paul Bacher (TS/MME-AS section leader) and Paolo Ciriani (head of the TS Department). Flexible, responsive, committed... all fitting adjectives to describe the recipients of the fifth Golden Hadron awards. The prizes, designed to honour the LHC Project's best suppliers, were awarded to a total of four suppliers, including two that are involved in the final accelerator assembly work: proof, if it were needed, that the project has now entered its final phase. Drak...

  20. ATLAS honours one of its suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 12 February the Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech was awarded a prize for best ATLAS supplier for the construction of the two vacuum chambers for the ATLAS endcap toroid magnets. The award for best supplier is handed over to representatives of the firm Schelde Exotech in front of one of the two vacuum chambers built by the firm. From left to right: E. Baynham (RAL), H. Geerink (NIKHEF), Y. Lefevere (NIKHEF), J. Engelen (NIKHEF), P. Jenni (CERN), E. Holtom (RAL), R. Boddaert (Schelde Exotech), G. Luijckx (NIKHEF), H. Klumpus (Schelde Exotech), M. Nessi (CERN), H. ten Kate (CERN), M. Nordberg (CERN), H. Hoffmann (CERN).This ceremony has now become something of a tradition. For the third consecutive year, ATLAS has given best supplier awards for the most exceptional contributors to the construction of the future detector. The Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech has just received the award for the construction of the two vacuum chambers for the ATLAS endcap toroid magnets. With a diameter of 11 metres and a volum...

  1. Partners in quality: managing your suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, B A

    1991-05-01

    Just expecting more from your supplier is not what partnership is about. We have had the experience where the quality improvement and partnership banner has been waved but the tone and spirit of the meeting did not encourage or support a joint quality improvement effort. Benefits will not be achieved until the wall truly begins to come apart and the relationship is built on mutual respect and trust. Data collection and open answers to questions often reveal embarrassing errors and obvious needs for improvements. As stated before, blame and finger-pointing must be replaced with a mutual commitment to asking and answering the question, "How can we improve?" As Dr. W. Edwards Deming has stated, "End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust." The structured approach of a quality improvement process and the application of quality methods and techniques has proven useful in removing emotion and helping the team focus on the process rather than the people and the issues involved. Quality improvement methods are focused on achieving both customer and supplier goals--customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and operational efficiency and effectiveness. Our experience with Partners in Quality as well as our experience with the quality leadership process supports a recent quote in the Harvard Business Review: "Quality is not just a slogan...(it is) the most profitable way to run a business."

  2. The supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape Province - What is the status quo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mornay Roberts-Lombard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to explore the supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape province. The article wants to establish the current supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the province and to identify limitations in supplier market relationships which might exist in the industry. Problem investigated: Relationships are the basis on which trade in the travel industry is built (George, 2006:224. The establishment and management of these relationships must be to the advantage of all parties in the relationship (Swart, 2003:120. Townes (2007 indicated that the current level of relationships that exists between travel agencies and their suppliers, especially the South African Airways (SAA, the Protea and Southern Sun hotel groups and motor vehicle rental companies such as AVIS is fragmented and negatively impairs on the ability of travel agents to deliver a quality service to their customers. To improve their overall level of service delivery to both corporate and leisure customers, it is important for travel agencies to know and understand the current level of their relationships with suppliers. It is against this background that the research was undertaken. Methodology: The target population for this study was 118 travel agencies of which 61 managers and/or owners participated through personal interviews in the completion of questionnaires. Data analysis was done by calculating averages and standard deviations, Explorative Factor Analysis (EFA, Cronbach Alpha-values and practical significance by means of effect sizes. Findings: The owners and managers of travel agencies are of the opinion that the strengthening of their existing relationships with suppliers must be prioritised. More emphasis should be placed on the strengthening of existing communication channels between travel agencies and their suppliers to secure the faster resolution of queries and complaints and to enhance the sharing

  3. Supplier Segmentation using Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relations and Fuzzy Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Sagheb Haghighi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In an environment characterized by its competitiveness, managing and monitoring relationships with suppliers are of the essence. Supplier management includes supplier segmentation. Existing literature demonstrates that suppliers are mostly segmented by computing their aggregated scores, without taking each supplier’s criterion value into account. The principle aim of this paper is to propose a supplier segmentation method that compares each supplier’s criterion value with exactly the same criterion of other suppliers. The Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relations (LinPreRa based Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is first used to find the weight of each criterion. Then, Fuzzy c-means algorithm is employed to cluster suppliers based on their membership degrees. The obtained results show that the proposed method enhances the quality of the previous findings.

  4. EVOLVING TRENDS OF SUPPLIER SELECTION CRITERIA AND METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Tookey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of supply chain management (SCM is forcing organisations to reconsider and improvise their purchasing-related matters. In lieu of that, the supplier selection process plays an important role in purchasing activity. The supplier selection process has undergone significant changes in the past forty years. These changes have been beneficial to both the purchasing clients and the suppliers. The supplier selection decision making process involves multiple criteria comprising both qualitative and quantitative aspects. Sometimes, there might be some contradictions between tangible and intangible criteria which may necessitate a trade-off between conflicting criteria. This paper provides an overall picture of research on supplier selection problems and supplier selection practices. Different selection criteria, emerging issues of supplier selection and the solutions for these problems are summarised. This review shows that the application of a structured decision making technique is important, especially under the complex conditions that include both qualitative and quantitative criteria.

  5. The Role of the Technology Supplier in the Politics of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1996-01-01

    from a multitude of positions outside the factory. This includes the impacts through formation of subjectivity, labour market, social security, the origin of rawmateriel, ie.the production chains, and the technology used in the factory. On the basis of a Danish study the role of the technology supplier...... is then examined. It is argued that supplier and customer tend to build up a interdependency of economic, social and technical character, denoted as segments. The segments works as a fortification of a dominant alliance between suppliers representatives and parts of management. The segments further works...... as a inclusion mechanism for a technical and organizational solution and as exclusion of other alternatives. In this way the segments are extended factory regimes. Thus the argument made, is that Burawoys factory regime should be extended to an understanding of the social forces "behind" and "attached...

  6. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  7. Design and Fabrication of an Albedo Insensitive Analog Sun Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Leijtens, J.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    A sun sensor is usually included in a satellite for optically measuring the position relative to the sun. The accuracy of a conventional sun sensor is affected by reflected sunlight at the nearby earth atmosphere: the albedo radiation. The part of the spectrum at near IR (1.5 μm) is not included in

  8. Supplier Development: A Long-Term Supportability Option For USAF Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    In a Lean manufacturing environment, parts should arrive when needed not earlier or later (the Just-In- Time inventory concept). Late parts or...plans are developed by the SQE. Part of the SQEs plan is to conduct four High Impact Kaizen Events (HIKE), and two 6 Sigma events with the suppliers...that have the lowest quality ratings. A HIKE is a 6 Sigma tool Company B uses that combines lean initiatives and 6 Sigma methodologies to make

  9. Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores’ Food Supplier Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeli Mui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24 in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42, to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15 in the healthy supplier network (HSN and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41 in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN. Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p < 0.001, and key suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p < 0.001. Compared to African Americans, Asian and Hispanic corner storeowners had on average −1.53 (p < 0.001 fewer connections to suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider.

  10. Multicriteria decision group model for the selection of suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hazin Alencar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have been studying group decision making over the years, which indicates how relevant it is. This paper presents a multicriteria group decision model based on ELECTRE IV and VIP Analysis methods, to those cases where there is great divergence among the decision makers. This model includes two stages. In the first, the ELECTRE IV method is applied and a collective criteria ranking is obtained. In the second, using criteria ranking, VIP Analysis is applied and the alternatives are selected. To illustrate the model, a numerical application in the context of the selection of suppliers in project management is used. The suppliers that form part of the project team have a crucial role in project management. They are involved in a network of connected activities that can jeopardize the success of the project, if they are not undertaken in an appropriate way. The question tackled is how to select service suppliers for a project on behalf of an enterprise that assists the multiple objectives of the decision-makers.Vários autores têm estudado decisão em grupo nos últimos anos, o que indica a relevância do assunto. Esse artigo apresenta um modelo multicritério de decisão em grupo baseado nos métodos ELECTRE IV e VIP Analysis, adequado aos casos em que se tem uma grande divergência entre os decisores. Esse modelo é composto por dois estágios. No primeiro, o método ELECTRE IV é aplicado e uma ordenação dos critérios é obtida. No próximo estágio, com a ordenação dos critérios, o método VIP Analysis é aplicado e as alternativas são selecionadas. Para ilustrar o modelo, uma aplicação numérica no contexto da seleção de fornecedores em projetos é realizada. Os fornecedores que fazem parte da equipe do projeto têm um papel fundamental no gerenciamento de projetos. Eles estão envolvidos em uma rede de atividades conectadas que, caso não sejam executadas de forma apropriada, podem colocar em risco o sucesso do

  11. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaharsooghi, S K; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain management and examines the problem of identifying a new model for supplier selection based on extended model of TBL approach in supply chain by presenting fuzzy multicriteria method. Linguistic values of experts' subjective preferences are expressed with fuzzy numbers and Neofuzzy TOPSIS is proposed for finding the best solution of supplier selection problem. Numerical results show that the proposed model is efficient for integrating sustainability in supplier selection problem. The importance of using complimentary aspects of sustainability and Neofuzzy TOPSIS concept in sustainable supplier selection process is shown with sensitivity analysis.

  12. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future.

  13. Supplier Selection based on the Performance by using PROMETHEE Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, T. S.; Siregar, K.

    2017-03-01

    Generally, companies faced problem to identify vendors that can provide excellent service in availability raw material and on time delivery. The performance of suppliers in a company have to be monitored to ensure the availability to fulfill the company needs. This research is intended to explain how to assess suppliers to improve manufacturing performance. The criteria that considered in evaluating suppliers is criteria of Dickson. There are four main criteria which further split into seven sub-criteria, namely compliance with accuracy, consistency, on-time delivery, right quantity order, flexibility and negotiation, timely of order confirmation, and responsiveness. This research uses PROMETHEE methodology in assessing the supplier performances and obtaining a selected supplier as the best one that shown from the degree of alternative comparison preference between suppliers.

  14. Performance Measurement Model for the Supplier Selection Based on AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Felice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the supplier is a crucial factor for the success or failure of any company. Rational and effective decision making in terms of the supplier selection process can help the organization to optimize cost and quality functions. The nature of supplier selection processes is generally complex, especially when the company has a large variety of products and vendors. Over the years, several solutions and methods have emerged for addressing the supplier selection problem (SSP. Experience and studies have shown that there is no best way for evaluating and selecting a specific supplier process, but that it varies from one organization to another. The aim of this research is to demonstrate how a multiple attribute decision making approach can be effectively applied for the supplier selection process.

  15. Supplier integration for new product developments: antecedents for supplier integration in modular product designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Justus Erich

    2016-01-01

    Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) increasingly integrate supplier resources in new product developments (NPD) to overcome bottlenecks of resource and to create competitive advantages. At the same time, OEMs react to the new market challenges by implementing modular product designs. Despite the

  16. Availability-based Importance Framework for Supplier Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    AVAILABILITY-BASED IMPORTANCE FRAMEWORK FOR SUPPLIER SELECTION Acquisition Research Symposium May 13-14, 2015 Kash Barker Industrial and...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Availability-based Importance Framework for Supplier Selection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...means to incorporate an ability to meet system availability needs into the supplier selection process  Addressing “how do we build in system

  17. Evaluation System and Actualization of Selection Supplier in ERP Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Lan; GUO Shun-sheng; ZHANG Chan-jun

    2006-01-01

    Suppliers become an essential factor of enterprise competitiveness. The analytic hierarchy process is a kind of Decision-making method with the combination of quantity and quality. This paper presents the evaluation system of supplier selection, using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method to select the optimum supplier in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) enterprise. In order to reduce factor of manmade and increase exactitude, this paper innovates to use a real database in ERP system for evaluation. It also gives an example that one enterprise selects supplier.

  18. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  19. Medicare Utilization for Part B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and Supplier...

  20. Suspect/Counterfeit Items Information Guide for Subcontractors/Suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmar, Nancy D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-18

    Counterfeiting of industrial and commercial grade items is an international problem that places worker safety, program objectives, expensive equipment, and security at risk. In order to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit Items (S/CI), this information sheet is being made available as a guide to assist in the implementation of S/CI awareness and controls, in conjunction with subcontractor's/supplier's quality assurance programs. When it comes to counterfeit goods, including industrial materials, items, and equipment, no market is immune. Some manufactures have been known to misrepresent their products and intentionally use inferior materials and processes to manufacture substandard items, whose properties can significantly cart from established standards and specifications. These substandard items termed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as S/CI, pose immediate and potential threats to the safety of DOE and contractor workers, the public, and the environment. Failure of certain systems and processes caused by an S/CI could also have national security implications at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nuclear Safety Rules (federal Laws), DOE Orders, and other regulations set forth requirements for DOE contractors to implement effective controls to assure that items and services meet specified requirements. This includes techniques to implement and thereby minimizing the potential threat of entry of S/CI to LANL. As a qualified supplier of goods or services to the LANL, your company will be required to establish and maintain effective controls to prevent the introduction of S/CI to LANL. This will require that your company warrant that all items (including their subassemblies, components, and parts) sold to LANL are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit), new, and unused, and conform to the requirements of the LANL purchase orders/contracts unless otherwise approved in writing to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) contract administrator

  1. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  2. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Supplier challenges in health tech innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Suppliers, in particular small innovative firms, is an important contributor not only for innovation in health-tech, but also a component to consider in the light of the emerging policy interest for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Research on barriers preventing...... these firms from providing innovations to public health authorities is therefore easily justified. Although substantive knowledge already prevails on the topic, it appears to be a lack in the literature concerning small innovative firms. To help to overcome this gap the paper discusses preliminary case study...... findings collected in the context of the Baltic Sea Health Region HealthPort project. The overall aim with the project was to facilitate ‘business acceleration’ by providing support, training and bridging innovative SMEs and health care organisations ultimately to strengthen the Baltic Sea Region health...

  4. Generation resource improvement through partnership with suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, R.W. [A.W. Chesterton Co., Stoneham, MA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Deregulation has had a dramatic impact on how electrical power utilities are conducting business in today`s competitive market. There are five vital components that industry has focused on to be key concerns: increase equipment reliability; reduce cost of production; satisfy environmental needs; meet process safety requirements; and reduce inventory costs. Suppliers must become more proactive in supplying not only products, but also value-added services to complement their product mix. For the first time, plants are pooling their resources of expertise in maintenance, operations, engineering, procurement and environmental safety to ensure that not only the products, but the programs they implement, are focused toward reducing costs and increasing operating efficiency. The power industry is focused on convergence of a few key vendors who will concentrate on standardization of system approaches to increase mean time between equipment failure and decrease life cycle costs.

  5. Why Study the Sun?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Bhatnagar

    2006-06-01

    In this presentation we briefly describe the Sun through large number of illustrations and pictures of the Sun taken from early times to the present day space missions. The importance of the study of the Sun is emphasized as it is the nearest star which presents unparallelled views of surface details and numerous phenomena. Our Sun offers a unique celestial laboratory where a large variety of phenomena take place, ranging in temporal domain from a few milliseconds to several decades, in spatial domain from a few hundred kilometers to thousands of kilometers, and in the temperature domain from a few thousand degrees to several million degrees. Its mass motion ranges from thousandths to thousands of kilometers per second. Such an object provides us with a unique laboratory to study the state of matter in the Universe. The existing solar ground-based and space missions have already revealed several mysteries of the outer environment of our Sun and much more is going to come in the near future from planned new sophisticated ground-based solar telescopes and Space missions. The new technique of helioseismology has unravelled many secrets of the solar interior and has put the Standard Solar Model (SSM) on firm footing. The long-standing problem of solar neutrinos has been recently sorted out, and even the ‘back side’ view of the Sun can be seen using the technique of holographic helioseismology.

  6. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  7. Identifying innovative suppliers in business networks : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels J.; Veldman, Jasper; Schiele, Holger

    In the literature, considerable attention has been given to the role of supplying firms in the context of innovation. However, not every supplier is capable of contributing to a buyer's innovation performance. In addition, the willingness and commitment of suppliers to collaborate with buyers is not

  8. Differences in buyers' and suppliers' perceptions of supply chain attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Marian; Molleman, Eric; van der Vaart, Taco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model that explains why and when buyers and suppliers may differ in the ways they perceive certain relationship attributes. Understanding when buyers and suppliers will share perceptions, and when not, can help future researchers in deciding how to measure these attributes. The

  9. 47 CFR 68.324 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Conformity and the product, including the model number of the product, (2) A statement that the terminal... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity... Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.324 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity requirements. (a) Each...

  10. 47 CFR 73.4215 - Program matter: Supplier identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program matter: Supplier identification. 73.4215 Section 73.4215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO...: Supplier identification. See Public Notice, FCC 73-595, dated June 1, 1973. 41 FCC 2d 333; 38 FR...

  11. 41 CFR 101-30.505 - Assistance by Government suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Assistance by Government suppliers. 101-30.505 Section 101-30.505 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... suppliers. When a new item is to be introduced into an agency supply system, the agency establishing...

  12. Managing supplier satisfaction: Social capital and resource dependence frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Ellis, Scott C.; Eßig, Michael; Henke, John W.; Kull, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, supplier satisfaction has gained more attention both in practice and in academic research. However, the knowledge accumulation process is still in an embryonic and explorative phase. Likewise, supplier satisfaction measuring in practice may still benefit from an impetus from academia to be

  13. 76 FR 1600 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission AGENCY: International Trade.... Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission to Montreal, Canada on May 2-4, 2011. This aerospace mission is an ] ideal opportunity for U.S. aerospace companies to gain valuable international business leads in a...

  14. 76 FR 58776 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission AGENCY: International Trade... Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission to Montreal, Canada, May 6-9, 2012. This aerospace mission is an ideal opportunity for...

  15. 22 CFR 201.32 - Suppliers of delivery services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suppliers of delivery services. 201.32 Section... services. (a) Performance of the service contract. The supplier of delivery services financed by USAID shall comply with the terms and conditions of its contract to supply delivery services. (b)...

  16. Preferential customer treatment by suppliers: identifying benefits and antecedents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttinger, L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an increased competitive condition in high-skilled supply markets, buying firms increasingly find themselves competing with their rivals for the best suppliers available in a certain field. Due to the scarcity of such suppliers, the latter may not dedicate their resources equally to all custo

  17. Identifying innovative suppliers in business networks : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels J.; Veldman, Jasper; Schiele, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, considerable attention has been given to the role of supplying firms in the context of innovation. However, not every supplier is capable of contributing to a buyer's innovation performance. In addition, the willingness and commitment of suppliers to collaborate with buyers is not

  18. 75 FR 28547 - Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... general and trade media, e-mail, direct mail, broadcast fax, notices by industry trade associations and... International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade..., International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service, is organizing an Aerospace Supplier...

  19. Reconfiguring the health supplier market: changing relationships in the primary care supplier market in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Bob; Wilson, Rob; Cornford, James

    2008-06-01

    The multi-billion NHS Connecting for Health programme in England has completely reconfigured the relationships between the Department of Health, the National Health Service (NHS), primary care computing suppliers and healthcare professionals (including general practitioners). The implications of this reconfiguration are now becoming apparent and have potentially significant effects on the delivery of information and information systems in the health context. This article explores the changes in these relationships by drawing on comparisons with the previous system for procurement of primary care computing systems, which ran for much of the 1990s. The article also comments on characteristics of the CfH procurement/contracting process, the differing responses of suppliers, and the role of the existing installed base as an actor in building a new infrastructure for health records.

  20. Supplier-purchaser relationship assessment maturity model: a study of suppliers from an automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Zanoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Operations networks are increasingly demanding in terms of enterprises’ relationships. Strategies and processes integration and capabilities generation between supply chain members become success key factors. This paper proposes a conceptual model for purchaser-supplier relationship maturity level assessment. The maturity levels were developed from a literature review of the stages of the logistics conceptual evolution, from the integration between members of supply chains and from the evolution stages of the supplier-purchaser relationship. This model integrates a measuring system based on the ‘Performance Prism’. The model is tested in enterprises of the automotive industry. The methodology used to test and validate the model is a survey. Results stated that the participant enterprises are generally found in maturity level 3, which is also confirmed by cluster analysis. Maturity level models may help companies in evolutionary trajectories stating references for their change processes.

  1. Knowledge based Supplier Quality Management System for Automobile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Teli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A large industrial products component manufacturer was challenged to reduce supplier quality issues in response to changing market dynamics. The manufacturer faced increased competition in their core product segments and needed to reduce their overall costs and improve product quality to stay ahead. After a detailed analysis, the manufacturer identified supplier quality as one of the three key operational improvement opportunities. Supplier quality management has emerged as one of the leading business practices in the past few years. World-class manufacturers are making significant investments in systems and processes to improve supplier quality. This paper briefly outlines some of the best practices implemented by such manufacturers in supplier quality management.

