WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun mon tue

  1. Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sun Microsystems, Inc. is committed to open standards,a standardization system, and sharing within the information tech nology field, focusing not only on technical innovation, but also on new ideas, practices and future development.

  2. Pavonis Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 7 May 2002) The Science Four exceptionally large volcanoes in a region called Tharsis are unique to the western hemisphere of Mars. Three of the Tharsis volcanoes, Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, and Arsia Mons, are aligned along a NE - SW trend, with Pavonis in the middle, straddling the equator. Olympus Mons, the fourth Tharsis volcano and the largest in the solar system, is located NW of Pavonis Mons. At the top right of the image, the rim of the caldera of Pavonis Mons is just barely visible, with steep NE-facing cliffs formed by the collapse of a portion of the volcano's summit. At the southwest edge of the caldera, additional fractures are apparent and may someday collapse, making the summit caldera even larger. This image of Pavonis Mons also demonstrates some of the distinctive characteristics of the martian surface in the Tharsis region. Tharsis is very dusty; the dust covers everything like fresh snow, which is the reason why there is very little contrast in the surface materials as compared to other THEMIS images that show apparently bright and dark surfaces in the same picture. This dust cover makes it difficult to distinguish different geologic or geomorphic units in the area, and even the piles of lava flows that constructed this volcano are difficult to make out. Most of the craters on the volcano are small, a few tens of meters to kilometers in diameter, suggesting that this surface is a relatively young one on Mars (the older a surface is, the more and larger craters it has). In the lower third of the image, linear arrangements of small, round pits can be seen. These features are commonly called 'pit chains' and most likely represent the collapse of lava tubes. Lava tubes are like a subway, allowing molten rock to move from place to place underground. A particularly large pit near the bottom center of the image looks a lot like a crater. However, the lack of degradation of the rim of this feature suggests that if it were an impact crater, it

  3. Lihtne ja avalik Kunsti väljak / Tue Hesselberg Foged ; interv. Urve Eslas, Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hesselberg Foged, Tue

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursist. Võidutööst "Art Plaza", autorid taani arhitektid Tue Hesselberg Foged, Uffe Leth Laursen, Karsten Gori, Sinus Lynge. Paremad tööd, žürii koosseis. Kommenteerivad Mart Kalm, Endrik Mänd, Indrek Allmann, Roger Riewe

  4. Lihtne ja avalik Kunsti väljak / Tue Hesselberg Foged ; interv. Urve Eslas, Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hesselberg Foged, Tue

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursist. Võidutööst "Art Plaza", autorid taani arhitektid Tue Hesselberg Foged, Uffe Leth Laursen, Karsten Gori, Sinus Lynge. Paremad tööd, žürii koosseis. Kommenteerivad Mart Kalm, Endrik Mänd, Indrek Allmann, Roger Riewe

  5. Modeling the Accretion Structure of AU Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Atwood-Stone, Corwin; Richards, Mercedes T; Budaj, Jan; Peters, Geraldine J

    2012-01-01

    AU Mon is a long-period (11.113 d) Algol-type binary system with a persistent accretion disk that is apparent as double-peaked H-alpha emission. We present previously unpublished optical spectra of AU Mon which were obtained over several years with dense orbital phase coverage. We utilize these data, along with archival UV spectra, to model the temperature and structure of the accretion disk and the gas stream. Synthetic spectral profiles for lines including H-alpha, H-beta, and the Al III and Si IV doublets were computed with the Shellspec program. The best match between the model spectra and the observations is obtained for an accretion disk of inner/outer radius 5.1/23 R_sun, thickness of 5.2 R_sun, density of 1.0e-13 g/cm^3, and maximum temperature of 14000 K, along with a gas stream at a temperature of ~8000 K transferring ~2.4e-9 M_sun/yr. We show H-alpha Doppler tomograms of the velocity structure of the gas, constructed from difference profiles calculated through sequentially subtracting contributions...

  6. Facilitating Classroom Innovation in the Geosciences Through the NSF Transforming Undergraduate Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (TUES) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, J.; Ryan, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Transforming Undergraduate Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (TUES) program seeks to improve the quality of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education for all undergraduate students. Activities supported by the TUES program include the creation, adaptation, and dissemination of learning materials and teaching strategies, development of faculty expertise, implementation of educational innovations, and research on STEM teaching and learning. The TUES program especially encourages projects that have the potential to transform undergraduate STEM education and active dissemination and building a community of users are critical components of TUES projects. To raise awareness about the TUES program and increase both the quality and quantity of proposals submitted by geoscientists to the program, information sessions and proposal writing retreats are being conducted. Digital resources developed especially for the geosciences community are available at www.buffalostate.edu/RTUGeoEd to share information about the TUES program and the many ways this NSF program supports innovation in geoscience education. This presentation also addresses identified impediments to submitting a TUES proposal and strategies for overcoming reasons discouraging geoscientists from preparing a proposal and/or resubmitting a declined proposal.

  7. Olympus Mons Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The landslide in this VIS image originated from the steep escarpment which surrounds the Olympus Mons volcano on Mars. This landslide is located on the northern side of the volcano. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 23.2, Longitude 223.9 East (136.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Ascraeus Mons Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal

  9. 4 years of successful knowledge transfer - the nuclear technology training center of the TUeV Nord Group; 4 Jahre erfolgreicher Wissenstransfer - das Ausbildungszentrum fuer Kerntechnik der TUeV Nord Gruppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willenbockel, I. [TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH und Co. KG, Abt. ETE, Hannover (Germany); Tietze, U. [TUeV NORD SysTec, Ausbildungszentrum fuer Kerntechnik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    In connection with the 2002 amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, the topics of generational change and maintenance of competence grew in importance and necessitated new solution approaches. To this end, various activities were launched, with the aim of conducting conceptual analyses of these topics. Examples include the 'National Competence Network for Nuclear Technology' (Nationaler Kompetenzverbund fuer Kerntechnik), various networks established by colleges and universities, the 'Knowledge Management for the Maintenance and Transfer of Competence in Reactor Safety' (Wissensmanagement zum Kompetenzerhalt und -transfer in der Reaktorsicherheit) workshop held in 2001 in Garching near Munich (Germany) and the 'Ad-hoc Workgroup on the Maintenance of Competence' (Ad-hoc-Arbeitskreis Kompetenzerhalt) of the VdTUeV. The nuclear technology departments of the TUeV Nord Group were aware of te challenges associated with the generational change early on. By establishing the 'Nuclear Technology Training Center' (Ausbildungszentrum fuer Kerntechnik, AfK), the TUeV Nord Group intended to ensure the required knowledge transfer during the generational change as well as maintain the renowned high qualification as regards the subject of nuclear technology and thus continue to provide - in the sense of social responsibility - crucial contribution to the long-term safety of nuclear plants. Four years have passed since the training center held the first courses in the fall of 2002. Up to now, more than 350 participants have been trained in the courses conducted by the AfK. In the opinion of the TUeV Nord Group, the activities of the AfK have laid the foundation for a successful change of generations within the group's nuclear technology organizations. (orig.)

  10. Development of Visualizations and Loggable Activities for the Geosciences. Results from Recent TUES Sponsored Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Bailey, J. E.; Whitmeyer, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Our TUES research centers on the role of digital data, visualizations, animations, and simulations in undergraduate geoscience education. Digital hardware (smartphones, tablets, GPSs, GigaPan robotic camera mounts, etc.) are revolutionizing field data collection. Software products (GIS, 3-D scanning and modeling programs, virtual globes, etc.) have truly transformed the way geoscientists teach, learn, and do research. Whilst Google-Earth-style visualizations are famously user-friend for the person browsing, they can be notoriously unfriendly for the content creator. Therefore, we developed tools to help educators create and share visualizations as easily as if posting on Facebook. Anyone whoIf you wish to display geological cross sections on Google Earth, go to digitalplanet.org, upload image files, position them on a line of section, and share with the world through our KMZ hosting service. Other tools facilitate screen overlay and 3-D map symbol generation. We advocate use of such technology to enable undergraduate students to 'publish' their first mapping efforts even while they are working in the field. A second outcome of our TUES projects merges Second-Life-style interaction with Google Earth. We created games in which students act as first responders for natural hazard mitigation, prospectors for natural resource explorations, and structural geologist for map-making. Students are represented by avatars and collaborate by exchange of text messages - the natural mode of communication for the current generation. Teachers view logs showing student movements as well as transcripts of text messages and can scaffold student learning and geofence students to prevent wandering. Early results of in-class testing show positive learning outcomes. The third aspect of our program emphasizes dissemination. Experience shows that great effort is required to overcome activation energy and ensure adoption of new technology into the curriculum. We organized a GSA Penrose

  11. Quelle typologie pour la narration filmique dans « Vivre me tue » ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Adel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Notre article constitue une étude de la narration du récit filmique « Vivre me tue ». C’est en fonction de la catégorisation genettienne de l’ordre dont relèvent les phénomènes d’anticipation et de rétrospection, de la vitesse dont relèvent la rapidité (ellipse ou la lenteur (pause descriptive de la narration, et de la fréquence (l'itératif, le répétitif et le singulatif, que nous avons essayé de voir si la théorie genettienne est valable pour la narration filmique ou non. Notre étude emprunte à la fois au parcours formalisé par Gérard Genette et à la réflexion sur l’expression, sur le matériau audiovisuel. A cet égard, il ne faut point oublier Christian Metz qui a été le premier à mettre en évidence la grammaire de ce langage et ses nombreuses dimensions, psychologiques, sociologiques ou culturelles.

  12. THEMIS analysis of Olympus Mons' mineralogical makeup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, N. D.

    2016-12-01

    Olympus Mons is the largest shield volcano in our known solar system. In previous studies, the composition of the basaltic lava flows on Olympus Mons was shown to be similar to the composition of those lava flows of Earth's shield volcanoes. It has been suggested that basalt located near volcanoes contained bacteria living below the surface of the Earth. In this pilot study, the effect of Olympus Mons' aspect (i.e. north- vs. south-facing slope) on its mineral composition was examined. Imagery from Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, were used because Olympus Mons' size and surface roughness hinder rover exploration. After removing transmission errors and performing an atmospheric correction, the THEMIS images were ready to be analyzed via a mineral spectral library. Using Arizona State University's Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) derived mineral spectral library, the images were classified in ENVI. These classifications were verified using ASU's GIS tool, Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS) and TES. Results show a significant amount of silicates located throughout the sampled areas of Olympus Mons. The results also show differences in the mineral composition and in the geological features on Olympus Mons' surface. The minerals vanadinite and halloysite were shown to be prevalent on the sampled southern portions of Olympus Mons, but were sparse on the sampled northern portions. Previous studies suggested that the mineral ilmenite, which this study found in high concentrations on the sampled northern portions of Olympus Mons, might serve as a food source for iron-oxidizing and iron-scavenging bacteria. Future research should focus on better understanding these concentrations on Olympus Mons to see if these minerals play a role in the potential bacterial presence on Olympus Mons.

  13. ARC Code TI: NodeMon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NodeMon is a resource utilization monitor tailored to the Altix architecture, but is applicable to any Linux system or cluster. It allows distributed resource...

  14. Southeastern Scarp of Olympus Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 4 June 2002) The Science The movement pathways of molten rock, or lava, is demonstrated in this image of a portion of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in our solar system. These now-solid lava flows all show nearly the same orientation, having flowed from northeast to southwest, down the slope of the volcano's southeastern flank. Throughout the image, narrow pairs of lineaments can be observed ? these are called levees, and are essentially channel walls formed by the solidification and buildup of the edges of the lava flows. We can determine that the high-standing mountains must be older than the flows because they blocked their passage, causing the flows to change direction and go around the taller mountains. As in other THEMIS images, the lack of bright-dark contrast in this image indicates that a layer of dust covers these surfaces. The surfaces of the lava flows are virtually uncratered, attesting to the relatively recent formation of the flows, where ?recent? is within the last 500 million years or so. Several meteorites found on Earth appear to have come from volcanic regions on Mars ? their ages are as young as 180 million years, leading many scientists to suggest that volcanoes of the Tharsis region, including Olympus Mons, may be the source regions of these meteorites. A prominent pear-shaped bowl is apparent on a hill in the lower right third of the image ? the collapse and mass movement of material down slope, which also formed a debris pile below and southeast of the bowl, likely formed this feature. The Story Millions and millions of years ago, a huge impact blasted a crater into the surface of Mars, sending particles of the Martian surface scattering into space at great speeds, where they spent millions and millions of years calmly in space before encountering a nearby orbiting planet: our own planet Earth. Hurtling down through Earth's atmosphere, these pieces of Mars landed in various regions of our world and were discovered by modern

  15. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  16. Detection methods for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913 by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Kug; Yi, Bu-Young

    2007-05-01

    Plants derived through agricultural biotechnology, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), may affect human health and ecological environment. A living GMO is also called a living modified organism (LMO). Biotech cotton is a GMO in food or feed and also an LMO in the environment. Recently, two varieties of biotech cotton, MON 15985 and MON 88913, were developed by Monsanto Co. The detection method is an essential element for the GMO labeling system or LMO management of biotech plants. In this paper, two primer pairs and probes were designed for specific amplification of 116 and 120 bp PCR products from MON 15985 and MON 88913, respectively, with no amplification from any other biotech cotton. Limits of detection of the qualitative method were all 0.05% for MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was developed using a TaqMan real-time PCR. A synthetic plasmid, as a reference molecule, was constructed from a taxon-specific DNA sequence of cotton and two construct-specific DNA sequences of MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was validated using six samples that contained levels of biotech cotton mixed with conventional cotton ranging from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-20%. Limits of quantitation of the quantitative method were all 0.1%. Consequently, it is reported that the proposed detection methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analyses for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913.

  17. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  18. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  19. Compositional analysis of genetically modified corn events (NK603, MON88017×MON810 and MON89034×MON88017) compared to conventional corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmed M; Abbott, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    Compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops continues to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment for these materials. The present study was designed to detect the genetic modifications and investigate the compositional analysis of GM corn containing traits of multiple genes (NK603, MON88017×MON810 and MON89034×MON88017) compared with non-GM corn. Values for most biochemical components assessed for the GM corn samples were similar to those of the non-GM control or were within the literature range. Significant increases were observed in protein, fat, fiber and fatty acids of the GM corn samples. The observed increases may be due to the synergistic effect of new traits introduced into corn varieties. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis showed high similarity among the protein fractions of the investigated corn samples. These data indicate that GM corn samples were compositionally equivalent to, and as nutritious as, non-GM corn.

  20. The Bowmen of Mons and Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the shared literary influences of Arthur Machen, author of 'The Bowmen & Angels of Mons' and Edgar Rice Burroughs, author of the Martian novels featuring John Carter. Both authors used the motif of phantom bowmen in their short stories and novels at a significant period during WW1.

  1. Hansteen Mons: An LROC geological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joseph M.; Giguere, Thomas A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Robinson, Mark S.; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Trang, David; Clegg-Watkins, Ryan N.

    2017-02-01

    Mons Hansteen is a relatively high-albedo, well-known lunar ``red spot'' located on the southern margin of Oceanus Procellarum (2.3°S, 50.2°W). It is an arrowhead-shaped (∼ 25 km on a side), two-layer mesa with a small cone-shaped massif on its north edge formed by three morphologically and compositionally distinct geologic units. These units were emplaced in three phases over nearly 200 million years. The oldest (∼3.74 Ga), Hilly-Dissected unit, composed of high-silica, and low-FeO content materials formed a low, steep sided mesa. The materials of this unit erupted mainly from vents along northeast- and northwest-trending sets of fractures. The Pitted unit, which comprises the upper-tier mesa, is composed of high-silica and even lower-FeO content materials. This material was erupted at ∼ 3.5 Ga from numerous closely spaced vents (i.e., pits) formed along closely spaced northeast-southwest-trending sets of fractures. At nearly the same time, eruptions of lower silica and higher FeO materials occurred on the north flank of Mons Hansteen at the intersection of two major fractures to produce the North Massif unit. The eruptions that created the North Massif units also produced materials that thinly blanketed small areas of the Hilly-Dissected and Pitted units on the north flank of Mons Hansteen. Also at nearly the same time (i.e., ∼ 3.5 Ga), basalt flows formed the surrounding mare. Each unit of Mons Hansteen appears to be mantled by locally derived ash, which only modestly contaminated the other units. The morphology of Mons Hansteen (especially the Pitted unit) suggests a style of volcanism where only a relatively small amount of material is explosively erupted from numerous, closely spaced vents.

  2. Dicamba-Tolerant Soybeans (Glycine max L.) MON 87708 and MON 87708 × MON 89788 Are Compositionally Equivalent to Conventional Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary; Bickel, Anna; Mannion, Rhonda; Bell, Erin; Harrigan, George G

    2017-09-13

    Herbicide-tolerant crops can expand both tools for and timing of weed control strategies. MON 87708 soybean has been developed through genetic modification and confers tolerance to the dicamba herbicide. As part of the safety assessment conducted for new genetically modified (GM) crop varieties, a compositional assessment of MON 87708 was performed. Levels of key soybean nutrients and anti-nutrients in harvested MON 87708 were compared to levels of those components in a closely related non-GM variety as well as to levels measured in other conventional soybean varieties. From this analysis, MON 87708 was shown to be compositionally equivalent to its comparator. A similar analysis conducted for a stacked trait product produced by conventional breeding, MON 87708 × MON 89788, which confers tolerance to both dicamba and glyphosate herbicides, reached the same conclusion. These results are consistent with other results that demonstrate no compositional impact of genetic modification, except in those cases where an impact was an intended outcome.

  3. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  4. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  5. Midnight sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, A.P.; Lambert, S.B.; Gagnon, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    Midnight Sun, the University of Waterloo's solar-electric car, was designed and built by about 30 engineering, kinesiology and physics students for the GM Sunrayce USA held in July 1990. The car measures 2 m by 4.2 m, weighs 224 kg, can collect about 1000 W of solar electricity in full sun, and had a top speed of 79 km/h. The race took 11 days to cover the 1644 miles from the Epcot Center in Lake Buena Vista, Florida to the GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Thirty-two cars, powered only by solar energy, competed in this race. Midnight Sun showed its potential during the race qualifying runs by completing the required qualifying course with the 12th fastest time of 52.83 seconds, and the 6th fastest trap speed of 63 km/h. During the Sunrayce, Midnight Sun came in second on day 1 of the race, tenth on day 6, and eighth on day 7, and was one of only 17 solar cars that were able to make it up the toughest hill in the race on day 8. The most serious problems encountered by the car were a weak rear suspension, power losses, and failure of bypass diodes in the photovoltaic array. Midnight Sun was in 17th place overall at the end of day 9. At about 11:00 am on day 10 in Ohio, the Waterloo car was moving at 60 km/h when it was bumped off the road by an out of control pickup truck. The solar car driver was not hurt. Despite the difficulties, the next day Midnight Sun was repaired and driven across the finish line at the ceremonial finish. After receiving time penalties for not completing the last day and a half of the race, Midnight Sun was awarded 24th place with an official cumulative time of 114 h 37 min 15 s. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Geomorphology and volcanology of Maat Mons, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2016-10-01

    Full-resolution (FMIDR) Magellan radar backscatter images have been used to characterize the geology and volcanology of the volcano Maat Mons on Venus. This volcano has often been identified by remote sensing techniques as one of the volcanoes on the planet that could have been recently active, and is the highest volcano on Venus with a relief of ∼9 km. The summit of Maat Mons is characterized by a caldera complex ∼26 × 30 km in diameter with at least six remnant pit craters ∼10 km in diameter preserved in the walls of the caldera, suggesting that multiple small volume (lava flow types, described as "digitate flows", "sheet flows", "fan flows" and "filamentary flows", can be identified on the flanks. Three rift zones can be identified from the distribution of 217 pit craters >1 km in diameter on the flanks. These pits appear to have formed by collapse with no effusive activity associated with their formation. No evidence for explosive volcanism can be identified, despite the (relatively) low atmospheric pressure (∼55 bar) near the summit. There is also a lack of evidence for lava channels, deformation features within the caldera, and thrust faults on the flanks, indicating that the physical volcanology of Maat Mons is simpler than that of typical martian and terrestrial shield volcanoes. Preservation of fine-scale (3-4 pixels) structures within the pit craters and summit pits is consistent with geologically very recent activity, but no evidence for current activity can be identified.

  7. Little Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  8. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  9. The post-outburst photometric behaviour of V838 Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Crause, L A; Kilkenny, D; Van Wyk, F; Marang, F; Jones, A F; Crause, Lisa A.; Lawson, Warrick A.; Kilkenny, David; Wyk, Francois van; Marang, Fred; Jones, Albert F.

    2003-01-01

    The unusual eruptive variable discovered in Monoceros in 2002 January underwent dramatic photometric and spectroscopic changes in the months prior to its 2002 June-August conjunction with the Sun. Optical and infrared (IR) photometry obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) between 2002 January and June (JD 2452280-440) is presented here in an analysis of the star's post-outburst behaviour. The light curve indicated 3 eruptions took place in 2002 January, February and March. SAAO echelle spectra obtained in the week prior to the March maximum indicated the ejection of a new shell of material. JHKL photometry obtained during 2002 April showed the development of an IR excess due to the formation of a dust shell. The shell appears to be largely responsible for the rapid fade in the optical flux during 2002 April-May (Delta V > 6 mag within 3 weeks). Blueing of the optical colours during the decline is likely due either to the revealing of an emission line region surrounding V838 Mon, or the ...

  10. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  11. Geologic Mapping of Ascraeus Mons, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, K. J.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    Ascraeus Mons (AM) is the northeastern most large shield volcano residing in the Tharsis province on Mars. We are funded by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program to complete a digital geologic map based on the mapping style. Previous mapping of a limited area of these volcanoes using HRSC images (13-25 m/pixel) revealed a diverse distribution of volcanic landforms within the calderas, along the flanks, rift aprons, and surrounding plains. The general scientific objectives for which this mapping is based is to show the different lava flow morphologies across AM to better understand the evolution and geologic history.

  12. Photometric Period of the Star PZ Mon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonyuk, K. A.; Bondar', N. I.; Pit', N. V.

    2017-09-01

    Results are presented from a search for periodic variations in the brightness and color indices of the active star PZ Mon based on many years of photometric data from 1992 to 2015. The photometric period derived from the entire set of observations is 34.16 days, but the period may vary by 1.5% within individual intervals. The color index V-R varies with the same period. These variations are indicative of reddening of the star with decreasing brightness. A correlation between the values exists over the entire observation interval. The variations in B-V occur over an interval of 26-28 days. A nonuniqueness in these variations shows up in a brightness-color index diagram: a reduction in the color index with decreasing brightness is observed in some epochs, which can be explained in terms of a spottedness model by the presence of cold, as well as hot, formations on the star's surface.

  13. Voice Register in Mon: Acoustics and Electroglottography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Arthur S; Tiede, Mark K; Luangthongkum, Theraphan

    2015-01-01

    Mon is spoken in villages in Thailand and Myanmar. The dialect of Ban Nakhonchum, Thailand, has 2 voice registers, modal and breathy; these phonation types, along with other phonetic properties, distinguish minimal pairs. Four native speakers of this dialect recorded repetitions of 14 randomized words (7 minimal pairs) for acoustic analysis. We used a subset of these pairs in a listening test to verify the perceptual robustness of the register distinction. Acoustic analysis found significant differences in noise component, spectral slope and fundamental frequency. In a subsequent session 4 speakers were also recorded using electroglottography, which showed systematic differences in the contact quotient. The salience of these properties in maintaining the register distinction is discussed in the context of possible tonogenesis for this language. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Computer Security: Pokémon GO! Or not?

    CERN Document Server

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Have you already joined the hype surrounding the No. 1 iOS and Android app “Pokémon GO” and started hunting for wild virtual Pokémon while walking through the real world? Have fun and catch them all!!! But also take some physical and digital care!   If you haven’t heard of “Pokémon GO”, it is an iOS and Android game in which your virtual avatar has to hunt for cute and sometimes less cute little monsters, so-called Pokémon (if you are as old as me or have kids, yes, those GameBoy, TV Series, card-game Pokémon!). The ultimate goal is to find and collect all 150 different Pokémon species. Your smartphone’s location information displayed on a Google map lookalike provides you with hints as to where to find them. Augmented reality is employed to project virtual Pokémon in your vicinity onto your smartphone’s camera picture so that you can catch them by th...

  15. Senkin Evolutions - Pokémon-vaikutteisen vaatemalliston suunnitteluprosessi

    OpenAIRE

    Senkin, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli luoda Pokémon-hahmoista inspiroitunut ammattimainen vaatemallisto sesongille syys-talvi 2017 - 2018. Aiheen valintaan vaikutti tekijän oman kiinnostuneisuuden lisäksi aiheen ajankohtaisuus Pokémon-videopelien 20-vuotisjuhlan sekä erittäin suositun Pokémon Go -pelin ilmestymisen johdosta. Työssä esiteltiin Senkin-brändiä ja kerrottiin suunnittelun lähtökohdista, aiemmista mallistoista ja tuotteista sekä inspiraatiosta. Lisäksi työssä käsiteltiin suunnittelijai...

  16. Apskaitos politikos formavimas įmonėje

    OpenAIRE

    Varanavičiūtė, Ingrida

    2009-01-01

    Tyrimo objektas – apskaitos politikos formavimas Lietuvos įmonėse. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti apskaitos politikos Lietuvoje pasirinkimą lemiančius veiksnius, pateikti apskaitos politikos formavimo modelį ir patikrinti jo tinkamumą Lietuvos įmonėse. Tyrimo problema: apskaitos politikos pasirinkimą lemiančių veiksnių įtakos apskaitos politikos formavimo modeliui nustatymo Lietuvos įmonėse nepakankamas metodologinis pagrindimas The object of the research is a company’s financial accounting p...

  17. The volcanotectonic structures of Ascraeus Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Paul; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Murray, John; Troll, Valentin

    2010-05-01

    Ascraeus Mons is the tallest of three large volcanoes situated to the NE of the Tharsis Rise and aligned parallel to a NE-SW regional structural trend. With a vertical relief of 14.9 km and an E-W diameter of 400 km, the main shield has a convex-upward morphology and a summit plateau, whilst significantly younger lava rift aprons issue from expansive embayments on its lower flanks onto the surrounding plains. The volcano hosts several types of well-preserved surface structures, and so has served as a basis for understanding Martian volcano geodynamics. Previous studies have not incorporated the full set of structures on Ascraeus Mons, however, and have been limited by photogeological data of lower resolution than that available today. We have used a GIS of MOLA, HRSC, and CTX data to map the spatial and temporal distributions of the most pronounced structures on Ascraeus Mons — its summit calderas, flank terraces, arcuate graben, and pit craters — to develop as comprehensive an evolutionary sequence for this volcano as possible. We summarise our mapping results here. · The 55-km wide caldera complex consists of at least three NE-SW-aligned depressions, with a possible fourth caldera on the periphery. Depths range from 818 m for the shallowest caldera to 3,110 m for the deepest. Whilst most lavas on the volcano are summit-derived, even the latest flows are cut by post-caldera formation subsidence and fracturing. · Flank terraces, topographically subtle outward-verging, convex-upward structures, encircle Ascraeus Mons in an imbricate, fish-scale pattern. 142 terraces in total extend from immediately below the summit to the basal plains, but do not occur on the rift aprons. The mean circumferential length for terraces is 31.9 km, though terraces over 60 km long lie on the NW and SE flanks. · Arcuate graben crosscut the NW flanks and surrounding plains, and extend for ca. 90° concentric to the volcano. These structures vary in width from 400 m to 1,200 m, and

  18. Variability monitoring of OB stars during the Mons campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Morel, T; Eversberg, T; Alves, F; Arnold, W; Bergmann, T; Viegas, N G Correia; Fahed, R; Fernando, A; Carreira, L F Gouveia; Hunger, T; Knapen, J H; Leadbeater, R; Dias, F Marques; Moffat, A F J; Reinecke, N; Ribeiro, J; Romeo, N; Gallego, J Sanchez; Santos, E M dos; Schanne, L; Stahl, O; Stober, Ba; Stober, Be; Vollmann, K; Corcoran, M F; Dougherty, S M; Hamaguchi, K; Pittard, J M; Pollock, A M T; Williams, P M

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a 3-month campaign carried out in the framework of the Mons project, where time-resolved Halpha observations are used to study the wind and circumstellar properties of a number of OB stars.

  19. The peculiar variable V838 Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Kimeswenger, S; Schmeja, S; Armsdorfer, B

    2002-01-01

    V838 Mon underwent, after a first nova-like outburst in January and a usual decline, a second outburst after one month, and a third weak one again a month later. Moreover a very small increase of the temperature at the beginning of April gives us a hint on a physical process with a period of one month. We obtained a BVRIc time sequence and modelled the photometric behaviour of the object. This leads us to the conclusion that the interstellar foreground extinction has to be 0.6 < E(B-V) < 0.8 and that the quasi-photosphere had persistently unusually low temperatures for nova-like systems. The photometry was used to follow the dramatic changes of the expansion. While the appearing 10 micron excess can be well described by the heating of material ejected during this event, the IRAS emission near the location of the progenitor, originates most likely from dust, which were formed during the previous evolution of the object. Assuming that the light echoes are coming from circumstellar material, the distance i...