  2. Web-based supplier relationship framework using agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oboulhas Conrad Tsahat Onesime; XU Xiao-fei(徐晓飞); ZHAN De-chen(战德臣)

    2004-01-01

    In order to enable both manufacturers and suppliers to be profitable on today' s highly competitive markets, manufacturers and suppliers must be quick in selecting best partners establishing strategic relationship, and collaborating with each other so that they can satisfy the changing competitive manufacturing requirements. A web-based supplier relationships (SR) framework is therfore proposed using multi-agent systems and linear programming technique to reduce supply cost, increase flexibility and shorten response time. Web-based SR approach is an ideal platform for information exchange that helps buyers and suppliers to maintain the availability of materials in the right quantity, at the right place, and at the right time, and keep the customer-supplier relationship more transparent. A multi-agent system prototype was implemented by simulation, which shows the feasibility of the proposed architecture.

  3. Low Carbon Supplier Selection in the Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a model for evaluating the carbon and energy management performance of suppliers by using multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM. By conducting a literature review and gathering expert opinions, 10 criteria on carbon and energy performance were identified to evaluate low carbon suppliers using the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM. Subsequently, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method was used to determine the importance of evaluation criteria in selecting suppliers and the causal relationships between them. The DEMATEL-based analytic network process (DANP and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR were adopted to evaluate the weights and performances of suppliers and to obtain a solution under each evaluation criterion. An illustrative example of a hotel company was presented to demonstrate how to select a low carbon supplier according to carbon and energy management. The proposed hybrid model can help firms become effective in facilitating low carbon supply chains in hotels.

  4. A new DEA-GAHP method for supplier selection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Ahadian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is one of the most important decisions made in supply chain management. Supplier evaluation problem has been in the center of supply chain researcher’s attention in these years. Managers regard some of these studies and methods inappropriate due to simple, weight scoring methods that generally are based on subjective opinions and judgments of decision maker units involved in the supplier evaluation process yielding imprecise and even unreliable results. This paper seeks to propose a methodology to integrate data envelopment analysis (DEA and group analytical hierarchy process (GAHP for evaluating and selecting the most efficient supplier. We develop a methodology, which consists of 6 steps, one by one has been introduced in lecture and finally applicability of proposed method is indicated by assessing 12 suppliers in a numerical example.

  5. An integrated MCDM approach to green supplier selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Yazdani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection management has been considered as an important subject for industrial organizations. In order to remain on the market, to gain profitability and to retain competitive advantage, business units need to establish an integrated and structured supplier selection system. In addition, environmental protection problems have been big solicitudes for organizations to consider green approach in supplier selection problem. However, finding proper suppliers involves several variables and it is critically a complex process. In this paper, the main attention is focused on finding the right supplier based on fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM process. The weights of criteria are calculated by analytical hierarchical process (AHP and the final ranking is achieved by fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS. TOPSIS advantage among the other similar methods is to obtain the best solution close to ideal solution. The paper attempts to express better understanding by an example of an automobile manufacturing supply chain.

  6. Supplier Development Literature Review and Key Future Research Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddassir Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a Supplier Development (SD literature framework and identify the main focus areas in SD research. To this end, a comprehensive review of the existing SD academic literature has been undertaken, which includes 62 research papers. These papers are classified according to their research content and the research methodology employed. A comprehensive list of future research areas is also presented. Thus, this paper will also briefly explore proposed future research. The review of the SD literature presented here identifies the following main areas of focus: Supplier Development Activities, Practices and Success Factors; Direct or Indirect Supplier Development; Supplier Development as a Reactive or Strategic Process; Supplier Development in a Lean Six Sigma & SME context.

  7. A SUPPLIER SELECTION MODEL FOR SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT OUTSOURCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancu Lucian-Viorel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-criteria decision making model used for supplier selection for software development outsourcing on e-marketplaces. This model can be used in auctions. The supplier selection process becomes complex and difficult on last twenty years since the Internet plays an important role in business management. Companies have to concentrate their efforts on their core activities and the others activities should be realized by outsourcing. They can achieve significant cost reduction by using e-marketplaces in their purchase process and by using decision support systems on supplier selection. In the literature were proposed many approaches for supplier evaluation and selection process. The performance of potential suppliers is evaluated using multi criteria decision making methods rather than considering a single factor cost.

  8. Selection of Supplier by Using Saw and Vikor Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Venkateswarlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, Lean manufacturing becomes a key strategy for global competition. In this environment the most important process is the efficient selection of suppliers. In any organization various criteria such as quality, cost, location etc are used for the selection of supplier which plays a vital role in the industry. In the present work multi criteria decision making (MCDM methods are used such as SAW method and VIKOR method. It is used to select the best supplier for implementing the spring manufacturing industry. Choice of the efficient supplier could be a complicated and is a complex problem and this draw back associate degreed a key success for an organization. In this paper linguistic fuzzy data is used to search out the ratings and weights and also the introduced methodologies employed to pick the efficient supplier.

  9. Project Management Consultancy (PMC) procurement approach: Supplier's evaluation and selection dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Azimi, Mohd Azrulfitri; Pozin, Mohd Affendi Ahmad; Osman, Wan Nadri; Anuar, Herman Shah

    2016-08-01

    Project Management Consultancy (PMC) is part of the management oriented procurement method in which a sole consultant is hired by the client to deal with the contactors in place of the client. Appointing contractors in this method or approach looks to be interesting as client could play a pivotal role in evaluating and selecting the supplier/contractor for the work package. In some cases, client gives the authority for the PMC to hire the supplier/contractor of their choice while in some cases the client is the one who made the decision. This research paper seeks to investigate the dilemma arises from this situation and for the purpose of this research, a real case study was studied to assess the impacts of such dilemma to the performance of the project. Recommendations on how to tackle the dilemma will also be addressed in the later part of this research paper.

  10. 78 FR 57320 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign Supplier Verification Programs and the Accreditation... food meets the same safety standards as food produced domestically. The Foreign Supplier Verification Programs (FSVP) proposal establishes requirements for importers to verify that their foreign suppliers...

  11. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Supplier GHG Emissions Inventory pilot, and whether it will have practical utility; whether our estimate...

  12. Lessons from the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  13. Green supplier development program selection using NGT and VIKOR under fuzzy environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Anjali; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    is often a challenging decision due to lack of prior experience, limited quantitative information, specific context of the organization, and varying supplier backgrounds. This paper addresses the problem of evaluating green supplier development programs and proposes a fuzzy NGT (Nominal Group Technique......Developing environmental performance of suppliers is critical for green supply chain management. Organizations are nowadays investing in various green supplier development programs to enhance their supplier performances. The decision to select the right program for green supplier development...

  14. Application of multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm for sustainable strategic supplier selection under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  The incorporation of environmental objective into the conventional supplier selection practices is crucial for corporations seeking to promote green supply chain management (GSCM. Challenges and risks associated with green supplier selection have been broadly recognized by procurement and supplier management professionals. This paper aims to solve a Tetra “S” (SSSS problem based on a fuzzy multi-objective optimization with genetic algorithm in a holistic supply chain environment. In this empirical study, a mathematical model with fuzzy coefficients is considered for sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS problem and a corresponding model is developed to tackle this problem. Design/methodology/approach: Sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS decisions are typically multi-objectives in nature and it is an important part of green production and supply chain management for many firms. The proposed uncertain model is transferred into deterministic model by applying the expected value mesurement (EVM and genetic algorithm with weighted sum approach for solving the multi-objective problem. This research focus on a multi-objective optimization model for minimizing lean cost, maximizing sustainable service and greener product quality level. Finally, a mathematical case of textile sector is presented to exemplify the effectiveness of the proposed model with a sensitivity analysis. Findings: This study makes a certain contribution by introducing the Tetra ‘S’ concept in both the theoretical and practical research related to multi-objective optimization as well as in the study of sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS under uncertain environment. Our results suggest that decision makers tend to select strategic supplier first then enhance the sustainability. Research limitations/implications: Although the fuzzy expected value model (EVM with fuzzy coefficients constructed in present research should be helpful for

  15. Supplier Selection in Textile Industry Using Fuzzy MADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mokhtari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection, Inventory control and economy order quantity is always 1 of the most important issues in manufacturing industries and textile industry is no exception. Unfortunately traditional performances of some managers in this industry have led to bankrupting and closuring of some factories. In this study, we use fuzzy Delphi, fuzzy AHP and VIKOR under fuzzy environment as a decision tool to supplier selection. The aim of this study is develop a model with high reliability for supplier selection in textile industry. From fuzzy Delphi we extracted five essential criteria and with fuzzy AHP we weight these criteria and with VIKOR under fuzzy environment we choose the best suppliers. We construct a questionnaire for fuzzy AHP and VIKOR that it’s not needed to notice cost orientation or benefit orientation of criteria. Our finding shows that five criteria; quality, location, cost, trust and delivery are the most effective criteria in textile supplier selection area. According to our proposed method suppliers s9, s15, s16, s4, s5 are the best supplier.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun is a completely new up-to-date rewrite from scratch of the 1982 book Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, taking account of enormous advances in understanding since that date. It describes the subtle and complex interaction between the Sun's plasma atmosphere and its magnetic field, which is responsible for many fascinating dynamic phenomena. Chapters cover the generation of the Sun's magnetic field by dynamo action, magnetoconvection and the nature of photospheric flux tubes such as sunspots, the heating of the outer atmosphere by waves or reconnection, the structure of prominences, the nature of eruptive instability and magnetic reconnection in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and the acceleration of the solar wind by reconnection or wave-turbulence. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in solar physics and related fields of astronomy, plasma physics and fluid dynamics. Problem sets and other resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521854719.

  17. The Sun's Supergranulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Sun's supergranulation refers to a physical pattern covering the surface of the quiet Sun with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30000km. Its most noticeable observable signature is as a fluctuating velocity field whose components are mostly horizontal. Supergranulation was discovered more than fifty years ago, however explaining why and how it originates still represents one of the main challenges of modern solar physics. A lot of work has been devoted to the subject over the years, but observational constraints, conceptual difficulties and numerical limitations have all concurred to prevent a detailed understanding of the supergranulation phenomenon so far. With the advent of 21st century supercomputing resources and the availability of unprecedented high-resolution observations of the Sun, the solar community has now reached a stage at which key progress can be made on this question. A unifying strategy between observations and modeling is more than ever required for this to be possible. The ...

  18. 75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Supplier Perception Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Collection (Supplier Perception Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Acquisition, Logistics...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Department of Veterans Affairs Supplier Perception Survey. OMB Control...

  19. Sun, Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sun is enveloped by a hot, tenuous million-degree corona that expands to create a continuous solar wind that sweeps past all the planets and fills the heliosphere. The solar wind is modulated by strong gusts that are initiated by powerful explosions on the Sun, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This dynamic, invisible outer atmosphere of the Sun is currently under observation with the soft X-ray telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft, whose results are presented. We also show observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that is now passing over the solar pole, sampling the solar wind in this region for the first time. Two other spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, have recently detected the outer edge of the invisible heliosphere, roughly halfway to the nearest star. Magnetic solar activity, the total radiative output from the Sun, and the Earth's mean global surface temperature all vary with the 11-year sunspot cycle in which the total number of sunspots varies from a maximum to a minimum and back to a maximum again in about 11 years. The terrestrial magnetic field hollows out a protective magnetic cavity, called the magnetosphere, within the solar wind. This protection is incomplete, however, so the Sun feeds an unseen world of high-speed particles and magnetic fields that encircle the Earth in space. These particles endanger spacecraft and astronauts, and also produce terrestrial aurorae. An international flotilla of spacecraft is now sampling the weak points in this magnetic defense. Similar spacecraft have also discovered a new radiation belt, in addition to the familiar Van Allen belts, except fed by interstellar ions instead of electrons and protons from the Sun.

  20. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  1. Near-Sun asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  2. The SUN S TRAVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  3. Research on suppliers selection for e-commerce alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chunhua; Sun, Bin; Liu, Dongsheng

    2009-07-01

    First, the characteristics of suppliers in the e-Commerce alliances of certain industries will be analyzed in this paper and the initial model to select suppliers is built. Then, the history performances of providers in the initial model and the ability to cooperate with others are recorded and analyzed. Based on the analysis above and considering the restriction of supply, the number of re-sellers and the price of products, an improved model to select suppliers in the e-Commerce alliance of certain industries called "the mix-integers model" is built. Finally, a mathematical example is used to describe how the mix-integers model to work.

  4. Study on Evaluation of Supplier s Quality Assurance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To be a worldwide competitor, enterprise needs to e va luate and select its supplier carefully. Generally, to evaluate a supplier, the evaluating effort is focused on the purchase price, delivery time, product quali ty, etc. The vendors' quality assurance is seldom considered. However, it reflec ts the ability that a vendor can provide high quality but low cost products cont inuously and stably. In this paper, with the study on evaluation of supplier's q uality assurance system, a set of methods and indice...

  5. A brokered market with heterogeneous suppliers and consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Righter, Rhonda

    1999-01-01

    We consider a brokered market with heterogeneous suppliers and consumers of identical items or services. Each supplier determines a minimum acceptable price for the items it supplies, based on its costs and target rate of return. The broker begins with a fixed set of items from the suppliers. Customers arrive periodically to the market and offer a bid for an item. If a customer wants more than one item, a set of bids is made. If the broker accepts a bid it must be assigned an i...

  6. Rethinking the Centrality of Customer and Supplier Interaction in Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Thomas; Phillips, W.; Caldwell, N.

    This paper evaluates the assumption that interaction within customer-supplier relationships is alwaysthe pivotal point for innovation. It argues that the relevance of customer and supplier relationshipsdepends on the nature and maturity of the technology being developed, thus exploring...... the potentialvariation in customer-supplier interactions during different phases of the innovation life cycle. Thepaper commences with a brief introduction to the literature and then uses the findings from anexploratory set of interviews to illustrate the premise of the paper. The paper concludes with adiscussion...... of the implications of the findings and outlines the plans for the next stage of the research.Keywords: technology, interaction, relationships, innovation life cycle...

  7. Japanese suppliers in transition from domestic nuclear reactor vendors to international suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-06-27

    Japan is emerging as a major leader and exporter of nuclear power technology. In the 1990s, Japan has the largest and strongest nuclear power supply industry worldwide as a result of the largest domestic nuclear power plant construction program. The Japanese nuclear power supply industry has moved from dependence on foreign technology to developing, design, building, and operating its own power plants. This report describes the Japanese nuclear power supply industry and examines one supplier--the Mitsubishi group--to develop an understanding of the supply industry and its relationship to the utilities, government, and other organizations.

  8. Maximising the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with some of the best quality solar radiation in the world. In the light of this many exciting opportunities exist to utilize the sun to its full potential in the design of energy efficient buildings. Passive solar buildings...

  9. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  10. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  11. Go Sun Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  12. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  13. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  14. Presenting a Multi Objective Model for Supplier Selection in Order to Reduce Green House Gas Emission under Uncertion Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Mohamadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been given to Stochastic demand due to uncertainty in the real -world. In the literature, decision-making models and suppliers' selection do not often consider inventory management as part of shopping problems. On the other hand, the environmental sustainability of a supply chain depends on the shopping strategy of the supply chain members. The supplier selection plays an important role in the green chain. In this paper, a multi-objective nonlinear integer programming model for selecting a set of supplier considering Stochastic demand is proposed. while the cost of purchasing include the total cost, holding and stock out costs, rejected units, units have been delivered sooner, and total green house gas emissions are minimized, while the obtained total score from the supplier assessment process is maximized. It is assumed, the purchaser provides the different products from the number predetermined supplier to a with Stochastic demand and the uniform probability distribution function. The product price depends on the order quantity for each product line is intended. Multi-objective models using known methods, such as Lp-metric has become an objective function and then uses genetic algorithms and simulated annealing meta-heuristic is solved.

  15. CMS hand out awards of excellence to their top suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    CMS awarded its highest distinction to two suppliers: the Spanish firm Felguera Construcciones Mecanicas, represented by Ernesto Alvarez (left) and the Japanese firm Kawasaki Heavy Industries, represented by Kazuo Mizuno (right).

  16. Supplier Selection Problems in Fashion Business Operations with Sustainability Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sustainability has been a major focus of fashion business operations because fashion industry development causes harmful effects to the environment, both indirectly and directly. The sustainability of the fashion industry is generally based on several levels and this study focuses on investigating the optimal supplier selection problem for sustainable materials supply in fashion clothing production. Following the ground rule that sustainable development is based on the Triple Bottom Line (TBL, this paper has framed twelve criteria from the economic, environmental and social perspectives for evaluating suppliers. The well-established multi-criteria decision making tool Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS is employed for ranking potential suppliers among the pool of suppliers. Through a real case study, the proposed approach has been applied and some managerial implications are derived.

  17. How environmental collaboration with suppliers and customers influences firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grekova, K.; Calantone, R.J.; Bremmers, H.J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Searching for sustainable growth opportunities, manufacturing firms are increasingly embedding sustainability concerns into their relationships with supply chain partners. In the present paper, we explore the potential of environmental collaboration with suppliers and customers to induce

  18. CMS rewards its best suppliers with the Crystal Award

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    A. Ingman of the Finnish company Outokumpu Pori Oy, F. Krähenbuhl of the Swiss firm Nexans Suisse and M. Niemerski of the American company Plascore receive the highest distinction in the CMS supplier awards - the Crystal Award.

  19. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  20. A state-of-art review on supplier selection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Khodadadzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many supplier selection problems are involved with various criteria such as quality of supplier, price, delivery time, etc. This paper presents a survey on the implementation of using different multi criteria decision making (MCDM methods for supplier selection problems. The reviews covers recent advances of MCDM techniques such as data envelopment analysis (DEA, analytical hierarchy process, etc. over the period 2000-2012. The review also reveals that nearly 60% of the applications are associated with business unit, 15% is related to economy, 9% is devoted to service and development and 8% is dedicated to research and development. In our survey, DEA has become the most popular technique for supplier selection problem followed by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.

  1. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  2. Consequences of information technology usage on retailer-supplier relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    limited. The purpose of this paper therefore is to study the consequences of information technology usage on retailer supplier relationships, focusing on inter-organisational systems. 2. The paper begins by discussing the nature of retailer-supplier relations, noting that whereas these relationships have...... research. Based on the propositions developed in the paper, it is stressed that managers need to carefully consider the consequences that the use of inter-organisational systems may have on inter-organisational relationship. Further, managers need to realise that the use of inter-organisational systems......1. Retailers and suppliers increasingly tend to form long-term co-operative relationships. In the literature, the use of information technology is an enabling factor behind this trend. Nevertheless, our understanding of how information technology influences retailer-supplier relationships is still...

  3. Interrogating antecedents to SME supplier performance in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (SPSS version 22.0) and Analysis of Moment Structures (Amos version 22) software. ... Institutional trust was statistically insignificant, whereas supply chain ... quality, institutional trust, supply chain collaboration, supplier performance ...

  4. Analisis Kinerja Supplier Bahan Baku Menggunakan Integrasi Supply Chain Operations Refrence dan Analytic Hierarchy Process PT. Asia Raya Foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Jati, Wahyu Listyo

    2015-01-01

    Persaingan bisnis yang semakin cepat menuntut PT. Asia Raya Foundry sebagai salah satu perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang manufaktur pengecoran logam untuk produksi spare part mesin pabrik perkebunan dan alat berat harus memperhatikan keinginan konsumen terhadap produk. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan terdapat keluhan dari pabrik terhadap pasokan bahan baku langsung yang diperoleh dari supplier sehingga menyebabkan adanya keterlambatan dalam penyelesaian produk. Gangguan yang disebabkan ...

  5. Green supplier selection: a new genetic/immune strategy with industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Jain, Vipul; Kumar, Sameer; Chandra, Charu

    2016-10-01

    With the onset of the 'climate change movement', organisations are striving to include environmental criteria into the supplier selection process. This article hybridises a Green Data Envelopment Analysis (GDEA)-based approach with a new Genetic/Immune Strategy for Data Envelopment Analysis (GIS-DEA). A GIS-DEA approach provides a different view to solving multi-criteria decision making problems using data envelopment analysis (DEA) by considering DEA as a multi-objective optimisation problem with efficiency as one objective and proximity of solution to decision makers' preferences as the other objective. The hybrid approach called GIS-GDEA is applied here to a well-known automobile spare parts manufacturer in India and the results presented. User validation developed based on specific set of criteria suggests that the supplier selection process with GIS-GDEA is more practical than other approaches in a current industrial scenario with multiple decision makers.

  6. Optimal Procurement Mechanisms for Divisible Goods with Capacitated Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-31

    the B2B online auction transactions totaled 109 billion in 1999, and that number was expected to grow to 2.7 trillion by 2004. Although auction...manufacturer, etc.) and n suppliers. The buyer purchases a single commodity from the suppliers and resells it in the consumer market . The buyer receives...an expected revenue, R(q) from selling q units of the product in the consumer market – the expectation is over the random demand realization and any

  7. Supplier selection based on multi-criterial AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pócsová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case-study of supplier selection based on multi-criterial Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method.It is demonstrated that using adequate mathematical method can bring us “unprejudiced” conclusion, even if the alternatives (suppliercompanies are very similar in given selection-criteria. The result is the best possible supplier company from the viewpoint of chosen criteriaand the price of the product.

  8. SRIF Receives 2007 Global Excellent Supplier Award from TOSHIBA CORPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Shenyang Research Institute of Foundry (SRIF),the largest foundry institute and a large science and technology enterprise in China, has recently been awarded the 2007 Global Excellent Supplier Award by TOSHIBA CORPORATION Power Systems Company. Out of all the suppliers that supply the products for electrical equipment, 12 were recognized at the event held in Japan, on May 23, 2008, of which nine are from Japan and three are from outside Japan.

  9. Consequences to water suppliers of collecting rainwater on housing estates

    OpenAIRE

    Gires, Auguste; De Gouvello, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The collection, storage and use of rainwater from roofs reduce the need for potable water. However if water suppliers are to decrease their infrastructure costs as well as their operational costs (due to water savings), the rainwater system has to provide most of the time a significant percentage of the water demand. This paper adopts the view point of the water suppliers and investigates how reliable this source of water is in the case of a housing estate, considering...

  10. Determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness in transnational companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rašković

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective supplier-buyer relationship management should not be seen only in terms of cost and financial measures, as outlined by Transaction cost economics, but also in terms of other (“softer” relational benefits, like e.g. more comprehensive information sharing, higher levels of trust, better cooperation and increased relationship flexibility. This second view is grounded in both Relationship marketing and Resource-advantage theory. Surprisingly, only a few research papers on supplier-buyer relationships address both of these perspectives equally, as well as in terms of long-term competitiveness (vis-avis a traditional short-term performance. The purpose of this paper is to analyze business relationship determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, where we study the impact of (1 relationship-based information exchange, (2 network spillover effects, (3 transaction-specific investments, (4 trust, (5 cooperation (joint actions and (6 flexibility on perceived (7 supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness. In this regard the main research question of our study is: Which relational and transactional dimensions determine supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, as well as how strongly? To provide the answer this research question we employ an exploratory-type Partial Least Squares (PLS regression in conjunction with a novel perspective of network spillover effects, as a set of independent variables in our model. The data set consists of a sample of 130 international suppliers (approx. 30 % response rate connected to a transnational company (TNC headquartered in Slovenia, which operates in the steel construction solutions’ industry. Our results clearly identify a relational and a transactional set of determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, with the former having a significantly higher impact on competitiveness than the latter. With regards to specific dimensions associated with this relational component

  11. Strategically decentralize when encroaching on a dominant supplier

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gendao; Zhou, Yu

    2016-01-01

    A manufacturer may encroach on his suppliers by developing substitutable components. In the presence of encroachment, the manufacturer could assemble products using (high-end) components purchased from the supplier, and assemble products using (low-end) components produced in-house. Thus, the manufacturer must deliberate on how to manage the expanded organization consisting of competing product divisions. In this paper, we examine the quintessential organizational structure decision – the cen...

  12. Legal and regulatory challenges currently facing diabetes treatment providers and related durable medical equipment suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Robert

    2013-03-01

    It has been estimated that 24 million Americans have diabetes, many of whom are Medicare beneficiaries. These individuals carefully monitor their blood glucose levels primarily through the use of in-home blood glucose testing kits. Although the test is relatively simple, the cumulative expense of providing glucose test strips and lancets to patients is ever increasing, both to the Medicare program and to uninsured individuals who must pay out-of-pocket for these testing supplies. This article discusses the diabetes durable medical equipment (DME) coverage under Part B Medicare, the establishment and role of DME Medicare administrative contractors, and national and local coverage requirements for diabetes DME suppliers. This article also discusses the federal government's ongoing concerns regarding the improper billing of diabetes testing supplies. To protect the Medicare Trust Fund, the federal government has contracted with multiple private entities to conduct reviews and audits of questionable Medicare claims. These private sector contractors have conducted unannounced site visits of DME supplier offices, interviewed patients and their families, placed suppliers on prepayment review, and conducted extensive postpayment audits of prior paid Medicare claims. In more egregious administrative cases, Medicare contractors have recommended that problematic providers and/or DME suppliers have their Medicare numbers suspended or, in some instances, revoked. More serious infractions can lead to civil or criminal liability. In the final part of this article, we will examine the future of enforcement efforts by law enforcement and Medicare contractors and the importance of understanding and complying with federal laws when ordering and supplying diabetes testing strips and lancets.

  13. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  14. Preferred supplier contracts in post-patent prescription drug markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankart, Carl Rudolf; Stargardt, Tom

    2016-02-22

    In recent years, the expiration of patents for large drug classes has increased the importance of post-patent drug markets. However, previous research has focused solely on patent drug markets. In this study, the authors evaluate the influence of preferred supplier contracts, the German approach to tendering, in post-patent drug markets using a hierarchical market share attraction model. The authors find that preferred supplier contracts are a powerful strategic instrument for generic manufacturers in a highly competitive environment. They quantify the effects of signing a preferred supplier contract and show that brand-name manufacturers are vulnerable to tendering. Therefore, brand-name manufacturers should readjust their strategies and consider including preferred supplier contracts in their marketing mix. In addition, the authors employ a simulation to demonstrate that a first-mover advantage might be gained from signing a preferred supplier contract. Furthermore, their results can be used as a blueprint for decision makers in the pharmaceutical industry to assess the market share effects of different contracting strategies regarding preferred supplier contracts.

  15. Using MACBETH method for supplier selection in manufacturing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Karande

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is always found to be a complex decision-making problem in manufacturing environment. The presence of several independent and conflicting evaluation criteria, either qualitative or quantitative, makes the supplier selection problem a candidate to be solved by multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. Even several MCDM methods have already been proposed for solving the supplier selection problems, the need for an efficient method that can deal with qualitative judgments related to supplier selection still persists. In this paper, the applicability and usefulness of measuring attractiveness by a categorical-based evaluation technique (MACBETH is demonstrated to act as a decision support tool while solving two real time supplier selection problems having qualitative performance measures. The ability of MACBETH method to quantify the qualitative performance measures helps to provide a numerical judgment scale for ranking the alternative suppliers and selecting the best one. The results obtained from MACBETH method exactly corroborate with those derived by the past researchers employing different mathematical approaches.

  16. An examination of hospital satisfaction with blood suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Robert; DelliFraine, Jami L

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict overall hospital satisfaction with blood suppliers. The data for this study came from a 2001 satisfaction survey of hospital blood bank managers conducted by the National Blood Data Resource Center. A total of 1325 blood-utilizing hospitals were included in the final study database. The measurement of hospital satisfaction with its blood supplier encompasses the five composites of the SERVQUAL model. The five composites are 1) tangibles, 2) reliability, 3) responsiveness, 4) assurance, and 5) empathy. Linear regression was performed with overall hospital satisfaction as the dependent variable and the five composites of the SERVQUAL model and control variables as predictors of overall hospital satisfaction with blood suppliers. Significant predictors of hospital satisfaction with blood suppliers are satisfaction with medical and clinical support provided by the blood center, satisfaction with the routine delivery schedule, and price (service fee) of red cells. Prior studies have demonstrated the importance of customer satisfaction to organizations. As organizations, blood centers can benefit from improved satisfaction from their hospital customers. Blood center strategies that focus on improving these three predictors of overall hospital satisfaction with primary blood suppliers will be the most likely to improve and/or maintain hospital customer satisfaction with primary blood suppliers.

  17. Unveiling the importance of being a preferred customer in order to develop innovations with suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this research is to understand why early supplier integration in new product development repeatedly fails and how to select the right suppliers to avoid supplier obstructionism. We review the literature on early supplier integration.

  18. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional provider and supplier requirements for... Billing Privileges § 424.516 Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining... active enrollment status for a provider or supplier when that provider or supplier certifies that...

  19. 22 CFR 201.46 - Compensation to supplier if shipment is prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation to supplier if shipment is... Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.46 Compensation to supplier if shipment is prohibited. (a) Payment to supplier. USAID shall make appropriate payment to a supplier for the value of...

  20. Supplier Portfolio Selection and Optimum Volume Allocation: A Knowledge Based Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Romana; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2010-01-01

    Selection of suppliers and allocation of optimum volumes to suppliers is a strategic business decision. This paper presents a decision support method for supplier selection and the optimal allocation of volumes in a supplier portfolio. The requirements for the method were gathered during a case stud

  1. Unveiling the importance of being a preferred customer in order to develop innovations with suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this research is to understand why early supplier integration in new product development repeatedly fails and how to select the right suppliers to avoid supplier obstructionism. We review the literature on early supplier integration. Res

  2. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  3. An integrated model of scheduling, batch delivery and supplier selection in a make-to-order manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a supply chain, which consists of a manufacturer, a retailer and several suppliers in which the retailer orders jobs to the manufacturer and the suppliers provide the requiring parts. The manufacturer schedules and processes the orders and dispatches them to the retailer either individually or collectively in batches. The manufacturer incurs a penalty cost for each tardy job and a transportation cost for every delivered batch and therefore, searches for a schedule that yields minimum number of tardy jobs and batches. Moreover, the manufacturer tries to optimize its supplying cost through locating the suppliers that offer appropriate release times and costs for manufacturing parts. Since the release times of parts directly affect scheduling of orders, in this research, we develop an integrated mathematical model for the manufacturer that incorporates suppliers' selection issue into the scheduling and batching decisions. Furthermore, we present a heuristic algorithm (greedy algorithm and also a local search to quickly determine the optimal or near-optimal solutions. The computational analysis shows the importance of the integrated model and also the superiority and effectiveness of the heuristic algorithms.

  4. How hot is the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2001-01-01

    Do you know how hot thesun is? There are no solidsor liquids on the sun. Why not? The temperature onoutside the sun is more than 10, 000℃, and that at the centre is about 20, 000, 000℃.The sun is so hot that all thesolids and all the liquids havebeen turned into gases.

  5. The sun, our star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  6. Utilization integrated Fuzzy-QFD and TOPSIS approach in supplier selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is a typical multi-attribute problem that involves both qualitative and quantitative factors. To deal with this problem, different techniques have suggested. Being based on purely mathematical data, these techniques have significant drawbacks especially when we want to consider qualitative factors, which are very important in supplier selection and are not easy to measure. Some innovative approaches, based on artificial intelligence techniques such as Fuzzy Logic match very well with decision-making situations especially when decision makers express heterogeneous judgments. In this research, by the combination of Fuzzy logic and the House of Quality (HOQ, qualitative criteria are considered in the forward parts of car suppliers’ selection process in Sazehgostar SAIPA Company. Then, TOPSIS technique is adopted to consider quantitative metrics. Finally, by combining of Fuzzy QFD and TOPSIS techniques, these suppliers will be selected and ranked in this Company. Concern to the both qualitative and quantitative criteria, is the important point used in this research and also methodology utilized, counts innovative aspect. Limited number of experts associated with each piece and unavailability of some quantitative criteria has been limitations across of this study’s accomplishment.

  7. Order allocation in a multi-supplier environment: review of the literature since 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Ignasi Molinè

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Optimal order allocation on the part of the buyer in a multi-supplier environment has become a major concern in supply chains.  There are numerous articles that analyze and present models for optimizing order allocation from a given panel of suppliers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis on this topic which considers: (i aims, (ii results, (iii model complexity, and (iv resolution procedures. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews twenty-eight articles, twenty-one of them published since 2007 in journals indexed by Journal Citation Reports (in ISI Web of Knowledge on this topic. Findings and Originality/value: This review reveals four main aspects mentioned as determinant in generating mathematical models. The analysis of these four points does not allow for a single, overarching model. Rather, all analyzed solutions reflect and respond to a specific company environment. Originality/value: A global analysis on several recent papers, describing main aspects wich determines optimal order allocation in multi-supplier environment.

  8. Pemilihan Supplier dan Penjadwalan Distribusi CNG dengan Pemodelan Matematis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Pratiwi Bowo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemilihan supplier yang optimal merupakan salah satu strategi bagi suatu perusahaan guna meningkatkan profit yang dimiliki perusahaan dan juga berperan dalam penentuan operasional pendistribusian CNG menuju konsumen. Dalam melakukan pemilihan dipengaruhi oleh faktor kuantitaf yang terdiri atas harga gas, kualitas gas, ketepatan waktu pengiriman dan biaya distribusi, serta dipengaruhi oleh faktor kualitatif yang terdiri atas factor-faktor subjektif perusahaan dalam melakukan pemilihan supplier. Dari setiap kriteria akan dilakukan pembobotan untuk mendapatkan indeks dari tiap kriteria. Berdasarkan metode yang digunakan terpilih dua supplier untuk membantu distribusi, adalah PT. CNG Plant, Gresik dengan 0,5 MMSCFD dan PT. CNG Plant, Pasuruan dengan 0,45 MMSCFD. Setelah melakukan pemilihan supplier tahapan selanjutnya adalah menyusun penjadwalan distribusi dengan menggunakan metode Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI, dimana dengan menggunakan metode ini, perusahaan memiliki peran untuk mengatur jadwal distribusi gas menuju perusahaan. Dilakukan dua jenis skenario dan dua model untuk melakukan penjadwalan, dimana skenario 1 PT. Mini CNG plant, Blora mampu mendistribusikan sendiri dan skenario kedua supplier lain ikut membantu. Hasil yang didapatkan dengan menggunakan metode VMI lebih optimal dibandingkan dengan replikasi penjadwalan yang didapatkan dari hasil optimasi jangka waktu yang lebih pendek.

  9. A PURCHASING DECISION: SELECTING A SUPPLIER FOR A CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozden BAYAZIT; Birsen KARPAK; Ayhan YAGCI

    2006-01-01

    Supplier selection is one of the most crucial activities performed by organizations because of its strategic importance. Supplier selection is a multi-objective problem involving both quantitative and qualitative criteria. Over the years a number of quantitative approaches have been tried. Although the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has previously been used in supplier selection problems, one major weakness of the application-oriented AHP literature is that it tends to focus on the mechanics of AHP instead of on the theoretical and practical implications associated with finding a solution. Though it is one of the most extensively used Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis methodologies, our literature search indicated that most studies found the best solution and stopped there, ignoring sensitivity analysis. Performing sensitivity analysis is very important for practical decision making, sometimes even as important as finding the best solution. In this paper for the first time a comprehensive application of AHP for a real-world case is presented along with sensitivity analysis in choosing the best suppliers for a Turkish construction company. As a result of this study the company decided to allocate the order quantities between the two top suppliers.

  10. The structure and evolution of buyer-supplier networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Souma, Wataru; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the structure and evolution of customer-supplier networks in Japan using a unique dataset that contains information on customer and supplier linkages for more than 500,000 incorporated non-financial firms for the five years from 2008 to 2012. We find, first, that the number of customer links is unequal across firms; the customer link distribution has a power-law tail with an exponent of unity (i.e., it follows Zipf's law). We interpret this as implying that competition among firms to acquire new customers yields winners with a large number of customers, as well as losers with fewer customers. We also show that the shortest path length for any pair of firms is, on average, 4.3 links. Second, we find that link switching is relatively rare. Our estimates indicate that the survival rate per year for customer links is 92 percent and for supplier links 93 percent. Third and finally, we find that firm growth rates tend to be more highly correlated the closer two firms are to each other in a customer-supplier network (i.e., the smaller is the shortest path length for the two firms). This suggests that a non-negligible portion of fluctuations in firm growth stems from the propagation of microeconomic shocks - shocks affecting only a particular firm - through customer-supplier chains.

  11. A model of the supplier involvement in the product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the product innovation in a supply chain by a supplier and derive a model for a supplier’s product innovation policy. The product innovation of a supplier can contribute to the long-term competitiveness for the supply chain, and as it is for many supply chains a major factor, it should be considered in the development of strategies for a supplier. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of supplier product innovation as a strategic tool to enhance the competitiveness and viability of supply chain. This paper explores the dynamic research performance of a supplier with endogenous time preference under a given arrangement of product innovation. We find that the optimal effort level and the achieved product innovation obey a saddle point path, or show tremendous fluctuations even without introducing the stochastic nature of product innovative activity. We also find that the fluctuation frequency is largely dependent both on the supplier’s characteristics such as supplier’s product innovative ability and on the nature of product innovation process per se. Short-run analyses are also made on the effect of supply chain cooperation in the product innovation process.

  12. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  13. 'Eye Freckles' May Predict Sun-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167479.html 'Eye Freckles' May Predict Sun-Related Problems The spots ... on the iris -- the colored part of the eye -- aren't cancerous, but these "eye freckles" could ...

  14. The Sun's New Exotic Neighbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    -up observations. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11b/06 The System SCR 1845-6357 (NACO-SDI/VLT) Located 12.7 light-years away from us, the newly found object is nevertheless not the closest brown dwarf. This honour goes indeed to the two brown dwarfs surrounding the star Epsilon Indi, located 11.8 light years away (see ESO PR 01/03). However, this newly discovered brown dwarf is unique in many aspects. "Besides being extremely close to Earth, this object is a T dwarf - a very cool brown dwarf - and the only such object found as a companion to a low-mass star," said Beth Biller, a graduate student at the University of Arizona and lead author of the paper reporting the discovery. "It is also likely the brightest known object of its temperature because it is so close." ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11c/06 Stars in the Solar Neighbourhood The discovery of this brown dwarf hints that, at least close to the Sun, cool brown dwarfs prefer to be part of a couple with a star or another brown dwarf, rather than wandering alone in the cosmic emptiness. Indeed, of the seven cool brown dwarfs that reside within 20 light years of the Sun, five have a companion. "This has wide-ranging implications for theories of brown dwarf formation, which, until now, tend to favour the production of single brown dwarfs," said team member Laird Close (University of Arizona). ESO PR Photo 11d/06 ESO PR Photo 11d/06 Images of SCR 1845-6357 A and B in different filters (NACO-SDI/VLT) High resolution images and their captions are available on this page.

  15. Physician-Supplier Procedure Summary Master File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file is a 100 percent summary of all Part B Carrier and DMERC Claims processed through the Common Working File and stored in the National Claims History...

  16. The mobilization of supplier resources for complex projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Salla; Ellegaard, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Companies depend on supplier resources and boundary spanning managers need to find suppliers, and combine and coordinate resource bundles in exchange. But adequate and fitting resource flows are not automatic, as suppliers allocate and activate their resources for more customers in their portfolio......) group, as well as Dynamic Capabilities theory and the project management literature, this paper presents the results from a study of applied buying company resource mobilization routines. We report on a qualitative investigation of routines applied in complex construction projects in the North European...... offshore wind turbine industry. Complex construction/production projects are widespread global business phenomena, but knowledge of resource mobilization routines in this context is scarce in the literature. We find that the complex project owner (buying company) applies a series of 11 particular routines...

  17. Supplier Selection in Dynamic Environment using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Agarwal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive business environment, the rapidly changing customer demands and with the advent of enterprise wide information systems, the managers are bound to think beyond the conventional business processes and devise new ways to squeeze out costs and improve the performance without compromising on the quality at the same time. Supplier evaluation and selection is one such area which determines the success of any manufacturing firm. Supplier selection is the problem wherein the company decides which vendor to select to have that strategic and operational advantage of meeting the customers’ varying demands and fight the fierce competition. This paper presents a simple model based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to help decision makers in supplier evaluation and selection, taking into account the firm’s requirements. The article is intended to help new scholars and researchers understand the AHP model and see different facets in first sight.

  18. Supplier Value of Customer-Initiated Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    Increased market demand and shortened product life cycles generate industrial customer requests for collaborative product development. Manufacture-to-stock suppliers struggle to manage the request process to obtain profitability. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if request management...... is profitable for suppliers, and to examine possible relations between profitability of requests and the requesting customer. Through a case study, request management is identified as a profitable process due to long-term accumulated profit from developed products. Request profitability is not identified...... as related to profitability or turnover of existing customers, and thus profitability of requests cannot be predicted based on these customer data. Results from a coupled interview study indicate that request management has a large potential for future exploitation, and an outline of the supplier value...

  19. Minimum information about animal experiments: supplier is also important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonjon, Nicolas; Prieto, Monica; Haton, Henri; Brøchner, Christian B; Bauchet, Luc; Costalat, Vincent; Privat, Alain; Gaviria, Manuel; Perrin, Florence E

    2009-02-01

    It has now been established that functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) depends on several parameters, including animal strain. Here we demonstrate that rats from the same strain (Wistar) but from two independent commercial suppliers present different motor, sensory, and autonomic outcomes after a standard model of SCI, the so-called compression model. Recovery is correlated with the extension of the lesion, and we show that the vertebral canal diameter varies between the two suppliers. To substantiate this point, we carried out another set of experiments, with the so-called contusion model, which requires bone ablation and thus whose extension is not related to vertebral canal diameter. We show that there is no difference between the two suppliers. The purpose of our communication is to alert researchers on how crucial it is to control experimental parameters as closely as possible and to establish a standard for animal experiment in order to avoid unexpected biases.