  20. QM/MM Calculations with deMon2k

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis R. Salahub

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The density functional code deMon2k employs a fitted density throughout (Auxiliary Density Functional Theory, which offers a great speed advantage without sacrificing necessary accuracy. Powerful Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM approaches are reviewed. Following an overview of the basic features of deMon2k that make it efficient while retaining accuracy, three QM/MM implementations are compared and contrasted. In the first, deMon2k is interfaced with the CHARMM MM code (CHARMM-deMon2k; in the second MM is coded directly within the deMon2k software; and in the third the Chemistry in Ruby (Cuby wrapper is used to drive the calculations. Cuby is also used in the context of constrained-DFT/MM calculations. Each of these implementations is described briefly; pros and cons are discussed and a few recent applications are described briefly. Applications include solvated ions and biomolecules, polyglutamine peptides important in polyQ neurodegenerative diseases, copper monooxygenases and ultra-rapid electron transfer in cryptochromes.

  1. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was

  2. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  3. Sun's rap song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M.; Lee, W.

    1995-07-01

    We present a rap song composed for the Sun, our star. This Sun's Rap Song can be utilized in classroom teaching to spark the students' interest and facilitate the students' learning of the relevant subjects.

  4. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  5. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  6. Pokémon GO: gevangen in eigendom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Pokémon Go is één van de eerste van een waarschijnlijk groot aantal (spel)omgevingen waar de werkelijke- en virtuele wereld met elkaar versmelten. In deze ‘hybride’ doen zich nieuwe rechtsvragen voor. Een klein aantal daarvan komt aan de orde orde in dit artikel. Vooralsnog lijkt het erop dat het Ne

  7. Venus - 3D Perspective View of Gula Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Gula Mons is displayed in this computer-simulated view of the surface of Venus. The viewpoint is located 110 kilometers (68 miles) southwest of Gula Mons at the same elevation as the summit, 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) above Eistla Regio. Lava flows extend for hundreds of kilometers across the fractured plains. The view is to the northeast with Gula Mons appearing at the center of the image. Gula Mons, a 3 kilometer (1.9 mile) high volcano, is located at approximately 22 degrees north latitude, 359 degrees east longitude in western Eistla Regio. Magellan synthetic aperture radar data is combined with radar altimetry to produce a three-dimensional map of the surface. Rays cast in a computer intersect the surface to create a three-dimensional perspective view. Simulated color and a digital elevation map developed by the U.S. Geological Survey are used to enhance small-scale structure. The simulated hues are based on color images recorded by the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft. The image was produced by the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory and is a single frame from a video released at the March 5, 1991, JPL news conference.

  8. Pokémon GO: gevangen in eigendom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, R.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357572076

    2016-01-01

    Pokémon Go is één van de eerste van een waarschijnlijk groot aantal (spel)omgevingen waar de werkelijke- en virtuele wereld met elkaar versmelten. In deze ‘hybride’ doen zich nieuwe rechtsvragen voor. Een klein aantal daarvan komt aan de orde orde in dit artikel. Vooralsnog lijkt het erop dat het Ne

  9. Observations of V838 Mon in the CO rotational lines

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, T; Tylenda, R

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the structure of a field around the position of V838 Mon as seen in the lowest CO rotational transitions. We also measure and analyse emission in the same lines at the position of V838 Mon.Observations have primarily been done in the CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 lines using the KOSMA telescope. A field of 3.4 squared degrees has been mapped in the on-the-fly mode in these transitions. Longer integration spectra in the on-off mode have been obtained to study the emission at the position of V838 Mon. Selected positions in the field have also been observed in the CO J = 1-0 transition using the Delingha telescope.In the observed field we have identified many molecular clouds. They can be divided into two groups from the point of view of their observed radial velocities. One, having V(LSR) in the range 18-32 km/s, can be identified with the Perseus Galactic arm. The other one, having V(LSR) between 44-57 km/s, probably belongs to the Norma-Cygnus arm. The radial velocity of V838 Mon is within the second ...

  10. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  11. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  12. Chemical variations observed on Aeolis Mons in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenvang, Jens; Gasda, Patrick J.; Thompson, Lucy; Hurowitz, Joel; Grotzinger, John P.; Blaney, Diana L.; Gellert, Ralf; Wiens, Roger; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The extraordinarily extensive exposure of hematite-, clay-, sulfate-bearing stratigraphic layers in the lower part of Aeolis Mons was the primary reason Gale Crater was selected as the landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. 753 martian solar days (sols) after the Curiosity rover landed in Gale Crater in August 2012, and after driving more than 9 km, the Curiosity rover arrived at the first exposure of the Murray formation, the basal layer of Aeolis Mons. The Murray formation is a thinly laminated lacustrine mudstone showing stratification down to the millimeter scale. This supports the idea that the stratigraphic layers of Aeolis Mons are sedimentary, and likely deposited in a series of long-lived lakes extending into the early Hesperian time, as recently described by Grotzinger et al. (Science, vol. 350, 2015). The chemical variations observed throughout the Murray formation by the ChemCam and APXS instruments in the 600+ sols since first arriving at Aeolis Mons will be presented. While Murray remains thinly laminated throughout the 30+ vertical meters of stratigraphy explored, large chemical variations are observed. The most extreme variations arise from likely co-located detrital and diagenetic silica enrichments in Murray. Remarkably, an associated diagenetic silica enrichment is also observed in the unconformably overlying eolian sandstone of the Stimson formation in that location. The detrital enrichment provides evidence of how the source region chemistry varied as the sedimentary layers of Aeolis Mons were deposited. Conversely, the diagenetic enrichment observed across both the Murray and Stimson formations provides compelling evidence for the presence of subsurface fluids in Gale Crater, thousands to millions of years after the crater lakes disappeared. This evidence of liquid water greatly extends the timescale in which Gale Crater might have been habitable.

  13. Differentiation and Gene Flow among European Populations of Leishmania infantum MON-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls, Katrin; Chicharro, Carmen; Cañavate, Carmen; Cortes, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Haralambous, Christos; Soteriadou, Ketty; Pratlong, Francine; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Mauricio, Isabel; Miles, Michael; Schaar, Matthias; Ochsenreither, Sebastian; Radtke, Oliver A.; Schönian, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Background Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region, South America, and China. MON-1 L. infantum is the predominating zymodeme in all endemic regions, both in humans and dogs, the reservoir host. In order to answer important epidemiological questions it is essential to discriminate strains of MON-1. Methodology/Principal Findings We have used a set of 14 microsatellite markers to analyse 141 strains of L. infantum mainly from Spain, Portugal, and Greece of which 107 strains were typed by MLEE as MON-1. The highly variable microsatellites have the potential to discriminate MON-1 strains from other L. infantum zymodemes and even within MON-1 strains. Model- and distance-based analysis detected a considerable amount of structure within European L. infantum. Two major monophyletic groups—MON-1 and non-MON-1—could be distinguished, with non-MON-1 being more polymorphic. Strains of MON-98, 77, and 108 were always part of the MON-1 group. Among MON-1, three geographically determined and genetically differentiated populations could be identified: (1) Greece; (2) Spain islands–Majorca/Ibiza; (3) mainland Portugal/Spain. All four populations showed a predominantly clonal structure; however, there are indications of occasional recombination events and gene flow even between MON-1 and non-MON-1. Sand fly vectors seem to play an important role in sustaining genetic diversity. No correlation was observed between Leishmania genotypes, host specificity, and clinical manifestation. In the case of relapse/re-infection, only re-infections by a strain with a different MLMT profile can be unequivocally identified, since not all strains have individual MLMT profiles. Conclusion In the present study for the first time several key epidemiological questions could be addressed for the MON-1 zymodeme, because of the high discriminatory power of microsatellite markers, thus creating a basis for further epidemiological

  14. Differentiation and gene flow among European populations of Leishmania infantum MON-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls, Katrin; Chicharro, Carmen; Cañavate, Carmen; Cortes, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Haralambous, Christos; Soteriadou, Ketty; Pratlong, Francine; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Mauricio, Isabel; Miles, Michael; Schaar, Matthias; Ochsenreither, Sebastian; Radtke, Oliver A; Schönian, Gabriele

    2008-07-09

    Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region, South America, and China. MON-1 L. infantum is the predominating zymodeme in all endemic regions, both in humans and dogs, the reservoir host. In order to answer important epidemiological questions it is essential to discriminate strains of MON-1. We have used a set of 14 microsatellite markers to analyse 141 strains of L. infantum mainly from Spain, Portugal, and Greece of which 107 strains were typed by MLEE as MON-1. The highly variable microsatellites have the potential to discriminate MON-1 strains from other L. infantum zymodemes and even within MON-1 strains. Model- and distance-based analysis detected a considerable amount of structure within European L. infantum. Two major monophyletic groups-MON-1 and non-MON-1-could be distinguished, with non-MON-1 being more polymorphic. Strains of MON-98, 77, and 108 were always part of the MON-1 group. Among MON-1, three geographically determined and genetically differentiated populations could be identified: (1) Greece; (2) Spain islands-Majorca/Ibiza; (3) mainland Portugal/Spain. All four populations showed a predominantly clonal structure; however, there are indications of occasional recombination events and gene flow even between MON-1 and non-MON-1. Sand fly vectors seem to play an important role in sustaining genetic diversity. No correlation was observed between Leishmania genotypes, host specificity, and clinical manifestation. In the case of relapse/re-infection, only re-infections by a strain with a different MLMT profile can be unequivocally identified, since not all strains have individual MLMT profiles. In the present study for the first time several key epidemiological questions could be addressed for the MON-1 zymodeme, because of the high discriminatory power of microsatellite markers, thus creating a basis for further epidemiological investigations.

  15. Differentiation and gene flow among European populations of Leishmania infantum MON-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kuhls

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region, South America, and China. MON-1 L. infantum is the predominating zymodeme in all endemic regions, both in humans and dogs, the reservoir host. In order to answer important epidemiological questions it is essential to discriminate strains of MON-1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used a set of 14 microsatellite markers to analyse 141 strains of L. infantum mainly from Spain, Portugal, and Greece of which 107 strains were typed by MLEE as MON-1. The highly variable microsatellites have the potential to discriminate MON-1 strains from other L. infantum zymodemes and even within MON-1 strains. Model- and distance-based analysis detected a considerable amount of structure within European L. infantum. Two major monophyletic groups-MON-1 and non-MON-1-could be distinguished, with non-MON-1 being more polymorphic. Strains of MON-98, 77, and 108 were always part of the MON-1 group. Among MON-1, three geographically determined and genetically differentiated populations could be identified: (1 Greece; (2 Spain islands-Majorca/Ibiza; (3 mainland Portugal/Spain. All four populations showed a predominantly clonal structure; however, there are indications of occasional recombination events and gene flow even between MON-1 and non-MON-1. Sand fly vectors seem to play an important role in sustaining genetic diversity. No correlation was observed between Leishmania genotypes, host specificity, and clinical manifestation. In the case of relapse/re-infection, only re-infections by a strain with a different MLMT profile can be unequivocally identified, since not all strains have individual MLMT profiles. CONCLUSION: In the present study for the first time several key epidemiological questions could be addressed for the MON-1 zymodeme, because of the high discriminatory power of microsatellite markers, thus creating a basis for further

  16. The Shadow of a Gnomon Along a Year: Routine Observations and Teaching of Apparent Motion of the Sun and the Four Seasons. (Spanish Title: La Sombra de un Gnomon lo Largo de un Año: Observaciones de Rutina y la Enseñanza del Movimiento Aparente del Sol y Las Cuatro Estaciones.) A Sombra de um Gnômon ao Longo de um Ano: Observações Rotineiras e o Ensino do Movimento Aparente do Sol E das Quatro Estações

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogello, Anderson Giovani; Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; de Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2013-12-01

    Many misconceptions are recognized among the various groups of students, especially in the elementary school. Among them, the apparent motion of the Sun, in spite of its daily occurrence, is subject to varied interpretations. Thus, the observation and recording of the motion of the stars in the celestial vault is a necessary task for astronomy education. The work presented here proposes the presentation of the results of observations of the apparent movement of the sun by marking the shadow of a vertical gnomon by the students in a class of sixth graders of elementary rural school of Paraná. The project itself was conducted in four stages, on dates near the March equinox, the June solstice, the September equinox and the December solstice. In addition, lectures were developed in the classroom. Such methods sought to build concepts around the apparent movement of the Sun and the alternation of the seasons. Given the results of the activities, an evaluation was applied and the data demonstrated a desired student learning such as: the recognition of the cardinal points, the description of the apparent solar motion and the occurrence of the seasons and their alternation from astronomical observations at naked eye. Muchos conceptos aternativos son conocidos entre los distintos grupos de alumnos, sobre todo en la educación básica. Entre ellos, el movimiento aparente del Sol, por más cotidiano que sea, se presta a interpretaciones variadas. Por lo tanto, observar y registrar el movimiento de las estrellas en la bóveda celeste se torna una tarea necesaria para la educación en astronomía. El trabajo que aquí se presenta propone la presentación de los resultados de la observación del movimiento aparente del sol a través de la marcación de la sombra del gnomon vertical a cargo de los estudiantes en una división de sexto grado de de la escuela primaria rural de Paraná. El proyecto en sí se llevó a cabo en cuatro etapas, en fechas cercanas al equinoccio de marzo

  17. Monólogos: nuestra pequeña esencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Chenoll Monzó

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La siguiente experiencia práctica trata, como bien dice el título, sobre los monólogos de humor que tan de moda se han puesto últimamente.Muchas veces, cuando nos encontramos ante una clase de extranjeros que quieren estudiar español, se nos plantea el dilema de cómo separar las clases de cultura con las de gramática. ¿Y por qué separarlas? Los monólogos nos permiten combinar varios aspectos, como mostrarles a los alumnos nuestra cultura más de cerca y que ellos nos muestren y comenten la suya (fomentamos de esta manera una conversación espontánea en clase y de la que todos, hasta los más tímidos, suelen participar.Además, obviamente, existe un claro segundo sentido e ironía a la que poco a poco se acostumbran (y que es uno de los aspectos más difíciles para tratar con los alumnos de E/LE y por supuesto, con una acertada elección del monólogo, también podemos clarificar y profundizar en ciertos aspectos gramaticales que nos interesen.

  18. Evolutionary status of the active star PZ Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Pakhomov, Yu V; Bondar, N I; Gorynya, N A; Semenko, E A

    2014-01-01

    We use original spectra and available photometric data to recover parameters of the stellar atmosphere of PZ Mon, formerly referred as an active red dwarf. The derived effective temperature Teff=4700K and gravity lgg=2.8 suggest that PZ Mon is a K2III giant. Stellar atmosphere parameters (Teff and lgg) alongside with the evolutionary tracks are used to estimate the stellar mass of ~1.5Mo and the radius of ~7.7Ro. The angular radius derived by the infrared flux method when combined with the linear radius suggests the distance of 250+/-70 pc, a factor 2.5 smaller than that suggested by the Hipparcos parallax. The red giant status of PZ Mon is confirmed by the carbon and nitrogen abundance. The spectrum reveals pronounced HeI 5876 A absorption and Halpha emission indicating the robust chromosphere. The IUE spectrum is found to contain transition layer emission line of CIV 1550 A. The CIV and X-ray luminosities turn out typical of RS CVn stars. The extended set of available photometric data confirms the period of...

  19. V588 Mon and V589 Mon, Two Delta Scuti Stars in the Direction of NGC 2264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Peña

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo fotometría fotoeléctrica tanto absoluta como diferencial de las estrellas variables de periodo corto V588 Mon (W2 y V589 Mon (W20 en la dirección del cúmulo abierto NGC2264. De la fotometría fotoeléctrica uvbyB, se estimaron las distancias y parámetros físicos de cada estrella y se presentan. La fotometría diferencial nos permitió realizar el análisis de Fourier de los datos. Las frecuencias determinadas para cada estrella son: para W2, 7.1865 c/d y para W20, 7.4385 c/d. Se discute la cuestión de su pertenencia al cúmulo.

  20. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  1. Venus - False Color Perspective of Sif and Gula Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A portion of western Eistla Regio is shown in this three dimensional, computer-generated view of the surface of Venus. The viewpoint is at an elevation of 1.2 kilometers (0.75 mile) at a location 700 kilometers (435 miles) southeast of Gula Mons, the volcano on the right horizon. Gula Mons reaches 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) high and is located around 22 degrees north latitude and 359 degrees east longitude. Sif Mons, the volcano on the left horizon, has a diameter of 300 kilometers (186 miles) and a height of 2 kilometers (1.2 miles). Magellan imaging and altimetry data are combined to develop a three-dimensional computer view of the planet's surface. Simulated color based on color images from the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft is added to enhance small-scale structure. This image was produced at JPL's Multimission Image Processing Laboratory by Eric De Jong, Jeff Hall and Myche McAuley. Magellan is a NASA spacecraft mission to map the surface of Venus with imaging radar. The basic scientific instrument is a synthetic aperture radar, or SAR, which can look through the thick clouds perpetually shielding the surface of Venus. Magellan is in orbit around Venus which completes one turn around its axis in 243 Earth days. That period of time, one Venus day, is the length of a Magellan mapping cycle. The spacecraft completed its first mapping cycle and primary mission on May 15, 1991, and immediately began its second cycle. During the first cycle, Magellan mapped more than 80 percent of the planet's surface and the current and subsequent cycles of equal duration will provide complete mapping of Venus. Magellan was launched May 4, 1989, aboard the space shuttle Atlantis and went into orbit around Venus August 10, 1990.

  2. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  3. Why Study the Sun?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Bhatnagar

    2006-06-01

    In this presentation we briefly describe the Sun through large number of illustrations and pictures of the Sun taken from early times to the present day space missions. The importance of the study of the Sun is emphasized as it is the nearest star which presents unparallelled views of surface details and numerous phenomena. Our Sun offers a unique celestial laboratory where a large variety of phenomena take place, ranging in temporal domain from a few milliseconds to several decades, in spatial domain from a few hundred kilometers to thousands of kilometers, and in the temperature domain from a few thousand degrees to several million degrees. Its mass motion ranges from thousandths to thousands of kilometers per second. Such an object provides us with a unique laboratory to study the state of matter in the Universe. The existing solar ground-based and space missions have already revealed several mysteries of the outer environment of our Sun and much more is going to come in the near future from planned new sophisticated ground-based solar telescopes and Space missions. The new technique of helioseismology has unravelled many secrets of the solar interior and has put the Standard Solar Model (SSM) on firm footing. The long-standing problem of solar neutrinos has been recently sorted out, and even the ‘back side’ view of the Sun can be seen using the technique of holographic helioseismology.

  4. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  5. Entrevista a Santiago Álvarez de Mon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio López

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Álvarez de Mon es un profesor de obligada referencia académica y profesional en el ámbito de los valores humanos en la alta dirección empresarial. Doctor en sociología y ciencias políticas por la Universidad de Salamanca (España, es profesor en el Instituto de Estudios Superiores de la Empresa de la Universidad de Navarra (IESE, actualmente considerada como una de las diez escuelas de negocios más prestigiosas del mundo. Álvarez de Mon es autor de varios artículos y libros sobre el liderazgo empresarial, entre los que destacan “El mito del líder” o “Desde la adversidad: liderazgo, cuestión de carácter”, basado en las historias de vida e investigación sobre destacados personajes como Nelson Mandela, Hellen Keller, José Carreras o Lance Armstrong, entre otros. Ha trabajado como directivo en la banca española, así como en el sector de grandes cadenas de distribución, y actualmente combina su labor docente con el asesoramiento a varias compañías en materias de liderazgo y trabajo en equipo.

  6. Deuteration around the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    CERN Document Server

    Treviño-Morales, S P; Fuente, A; Kramer, C; Roueff, E; González-García, M; Cernicharo, J; Gerin, M; Goicoechea, J R; Pety, J; Berné, O; Ossenkopf, V; Ginard, D; García-Burillo, S; Rizzo, J R; Viti, S

    2014-01-01

    The massive star-forming region Mon R2 hosts the closest ultra-compact HII region that can be spatially resolved with current single-dish telescopes. We used the IRAM-30m telescope to carry out an unbiased spectral survey toward two important positions (namely IF and MP2), in order to studying the chemistry of deuterated molecules toward Mon R2. We found a rich chemistry of deuterated species at both positions, with detections of C2D, DCN, DNC, DCO+, D2CO, HDCO, NH2D, and N2D+ and their corresponding hydrogenated species and isotopologs. Our high spectral resolution observations allowed us to resolve three velocity components: the component at 10 km/s is detected at both positions and seems associated with the layer most exposed to the UV radiation from IRS 1; the component at 12 km/s is found toward the IF position and seems related to the molecular gas; finally, a component at 8.5 km/s is only detected toward the MP2 position, most likely related to a low-UV irradiated PDR. We derived the column density of ...

  7. The ballistic performance of the bombard Mons Meg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lewtas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The bombard Mons Meg, located in Edinburgh Castle, with a diameter of 19 inches (48 cm, was one of the largest calibre cannons ever built. Constructed in 1449 and presented to King James II of Scotland in 1454, Mons Meg was used in both military and ceremonial roles in Scotland until its barrel burst in 1680. This paper examines the history, internal, external and terminal ballistics of the cannon and its shot. The likely muzzle velocity was estimated by varying the propellant type and the cannon profile was investigated to identify weak spots in the design that may have led to its failure. Using the muzzle velocity calculated from the internal ballistics, simulations were performed with granite and sandstone shot for varying launch angle and ground temperature. The likely trajectory and range of the cannonballs are described. The internal and external ballistics informed the initial conditions of the terminal ballistic impact scenarios. The performance of the cannonball against both period and modern targets, in the form of a pseudo-castle wall and a monolithic concrete target, respectively, were simulated and are presented and discussed.

  8. The ballistic performance of the bombard Mons Meg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian LEWTAS; Rachael MCALISTER; Adam WALLIS; Clive WOODLEY; Ian CULLIS

    2016-01-01

    The bombard Mons Meg, located in Edinburgh Castle, with a diameter of 19 inches (48 cm), was one of the largest calibre cannons ever built. Constructed in 1449 and presented to King James II of Scotland in 1454, Mons Meg was used in both military and ceremonial roles in Scotland until its barrel burst in 1680. This paper examines the history, internal, external and terminal ballistics of the cannon and its shot. The likely muzzle velocity was estimated by varying the propellant type and the cannon profile was investigated to identify weak spots in the design that may have led to its failure. Using the muzzle velocity calculated from the internal ballistics, simulations were performed with granite and sandstone shot for varying launch angle and ground temperature. The likely trajectory and range of the cannonballs are described. The internal and external ballistics informed the initial conditions of the terminal ballistic impact scenarios. The performance of the cannonball against both period and modern targets, in the form of a pseudo-castle wall and a monolithic concrete target, respectively, were simulated and are presented and discussed.

  9. SiMon: Simulation Monitor for Computational Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Penny Xuran; Cai, Maxwell Xu; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Zhu, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Scientific discovery via numerical simulations is important in modern astrophysics. This relatively new branch of astrophysics has become possible due to the development of reliable numerical algorithms and the high performance of modern computing technologies. These enable the analysis of large collections of observational data and the acquisition of new data via simulations at unprecedented accuracy and resolution. Ideally, simulations run until they reach some pre-determined termination condition, but often other factors cause extensive numerical approaches to break down at an earlier stage. In those cases, processes tend to be interrupted due to unexpected events in the software or the hardware. In those cases, the scientist handles the interrupt manually, which is time-consuming and prone to errors. We present the Simulation Monitor (SiMon) to automatize the farming of large and extensive simulation processes. Our method is light-weight, it fully automates the entire workflow management, operates concurrently across multiple platforms and can be installed in user space. Inspired by the process of crop farming, we perceive each simulation as a crop in the field and running simulation becomes analogous to growing crops. With the development of SiMon we relax the technical aspects of simulation management. The initial package was developed for extensive parameter searchers in numerical simulations, but it turns out to work equally well for automating the computational processing and reduction of observational data reduction.

  10. Mars - Stratigraphy and gravimetry of Olympus Mons and its aureole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, K. H.; Neukum, G. P. O.; Janle, P.; Guest, J. E.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The relative ages of the major geologic units on and around Olympus Mons are considered, together with an interpretation of the gravity anomaly found for this area. The crater data for this investigation have been acquired and interpreted according to the method outlined by Neukum and Hiller (1981). After careful geological mapping, craters clearly identified as impacts are measured and counted. Crater frequency values per sq km for craters greater than or equal to 1 km ('crater retention ages') are read from the individual counts by fitting the Martian cumulative crater production size-frequency distribution to the individual counts. In addition to age dating, the problem of the origin and nature of the aureole materials using gravity data is addressed. This is done by determining whether the line-of-sight gravity extending from Olympus Mons to the northwestern part of the aureole can be explained by the aureole masses alone or whether additional high-density intrusive masses must be assumed in the aureola area.

  11. V838 Mon, V4332 Sgr, ... and Relatives in our Galaxy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimeswenger, S.

    2007-04-01

    Now, 4 years after the outburst, we still are puzzled about the nature and future of the mysterious eruption of V838 Mon. Several discussions about relatives in our galaxy can be found in the literature. I try to summarize the main pros and cons for these objects and the galactic position of V838 Mon.

  12. Bistand til risikovurdering (evt. ændringer af tidligere risikovurdering). Zea mays (MON863; MON863x810). Supplerende materiale til ansøgningen. Modtaget 07-09-2004, deadline 19-09-2004, svar 17-09-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2012-01-01

    "DMU har modtaget og vurderet de supplerende oplysninger (mail fra Skov- og Naturstyrelsen d. 07-09-2004) til ansøgningen om tilladelse til markedsføring af genetisk modificeret majs C/DE/02/09 (MON863 og MON863 x MON810). Vi har gennemgået oplysningerne i det tilsendte materiale for at se om de ...

  13. Development of Dichelops melacanthus and its egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi reared on Bt-soybean MON 87701 x MON 89788 and its near conventional isoline under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, Orcial C; Bueno, Adeney F; Stopa, Ynaiara K; Silva, Gabriela V; Queiroz, Ana Paula

    2016-05-31

    Dichelops melacanthus was studied under controlled conditions (60 ± 10% RH and 14/10 h L/D photoperiod), and three constant temperatures (19, 25, and 31 ± 2 °C). Fresh pods of MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybeans and its near non-Bt isoline (A5547) were supplied to nymphs and adults. The biology of T. podisi was studied in the same controlled RH conditions, but only at the standard temperature of 25 ± 2 °C. Overall, the development of D. melacanthus was better at higher temperatures, which accelerated the development of the stink bug without affecting adult biological parameters. No influence of Bt-soybeans on the biology of the pest was observed in any temperature studied, which shows that D. melacanthus is not affected by this transgenic soybean. The egg parasitoid T. podisi also was not harmed when it parasitized eggs of the pest fed with MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybeans, with similar results to those obtained in non-Bt isogenic soybeans. Thus, this study demonstrates that D. melacanthus is favored at high temperatures (31 ± 2 °C), and that neither did MON 87701 × MON 89788 soybean pods affect the development of the pest nor its parasitoid T. podisi.

  14. Lessons from the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  15. Euripus Mons - Landform Evolution and Climate Constraints in Promethei Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Kim, Jungrack; Baik, Hyun-Seob

    2016-04-01

    The Promethei Terra region of Mars exhibits a variety of geomorphic landforms indicative of ice-assisted creep of debris and ice, similar to features and processes found at the Martian dichotomy boundary in Deuteronilus, Protonilus and Nilosyrtis Mensae. Despite only little doubt about the fact that ice played an integral role in the formation of these features, it is still disputed if these features were formed by glacial processes, requiring precipitation of ice and snow and exhibiting glacial deformation and basal sliding, or if these landforms are a product of periglacial denudation and subject to different deformation regimes. As information about past climate conditions on Mars is sparse, the proper assessment of landform types today allows to put constraints on their environmental conditions in the past. Due to limited knowledge about the internal physical and thermal structure of these landforms, it remains impossible to unambiguously determine their origin [1]. A variety of geomorphic and model-based indicators need to be taken into account when putting constraints on their history and when trying to reconstruct their evolution. For selected features on Mars it has been shown by SHARAD radar observations that the ice content might be relatively high [2], and that some of them might be composed of pure ice, protected from sublimation by a thin debris cover. One of such examples, Euripus Mons, is a 80 km remnant feature with an associated circumferential talus deposit that shows indicators for deformation by downslope movement, i.e. debris apron morphology. Recent modelling assuming glacial deformation helped to reconstruct some internal structural properties [3]. Despite these attempts, Euripus Mons shows clear geomorphic signatures of classical periglacial denudation which do not fit into the concept of glacial-only evolution. Denudation rates as well as ages are similar to those reported from other locations on Mars for which hyperarid climate conditions

  16. Magnetohydrodynamics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun is a completely new up-to-date rewrite from scratch of the 1982 book Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, taking account of enormous advances in understanding since that date. It describes the subtle and complex interaction between the Sun's plasma atmosphere and its magnetic field, which is responsible for many fascinating dynamic phenomena. Chapters cover the generation of the Sun's magnetic field by dynamo action, magnetoconvection and the nature of photospheric flux tubes such as sunspots, the heating of the outer atmosphere by waves or reconnection, the structure of prominences, the nature of eruptive instability and magnetic reconnection in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and the acceleration of the solar wind by reconnection or wave-turbulence. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in solar physics and related fields of astronomy, plasma physics and fluid dynamics. Problem sets and other resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521854719.