  20. Understanding Supplier Resistance - Overcoming Obstacles to Supply Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    New Steve

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores an important but unexplored theme in the development of 'total quality' relationships in the supply chain: why suppliers may exhibit resistance to quality initiatives, and why what seems to customers as cooperation can appear as unwelcome interference or even exploitation to suppliers. This is a question of great relevance to all those seeking to understand current business practice, and also to those seeking to bring about practical improvements in supply chain quality. Too much of the supply chain and quality literature assumes the issue of supplier's compliance with customer initiatives is unproblematic (unable to understand this sentence; experience suggests it is one of the major obstacles in developing the quality-oriented, integrated supply chain.

  1. AN INTEGRATED FUZZY AHP AND TOPSIS MODEL FOR SUPPLIER EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Stević

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s modern supply chains, the adequate suppliers’ choice has strategic meaning for entire companies’ business. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different suppliers using the integrated model that recognizes a combination of fuzzy AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process and the TOPSIS method. Based on six criteria, the expert team was formed to compare them, so determination of their significance is being done with fuzzy AHP method. Expert team also compares suppliers according to each criteria and on the base of triangular fuzzy numbers. Based on their inputs, TOPSIS method is used to estimate potential solutions. Suggested model accomplishes certain advantages in comparison with previously used traditional models which were used to make decisions about evaluation and choice of supplier.

  2. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    energy, and produce X-rays, microwaves and a shock wave that heats the solar surface. Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that predicts the nature and magnitude of the shock waves that this beam of energetic electrons should create when they slam down into the solar atmosphere. Although their theory directed them to the right area to search for the seismic waves, the waves that they found were 10 times stronger than they had predicted. "They were so strong that you can see them in the raw data," Kosovichev says. The solar seismic waves appear to be compression waves like the "P" waves generated by an earthquake. They travel throughout the Sun's interior. In fact, the waves should recombine on the opposite side of the Sun from the location of the flare to create a faint duplicate of the original ripple pattern, Kosovichev predicts. Now that they know how to find them, the SOHO scientists say that the seismic waves generated by solar flares should allow them to verify independently some of the conditions in the solar interior that they have inferred from studying the pattern of waves that are continually ruffling the Sun's surface. SOHO is part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, a global effort to observe and understand our star and its effects on our environment. The ISTP mission includes more than 20 satellites, coupled with with ground-based observatories and modeling centers, that allow scientists to study the Sun, the Earth, and the space between them in unprecedented detail. ISTP is a joint program of NASA, ESA, Japan's Institute for Astronautical Science, and Russia's Space Research Institute. Still images of the solar quake can be found at the following internet address: FTP://PAO.GSFC.NASA.GOV/newsmedia/QUAKE/ For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel:+33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 3

  3. Review - The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Blackburn, Stuart H. 2010. The Sun Rises: A Shaman's Chant, Ritual Exchange and Fertility in the Apatani Valley. Leiden: Brill. xvii+401. Color and black and white photographs, maps. ISBN: 9789-0041-7578-5 (hardcover, 97USD. The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. The heart of this book is a chant of nineteen segments.

  4. Research on the Evaluation Mechanism of Medical Consumables Suppliers%医用耗材供应商评价机制的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云鹏; 刘伟军; 武卓; 韩伟; 张恩科

    2016-01-01

    Supplier evaluation mechanism is an important part of the hospital consumables procurement and supply system. By initiating evaluation indexes, which include product properties, suppliers, the wish of suppliers, and suppliers support capability, by means of weight analysis and statistics, the research focused on the comprehensive evaluation method for material suppliers so as to realize the classification management of suppliers as well as to achieve satisfactory quality control with lower logistics cost and good after-sales service, and to reach the goal of ensuring consumables supply.%供应商的评价机制是医院耗材采购供应体系的重要组成部分。以产品性状、供应商愿望、供应商实力和供应商保障能力等为考核指标,通过权重分析和统计,研究对耗材供应商的综合评价方法,实现对供应商的分级管理,达到以较低的物流成本、良好的售后服务、满意的质量控制,完成耗材供应保障的目的。

  5. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  6. Pareto Optimal Solution for Supply Contracts with Multiple Suppliers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kebing; GAO Chengxiu

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes an electronic procurement (e-procurement) process between a manufacturer and N-supplier in the e-market. We proof that using the general contract based on auction theory, i. e. the wholesale price contract, would not achieve the coordination of channel composed of the manufacturer and the winning supplier. The paper designs a contract mechanism, i.e. the side payment price-restricted contract based on auction theory, which not only ensures Pareto optimal solutions for both, but also coordinates the supply chain. A numerical experiment is provided to compare the performance of different auction mechanisms and to reinforce key managerial insights generated through analysis.

  7. ASPECTS OF THE RELATIONSHIPS OF THE COMPANIES WITH THE SUPPLIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamena Milusheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the management of the relationships with the suppliers is a key factor for successful business. The objective of this research is to highlight the aspects of the relationships between the commercial and manufacturing companies and their suppliers and on this basis to state the options for their improvements. Subject of this research are Bulgarian and foreign commercial and manufacturing companies, which operate on the territory of Bulgaria. The data, used in this article, has been collected at the end of 2015 by personal interview with 85 companies, among which 39 are manufacturing companies and 43 are commercial companies.

  8. Supplier Selection in Virtual Enterprise Model of Manufacturing Supply Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihara, Toshiya; Opadiji, Jayeola F.

    The market-based approach to manufacturing supply network planning focuses on the competitive attitudes of various enterprises in the network to generate plans that seek to maximize the throughput of the network. It is this competitive behaviour of the member units that we explore in proposing a solution model for a supplier selection problem in convergent manufacturing supply networks. We present a formulation of autonomous units of the network as trading agents in a virtual enterprise network interacting to deliver value to market consumers and discuss the effect of internal and external trading parameters on the selection of suppliers by enterprise units.

  9. Method for evaluating suppliers with the theory of fuzzy subsets. Application to selected suppliers of a commercial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Ortiz Torres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently logistics, supply and purchasing management have reached a leading role at a dynamic scenario of the international economy and an increasingly competitive environment. Selection and evaluation of suppliers have emerged as key factors in the effective and efficient achievement of the required products or services and as determinants of a competitive business management. In this regard, Cuba assumes the correct selection and evaluation of suppliers of companies as one of the aspects that need a main attention in the country, in order to contribute to greater rationality in the importing management and strengthening their purchasing power. This paper proposes a method for evaluating suppliers with the theory of fuzzy subsets, which contribute to achieve the above objectives.

  10. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured....... The weekly sunburn fraction correlated strongly with the number of ambient sun hours (r=0.73, p

  11. The Sun, Mercury, and Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The Messenger mission to Mercury opened a new window into the inner solar system. In 2008, this mission began a number of years of flybys, culminating in an orbital insertion around Mercury and producing unparalleled observations about this mysterious innermost planet. Mercury orbits so close to the Sun, from the point of view of Earth, that seeing it from the Earth against the Sun's glare is a great challenge. At the same time, the huge gravitational force of the Sun makes it a challenge to put a mission on Mercury without losing it into the Sun. Now, with heightened understanding of Mercury,

  12. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  13. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  14. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  15. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  16. Managing supplier involvement in new product development: a portfolio approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, Finn; Pierick, ten Eric

    2000-01-01

    Supplier involvement in new product development projects has become an increasingly popular method for improving project effectiveness (product costs and quality) and project efficiency (development costs and time). One of the key issues in managing this involvement is determining which type of invo

  17. Business intelligence gap analysis: a user, supplier and academic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molensky, L.; Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Koppel, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) takes many different forms, as indicated by the varying definitions of BI that can be found in industry and academia. These different definitions help us understand of what BI issues are important to the main players in the field of BI; users, suppliers and academics. The

  18. Exploring determinants of perceived interfirm dependence in industrial supplier relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorderhaven, N.G.; Nooteboom, B.; Berger, H.

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of sources of supplier dependence are discussed in the literature: factors related to goal mediation, factors related to relation-specific assets, and factors related to network embeddedness. This paper explores the influence on the dependence of ego and alter, as perceived by the suppl

  19. Regulatory Compliance in Multi-Tier Supplier Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, Emray R.; Buster, Duke A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, avionics systems have increased in complexity to the point where 1st tier suppliers to an aircraft OEM find it financially beneficial to outsource designs of subsystems to 2nd tier and at times to 3rd tier suppliers. Combined with challenging schedule and budgetary pressures, the environment in which safety-critical systems are being developed introduces new hurdles for regulatory agencies and industry. This new environment of both complex systems and tiered development has raised concerns in the ability of the designers to ensure safety considerations are fully addressed throughout the tier levels. This has also raised questions about the sufficiency of current regulatory guidance to ensure: proper flow down of safety awareness, avionics application understanding at the lower tiers, OEM and 1st tier oversight practices, and capabilities of lower tier suppliers. Therefore, NASA established a research project to address Regulatory Compliance in a Multi-tier Supplier Network. This research was divided into three major study efforts: 1. Describe Modern Multi-tier Avionics Development 2. Identify Current Issues in Achieving Safety and Regulatory Compliance 3. Short-term/Long-term Recommendations Toward Higher Assurance Confidence This report presents our findings of the risks, weaknesses, and our recommendations. It also includes a collection of industry-identified risks, an assessment of guideline weaknesses related to multi-tier development of complex avionics systems, and a postulation of potential modifications to guidelines to close the identified risks and weaknesses.

  20. 75 FR 30386 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Department of the Navy Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Correction AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD.... Instructions: Please submit comments only and cite ``Proposed DON PSP Policy Letter'' in all correspondence... most recent fiscal year. Other contractors may apply to join the PSP. DASN (A&LM) shall evaluate...

  1. 75 FR 33273 - Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Preferred Supplier Program (PSP); Withdrawal AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DOD... (PSP) with contractors that have demonstrated exemplary performance, at the corporate level; in...

  2. Consequences to water suppliers of collecting rainwater on housing estates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; de Gouvello, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The collection, storage and use of rainwater from roofs reduce the need for potable water. However, if water suppliers are to decrease their infrastructure costs as well as their operational costs (due to water savings), the rainwater system has to provide most of the time a significant percentage of the water demand. This paper adopts the viewpoint of the water suppliers and investigates how reliable this source of water is in the case of a housing estate, considering WC flushing as the only water demand. A housing estate was modelled and different realistic input scenarios (water demand for WC flushing, storage capacity, roof area, and rainfall) were defined. Three indicators were exhibited. The variability generated by each input on the indicators was evaluated. The indicators were estimated for 63 homogeneously distributed French cities. Among the indicators exhibited in this paper, the most relevant one is the percentage of water supplied from the tank that is secured during 95% of the days of the simulation. The main conclusion is that the optimum way of determining the storage capacity of the rainwater collection system is not the same from the viewpoint of the users than from the viewpoint of the water suppliers. Indeed, water suppliers tend to require bigger tanks in order to take into account the rainwater collection systems in their management plan.

  3. Reflections on Supplier Entry Barriers to Domestic Retail Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Kamau, Paul; McCormick, Dorothy

    This paper examines challenges for Kenyan food processing firms in the ‘modern’ domestic supermarket sector, and thereby distinguishes itself from an increasing number of studies that have explored developing country suppliers in global value chains (GVCs). The paper also differs by focusing on f...

  4. Managing supplier involvement in new product development: a portfolio approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, Finn; ten Pierick, E.

    2000-01-01

    Supplier involvement in new product development projects has become an increasingly popular method for improving project effectiveness (product costs and quality) and project efficiency (development costs and time). One of the key issues in managing this involvement is determining which type of invo

  5. Supplier Choice Knowledge Support in the Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Khitilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issue of choice of suppliers in the market environment. It discusses expert systems as modern methods of its computer support. The issue of supplier choice is presented and viewpoints for the formulation of the decision-making task introduced. The piece of writing furthermore pinpoints the expert character of the solution of this task, making use of the knowledge of experienced professionals. It introduces the principles of fuzzy oriented expert systems as a suitable solution of the task at hand. Language models of the expert systems formalise the high quality mental models of an experienced expert. The global decision-making task is split into partial tasks; the expert modules for their formalisation are integrated into the hierarchic structure. The paper presents the structures of language models and the implementation of the structure of expert systems in the MATLAB-Simulink program environment. Special attention is paid to the issue of supplier flexibility. The efficiency of the decision-making system is proven by the solution of a simulation exercise which represents the classification of two current and two newly contemplated suppliers with various characteristics. The results are analysed and commented on.

  6. Three echelon supply chain design with supplier evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, Kanika; Jha, P. C.; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    An effective supply chain management (SCM) facilitates companies to react to changing demand by swiftly communicating their needs to the supplier. Optimizing a supply chain (SC) performance is a key factor for success in long term SC relationships. Substantial information such as price, delivery...

  7. Supplier-induced demand for physiotherapy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); J.J.M. Geurts (José)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractEmpirical studies of supplier-induced demand in health care have mostly concentrated on the analysis of physician behaviour. In this article, the focus is on the economic determinants of physiotherapist behaviour in The Netherlands. It is shown that relative prices work as strong incenti

  8. A simplified, result oriented supplier performance management system testing framework for SME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Parkash Kaushik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supplier performance management continues to be a significant concern for small & medium enterprises (SME. How can small & medium enterprises better position themselves to check and sustain actual supplier performance improvement? A key framework is the establishment of a value-added supplier performance audit program that places significant emphasis on supplier performance controls. A value-added supplier audit program can help SME mitigate business and regulatory risk while reducing the cost of poor quality (COPQ. Thus a good supplier performance audit program is the cornerstone of supplier performance management integrity. Methods: By acknowledging and addressing the challenges to an effective supplier Performance Audit program, this paper proposes an objective framework of supplier performance audit program, built on a strong, yet versatile statistical methodology - Analysis of variance (ANOVA. This performance audit framework considers process definition, standardization, review of the contemporary literature on ANOVA & its practical application in supplier performance scorecard of one of the reputed Sports Goods Industry in India. Results and conclusions: The advantages of this framework are that: it simultaneously considers multiple supplier performance in multiple time frames and effectively identifies the differences across the suppliers in terms of their performance. Through this framework the organization will be able to increase the odds of performing a predictable and successful implementation of a value-added supplier performance audit.

  9. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  10. Global Seismology of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. In this review I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  11. PATTERNS OF SUPPLIER LEARNING: CASE STUDIES IN THE MALAYSIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadzrina Abdul Kadir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier development programs support the development of a supplier's capabilities, usually with the assistance of a buyer. In an industrial environment that lacks home- grown technology, it is of interest to explore precisely how suppliers learn and increase their capabilities. There are also questions regarding how the buyer impacts this learning process, specifically with respect to dependent suppliers for which major buyers account for more than 20% of sales. It is claimed that support from buyers for supplier training has been deficient. Thus, there is a need to identify the types of training that suppliers themselves prefer. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the patterns of learning for dependent suppliers in the Malaysian automotive industry by exploring how suppliers learn best and defining the role of buyers in providing assistance. This study presents a model based on empirical findings and discusses the implications of the findings.

  12. On the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perols, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Kortmann, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent operations management and innovation management research emphasizes the importance of supplier integration. However, the empirical results as to the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market are ambivalent. To understand this important relationship, we incorporate two major

  13. Supplier Selection Process Using ELECTRE I Decision Model and an Application in the Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan Yavuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection problem is one of the main topic for the today’s businesses. The supplier selection problem within the supply chain management activities is very important for the businesses, particularly operating in the retail sector. Thus, in this study, the supplier selection problem was discussed in order of importance between energy drinks suppliers of food business in the retail sector. Costs, delivery, quality and flexibility variables were used to select suppliers, and ELECTRE I Method, one of the multiple decision methods, was used to ranking suppliers according to this variables. Which suppliers are more important for the food company was determined by ranking suppliers according to computing net superior values and net inferior values. Results obtained werepresented in tables and certain steps

  14. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's... Criminal Justice IRRS Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements 3. Draft Criminal Justice...

  15. Bridges over troubled water: suppliers as connective nodes in global supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Andersen, Poul Houman

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, industrial selling and purchasing is embedded in supplier networks extending national borders. The internationalisation of supply activities adds considerable complexity to the coordination tasks performed by suppliers. Traditionally, supply chain management was upstream-oriented, f...

  16. On the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perols, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Kortmann, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent operations management and innovation management research emphasizes the importance of supplier integration. However, the empirical results as to the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market are ambivalent. To understand this important relationship, we incorporate two major

  17. 76 FR 70827 - Proposed Information Collection (Supplier Perception Survey) Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Supplier Perception Survey) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY... Supplier Perception Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900-0751. Type of Review: Extension of previously...

  18. Perceptions of technology uncertainty and the consequences for performance in buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, M.; van der Vaart, T.; Molleman, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how buyers' and suppliers' distinct perceptions of technology uncertainty affect the relationship between communication frequency and supplier performance. Information processing theory suggests that a fit is desirable between perceived environmental uncertainty and the

  19. 42 CFR 424.57 - Special payment rules for items furnished by DMEPOS suppliers and issuance of DMEPOS supplier...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electroencephalography, electro-oculography, electromyography, heart rate or electrocardiography, airflow, breathing... the date of the purchase or transfer in order to exercise billing privileges as of that date. If the... privileges are revoked, the last bond or rider submitted by the DMEPOS supplier remains in effect until the...

  20. Selection of Optimal Supplier in Supply Chain Using A MultiCriteria Decision Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Assellaou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The supplier selection problem is one of the strategic decisions that have a significant impact on the performance of the supply chain. In this study, supplier selection problem of an automotive company is investigated and a comprehensive methodology is used to select the best supplier providing the most customer satisfaction for the criteria determined. The proposed methodology consists of Analytic Network Process (ANP, the criteria which are relevant in the supplier selection, have been used to construct an ANP model

  1. Fuzzy Multi-Objective Decision Model of Supplier Selection with Preference Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-objective decision problem, which must be considered many objectives, someobjectives are qualitative, and others are quantitative. Meanwhile, manufacturer has preference for different suppliers.In this paper, a new multi-objective decision model with preference information of supplier is established. A practicalexample of supplier selection problem utilizing this model is studied. The result demonstrates the feasibility andeffectiveness of the methods proposed in the paper.

  2. Development of fuzzy supplier-rating by trapeze fuzzy membership functions with trigonometrical legs

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Portik; Tamás Varga

    2011-01-01

    In every fields of industry, suppliers create the elements for the final products of OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer), which means, suppliers ”define” the quality of the final products via the quality of elements. Due to this, the continuous evaluation of supplier performance can be one of the most effcient risk assessment tools to identify weakness in early stages, make the possibility to implement corrective actions in time. The paper offers new development of supplier-rating based on ...

  3. The COST example for outreach to the general public: I love my Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunay, Yurdanur; Crosby, Norma Bock; Tulunay, Ersin; Calders, Stijn; Parnowski, Aleksei; Sulic, Desanka

    2013-01-01

    It is important to educate children about the important role that the Sun has in their lives. This paper presents an educational outreach tool entitled "I Love My Sun" that has been developed for school children in the approximate age range of 7 through 11 years. The main objective of this tool is to make children aware of space weather, the Sun, Sun-Earth relations and how they, the children, are part of this global picture. Children are given a lecture about the Sun. The lecture is preceded and followed by the children drawing a picture of the Sun. In this paper the background behind the "I Love My Sun" initiative is given and it is described how to perform an "I Love My Sun". The main results from events in Turkey, Belgium, Ukraine and Serbia are presented.

  4. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  5. Management of Complex Industrial Supplier Relations - a Case of Customer Attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Companies are increasingly relying on suppliers when developing and manufacturing industrial products. Therefore the supplier relationships of the company need to be managed. This dissertation looks at existing theoretical approaches to supplier relationship management. By studying a number...... term value creation in the relation....

  6. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  7. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  8. Determining Optimal Discount Policies for a Supplier in B2B Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhayenko, Viktoryia; van Eikenhorst, Erik

    This research studies which discounts a supplier needs to offer to give incentive to his customers to change their order patterns in a way that minimizes the supplier's total cost. Savings for the supplier arise from reduction of set up and inventory cost. Customers also profit from this since...

  9. Supplier's involvement and success of radical new product development in new ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Di Benedetto, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Supplier involvement is essential to a new venture seeking to develop a radical innovation. Despite this, prior literature has not adequately addressed supplier involvement in radical innovation, nor what the antecedents to increased supplier involvement are. We build and test a conceptual model of

  10. 22 CFR 130.12 - Information to be furnished by vendor to applicant or supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicant or supplier. 130.12 Section 130.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN... vendor to applicant or supplier. (a) In order to determine whether it is obliged under § 130.9 to furnish the information specified in § 130.10 with respect to a sale, every applicant or supplier must...

  11. Supplier's involvement and success of radical new product development in new ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Di Benedetto, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Supplier involvement is essential to a new venture seeking to develop a radical innovation. Despite this, prior literature has not adequately addressed supplier involvement in radical innovation, nor what the antecedents to increased supplier involvement are. We build and test a conceptual model of

  12. 42 CFR 405.379 - Limitation on recoupment of provider and supplier overpayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on recoupment of provider and supplier... Recoupment of Payment to Providers and Suppliers and Collection and Compromise of Overpayments § 405.379 Limitation on recoupment of provider and supplier overpayments. (a) Basis and purpose. This...

  13. 42 CFR 424.525 - Rejection of a provider or supplier's enrollment application for Medicare enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of a provider or supplier's enrollment... provider or supplier's enrollment application for Medicare enrollment. (a) Reasons for rejection. CMS may reject a provider or supplier's enrollment application for the following reasons: (1) The...

  14. 22 CFR 201.62 - Responsibilities of borrower/grantee and of supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... supplier. 201.62 Section 201.62 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES.../grantee and of supplier. (a) Responsibilities of borrower/grantee. The borrower/grantee shall: (1) When... price, including transportation cost, for the commodity. (b) Responsibility of supplier. In...

  15. 48 CFR 28.106-8 - Payment to subcontractors or suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or suppliers. 28.106-8 Section 28.106-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...-8 Payment to subcontractors or suppliers. The contracting officer will only authorize payment to subcontractors or suppliers from an ILC (or any other cash equivalent security) upon a judicial determination...

  16. Information asymmetries as antecedents of opportunism in buyer-supplier relationships: testing principal-agent theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinle, Claus; Schiele, Holger; Ernst, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A severe problem in supplier selection refers to moral hazard: suppliers not behaving in the expected way once contracted. Principal-agent theory could provide insights on how to reduce this problem. Because buyer–supplier relationships can be interpreted as principal-agent situations, the

  17. Supplier's Status for Critical Solid Propellants, Explosive, and Pyrotechnic Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, B. L.; Painter, C. R.; Nauflett, G. W.; Cramer, R. J.; Mulder, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1970's a program was initiated at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Indian Head Division (NSWC/IHDIV) to address the well-known problems associated with availability and suppliers of critical ingredients. These critical ingredients are necessary for preparation of solid propellants and explosives manufactured by the Navy. The objective of the program was to identify primary and secondary (or back-up) vendor information for these critical ingredients, and to develop suitable alternative materials if an ingredient is unavailable. In 1992 NSWC/IHDIV funded Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) under a Technical Area Task (TAT) to expedite the task of creating a database listing critical ingredients used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives based on known formulation quantities. Under this task CPIA provided employees that were 100 percent dedicated to the task of obtaining critical ingredient suppliers information, selecting the software and designing the interface between the computer program and the database users. TAT objectives included creating the Explosive Ingredients Source Database (EISD) for Propellant, Explosive and Pyrotechnic (PEP) critical elements. The goal was to create a readily accessible database, to provide users a quick-view summary of critical ingredient supplier's information and create a centralized archive that CPIA would update and distribute. EISD funding ended in 1996. At that time, the database entries included 53 formulations and 108 critical used to manufacture Navy propellant and explosives. CPIA turned the database tasking back over to NSWC/IHDIV to maintain and distribute at their discretion. Due to significant interest in propellant/explosives critical ingredients suppliers' status, the Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) approached the JANNAF Executive committee (EC) for authorization to continue the critical ingredient database work. In 1999, JANNAF EC approved the PDCS panel

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility in Buyer-Supplier Relationships: Is it Beneficial for Top-Tier Suppliers to Market their Capability to Ensure a Responsible Supply Chain?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Leppelt; Kai Foerstl; Evi Hartmann

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR)-related supply management practices affects the reputation of top-tier suppliers in business-to-business (B2B) markets. In a cross-functional multiple-case study involving marketing, purchasing, and sustainability executives of five supplier organizations in Central Europe, we explored four...

  19. Supplier Performance Monitoring and Improvement (SPMI through SIPOC Analysis and PDCA Model to the ISO 9001 QMS in Sports Goods Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing global competition and customer expectations are forcing companies to improve their supplier performance as part of their supply chain governance initiative. A sport goods manufacturing industry is intensive supplier base industry and majority of these comes under small medium enterprises with limited resources. Developing an easy - deploy, cost effective and result oriented frame work for this industry is a critical business competency. Methods: This paper lays out a framework - a "standard operating system" - for continuous supplier performance monitoring and improvement (SPMI and is composed of following sections. In the first section supplier performance monitoring and improvement is overviewed with its basic concepts, and then improvement methods used in the paper are explained based on literature review. The third and fourth section focus on the methodology, explaining the way of SIPOC Analysis and PDCA application with using ISO 9001; 2008 QMS standards and example showing its results. Results: The existing process of Supplier Performance Monitoring and Improvement (SPMI was defined and mapped and then analyzed and revised through SIPOC Analysis by incorporating to PDCA Cycle and ISO 9001 QMS to identify problem areas, variations and unnecessary activities. Corrective actions were recommended to deal with problem areas and an improved and revised Supplier Performance Monitoring and Improvement (SPMI Process is suggested. Conclusions: Every organization needs to use a proper combination and selection of quality tools, methodologies and techniques for implementing continuous quality improvement process. This framework will provide a guidance for anyone who wants to develop supplier performance measurement system in sports goods manufacturing industry and other small - medium enterprises.

  20. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  1. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  2. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  3. Evaluating supplier quality performance using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nazihah; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram Kalimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Evaluating supplier quality performance is vital in ensuring continuous supply chain improvement, reducing the operational costs and risks towards meeting customer's expectation. This paper aims to illustrate an application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to prioritize the evaluation criteria in a context of automotive manufacturing in Malaysia. Five main criteria were identified which were quality, cost, delivery, customer serviceand technology support. These criteria had been arranged into hierarchical structure and evaluated by an expert. The relative importance of each criteria was determined by using linguistic variables which were represented as triangular fuzzy numbers. The Center of Gravity defuzzification method was used to convert the fuzzy evaluations into their corresponding crisps values. Such fuzzy evaluation can be used as a systematic tool to overcome the uncertainty evaluation of suppliers' performance which usually associated with human being subjective judgments.

  4. The internal competitor: Buyer motives and external supplier marketing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Sloth, Jacob Lerche; Thrane, Claus

    relevant buyer motives, the existence of different buyer motives suggests that these buyers should be targeted with different marketing strategies. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are suggested and briefly discussed. Thus, for each buyer motive it is briefly discussed (1) how......Abstract Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this paper is to identify buyer motives for supporting internal competitors and to suggest relevant marketing strategy elements for external suppliers confronting these internal competitors. Research method: With basis...... in a literature review we identify different buyer motives for choosing to combine external suppliers with internal production, i.e., an internal competitor. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are identified and briefly discussed. Research findings: The paper describes different buyer motives...

  5. The establishment of the evaluation model for pupil's lunch suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chih-Yao; Hou, Cheng-I.; Ma, Rosa

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is the establishment of the evaluation model for the government-controlled private suppliers for school lunches in the public middle and primary schools in Miao-Li County. After finishing the literature search and the integration of the opinions from anonymous experts by Modified Delphi Method, the grade forms from relevant schools in and outside the Miao-Li County will firstly be collected and the delaminated structures for evaluation be constructed. Then, the data analysis will be performed on those retrieved questionnaires designed in accordance with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Finally, the evaluation form for the government-controlled private suppliers can be constructed and presented in the hope of benefiting the personnel in charge of school meal purchasing.

  6. The internal competitor: Buyer motives and external supplier marketing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Sloth, Jacob Lerche; Thrane, Claus

    Abstract Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this paper is to identify buyer motives for supporting internal competitors and to suggest relevant marketing strategy elements for external suppliers confronting these internal competitors. Research method: With basis...... in a literature review we identify different buyer motives for choosing to combine external suppliers with internal production, i.e., an internal competitor. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are identified and briefly discussed. Research findings: The paper describes different buyer motives...... relevant buyer motives, the existence of different buyer motives suggests that these buyers should be targeted with different marketing strategies. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are suggested and briefly discussed. Thus, for each buyer motive it is briefly discussed (1) how...

  7. ATLAS rewards two Japanese suppliers of major detector components.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS supplier award in recognition of excellence has just been attributed to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, who produced the liquid-argon barrel cryostat. Kawasaki received its award in Hall 189 on the Meyrin site, where the cryostat is currently located. Toshiba Corporation's award for the superconducting central solenoid was presented two months ago at the Toshiba headquarters in Japan. Photo 01: P. Pailler, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon cryostats, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 04: H. Oberlack, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon system, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 11: P. Jenni (left), ATLAS Collaboration spokesperson, presenting the ATLAS supplier award for the barrel cryostat for the liquid-argon calorimeter to Mr. S. Nose, General Manager of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. Photo 18: J. Sondericker (left), liquid-argon barrel cryostat project engineer (BNL), presenting Mr. Nose (Kawasaki) an award from Brookhaven for the barrel cryostat for the ATLAS liquid-argo...

  8. Dealing with defaulting suppliers using behavioral based governance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosman, Ernst Johannes; Scholten, Kirstin; Power, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore factors influencing the effectiveness of buyer initiated Behavioral Based Governance Methods (BBGMs). The ability of BBGMs to improve supplier performance is assessed considering power imbalances and the resource intensiveness of the BBGM. Agency Theory...... is used as an interpretive lens. Design/methodology/approach: An explorative multiple case study approach is used to collect qualitative and quantitative data from buying companies involved in 13 BBGMs. Findings: Drawing on agency theory several factors are identified which can explain BBGM effectiveness...... considering power differences and the resource intensiveness of the BBGM. Our data show that even high resource intensive BBGMs can be implemented effectively if there are benefits for a powerful supplier. Cultural influences and uncertainty of the business environment also play a role. Originality...

  9. The virtual cooperation platform in enterprise and supplier cooperation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Ru; Liao, Chia-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Abstract This study examines the use of the virtual enterprise network supplier supply-chain model of business behavior in creating synergies of cooperation. To explore virtual network behavior, it evaluates 60 samples, taken from of a few supply chains, and 17 items meeting certain behavioral criteria. Such an analysis may help to reduce costs and processing time effectively, as well as promote effective communication. Furthermore, the study of behavior in this electronic setting is a reliable and useful assessment method.

  10. CERN recognizes LHC suppliers with Golden Hadron awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The recipients of CERN's first 'Golden Hadron' awards for outstanding supplier performance are the Russian institute BINP, the Belgian firm Cockerill-Sambre and the US company Wah-Chang. LHC project leader Lyn Evans (centre) with Santo Comel of Cockerill-Sambre (left) and Lynn Davis of Wah-Chang. The third recipient, Alexander Skrinsky of the Budker Institute, was unable to attend the ceremony and will collect the Institute's award in September.

  11. Research on supplier evaluation and selection based on fuzzy hierarchy analysis and grey relational analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of selecting evaluation index of supplier based on old purchase relation and in view of transformation of relation between manufacture and supplier under the dynamic, cooperative, competitive and quickly response environment, research on supplier selection evaluation was presented based on enterprise capability, cooperation degree and service level from the perspective of cooperative partnership and coordination, and the evaluation index system was established. A more objective and veracious supplier selection and evaluation method based on fuzzy analysis hierarchy process and grey relational analysis was developed, and then empirical research on electric equipment manufacturer was explored to analyze the supplier selection and evaluation.

  12. Design the price signal mechanism of suppliers' cost in the commercial procurement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinming, Huang; Wenjing, Li; Huazhen, Zhu

    2016-06-01

    In the process of commercial procurement, there exists information asymmetry between purchasers and suppliers in terms of commodity cost. The strike price is what purchasers care about, while the focus of suppliers is only the sales revenue. In order to achieve the relatively lower strike price, purchasers need to design a price signal mechanism, explicating the commodity cost of suppliers. In this article, we have designed a mechanism that purchasers can explicit the commodity cost price based on suppliers' choices by providing a variety of purchase contracts to suppliers.

  13. Design of a novel cloud-based metalworking supplier matching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Liang Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, machine equipment manufacturers match new metalworking suppliers through yellow pages and websites, which is inefficient and not timely for supplier information transfer. In this article, a cloud-based supplier matching system is proposed to offer machine equipment manufacturers an efficient way to match suitable metalworking suppliers. A cloud architecture to enhance utilization of servers and simplified device management is designed. Two cloud services are designed in this system, including order-bidding service and order-cooperation service. A comparison result shows that the system can provide a flexible matching system for both metalworking suppliers and machine equipment manufacturers.

  14. ATLAS Supplier Award for the ECT Vacuum Vessels

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    On 12 February the Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech was awarded the ATLAS Supplier Award for the construction of the two vacuum vessels for the ATLAS End- Cap Toroid (ECT) magnets. ATLAS Supplier Award ceremonies have now become something of a tradition. For the third consecutive year, ATLAS has given best supplier awards for the most exceptional contributors to the construction of the detector. The Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech has just received the award for the construction of the two vacuum vessels for the ECTs. With a diameter of 11 metres and a volume of 550 cubic metres, the ECT vacuum vessels are obviously impressive in scale. They consist of large aluminium plates and a stainless steel central bore tube. In order to obtain the required undulations, the firm had to develop a special assembly and welding technique. Despite the chambers' imposing size, a very high degree of precision has been achieved in their geometry. Moreover, the chambers, which were delivered in July 2002 to CERN, were built i...

  15. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  16. Study on Supplier Selection with Fuzzy Multilevel Synthesis Evaluation%工具供应商选择的模糊综合评判研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明茂; 宫爱红

    2013-01-01

    对于制造企业而言,合理的工具供应商选择决策可以提高加工质量,并降低成本.本文基于模糊综合评判方法,先运用模糊层次分析法对供应商选择的影响因素进行分类打分,然后运用多级模糊综合评判方法对供应商的综合影响因素进行决策,并将相关结果在某汽车零部件企业的工具管理系统中的供应商选择评价模块中进行应用.%For manufacturing enterprises,proper selection of tool supplier can improve the quality and decrease the cost.The affecting factors of supplier selection were scored to different suppliers using the analytic hierarchy process,and the fuzzy multilevel synthesis evaluation was adopted to make a total score to the suppliers.And the related results were used in the supplier selection evaluation module of the tool management systems in an automotive parts enterprise.

  17. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a space telescope primarily designed to detect high-energy X-rays from faint, distant astrophysical sources. Recently, however, its occasionally been pointing much closer to home, with the goal of solving a few longstanding mysteries about the Sun.Intensity maps from an observation of a quiet-Sun region near the north solar pole and an active region just below the solar limb. The quiet-Sun data will be searched for small flares that could be heating the solar corona, and the high-altitude emission above the limb may provide clues about particle acceleration. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]An Unexpected TargetThough we have a small fleet of space telescopes designed to observe the Sun, theres an important gap: until recently, there was no focusing telescope making solar observations in the hard X-ray band (above ~3 keV). Conveniently, there is a tool capable of doing this: NuSTAR.Though NuSTARs primary mission is to observe faint astrophysical X-ray sources, a team of scientists has recently conducted a series of observations in which NuSTAR was temporarily repurposed and turned to focus on the Sun instead.These observations pose an interesting challenge precisely because of NuSTARs extreme sensitivity: pointing at such a nearby, bright source can quickly swamp the detectors. But though the instrument cant be used to observe the bright flares and outbursts from the Sun, its the perfect tool for examining the parts of the Sun weve been unable to explore in hard X-rays before now such as faint flares, or the quiet, inactive solar surface.In a recently published study led by Brian Grefenstette (California Institute of Technology), the team describes the purpose and initial results of NuSTARs first observations of the Sun.Solar MysteriesWhat is NuSTAR hoping to accomplish with its solar observations? There are two main questions that hard X-ray observations may help to answer.How are particles accelerated in

  18. Examining the Modes Malware Suppliers Use to Provide Goods and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Malware suppliers use various modes to provide goods and services to customers. By mode, we mean “the way” the malware supplier chooses to function. These modes increase monetization opportunities and enable many security breaches worldwide. A theoretically sound framework that can be used to examine the various modes that malware suppliers use to produce and sell malware is needed. We apply a general model specified recently by Hagiu and Wright to study five modes that malware suppliers use to deliver goods and services to their customers. The framework presented in this article can be used to predict the mode in which a malware supplier will function; to study which types of malware suppliers, agents, and customers are attracted to each mode; to discover new modes; and to better understand the threat a malware supplier presents.

  19. Supplier Selection in Three Echelon Supply Chain & Vendor Managed Inventory Model Under Price Dependent Demand Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sohrabi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, considers the supplier selection in three echelon supply chain with Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI strategy under price dependent demand condition. As there is a lack of study on the supplier selection in VMI literature, this paper presents a VMI model in supply chain including multi supplier, one distributer and multi retailer that distributer selects suppliers. Two class models (traditional vs. VMI are presented and we compare them to study the impact of VMI on supply chain and supplier selection. As the proposed model is a NP-hard problem, a meta-heuristics namely Harmony Search is employed to optimize the proposed models. We show that how the VMI system can effect on supplier selection and can change the set of selected suppliers. Finally the conclusion and further studies are presented

  20. Supplier selection based on a neural network model using genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Davood; Creese, Robert C; Valian, Haleh; Kolassa, John

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, a decision-making model was developed to select suppliers using neural networks (NNs). This model used historical supplier performance data for selection of vendor suppliers. Input and output were designed in a unique manner for training purposes. The managers' judgments about suppliers were simulated by using a pairwise comparisons matrix for output estimation in the NN. To obtain the benefit of a search technique for model structure and training, genetic algorithm (GA) was applied for the initial weights and architecture of the network. The suppliers' database information (input) can be updated over time to change the suppliers' score estimation based on their performance. The case study illustrated shows how the model can be applied for suppliers' selection.

  1. The Examination of the Corporate Governance System at Supplier Companies: Empirical Evidence from Hungarian Automotive Industry Ercsey Ida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercsey Ida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Information management and the organizational structure can contribute to the firms’ competitive advantage and business success. In the first part of our study we summarize the results we obtained by analyzing the corporate governance system in connection with the structure of enterprises and their decision making. Then we have an insight into the leadership style of the suppliers from the point of view of the participation of the staff in decision making. In the second part we analyze the information management of the supplier companies on the basis of the answers from the management. We evaluate the strategic and the operational concept of information management, proceeding from the strategy-making activity. The accomplishment of permanent renewal and willingness to innovate are both indispensable for achieving elasticity in organizations. We explore how the suppliers introduce innovation in connection with the firm structure and the information system. Finally, we consider how some essential company characteristics, namely company size, ownership, region, and the width of the product assortment, affect various company functions.

  2. Development of suppliers repository%浅析供应商资源库的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张枝安

    2015-01-01

    The technology research and development center of Jianhuai motor Co., Ltd.,to "integration of global resource, made the world for scientific research and development concept car". Our company in supplier resources selection, believes more important than training choice. The company trying to build international procurement management business mechanism. In the perspective of global supply chain through establishing, optimize the flow of international procurement management system and supply chain information platform, and establish find source, evaluation, interactive collaborative supply chain management system supporting platform. Auto parts supplier database development is extremely urgent , gaining momentum.%江淮汽车以“整合全球资源,造世界车”为理念,该公司在供应商资源选择上,坚信选择比培养更重要。公司在努力构建国际化采购管理业务机制。以全球供应链的视角,通过构建、优化国际化采购业务管理的流程体系和供应链信息平台,建立寻源、评估、互动协同的供应链管理系统支撑平台,汽车零部件供应商资源库开发已经箭在弦上,蓄势待发。

  3. 42 CFR 410.161 - Part B blood deductible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Payment of SMI Benefits § 410.161 Part B blood...), and (d) of this chapter apply. (3) If the blood is furnished by a physician, clinic, or other supplier... because the beneficiary died without assigning benefits, the supplier may charge the beneficiary...

  4. Why Didn't They Ask the Supplier? The Utilization of Supplier Information and Knowledge in the Fuzzy Front End of New Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopecká, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In today’s world of multi-component and multi-technology products, firms are obliged to seek knowledge for new product development (NPD) from external sources. Supplier firms are one such external source. The thesis aims to contribute to the development of a theory on supplier involvement in new pro

  5. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  6. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  7. The application of fuzzy Delphi and fuzzy inference system in supplier ranking and selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahriri, Farzad; Mousavi, Maryam; Hozhabri Haghighi, Siamak; Zawiah Md Dawal, Siti

    2014-06-01

    In today's highly rival market, an effective supplier selection process is vital to the success of any manufacturing system. Selecting the appropriate supplier is always a difficult task because suppliers posses varied strengths and weaknesses that necessitate careful evaluations prior to suppliers' ranking. This is a complex process with many subjective and objective factors to consider before the benefits of supplier selection are achieved. This paper identifies six extremely critical criteria and thirteen sub-criteria based on the literature. A new methodology employing those criteria and sub-criteria is proposed for the assessment and ranking of a given set of suppliers. To handle the subjectivity of the decision maker's assessment, an integration of fuzzy Delphi with fuzzy inference system has been applied and a new ranking method is proposed for supplier selection problem. This supplier selection model enables decision makers to rank the suppliers based on three classifications including "extremely preferred", "moderately preferred", and "weakly preferred". In addition, in each classification, suppliers are put in order from highest final score to the lowest. Finally, the methodology is verified and validated through an example of a numerical test bed.