  17. The Sun's Supergranulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Sun's supergranulation refers to a physical pattern covering the surface of the quiet Sun with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30000km. Its most noticeable observable signature is as a fluctuating velocity field whose components are mostly horizontal. Supergranulation was discovered more than fifty years ago, however explaining why and how it originates still represents one of the main challenges of modern solar physics. A lot of work has been devoted to the subject over the years, but observational constraints, conceptual difficulties and numerical limitations have all concurred to prevent a detailed understanding of the supergranulation phenomenon so far. With the advent of 21st century supercomputing resources and the availability of unprecedented high-resolution observations of the Sun, the solar community has now reached a stage at which key progress can be made on this question. A unifying strategy between observations and modeling is more than ever required for this to be possible. The ...

  18. Sun, Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sun is enveloped by a hot, tenuous million-degree corona that expands to create a continuous solar wind that sweeps past all the planets and fills the heliosphere. The solar wind is modulated by strong gusts that are initiated by powerful explosions on the Sun, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This dynamic, invisible outer atmosphere of the Sun is currently under observation with the soft X-ray telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft, whose results are presented. We also show observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that is now passing over the solar pole, sampling the solar wind in this region for the first time. Two other spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, have recently detected the outer edge of the invisible heliosphere, roughly halfway to the nearest star. Magnetic solar activity, the total radiative output from the Sun, and the Earth's mean global surface temperature all vary with the 11-year sunspot cycle in which the total number of sunspots varies from a maximum to a minimum and back to a maximum again in about 11 years. The terrestrial magnetic field hollows out a protective magnetic cavity, called the magnetosphere, within the solar wind. This protection is incomplete, however, so the Sun feeds an unseen world of high-speed particles and magnetic fields that encircle the Earth in space. These particles endanger spacecraft and astronauts, and also produce terrestrial aurorae. An international flotilla of spacecraft is now sampling the weak points in this magnetic defense. Similar spacecraft have also discovered a new radiation belt, in addition to the familiar Van Allen belts, except fed by interstellar ions instead of electrons and protons from the Sun.

  19. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  20. Near-Sun asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  1. The SUN S TRAVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  2. Nathalie Mons, Les nouvelles politiques éducatives

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Pierre-Louis

    2012-01-01

    La crise de l’éducation dans le monde, clairement explicitée par Philip H. Coombs dès 1985, n’en finit pas d’alimenter la littérature sur le sujet. L’ouvrage de Nathalie Mons se présente comme une tentative pour mettre un peu de rationalité dans une problématique qui, les incohérences des réformateurs aidant, tourne parfois à la cacophonie. Afin d’identifier les orientations politiques dominant le monde éducatif, l’auteur se propose d’explorer trois pistes : les politiques de décentralisation...

  3. Le « panafricanisme » expliqué à mon fils

    OpenAIRE

    Mombo, Charles Edgar

    2009-01-01

    Au moment où l’Afrique en général, et le Ghana, en particulier, s’apprêtent à célébrer le centenaire de la naissance d’un des grands hommes politiques de l’Afrique contemporaine, je voudrais, en réponse à mon fils, examiner ces questions : quelle réception peut-on faire aujourd’hui du panafricanisme ? Que sont devenus les grands idéologues de ce mouvement ? L’Afrique a-t-elle encore une chance de rayonner un jour ? Chacun peut continuer la liste des questions. Comme chacun sait, du moins, je ...

  4. Literature, cinema and history in "Hiroshima Mon Amour"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nismária Alves David Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Hiroshima Mon Amour, realization by Alain Resnais divulged in 1959 and ciné-roman by Marguerite Duras published in 1960. Considering the Jeanne-Marie Clerc's theory (2004, we understand that the literature and the cinema are resources of expression that do not establish competition or subordination relations, but they establish complementary relations, they make mutual exchanges for their renewals. They are not the documents on the atomic tragedy of Hiroshima because they congregate historical facts, literary narrative and cinematographic techniques. This ciné-roman and this film displays a revolutionary position of the artistic form to express a critical vision on the world after war. They create a love history and a history of loss, focusing the individual anguish in the plot. Through  the return to the past, using a poetical language, they discloses the pains of the protagonist and the pains of the humanity. Therefore the receiver reflects on himself.

  5. Geology of the Tyrrhenus Mons Lava Flow Field, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.

    2014-11-01

    The ancient, eroded Martian volcano Tyrrhenus Mons exhibits a central caldera complex, layered flank deposits dissected by radial valleys, and a 1000+ km-long flow field extending to the southwest toward Hellas Planitia. Past studies suggested an early phase of volcanism dominated by large explosive eruptions followed by subsequent effusive activity at the summit and to the southwest. As part of a new geologic mapping study of northeast Hellas, we are examining the volcanic landforms and geologic evolution of the Tyrrhenus Mons flow field, including the timing and nature of fluvial activity and effects on volcanic units. New digital geologic mapping incorporates THEMIS IR (100 m/pixel) and CTX (5 m/pixel) images as well as constraints from MOLA topography.Mapping results to-date include delineation of the boundaries of the flow field, identification and mapping of volcanic and erosional channels within the flow field, and mapping and analysis of lava flow lobes. THEMIS IR and CTX images allow improved discrimination of the numerous flow lobes that are observed in the flow field, including refinement of the margins of previously known flows and identification of additional and smaller lobes. A prominent sinuous rille extending from Tyrrhenus Mons’ summit caldera is a major feature that supplied lava to the flow field. Smaller volcanic channels are common throughout the flow field; some occur in segments along crests of local topographic highs and may delineate lava tubes. In addition to volcanic channels, the flow field surface is characterized by several types of erosional channels, including wide troughs with scour marks, elongate sinuous channels, and discontinuous chains of elongate pits and troughs. High-resolution images reveal the widespread and significant effects of fluvial activity in the region, and further mapping studies will examine spatial and temporal interactions between volcanism and fluvial processes.

  6. QUANTIFICATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE MON 810 IN PROCESSED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Siekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Maize MON 810 (Zea mays L. represents the majority of genetically modified food crops. It is the only transgenic cultivar grown in the EU (European Union countries and food products with its content higher than 0.9 % must be labelled. This study was aimed at impact of food processing (temperature, pH and pressure on DNA degradation and quantification of the genetically modified maize MON 810. The transgenic DNA was quantified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Processing as is high temperature (121 °C, elevated pressure (0.1 MPa and low pH 2.25 fragmented DNA. A consequence of two order difference in the species specific gene content compared to the transgenic DNA content in plant materials used has led to false negative results in the quantification of transgenic DNA. The maize containing 4.2 % of the transgene after processing appeared to be as low as 3.0 % (100 °C and 1.9 % (121 °C, 0.1 MPa. The 2.1 % amount of transgene dropped at 100 °C to 1.0 % and at 121 °C, 0.1 MPa to 0.6 %. Under such make up the DNA degradation of transgenic content showed up 2 or 3 time higher decrease a consequence of unequal gene presence. Such genes disparity is expressed as considerable decrease of transgenic content while the decrease of species specific gene content remains unnoticed. Based on our findings we conclude that high degree of processing might have led to false negative results of the transgenic constituent quantification. Determination of GMO content in processed foods may leads to incorrect statement and labelling in these cases could misleads consumers.doi:10.5219/212

  7. Geologic map of the Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6), Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, James M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6) in the northern hemisphere of Venus (lat 50° to 75° N., long 240° to 300° E.) includes a variety of coronae, large volcanoes, ridge and fracture (structure) belts, tesserae, impact craters, and other volcanic and structural features distributed within a plains setting, affording study of their detailed age relations and evolutionary development. Coronae in particular have magmatic, tectonic, and topographic signatures that indicate complex evolutionary histories. Previously, the geology of the map region has been described either in general or narrowly focused investigations. Based on Venera radar mapping, a 1:15,000,000-scale geologic map of part of the northern hemisphere of Venus included the V–6 map region and identified larger features such as tesserae, smooth and hummocky plains materials, ridge belts, coronae, volcanoes, and impact craters but proposed little relative-age information. Global-scale mapping from Magellan data identified similar features and also determined their mean global ages with crater counts. However, the density of craters on Venus is too low for meaningful relative-age determinations at local to regional scales. Several of the coronae in the map area have been described using Venera data (Stofan and Head, 1990), while Crumpler and others (1992) compiled detailed identification and description of volcanic and tectonic features from Magellan data. The main purpose of this map is to reconstruct the geologic history of the Metis Mons quadrangle at a level of detail commensurate with a scale of 1:5,000,000 using Magellan data. We interpret four partly overlapping stages of geologic activity, which collectively resulted in the formation of tesserae, coronae (oriented along structure belts), plains materials of varying ages, and four large volcanic constructs. Scattered impact craters, small shields and pancake-shaped domes, and isolated flows superpose the tectonically deformed materials and appear to

  8. Maximising the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with some of the best quality solar radiation in the world. In the light of this many exciting opportunities exist to utilize the sun to its full potential in the design of energy efficient buildings. Passive solar buildings...

  9. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  10. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  11. Go Sun Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  12. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  13. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  14. Using THEMIS and TES to conduct a mineral analysis on Olympus Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Nicole Danielle

    2016-10-01

    Olympus Mons is the largest shield volcano in our known solar system. In previous studies, the composition of the basaltic lava flows on Olympus Mons was shown to be similar to the composition of those lava flows of Earth's shield volcanoes. It has been suggested that basalt located near volcanoes contained bacteria living below the surface of the Earth. In this pilot study, the effect of Olympus Mons' aspect (i.e. north- vs. south-facing slope) on its mineral composition was examined. Imagery from Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, were used because Olympus Mons' size and surface roughness hinder rover exploration. After removing transmission errors and performing an atmospheric correction, the THEMIS images were ready to be analyzed via a mineral spectral library. Using Arizona State University's Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) derived mineral spectral library, the images were classified in ENVI. These classifications were verified using ASU's GIS tool, Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS) and TES. Results show differences in the mineral composition and in the geological features on Olympus Mons' surface. The mineral vanadinite was shown to be prevalent on the sampled southern portions of Olympus Mons, but was sparse on the sampled northern portions. Previous studies suggested that the mineral ilmenite, which this study found in high concentrations on the sampled northern portions of Olympus Mons, might serve as a food source for iron-oxidizing and iron-scavenging bacteria. Future research should focus on better understanding the concentrations of vanadinite and ilmenite on Olympus Mons to see if these minerals have a role in the potential presence of bacteria on Olympus Mons.

  15. Tolerance of Bt corn (MON 810) to maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramkumar; Channappa, Ravi K; Deeba, Farah; Nagaraj, Nandi J; Sukavaneaswaran, Mohan K; Manjunath, T M

    2005-11-01

    Transgenic corn (MON 810), expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, Cry1Ab, was evaluated under greenhouse conditions for its tolerance to the maize stem borer, Chilo partellus. Bt corn (MON 810) provided effective protection against the stem borer even under a high level of larval infestation in the greenhouse. The observed tolerance is examined and discussed in the light of the susceptibility of C. partellus to the Cry1Ab protein in laboratory bioassays. The implications of the tissue concentrations of Cry1Ab in MON 810, and baseline susceptibility recorded in the current study, for insect-resistance management are discussed.

  16. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  17. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  18. How hot is the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2001-01-01

    Do you know how hot thesun is? There are no solidsor liquids on the sun. Why not? The temperature onoutside the sun is more than 10, 000℃, and that at the centre is about 20, 000, 000℃.The sun is so hot that all thesolids and all the liquids havebeen turned into gases.

  19. The sun, our star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  20. Geologic Map of the Sif Mons Quadrangle (V-31), Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Duncan L.; Guest, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft orbited Venus from August 10, 1990, until it plunged into the Venusian atmosphere on October 12, 1994. Magellan Mission objectives included (1) improving the knowledge of the geological processes, surface properties, and geologic history of Venus by analysis of surface radar characteristics, topography, and morphology and (2) improving the knowledge of the geophysics of Venus by analysis of Venusian gravity. The Sif Mons quadrangle of Venus includes lat 0? to 25? N. and long 330? to 0? E.; it covers an area of about 8.10 x 106 km2 (fig. 1). The data used to construct the geologic map were from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Magellan Mission. The area is also covered by Arecibo images, which were also consulted (Campbell and Campbell, 1990; Campbell and others, 1989). Data from the Soviet Venera orbiters do not cover this area. All of the SAR products were employed for geologic mapping. C1-MIDRs were used for general recognition of units and structures; F-MIDRs and F-MAPs were used for more specific examination of surface characteristics and structures. Where the highest resolution was required or some image processing was necessary to solve a particular mapping problem, the images were examined using the digital data on CD-ROMs. In cycle 1, the SAR incidence angles for images obtained for the Sif Mons quadrangle ranged from 44? to 46?; in cycle 3, they were between 25? and 26?. We use the term 'high backscatter' of a material unit to imply a rough surface texture at the wavelength scale used by Magellan SAR. Conversely, 'low backscatter' implies a smooth surface. In addition, altimetric, radiometric, and rms slope data were superposed on SAR images. Figure 2 shows altimetry data; figure 3 shows images of ancillary data for the quadrangle; and figure 4 shows backscatter coefficient for selected units. The interpretation of these data was discussed by Ford and others (1989, 1993). For corrected backscatter and

  1. V838 Mon and M31-RV: The Stellar Populations Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, M H; Siegel, Michael H.; Bond, Howard E.

    2006-01-01

    Insight into the origin of unusual events like the eruption of V838 Mon can be obtained from studies of the stellar populations from which they arise. V838 Mon lies in an intriguing region of the Galaxy, toward the warped outer edge of the disk, with significant contributions from the Galactic thick disk and the recently discovered Monoceros tidal stream. The initial distance measures placed V838 Mon in a jumbled region of the Galaxy but the recent shorter distances make it highly likely that V838 Mon was a thin disk star -- likely in a spiral arm -- consistent with the recent detection of a young cluster in the vicinity. We compare V838 Mon to M31-RV, a red variable that erupted in the bulge of M31 in 1988 and had a peak luminosity and spectral evolution very similar to V838 Mon. Archival HST images show no nebulosity or unusual stars at M31-RV's projected location. Moreover, the only stellar population in the field is a canonic old bulge population. This indicates that whatever the origin of the red novae, ...

  2. On the distance, reddening and progenitor of V838 Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, U; Vallenari, A; Bond, H E; Corradi, R L M; Crause, L; Desidera, S; Giro, E; Marrese, P M; Ragaini, S; Siviero, A; Sordo, R; Starrfield, S; Tomov, T; Villanova, S; Zwitter, T; Wagner, R M

    2005-01-01

    Extensive optical and infrared photometry as well as low and high resolution spectroscopy are used as inputs in deriving robust estimates of the reddening, distance and nature of the progenitor of V838 Mon. The reddening is found to obey the R_V=3.1 law and amounts to (i) E(B-V)=0.86 from the interstellar NaI and KI lines, (ii) E(B-V)=0.88 from the energy distribution of the B3V component and (iii) E(B-V)=0.87 from the progression of extinction along the line of sight. The adopted E(B-V)=0.87(+/-0.01) is also the amount required by fitting the progenitor with theoretical isochrones of appropriate metallicity. The distance is estimated from (a) the galactic kinematics of the three components of the interstellar lines, (b) the amount of extinction vs the HI column density and vs the dust emission through the whole Galaxy in that direction, from (c) spectrophotometric parallax to the B3V companion, from (d) comparison of the observed color-magnitude diagram of field stars with 3D stellar population models of the...

  3. Pokémon is Evolving! An investigation into the development of the Pokémon community and expectations for the future of the franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assunção

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pokémon is one of Nintendo’s largest, most influential franchises. With a history ranging more than twenty years, its enormous fan-base spans video and trading card games, anime TV shows and films, amongst other media. This paper aims to investigate the Pokémon fan community while exploring how the franchise has grown: from its beginnings as a pop-culture phenomenon, to one of the strongest and friendliest gaming fan communities in existence today. Data gathered from 165 online respondents examines how fans’ past experiences with the franchise inform their expectations towards future products. It also explores how considerable efforts from developers – as well as the gaming community – contribute to the creative growth of a continually-expanding fan-base. Additionally, this study was in a unique position to gather data before two new Pokémon games were released: Pokken Tournament and Pokémon GO. The former did not generate high expectations but still performed well in terms of sales. The latter was thought of as a casual game but, as the world now knows, was a tremendous success. Insights obtained from researching fan attitudes to unreleased games show that expectations do not always become reality.

  4. Review - The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Blackburn, Stuart H. 2010. The Sun Rises: A Shaman's Chant, Ritual Exchange and Fertility in the Apatani Valley. Leiden: Brill. xvii+401. Color and black and white photographs, maps. ISBN: 9789-0041-7578-5 (hardcover, 97USD. The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. The heart of this book is a chant of nineteen segments.

  5. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  6. Geologic Mapping of the Olympus Mons Volcano, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Williams, D. A.; Shean, D.; Greeley, R.

    2012-01-01

    We are in the third year of a three-year Mars Data Analysis Program project to map the morphology of the Olympus Mons volcano, Mars, using ArcGIS by ESRI. The final product of this project is to be a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map. The scientific questions upon which this mapping project is based include understanding the volcanic development and modification by structural, aeolian, and possibly glacial processes. The project s scientific objectives are based upon preliminary mapping by Bleacher et al. [1] along a approx.80-km-wide north-south swath of the volcano corresponding to High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) image h0037. The preliminary project, which covered approx.20% of the volcano s surface, resulted in several significant findings, including: 1) channel-fed lava flow surfaces are areally more abundant than tube-fed surfaces by a ratio of 5:1, 2) channel-fed flows consistently embay tube-fed flows, 3) lava fans appear to be linked to tube-fed flows, 4) no volcanic vents were identified within the map region, and 5) a Hummocky unit surrounds the summit and is likely a combination of non-channelized flows, dust, ash, and/or frozen volatiles. These results led to the suggestion that the volcano had experienced a transition from long-lived tube-forming eruptions to more sporadic and shorter-lived, channel-forming eruptions, as seen at Hawaiian volcanoes between the tholeiitic shield building phase (Kilauea to Mauna Loa) and alkalic capping phase (Hualalai and Mauna Kea).

  7. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on an application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    . Further information from applications for placing the single insert lines MON 88017 and MON 810 on the market under EU regulatory procedures was taken into account where appropriate. The scope of application EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33 is for food and feed uses, import and processing of genetically modified maize...... MON 88017 x MON 810 and all derived products, but excluding cultivation in the EU. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed maize MON 88017 x MON 810 with reference to the intended uses and the appropriate principles described in the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms...... or survival of feral maize plants in case of accidental release into the environment of maize MON 88017 x MON 810 viable grains during transportation and processing. The scope of the post-market environmental monitoring plan provided by the applicant is in line with the intended uses of maize MON 88017 x MON...

  8. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured....... The weekly sunburn fraction correlated strongly with the number of ambient sun hours (r=0.73, p

  9. The Sun, Mercury, and Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The Messenger mission to Mercury opened a new window into the inner solar system. In 2008, this mission began a number of years of flybys, culminating in an orbital insertion around Mercury and producing unparalleled observations about this mysterious innermost planet. Mercury orbits so close to the Sun, from the point of view of Earth, that seeing it from the Earth against the Sun's glare is a great challenge. At the same time, the huge gravitational force of the Sun makes it a challenge to put a mission on Mercury without losing it into the Sun. Now, with heightened understanding of Mercury,

  10. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  11. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  12. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  13. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  14. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  15. On the evolutionary stage of the interacting binary AU Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Mennickent, R E

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the evolutionary stage of the interacting binary and Double Periodic Variable AU Monocerotis. A multi-parametric Chi2 minimization is made between the observed parameters and those predicted by the grid of non-conservative and conservative evolutionary models by Van Rensbergen et al., finding the model that best represents the current stellar and system parameters. According to this model, the system started with initial masses 4 M_sun and 3.6 M_sun and orbital period 3.0 days, 196 million years ago, and at present undergoes a Case-B mass-exchange episode. This evolutionary stage is consistent with the reported existence of a circumprimary accretion disk. However, the implied high mass transfer rate contrasts with the absence of significant orbital period change if the mass exchange is conservative. We show that this can occur if the system has recently entered in a non-conservative stage of mass transfer and the efficiency of mass and angular momentum loss satisfy certain conditions.

  16. SNS ønsker kommentarer om der er oplysninger der ændrer konklusionerne i risikovurderingen. Zea mays (MON863 X MON810). Brev fra Greenpeace til Nationale CAer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2005-01-01

    "DMU har ikke fundet nogen nye oplysninger i Greenpeace kommentarer til MON863 x MON810 majsen, der ændrer vores tidligere risikovurdering (konklusioner refereret i rammenotatet pr. 29.08.2005) for anvendelse til import og videreforarbejdning uden dyrkning. Vi har tidligere kommenteret Greenpeace...

  17. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  18. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  19. Global Seismology of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. In this review I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  20. La « faillite » du ciblage monétaire en Tunisie ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Lajnaf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Les monétaristes ont montré que l’accélération de la masse monétaire ne ferait qu’attiser l’inflation. Leur idée a gagné en influence auprès des banques centrales, les incitant dans les années soixante-dix à s’efforcer de mieux maîtriser l’inflation en utilisant les agrégats monétaires comme les variables de leurs objectifs intermédiaires. Cependant, même si l’utilisation des cibles monétaires est répandue dans le monde entier, il n’existe pas de consensus sur la causalité entre la monnaie et les prix. Ce problème a fait l’objet d’un débat très animé entre les économistes surtout durant les trois dernières décennies caractérisées par l’innovation financière. La stratégie de ciblage de l’agrégat monétaire n’est efficace que si ce dernier, considéré comme une cible intermédiaire, possède des propriétés satisfaisantes en termes de stabilité, de contrôlabilité et du contenu en information. Dans ce papier, nous allons étudier l’efficacité de la politique d’ancrage monétaire en Tunisie en analysant les propriétés de l’agrégat M3. Les résultats montrent que le choix de cet agrégat comme un objectif intermédiaire ne semble pas être justifié.

  1. Potential perils of peri-Pokémon perambulation: the dark reality of augmented reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Armstrong, David G

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the layering of augmented reality information on top of smartphone applications has created unprecedented user engagement and popularity. One augmented reality-based entertainment application, Pokémon Go (Pokémon Company, Tokyo, Japan) has become the most rapidly downloaded in history. This technology holds tremendous promise to promote ambulatory activity. However, there exists the obvious potential for distraction-related morbidity. We report two cases, presenting simultaneously to our trauma center, with injuries sustained secondary to gameplay with this augmented reality-based application.

  2. Who Is Still Playing Pokémon Go? A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Peter; Schlomann, Anna; Mertens, Alexander

    2017-04-05

    Poor physical activity is one of the major health care problems in Western civilizations. Various digital gadgets aiming to increase physical activity, such as activity trackers or fitness apps, have been introduced over recent years. The newest products are serious games that incorporate real-life physical activity into their game concept. Recent studies have shown that such games increase the physical activity of their users over the short term. In this study, we investigated the motivational effects of the digital game "Pokémon Go" leading to continued use or abandonment of the game. The aim of the study was to determine aspects that motivate individuals to play augmented reality exergames and how this motivation can be used to strengthen the initial interest in physical activity. A total of 199 participants completed an open self-selected Web-based survey. On the basis of their self-indicated assignment to one of three predefined user groups (active, former, and nonuser of Pokémon Go), participants answered various questions regarding game experience, physical activity, motivation, and personality as measured by the Big Five Inventory. In total, 81 active, 56 former, and 62 nonusers of Pokémon Go were recruited. When asked about the times they perform physical activity, active users stated that they were less physically active in general than former and nonusers. However, based on a subjective rating, active users were more motivated to be physically active due to playing Pokémon Go. Motivational aspects differed for active and former users, whereas fan status was the same within both groups. Active users are more motivated by features directly related to Pokémon, such as catching all possible Pokémon and reaching higher levels, whereas former users stress the importance of general game quality, such as better augmented reality and more challenges in the game. Personality did not affect whether a person started to play Pokémon Go nor their abandonment of

  3. Evaluation of broiler performance when fed roundup ready wheat event mon 71800, control, and commercial wheat varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 40% wheat grain from Roundup Ready wheat (MON 71800), its similar nontransgenic control (MON 71900), or reference commercial wheat varieties. The feeding trial lasted 40 d, and each treatment consisted of 10 replicates of

  4. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  5. Compositions of forage and seed from second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean MON 89788 and insect-protected soybean MON 87701 from Brazil are equivalent to those of conventional soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Kristina H; Harrigan, George G; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Hanson, Christy; Smith, Michelle; Sorbet, Roy; Zhu, Eddie; Ridley, William P

    2010-05-26

    Brazil has become one of the largest soybean producers. Two Monsanto Co. biotechnology-derived soybean products are designed to offer benefits in weed and pest management. These are second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean, MON 89788, and insect-protected soybean, MON 87701. The second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean product, MON 89788, contains the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps). MON 87701 contains the cry1Ac gene and expression of the Cry1Ac protein providing protection from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to determine whether the compositions of seed and forage of MON 89788 and MON 87701 are comparable to those of conventional soybean grown in two geographically and climatically distinct regions in multiple replicated sites in Brazil during the 2007-2008 growing season. Overall, results demonstrated that the seed and forage of MON 89788 and MON 87701 are compositionally equivalent to those of conventional soybean. Strikingly, the results also showed that differences in mean component values of forage and seed from the two controls grown in the different geographical regions were generally greater than that observed in test and control comparisons. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) of compositional data generated on MON 89788, MON 87701, and their respective region-specific controls provide a graphical illustration of how natural variation contributes more than biotechnology-driven genetic modification to compositional variability in soybean. Levels of isoflavones and fatty acids were particularly variable.

  6. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  7. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  8. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  9. EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO); Scientific Opinion on application (EFSAGMO- NL-2007-39) for the placing on the market of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    This opinion reports on an evaluation of a risk assessment for placing on the market the genetically modified herbicide tolerant and insect resistant maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing. Conventional breeding methods were used in the production of maize MON89034...... x MON88017 from inbred lines of the respective parental events. The structural integrity of the inserts in the single events as well as the phenotypes were retained in the hybrid. The expression levels of the Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry3Bb1 and CP4 EPSPS proteins in maize MON89034 x MON88017 were...

  10. Naidenõ prjamõje potomki Monõ Lizõ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Itaalia genealoog Domenico Savini väitel on leitud Leonardo da Vinci maali "Mona Lisa" modelli Lisa Gherardini sugulased. Leitud sugulastest Natalia ja Irina Strozzist pikemalt samal leheküljel Sergei Jezuitovi artiklis "Natasha i Ira, pravnutshki Monõ Lizõ"

  11. Reality has always been augmented: Play and the promises of Pokémon GO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    that the success of Pokémon GO is the result of the development of a play experience and a computational interface for a reality that is already augmented. These interfaces open new possibilities for digital play in public, but they also raise concerns regarding corporate appropriation of public spaces....

  12. The nova-like variable KQ Mon and the nature of the UX Ursa Majoris stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, E. M.; Guinan, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The KQ Mon is a UX UMa type nova-like variable discovered by Howard Bond. Optical spectra taken by Bond in 1978 reveal very shallow Balmer absorption lines and He I absorption. Bond also did UBV and high speed photometry in 1978 and early 1981. There has been no evidence of orbital variations but the appearance of the optical spectrum and the presence of low amplitude flickering suggested a strong similarity to CD-42-14462 (=V3885 Sgr) and other members of the UX UMa class. Low dispersion observations of KQ Mon were made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. Six spectra taken with the shot wavelength prime camera are dominated by strong broad absorption lines due to N V, O I, Si III, Si IV, C IV, He II, N IV, and Al III. There is little evidence of orbital phase modulation over the time baseline of the observations. Unlike UV observations of other UX UMa type objects, KQ Mon exhibits no emission lines or P Cygni type profiles and the velocity displacements appear to be smaller, suggesting the absence of a hot, high velocity wind characterizing other UX UMa stars. The relationship of KQ Mon to other UX UMa disk stars is discussed and a model is suggested to explain their observed properties and the lack of major outbursts.

  13. Geologic Interpretation of Remote Sensing Data for the Martian Volcano, Ascraeus Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J.; Greeley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Results of an investigation to relate remotely determined physical properties on Ascraeus Mons to the geologic history of the volcano are summarized. Products include a 1:2,000,000-scale photogeologic map of Ascraeus Mons and its environs; a 1:250,000-scale corrected thermal-inertia map of the summit caldera complex; four corrected thermal-inertia profiles across the volcano from high-resolution thermal data; fourteen low-resolution thermal sequences providing corrected thermal inertias for the volcano throughout half a Martian year; and a calibrated three-color photograph of the volcano. These data were combined with published spectral-reflectance, radar, and atmospheric water-vapor data relating to Acraeus Mons. Photogeologic mapping indicates that the sequence of events at Acraeus Mons is more complex than previously described. The plains surrounding the volcano include numerous flows, some of which can be traced to the flank of the volcano and some to different locations along the Tharsis Ridge. Surface morphology in the summit area is very distinct for features 100 m in scale, but the surface relief and tonal contrast steadily decrease toward the base of the shield, indicating modification by deposition or erosion.

  14. Magellan computer-simulated view of Gula Mons on the surface of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Gula Mons is displayed in this computer-simulated view of the surface of Venus. The viewpoint is located 110 kilometers (68 miles) southwest of Gula Mons at the same elevation as the summit, 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) above Eistla Regio. Lava flows extend for hundreds of kilometers across the fractured plains. The view is to the northeast with Gula Mons appearing at the center of the image. Gula Mons, a 3 kilometer (1.9 mile) high volcano, is located at approximately 22 degrees north latitude, 359 degrees east longitude in western Eistla Regio. Magellan synthetic aperture radar data is combined with radar altimetry to produce a three-dimensional (3D) map of the surface. Rays cast in a computer intersect the surface to create a 3D perspective view. Simulated color and a digital elevation map developed by the United States (U.S.) Geological Survey are used to enhance small-scale structure. The simulated hues are based on color images recorded by the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft. The

  15. Pokémon GO: Implications for Literacy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Emily

    2017-01-01

    This teaching tip gives teachers practical applications of the game Pokémon GO for literacy teaching and learning. The author discusses applications of the game for teaching multimodality in upper elementary-school classrooms. The author situates these applications in relevant theoretical perspectives as well as current literacy research.

  16. Spectral analysis of Ahuna Mons from Dawn mission's visible-infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, F.; Raponi, A.; Tosi, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; McFadden, L. A.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Longobardo, A.; Ciarniello, M.; Krohn, K.; Stephan, K.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Ammannito, E.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ahuna Mons is the highest mountain on Ceres. A unique complex in terms of size, shape, and morphology, Ahuna is bordered by flanks of the talus around its summit. Recent work by Ruesch et al. based on Dawn's Framing Camera images shed light on the possible origin of Ahuna Mons. According to Ruesch et al. (2016), Ahuna Mons is formed by a volcanic process involving the ascent of cryomagma and extrusion onto the surface followed by dome development and subsequent spreading. Here we analyzed in detail the composition of Ahuna Mons, using data acquired by the visible and infrared spectrometer aboard Dawn. The spectral analysis reveals a relatively high abundance of carbonates and a nonhomogeneous variation in carbonate composition and abundance along Ahuna's flanks, associated with a lower amount of the Ceres's ubiquitous NH4-phyllosilicates over a large portion of the flanks. The grain size is coarser on the flanks than in the surrounding regions, suggesting the presence of fresher material, also compatible with a larger abundance of carbonates. Thermal variations are seen in Ahuna, supporting the evidence of different compactness of the surface regolith in specific locations. Results of the spectral analysis are consistent with a possible cryovolcanic origin which exposed fresher material that slid down on the flanks.

  17. Naidenõ prjamõje potomki Monõ Lizõ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Itaalia genealoog Domenico Savini väitel on leitud Leonardo da Vinci maali "Mona Lisa" modelli Lisa Gherardini sugulased. Leitud sugulastest Natalia ja Irina Strozzist pikemalt samal leheküljel Sergei Jezuitovi artiklis "Natasha i Ira, pravnutshki Monõ Lizõ"

  18. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  19. Influence of Pokémon Go on Physical Activity: Study and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; White, Ryen W; Horvitz, Eric

    2016-12-06

    Physical activity helps people maintain a healthy weight and reduces the risk for several chronic diseases. Although this knowledge is widely recognized, adults and children in many countries around the world do not get recommended amounts of physical activity. Although many interventions are found to be ineffective at increasing physical activity or reaching inactive populations, there have been anecdotal reports of increased physical activity due to novel mobile games that embed game play in the physical world. The most recent and salient example of such a game is Pokémon Go, which has reportedly reached tens of millions of users in the United States and worldwide. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of Pokémon Go on physical activity. We study the effect of Pokémon Go on physical activity through a combination of signals from large-scale corpora of wearable sensor data and search engine logs for 32,000 Microsoft Band users over a period of 3 months. Pokémon Go players are identified through search engine queries and physical activity is measured through accelerometers. We find that Pokémon Go leads to significant increases in physical activity over a period of 30 days, with particularly engaged users (ie, those making multiple search queries for details about game usage) increasing their activity by 1473 steps a day on average, a more than 25% increase compared with their prior activity level (PGo has added a total of 144 billion steps to US physical activity. Furthermore, Pokémon Go has been able to increase physical activity across men and women of all ages, weight status, and prior activity levels showing this form of game leads to increases in physical activity with significant implications for public health. In particular, we find that Pokémon Go is able to reach low activity populations, whereas all 4 leading mobile health apps studied in this work largely draw from an already very active population. Mobile apps combining game

  20. Displacive phase transition, structural stability, and mechanical properties of the ultra-incompressible and hard MoN by first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Erjun [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Jinping [Department of Applied Chemistry, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao (China); Wu, Zhijian [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China)

    2010-05-15

    The structural stability, electronic, and mechanical properties of MoN were investigated by use of the density functional theory. Nine structures were considered, i.e., hexagonal {delta}{sub 1}-MoN, {delta}{sub 2}-MoN, {delta}'{sub 2}-MoN, {delta}{sub 3}-MoN, {delta}{sub 4}-MoN, and wurtzite ZnS structures, cubic NaCl, zincblende, and CsCl structures. The calculated results indicated that {delta}{sub 3}-MoN is the ground state among the considered structures. The second-order displacive phase transition has been found from {delta}{sub 3}-MoN to {delta}'{sub 2}-MoN with increase in pressure, in agreement with the experimental observation. {delta}'{sub 2}-MoN has the largest calculated bulk and shear moduli among the considered structures, followed by {delta}{sub 3}-MoN. The estimated hardness of {delta}'{sub 2}-MoN and {delta}{sub 3}-MoN is 34 and 29 GPa, respectively. Both of them are thermodynamically and mechanically stable. The compressibility along the c-axis for both compounds is smaller than that for diamond and cubic boron nitride (c-BN). The ideal strengths of {delta}'{sub 2}-MoN were discussed. The stress-strain relationship for {delta}'{sub 2}-MoN shows that the ideal tensile strength of 107.0 GPa along the left angle 0001 right angle direction is very large, which might have potential technological and industrial applications. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Conceptual model for the origin of the Olympus Mons cliffs, Mars: An essential influence of water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Fabio Vittorio

    2012-08-01

    With a height of 21 km above the mean Martian altitude and a diameter of 600 km, the Olympus Mons of Mars is the highest and one of the largest volcanoes in the Solar System. It is a distinctive shield volcano, formed by stacked sequences of low-viscosity magma. Whereas the central part of the Olympus Mons exhibits slope angles of less than 1-5°, the periphery of the edifice terminates with steep cliffs sloping 12-15° up to 28°. Another remarkable feature is the aureole, a chain of crown-like deposits surrounding the edifice of Olympus Mons from an average distance of 400 km. The aureole deposits, which lack any obvious analogue on the Earth, have been variously interpreted as volcanic products, pyroclastic or ash flows, slow deep-seated deformation, or catastrophic landslides. Numerical simulations and a comparative study of similar volcanic structures on Earth suggest that a volcanic edifice with the characteristics of Olympus Mons cannot be formed without the presence of water at the base. Because of the low cooling rate of lava in sub-aerial conditions, the superposition of purely subaerial lava flows would contribute with gentle slope to the topography. In contrast, the presence of a medium like water increases the convective heat exchange rate by nearly three orders of magnitude, thus stopping the lava flow and causing a slope increase at the borders of the edifice, which subsequently collapses. A model for the evolution of the Olympus Mons is consequently suggested in analogy with the Canary and the Hawaii island on Earth.

  2. MGS-TES thermal inertia study of the Arsia Mons Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, G.E.; Titus, T.N.

    2008-01-01

    Temperatures of the Arsia Mons caldera floor and two nearby control areas were obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). These observations revealed that the Arsia Mons caldera floor exhibits thermal behavior different from the surrounding Tharsis region when compared with thermal models. Our technique compares modeled and observed data to determine best fit values of thermal inertia, layer depth, and albedo. Best fit modeled values are accurate in the two control regions, but those in the Arsia Mons' caldera are consistently either up to 15 K warmer than afternoon observations, or have albedo values that are more than two standard deviations higher than the observed mean. Models of both homogeneous and layered (such as dust over bedrock) cases were compared, with layered-cases indicating a surface layer at least thick enough to insulate itself from diurnal effects of an underlying substrate material. Because best fit models of the caldera floor poorly match observations, it is likely that the caldera floor experiences some physical process not incorporated into our thermal model. Even on Mars, Arsia Mons is an extreme environment where CO2 condenses upon the caldera floor every night, diurnal temperatures range each day by a factor of nearly 2, and annual average atmospheric pressure is only around one millibar. Here, we explore several possibilities that may explain the poor modeled fits to caldera floor and conclude that temperature dependent thermal conductivity may cause thermal inertia to vary diurnally, and this effect may be exaggerated by presence of water-ice clouds, which occur frequently above Arsia Mons. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: V899 Mon long-term monitoring (Ninan+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Baug, T.; Bhatt, B. C.; Mohan, V.; Ghosh, S. K.; Men'shchikov, A.; Anupama, G. C.; Tamura, M.; Henning, Th.

    2016-03-01

    Our long-term optical monitoring of V899 Mon started on 2009 November 30. The observations were carried out using the 2m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) at the Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle (Ladakh), belonging to the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), India, and the 2m telescope at the IUCAA (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics) Girawali Observatory (IGO), Girawali (Pune), India. Near-infrared (NIR) photometric monitoring of the source in J, H, and K/KS bands was carried out using the HCT NIR camera (NIRCAM), the TIFR Near Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (TIRSPEC) mounted on HCT, and the TIFR Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II (TIRCAM2) mounted on the IGO telescope. Our medium-resolution (R~1000) optical spectroscopic monitoring of V899 Mon also started on 2009 November 30. The spectroscopic observations were carried out using both HCT/HFOSC and IGO/IFOSC. These observations were done in the effective wavelength range of 3700-9000Å. We acquired a high-resolution (R~37000) spectrum of V899 Mon during its second outburst phase on 2014 December 22 using the Southern African Large Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph (SALT-HRS). NIR (1.02-2.35um) spectroscopic monitoring of V899 Mon started on 2013 September 25 using TIRSPEC mounted on HCT. Continuum interferometric observation of V899 Mon at 1280MHz with 33.3MHz bandwidth was carried out on 2014 October 17 using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), Pune, India. (3 data files).

  4. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  5. Genetic, serological and biochemical characterization of Leishmania tropica from foci in northern Palestine and discovery of zymodeme MON-307

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Kifaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL have been recorded in the Jenin District based on their clinical appearance. Here, their parasites have been characterized in depth. Methods Leishmanial parasites isolated from 12 human cases of CL from the Jenin District were cultured as promastigotes, whose DNA was extracted. The ITS1 sequence and the 7SL RNA gene were analysed as was the kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA sequence. Excreted factor (EF serotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE were also applied. Results This extensive characterization identified the strains as Leishmania tropica of two very distinct sub-types that parallel the two sub-groups discerned by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT done previously. A high degree of congruity was displayed among the results generated by the different analytical methods that had examined various cellular components and exposed intra-specific heterogeneity among the 12 strains. Three of the ten strains subjected to MLEE constituted a new zymodeme, zymodeme MON-307, and seven belonged to the known zymodeme MON-137. Ten of the 15 enzymes in the profile of zymodeme MON-307 displayed different electrophoretic mobilities compared with the enzyme profile of the zymodeme MON-137. The closest profile to that of zymodeme MON-307 was that of the zymodeme MON-76 known from Syria. Strains of the zymodeme MON-307 were EF sub-serotype A2 and those of the zymodeme MON-137 were either A9 or A9B4. The sub-serotype B4 component appears, so far, to be unique to some strains of L. tropica of zymodeme MON-137. Strains of the zymodeme MON-137 displayed a distinctive fragment of 417 bp that was absent in those of zymodeme MON-307 when their kDNA was digested with the endonuclease RsaI. kDNA-RFLP after digestion with the endonuclease MboI facilitated a further level of differentiation that partially coincided with the geographical distribution of the human cases from which the strains

  6. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  7. Compositional analysis of grain and forage from MON 87427, an inducible male sterile and tissue selective glyphosate-tolerant maize product for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Breeze, Matthew L; Liu, Kang; Harrigan, George G; Culler, Angela H

    2014-02-26

    Conventional maize hybrid seed production has historically relied upon detasseling using either manual methods or semiautomated processes to ensure the purity of the hybrid cross. Monsanto Co. has developed biotechnology-derived MON 87427 maize with tissue-selective glyphosate tolerance to facilitate the production of hybrid maize seed. MON 87427 utilizes a specific promoter and intron combination to drive expression of CP4 EPSPS protein in vegetative and female reproductive tissues, conferring tolerance to glyphosate. This specific combination of regulatory elements also results in limited or no production of CP4 EPSPS protein in two key male reproductive tissues: pollen microspores, which develop into pollen grains, and tapetum cells that supply nutrients to the pollen. Thus, MON 87427 induces a male sterile phenotype after appropriately timed glyphosate applications. To confer additional benefits of herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance, MON 87427 was combined with MON 89034 and NK603 by conventional breeding to develop MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. The work described here is an assessment of the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of MON 87427 and MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. Results demonstrated that MON 87427 is compositionally equivalent to a near-isogenic conventional comparator. Results from this analysis established that the compositional equivalence observed for the single-event product MON 87427 is extendable to the combined-trait product, MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. With increasing global demand for food production, the development of more efficient seed production strategies is important to sustainable agriculture. The study reported here demonstrated that biotechnology can be applied to simplify hybrid maize seed production without affecting crop composition.

  8. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  9. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  10. Report of the SocMon capacity development workshop for the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem countries in South Asia, St Martin's Island, Bangladesh, 2-11 January, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hoon, V.; Saleem, M.; Townsley, P.

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic Monitoring (SocMon) is an approach and set of tools for conducting socio-economic monitoring of changes in coastal communities. Planned outputs of the workshop included: training of local staff i SocMon methodologies; draft a SocMon report for St. Martin's Island; a workplan for implementing the SocMon; a communication strategy; and key inputs to a regional SocMon strategy

  11. Assessing the potential for interaction between the insecticidal activity of two genetically engineered cotton events combined by conventional breeding: An example with COT102 × MON 15985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Steven L; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Uffman, Joshua P

    2016-08-01

    Bollgard(®) III was developed by combining cotton events COT102 and MON 15985 through conventional breeding to improve efficacy against lepidopteran feeding damage. COT102 produces the Vip3Aa19 protein and MON 15985 produces the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins. COT102 × MON 15985 has also been bred with Roundup Ready Flex(®) cotton (MON 88913) that confers glyphosate tolerance. This study evaluated the activity of COT102 and MON 15985 and the combined activity of COT102 and MON 15985 against the cotton bollworm (CBW, Helicoverpa zea). COT102, MON 15985, COT102 × MON 15985 and COT102 × MON 15985 × MON 88913 have comparable Vip3Aa19 and/or Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab2 protein expression levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CBW demonstrated concentration-dependent growth inhibition after 7-days of feeding on lyophilized leaf tissue derived from COT102, MON 15985, COT102 × MON 15985 and COT102 × MON 15985 × MON 88913 incorporated into an artificial diet. Observed EC50 values for COT102 × MON 15985 and COT102 × MON 15985 × MON 88913 were comparable (≤4% deviation) with the predicted EC50 value under the assumption of additivity using the combined activity of COT102 and MON 15985. No interaction in biological activity between COT102 and MON 15985 is consistent with results from competition and ligand blotting assays that demonstrated that Vip3Aa does not inhibit the binding of either Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab2 and vice versa. The results from this study demonstrate that the activity of COT102 × MON 15985 against CBW is consistent with predictions of additivity.

  12. KQ Mon and the nature of the UX Ursa Majoris Nova-like variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, E. M.; Guinan, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    The UX Ursa Majoris stars form a group of nova-like variables with common photometric and spectroscopic properties. These objects appear to be related to the cataclysmic variables. However, there is no information that they have undergone major outbursts. The present investigation is concerned with a new object, KQ Mon, which has been included in a program of study conducted with the IUE satellite. A description of observations of KQ Mon is presented, and the relationship of this star to other UX UMa stars is examined. Attention is given to the nature of the UX Ursa Majoris stars. It is argued that the accretion rates of the UX UMa stars are higher than, for example, the dwarf novae during quiescence and that the higher accretion rates of the UX UMa stars are responsible for their lack of major outbursts.

  13. Hubble COS Spectroscopy of the Dwarf Nova CW Mon: The White Dwarf in Quiescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Connor; Sion, Edward M.; Godon, Patrick; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Szkody, Paula; de Martino, Domitilla; Pala, Anna

    2017-08-01

    We present a synthetic spectral analysis of the HST COS spectrum of the U Geminorum-type dwarf nova CW Mon, taken during quiescence as part of our COS survey of accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in Cataclysmic Variables. We use a synthetic photosphere and optically thick accretion disk spectra to model the COS spectrum as well as archival IUE spectra obtained decades ago, when the system was in an even deeper quiescent state. Assuming a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.06, an inclination of 60° (CW Mon has eclipses of the accretion disk), and a WD mass of 0.8 {M}⊙ , our results indicate the presence of a 22-27,000 K WD and a low mass accretion rate \\dot{M}≲ {10}-10 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, for a derived distance of ˜200 to ˜300 pc. Based on observations made with the NASA-Hubble Space Telescope.

  14. Multikultūrinės komandos darbo gerinimas įmonėse

    OpenAIRE

    Lalienė, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Dėl galimybės laisvai judėti tarp šalių, labai išaugo darbo jėgos judėjimas. Tad multikultūrinė komanda įmonėse tampa įprastu reiškiniu pastaraisiais metais. Šiame darbe nagrinėjama problematika yra susijusi su skirtingų kultūrų sandūra įmonių viduje. Analizuojamos komandinio darbo sritys, kuriose daugiakultūriškumas sukelia daugiau problemų, aptariami vadovų vaidmenys, susiję su tų problemų sprendimu. Pagrindinis šio darbo tikslas – pateikti įmonėms darbo multikultūrėse komandose gerinim...

  15. Wear-time recording during early Class III facemask treatment using TheraMon chip technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Bruce; Willmann, Jan H; Wilmes, Benedict; Vasudavan, Sivabalan; Drescher, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Successful intervention in a developing Class III malocclusion with facemask protraction therapy depends on a patient's ability to adhere to the recommendations for duration of appliance wear. In this article, we report the introduction of a novel approach for tracking of the duration of application of a protraction facemask, with the incorporation of a "FaceMon" sensor (TheraMon, microelectronic system; MC Technology GmbH, Hargelsberg, Austria) to track wear time. A 9-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion was successfully treated with a modified alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction protocol and intermittent application of a hybrid hyrax-protraction facemask combination. The average duration of wear of the facemask was measured at 10.8 hours per day. The use of an objective measuring device may have implications for the development of treatment strategies, since patient responses may be able to calibrated in relation to compliance.

  16. MonALISA: An agent based, dynamic service system to monitor, control and optimize distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, I.; Newman, H.; Voicu, R.; Cirstoiu, C.; Grigoras, C.; Dobre, C.; Muraru, A.; Costan, A.; Dediu, M.; Stratan, C.

    2009-12-01

    The MonALISA (Monitoring Agents in a Large Integrated Services Architecture) framework provides a set of distributed services for monitoring, control, management and global optimization for large scale distributed systems. It is based on an ensemble of autonomous, multi-threaded, agent-based subsystems which are registered as dynamic services. They can be automatically discovered and used by other services or clients. The distributed agents can collaborate and cooperate in performing a wide range of management, control and global optimization tasks using real time monitoring information. Program summaryProgram title: MonALISA Catalogue identifier: AEEZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Caltech License - free for all non-commercial activities No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 147 802 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 5913 689 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java, additional APIs available in Java, C, C++, Perl and python Computer: Computing Clusters, Network Devices, Storage Systems, Large scale data intensive applications Operating system: The MonALISA service is mainly used in Linux, the MonALISA client runs on all major platforms (Windows, Linux, Solaris, MacOS). Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: It is a multithreaded application. It will efficiently use all the available processors. RAM: for the MonALISA service the minimum required memory is 64 MB; if the JVM is started allocating more memory this will be used for internal caching. The MonALISA client requires typically 256-512 MB of memory. Classification: 6.5 External routines: Requires Java: JRE or JDK to run. These external packages are used (they are included in the distribution): JINI, JFreeChart, PostgreSQL (optional). Nature of problem: To monitor and control

  17. A Comparison and Analog-Based Analysis of Sinuous Channels on the Rift Aprons of Ascraeus Mons and Pavonis Mons Volcanoes, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A.; de Wet, A.; Bleacher, J.; Schierl, Z.; Schwans, B.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of sinuous channels on the flanks of the Tharsis volcanoes on Mars is debated among planetary scientists. Some argue a volcanic genesis [1] while others have suggested a fluvial basis [2-4]. The majority of the studies thus far have focused on channels on the rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. Here, however, we broadly examine the channels on the rift apron of Pavonis Mons and compare them with those studied channels around Ascraeus. We compare the morphologies of features from both of these volcanoes with similar features of known volcanic origin on the island of Hawai i. We show that the morphologies between these two volcanoes in the Tharsis province are very similar and were likely formed by comparable processes, as previous authors have suggested [5]. We show that, although the morphologies of many of the channels around these volcanoes show some parallels to terrestrial fluvial systems, these morphologies can also be formed by volcanic processes. The context of these features suggests that volcanic processes were the more likely cause of these channels.

  18. Point defects stabilise cubic Mo-N and Ta-N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutná, Nikola; Holec, David; Svoboda, Ondřej; Klimashin, Fedor F.; Mayrhofer, Paul H.

    2016-09-01

    We employ ab initio calculations to investigate energetics of point defects in metastable rocksalt cubic Ta-N and Mo-N. Our results reveal a strong tendency to off-stoichiometry, i.e. defected structures are surprisingly predicted to be more stable than perfect ones with 1:1 metal-to-nitrogen stoichiometry. Despite the similarity of Ta-N and Mo-N systems in exhibiting this unusual behaviour, we also point out their crucial differences. While Ta-N significantly favours metal vacancies, Mo-N exhibits similar energies of formation regardless of the vacancy type (V Mo, V N) as long as their concentration is below ≈ 15~\\text{at}. % . The overall lowest energies of formation were obtained for \\text{T}{{\\text{a}}0.78}\\text{N} and \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}0.91}\\text{N} , which are hence predicted to be the most stable compositions. To account for various experimental conditions during synthesis, we further evaluated the phase stability as a function of chemical potential of individual species. The proposed phase diagrams reveal four stable compositions, \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}0.84}\\text{N} , \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}0.91}\\text{N} , \\text{Mo}{{\\text{N}}0.69} and \\text{Mo}{{\\text{N}}0.44} , in the case of Mo-N and nine stable compositions in the case of Ta-N indicating the important role of metal under-stoichiometry, since \\text{T}{{\\text{a}}0.75}\\text{N} and \\text{T}{{\\text{a}}0.78}\\text{N} significantly dominate the diagram. This is particularly important for understanding and designing experiments using non-equilibrium deposition techniques. Finally, we discuss the role of defect ordering and estimate a cubic lattice parameter as a function of defect contents and put them in the context of existing literature theoretical and experimental data.

  19. StreaMon: a data-plane programming abstraction for Software-defined Stream Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Giuseppe; Bonola, Marco; Picierro, Giulio; Pontarelli, Salvatore; Monaci, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The fast evolving nature of modern cyber threats and network monitoring needs calls for new, "software-defined", approaches to simplify and quicken programming and deployment of online (stream-based) traffic analysis functions. StreaMon is a carefully designed data-plane abstraction devised to scalably decouple the "programming logic" of a traffic analysis application (tracked states, features, anomaly conditions, etc.) from elementary primitives (counting and metering, matching, events gener...

  20. Idunn Mons on Venus: Location and extent of recently active lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Incecco, Piero; Müller, Nils; Helbert, Jörn; D'Amore, Mario

    2017-02-01

    From 2006 until 2014 the ESA Venus Express probe observed the atmosphere and surface of the Earth's twin planet. The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) has provided data that indicate the occurrence of recent volcanic activity on Venus. We selected the eastern flank of Idunn Mons - Imdr Regio's single large volcano - as the study area, since it was identified in VIRTIS data as one of the regions with relatively high values of thermal emissivity at 1 μm wavelength. Using the capabilities of specific techniques developed in the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory group at DLR in Berlin, our study intends to identify location and extent of the sources of such anomalies, thus the lava flows responsible for the relatively high emissivity observed by VIRTIS over the eastern flank of Idunn Mons. We map the lava flow units on the top and eastern flank of Idunn Mons, varying the values of simulated 1 μm emissivity assigned to the mapped units. For each configuration we calculate the total RMS error in comparison with the VIRTIS observations. In the best-fit configuration, the flank lava flows are characterized by high values of 1 μm simulated emissivity. Hence, the lava flow units on the eastern flank on Idunn Mons are likely responsible for the relatively high 1 μm emissivity anomalies observed by VIRTIS. This result is supported by the reconstructed post-eruption stratigraphy, displaying the relative dating of the mapped lava flows, that is independent of the 1 μm emissivity modeling. Values of average microwave emissivity extracted from the lava flow units range around the global mean, which is consistent with dry basalts.

  1. Intelligent MONitoring System for antiviral pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C (SiMON-VC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Margusino-Framiñán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two out of six strategic axes of pharmaceutical care in our hospital are quality and safety of care, and the incorporation of information technologies. Based on this, an information system was developed in the outpatient setting for pharmaceutical care of patients with chronic hepatitis C, SiMON-VC, which would improve the quality and safety of their pharmacotherapy. The objective of this paper is to describe requirements, structure and features of Si- MON-VC. Requirements demanded were that the information system would enter automatically all critical data from electronic clinical records at each of the visits to the Outpatient Pharmacy Unit, allowing the generation of events and alerts, documenting the pharmaceutical care provided, and allowing the use of data for research purposes. In order to meet these requirements, 5 sections were structured for each patient in SiMON-VC: Main Record, Events, Notes, Monitoring Graphs and Tables, and Follow-up. Each section presents a number of tabs with those coded data needed to monitor patients in the outpatient unit. The system automatically generates alerts for assisted prescription validation, efficacy and safety of using antivirals for the treatment of this disease. It features a completely versatile Indicator Control Panel, where temporary monitoring standards and alerts can be set. It allows the generation of reports, and their export to the electronic clinical record. It also allows data to be exported to the usual operating systems, through Big Data and Business Intelligence. Summing up, we can state that SiMON-VC improves the quality of pharmaceutical care provided in the outpatient pharmacy unit to patients with chronic hepatitis C, increasing the safety of antiviral therapy.

  2. The contribution of meteorological surveys to the analysis of forest ecosystems: the FutMon project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvati L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Much of the wide variation in plant morphology, physiology and development biology is reflected in the capacity to adapt to climate changes. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the climate description of selected Italian forest sites (the CONECOFOR network where a permanent environmental monitoring was carried out since 1997 within the ICP-Forests, ICP-IM framework Forest Focus Reg. and the EU-funded FutMon research project.

  3. Intelligent MONitoring System for antiviral pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C (SiMON-VC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margusino-Framiñán, Luis; Cid-Silva, Purificación; Mena-de-Cea, Álvaro; Sanclaudio-Luhía, Ana Isabel; Castro-Castro, José Antonio; Vázquez-González, Guillermo; Martín-Herranz, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Two out of six strategic axes of pharmaceutical care in our hospital are quality and safety of care, and the incorporation of information technologies. Based on this, an information system was developed in the outpatient setting for pharmaceutical care of patients with chronic hepatitis C, SiMON-VC, which would improve the quality and safety of their pharmacotherapy. The objective of this paper is to describe requirements, structure and features of Si- MON-VC. Requirements demanded were that the information system would enter automatically all critical data from electronic clinical records at each of the visits to the Outpatient Pharmacy Unit, allowing the generation of events and alerts, documenting the pharmaceutical care provided, and allowing the use of data for research purposes. In order to meet these requirements, 5 sections were structured for each patient in SiMON-VC: Main Record, Events, Notes, Monitoring Graphs and Tables, and Follow-up. Each section presents a number of tabs with those coded data needed to monitor patients in the outpatient unit. The system automatically generates alerts for assisted prescription validation, efficacy and safety of using antivirals for the treatment of this disease. It features a completely versatile Indicator Control Panel, where temporary monitoring standards and alerts can be set. It allows the generation of reports, and their export to the electronic clinical record. It also allows data to be exported to the usual operating systems, through Big Data and Business Intelligence. Summing up, we can state that SiMON-VC improves the quality of pharmaceutical care provided in the outpatient pharmacy unit to patients with chronic hepatitis C, increasing the safety of antiviral therapy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Bt-maize event MON 88017 expressing Cry3Bb1 does not cause harm to non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; De Schrijver, Adinda; De Clercq, Patrick; Kiss, József; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    This review paper explores whether the cultivation of the genetically modified Bt-maize transformation event MON 88017, expressing the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein against corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), causes adverse effects to non-target organisms (NTOs) and the ecological and anthropocentric functions they provide. Available data do not reveal adverse effects of Cry3Bb1 on various NTOs that are representative of potentially exposed taxonomic and functional groups, confirming that the insecticidal activity of the Cry3Bb1 protein is limited to species belonging to the coleopteran family of Chrysomelidae. The potential risk to non-target chrysomelid larvae ingesting maize MON 88017 pollen deposited on host plants is minimal, as their abundance in maize fields and the likelihood of encountering harmful amounts of pollen in and around maize MON 88017 fields are low. Non-target adult chrysomelids, which may occasionally feed on maize MON 88017 plants, are not expected to be affected due to the low activity of the Cry3Bb1 protein on adults. Impacts on NTOs caused by potential unintended changes in maize MON 88017 are not expected to occur, as no differences in composition, phenotypic characteristics and plant-NTO interactions were observed between maize MON 88017 and its near-isogenic line.