  8. Evaluating Green Performance of Suppliers via Analytic Network Process and TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Akman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments in environmental issues in the last few years have been forcing manufacturing companies to improve their environmental performances. Many firms developed integrated relationships with their suppliers to increase their environmental performance and to decrease their hazardous effects on the environment. Then, selecting suitable and green suppliers in the supply chain has become a key strategic consideration. A performance evaluation system for green suppliers is necessary to determine the suitability of suppliers to cooperate with the firm. Therefore, in this study, a model for evaluating green performance of suppliers is proposed, and a hybrid multicriteria decision making model is developed in order to evaluate green performance of the suppliers. The analytical network process technique is applied to handle the relationships and dependence of selection criteria and subcriteria and determine weights of the criteria. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution is used to sequence the suppliers for ideal solution of the suppliers’ green performance evaluation problem. After a comprehensive literature survey, evaluation criteria of green performance for suppliers are determined. Finally, green performance of 18 suppliers of an automobile company was evaluated by this model. These 18 suppliers manufacture chassis and its components.

  9. The Establishment of a Green Supplier Selection and Guidance Mechanism with the ANP and IPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Chung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to establish a green supplier selection and guidance mechanism by integrating the features of an ANP (Analytic Network Process and an IPA (Importance–Performance Analysis to achieve sustainable management for green supply chains. Using an expert survey, this study developed green supplier selection criteria. It adopted an ANP, which allows for interdependencies and feedback between the various criteria, to select competitive green suppliers. Then, it used an IPA, which can analyze the criteria’s significance and performance levels, to provide green suppliers with direction for guidance and improvements. The green supplier selection and guidance mechanism featuring an ANP and IPA is thus established and validated through case studies. The research results showed the following: (1 the green supplier selection criteria comprise a total of 11 performance evaluation criteria from the three dimensions of operation, competence, and environmental consciousness; (2 as shown by the APN evaluation results, environmental benefits, environmental regulations, finance, technological competence, and delivery time are the top five among the overall green criteria of the company; the performance of the various suppliers is thus arranged in order, and the most competitive supplier is selected; (3 an IPA is used to analyze the criteria’s significance and supplier performance levels and to provide the suppliers with suggestions on priority improvements, including implementing the requirements in the environmental regulations, establishing comprehensive financial management procedures, improving corporate technological competence, and consolidating customer service; (4 it is suggested that an ANP and IPA should be integrated in the applications, which could simplify the green supplier selection and guidance mechanisms and increase the efficiency of supplier management, thus creating a three-win situation for the clients, the company, and the

  10. Flawers of the Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    I was not a flower lover when I was a little girl. Instead, I spent my days mixing with the "mischievous" boys in the neighborhood; my favorite toys were wooden sticks which I imagined to be guns. I guess part of the reason for my unusual behavior goes to the influence of my father serving in the army and China was undergoing the Cultural Revolution. Then all things beyond bare necessity were categorized as bourgeois extravagance. How could a prole-tariat offspring come to love flowers, which

  11. MEASURING THE LEANNESS OF SUPPLIERS USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zare Mehrjerdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A technique that helps management to reduce costs and improve quality is ‘lean supply chain management’, which focuses on the elimination of all wastes in every stage of the supply chain and is derived from ‘agile production’. This research aims to assess and rank the suppliers in an auto industry, based upon the concept of ‘production leanness’. The focus of this research is on the suppliers of a company called Touse-Omron Naein. We have examined the literature about leanness, and classified its criteria into ten dimensions and 76 factors. A questionnaire was used to collect the data, and the suppliers were ranked using the principal component analysis (PCA technique.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Lenige voorsieningsbestuur (“lean supply chain management” is ’n tegniek wat bestuur in staat stel om koste te verminder en gehalte te verbeter. Dit fokus op die vermindering van vermorsing op elke stadium van die voorsieningsketting en word afgelei van ratse vervaardiging (“agile production”. Hierdie navorsing poog om leweransiers in ’n motorbedryf te beoordeel aan die hand van die konsep van vervaardigingslenigheid (“production leanness”. Die navorsing fokus op leweransiers van ’n maatskappy genaamd Touse-Omron Naein. ’n Literatuurstudie aangaande lenigheid het gelei tot die klassifikasie van kriteria in tien dimensies en 76 faktore. ’n Vraelys is gebruik om die data te versamel en die leweransiers is in rangvolgorde geplaas aan die hand van die PCA-tegniek.

  12. Risk factors of metabolic syndrome among food suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasdar Yahya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. As a risk factor for chronic diseases, metabolic syndrome (MS is increasing at an alarming rate. The prevalence of MS varies according to lifestyle and occupation in different populations. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MS and its components in food suppliers. Methods. A total of 112 food suppliers were randomly selected from all around the city. Data collection tools included demographic, physical activity, and food frequency questionnaires. Body composition was measured using Bio-Electrical Body Analyzer. A sample of 5 ml of fasting blood was taken from participants to assess lipid profile, blood sugar, insulin, and liver enzymes. The data were analyzed using χ2, Kolmogorov–Smirnov and ANOVA tests. Results. Participants’ mean BMI was 27.1 ± 3.9 kg/m2, 43.6% were overweight, and 26.4% were obese. Consumption of vegetables was less and of meats more than recommended amounts. The prevalence of MS was 45.5% (51 people, which increased with aging (p = 0.02. Among factors causing MS, the most common one was waist-to-hip ratio (WHR > 0.09 (72.7%, followed by high triglyceride and low HDL. Conclusion. In this study, the prevalence of MS among food suppliers was higher than the world average and than prevalence in other countries. WHR (or obesity was found to be the most important risk factor for MS. To reduce the risk of MS, changing dietary consumption habits and increased physical activity are recommended to persons with high risk and sedentary occupations.

  13. Quality enhancement of parallel MDP flows with mask suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Erwin; Lee, Rachel; Lee, Chun Der

    2013-06-01

    For many maskshops, designed parallel mask data preparation (MDP) flows accompanying with a final data comparison are viewed as a reliable method that could reduce quality risks caused by mis-operation. However, in recent years, more and more mask data mistakes have shown that present parallel MDP flows could not capture all mask data errors yet. In this paper, we will show major failure models of parallel MDP flows from analyzing MDP quality accidents and share our approaches to achieve further improvement with mask suppliers together.

  14. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers....

  15. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  16. More than One Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyle, Bob; Argyle, R. W.

    On a clear, dark night several thousand stars can be seen at any one time. They form familiar patterns such as the Great Bear and Cygnets in the northern hemisphere and Scorpio and Crux in the south. The distances are so great that we see the constellation patterns essentially unchanged from those seen by the Ancient Egyptians for instance. This is partly due to the fact that some of the bright stars in constellations are in what are called moving groups—a loose association of stars moving through space together. More tightly bound are clusters of stars such as the Pleaders or Seven Sisters which appears in the northern sky in the late summer. Eventually the moving groups and clusters of stars will gradually disperse because the distance between the stars is such that the gravitational attraction between the members is relatively weak.

  17. Supplier Networks and the Importance of Information Technology: Outlook on the European Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria José Alvarez; Kulcsar, Borbala; Aksoy, Dilan

    The trends in the automotive industry changed radically from the beginning of the 80s. Increasing competition, new systems and developments compelled the companies to re-evaluate and re-design their investments and processes, by extending their networks to other parts of the world in order to gain more market. This trend could be observed first in the Western-European countries and later in Eastern-Europe. With entering new areas the companies had to face with several difficulties coming inter alia from the decisions of supplier network and information system implementation. In our study we analyze the strategic decisions of major carmaker companies entering the Eastern-European market. Our research includes two case studies of the Hungarian automotive sector.

  18. RELATIONSHIPS WITH SUPPLIERS AND INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN FOOD INDUSTRY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Świadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is one of the traditional areas of management, the so-called low-tech. For this reason, technological and spatial proximity may be the key to create new solutions in the Polish food industry. The main objective of the study was an attempt to seek infl uence of relationships with suppliers on innovation activities of enterprises in the food industry in Poland. As a consequence, this would allow to determine the boundary conditions for the model structure of innovation networks within producers of food and beverages, with special reference to the Polish economy. The study was conducted on a group of 631 companies food industry companies located in Poland. Methodical part of the analysis was based on probit regression (probability theory.

  19. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  20. Decision support model for selecting and evaluating suppliers in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Schramm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A structured evaluation of the construction industry's suppliers, considering aspects which make their quality and credibility evident, can be a strategic tool to manage this specific supply chain. This study proposes a multi-criteria decision model for suppliers' selection from the construction industry, as well as an efficient evaluation procedure for the selected suppliers. The model is based on SMARTER (Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique Exploiting Ranking method and its main contribution is a new approach to structure the process of suppliers' selection, establishing explicit strategic policies on which the company management system relied to make the suppliers selection. This model was applied to a Civil Construction Company in Brazil and the main results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model. This study allowed the development of an approach to Construction Industry which was able to provide a better relationship among its managers, suppliers and partners.

  1. The Ideal Criteria of Supplier Selection for SMEs Food Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Rohaizan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of good supplier is important to determine the performance and profitability of SMEs food processing industry. The lack of managerial capability on supplier selection in SMEs food processing industry affects the competitiveness of SMEs food processing industry. This research aims to determine the ideal criteria of supplier for food processing industry using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The research was carried out in a quantitative method by distributing questionnaires to 50 SMEs food processing industries. The collected data analysed using Expert Choice software to rank the supplier selection criteria. The result shows that criteria for supplier selection are ranked by cost, quality, service, delivery and management and organisation while purchase cost, audit result, defect analysis, transportation cost and fast responsiveness are the first five sub-criteria. The result of this research intends to improve managerial capabilities of SMEs food processing industry in supplier selection.

  2. Strategic wholesale pricing for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianwu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuation in the competitive supplier's wholesale price, we integrate the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) measure in financial risk management into this study and derive an optimal wholesale price to maximize CVaR about profit for the incumbent supplier. Besides, the properties of the two optimal wholesale prices are discussed. Finally, some management insights are suggested for the incumbent supplier in a competitive setting.

  3. A data envelopment analysis model for rank ordering suppliers in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Rafael Brandão

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of integration companies-suppliers top the strategic agendas of managers. Developing a system showing which suppliers merit continuing and deepening the partnership is difficult because of the large quantity of variables to be analyzed. The internationalized petroleum industry, requiring a large variety of materials, is no different. In this context, the Brazilian company PETROBRAS S.A. has a system to evaluate its suppliers based on a consensus panel formed by its managers. This paper shows a two phase methodology for classifying and awarding suppliers using the DEA model. Firstly, the suppliers are classified according to their efficiency based on commercial transactions realized. Secondly they are classified according to the opinions of the managers, using a DEA model for calculating votes, with the assurance regions and superefficiency defining the best suppliers. The paper presents a case study in the E&P segment of PETROBRAS and the results obtained with the methodology.

  4. A Q-Learning-Based Supplier Bidding Strategy in Electricity Auction Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Hashiyama, Tomonori; Okuma, Shigeru

    One of the most important issues for power suppliers in the deregulated electric industry is how to bid into the electricity auction market to satisfy their profit-maximizing goals. Based on the Q-Learning algorithm, this paper presents a novel supplier bidding strategy to maximize supplier’s profit in the long run. In this approach, the supplier bidding strategy is viewed as one kind of stochastic optimal control problem and each supplier can learn from experience. A competitive day-ahead electricity auction market with hourly bids is assumed here, where no supplier possesses the market power and all suppliers winning the market are paid based on their own bid prices. The dynamics and the incomplete information of the market are considered. The impact of suppliers’ strategic bidding on the market price is analyzed. Agent-based simulations are presented. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed bidding strategy.

  5. Supplier selection for a tire company with AHP and PROMETHEE methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan ALKAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is very important for a company to be successful in a globalized competitive environment. The aims at choosing the optimal supplier; to increase customer satisfaction, improve the competitive ability and continue to exist at minimal cost. This study was intended to choose the most suitable raw material supplier in a company engaged in the production of agricultural tires. In the study Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Promethee I-II methods were applied in order to select the most optimal supplier to a company. In conclusion, AHP and Promethee I-II methods used by the company to determine the suppliers with the optimal supplier and brought several recommendations.

  6. A fundamental analysis of customer/supplier relationships : Cohen & Frazzini (2008) : a profitability problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Grønsund, Emilie Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks at the fundamental differences between customers and suppliers in relation to Cohen & Frazzini (2008) and investigates whether profitability could be a significant factor affecting their customer momentum returns. The paper shows that the average customer is larger in size and has higher profitability. These differences are statistically significant and persistent over time. Furthermore I show that customer –and supplier profitability is correlated, and that the suppliers th...

  7. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  8. Team Risk Management: A New Model for Customer-Supplier Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Management : A New Model for Customer - Supplier Relationships Ronald P. Higuera "Audrey J. Dorofee Julie A. Walker Ray C. Williams July 1994 ""•// 94...N/A N/A N/A 11. TITLE (Include Secuity Claaaificatioa) Team Risk Management : A New Model for Customer -Supplier Relationships 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB. GR. Customer - Supplier Relationships Risk Team Risk Management 19. ABSTRACT (cominus on = if necesaryd id’y by block

  9. A hierarchical model for optimal supplier selection in multiple sourcing contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Dotoli, Mariagrazia; Falagario, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The paper addresses a crucial objective of the strategic purchasing function in supply chains, i.e., optimal supplier selection. We present a hierarchical extension of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the most widespread method for supplier rating in the literature, for application in a multiple sourcing strategy context. The proposed hierarchical technique is based on three levels. First, a modified DEA approach is used to evaluate the efficiency of each supplier acco...

  10. Feature of decision-making on purchases and choice of supplier during innovative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Iastremska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In article the basic actions of the enterprise during purchasing activity, feature of purchasing centers work organization are considered, it is offered to use during innovative activity three kinds of relations with suppliers: periodic, partner, integration according to level of suppliers appeal which is expedient for determining quantitatively on three groups of parameters: an economic situation of the supplier, conditions and consequences of cooperation with him.

  11. An Application of Six Sigma to Reduce Supplier Quality Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Lokpriya Mohanrao; Teli, Shivagond Nagappa; Majali, Vijay Shashikant; Bhushi, Umesh Mahadevappa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an application of Six Sigma to reduce supplier quality cost in manufacturing industry. Although there is a wider acceptance of Six Sigma in many organizations today, there is still a lack of in-depth case study of Six Sigma. For the present research the case study methodology was used. The company decided to reduce quality cost and improve selected processes using Six Sigma methodologies. Regarding the fact that there is a lack of case studies dealing with Six Sigma especially in individual manufacturing organization this article could be of great importance also for the practitioners. This paper discusses the quality and productivity improvement in a supplier enterprise through a case study. The paper deals with an application of Six Sigma define-measure-analyze-improve-control methodology in an industry which provides a framework to identify, quantify and eliminate sources of variation in an operational process in question, to optimize the operation variables, improve and sustain performance viz. process yield with well-executed control plans. Six Sigma improves the process performance (process yield) of the critical operational process, leading to better utilization of resources, decreases variations and maintains consistent quality of the process output.

  12. Production control and supplier selection under demand disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhe Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of demand disruptions on production control and supplier selection in a three-echelon supply chain system. The customer demand is modeled as a jump-diffusion process in a continuous-time setting. A two-number production-inventory policy is implemented in the production control model for the manufacturer. The objective is to minimize the long-term average total cost consisting of backlog cost, holding cost, switching cost, and ordering cost. The simulated annealing method is applied to search the optimal critical switching values. Furthermore, an improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP is proposed to select the best supplier, based on quantitative factors such as the optimal long-term total cost obtained through the simulated annealing method under demand disruptions and qualitative factors such as quality and service. Numerical studies are conducted to demonstrate the effects of demand disruptions in the face of various risk scenarios. Managerial insights from simulation results are provided as well. Our approaches can be implemented as the “stress test” for companies in front of various supply chain disruption scenarios.

  13. Simple, cost effective & result oriented framework for supplier performance measurement in sports goods manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergences of global markets have increased competition worldwide. For the Sports Goods Manufacturing Industry which is considered to be an intensive supplier base industry with limited resources to sustain in what is already a very competitive market there is a need for the entire supply chain viz. raw material and machinery suppliers and manufacturers to measure their supplier's performance to reduce business risks and revenue losses. How to design & execute a simple, cost effective & result oriented Framework for Supplier Performance Measurement for sports goods manufacturing small - medium enterprises is the main aim of this research paper.

  14. Supplier selection and order splitting in multiple-sourcing inventory systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guicong WANG; Zhaoliang JIANG; Zhaoqian LI; Wenping LIU

    2008-01-01

    Supplier selection and inventory control are critical decision processes in single-item multiple-supplier systems. An integer linear programming model is proposed to help managers determine the reorder level, choose the best suppliers, and place the optimum order quantities so that the total average inventory cost is minimum, and constraints of supplier ability, quality, and demand are considered. An algorithm combining the branch-bound algorithm and enumeration algorithm is developed to solve the problems. Application of the proposed model in an automobile industry shows that it is effective.

  15. Developing and managing win-win supplier relationships in the energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, C. [Acklands-Grainger Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Boguski, R. [Epilog Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The key strategies for the successful management of long-term supplier relationships were described along with the business case for developing choice agreements for suppliers. The degree to which alliances are important for key commodities was also discussed along with the competitive advantages and disadvantages to forming alliances. A supplier perspective on how suppliers are changing their business approach to add value to their enterprise was also presented. The paper also described how different companies can make sure that they are choosing the right trading partner.

  16. Purchasing policy model based on components/parts unification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunXiaolin; ZhongDeqiang; ManDaqing; BinSheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for components/parts unification (CPU) policy. This model considers two components/parts that are functionally interchangeable but purchased from suppliers with different prices and quality characteristics. Because of the buyer's quality preference and suppliers' discount rates for bulky purchases, the model assists the procurement manager to determine how best to purchase the components/parts to meet its demand while minimizing the total acquisition costs.

  17. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Education and the National Program for the diffusion of Scientific Degrees (Progetto Lauree Scientifiche or PLS). In the last years has been mainly aimed to underline the connections between Astronomy, Astrophysics and the new materials involved in the astronomical techniques. The Sun has always been used in the course as a key element since the final product was the production of a self-constructed solar telescope able to be used to monitor the solar activity through Wolf's number estimation. In the third edition the project has been extended to other three Universities on the Italian territory: University of l'Aquila, University of Camerino and University of Calabria. Over the years more than 80 students and 50 teachers where directly involved and more than 50 different high schools on all the national territory, reaching thousands of their students in the final dissemination part of the program. 25 telescopes are currently in use in high school institutes all-over Italy. A book describing the project has been published by Springer in 2013 (STUDENTI-RICERCATORI per cinque giorni "Stage a Tor Vergata" Editors: Liù M. Catena, Francesco Berrilli, Ivan Davoli, Paolo Prosposito, ISBN: 978-88-470-5271-0 (Online) ), the link to the book describing the project and reporting student interviews is at: http://link.springer.com/book

  18. Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal holes are where the fast solar wind streams out of the Suns atmosphere, sending charged particles on rapid trajectories out into the solar system. A new study examines how the distribution of coronal holes has changed over the last 40 years.Coronal holes form where magnetic field lines open into space (B) instead of looping back to the solar surface (A). [Sebman81]Source of the Fast Solar WindAs a part of the Suns natural activity cycle, extremely low-density regions sometimes form in the solar corona. These coronal holes manifest themselves as dark patches in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet imaging, since the corona is much hotter than the solar surface that peeks through from underneath it.Coronal holes form when magnetic field lines open into space instead of looping back to the solar surface. In these regions, the solar atmosphere escapes via these field lines, rapidly streaming away from the Suns surface in whats known as the fast solar wind.Coronal Holes Over Space and TimeAutomated detection of coronal holes from image-based analysis is notoriously difficult. Recently, a team of scientists led by Kenichi Fujiki (ISEE, Nagoya University, Japan) has developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes that relies instead on magnetic-field data for the Sun, obtained at the National Solar Observatorys Kitt Peak between 1975 and 2014. The team used these data to produce a database of 3335 coronal hole predictions over nearly 40 years.Latitude distribution of 2870 coronal holes (each marked by an x; color indicates polarity), overlaid on the magnetic butterfly map of the Sun. The low-latitude coronal holes display a similar butterfly pattern, in which they move closer to the equator over the course of the solar cycle. Polar coronal holes are more frequent during solar minima. [Fujiki et al. 2016]Examining trends in the coronal holes distribution in latitude and time, Fujiki and collaborators find a strong correlation between the total area covered

  19. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  20. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  1. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  2. How Bright Is the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  3. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  4. Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L. SUN-domain protein gene family: evidence for the existence of two divergent classes of SUN proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Carl R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear envelope that separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm provides a surface for chromatin attachment and organization of the cortical nucleoplasm. Proteins associated with it have been well characterized in many eukaryotes but not in plants. SUN (Sad1p/Unc-84 domain proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and function with other proteins to form a physical link between the nucleoskeleton and the cytoskeleton. These bridges transfer forces across the nuclear envelope and are increasingly recognized to play roles in nuclear positioning, nuclear migration, cell cycle-dependent breakdown and reformation of the nuclear envelope, telomere-led nuclear reorganization during meiosis, and karyogamy. Results We found and characterized a family of maize SUN-domain proteins, starting with a screen of maize genomic sequence data. We characterized five different maize ZmSUN genes (ZmSUN1-5, which fell into two classes (probably of ancient origin, as they are also found in other monocots, eudicots, and even mosses. The first (ZmSUN1, 2, here designated canonical C-terminal SUN-domain (CCSD, includes structural homologs of the animal and fungal SUN-domain protein genes. The second (ZmSUN3, 4, 5, here designated plant-prevalent mid-SUN 3 transmembrane (PM3, includes a novel but conserved structural variant SUN-domain protein gene class. Mircroarray-based expression analyses revealed an intriguing pollen-preferred expression for ZmSUN5 mRNA but low-level expression (50-200 parts per ten million in multiple tissues for all the others. Cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA for a PM3-type maize gene, ZmSUN4, is described. Peptide antibodies to ZmSUN3, 4 were used in western-blot and cell-staining assays to show that they are expressed and show concentrated staining at the nuclear periphery. Conclusions The maize genome encodes and expresses at least five different SUN-domain proteins, of which the PM3

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility in Buyer-Supplier Relationships: Is it Beneficial for Top-Tier Suppliers to Market their Capability to Ensure a Responsible Supply Chain?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leppelt, Thomas; Foerstl, Kai; Hartmann, Evi

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR...