  5. Dynamical star-disk interaction in the young stellar system V354 Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca, N N J; Bouvier, J; Favata, F; Flaccomio, E

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to characterize the mass accretion and ejection processes of the classical T Tauri star V354 Mon, a member of the young stellar cluster NGC 2264. In March 2008, photometric and spectroscopic observations of V354 Mon were obtained simultaneously with the CoRoT satellite, the 60 cm telescope at the Observat\\'orio Pico dos Dias (LNA - Brazil) equipped with a CCD camera and Johnson/Cousins BVRI filters, and the SOPHIE \\'echelle spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS - France). The light curve of V354 Mon shows periodical minima (P = 5.26 +/- 0.50 days) that vary in depth and width at each rotational cycle. From the analysis of the photometric and spectroscopic data, it is possible to identify correlations between the emission line variability and the light-curve modulation of the young system, such as the occurrence of pronounced redshifted absorption in the H_alpha line at the epoch of minimum flux. This is evidence that during photometric minima we see the accreti...

  6. Similarities and differences in the spectral behavior of W Ser and UX Mon in the ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanad, M. R.; Bobrowsky, M.

    2013-04-01

    We present ultraviolet spectra of two eclipsing interacting binary systems, W Ser and UX Mon, with good coverage over the 14.16-day and 5.9-day orbital periods, respectively, using observations taken by the International Ultraviolet Explorer ( IUE) during the period between 1978-1993 and 1981-1991. Two profiles of W Ser and UX Mon showing variations of line fluxes at two orbital phases are presented. This paper focuses on the N V emission line at 1240 Å, C II emission line at 1336 Å, C IV emission line at 1550 Å, O III emission line at 1666 Å and the Si III emission line at 1892 Å, produced in an extended gaseous envelope around the mass-gaining component by calculating spectral line fluxes. Our results show that there are variations of line fluxes with time, similar to the light curves found for both W Ser and UX Mon. We attribute these spectral variations to eclipse effects and to variations in the mass transfer rate. These results from the IUE observations support the thick disk model around the primary star in which variations of mass transfer affect the observed radiation from the gaseous envelope around the hot star. Future, high-resolution imaging is recommended to confirm the inferred asymmetrical circumstellar envelopes.

  7. Similarities and Differences in Spectral Behavior Between W Ser and UX Mon in the UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowsky, Matthew; Sanad, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    We present ultraviolet spectra of two eclipsing interacting binary systems, W Ser and UX Mon. The data contain good coverage over the 14.16-day and 5.9-day orbital periods, respectively, using observations taken by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) during periods between 1978 - 1993 and 1981 - 1991 for the two systems respectively. Two profiles of both W Ser and UX Mon showing variations of line fluxes at two orbital phases are presented. We investigated the N V emission line at 1240 Å, C II emission line at 1336 Å, C IV emission line at 1550 Å, O III emission line at 1666 Å, and Si III emission line at 1892 Å (which are produced in an extended gaseous envelope around the mass-gaining component), by calculating the line fluxes of these spectral lines. Our results show that there are spectral variations of line fluxes at different orbital phases, correlated with the light curves found for both W Ser and UX Mon. We attribute these spectral variations to effects from the eclipse and to variations in the mass transfer rate. M.B. acknowledges support from NASA, through grant number HST-AR-10304.04-A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. SystMon: a data visualization tool for the analysis of telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Juan Carlos; Stephan, Christian; Pena, Eduardo; Valenzuela, Javier; Osorio, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The Paranal Very Large Telescopes (VLT) Observatory is a complex multifunctional observatory where many different systems are generating telemetry parameters.As systems becoming more and more complex, also the amount of telemetry data is increasing. This telemetry data is usually saved in various data repositories.In order to obtain a full system overview, it is necessary to link all that data in a meaningful and easy to interpret way. A step forward from simple telemetry data visualisation has been done by developing a new tool that can combine different data sources and has a powerful graphing capability.This new tool, called SystMon, is developed in iPython an interactive-web browser environment under the philosophy of notebooks which combine the code and the final product. The application can be shared among other colleagues and having the code side by side gives the accessibility to inspect and review the process improving and adding new capabilities to the application. SystMon allows to manipulate, generate andvisualise data in different types of graphs and also to create directly statistical reports. SystMon helps the user tomodel, visualiseand interpret telemetry data in a web-based platform for monitoring the health of systems, understanding short- and long-term behaviour and to anticipate corrective interventions.

  9. V899 MON: AN OUTBURSTING PROTOSTAR WITH A PECULIAR LIGHT CURVE, AND ITS TRANSITION PHASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Baug, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bhatt, B. C.; Anupama, G. C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Korama ngala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Mohan, V. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411 007 (India); Ghosh, S. K. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Men’shchikov, A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tamura, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Henning, Th., E-mail: ninan@tifr.res.in [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    We present a detailed study of V899 Mon (a new member in the FUors/EXors family of young low-mass stars undergoing outburst), based on our long-term monitoring of the source starting from 2009 November to 2015 April. Our optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic monitoring recorded the source transitioning from its first outburst to a short-duration quiescence phase (<1 yr), and then returning to a second outburst. We report here the evolution of the outflows from the inner region of the disk as the accretion rate evolved in various epochs. Our high-resolution (R ∼ 37,000) optical spectrum could resolve interesting clumpy structures in the outflow traced by various lines. Change in far-infrared flux was also detected between two outburst epochs. Based on our observations, we constrained various stellar and envelope parameters of V899 Mon, as well as the kinematics of its accretion and outflow. The photometric and spectroscopic properties of this source fall between classical FUors and EXors. Our investigation of V899 Mon hints at instability associated with magnetospheric accretion being the physical cause of the sudden short-duration pause of the outburst in 2011. It is also a good candidate to explain similar short-duration pauses in outbursts of some other FUors/EXors sources.

  10. SecMon: End-to-End Quality and Security Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Ciszkowski, Tomasz; Fiedler, Markus; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Lupu, Radu; Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is becoming a more available and popular way of communicating for Internet users. This also applies to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems and merging these two have already proven to be successful (e.g. Skype). Even the existing standards of VoIP provide an assurance of security and Quality of Service (QoS), however, these features are usually optional and supported by limited number of implementations. As a result, the lack of mandatory and widely applicable QoS and security guaranties makes the contemporary VoIP systems vulnerable to attacks and network disturbances. In this paper we are facing these issues and propose the SecMon system, which simultaneously provides a lightweight security mechanism and improves quality parameters of the call. SecMon is intended specially for VoIP service over P2P networks and its main advantage is that it provides authentication, data integrity services, adaptive QoS and (D)DoS attack detection. Moreover, the SecMon approach represents a low...

  11. A simplified and accurate detection of the genetically modified wheat MON71800 with one calibrator plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Park, Sunghoon; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, unauthorized GMO releases into the food market have increased dramatically, and many countries have developed detection tools for them. This study described the qualitative and quantitative detection methods of unauthorized the GM wheat MON71800 with a reference plasmid (pGEM-M71800). The wheat acetyl-CoA carboxylase (acc) gene was used as the endogenous gene. The plasmid pGEM-M71800, which contains both the acc gene and the event-specific target MON71800, was constructed as a positive control for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The limit of detection in the qualitative PCR assay was approximately 10 copies. In the quantitative PCR assay, the standard deviation and relative standard deviation repeatability values ranged from 0.06 to 0.25 and from 0.23% to 1.12%, respectively. This study supplies a powerful and very simple but accurate detection strategy for unauthorized GM wheat MON71800 that utilizes a single calibrator plasmid.

  12. From History to Memory: Alain Resnais’ and Marguerite Duras’ Hiroshima mon amour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah French

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the representation of history and memory in Alain Resnais’ and Marguerite Duras’ 1959 film Hiroshima mon amour. It argues that the film’s privileging of subjective remembrance reflects a broader cultural interest in using memory as a counter discourse to established history. The widely documented cultural preoccupation with memory became particularly prominent in the early 1980s. However, Hiroshima mon amour can be read as an important early example of a film that predates the contemporary ‘memory boom’. For Resnais and Duras, the magnitude of the devastation in Hiroshima exceeds the limits of filmic representation. Their solution to the problem that the historic event is unrepresentable is to approach the event indirectly while focusing on an individual traumatic memory. Through a close analysis and critique of the film I argue that the film’s emphasis on individual memory validates the legitimacy of the personal narrative but problematically subsumes the political events and displaces history from the discursive realm. I also suggest that problems emerge in the film’s depiction of its traumatised female subject. While Hiroshima mon amour represents a complex female subjectivity and interiority, the process of remembrance depicted deprives the woman of agency and renders her trapped within a compulsive repetition of the past.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVR photometry of IZ Mon and AR Dra (Yang+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Zhou, Z.; Li, Q.

    2016-07-01

    CCD Photometry for IZ Mon and AR Dra, was acquired using the 60cm telescope and the 85cm telescope at the Xinglong station (XLs) of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Two telescopes are equipped with the standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRcIc. filters. We then obtained the individual observations as heliocentric Julian dates and differential magnitude, which are listed in Table1. The complete light curves for IZ Mon were obtained on 2009 January 20, 22, 24, 25, and 26, and March 1, using the 85cm telescope. The exposure times are fixed to be 20, 15, and 15s for BVR bands, respectively. A total of 961, 960, and 959 effective images in BVR bands are obtained. Another primary eclipse for IZ Mon was monitored on 2011 January 17. AR Dra was observed on 2009 February 20, 25, 26, and 27, with the 65cm telescope. The typical exposure times are 50, 40 and 40s for BVR bands, which depend on the condition of weather. In total, we obtained 733, 728 and 356 images in B, V and R bands, respectively. (6 data files).

  14. GU Mon, a high-mass eclipsing overcontact binary in the young open cluster Dolidze 25

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo, J; Vilardell, F; Simón-Díaz, S; Pastor, P; Majuelos, M Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Context. The eclipsing binary GU Mon is located in the star-forming cluster Dolidze 25, which has the lowest metallicity measured in a Milky Way young cluster. Aims. GU Mon has been identified as a short-period eclipsing binary with two early B-type components. We set out to derive its orbital and stellar parameters. Methods. We present a comprehensive analysis, including B and V light curves and 11 high-resolution spectra, to verify the orbital period and determine parameters. We use the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND to obtain stellar parameters and create templates for cross-correlation. We obtain a model to fit the light and radial-velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney code iteratively and simultaneously. Results. The two components of GU Mon are identical stars of spectral type B1 V, with the same mass and temperature. The lightcurves are typical of an EW-type binary. The spectroscopic and photometric analyses agree on a period of 0.896640 +- 0.000007 d. We determine a mass of 9.0 +- 0.6 Msun for e...

  15. Estructura retórica del monólogo televisivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Gómez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo demostraremos que los monólogos televisivos de mayor éxito funcionan con una estructura bastante similar e inspirada en la del discurso retórico clásico. Esta característica permite situar a las denominadas stand-up comedies entre los discursos de ficción con una mayor carga retórica en el plano del contenido, hecho que contrasta con la menor presencia de elementos retóricos típicamente visuales. No han sido objeto de este estudio las figuras retóricas literarias, muy abundantes, utilizadas en cada monólogo, aunque en algún momento se pueda hacer referencia a alguna de ellas. El estudio concluye con algunas reglas generales, de uso común en la mayor parte de los monólogos televisivos o al menos, en los de mayor éxito.

  16. Why the public health sector couldn’t create Pokémon Go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Freeman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pokémon Go has been subject to much attention – from both the players that download the augmented reality game and the news media. Amid the exaggerated media reports, Pokémon Go may have unintended health benefits. Players have reported walking more, spending more time with family, experiencing improvements in their mental health and feeling more connected to their communities. It is hard to imagine public health researchers developing a similar game that is fun, taps into pop culture, reaches a wide target audience, makes use of physical and virtual environments, creates a sense of both competition and community, and has spin-off health benefits. Companies that endanger public health immediately recognised the value of the Pokémon Go app, and exploited it to advertise and promote consumption of unhealthy foods. Public health stakeholders need to develop mobile-based interventions within a framework that embraces pleasure, rewards, participation and community. Public health agencies need to be just as nimble and responsive as companies that are harmful to health, or forever be creating games that nobody plays.

  17. Intestinal and peripheral immune response to MON810 maize ingestion in weaning and old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamore, Alberto; Roselli, Marianna; Britti, Serena; Monastra, Giovanni; Ambra, Roberto; Turrini, Aida; Mengheri, Elena

    2008-12-10

    This study evaluated the gut and peripheral immune response to genetically modified (GM) maize in mice in vulnerable conditions. Weaning and old mice were fed a diet containing MON810 or its parental control maize or a pellet diet containing a GM-free maize for 30 and 90 days. The immunophenotype of intestinal intraepithelial, spleen, and blood lymphocytes of control maize fed mice was similar to that of pellet fed mice. As compared to control maize, MON810 maize induced alterations in the percentage of T and B cells and of CD4(+), CD8(+), gammadeltaT, and alphabetaT subpopulations of weaning and old mice fed for 30 or 90 days, respectively, at the gut and peripheral sites. An increase of serum IL-6, IL-13, IL-12p70, and MIP-1beta after MON810 feeding was also found. These results suggest the importance of the gut and peripheral immune response to GM crop ingestion as well as the age of the consumer in the GMO safety evaluation.

  18. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  19. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  20. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  1. How Bright Is the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  2. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and spectroscopy of V501 Mon (Torres+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, G.; Lacy, C. H. S.; Pavlovski, K.; Fekel, F. C.; Muterspaugh, M. W.

    2016-06-01

    Spectroscopic observations of V501 Mon were carried out with three different instruments. They began at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 2005 November, using the now decommissioned Digital Speedometer (DS) mounted on the 1.5m Tillinghast reflector at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins (AZ). Seven spectra were recorded through 2009 March with an intensified photon-counting Reticon detector, and cover a narrow span of 45Å centered at 5190Å (MgIb triplet). The resolving power of this instrument was R~35000, and the signal-to-noise ratios of the spectra range from 13 to 22 per resolution element of 8.5km/s. Thirty seven additional spectra were gathered from 2009 November to 2015 February with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the same telescope. This bench-mounted, fiber-fed instrument provides a resolving power of R~44000 in 51 orders over the wavelength span 3900-9100Å. The signal-to-noise ratios of the 37 spectra range from 8 to 56 per resolution element of 6.8km/s. The heliocentric velocities we obtained from the DS and TRES spectra are listed in Table2. Between 2011 October and 2015 February we also obtained 57 usable spectra of V501 Mon with the Tennessee State University 2m Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) and a fiber-fed echelle spectrograph at Fairborn Observatory in southeast Arizona. The detector for these observations was a Fairchild 486 CCD, with 15μm pixels in a 4096*4096 format. The spectrograms have 48 orders ranging from 3800 to 8260Å. Because of the faintness of V501 Mon (V=12.32), we used a fiber that produced a spectral resolution of 0.4Å, corresponding to a resolving power of 15000 at 6000Å. Our spectra have typical signal-to-noise ratios per resolution element of 40 at 6000Å. We list the final values in Table3. An extensive program of CCD photometry was carried out using the NFO WebScope ear Silver City, New Mexico, for the purpose of gathering an accurate V-band light

  4. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Silk-Cloth Weaving Development of the Mon-Khmer Ethnic Group in Lower-Isan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wira Phansuwan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Silk cloth weaving culture of the Mon-Khmer ethnic group in Lower-Isan has a specific identity which should be handed down to future generation. The purposes of this research were to examine: (1 the body knowledge concerning silk clothes of the Mon-Khmer ethnic group in Lower-Isan region, (2 the process of production or silk-cloth weaving of the Mon-Khmer ethnic group in Lower-Isan region and (3 development of silk-cloth weaving of the Mon-Khmer ethnic group in Lower-Isan region. Approach: The research data was gathered from documents concerned and research fields. A sample was 156 people living at 7 villages and those involving silk-cloth production or weaving. The data was analyzed according to the research purposes and presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: Silk-cloth weaving has been a cultural heritage transferred from ancestors. In 1215 Chow Tang Kwan stated that the Siamese people came there, grew mulberries, raised silkworms and wove silk clothes from that time through learning from generation to generation. The cloth-identity and patterns have been party influenced by their ethnic group together with the way of life in each period. In the past, the main purpose of silk-cloth weaving was for household use. Some of the silk clothes were kept for being supplement to various rituals and Buddhist ceremonies. Thus, it was not necessary for them to have commercial production. Household-labor was still an important-productive factor of sufficient economy and reliant society. For the production process, it has been found that at present the economic and social structures have changed from household-use production to commercial production. There are complete production processes in the type of forming groups and the management system by increasing production competency to obtain both quantity and quality as well as standard prices. There are transmutations into a variety of other products and promotion of

  6. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  7. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  8. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  9. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  10. Total eclipses of the sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  11. Revisiting SU(N) integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, Jean-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this note, I revisit integrals over $\\SU(N)$ of the form $ \\int DU\\, U_{i_1j_1}\\cdots U_{i_pj_p}\\Ud_{k_1l_1}\\cdots \\Ud_{k_nl_n}$. While the case $p=n$ is well known, it seems that explicit expressions for $p=n+N$ had not appeared in the literature. Similarities and differences, in particular in the large $N$ limit, between the two cases are discussed

  12. Coherent States with SU(N) Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, M; Mathur, Manu; Paul, Samir K.

    2003-01-01

    We define coherent states carrying SU(N) charges by exploiting generalized Schwinger boson representation of SU(N) Lie algebra. These coherent states are defined on $2 (2^{N - 1} - 1)$ complex planes. They satisfy continuity property and provide resolution of identity. We also exploit this technique to construct the corresponding non-linear SU(N) coherent states.

  13. The Sun Rises on the Solar Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Reyaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy from the sun is abundant and free. Solar energy is in essence electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun. Earth's climate, hydrologic systems, and ecosystems all derive from the sun. Other forms of renewable power such as wind, wave, biomass, and hydro are an indirect function of solar radiation.

  14. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  15. The faint young Sun problem

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    For more than four decades, scientists have been trying to find an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in paleoclimatology, the `faint young Sun problem'. For the early Earth, models of stellar evolution predict a solar energy input to the climate system which is about 25% lower than today. This would result in a completely frozen world over the first two billion years in the history of our planet, if all other parameters controlling Earth's climate had been the same. Yet there is ample evidence for the presence of liquid surface water and even life in the Archean (3.8 to 2.5 billion years before present), so some effect (or effects) must have been compensating for the faint young Sun. A wide range of possible solutions have been suggested and explored during the last four decades, with most studies focusing on higher concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane or ammonia. All of these solutions present considerable difficulties, however, so the faint young Sun prob...

  16. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  17. Genetic structure of the Mon-Khmer speaking groups and their affinity to the neighbouring Tai populations in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seielstad Mark

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mon-Khmer speaking peoples inhabited northern Thailand before the arrival of the Tai speaking people from southern China in the thirteenth century A.D. Historical and anthropological evidence suggests a close relationship between the Mon-Khmer groups and the present day majority northern Thai groups. In this study, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms in more than 800 volunteers from eight Mon-Khmer and ten Tai speaking populations were investigated to estimate the degree of genetic divergence between these major linguistic groups and their internal structure. Results A large fraction of genetic variation is observed within populations (about 80% and 90% for mtDNA and the Y-chromosome, respectively. The genetic divergence between populations is much higher in Mon-Khmer than in Tai speaking groups, especially at the paternally inherited markers. The two major linguistic groups are genetically distinct, but only for a marginal fraction (1 to 2% of the total genetic variation. Genetic distances between populations correlate with their linguistic differences, whereas the geographic distance does not explain the genetic divergence pattern. Conclusions The Mon-Khmer speaking populations in northern Thailand exhibited the genetic divergence among each other and also when compared to Tai speaking peoples. The different drift effects and the post-marital residence patterns between the two linguistic groups are the explanation for a small but significant fraction of the genetic variation pattern within and between them.

  18. Scientific Opinion updating the risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize MON 810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel compiled its previous risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize MON 810, and considered their validity in the light of new relevant scientific publications published from 2009 onwards. Following a search of the scientific literature published between 2009 and October 2012, the EFSA GMO Panel identified 165 peer-reviewed publications containing evidence specific to the risk assessment and/or management of maize MON 810, of which 68 publications were discussed and/or cited in previous EFSA GMO Panel scientific outputs. From the remaining 97 publications, eight were relevant for the molecular characterisation, 27 for food and feed safety assessment, 55 for the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management, two for the molecular characterisation and the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management and five for the food and feed safety assessment and the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management of maize MON 810. None of these publications reported new information that would invalidate the previous conclusions on the safety of maize MON 810 made by the EFSA GMO Panel. Therefore, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that its previous risk assessment conclusions on maize MON 810, as well as its previous recommendations on risk mitigation measures and monitoring, remain valid and applicable.

  19. A Spitzer view of the giant molecular cloud Mon OB1 East/NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapson, V. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Pipher, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, L. E., E-mail: var5998@rit.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We present Spitzer 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm images of the Mon OB1 East giant molecular cloud, which contains the young star forming region NGC 2264, as well as more extended star formation. With Spitzer data and Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry, we identify and classify young stellar objects (YSOs) with dusty circumstellar disks and/or envelopes in Mon OB1 East by their infrared-excess emission and study their distribution with respect to cloud material. We find a correlation between the local surface density of YSOs and column density of molecular gas as traced by dust extinction that is roughly described as a power law in these quantities. NGC 2264 follows a power-law index of ∼2.7, exhibiting a large YSO surface density for a given gas column density. Outside of NGC 2264 where the surface density of YSOs is lower, the power law is shallower and the region exhibits a larger gas column density for a YSO surface density, suggesting the star formation is more recent. In order to measure the fraction of cloud members with circumstellar disks/envelopes, we estimate the number of diskless pre-main-sequence stars by statistical removal of background star detections. We find that the disk fraction of the NGC 2264 region is 45%, while the surrounding, more distributed regions show a disk fraction of 19%. This may be explained by the presence of an older, more dispersed population of stars. In total, the Spitzer observations provide evidence for heterogenous, non-coeval star formation throughout the Mon OB1 cloud.

  20. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing interest among universities in the scientific and educational possibilities of picosatellites base on the CubeSat 5 concept. Due to sever mass and dimension constraints place on this type of satellites, new approaches and ideas regarding different systems arises to accommodate...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  1. Detection of reactive ions in the ultracompact HII regions Mon R2 and G29.96-0.02

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, J R; Rodríguez-Franco, A; García-Burillo, S

    2003-01-01

    We report the first detection of the reactive ions CO+ and HOC+ towards ultracompact (UC) HII regions, particularly in Mon R2 and G29.96-0.02. We have observed two positions in Mon R2, namely the peak of the UC HII region and a position in the high density molecular cloud which bounds it. CO+ and HOC+ were detected at the UC HII region but not at the molecular cloud, as expected if the CO$^+$ and HOC$^+$ emissions arise in the PDR surrounding the \\uch. The measured CO$^+$ and HOC$^+$ column densities are of the order of 10$^{11}$ cm$^{-2}$ in both sources, which yields a strikingly low [HCO$^+$]/[HOC$^+$] abundance ratio of 460 in Mon R2. These values are similar to those found in some other well-known PDRs, like NGC 7023 and the Orion Bar. We briefly discuss the chemical implications of these results.

  2. Influence of Pokémon Go on physical activity levels of university players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona Y

    2017-02-22

    The prevalence of overweight is increasing and the effectiveness of various weight management and exercise programs varied. An augmented reality smartphone game, Pokémon Go, appears to increase activity levels of players. This study assessed the players and ex-players' frequencies and durations of staying outdoors, and walking/jogging before and during the time they played Pokémon Go, evaluated the physical activity levels of players, ex-players and non-players, and investigated the potential factors which determined their play statuses. Students in a university answered an online-questionnaire survey. The IPAQ-short form was incorporated to measure vigorous-intensity activities, moderate-intensity activities and walking. Chi square tests were used to compare frequencies and durations of staying outdoors and walking/jogging, health discomforts and physical activity levels between players, ex-players and non-players. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were performed to assess the changes prior to and during the time when the players and ex-players played Pokémon Go. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess factors contributing to playing, quitting or not playing Pokémon Go. 644 university students answered the questionnaire. Compared with the ex-players, the players were significantly more frequent to stay outdoors when playing Pokémon Go (P Go. The game can be used as a starting point for sedentary people to begin an active lifestyle. The impact of Pokémon Go on physical activity can provide insights to public health workers in using novel strategies in health promotion.

  3. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  4. Seismology of the Wounded Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Cally, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Active regions are open wounds in the Sun's surface. Seismic oscillations from the interior pass through them into the atmosphere, changing their nature in the process to fast and slow magneto-acoustic waves. The fast waves then partially reflect and partially mode convert to upgoing and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves. The reflected fast and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves then re-enter the interior through the active regions that spawned them, infecting the surface seismology with signatures of the atmosphere. Using numerical simulations of waves in uniform magnetic fields, we calculate the upward acoustic and Alfv\\'enic losses in the atmosphere as functions of field inclination and wave orientation as well as the Time-Distance `travel time' perturbations, and show that they are related. Travel time perturbations relative to quiet Sun can exceed 40 seconds in 1 kG magnetic field. It is concluded that active region seismology is indeed significantly infected by waves leaving and re-entering the interior through magnetic w...

  5. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants. RW Hya, SY Mus, BX Mon, and AE Ara

    CERN Document Server

    Galan, Cezary; Hinkle, Kenneth H; Schmidt, Miroslaw R; Gromadzki, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are the long period, binary systems of strongly interacting stars at the final stages of evolution which can be useful tool to understand the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the formation of stellar populations. Knowledge of the chemical composition of the symbiotic giants is essential to advancing our understanding of these issues but unfortunately reliably determinations exist only in a few cases. We perform a program for detailed chemical composition analysis in over 30 symbiotic giants, based on the high resolution, near-IR spectra, obtained with Phoenix/Gemini South spectrometer. The methods of the standard LTE analysis is used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around iron peak. Here we present results obtained for four objects: RW Hya, SY Mus, BX Mon, and AE Ara. Our analysis revealed a significantly sub-solar metallicity (Me/H ~ -0.75) for RW Hya, a slightly sub-solar metallicities (Me/H ~ 0.2-0.3) in BX Mon and AE Ara, and a near-solar metallicity in SY Mus. 12...

  6. The aureole of Olympus Mons (Mars) as the compound deposit of submarine landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Fabio Vittorio

    2011-12-01

    The enigmatic deposits building up the Olympus Mons aureole on Mars are likely among the largest landslide remnants in the Solar System. These deposits exhibit an extraordinary run-out distance (up to nearly 700 km), in spite of a fall height some 100 times smaller. After quantifying the mobility of the Olympus Mons aureole lobes it is suggested, based on dynamical considerations and morphological analysis, that the aureole could be the consequence of a series of gigantic subaqueous landslides. In order to bring evidence in favor of this interpretation, comparisons are drawn between the different landslide deposits on Earth and Mars, emphasizing the similarity with the rock avalanches of the Canary Islands and the Hawaii. The results of experimental subaqueous debris flows are also analyzed, and numerical calculations are introduced to simulate the dynamics of flow. In analogy with certain subaqueous landslides on Earth, it is possible that the outstanding run-out of the aureole lobes was a consequence of hydroplaning, a natural lubrication by water during flow.

  7. V899 Mon: An Outbursting Protostar With Peculiar Light Curve And Its Transition Phases

    CERN Document Server

    Ninan, J P; Baug, T; Bhatt, B C; Mohan, V; Ghosh, S K; Men'shchikov, A; Anupama, G C; Tamura, M; Henning, Th

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of V899 Mon (a new member in the FUors/EXors family of young low-mass stars undergoing outburst), based on our long-term monitoring of the source starting from November 2009 to April 2015. Our optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic monitoring recorded the source transitioning from its first outburst to a short duration quiescence phase ($<$ 1 year), and then returning to a second outburst. We report here the evolution of the outflows from inner region of the disk as the accretion rate evolved in various epochs. Our high resolution (R$\\sim$37000) optical spectrum could resolve interesting clumpy structures in the outflow traced by various lines. Change in far-infrared flux was also detected between two outburst epochs. Based on our observations we constrained various stellar and envelope parameters of V899 Mon, as well as the kinematics of its accretion and outflow. The photometric and spectroscopic properties of this source fall between classical FUors and EXors...

  8. A revolta monárquica de 1912 em Cabeceiras de Basto – Braga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Tiago Gonçalves Ferraz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O regime da Iª República Portuguesa enfrentou, desde o seu triunfo em 1910, a oposição de forças conservadoras que visavam a restauração do deposto regime monárquico. Em 1912 teve lugar uma invasão de exilados monárquicos a partir da Galiza que pretendia sublevar o norte de Portugal. Este artigo pretende apresentar o decurso desses acontecimentos no concelho de Cabeceiras de Basto, distrito de Braga, mas também analisar as dinâmicas político-sociais locais que justificam o comportamento da população, o seu desapego às instituições republicanas e a influência de certas individualidades sobre os habitantes. Este trabalho foi possível mediante o estudo comparativo e qualitativo de fontes documentais do município, diários do governo e jornais locais da época.

  9. Spectral line survey of the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    CERN Document Server

    Ginard, D; Fuente, A; Cernicharo, J; Alonso-Albi, T; Pilleri, P; Gerin, M; García-Burillo, S; Ossenkopf, V; Rizzo, J R; Kramer, C; Goicoechea, J R; Pety, J; Berné, O; Joblin, C

    2012-01-01

    Ultracompact (UC) HII regions constitute one of the earliest phases in the formation of a massive star and are characterized by extreme physical conditions (Go>10^5 Habing field and n>10^6 cm^-3). The UC HII Mon R2 is the closest one and therefore an excellent target to study the chemistry in these complex regions. We carried out a 3mm and 1mm spectral survey using the IRAM 30-m telescope towards three positions that represent different physical environments in Mon R2: (i) the ionization front (IF) at (0",0"); two peaks in the molecular cloud (ii) MP1 at the offset (+15",-15") and (iii) MP2 at the farther offset (0",40"). In addition, we carried out extensive modeling to explain the chemical differences between the three observed regions. We detected more than thirty different species. We detected SO+ and C4H suggesting that UV radiation plays an important role in the molecular chemistry of this region. We detected the typical PDR molecules CN, HCN, HCO, C2H, and c-C3H2. While the IF and the MP1 have a chemis...

  10. A Spitzer View of Mon OB1 East/NGC 2264

    CERN Document Server

    Rapson, Valerie A; Gutermuth, Robert A; Megeath, S Thomas; Allen, Thomas S; Myers, Philip C; Allen, Lori E

    2014-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 micron images of the Mon OB1 East giant molecular cloud, which contains the young star forming region NGC 2264, as well as more extended star formation. With Spitzer data and 2MASS photometry, we identify and classify young stellar objects (YSOs) with dusty circumstellar disks and/or envelopes in Mon OB1 East by their infrared-excess emission and study their distribution with respect to cloud material. We find a correlation between the local surface density of YSOs and column density of molecular gas as traced by dust extinction that is roughly described as a power law in these quantities. NGC 2264 follows a power law index of ~2.7, exhibiting a large YSO surface density for a given gas column density. Outside of NGC 2264 where the surface density of YSOs is lower, the power law is shallower and the region exhibits a larger gas column density for a YSO surface density, suggesting the star formation is more recent. In order to measure the fraction of cloud members ...

  11. MonDossierMedical.ch - The Personal Health Record for Every Geneva Citizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Aurélie; Schmid, Adian; Plaut, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    MonDossierMedical.ch is a project led by the canton of Geneva, making it possible for every patient to access his own electronic health record (EHR) and to share the medical files with his doctors. It was introduced across the canton in mid-2013, and provided to all patients free of charge. It is based on the first Swiss-wide eHealth-compliant pilot project "e-toile". The canton of Geneva developed "e-toile" as a public-private partnership together with Swiss Post and it was launched in 2011 in some of the canton's municipalities. Back then, Geneva's EHR represented the first Swiss attempt to link all healthcare professionals in the treatment chain. Today, it serves more than 6,000 patients and 400 physicians. This number is growing regularly, as well as the health care institutions (private hospitals, labs) joining the community. The project fits into the national strategy of Switzerland in establishing a national EHR by linking regional implementations like MonDossierMedical.

  12. Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS: A Database of >800 Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Schomaker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we are surrounded by objects with pre-existing motivational associations. However, these are rarely controlled for in experiments with natural stimuli. Research on natural stimuli would therefore benefit from stimuli with well-defined motivational properties; in turn, such stimuli also open new paths in research on motivation. Here we introduce a database of Motivational Objects in Natural Scenes (MONS. The database consists of 107 scenes. Each scene contains 2 to 7 objects placed at approximately equal distance from the scene center. Each scene was photographed creating 3 versions, with one object (“critical object” being replaced to vary the overall motivational value of the scene (appetitive, aversive, and neutral, while maintaining high visual similarity between the three versions. Ratings on motivation, valence, arousal and recognizability were obtained using internet-based questionnaires. Since the main objective was to provide stimuli of well-defined motivational value, three motivation scales were used: (1 Desire to own the object; (2 Approach/Avoid; (3 Desire to interact with the object. Three sets of ratings were obtained in independent sets of observers: for all 805 objects presented on a neutral background, for 321 critical objects presented in their scene context, and for the entire scenes. On the basis of the motivational ratings, objects were subdivided into aversive, neutral, and appetitive categories. The MONS database will provide a standardized basis for future studies on motivational value under realistic conditions.

  13. Tóxicos detectados en muertes relacionadas con fuegos e intoxicaciones por monóxido de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Se presentan en este trabajo las conclusiones del estudio realizado sobre los resultados de los análisis efectuados en muestras de sangre de 882 personas que resultaron fallecidas o intoxicadas en fuegos o a consecuencia de la inhalación de monóxido de carbono y/o de otros gases de combustión. En ellas se investigó la presencia de monóxido de carbono, cianuro y otros tóxicos tales como el alcohol etílico y los psicofármacos. Se realizan dos subgrupos, el de muertes produc...

  14. The Sun's New Exotic Neighbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, an international team of researchers [1] discovered a brown dwarf belonging to the 24th closest stellar system to the Sun. Brown dwarfs are intermediate objects that are neither stars nor planets. This object is the third closest brown dwarf to the Earth yet discovered, and one of the coolest, having a temperature of about 750 degrees Celsius. It orbits a very small star at about 4.5 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Its mass is estimated to be somewhere between 9 and 65 times the mass of Jupiter. At a time when astronomers are peering into the most distant Universe, looking at objects as far as 13 billion light-years away, one may think that our close neighbourhood would be very well known. Not so. Astronomers still find new star-like objects in our immediate vicinity. Using ESO's VLT, they just discovered a brown dwarf companion to the red star SCR 1845-6357, the 36th closest star to the Sun. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11a/06 New Brown Dwarf in the Solar Neighbourhood (Artist's Impression) "This newly found brown dwarf is a valuable object because its distance is well known, allowing us to determine with precision its intrinsic brightness", said team member Markus Kasper (ESO). "Moreover, from its orbital motion, we should be able in a few years to estimate its mass. These properties are vital for understanding the nature of brown dwarfs." To discover this brown dwarf, the team used the high-contrast adaptive optics NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI [2]) on ESO's Very Large Telescope, an instrument specifically developed to search for extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. In particular, the SDI camera provides additional, often very useful spectral information which can be used to determine a rough temperature for the object without follow

  15. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  16. TRIGONOMETRIC SU(N) GAUDIN MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain the eigenstates and the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model based on the quasi-classical limit of the trigonometric SU(N) chain with the periodic boundary condition.By using the quantum inverse scattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generating function of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model.

  17. The summer sun shone round me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The summer sun shone round me, The folded valley lay In a stream of sun and odour, That sultry summer day. The tall trees stood in the sunlight As still as still could be, But the deep grass sighed and rustled And bowed and beckoned me. The deep grass moved and whispered And bowed and brushed my face. It whis pered in the sunshine: The winter comes apdce.”The summer sun shone round me

  18. Sun awareness in Maltese secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, S; Gauci, A Amato; Ellul, M; Scerri, L

    2004-11-01

    Studies indicate that reducing exposure to ultraviolet light during childhood and adolescence decreases the risk of skin cancer. From a young age, children need to be educated about the sun's harmful effects on the skin and how best to protect themselves. To help in the design of school-based interventions to raise sun awareness, a school survey was carried out to identify students' stereotypes and misconceptions. A total of 965 students attending Maltese secondary schools in forms 1, 2 and 3 were surveyed in May 2002, using a structured questionnaire designed to examine students' sun-related attitudes and knowledge. A high level of sun awareness among students was demonstrated, with high scores on knowledge of the effects of the sun on the skin, knowledge of skin cancer and knowledge of sun protection. Girls were clearly more knowledgeable than boys. However, of all the students surveyed, 55% thought that a suntan made them look better and 70% thought that their friends would desire a tan. These views were commoner among the older students. Skin type and hair or eye colour had no bearing on attitudes towards tanning or sun-related knowledge. The commonest misconceptions were that 'the sun is bad for your skin only when you get sunburnt' and that 'you cannot get too much sun on a cloudy day'. Deliberate suntanning was more frequently reported by girls than by boys and by students in the higher forms. Attitude change lags behind knowledge. Future school sun awareness interventions need to take into account gender and age differences in students' attitudes and perspectives. They should aim at motivating attitude change and preventive behaviour through consistent and repeated sun-education messages that are supported by a sun-conscious school environment.

  19. Sun Jingxia Devotes Herself to Nursing Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    "I really didn’t expect that at my advanced age, I would be awarded the highest honor in international nursing circles," said Mme. Sun Jingxia, 81, who had just returned from Beijing where she received the Nightingale Medal. Wearing a light yellow suit, with a collar bordered in red, Sun is inhigh spirits, reminding people of the beauty of the setting sun. It is clear that Sun Jingxia has deep feelings as she looks at the medal which shows a relief of Florence Nightingale’s head. She spoke in her usual soft voice but with some excitement, "President Jiang

  20. Establishment of Event-specific Quantitative PCR of Genetically Modified Maize (Zea mays) Event MON863%转基因玉米MON863品系特异定量PCR方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋君; 雷绍荣; 刘勇; 尹全; 王东; 张富丽; 刘文娟; 常丽娟

    2011-01-01

    Event-specific quantitative PCR detection method of genetically modified maize (Event MON863) was established. PCR primers and Taqman probe were designed according to the flanking sequence of exogenous gene of Event MON863. Sample (CRM) containing 1% of Event MON863 (uncertainty was 10%) was tested. The results showed that the slope of standard curve obtained was in the range of -3.6-3.1. Correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99; And the amplification efficiency of this method was 90%~l 10% (averaged at 102.2%). The detection result of sample was 1.113%, closed to the true content (1%). It was proved that the sensitivity and precision of this method was relatively high and could be used to test GMO samples.%根据转基因玉米MON863外源基因的旁侧序列,设计引物和TaqMan探针,建立了转基因玉米MON863品系特异定量PCR检测方法,并采用该法检测了1%含量的MON863玉米粉末(不确定度为10%).结果显示,采用构建的方法获得的标准曲线斜率为-3.6~-3.1,相关系数大于0.99,扩增效率为102.2%,在90%~110%内.样品的定量检测结果1.113%接近已知含量1%(不确定度为10%),表明建立的转基因玉米MON863品系特异定量PCR检测方法的灵敏度和准确度高可以在日常检验中推产应用.

  1. Curiosity explores the base of Aeolis Mons, Gale crater, Mars: Recent Geological and Geochemical Mission Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Vasavada, Ashwin; Crisp, Joy; Grotzinger, John

    2016-04-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has been exploring sedimentary rocks at the foothills of Aolis Mons since August 2014. Here, an array of fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian strata that show a complex pattern of post-depositional alteration are present. This presentation will summarize the most recent geological and geochemical findings of the MSL mission. Basal outcrops that form the lowest stratigraphic unit of Aeolis Mons, the Murray formation, are characterized predominantly by mudstones with minor intercalated sandstones. The mudstone facies, originally identified at the Pahrump Hills field site, show abundant fine-scale planar laminations throughout the Murray formation succession and is interpreted to record deposition in an ancient lacustrine system in Gale crater. Interbedded cross-stratified sandstones are considered to record fluvio-deltaic incursions into the lake. The lacustrine deposits of the Murray formation are unconformably overlain by much younger sandstones of the Stimson formation. Orbital mapping and in situ observations indicate that the basal strata of the Stimson formation show complex onlap relationships with the underlying Murray formation strata signifying that there was metre-scale palaeotopographic relief on the unconformity surface upon which the Stimson accumulated. The Stimson formation itself is characterized by cross-bedded sandstones with cross-bed sets tens of centimetres in thickness. Sedimentological observations suggest that the Stimson dominantly records deposition by aeolian dunes. Curiosity has made detailed measurements of the geochemistry of the Murray and Stimson formations and associated diagenetic features. Perhaps most surprising has been the discovery of extensive silica enrichment both within mudstones of the Murray formation, perhaps of primary sedimentary or later diagenetic origin, also in as fracture-related diagenetic halos within the Stimson formation. We will describe the nature of this silica

  2. Vessels of Transfer: Allegories of Afrofuturism in Jeff Mills and Janelle Monáe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tobias c. van Veen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 228 1304 bacon 10 3 1529 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The performances, music, and subjectivities of Detroit techno producer Jeff Mills—radio turntablist The Wizard, space-and-time traveller The Messenger, founding member of Detroit techno outfit Underground Resistance and head of AXIS Records—and Janelle Monáe—android #57821, Cindi Mayweather, denizen and “cyber slavegirl” of Metropolis—are infused with the black Atlantic imaginary of Afrofuturism. We might understand Mills and Monáe as disseminating, in the words of Paul Gilroy, an Afrofuturist “cultural broadcast” that feeds “a new metaphysics of blackness” enacted “within the underground, alternative, public spaces constituted around an expressive culture . . . dominated by music” (Gilroy 1993: 83. Yet what precisely is meant by “blackness”—the black Atlantic of Gilroy’s Afrodiasporic cultural network—in a context that is Afrofuturist? Monáe’s Cindi Mayweather is an android on the run from human authorities, and Mills has become The Messenger, a time-and-space traveller returning from the future to forewarn Earth of catastrophic first contact with extraterrestials. The repetitious signature of electronic music, through its sonic affect, likewise appears to amplify nonrepresentational strategies. At stake is the role of allegory and its infrastructure: does Afrofuturism, and its incarnates, “represent” blackness? Or does it tend toward an unhinging of allegory, in which the coordinates of blackness, but also those of linear temporality and terrestial subjectivity

  3. Drosophila Mon2 couples Oskar-induced endocytosis with actin remodeling for cortical anchorage of the germ plasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tsubasa; Kato, Yasuko; Matsuda, Kazuki; Hanyu-Nakamura, Kazuko; Nakamura, Akira

    2011-06-01

    Drosophila pole (germ) plasm contains germline and abdominal determinants. Its assembly begins with the localization and translation of oskar (osk) RNA at the oocyte posterior, to which the pole plasm must be restricted for proper embryonic development. Osk stimulates endocytosis, which in turn promotes actin remodeling to form long F-actin projections at the oocyte posterior pole. Although the endocytosis-coupled actin remodeling appears to be crucial for the pole plasm anchoring, the mechanism linking Osk-induced endocytic activity and actin remodeling is unknown. Here, we report that a Golgi-endosomal protein, Mon2, acts downstream of Osk to remodel cortical actin and to anchor the pole plasm. Mon2 interacts with two actin nucleators known to be involved in osk RNA localization in the oocyte, Cappuccino (Capu) and Spire (Spir), and promotes the accumulation of the small GTPase Rho1 at the oocyte posterior. We also found that these actin regulators are required for Osk-dependent formation of long F-actin projections and cortical anchoring of pole plasm components. We propose that, in response to the Osk-mediated endocytic activation, vesicle-localized Mon2 acts as a scaffold that instructs the actin-remodeling complex to form long F-actin projections. This Mon2-mediated coupling event is crucial to restrict the pole plasm to the oocyte posterior cortex.

  4. Impact of MON863 transgenic roots is equivalent on western corn rootworm larvae for a wide range of maize phenologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Bruce E; El Khishen, Ahmed A; Vaughn, Ty T

    2009-08-01

    The effects of maize, Zea mays L., phenology on establishment, damage, and adult emergence of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, on MON863 transgenic maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein and its isoline was evaluated in field trials in 2002 and 2003. As expected, plant damage, western corn rootworm larval recovery, and adult emergence were significantly lower on MON863 than isoline maize. The average weight of larvae and adults recovered from MON863 and isoline maize was generally not significantly different. If western corn rootworm larvae were able to establish on transgenic rootworm-resistant plants, larval growth was relatively normal. Plant damage, the number of western corn rootworm larvae recovered, and adult emergence from MON863 did not significantly differ between egg hatch times from widely varying phenologies in either year of the study. Although the extractable level of Cry3Bb1 decreased significantly from vegetative (V)4 to V9 maize in previous studies, in the current study, the amount of Cry3Bb1 did not vary from V3 to R3 in a way that affected neonate survival by western corn rootworm larvae in the field.

  5. Regina vs Hubbs: Determining the Sun's Position

    CERN Document Server

    Samra, Raminder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Here I determined the Sun's position as an expert witness for crown counsel. From my calculations I found the Sun's location in the sky was such that it could not impede the driver's vision, as a result it could not have been the reason for the accused to be involved in a motor vehicle accident.

  6. Measurement of the 97Mo(n ,γ ) reaction with the DANCE γ calorimeter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. L.; Krtička, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-07-01

    Spectra of γ rays following the 97Mo(n ,γ ) reaction were measured as a function of incident neutron energy with the DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) array of 160 BaF2 scintillation detectors at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using an enriched 97Mo target. These spectra were used for the assignment of spins of the 97Mo resonances up to neutron energy En=1.7 keV, as well as in the study of photon strength functions (PSFs) in 98Mo. Analysis of the spectra with the nuclear statistical model showed that they can be well reproduced with the same PSF models which well described the γ decay following slow neutron capture in 95Mo. On the other hand, the spectra are inconsistent with PSFs describing some other experimental data in 98Mo.

  7. Pokémon Go: uma análise da realidade como entretenimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Danielle Magri Ferreira Razera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the repercussion of the Pokémon Go game to investigate the influence of the media on the behavior of the players, based on articles from the newspaper Folha de São Paulo. The critical theory of society was the theoretical basis that guided the analyzes, because it explains the social contradictions of this society of classes and their concepts about the formation of individuals. It was observed that the articles of the newspaper, mostly encourage the players in positive aspects of the game. The criticism of the game can be understood in its contradiction, because no one escapes of the cultural industry. From the analysis, it’s observed several characteristics of the cultural industry, which is the entertainment industry, making reality itself entertaining and encouraging the understanding that life don’t be taken so seriously.

  8. Abundances from disentangled component spectra: the eclipsing binary V578 Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovski, K

    2005-01-01

    Chemical abundances of the early-B type components of the binary V578 Mon are derived from disentangled component spectra. This is a pilot study showing that, even with moderately high line-broadening, metal abundances can be derived from disentangled spectra with a precision 0.1 dex, relative to sharp-lined single stars of the same spectral type. This binary is well-suited for such an assessment because of its youth as a member of the Rosette Nebula cluster NGC 2244, strengthening the expectation of an unevolved ZAMS chemical composition. The method is of interest to study rotational driven mixing in main-sequence stars, with fundamental stellar parameters known with higher accuracy in (eclipsing) binaries. The paper also includes an evaluation of the bias that might be present in disentangled spectra.

  9. Mazohizumu no mon: Masochistic and Sadistic Representations of Women in Japanese Exploitation Films and Reidissu komikku.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerald King

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available p { margin-bottom: 0.08in; }

    This article explores the representation of women in imagery through a juxtaposition of Japanese exploitation films (such as Suzuki Seijun’s 1964 Nikutai no Mon with modern day ‘ladies comics.' Both mediums share similar imagery and stylistic concepts but have a markedly different target audience/consumer base; most (sexploitation films were/are made with a male audience in mind, while ladies comics are, as the name suggests, manufactured solely for a female audience. In particular, I am interested in the use of masochistic constructs and the ways in which the use of this imagery differ when the target audience is male as opposed to female.

  10. Soja MON 87705 au Profil d’Acide Gras Amélioré

    OpenAIRE

    Canada, Publié par la Direction des aliments de Santé

    2014-01-01

    Santé Canada a avisé Monsanto Canada Inc. qu’il ne s’oppose pas à l’utilisation alimentaire du soja MON 87705 au profil d’acides gras amélioré. Le Ministère a réalisé une évaluation approfondie de cette lignée de soja conformément aux Lignes directrices sur l’évaluation de l’innocuité des aliments nouveaux. Ces lignes directrices sont fondées sur les principes admis internationalement de l’établissement de l’innocuité d’aliments comportant des caractères nouveaux. L...

  11. El origen glaciar de la aureola del volcán Arsia Mons, Marte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anguita Virella, F.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Huge lobate deposits called aureoles are covering the base of the giant Martian volcanic constructs of Tharsis dome. The origin of these structures has been a matter of debate between two competing hypotheses: volcanic landslides or mountain glaciers. Here we consider the most important of the aureoles, near Arsia Mons, concluding that the glacier model explains best the deposit features, such as the layering, the ridges (interpreted as glaciotectonic ones, and the lobated terrain. We then discuss the fit of these proposed glacier deposits in the present paleoclimatic Martian models. The aureoles could be key elements in the confirmation of the «Baker cycle» model of repeated episodes of temperate, humid, sea-dominated climates coincident in time with the outflow channels activity.Al pie de los grandes volcanes marcianos del domo de Tharsis aparecen unas formas lobuladas que han recibido el nombre de aureolas. El origen de estas estructuras ha sido objeto de un largo debate entre dos hipótesis principales que las interpretan como deslizamientos de ladera o como glaciares de montaña. En este trabajo se estudia la mejor desarrollada de estas aureolas, la de Arsia Mons, llegándose a la conclusión de que la hipótesis glaciar explica mejor las características del depósito, y en concreto la existencia de estratificación, las crestas (que se interpretan como glaciotectónicas y los terrenos lobulados. Por último se discute la conexión de estos depósitos con los modelos paleoclimáticos actuales sobre Marte, lo que lleva a la conclusión de que las aureolas deben ser depósitos glaciares recientes relacionados con repetidos episodios de clima cálido (ciclos de Baker, provocados por la acción de los canales de desbordamiento.

  12. FerryMon: Using ferries as hydrochemical observatories in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, H.; Guajardo, R.; Peierls, B.; Rossignol, K.; Braddy, J.

    2007-12-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and resourceful aquatic ecosystems on Earth. They are strongly influenced by hydrochemical stressors, including nutrient enrichment and climatic factors such as droughts, storms and floods. Clarifying how estuaries respond to these stresses will provide an understanding of how hydrologic and chemical processes control ecological condition and change of these ecosystems. This understanding will greatly benefit from a spatially and temporally-intensive observational program, which, when coupled to modeling will help predict future responses to external anthropogenic (nutrient) and climatic (hydrologic) perturbations. North Carolina's Pamlico Sound System (PSS) is the Nation's second largest estuary. It exemplifies the impacts of human development (eutrophication) and large climatic perturbations (hurricanes). We are using 3 NC DOT ferries to conduct unattended hydrochemical monitoring of water quality, habitat and ecological condition of the PSS. This program, FerryMon (www.ferrymon.org), uses temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and chlorophyll a sensors coupled to discrete sampling of nutrients, organics, photopigment and molecular indicators to assess water quality in a near real-time manner over a range of relevant physical, chemical and biological time scales. An autonomous vertical profiler (AVP), equipped with sensors similar to those on the ferries, provides complementary vertical profile data. This capability is timely given unprecedented human development and a period of elevated tropical storm and hurricane activity affecting coastal water quality and habitat conditions and fisheries resources. FerryMon is used to calibrate remotely sensed indicators of water quality (photopigments, turbidity), facilitating scaling up to the ecosystem level. It is integrated with complementary observational programs (LTERs, NEON, ORION, WATERS, SEACOOS), and it supports interdisciplinary research aimed at

  13. Expression of Cry3Bb1 in transgenic corn MON88017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hang Thu; Jehle, Johannes A

    2009-11-11

    To evaluate the effects of transgenic expression of Coleopteran-specific Bt protein Cry3Bb1 on target and nontarget insects in fields with Bt crops, it is necessary to quantify the Cry3Bb1 contents in the plants. Here, we describe the optimization and validation of the quantitative detection of Cry3Bb1 by adapting the commercially available qualitative PathoScreen double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for quantitative measurements. The optimized method had an average accuracy of 84-109% and was used to quantify the Cry3Bb1 contents of different tissues of Bt corn MON88017 at four developmental stages during three years (2005-2007) in a field trial in Germany. The Cry3Bb1 contents were determined based on both dry weight and fresh weight. Cry3Bb1 expression was highest in young leaves (228.4 microg/g dw and 35.5 microg/g fw) and lowest in pollen (3.8 microg/g fw). In root tissues, the Cry3Bb1 content declined during the growing season from 130 to 40 microg/g dw. A significant decline of Cry3Bb1 contents was also observed during the growing season in other plant tissues. The Cry3Bb1 contents of different plant tissues strongly correlated to each other. On the basis of the total corn biomass produced on 1 hectare, it was estimated that up to 905 g of Cry3Bb1 is produced per hectare Bt corn MON88017.

  14. Preservation of ancient ice at Pavonis and Arsia Mons: Tropical mountain glacier deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W.; Weiss, David K.

    2014-11-01

    Large tropical mountain glacier (TMG) deposits on the northwest flanks of the Tharsis Montes and Olympus Mons volcanoes are interpreted to be the record of ancient climates characteristic of Mars several hundred million years ago when planetary spin-axis obliquity was ~45°. During this era, polar volatiles (predominantly H2O) were mobilized and transferred equatorward, undergoing adiabatic cooling on the Tharsis volcano flanks, and precipitating snow and ice to form cold-based tropical mountain glaciers up to several kilometers in thickness. Subsequent climate change resulted in retreat, sublimation and collapse of the tropical mountain glaciers, leaving the three typical facies observed today: (1) concentric ridges, the ridged facies, interpreted as drop moraines; (2) knobby facies, interpreted as debris-dominated sublimation residue; and (3) the smooth facies, interpreted as remnant alpine glacial deposits. Ring-mold craters (RMCs) are distinctive features formed by impacts into debris-covered ice. We describe a set of relatively fresh ring-mold craters superposed on the Arsia and Pavonis Mons TMG deposits; we interpret these to indicate that the impact events penetrated a veneer of sublimation lag and excavated buried remnant glacial ice, despite the lack of detection of buried ice by orbital radar instruments. The diameter distribution of the RMCs suggest that the remnant ice lies at a depth of at least 16 m. The TMG deposit ages suggest that these ice deposits date from a period in the range of 125-220 million years before the present; the remnant ice may thus preserve records of the ancient atmospheric gas content and microbiota, as is common in terrestrial glacial ice. Preservation of this ice and the lack of any associated fluvial features suggest that the post-glacial climate has been cold, and related surface temperatures have not been sufficient to bring the buried deposits to the melting point of water.

  15. More diversity for volcanism: Ceres' Ahuna Mons from Dawn's Framing Camera data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesch, Ottaviano; Platz, Thomas; Schenk, Paul M.; McFadden, Lucy Ann; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Quick, Lynnae C.; Byrne, Shane; Preusker, Frank; O'Brien, David P.; Schmedemann, Nico; Williams, David A.; Li, Jian-Yang; Bland, Michael T.; Hiesinger, Harald; Kneissl, Thomas; Neesemann, Adrian; Schaefer, Michael; Pasckert, Jan Hendrik; Schmidt, Britney E.; Buczkowski, Debra; Sykes, Mark V.; Nathues, Andreas; Roatsch, Thomas; Hoffmann, Martin; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-10-01

    In the last decades, the exploration of planets and moons by spacecraft revealed a variety of volcanic expressions. The recent visit to dwarf planet Ceres by the Dawn spacecraft is shedding light on a possible new, compositionally different volcanism falling into the cryovolcanism field. The dwarf planet's properties, i.e., low bulk density, low internal temperatures and volatile-rich composition relative to terrestrial planets, would only generate melts composed of brines. On the other hand, Ceres' carbonate- and clay-rich surface mineralogy suggests a cryovolcanism different from that of water-ice dominated icy satellites.The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) provides a complete global dataset for photo-geological investigations of Ceres, including a 35 m/pixel visible coverage, a 135 m/pixel multi-spectral coverage, and a 135 m/pixel global digital elevation model from stereo-photogrammetry. Domical landforms up to a few kilometers in elevation and tens of kilometers in diameter (referred to as tholi and montes) are found scattered across Ceres' surface. Ahuna Mons is a 4-km topographic high distinct in its shape and morphology from other topographic features on Ceres. The mountain consists of two morphological units: a flank unit of unconsolidated material and a fractured (i.e., consolidated) summit unit. Steep slopes at the angle of repose characterize the flank unit, whereas the summit unit has a convex shape. The flank and summit morphologies and the morphometry of the mountain can be explained by the formation of a cryovolcanic dome, analogous to a silicic volcanic dome found on terrestrial planets. Albedo and crater size-frequency distribution measurements from FC imagery reveal geologically-recent activity on Ahuna Mons, occurring sometime within the last few hundreds Myr. The characteristics of and implications for this possible cryomagma for Ceres thermal and chemical evolution will be discussed.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin.

  17. Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Patla, Bijunath

    2007-01-01

    The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discusse...

  18. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  19. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  20. Mammalian Mon2/Ysl2 regulates endosome-to-Golgi trafficking but possesses no guanine nucleotide exchange activity toward Arl1 GTPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Divyanshu; Boh, Boon Kim; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Li; Cornvik, Tobias Carl; Hong, Wanjin; Lu, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Arl1 is a member of Arf family small GTPases that is essential for the organization and function of Golgi complex. Mon2/Ysl2, which shares significant homology with Sec7 family Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors, was poorly characterized in mammalian cells. Here, we report the first in depth characterization of mammalian Mon2. We found that Mon2 localized to trans-Golgi network which was dependent on both its N and C termini. The depletion of Mon2 did not affect the Golgi localized or cellular active form of Arl1. Furthermore, our in vitro assay demonstrated that recombinant Mon2 did not promote guanine nucleotide exchange of Arl1. Therefore, our results suggest that Mon2 could be neither necessary nor sufficient for the guanine nucleotide exchange of Arl1. We demonstrated that Mon2 was involved in endosome-to-Golgi trafficking as its depletion accelerated the delivery of furin and CI-M6PR to Golgi after endocytosis.