  6. Tracing the journey of the sun and the solar siblings through the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, Barbosa C.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on studying the motion of the Sun and the Solar siblings through the Galaxy. The Solar siblings are stars that were born with the Sun in the same molecular cloud 4.6 Gyr ago. In the first part of the thesis, we present an efficient method to calculate the evolution of small

  7. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  8. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  9. Evaluation of Agile Suppliers Using Fuzzy MCDM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Mehtap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive environment, supply chain need to be of high speed and flexibility, i.e., agile. Agility has been proposed as a response to the high levels of complexity and uncertainty in modern markets. It is a business-wide capability that embraces organizational structures, information systems and logistics processes. This study employs the hierarchical fuzzy MCDM algorithm proposed by Karsak and Ahiska for the evaluation of agile suppliers. This algorithm is based on the proximity to the ideal solution concept and it can address the problems containing both crisp and fuzzy data. The application of the decision making method is illustrated through a case study conducted in a privet hospital and the results are analysed.

  10. Measuring network competence in buyer-supplier relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Human

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Managing multiple buyer-seller relationships in business-to-business networks demands an understanding of a firm’s competence to manage in an interconnected environment.  This paper reports on an attempt to measure network competence by using the NetCompTest scale in business-to-business markets in South Africa. Based on a pilot study refinement, the paper proposes an adjusted measurement scale and details the results of a second round of measurement conducted amongst 495 business-to-business managers in South Africa. The results established partial support for the use of the NetCompTest scale in a South African context, and analysis of variance indicated that some differences in the measurement based on firm and individual characteristics can be observed in the data. The paper assists in theory-building and provides managerial insights for managing buyer-supplier relationships in networks.

  11. How Unilever palm oil suppliers are burning up Borneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    New evidence shows expansion by Unilever palm oil suppliers is driving species extinction in Central Kalimantan, and fuelling climate change. In November 2007, Greenpeace released 'Cooking the Climate', an 82-page report summarizing the findings of a two-year investigation that revealed how the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel companies were driving the wholesale destruction of Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands through growing palm oil consumption. This follow-up report provides further evidence of the expansion of the palm oil sector in Indonesia into remaining rainforests, orang-utan habitat and peatlands in Kalimantan. It links the majority of the largest producers in Indonesia to Unilever, probably the largest palm oil corporate consumer in the world.

  12. ATLAS rewards Russian supplier for scintillating tile production

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Supplier Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's tile calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule. Representatives of the firm are seen here receiving the award at a ceremony held in the collaboration's tile calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one tile calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, tile calorimeter project leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN tile calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia.

  13. The Many Faces of Supplier Induced Demand in Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nHealth economists look towards health care sector as a market whereby there is a distinct demand and supply phenomenon exists. Dearth of regulation of the doctors' practices lead to inappropriate and unjustifiable demand for health care among the patients. In developing and under-developed countries, this adverse practice may push a poor family into a vicious circle of poverty and illness, especially where out of pocket expenditure on health is too high. Unnecessary prescriptions, pro­longed treatments and unjustified user fee grossly deprive the patient's family financially. In developed countries, the flourishing health care technology and sophisticated laboratory diagnostics could incur significant expenditure which is sometimes even not covered under the insurance. State is the custodian of health care in any country; therefore, vigilant regulation of the health care providers may curb the supplier induced demand through strict laws and policies.

  14. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating pat...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  15. Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-03-01

    Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

  16. IT OUTSOURCING: METHODOLOGY FOR SUPPLIER SELECTION CRITERIA FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alexandre Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two criteria are usually adopted to select the provider of IT: lower prices or better service qualification of the supplier. This article proposes a strategic approach: the company should hire the provider that best leverage their competitive advantages. This approach implied the need to develop a methodology. To support it, the authors analyzed four models, Porter, RBV (Resource-Based View, Balanced Scorecard and the Weapons and Field Competition. Preferred the latter to be the most complete, qualiquantitative technique and able to accurately align the goals of the IT service firm's to competitive contracting strategy. The methodology was developed and applied to an insurance company and in face of the excellent results, decided to write this article to disclose it.

  17. A multi-objective model for closed-loop supply chain optimization and efficient supplier selection in a competitive environment considering quantity discount policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangoshai Rezaee, Mustafa; Yousefi, Samuel; Hayati, Jamileh

    2016-11-01

    Supplier selection and allocation of optimal order quantity are two of the most important processes in closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) and reverse logistic (RL). So that providing high quality raw material is considered as a basic requirement for a manufacturer to produce popular products, as well as achieve more market shares. On the other hand, considering the existence of competitive environment, suppliers have to offer customers incentives like discounts and enhance the quality of their products in a competition with other manufacturers. Therefore, in this study, a model is presented for CLSC optimization, efficient supplier selection, as well as orders allocation considering quantity discount policy. It is modeled using multi-objective programming based on the integrated simultaneous data envelopment analysis-Nash bargaining game. In this study, maximizing profit and efficiency and minimizing defective and functions of delivery delay rate are taken into accounts. Beside supplier selection, the suggested model selects refurbishing sites, as well as determining the number of products and parts in each network's sector. The suggested model's solution is carried out using global criteria method. Furthermore, based on related studies, a numerical example is examined to validate it.

  18. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  19. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  20. 7 CFR 17.5 - Contracts between commodity suppliers and importers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity. (4) The supplier's sales price may not exceed the prevailing range of export market prices as... the importer. (ii) The importer shall issue the IFB in the United States and shall open all offers in... between the supplier and the importer may not exceed that quantity approved by the Pub. L. 480 Operations...

  1. Organising for Learning - Adaptive and Innovative Learning in Customer-Supplier Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben; Munksgaard, Kristin B.

    2004-01-01

    Based on studies of supplier associations, the concepts of adaptived and innovative learning in an interoganisational setting are defined and discussed.......Based on studies of supplier associations, the concepts of adaptived and innovative learning in an interoganisational setting are defined and discussed....

  2. Motives for e-marketplace participation: differences and similarities between buyers and suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Kragh, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    -marketplaces to find new or alternative suppliers. Similarly, even though demands from existing customers have spurred their initial decision to participate in e-marketplaces, many suppliers also use the marketplaces to search for new customers. When expressing their motives for engaging in e-marketplace activities...

  3. Balanced relationships: management of client-supplier relationships in product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, P.M.; Fisscher, Olaf A.M.; Weenink, Suzanne A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In strongly competing markets, such as the automotive industry, collaboration between clients (e.g., OEM) and suppliers is changing. Ford and Chrysler are examples of companies that no longer consider suppliers as mere component producers, but as partners in the creation of innovative products. Clie

  4. Modeling and analysis for determining optimal suppliers under stochastic lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani

    2010-01-01

    The policy of simultaneously splitting replenishment orders among several suppliers has received considerable attention in the last few years and continues to attract the attention of researchers. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model which considers multiple-supplier single-item invento...

  5. A mathematical model for order splitting in a multiple supplier single-item inventory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Rezapour, Shabnam

    2013-01-01

    The policy of simultaneously splitting replenishment orders among several suppliers has received considerable attention in the last few years and continues to attract the attention of researchers. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model which considers multiple-supplier single-item invento...

  6. TOCO total assessment tool for decision-making on IP supplier selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲; 于渤; 荣毅虹; 徐殿国

    2004-01-01

    According to the Total Cost of Ownership concept (TOCO), the selection criterion of international procurement suppliers can be classified into two levels, namely Macroeconomic decision-making level and Microeconomic decision-making level. In this paper, a new quantitative method is put forward to accomplish the task of total assessment on the Microeconomic level which analyses all of the quantitative and qualitative factors with regard to the supplier selection. A Microsoft Excel based new application kit named TOCO Total Assessment Tool is introduced. It can calculate the direct cost and the indirect cost conveniently and can help to evaluate the performance of candidate suppliers. To use the tool, the first module called Total Cost Analysis Module is introduced to calculate the total cost of supplier selection, and then the second module named Supplier Evaluation Module is used to evaluate the performance of each supplier. Finally, the results from these two modules are transferred to the Final Comparison Module to get the final decision-making results. In this paper, the supplier selection related factors are discussed; the method of using the tool is illustrated in detail. It is shown that scientific usage of the TOCO Total Assessment Tool can make the decision-making processes of supplier selection in international procurement transparent, easily calculated, and objective. At the end, a practical case is given to clarify the procedure of using the tool.

  7. 10 CFR 35.49 - Suppliers for sealed sources or devices for medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suppliers for sealed sources or devices for medical use. 35.49 Section 35.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.49 Suppliers for sealed sources or devices for medical use. For medical use,...

  8. [The AHP of criteria analysis weighting for assessment on medical equipment suppliers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Hong-yan

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the management of the supplier chain, it is necessary to setup a assessment system on suppliers. The assessment includes lot's of criteria such as quality, cost, service and delivery capabilities. The different criteria should have different weighting. The AHP method is chosen here in the paper to analyse the weighting of individual criteria.

  9. 47 CFR 68.350 - Revocation of Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Conformity. 68.350 Section 68.350 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.350 Revocation of Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Commission may revoke any Supplier's Declaration of Conformity for cause in accordance with the provisions...

  10. Hospitals may be bound by terms added in supplier's acceptance of an offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R

    1992-03-01

    A hospital materials manager reports that a supplier is attempting to hold the hospital to new terms that the supplier added in the acceptance of an offer to buy. The offer to buy was made in the hospital's purchase order. In this dialogue, Dr. Decker develops the law relating to such a transaction.

  11. Pressure or Pamper? The Effects of Power and Trust Dimensions on Supplier Resource Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels; Veldman, Jasper; Schiele, Holger; Sierksma, Henk

    2014-01-01

    Leveraging the supply chain for competitive resources remains a key challenge for supply chain management. Drawing on social exchange theory, this study examines SCM practices that help firms to acquire better supplier resources than rival firms that source from the same supplier. We provide a clear

  12. The influence of the sustainability agenda on buyer-supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    The positive effect of supplier-buyer relationships on supply chain performance has al-ready been supported by previous studies. Yet, little empirical research has explored how the sustainability agenda influences these relationships. Thus, this study investi-gates how supplier-buyer relationship...... their cross-functional team-working, increase data sharing and to penetrate deeper into operational processes....

  13. A supplier-selection model with classification and joint replenishment of inventory items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammaditabar, Davood; Hassan Ghodsypour, Seyed

    2016-06-01

    Since inventory costs are closely related to suppliers, many models in the literature have selected the suppliers and also allocated orders, simultaneously. Such models usually consider either a single inventory item or multiple inventory items which have independent holding and ordering costs. However, in practice, ordering multiple items from the same supplier leads to a reduction in ordering costs. This paper presents a model in capacity-constrained supplier-selection and order-allocation problem, which considers the joint replenishment of inventory items with a direct grouping approach. In such supplier-selection problems, the following items are considered: a fixed major ordering cost to each supplier, which is independent from the items in the order; a minor ordering cost for each item ordered to each supplier; and the inventory holding and purchasing costs. To solve the developed NP-hard problem, a simulated annealing algorithm was proposed and then compared to a modified genetic algorithm of the literature. The numerical example represented that the number of groups and selected suppliers were reduced when the major ordering cost increased in comparison to other costs. There were also more savings when the number of groups was determined by the model in comparison to predetermined number of groups or no grouping scenarios.

  14. 42 CFR 405.535 - Special rule for nonparticipating physicians and suppliers furnishing screening mammography...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... suppliers furnishing screening mammography services before January 1, 2002. 405.535 Section 405.535 Public... Special rule for nonparticipating physicians and suppliers furnishing screening mammography services before January 1, 2002. The provisions in this section apply for screening mammography services...

  15. Customer attractiveness, supplier satisfaction and preferred customer status: a review and a cycle model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, H.; Veldman, J.; Hüttinger, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of preferred customer status, i.e. a buyer is awarded preferential treatment of its important suppliers compared to their other customers. As there is a lack of knowledge of what motivates suppliers to serve selected buyers better than others, our research

  16. Influence of Product and Supplier Attributes on Hardwood Lumber Purchase Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Forbes; Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    This study determined the influence of product and supplier attributes on hardwood lumber purchases by wood furniture manufacturers and investigated differences across manufacturer type, geographic region, firm size, and kiln ownership. Professional lumber buyers rated the importance and difference across suppliers of various attributes. Purchase influence scores were...

  17. Customer attractiveness, supplier satisfaction and preferred customer status: a review and a cycle model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Veldman, Jasper; Hüttinger, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of preferred customer status, i.e. a buyer is awarded preferential treatment of its important suppliers compared to their other customers. As there is a lack of knowledge of what motivates suppliers to serve selected buyers better than others, our research

  18. A Novel Multiobjective Programming Model for Coping with Supplier Selection Disruption Risks under Mixed Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain has become more and more vulnerable to disruption since it is suffering widespread risk issues from inside or outside. Higher uncertainties in the supplier selection problem have gone beyond the traditional cost minimization concern. These uncertainties are related to an ever increasing product variety, more demanding customers, and a highly interconnected distribution network. This paper focuses on the supplier selection problem with disruption risks and mixed uncertainties. A novel multiobjective optimization model with mixed uncertain coefficients is developed, which maximizes the total profits and minimizes the percentage of items delivered late, percentage of items rejected, and total loss cost due to supplier dysfunction. Meanwhile, we also consider the customer demand to be a random fuzzy variable and the unit purchase cost to be a fuzzy variable. By examining a numerical example, we found that the confidence level and demand of customers have impact on the quantities purchased by customers from suppliers although the distribution of suppliers will not change. The cost, quality, and service also influence the selection of suppliers. The superevents have little influence on the distribution of supplier selection; however, when unique event occurs, the distribution of supplier selection will change.

  19. Supplier evaluation in manufacturing environment using compromise ranking method with grey interval numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Chatterjee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of proper supplier for manufacturing organizations is one of the most challenging problems in real time manufacturing environment due to a wide variety of customer demands. It has become more and more complicated to meet the challenges of international competitiveness and as the decision makers need to assess a wide range of alternative suppliers based on a set of conflicting criteria. Thus, the main objective of supplier selection is to select highly potential supplier through which all the set goals regarding the purchasing and manufacturing activity can be achieved. Because of these reasons, supplier selection has got considerable attention by the academicians and researchers. This paper presents a combined multi-criteria decision making methodology for supplier evaluation for given industrial applications. The proposed methodology is based on a compromise ranking method combined with Grey Interval Numbers considering different cardinal and ordinal criteria and their relative importance. A ‘supplier selection index’ is also proposed to help evaluation and ranking the alternative suppliers. Two examples are illustrated to demonstrate the potentiality and applicability of the proposed method.

  20. Supplier relationship management – anathema for the South African public procurement sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline J. Naude

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The public sector is recognised as being one of the most important customer groups for many suppliers and service providers because of the volume of public expenditure. Supplier relationship management (SRM is a necessary tool on which businesses in the public and private sectors rely. However, in the South African public sector, despite the intention to boost service delivery through efficient and effective supplier-management processes, the development of sound supplier relationships is a challenge. The purpose of this article is to provide insight into supplier-relationship challenges and to suggest a framework for implementing SRM in the South African public sector. The research presented is based on a survey using both descriptive and exploratory research. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 15 participants at eight institutions in KwaZulu-Natal. Purposive sampling techniques were used. The findings reveal that the main supplier-related challenges that handicap procurement practices in the province are a lack of experience, a lack of affirmable suppliers, threats and bribes, a lack of integrity, an inability to meet delivery deadlines and quality issues. The findings further reveal that supplier relationships in the public sector are of a transactional nature. A five-stage framework is therefore recommended for implementing SRM in the South African public sector and in order to assist government procurement officials to reap the benefits of SRM whilst supporting the requirements of public-sector procurement.

  1. On competition in a Stackelberg location-design model with deterministic supplier choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    We study a market situation where two firms maximize market capture by deciding on the location in the plane and investing in a competing quality against investment cost. Clients choose one of the suppliers; i.e. deterministic supplier choice. To study this situation, a game theoretic model is formu

  2. Total eclipses of the sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  3. Revisiting SU(N) integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, Jean-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this note, I revisit integrals over $\\SU(N)$ of the form $ \\int DU\\, U_{i_1j_1}\\cdots U_{i_pj_p}\\Ud_{k_1l_1}\\cdots \\Ud_{k_nl_n}$. While the case $p=n$ is well known, it seems that explicit expressions for $p=n+N$ had not appeared in the literature. Similarities and differences, in particular in the large $N$ limit, between the two cases are discussed

  4. Coherent States with SU(N) Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, M; Mathur, Manu; Paul, Samir K.

    2003-01-01

    We define coherent states carrying SU(N) charges by exploiting generalized Schwinger boson representation of SU(N) Lie algebra. These coherent states are defined on $2 (2^{N - 1} - 1)$ complex planes. They satisfy continuity property and provide resolution of identity. We also exploit this technique to construct the corresponding non-linear SU(N) coherent states.

  5. The Sun Rises on the Solar Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Reyaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy from the sun is abundant and free. Solar energy is in essence electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun. Earth's climate, hydrologic systems, and ecosystems all derive from the sun. Other forms of renewable power such as wind, wave, biomass, and hydro are an indirect function of solar radiation.

  6. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  7. The faint young Sun problem

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    For more than four decades, scientists have been trying to find an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in paleoclimatology, the `faint young Sun problem'. For the early Earth, models of stellar evolution predict a solar energy input to the climate system which is about 25% lower than today. This would result in a completely frozen world over the first two billion years in the history of our planet, if all other parameters controlling Earth's climate had been the same. Yet there is ample evidence for the presence of liquid surface water and even life in the Archean (3.8 to 2.5 billion years before present), so some effect (or effects) must have been compensating for the faint young Sun. A wide range of possible solutions have been suggested and explored during the last four decades, with most studies focusing on higher concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane or ammonia. All of these solutions present considerable difficulties, however, so the faint young Sun prob...

  8. A Fuzzy Multiobjective Model for Supplier Selection under Considering Stochastic Demand in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of market competition, company faces more and more pressures. Meanwhile, procurement has a vital effect on achieving competitive advantages in a supply chain. Selecting the appropriate suppliers is one of the most important sections in purchase management. However, in real situation, supplier selection is a multiple objective problem about different items with vagueness and randomness of the data. It is very complex. Hence, research about supplier selection is relatively scarce under considering multiple items, discount price, and fuzzy and stochastic information. In our paper, we develop a fuzzy multiobjective supplier selection model for overcoming uncertainty and multiple items. Stochastic demand, fuzzy objectives, and weights are simultaneously applied to help the managers to select the suitable suppliers about different items. For illustration purpose, a numerical example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  9. RESEARCH ON VALUE OF INFORMATION SHARING IN ONE SUPPLIER-MULTIPLE RETAILER SUPPLY CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANGPin; WANGNing-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Prior research has generally focused on models involving a single or multiple retailers with independent demands. The value of demand information sharing is analyzed in a two-level supply chain involving one supplier-multiple retailer model in which retailer demands may be correlated. Each member in the supply chain forecasts its demand using an AR (1) demand process. Two conditions of the information sharing are considered (1) Without the information sharing, the retailers only communicate their orders to the supplier. (2) With the information sharing, retailers communicate their orders and forecasting models to the supplier. Analyses showthat the reductions of supplier's average inventory and average costs are substantial with the information sharing. However, the retailers donot get direct benefit from the information sharing. The retailers may ask the supplier to reduce the replenishment leadtime, so that the retailers will obtain substantial cost savings and inventory reduction. Both partners may obtain benefits when information sharing and leadtime reduction are implemented together.