  1. The Sun and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2009-01-01

    Without the Sun, all life on Earth would perish. But what exactly do we know about this star that lights, heats, and powers Earth? Actually, we know quite a lot, thanks mainly to a host of eager solar observers. Looking directly at the Sun is EXTREMELY hazardous. But many astronomers, both professional and amateur, have found ways to view the Sun safely to learn about it. You, too, can view the Sun in all of its glorious detail. Some of the newest, most exciting telescopes on the market are affordable to amateur astronomers or even just curious sky watchers, and with this guide to what the Sun has to offer, including sunspots, prominences, and flares, plus reviews of the latest instruments for seeing and capturing images of the Sun, you can contribute to humankind’s knowledge of this immense ball of glowing gases that gives us all life. For a complete guide to Sun viewing, see also Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them (2007) by Martin Mobberley in this same series.

  2. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  3. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SunPy Community; Mumford, Stuart J.; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J.; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M.; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  4. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.

    1996-07-01

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar

  5. The Sun's dusty interstellar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's dusty interstellar environment Interstellar dust from our immediate interstellar neighborhood travels through the solar system at speeds of ca. 26 km/s: the relative speed of the solar system with respect to the local interstellar cloud. On its way, its trajectories are altered by several forces like the solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz force. The latter is due to the charged dust particles that fly through the interplanetary magnetic field. These trajectories differ per particle type and size and lead to varying fluxes and directions of the flow inside of the solar system that depend on location but also on phase in the solar cycle. Hence, these fluxes and directions depend strongly on the configuration of the inner regions and outer regions of the heliosphere. Several missions have measured this dust in the solar system directly. The Ulysses dust detector data encompasses 16 years of intestellar dust fluxes and approximate directions, Stardust captured returned to Earth a few of these particles sucessfully, and finally the Cassini dust detector allowed for compositional information to be obtained from the impacts on the instrument. In this talk, we give an overview of the current status of interstellar dust research through the measurements made inside of the solar system, and we put them in perspective to the knowledge obtained from more classical astronomical means. In special, we focus on the interaction of the dust with the interplanetary magnetic field, and on what we learn about the dust (and the fields) by comparing the available dust data to computer simulations of dust trajectories. Finally, we synthesize the different methods of observation, their results, and give a preview on new research opportunities in the coming year(s).

  6. Perspectives on the Interior of the Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Μ. Chitre

    2000-09-01

    The interior of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions inside the Sun with the help of structure equations governing its equilibrium and with the powerful observational tools provided by the neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies. The helioseismic data show that the internal constitution of the Sun can be adequately represented by a standard solar model. It turns out that a cooler solar core is not a viable solution for the measured deficit of neutrino fluxes, and the resolution of the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

  7. The Jovian period in the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    The 41-year measurements of the Doppler effect of the photosphere performed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, discovered two periods of global oscillations of the Sun: 9600.606(12) s and 9597.929(15) s. Their beat period, 398.4(2.9) d, well agrees with a synodic orbital period of Jupiter, PJ = 398.9 d, raising a new problem for solar physics, cosmogony and cosmology. A hypothesis is advanced that the PJ beating of the Sun is induced by gravitation of Jupiter, revolving in a privileged reference system "the Sun - the Earth".

  8. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasson, Jean L.; Hendrickx, Olivier; Marin, Jean-Luc

    2017-07-01

    The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  9. Bistand til risikovurdering (evt. ændringer af konklusioner af tidligere risikovurdering) . Zea mays (MON863; MON863x810). Opdateret rammenotat samt supplerende oplysninger til sagen. Modtaget 28-10-2004, deadline: snarest muligt, svar 01-11-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Morten Tune; Damgaard, Christian; Kjellsson, Gøsta

    2004-01-01

    "Vedr. C/DE/02/09: Om Monsantos svar på Pusztai’s kritik giver anledning til ændring af DMU’s kommentarer til GM-majs MON863. Uanset om effekterne er tilfældige elller ej, er størrelsen af de mulige effekter på rotternes sundhed uden betydning i relation til den økologiske risikovurdering. Dermed...

  10. Bistand til risikovurdering (evt. ændringer af konklusioner af tidligere risikovurdering) . Zea mays (MON863; MON863x810). Opdateret rammenotat samt supplerende oplysninger til sagen. Modtaget 28-10-2004, deadline: snarest muligt, svar 01-11-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Morten Tune; Damgaard, Christian; Kjellsson, Gøsta

    2004-01-01

    "Vedr. C/DE/02/09: Om Monsantos svar på Pusztai’s kritik giver anledning til ændring af DMU’s kommentarer til GM-majs MON863. Uanset om effekterne er tilfældige elller ej, er størrelsen af de mulige effekter på rotternes sundhed uden betydning i relation til den økologiske risikovurdering. Dermed...

  11. Recurrence rate and magma effusion rate for the latest volcanism on Arsia Mons, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jacob A.; Wilson, James A.; Connor, Charles B.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Kiyosugi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Magmatism and volcanism have evolved the Martian lithosphere, surface, and climate throughout the history of Mars. Constraining the rates of magma generation and timing of volcanism on the surface clarifies the ways in which magma and volcanic activity have shaped these Martian systems. The ages of lava flows on other planets are often estimated using impact crater counts, assuming that the number and size-distribution of impact craters per unit area reflect the time the lava flow has been on the surface and exposed to potential impacts. Here we show that impact crater age model uncertainty is reduced by adding stratigraphic information observed at locations where neighboring lavas abut each other, and demonstrate the significance of this reduction in age uncertainty for understanding the history of a volcanic field comprising 29 vents in the 110-km-diameter caldera of Arsia Mons, Mars. Each vent within this caldera produced lava flows several to tens of kilometers in length; these vents are likely among the youngest on Mars, since no impact craters in their lava flows are larger than 1 km in diameter. First, we modeled the age of each vent with impact crater counts performed on their corresponding lava flows and found very large age uncertainties for the ages of individual vents, often spanning the estimated age for the entire volcanic field. The age model derived from impact crater counts alone is broad and unimodal, with estimated peak activity in the field around 130 Ma. Next we applied our volcano event age model (VEAM), which uses a directed graph of stratigraphic relationships and random sampling of the impact crater age determinations to create alternative age models. Monte Carlo simulation was used to create 10,000 possible vent age sets. The recurrence rate of volcanism is calculated for each possible age set, and these rates are combined to calculate the median recurrence rate of all simulations. Applying this approach to the 29 volcanic vents, volcanism

  12. Finding the lost siblings of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Feltzing, Sofia; Ruchti, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a spectral analysis on 18 stars solar sibling candidate. We found that only one one of the candidateshas solar metallicity and at the same time might have an age comparable to that of the Sun.

  13. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and ... other diseases. Learn more here. Other Types of Radiation Exposure Not all types of radiation have been ...

  14. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  15. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  16. Nilaja Sun's "No Child...": Reflections on Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nilaja; Alexander, Phillip; Huldeen, Branden; Russell, Ron; Friedman, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Nilaja Sun's groundbreaking one-woman show about a TA, her students, and her school, and includes interviews with the author/performer, an excerpt of the work, and a discussion of the organization behind it.

  17. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  18. Optimal control of sun tracking solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the modern control theory to derive an optimal sun tracking control for a point focusing solar concentrator is presented. A standard tracking problem converted to regulator problem using a sun rate input achieves an almost zero steady state tracking error with the optimal control formulation. However, these control techniques are costly because optimal type algorithms require large computing systems, thus they will be used mainly as comparison standards for other types of control algorithms and help in their development.

  19. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  20. Investigation of Anomalous Terrains on the West Flank of Olympus Mons using CRISM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelos, K. D.; Bridges, N. T.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Seelos, F. P.; Murchie, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The west flank of the Olympus Mons volcano hosts an anomalous linear chain of semicircular terrains. We report here analyses of these features using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and other instruments. The terrains appear bright in both daytime and nighttime data from the Thermal Emission Imaging Experiment (THEMIS) and have moderate thermal inertia, contrasting with the regional dust mantle. They have no observable topographic relief, and morphologically appear inconsistent with volcanic or sedimentary deposits. Several forms of aeolian activity are evident, including yardangs, dunes, and scour-like features. However, the yardangs and scours appear to predate the terrains, and superposed dunes, while ubiquitous, do not fully account for the spectral and morphologic properties. Targeted hyperspectral visible and near infrared data from CRISM (20-40 m/pixel, ~0.4 to 4 μm) of the terrains show distinct circumferential color zonation and internal banding. Differences in spectral slope and depth of the 3 μm water absorption are apparent within these color units. Relatively low albedo materials that comprise small dune fields are superposed on variably higher albedo areas. Both of these materials exhibit negative infrared spectral slopes, but it is most pronounced in the areas with highest albedo. Around the perimeter of the terrains are two albedo zones that appear transitional with the surrounding high albedo dust cover, progressively darkening inward. Along with the overall decrease in albedo, however, is an apparent increase in the depth of the 3 μm hydration band. Spectral features indicative of specific hydrated minerals (e.g, sulfates, phyllosilicates) have not been observed, but an enhanced 3 μm absorption could indicate that these anomalous terrains were influenced by ephemeral water at some point in the near past. Recent aqueous activity on the largest volcano on Mars may represent a unique opportunity for

  1. The atmospheric temperatures over Olympus Mons on Mars: An atmospheric hot ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenberg, P.; Formisano, V.; Rinaldi, G.; Geminale, A.

    2010-05-01

    We study the thermal fields over Olympus Mons separating seasons (northern spring and summer against southern spring and summer) and local time observations (day side versus night side). Temperature vertical profiles retrieved from Planetary Fourier Spectrometer on board Mars Express (PFS-MEX) data have been used. In many orbits (running north to south along a meridian) passing over the top of the volcano there is evidence of a hot air on top of the volcano, of two enhancement of the air temperature both north and south of it and in between a collar of air that is colder than nearby at low altitudes, and warmer than nearby at high altitudes. Mapping together many orbits passing over or near the volcano we find that the hot air has the tendency to form an hot ring around it. This hot structure occurs mostly between LT = 10.00 and 15.00 and during the northern summer. Distance of the hot structure from the top of the volcano is about 600 km (10° of latitude). The hot atmospheric region is 300-420 km (5-7°) wide. Hot ring temperature contrasts of about 40 K occur at 2 km above the surface and decrease to 20 K at 5 km and to 10 K at 10 km. The atmospheric circulation over an area of 40° × 40° (latitudes and longitudes) is affected by the topography and the presence of Olympus Mons (-133°W, 18°N). We discuss also the thermal stability of the atmosphere over the selected area using the potential temperatures. The temperature field over the top of the volcano shows unstable atmosphere within 10 km from the surface. Finally, we interpret the hot temperatures around volcano as an adiabatic compression of down-welling branch coming from over the top of volcano. Different air temperature profiles are observed in the same seasons during the night, or in different seasons. In northern spring-summer during the night the isothermal contours do not show the presence of the volcano until we reach close to the surface very much, where a thermal inversion is observed. The

  2. La voix off au féminin : Hiroshima mon amour et Aurélia Steiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cazenave

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Une étude comparée du grand film moderne d’Alain Resnais, Hiroshima mon amour (1959, et du dyptique de Marguerite Duras, Aurélia Steiner (1979, laisse entrevoir une filiation entre deux films que vingt ans séparent et où s’entrecroisent un certain nombre de fils conducteurs : le lieu et la parole ; l’histoire et la mémoire ; la voix-off au féminin et l’irreprésentable. Il s’agira donc de penser ces deux œuvres cinématographiques à partir du rapport entre le parler féminin et la représentation du passé, soit la tonte des femmes au moment de la libération dans Hiroshima mon amour, soit l’extermination des Juifs d’Europe dans Aurélia Steiner.

  3. Elektroninio parašo panaudojimo verslo įmonėse modelio sukūrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Daugėlienė, Giedrė

    2012-01-01

    Magistro baigiamajame darbe „Elektroninio parašo panaudojimo verslo įmonėse modelio sukūrimas“ išanalizuota el. parašo naudojimo problematika, el. parašo bei el. dokumentų klasifikacinės sistemos bei parengtas el. parašo taikymo versle modelis, kuris patikrintas empiriniu tyrimu. Pirmoje darbo dalyje išanalizuota el. dokumentų raida ir jų klasifikacinės sistemos. Antrajame skyriuje atlikta el. parašo taikymo verslo įmonėse sisteminė analizė: apibrėžiama el. parašo sąvoka, rūšys, el. parašo p...

  4. The first four-color photometric investigation of the W UMa type contact binary V868 Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Zhou; Jiajia, He; Jia, Zhang; Linqiao, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The first four-color light curves of V868 Mon in the $B$ $V$ $R_c$ and $I_c$ bands are presented and analyzed by using the Wilson-Devinney method of the 2013 version. It is discovered that V868 Mon is an A-subtype contact binary (f=$58.9\\,\\%$) with a large temperature difference of 916$K$ between the two components. Using the eight new times of light minimum determined by the authors together with those collected from literatures, the authors found that the general trend of the observed-calculate ($O$-$C$) curve shows a upward parabolic variation that corresponds to a long-term increase in the orbital period at a rate of $dP/dt=9.38\\times{10^{-7}}day\\cdot year^{-1}$. The continuous increase may be caused by a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one.

  5. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  6. Orientation in birds. The sun compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Koenig, K; Ganzhorn, J U; Ranvaud, R

    1991-01-01

    The sun compass was discovered by G. Kramer in caged birds showing migratory restlessness. Subsequent experiments with caged birds employing directional training and clock shifts, carried out by Hoffman and Schmidt-Koenig, showed that the sun azimuth is used, and the sun altitude ignored. In the laboratory, McDonald found the accuracy to be +/- 3 degrees(-)+/- 5 degrees. According to Hoffmann and Schmidt-Koenig, caged birds trained at medium northern latitudes were able to allow for the sun's apparent movement north of the arctic circle, but not in equatorial and trans-equatorial latitudes. In homing experiments, and employing clock shifts, Schmidt-Koenig demonstrated that the sun compass is used by homing pigeons during initial orientation. This finding is the principal evidence for the existence of a map-and-compass navigational system. Pigeons living in equatorial latitudes utilize the sun compass even under the extreme solar conditions of equinox, achieving angular resolution of about 3 degrees in homing experiments. According to preliminary analyses, the homing pigeons' ephemerides are retarded by several weeks (Ranvaud, Schmidt-Koenig, Ganzhorn et al.).

  7. SunPy: Solar Physics in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2015-04-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community as well as further afield. This has resulted in a wide array of software packages useful for scientific computing, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to machine learning (scifitlearn), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy aims to provide required specialised software for analysing solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. The current version is 0.5 with 0.6 expected to be released later this year. SunPy provides solar data access through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It supports common data types from major solar missions such as images (SDO/AIA, STEREO, PROBA2/SWAP etc.), time series (GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, PROBA2/LYRA), and radio spectra (e-Callisto, STEREO/WAVES). SunPy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate SunPy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing SunPy.

  8. Location and extent of recently active lava flows on the eastern flank of Idunn Mons on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Incecco, Piero; Mueller, Nils; Helbert, Joern; D'Amore, Mario

    2016-10-01

    The eastern flank of Idunn Mons, Imdr Regio's single large volcano, was identified in VIRTIS data as one of the regions with relatively high values of thermal emissivity at 1 μm wavelength. Our study intends to identify location and extent of the sources of such anomalies, thus the lava flows responsible for the relatively high emissivity observed by VIRTIS over the eastern flank of Idunn Mons. We perform a simulation iterating the geologic mapping made over Magellan radar images of the same area with modeling of the blurring caused by the scattering of the 1 μm radiation in the atmosphere. At every iteration, we map the lava flow units in the surroundings of Idunn Mons and we assign each unit an assumed value of emissivity. We observed a good match between the mapped flows and the clusters resulting from the consistency of the mapped lava flows through the ISO clustering analysis. We tested eight different configurations, calculating the total RMS error compared to VIRTIS observations. The best-fit configuration is that where we assigned high values of emissivity to the flank lava flows. Results also show a correlation between the ISO clustering analysis and the best-fit configuration. We reconstructed the post-eruption stratigraphy of the eastern flank of Idunn Mons, displaying the three flank lava flows units likely responsible for the relatively high 1 μm emissivity anomalies observed by VIRTIS. The average microwave emissivity provides a further evidence of the basaltic composition of the mapped lava flows.

  9. Increased upper critical field for nanocrystalline MoN thin films deposited on AlN buffered substrates at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, R.; Thanikai Arasu, A. V.; Amaladass, E. P.; Vaidhyanathan, L. S.; Baisnab, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Molybdenum nitride (MoN) thin films have been deposited using reactive DC magnetron sputtering on aluminum nitride buffered oxidized silicon substrates at ambient temperature. GIXRD of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited under similar conditions has revealed the formation of wurtzite phase AlN. GIXRD characterization of molybdenum thin films deposited on AlN buffered oxidized silicon substrates has indicated the formation of nanocrystalline MoN thin films. The electrical resistivity measurements indicate MoN thin films have a superconducting transition temperature of ~8 K. The minimum transition width of the MoN thin film is 0.05 K at 0 T. The inferred upper critical field B c2(0) for these nanocrystalline MoN thin films obtained by fitting the temperature dependence of critical field with Werthamer, Helfand and Hohenberg theory lies in the range of 17-18 T which is the highest reported in literature for MoN thin films.

  10. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants - II. AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałan, Cezary; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the elemental abundances of symbiotic giants is essential to address the role of chemical composition in the evolution of symbiotic binaries, to map their parent population, and to trace their mass transfer history. However, there are few symbiotic giants for which the photospheric abundances are fairly well determined. This is the second in a series of papers on chemical composition of symbiotic giants determined from high-resolution (R ˜ 50 000) near-IR spectra. Results are presented for the late-type giant star in the AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco systems. Spectrum synthesis employing standard local thermal equilibrium (LTE) analysis and stellar atmosphere models were used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis resulted in sub-solar metallicities in BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco by [Fe/H] ˜ -0.3 or -0.5 depending on the value of microturbulence. AE Ara shows metallicity closer to solar by ˜ 0.2 dex. The enrichment in 14N isotope found in all these objects indicates that the giants have experienced the first dredge-up. In the case of BX Mon first dredge-up is also confirmed by the low 12C/13C isotopic ratio of ˜ 8.

  11. Kajian Transformasi Visual Desain Karakter Eevee pada Game Pokémon Series Generasi I-V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Isma Aryani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pokémon game series is a representation of the media culture that offers a world of simulation by creating signs through storyline, gameplay, environment, as well as game characters, so that it becomes a part of digital culture. The design of Pokémon character, in this case is Eevee, is able to generate its fans curiosity and addiction resulted from the application of Manga-matrix method, color theory and morphological-forced-connections technique through the visual transformation of character design itself. This study is a qualitative research that conducted through the application of Manga-matrix principle including internal and external factors on the characters, similarity analysis or the relation among the theories connected to visual element and the interpretation of character meaning, and the combination of character design theories as the reflection of the Satoshi Tajiri as well as Japanese society’s ideology or thinking pattern in cultural implementation. The analysis shows that Eevee’s changing form still contains similarity with its existence of additional elements creates variety of forms in Eevee’s character visualization. Those Eevee’s form variety becomes the essence of the creation of the character as the media that introduces the visual transformation of character design in a game, in this matter is the Pokémon game series.

  12. Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on liver function assessed with the LiMON in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Mehmet Turan; Memis, Dilek; Sezer, Y Atakan; Atalay, Meltem; Karakoc, Abdullah; Sut, Necdet

    2011-06-01

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Our aim was to assess the effects of IAH on liver function using the noninvasive liver function monitoring system LiMON and to assess the prognostic value of IAP in critically ill patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of critically ill patients who were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). The IAP and indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR) measurements were made within 24 hours after admission to the ICU and repeated 12 hours later. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured via a Foley bladder catheter, and ICG elimination tests were conducted concurrently using the LiMON. We included 30 critically ill patients (17 women and 13 men aged 28-89 yr) in our analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the baseline IAP values were significantly higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (19.38 [standard deviation; SD 2.08] v. 13.07 [SD 0.99]). The twelfth-hour IAP values were higher than baseline measurements among nonsurvivors (21.50 [SD 1.96]) and lower than baseline measurements among survivors (11.71 [SD 1.54]); the difference between groups was significant (p LiMON is a good predictor of the effects of IAP on liver function and, thus, can be recommended for the evaluation of critically ill patients.

  13. Tribological Properties of Mo-N Hard Coatings on Ti6Al4V by Double Glow Discharge Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuyan LI; Bin TANG; Junde PAN; Daoxin LIU; Zhong XU

    2003-01-01

    Mo-N hard coatings on Ti6Al4V were formed using double glow discharge technique. The fundamental coating properties,such as the phase, hardness and elastic modulus were investigated. The tribological performances of the coatings in dry wear condition were studied by means of ball-on-disc wear machine. The experimental results showed that the thickness of the Mo-N hard coating was about 10 μm. The coating was single fcc γ-Mo2N phase with (200) preferred orientation. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the coating was 13.80 GPa and 261.65 GPa respectively. The surface treatment enhanced the hardness and elastic modulus of the surface of Ti6Al4V base greatly. With GCr15 slider ball, the friction coefficient of the Mo-N hard coatingwas in the range of 0.56~0.65 at the steady state. Though the coating did not show friction reducing effect, it improved the wear resistance of Ti6Al4V greatly.

  14. From forced collapse to H ii region expansion in Mon R2: Envelope density structure and age determination with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Didelon, P; Tremblin, P; Hill, T; Hony, S; Hennemann, M; Hennebelle, P; Anderson, L D; Galliano, F; Schneider, N; Rayner, T; Rygl, K; Louvet, F; Zavagno, A; Konyves, V; Sauvage, M; Andre, Ph; Bontemps, S; Peretto, N; Griffin, M; Gonzalez, M; Lebouteiller, V; Arzoumanian, D; Benedettini, M; Di Francesco, J; Menshchikov, A; Minier, V; Luong, Q Nguyen; Bernard, J -P; Palmeirim, P; Pezzuto, S; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Russeil, D; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G J

    2015-01-01

    The surroundings of HII regions can have a profound influence on their development, morphology, and evolution. This paper explores the effect of the environment on H II regions in the MonR2 molecular cloud. We aim to investigate the density structure of envelopes surrounding HII regions and to determine their collapse and ionisation expansion ages. The Mon R2 molecular cloud is an ideal target since it hosts an H II region association. Column density and temperature images derived from Herschel data were used together to model the structure of HII bubbles and their surrounding envelopes. The resulting observational constraints were used to follow the development of the Mon R2 ionised regions with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The four hot bubbles associated with H II regions are surrounded by dense, cold, and neutral gas envelopes. The radial density profiles are reminiscent of those of low-mass protostellar envelopes. The inner parts of envelopes of all four HII regions could be free-fal...

  15. Study of Eclipsing Binary and Multiple Systems in OB Associations: I. Ori OB1a - IM Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Bakis, H; Bilir, S; Mikulasek, Z; Zejda, M; Yaz, E; Demircan, O; Bulut, I

    2011-01-01

    All available photometric and spectroscopic observations were collected and used as the basis of a detailed analysis of the close binary IM Mon. The orbital period of the binary was refined to 1.19024249(0.00000014) days. The Roche equipotentials, fractional luminosities (in (B, V) and H_p bands) and fractional radii for the component stars in addition to mass ratio q, inclination i of the orbit and the effective temperature T_eff of the secondary cooler less massive component were obtained by the analysis of light curves. IM Mon is classified to be a detached binary system in contrast to the contact configuration estimations in the literature. The absolute parameters of IM Mon were derived by the simultaneous solutions of light and radial velocity curves as M_1,2=5.50(0.24)M_o and 3.32(0.16)M_o, R1,2=3.15(0.04)R_o and 2.36(0.03)R_o, T_eff1,2=17500(350) K and 14500(550) K implying spectral types of B4 and B6.5 ZAMS stars for the primary and secondary components respectively. The modelling of the high resoluti...

  16. A quantitative study of O stars in NGC2244 and the Mon OB2 association

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Rauw, G; Hillier, D J

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to determine the stellar and wind properties of seven O stars in the cluster NGC2244 and three O stars in the OB association MonOB2. These properties give us insight into the mass loss rates of O stars, allow us to check the validity of rotational mixing in massive stars, and to better understand the effects of the ionizing flux and wind mechanical energy release on the surrounding interstellar medium and its influence on triggered star formation. We collect optical and UV spectra of the target stars which are analyzed by means of atmosphere models computed with the code CMFGEN. The spectra of binary stars are disentangled and the components are studied separately. All stars have an evolutionary age less than 5 million years, with the most massive stars being among the youngest. Nitrogen surface abundances show no clear relation with projected rotational velocities. Binaries and single stars show the same range of enrichment. This is attributed to the youth and/or wide separation of the binary sys...

  17. Field Evaluation of the Asian Corn Borer Control in Hybrid of Transgenic Maize Event MON 810

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; WEN Li-ping; BAI Shu-xiong; ZHOU Da-rong; ZHU Qing-hua

    2003-01-01

    In this study,a transgenic Bt maize hybrid(event MON 810 from Monsanto Company)expressing Cry1Ab protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)and its negative isoline hybrid were evaluatrial. Maize plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of Asian corn borer at the mid-whorl(firstgeneration),pre-tassel(first-and/or second-generation),and silk(second-generation)growth stages.The transgenic Bt maize hybrid sustained significantly less leaf feeding damage(rating 1.0±0.0)than its negative isoline control(rating 7.3±0.1).With the Bt maize,1.3-6.8%of plants were damaged by corn borer tunneling with<0.5 cm tunneling per stalk under different levels of infestation,compared with 100%of plants damaged with 9.3-25.0 cm tunneling per stalk for the negative isoline control. On average,transgenic Bt maize hybrids had only 0.01-0.05 tunnels per stalk and no stems were broken.In contrast,the negative isoline control had 3.11-8.36 tunnels per stalk and 31.2-73.9% of stems broken.Yields were significantly higher in trahsgenic Bt maize than in the control. These results demonstrate that transgenic Bt maize can significantly minimize yield losses caused by the Asian corn borer through resistance to the first-and second-generation larvae.

  18. mHealthMon: toward energy-efficient and distributed mobile health monitoring using parallel offloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnn, Jong Hoon; Potkonjak, Miodrag

    2013-10-01

    Although mobile health monitoring where mobile sensors continuously gather, process, and update sensor readings (e.g. vital signals) from patient's sensors is emerging, little effort has been investigated in an energy-efficient management of sensor information gathering and processing. Mobile health monitoring with the focus of energy consumption may instead be holistically analyzed and systematically designed as a global solution to optimization subproblems. This paper presents an attempt to decompose the very complex mobile health monitoring system whose layer in the system corresponds to decomposed subproblems, and interfaces between them are quantified as functions of the optimization variables in order to orchestrate the subproblems. We propose a distributed and energy-saving mobile health platform, called mHealthMon where mobile users publish/access sensor data via a cloud computing-based distributed P2P overlay network. The key objective is to satisfy the mobile health monitoring application's quality of service requirements by modeling each subsystem: mobile clients with medical sensors, wireless network medium, and distributed cloud services. By simulations based on experimental data, we present the proposed system can achieve up to 10.1 times more energy-efficient and 20.2 times faster compared to a standalone mobile health monitoring application, in various mobile health monitoring scenarios applying a realistic mobility model.

  19. Incubation temperature, morphology and performance in loggerhead (Caretta caretta turtle hatchlings from Mon Repos, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Sim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine turtles are vulnerable to climate change because their life history and reproduction are tied to environmental temperatures. The egg incubation stage is arguably the most vulnerable stage, because marine turtle eggs require a narrow range of temperatures for successful incubation. Additionally, incubation temperature affects sex, emergence success, morphology and locomotor performance of hatchlings. Hatchlings often experience high rates of predation in the first few hours of their life, and increased size or locomotor ability may improve their chances of survival. Between 2010 and 2013 we monitored the temperature of loggerhead (Caretta caretta; Linnaeus 1758 turtle nests at Mon Repos Rookery, and used these data to calculate a mean three day maximum temperature (T3dm for each nest. We calculated the hatching and emergence success for each nest, then measured the mass, size and locomotor performance of hatchlings that emerged from those nests. Nests with a T3dm greater than 34°C experienced a lower emergence success and produced smaller hatchlings than nests with a T3dm lower than 34°C. Hatchlings from nests with a T3dm below 34°C performed better in crawling and swimming trials than hatchlings from nests with a T3dm above 34°C. Thus even non-lethal increases in global temperatures have the potential to detrimentally affect fitness and survival of marine turtle hatchlings.

  20. Conciencia hispana y tradición monástica en la Vita Fructuosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de la Peña, Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of Vita Fructuosi, probably a monk follower of Saint Fructuosus of Braga in the area of Gallaecia, shows in this biography an evident sense of rooting in the monastic Tradition, specially in the Egyptianeastern one, and also he declares a strong Roman-Catholic and Hispanic conscience. As the highest expression of it, he presents Saint Fructuosus with the same merits of the Egyptian monks and, joined to Saint Isidorus of Seville, as a light for Spain, for the Western and for the whole Catholic Church: they both are two causes of glory for a Visigothic Spain which fells herself as Roman and Catholic.El autor de la Vita Fructuosi, al parecer un monje discípulo de San Fructuoso de Braga en el área de Gallaecia, muestra en esta biografía un claro sentido de arraigo en la Tradición monástica, especialmente egipcio-oriental, y manifiesta una fuerte conciencia romano-católica e hispana. Como máxima expresión de todo ello, presenta a San Fructuoso a la altura de los méritos de los monjes egipcios y, junto con San Isidoro de Sevilla, como una lumbrera de Hispania, del Occidente y de toda la Iglesia Católica: ambos son dos motivos de gloria de la Hispania visigótica que se siente romana y católica.