  10. Supplier integration in product development: A matter of designing the project structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Danilovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In product development close collaboration between systems integrators and suppliers is important. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the work breakdown structure (WBS and work packages (WPs in product development on the possibility of carrying through the strategy of supplier involvement into collaborative practice and to investigate how supplier involvement can be improved by altering the design of collaborative WBS and WP structures. Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM is introduced in order to analyse, visualise and manage interdependencies, in terms of information exchange between the systems integrator and supplier. This article shows how DSM can support the alternative design of integrated and collaborative WBS and integrated WPs following the logic of dependencies and the flow of information in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on project and team level.

  11. A supplier selection using a hybrid grey based hierarchical clustering and artificial bee colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Faezy Razi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection of one or a combination of the most suitable potential providers and outsourcing problem is the most important strategies in logistics and supply chain management. In this paper, selection of an optimal combination of suppliers in inventory and supply chain management are studied and analyzed via multiple attribute decision making approach, data mining and evolutionary optimization algorithms. For supplier selection in supply chain, hierarchical clustering according to the studied indexes first clusters suppliers. Then, according to its cluster, each supplier is evaluated through Grey Relational Analysis. Then the combination of suppliers’ Pareto optimal rank and costs are obtained using Artificial Bee Colony meta-heuristic algorithm. A case study is conducted for a better description of a new algorithm to select a multiple source of suppliers.

  12. A Supplier Bidding Strategy Through Q-Learning Algorithm in Electricity Auction Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Hashiyama, Tomonori; Okuma, Shigeru

    One of the most important issues for power suppliers in the deregulated electric industry is how to bid into the electricity auction market to satisfy their profit-maximizing goals. Based on the Q-Learning algorithm, this paper presents a novel supplier bidding strategy to maximize supplier’s profit in the long run. In this approach, the supplier bidding strategy is viewed as a kind of stochastic optimal control problem and each supplier can learn from experience. A competitive day-ahead electricity auction market with hourly bids is assumed here, where no supplier possesses the market power. The dynamics and the incomplete information of the market are considered. The impacts of suppliers’ strategic bidding on the market price are analyzed under uniform pricing rule and discriminatory pricing rule. Agent-based simulations are presented. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed bidding strategy.

  13. The Evaluation and Selection of Outsourcing Suppliers in Mass Customization (MC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-wu; WANG Li-ya

    2005-01-01

    Many MC companies find it necessary to cooperate with a large number of outsourcing suppliers to pro vide MC products according to customers' diversified orders. To this end,how to select competitve suppliers for the outsourcing manufacturing of non-core processes is the key to establish strong supply chain ally of MC company as well as make the company more efficient in its core manufacturing processes. A procedure of selecting outsourcing suppliers was presented to identify and find competitive suppliers. The continuous improvement of this procedure was proposed to ensure the optimal supply chain of MC company in the long run. Besides ,a multi-criteria evaluation model in the procedure was set up according to MC's characteristic with fuzzy multi-criteria methods combined to solve the fuzzy problems of criteria weight and qualitative attribute value. A case study of MC manufacturing company was provided to show that the procedure,model and methods are effective to select outsourcing suppliers.

  14. Dispensing physicians, asymmetric information supplier-induced demand: evidence from the Swiss Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we apply a two-part model to estimate the effect of health literacy on the demand for physician visits under different institutional settings. Using a constructed measure of health information, we find evidence for supplier-induced demand in some parts of Switzerland. While the level of health information is uncorrelated with the likelihood of visiting a physician (contact decision), the conditional number of visits (frequency decision) depends on the individual's information status and the regulation of physician drug dispensing. In cantons with a drug prescription scheme, we do not find a significant difference in the number of visits between well-informed individuals and people with relatively little health literacy. In contrast, the existence of self-dispensing general practitioner and specialists is associated with a gap in demand that is strongly related to health literacy: Compared to cantons with prescription schemes, uninformed patients exhibit a higher number of outpatient visits in the cantons that (partly) allow the dispensation of drugs by physicians. However, patients with a high level of health information seem to be rather unaffected by physician drug dispensing. As a consequence, we observe an information-related gap in the number of outpatient contacts that only prevails in areas where doctors are entitled to sell drugs themselves. These findings suggest that self-dispensing doctors succeed in inducing demand that affects the number of physician-patient contacts. Health literacy, on the other hand, tends to counter these incentives.

  15. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  16. SRM, motor para el desarrollo de la cadena de valor Supplier Relationship Management – SRM gestión de las relaciones con los proveedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Leonardo Mendoza S.

    2010-01-01

    Ejemplo de ello es el SRM, Supplier Relationship Management, en donde por medio de la constitución de acuerdos basados en intereses comunes, se establecen relaciones estrechas, funcionales y eficientes entre las partes, permitiendo por esta vía la garantía del suministro, y de esta forma, darle un importante impulso para el desarrollo de la cadena de valor.

  17. 77 FR 61026 - Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... COMMISSION Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries AGENCY...-537, Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries. DATES... commercial olive oil industry in the United States and major supplier countries, including production of...

  18. 42 CFR 411.406 - Criteria for determining that a provider, practitioner, or supplier knew that services were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., practitioner, or supplier knew that services were excluded from coverage as custodial care or as not reasonable..., practitioner, or supplier knew that services were excluded from coverage as custodial care or as not reasonable and necessary. (a) Basic rule. A provider, practitioner, or supplier that furnished services...

  19. 42 CFR 414.50 - Physician or other supplier billing for diagnostic tests performed or interpreted by a physician...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physician or other supplier billing for diagnostic... or other supplier. 414.50 Section 414.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.50 Physician or other supplier billing...

  20. 22 CFR 130.10 - Information to be furnished by applicant or supplier to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... supplier to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 130.10 Section 130.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT... § 130.10 Information to be furnished by applicant or supplier to the Directorate of Defense Trade... business of the applicant or supplier, as the case may be, and, if applicable, the employer and title;...

  1. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing interest among universities in the scientific and educational possibilities of picosatellites base on the CubeSat 5 concept. Due to sever mass and dimension constraints place on this type of satellites, new approaches and ideas regarding different systems arises to accommodate...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  2. Implementation of ANP Method in Determining Supplier to Improve Service towards Supermarket Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanto, A.; Amalia, T. H.; Novian, D.; Kaluku, M. R. A.

    2017-03-01

    Performance assessment on the supplier by the supermarket manager is relatively difficult to conduct and implies subjectivity, because there is no measureable and objective performance indicator. This study aims to assist in the decision making process and to look for alternative solutions in assessing the performance of each supplier, so that the service towards the customers will improve as well. ANP method is used to find the weight of each sub-criteria that will be used to measure the supplier performance. The weight result of each sub-criteria derived from the ANP method is used again in measuring the performance and to rank the performance of each supplier by using TOPSIS method. Performance measuring by using the ANP and TOPSIS that generates the highest value of the supplier is 0.71666 while the lowest value is 0.24825. The result of this study shows that the ANP and TOPSIS methods can be used to measure the supplier performance therefore it can assist the selection of supplier which can increase service towards the mart’s consumers.

  3. A decision support tool for sustainable supplier selection in manufacturing firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeyinwa Orji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Most original equipment manufacturers (OEMs are strategically involved in supplier base rationalization and increased consciousness of sustainable development thus, reinforcing need for accurately considering sustainability in supplier selection to improve organizational performance. In real industrial case, imprecise data, ambiguity of human judgment, uncertainty among sustainability factors and the need to capture all subjective and objective criteria are unavoidable and pose huge challenge to accurately incorporate sustainability factors into supplier selection.Methodology: This study develops a model based on integrated multi- criteria decision making (MCDM methods to solve such problems. The developed model applies Fuzzy logic, DEMATEL and TOPSIS to effectively analyze the interdependencies between sustainability criteria and to select the best sustainable supplier in fuzzy environment while capturing all subjective and objective criteria. A case study is illustrated to test the proposed model in a gear manufacturing company, an OEM to provide insights and for practical applications.Findings: Results show that social factors of sustainability ranks as the most important in supplier selection. However, the most influential sustainability sub- criteria are work safety (WS and quality.Originality/Value: The model is capable of capturing all subjective and objective criteria in fuzzy environment to accurately incorporate sustainability factors in supplier selection. It is decision support tool relevant for providing insights to managers while implementing sustainable supplier selection.

  4. ANTECEDENTS OF SUPPLIER RELATION QUALITY IN THE GHANAIAN CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondinuba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient management of suppliers within a supply chain is an essential requirement for improving organisational performance within construction companies. However, factors inherent within the supply chain of supplier-buyer exchanges such as culture, politics, dependence and trust may influence supplier relationship quality (SRQ. This research therefore seeks to identify the influence that these factors have upon SRQ in the Ghanaian construction industry and develop a conceptual framework that explains the interconnectivity between them. A literature review is used to develop a conceptual framework of the antecedents influencing supplier relationship quality. Primary ‘perception’ data obtained from 152 building material suppliers is used to test the proposed model using Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings reveal that culture, politics, dependence and trust have a significant influence on relationship quality in supply chain collaborations amongst purchasers and suppliers of building materials. While politics has a strong influence on dependence, it also generates a negative influence on SRQ and trust. The research confirms the positive effect of trust and dependence in SRQ management and extends understanding of the influence of culture and politics. Practical implications suggest that managers of building material suppliers should focus upon building trust and dependence and be discouraged from over-reliance upon politics and political affiliations as a basis for long-term relationship building.

  5. Influence of innovation in the customer-supplier re lationship on competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Lenarčič

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available RQ: The excellence of a company is also the result of the relationship to the supplier. A good relationship is shown on the results in developing innovative ideas. In this study we were interested in the relations between the buyer and the supplier and how this effects their innovation development, which is later expressed as a competitive advantage, and if this relation effectson the creation of innovation ideas.Purpose: The purpose is to explore the relationship between suppliers and customers, their common innovative activity and the impact of joint innovation ideas in competitive advantage.Method: A literature review and a quantitative analysis with an opinion questionnaire was used in this study. Data analysis was carried out with frequency statistics and χ2-test.Results: The result shows that the relationship between buyers and suppliers has a greater impact on competitive advantage than the number of innovations.Organization: The research study impacts the customer-supplier relationship, mutual expectations and common creation of innovative ideas to increase competitive advantage. The results will be informative in adapting decisions and measures in strengthening the relationship for the creation of an innovative environment withininterpersonal relationships.Society: Society is aware of the importance of customer-supplier relations. Society will be able to obtain information on the degree of the customer-supplier mutual relationship in collaborating and developing innovative ideas, the level of awareness in the importance of innovation in the mutual relation of creating a competitive advantage.Originality: The originality of the research is to learn aboutthe impact of customer-supplier relations and on innovation as one of an organization’s competitive advantages.Limitations: The research is limited to one company and a smaller sample-size of suppliers in an organization.

  6. Gold sun to Shine in the Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    Jiangsu Goldsun Clothing Industry Co.,Ltd.,adjacent to China Nantong Home Textile Town - the World Home Textile Trade Center,is a home textile supplier integrating R&D,sales,and service and specializes in home textile fabric,home textile finished product,hotel lines articles,baby series articles,etc.Goldsun is one of the export-oriented home textile enterprises which are the first to insist on brand development in China's home textile fabric industry,enjoying high recognition and reputation at home and abroad.It is the enterprise's longterm operation objective to become "an outstanding home textile supplier in the world″.

  7. E-commerce platform acceptance suppliers, retailers, and consumers

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Hing; Yip, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This book aims to offer a comprehensive overview of the issues facing organizations when deciding whether to accept e-commerce as a platform for business. It provides a detailed evaluation of how the implementation of e-commerce may affect all parties within the supply chain: suppliers, retailers and consumers. It also compares various opportunities and threats of accepting e-commerce in order to conclude whether it might offer access to a new digital era, or whether it is an uncertain option yielding potential pitfalls. This book helps to reveal existing and future consequences of e-commerce acceptance, which are crucial for business decisions and operations in the present and going forward. It therefore provides a unique insight into emerging e-commerce platform acceptance, and is one of the first to provide a holistic perspective of how each party in the supply chain is affected  by e-commerce acceptance. E-commerce is bringing into view more flexible, effective and efficient ways of conducting business a...

  8. A study of combined evaluation of suppliers based on correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heting Qiu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Selection of logistics service providers is an important issue in supply chain management. But different evaluation methods may lead to different results, which could cause inconsistent conclusions. This paper makes use of a new perspective to combine with a variety of methods to eliminate the deviation of different single evaluation methods. Design/methodology/approach: This paper expounds the application of the combined evaluation method based on correlation. Entropy method, factor analysis, grey colligation evaluation and AHP have been used for research. Findings: According to the evaluate result, the ranking of suppliers obtained by each method have obvious differences. The result shows that combined evaluation method can eliminate the deviation of different single evaluation methods. Originality/value: The combined evaluation method makes up for the defects of single evaluation methods and obtains a result that is more stable and creditable with smaller deviation. This study can provide the enterprise leaders with more scientific method to select their cooperative companies. 

  9. El sector de electrodomésticos de Nuevo León y un análisis teórico de los factores que influyen el desarrollo de proveedores nacionales por parte de las empresas multinacionales (The home appliance industry of Nuevo León and a theoretical Analysis of the factors influencing domestic supplier development on behalf of multinational subsidiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velarde, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The impact of multinational subsidiaries or Foreign Direct Investment in host economies had been subject of debate for years (Hirschman, 1958. Recently the researchers and government institutions in México are being attracted to the subject because of the interest on the impact of foreign multinational subsidiaries that operate as an anchor company of a value chain, and more specifically in the local supplier development.The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the home appliance sector in México and Nuevo León, presenting the statistical data and a theoretical framework of supplier development in order to set a model for further investigations. Resumen: El impacto de las empresas multinacionales o la inversión extranjera directa en los países huéspedes ha sido un sujeto de debate durante años (Hirschman, 1958. Recientemente, las instituciones gubernamentales se han sentido atraídas al tema debido al interés por saber el impacto de las subsidiarias extranjeras que operan como empresa ancla en las cadenas de valor, y más específicamente desarrollando proveedores nacionales. El propósito de esta investigación será hacer un análisis del sector de electrodomésticos en nuevo Por lo que se presentará primero la evolución estadística del sector de electrodomésticos para luego hacer una revisión teórica de la literatura referente al desarrollo de proveedores con el objetivo de establecer un modelo para investigaciones futuras.

  10. A parallel optimization method for product configuration and supplier selection based on interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Meng; Li, Guoxi

    2017-06-01

    In the process of design and manufacturing, product configuration is an important way of product development, and supplier selection is an essential component of supply chain management. To reduce the risk of procurement and maximize the profits of enterprises, this study proposes to combine the product configuration and supplier selection, and express the multiple uncertainties as interval numbers. An integrated optimization model of interval product configuration and supplier selection was established, and NSGA-II was put forward to locate the Pareto-optimal solutions to the interval multiobjective optimization model.

  11. Medicare program; limitation on recoupment of provider and supplier overpayments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-16

    This final rule implements a provision of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) which prohibits recouping Medicare overpayments from a provider or supplier that seeks a reconsideration from a Qualified Independent Contractor (QIC). This provision changes how interest is to be paid to a provider or supplier whose overpayment is reversed at subsequent administrative or judicial levels of appeal. This final rule defines the overpayments to which the limitation applies, how the limitation works in concert with the appeals process, and the change in our obligation to pay interest to a provider or supplier whose appeal is successful at levels above the QIC.

  12. Contextualizing Territories in Gvc Supplier Nodes to Understand Chain Entry Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Kamau, Paul; McCormick, Dorothy

    This paper deals with entry barriers for developing country suppliers to global value chains (GVCs). It is based on a study of food processing firms in Kenya undertaken between 2012 and 2014. The paper focuses on how entry barriers to GVCs are sometimes constructed within supplier countries...... of how ‘the local’ interacts with ‘the global’, and thus to our understanding of the construction, existence and outcomes of entry barriers to GVCs. To conceptualize such a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of a supplier context, and of the processes and relations at play within it, we take our...

  13. A Combined group EA-PROMETHEE method for a supplier selection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rezaee Kelidbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the important decisions which impacts all firms’ activities is the supplier selection problem. Since the 1950s, several works have addressed this problem by treating different aspects and instances. In this paper, a combined multiple criteria decision making (MCDM technique (EA-PROMETHEE has been applied to implement a proper decision making. To this aim, after reviewing the theoretical background regarding to supplier selection, the extension analysis (EA is used to determine the importance of criteria and PROMETHEE for appraisal of suppliers based on the criteria. An empirical example illustrated the proposed approach.

  14. Research on optimal policy of single-period inventory management with two suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baimei; Sui, Lihui; Zhu, Peipei

    2014-01-01

    We study a single-period inventory control problem with two independent suppliers. With the first supplier, the buyer incurs a high variable cost but negligible fixed cost; with the second supplier, the buyer incurs a lower variable cost but a positive fixed cost. At the same time, the ordering quantity is limited. We develop the optimal inventory control policy when the holding and shortage cost function is convex. We also conduct some numerical experiments to explore the effects of the fixed setup cost K and the ordering capacity Q on the optimal control policy.

  15. Research on Optimal Policy of Single-Period Inventory Management with Two Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baimei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a single-period inventory control problem with two independent suppliers. With the first supplier, the buyer incurs a high variable cost but negligible fixed cost; with the second supplier, the buyer incurs a lower variable cost but a positive fixed cost. At the same time, the ordering quantity is limited. We develop the optimal inventory control policy when the holding and shortage cost function is convex. We also conduct some numerical experiments to explore the effects of the fixed setup cost K and the ordering capacity Q on the optimal control policy.

  16. The Study of an Integrated Rating System for Supplier Quality Performance in the Semiconductor Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Cheng; Yen, Tieh-Min; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    This study provides an integrated model of Supplier Quality Performance Assesment (SQPA) activity for the semiconductor industry through introducing the ISO 9001 management framework, Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) Supplier Quality Performance Assesment and Taguchi`s Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N) techniques. This integrated model provides a SQPA methodology to create value for all members under mutual cooperation and trust in the supply chain. This method helps organizations build a complete SQPA framework, linking organizational objectives and SQPA activities to optimize rating techniques to promote supplier quality improvement. The techniques used in SQPA activities are easily understood. A case involving a design house is illustrated to show our model.

  17. A robust optimisation approach to the problem of supplier selection and allocation in outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yelin; Keung Lai, Kin; Liang, Liang

    2016-03-01

    We formulate the supplier selection and allocation problem in outsourcing under an uncertain environment as a stochastic programming problem. Both the decision-maker's attitude towards risk and the penalty parameters for demand deviation are considered in the objective function. A service level agreement, upper bound for each selected supplier's allocation and the number of selected suppliers are considered as constraints. A novel robust optimisation approach is employed to solve this problem under different economic situations. Illustrative examples are presented with managerial implications highlighted to support decision-making.

  18. Seismology of the Wounded Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Cally, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Active regions are open wounds in the Sun's surface. Seismic oscillations from the interior pass through them into the atmosphere, changing their nature in the process to fast and slow magneto-acoustic waves. The fast waves then partially reflect and partially mode convert to upgoing and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves. The reflected fast and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves then re-enter the interior through the active regions that spawned them, infecting the surface seismology with signatures of the atmosphere. Using numerical simulations of waves in uniform magnetic fields, we calculate the upward acoustic and Alfv\\'enic losses in the atmosphere as functions of field inclination and wave orientation as well as the Time-Distance `travel time' perturbations, and show that they are related. Travel time perturbations relative to quiet Sun can exceed 40 seconds in 1 kG magnetic field. It is concluded that active region seismology is indeed significantly infected by waves leaving and re-entering the interior through magnetic w...

  19. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  20. A multiple criteria decision making technique for supplier selection and inventory management strategy: A case of multi-product and multi-supplier problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Parhizkari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate supplier along with planning a good inventory system has become an area of open research for the past few years. In this paper, we present a multi objective decision making supplier and inventory management model where two objectives including the quality and offering price of supplier are minimized, simultaneously. The proposed model is formulated as mixed integer programming and it is converted into an ordinary single objective function using Lp-Norm. In order to find efficient solution, we use NSGA-II as meta-heuristic technique and the performance of the proposed model is examined using some instances. The preliminary results indicate that both Lp-Norm and NSGA-II methods can be used to handle problems in various sizes.