  1. MONS on the Danish Roemer satellite Measuring Oscillations in Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    2001-01-01

    MONS is the scientific project on the Danish Roemer satellite mission, which is being developed as part of the Danish Small Satellite Programme. The principal goal is to study solar-like oscillations in around 20 bright stars, with a precision that in the best cases will be limited only by the intrinsic stellar `noise'. The baseline orbit, a so-called Molniya orbit, allows access to essentially the entire sky during the planned 2-year mission. The main instrument is a short-focus reflecting telescope with an aperture of 32 cm, making two-colour measurements. A focused Field Monitor will be used to detect and correct for possible faint variable stars of substantial amplitude near the main target. In addition the Field Monitor, and the Star Trackers on the platform, may be used to observe a broad range of variable phenomena. The project has concluded the Systems Definition Phase by a successful review, and launch is scheduled for the middle of 2005.

  2. Spatial and Alignment Analyses for a field of Small Volcanic Vents South of Pavonis Mons Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Glaze, L. S.; Greeley, R.; Hauber, E.; Baloga, S. M.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Williams, D. A.; Glotch, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    The Tharsis province of Mars displays a variety of small volcanic vent (10s krn in diameter) morphologies. These features were identified in Mariner and Viking images [1-4], and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data show them to be more abundant than originally observed [5,6]. Recent studies are classifying their diverse morphologies [7-9]. Building on this work, we are mapping the location of small volcanic vents (small-vents) in the Tharsis province using MOLA, Thermal Emission Imaging System, and High Resolution Stereo Camera data [10]. Here we report on a preliminary study of the spatial and alignment relationships between small-vents south of Pavonis Mons, as determined by nearest neighbor and two-point azimuth statistical analyses. Terrestrial monogenetic volcanic fields display four fundamental characteristics: 1) recurrence rates of eruptions,2 ) vent abundance, 3) vent distribution, and 4) tectonic relationships [11]. While understanding recurrence rates typically requires field measurements, insight into vent abundance, distribution, and tectonic relationships can be established by mapping of remotely sensed data, and subsequent application of spatial statistical studies [11,12], the goal of which is to link the distribution of vents to causal processes.

  3. Immunological and metabolomic impacts of administration of Cry1Ab protein and MON 810 maize in mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Adel-Patient

    Full Text Available We have investigated the immunological and metabolomic impacts of Cry1Ab administration to mice, either as a purified protein or as the Cry1Ab-expressing genetically modified (GM MON810 maize. Humoral and cellular specific immune responses induced in BALB/cJ mice after intra-gastric (i.g. or intra-peritoneal (i.p. administration of purified Cry1Ab were analyzed and compared with those induced by proteins of various immunogenic and allergic potencies. Possible unintended effects of the genetic modification on the pattern of expression of maize natural allergens were studied using IgE-immunoblot and sera from maize-allergic patients. Mice were experimentally sensitized (i.g. or i.p. route with protein extracts from GM or non-GM maize, and then anti-maize proteins and anti-Cry1Ab-induced immune responses were analyzed. In parallel, longitudinal metabolomic studies were performed on the urine of mice treated via the i.g. route. Weak immune responses were observed after i.g. administration of the different proteins. Using the i.p. route, a clear Th2 response was observed with the known allergenic proteins, whereas a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response was observed with immunogenic protein not known to be allergenic and with Cry1Ab. This then reflects protein immunogenicity in the BALB/c Th2-biased mouse strain rather than allergenicity. No difference in natural maize allergen profiles was evidenced between MON810 and its non-GM comparator. Immune responses against maize proteins were quantitatively equivalent in mice treated with MON810 vs the non-GM counterpart and no anti-Cry1Ab-specific immune response was detected in mice that received MON810. Metabolomic studies showed a slight "cultivar" effect, which represented less than 1% of the initial metabolic information. Our results confirm the immunogenicity of purified Cry1Ab without evidence of allergenic potential. Immunological and metabolomic studies revealed slight differences in mouse metabolic

  4. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  5. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  6. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  7. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter... to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun...

  8. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  9. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely

  10. Neptune as a Mirror for the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    How would the Kepler mission see a star like the Sun? We now know the answer to this question due to a creative approach: a new study has used the Kepler K2 mission to detect signals from the Sun reflected off of the surface of Neptune.Asteroseismology uses different oscillation modes of a star to probe its internal structure and properties. [Tosaka]Information in OscillationsKeplers most glamorous work is in discovering new planets around other stars. To successfully do this, however, the spacecraft is also quietly doing a lot of very useful work in the background, characterizing the many stars in our vicinity that planets might be found around.One of the ways Kepler gets information about these stars is from oscillations of the stars intensities. In asteroseismology, we look at oscillatory modes that are caused by convection-driven pressure changes on the inside of the star. All stars with near-surface convection oscillate like this including the Sun and by measuring the oscillations in intensity of these stars, we can make inferences about the stars properties.A Planetary MirrorWe do this by first understanding our Suns oscillations especially well (made easier by the fact that its nearby!). Then we use asteroseimic scaling relations determined empirically that relate characteristics like mass and radius of other stars to those of the Sun, based on the relation between the stars oscillation properties to the Suns.The trouble is, those oscillation properties are difficult to measure, and different instruments often measure different values. For this reason, wed like to measure the Suns oscillations with the same instrument we use to measure other stars oscillations: Kepler.Top panel: Kepler K2 49-day light curve of Neptune. Bottom panel: power density spectrum as a function of frequency (grey). Neptunes rotation frequencies and harmonics appear toward the left side (blue); the excess power due to the solar modes is visible toward the bottom right. The green curve

  11. The Spectrum of Darkonium in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  12. The spectrum of darkonium in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Langæble, Kasper; Grønlund Nielsen, Niklas

    2016-10-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  13. The sun since the Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the behavior of the sun during the last 7000 years. The C-14 content in carbonaceous fossil material can be used as an indicator regarding the level of solar activity at the time when the carbon was assimilated in the process of photosynthesis. Living trees, such as the bristlecone pine, provide a solar activity record to about 3000 B.C. The record can be extended with the aid of well-preserved dead wood to beyond 5000 B.C. The results of an analysis of solar activity levels as a function of time on the basis of C-14 contents are presented in a graph. Attention is given to the Maunder Minimum, a history of the sun in the last 5000 years, an interpretation of the major C-14 excursions, and the sun and climate history.

  14. 'My Sun' and 'Guided by the Moon'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Baillie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available My Sun and Guided by the Moon (2012 show the heavily pregnant artist with her swollen belly covered in gold and silver leaf. The work is suggestive that the connectivity experienced by an expectant mother, extends outwards, even as far as her relationship with the cosmos. The 'sun' portrait was taken on a bright September morning, and its partner image, the following October, on the night of a full moon. Female cycles and the importance of time passing during a pregnancy are referenced. Interestingly, bearing in mind that the artist gave birth to a son in November, creating the 'moon' portrait felt like a familiar, empowering and yet isolated expression of selfhood, whilst the 'sun/son' version exuded the energy of a collaboration, and stimulated feelings of joy, liberation and potentiality. By seeming contradiction, the boy was born on a full moon, exactly a month to the day that Guided by the Moon was taken.

  15. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Rasson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  16. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  17. The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M

    2003-11-14

    Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

  18. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  19. Haloes around the Moon and the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    2008-10-01

    The authors observations of the Haloes around the Moon and the Sun during few last years are reported. A Historical review of the phenomenon is given since the observations by Benvenuto Cellini and Gaston Tissandier is given. A photograph (from eight available) of the Halo around the Sun observed in Chisinau on 21 May 2007 is included. The Halo from 21 May 2007 occured after a very fast increasing of the air temperature during one day by more than 15 Deg. The authors consider, that the phenomenon is due to scattering of light on Cirri clouds(7 km altitude), present on the sky during that day. They formed due to very fast heating.

  20. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  1. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  2. EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO); Scientific Opinion on an application (EFSAGMO-NL-2012-107) for the placing on the market of maize MON 810 pollen under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    In this opinion, the EFSA GMO Panel addresses the safety of maize MON 810 pollen to complete the scope of an application (RX-MON 810) for the marketing of genetically modified maize MON 810 with the use of MON 810 pollen as or in food. Data on molecular characterisation of maize MON 810 did...... apply to the Cry1Ab protein expressed in MON 810 pollen. While the EFSA GMO Panel is not in a position to conclude on the safety of maize pollen in or as food in general, it concludes that the genetic modification in maize MON 810 does not constitute an additional health risk if maize MON 810 pollen...... not raise any safety concerns with respect to its pollen. The EFSA GMO Panel has previously assessed the safety of the newly expressed Cry1Ab protein in maize MON 810. The assessment and conclusions of the GMO Panel on the safety of this protein, including its potential toxicity and allergenicity, also...

  3. Scientific Opinion on an application (EFSA-GMO-NL-2012-107 for the placing on the market of maize MON 810 pollen under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Monsanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this opinion, the EFSA GMO Panel addresses the safety of maize MON 810 pollen to complete the scope of an application (RX-MON 810 for the marketing of genetically modified maize MON 810 with the use of MON 810 pollen as or in food. Data on molecular characterisation of maize MON 810 did not raise any safety concerns with respect to its pollen. The EFSA GMO Panel has previously assessed the safety of the newly expressed Cry1Ab protein in maize MON 810. The assessment and conclusions of the GMO Panel on the safety of this protein, including its potential toxicity and allergenicity, also apply to the Cry1Ab protein expressed in MON 810 pollen. While the EFSA GMO Panel is not in a position to conclude on the safety of maize pollen in or as food in general, it concludes that the genetic modification in maize MON 810 does not constitute an additional health risk if maize MON 810 pollen is to replace maize pollen from non-GM maize in or as food.

  4. BcSUN1, a B. cinerea SUN-Family Protein, Is Involved in Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Alicia; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Brito, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    BcSUN1 is a glycoprotein secreted by Botrytis cinerea, an important plant pathogen that causes severe losses in agriculture worldwide. In this work, the role of BcSUN1 in different aspects of the B. cinerea biology was studied by phenotypic analysis of Bcsun1 knockout strains. We identified BcSUN1 as the only member of the Group-I SUN family of proteins encoded in the B. cinerea genome, which is expressed both in axenic culture and during infection. BcSUN1 is also weakly attached to the cellular surface and is involved in maintaining the structure of the cell wall and/or the extracellular matrix. Disruption of the Bcsun1 gene produces different cell surface alterations affecting the production of reproductive structures and adhesion to plant surface, therefore reducing B. cinerea virulence. BcSUN1 is the first member of the SUN family reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of a filamentous fungus. PMID:28163701

  5. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  6. Rational SU(N) Gaudin Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    We propose the eigenstates and eigenvalues of Hamiltonians of the rational SU(N) Gaudin model based onthe quasi-classical limit of the SU ( N) chain under the periodic boundary condition. Using the quantum inversescattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generation function of the rational SU ( N) Gaudin model.

  7. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-01-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure...

  8. SunPy - Python for Solar Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Community, The SunPy; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y; Inglis, Andrew R; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J; Robitaille, Thomas P; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualisation and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specialising in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from mis...

  9. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ve Got Skin in the Game Anti-Aging Vitamin D Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | True Stories | Ask the Experts Blog Events ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Golf: You've Got Skin in the Game expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter ...

  10. Sino-Sun Architects & Engineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sino-Sun is an A-Class state architectural design company organized by a group of experts who have returned to China after studying abroad. In the 10 yearssince its establishment, it has grown into an outstanding andwell-known design team, which has influence in the national archi-tectural design field.

  11. Ulysses Passes South Pole of Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程林

    1995-01-01

    On the 14th of September,1994, the fastest scientific instrument in space passed the south pole of the Sun,a place where no human-made object has been before. A spaceprobe called Ulysses made the polar pass at about midday as it continued to collect data on the solar wind,a stream of high-energy sub-atomic

  12. Isotopes Tell Sun's Origin and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, O.; Kamat, Sumeet A.; Mozina, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Modern versions of Aston's mass spectrometer enable measurements of two quantities - isotope abundances and masses - that tell the Sun's origin and operation. Isotope analyses of meteorites, the Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, the solar wind, and solar flares over the past 45 years indicate that fresh, poorly-mixed, supernova debris formed the solar system. The iron-rich Sun formed on the collapsed supernova core and now itself acts as a magnetic plasma diffuser, as did the precursor star, separating ions by mass. This process covers the solar surface with lightweight elements and with the lighter isotopes of each element. Running difference imaging provides supporting evidence of a rigid, iron-rich structure below the Sun's fluid outer layer of lightweight elements. Mass measurements of all 2,850 known nuclides expose repulsive interactions between neutrons that trigger neutron-emission at the solar core, followed by neutron-decay and a series of reactions that collectively generate solar luminosity, solar neutrinos, the carrier gas for solar mass separation, and an outpouring of solar-wind hydrogen from the solar surface. Neutron-emission and neutron-decay generate ~ 65% of solar luminosity; H-fusion ~ 35%, and ~ 1% of the neutron-decay product survives to depart as solar-wind hydrogen. The energy source for the Sun and other ordinary stars seems to be neutron-emission and neutron-decay, with partial fusion of the decay product, rather than simple fusion of hydrogen into helium or heavier elements.

  13. Sun Baiqiu Fights for the Human Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    SUN Baiqiu liked to read well known literature from all over the world when she was a little girl. She sympathized with the good-hearted characters and hated the greedy and the evil. She imagined that she would become like a fairy godmother, holding a magic wand and helping the poor but kind people in distress. In 1963 she graduated from Haerbin

  14. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Güdel, M

    2007-01-01

    (abridged) The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have...

  15. The composition of grain and forage from glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is equivalent to that of conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Janet C; Ridley, William P; Schneider, Ronald W; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy; Astwood, James D

    2004-03-10

    Glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800, simply referred to as MON 71800, contains a 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that has a reduced affinity for glyphosate as compared to the endogenous plant EPSPS enzyme. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the compositional equivalence of MON 71800 to its nontransgenic parent as well as to conventional wheat varieties. The compositional assessment evaluated the levels of proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, secondary metabolites, and antinutrients in wheat forage and grain grown during two field seasons across a total of eight sites in the United States and Canada. These data demonstrated that with respect to these important nutritional components, the forage and grain from MON 71800 were equivalent to those of its nontransgenic parent and commercial wheat varieties. These data, together with the previously established safety of the CP4 EPSPS protein, support the conclusion that glyphosate tolerant wheat MON 71800 is as safe and nutritious as commercial wheat varieties.

  16. Tóxicos detectados en muertes relacionadas con fuegos e intoxicaciones por monóxido de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gómez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan en este trabajo las conclusiones del estudio realizado sobre los resultados de los análisis efectuados en muestras de sangre de 882 personas que resultaron fallecidas o intoxicadas en fuegos o a consecuencia de la inhalación de monóxido de carbono y/o de otros gases de combustión. En ellas se investigó la presencia de monóxido de carbono, cianuro y otros tóxicos tales como el alcohol etílico y los psicofármacos. Se realizan dos subgrupos, el de muertes producidas por intoxicación por monóxido de carbono y el de las ocurridas en fuegos. Se puede observar que las concentraciones de carboxihemoglobina alcanzadas en uno y otro grupo difieren sensiblemente, siendo muy superiores las encontradas en el primer grupo, con frecuencias máximas entre 50% y 70% de carboxihemoglobina frente a las detectadas en el segundo grupo cuyas frecuencias máximas se hallan entre 1% y 15%. En las muertes ocurridas en fuegos se detecta además cianuro en concentraciones variables ( 0,2 - 12 µg / ml e independientes del nivel de carboxihemoglobina detectado en cada caso. Entre los otros tóxicos más frecuentes se detectan el alcohol etílico, las benzodiacepinas, el butano y los antidepresivos, entre otros. El alcohol etílico se detecta en diferentes concentraciones observándose una mayor concentración en los casos de fuegos, lo que indica que puede tener influencia en la ocurrencia de accidentes relacionados con ellos

  17. SeaMon-HC Buoy. A specific real-time-lightweight-moored platform as a tool for fast hydrocarbon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, C.; Rueda, M. J.; Moran, R.; Llerandi, C.; Llinas, O.

    2009-04-01

    The present paper-work describes the design, last development stages and the derived results from a specific buoy platform for fast hydrocarbon detection in seawater. Under the name of SeaMon-HC, (Patent No. P200302219/8) the buoy represents a very chief tool for coastal monitoring, mainly surrounding areas with a high oil-spill risk level, like harbours, off-shore fish farming, beaches and so on. Nowadays, the Macaronesian area has nine units working in real-time, under the frame of the Red ACOMAR Network. The main innovative aspect from this buoy is the detection system. It's based in polymer technology, working as a resistance, who increase its value when the pollutant on water surface is detected. The response time from the sensor is a direct function of the hydrocarbon volatility level. For hydrocarbons with high volatility levels (like petrol), the sensor needs less time (around 3 minutes) than others with less volatility such as oils. SeaMon-HC is an autonomous, modular, reusable and a very low-cost development integrated by four subsystems (SS): SS-Flotation (different materials and shapes available); SS-Sensors (hydrocarbon detector and additional sensors -up to 15-, to solve specific sensor configuration requirements); SS-Power Supply (equipped in its basic configuration with a couple of solar modules and two 12V batteries) and the SS-Communication (based on a RF or GSM/GPRS modem technology, with a selectable communication frequency). All SeaMon-HC units, as well the rest of the ODAS buoys who joint together the Red ACOMAR Network, works in real-time, sending the collected information to the control centre that manages the communications, providing data, in a useful form (as a web site), to diverse socio-economic important sectors which make an exhaustive use of the littoral in the Macaronesian region. The access to the information by the users is done through a specific GIS software application.

  18. MonChER: Monte-Carlo generator for CHarge Exchange Reactions. Version 1.1. Physics and Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Ryutin, R. A.; Sobol, A E.; Petrov, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    MonChER is a Monte Carlo event generator for simulation of single and double charge exchange reactions in proton-proton collisions at energies from 0.9 to 14 TeV. Such reactions, $pp\\to n+X$ and $pp\\to n+X+n$, are characterized by leading neutron production. They are dominated by $\\pi^+$ exchange and could provide us with more information about total and elastic $\\pi^+ p$ and $\\pi^+\\pi^+$ cross sections and parton distributions in pions in the still unexplored kinematical region.

  19. Construction Mon1a Gene Knock-out HEK293T Stable Cell Line by TALEN and Phenotype Analysis%利用TALEN技术建立Mon1a基因敲除细胞系及其表型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟萍; 李华顺

    2016-01-01

    为了研究囊泡运输蛋白Mon1a(Mon1 secretory trafficking family member A)在细胞中的作用,该文利用类转录激活因子效应物核酸酶(transcription activator-like effector nuclease,TALEN)打靶技术构建了针对Mon1a基因的特定TALEN质粒对,转染后筛选获得Mon1a基因敲除的HEK293T稳定细胞系.进一步从细胞增殖能力、迁移能力以及小鼠皮下成瘤能力等方面研究了Mon1a缺失对HEK293T细胞的影响.结果表明,Mon1a在细胞增殖、迁移和成瘤等过程中起到重要作用.

  20. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  1. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a space telescope primarily designed to detect high-energy X-rays from faint, distant astrophysical sources. Recently, however, its occasionally been pointing much closer to home, with the goal of solving a few longstanding mysteries about the Sun.Intensity maps from an observation of a quiet-Sun region near the north solar pole and an active region just below the solar limb. The quiet-Sun data will be searched for small flares that could be heating the solar corona, and the high-altitude emission above the limb may provide clues about particle acceleration. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]An Unexpected TargetThough we have a small fleet of space telescopes designed to observe the Sun, theres an important gap: until recently, there was no focusing telescope making solar observations in the hard X-ray band (above ~3 keV). Conveniently, there is a tool capable of doing this: NuSTAR.Though NuSTARs primary mission is to observe faint astrophysical X-ray sources, a team of scientists has recently conducted a series of observations in which NuSTAR was temporarily repurposed and turned to focus on the Sun instead.These observations pose an interesting challenge precisely because of NuSTARs extreme sensitivity: pointing at such a nearby, bright source can quickly swamp the detectors. But though the instrument cant be used to observe the bright flares and outbursts from the Sun, its the perfect tool for examining the parts of the Sun weve been unable to explore in hard X-rays before now such as faint flares, or the quiet, inactive solar surface.In a recently published study led by Brian Grefenstette (California Institute of Technology), the team describes the purpose and initial results of NuSTARs first observations of the Sun.Solar MysteriesWhat is NuSTAR hoping to accomplish with its solar observations? There are two main questions that hard X-ray observations may help to answer.How are particles accelerated in

  2. A Tracking Sun Photometer Without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is small, lightweight, and consumes very little electricity as it measures the solar energy attenuated by gases and aerosol particles in the atmosphere. A Sun photometer is commonly used on the Earth's surface, as well as on aircraft, to determine the solar energy attenuated by aerosol particles in the atmosphere and their distribution of sizes. This information is used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, as well as their distribution sizes. The design for this Sun photometer uses a combination of unique optics and a charge coupled device (CCD) array to eliminate moving parts and make the instrument more reliable. It could be selfcalibrating throughout the year. Data products would be down-welling flux, the direct-diffuse flux ratio, column abundance of gas phase constituents, aerosol optical depth at multiple-wavelengths, phase functions, cloud statistics, and an estimate of the representative size of atmospheric particles. These measurements can be used to obtain an estimate of aerosol size distribution, refractive index, and particle shape. Incident light is received at a light-reflecting (inner) surface, which is a truncated paraboloid. Light arriving from a hemispheric field of view (solid angle 2 steradians) enters the reflecting optic at an entrance aperture at, or adjacent to, the focus of the paraboloid, and is captured by the optic. Most of this light is reflected from an inner surface. The light proceeds substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis, and is detected by an array detector located near an exit aperture. Each of the entrance and exit apertures is formed by the intersection of the paraboloid with a plane substantially perpendicular to the paraboloid axis. Incident (non-reflected) light from a source of limited extent (the Sun) illuminates a limited area on the detector array. Both direct and diffuse illumination may be reflected, or not reflected, before being received on

  3. UV photography, masculinity, and college men's sun protection cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of an ultraviolet (UV) photography intervention and masculinity on college men's sun protection cognitions, including: perceived vulnerability to skin damage, attitudes toward sun protection, willingness to engage in sun protection behaviors, and intentions to receive a skin cancer exam. After completing a baseline survey, participants (N = 152) viewed a black-and-white photo of their face. Half also viewed a photo showing their UV damage. Participants then completed a second survey assessing sun protection cognitions. Regressions revealed that masculinity predicted lower sun protection cognitions, and men in the UV photograph condition reported higher sun protection cognitions. Masculinity by condition interactions showed that the positive effect of UV photography was stronger among masculine men. Negative associations between masculinity and sun protection cognitions were significant only among men who did not receive the intervention. Findings suggest that UV photography is a promising sun protection intervention among masculine men.

  4. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, Mattias, E-mail: emb@kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Edsjoe, Joakim, E-mail: edsjo@physto.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ohlsson, Tommy, E-mail: tommy@theophys.kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  5. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... other options to prevent UV damage. Too Much Sun Hurts Turning pink? Unprotected skin can be damaged ...

  6. Comportamiento del monóxido de carbono y el clima en la ciudad de Toluca, de 1995 a 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Hernández Romero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los gases contaminantes con mayor distribución y concentración en Toluca y su área metropolitana es el monóxido de carbono que, al igual que el dióxido de azufre y el dióxido de carbono, es generado principalmente por la combustión automotriz y, en segundo lugar por el sector industrial. Sin embargo, debido a la activa dinámica de los vientos en la mayor parte del año, estos gases tienden a dispersarse en todo el valle; solamente durante el invierno la concentración y la distribución del monóxido de carbono se encuentran por encima de las normas establecidas en la legislación vigente. Por eso se considera la calidad del aire como satisfactoria, aunque por su combinación con las bajas temperaturas del periodo invernal y la baja humedad del aire, tiende a representar riesgos para la salud humana.

  7. Origins of Sinuous and Braided Channels on Ascraeus Mons, Mars - A Keck Geology Consortium Undergraduate Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Water has clearly played an important part in the geological evolution of Mars. There are many features on Mars that were almost certainly formed by fluvial processes -- for example, the channels Kasei Valles and Ares Vallis in the Chryse Planitia area of Mars are almost certainly fluvial features. On the other hand, there are many channel features that are much more difficult to interpret -- and have been variously attributed to volcanic and fluvial processes. Clearly unraveling the details of the role of water on Mars is extremely important, especially in the context of the search of extinct or extant life. In this project we built on our recent work in determining the origin of one channel on the southwest rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. This project, funded by the Keck Geology Consortium and involving 4 undergraduate geology majors took advantage of the recently available datasets to map and analyze similar features on Ascraeus Mons and some other areas of Mars. A clearer understanding of how these particular channel features formed might lead to the development of better criteria to distinguish how other Martian channel features formed. Ultimately this might provide us with a better understanding of the role of volcanic and fluvial processes in the geological evolution of Mars.

  8. Įmonės „Woxx Barbers“ marketingo galimybės socialiniuose tinkluose „Facebook“ ir „Instagram“

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminskaitė, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Baigiamojo darbo tema: „Įmonės Woxx Barbers galimybės socialiniuose tinkluose „Facebook“ ir „Instagram“. Pateikti socialiniai tinklai yra vieni populiariausių Lietuvoje. „Facebook“ platforma naudojasi 930 tūkst. gyventojų, o „Instagram“ skaičiuoja 110 tūkst. vartotojų Lietuvoje, todėl įmonės vis labiau skverbiasi į šiuos socialinius tinklus. Tačiau netikslinga įmonių komunikacija socialiniuose tinkluose, dažnai sukelia nepasitenkinimą ir yra nuvertinami, kaip neefektyvi marketi...

  9. Pokémon Go: Ubiquitous Computing Delivering Better Health or Co-Incidental Health Benefits from Technology Use? A Participatory Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Stimulating sustained behavioural change through information and technology has been an aim of much health informatics research. Traditional approaches use technology to mediate communications between health professionals and patients. More recent lifestyle technologies engage the patient directly with information and advice - but what of the phenomena that is Pokémon Go - does it point to another way of achieving health benefits through fun? This paper aims to explore some of the conceptual questions for health informatics stimulated by the phenomenal popularity of Pokémon Go. The paper is grounded analysis of data generated through a preliminary participatory observational study in Australia.

  10. Blinded by the light the secret life of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the secrets and the new scientific developments which are changing our perceptions of the sun. The book tackles such questions as: does the sun breathe?; can it make sound?; is its centre ice-cold? The new research in sun science will alter our perception not only of the sun, but of the whole universe and add to the understanding of how the world works. The author has also written "Hothouse Earth" and "The Hole in the Sky".

  11. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  12. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  13. Hierarchical analysis of the quiet Sun magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A Asensio

    2014-01-01

    Standard statistical analysis of the magnetic properties of the quiet Sun rely on simple histograms of quantities inferred from maximum-likelihood estimations. Because of the inherent degeneracies, either intrinsic or induced by the noise, this approach is not optimal and can lead to highly biased results. We carry out a meta-analysis of the magnetism of the quiet Sun from Hinode observations using a hierarchical probabilistic method. This model allows us to infer the statistical properties of the magnetic field vector over the observed field-of-view consistently taking into account the uncertainties in each pixel due to noise and degeneracies. Our results point out that the magnetic fields are very weak, below 275 G with 95% credibility, with a slight preference for horizontal fields, although the distribution is not far from a quasi-isotropic distribution.

  14. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES; Bruce; William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3 size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  15. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  16. Wreathes of Magnetism in Rapidly Rotating Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Benjamin P; Brun, Allan Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2009-01-01

    When our Sun was young it rotated much more rapidly than now. Observations of young, rapidly rotating stars indicate that many possess substantial magnetic activity and strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the 3-D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism. Here we study dynamo action realized in the bulk of the convection zone for two systems, rotating at three and five times the current solar rate. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are achieved by dynamo action in these systems. Striking wreathes of magnetism are built in the midst of the convection zone, coexisting with the turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, for many solar dynamo theories have suggested that a tachocline of penetration and shear at the base of the convection zone is a crucial ingredient for organized dynamo action, whereas these simulations do not includ...

  17. How plants LINC the SUN to KASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Linkers of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are conserved eukaryotic protein complexes that bridge the nuclear envelope (NE) via protein-protein interactions in the NE lumen. Revealed by opisthokont studies, LINC complexes are key players in multiple cellular processes, such as nuclear and chromosomal positioning and nuclear shape determination, which in turn influence the generation of gametes and several aspects of development. Although comparable processes have long been known in plants, the first plant nuclear envelope bridging complexes were only recently identified. WPP domain-interacting proteins at the outer NE have little homology to known opisthokont KASH proteins, but form complexes with SUN proteins at the inner NE that have plant-specific properties and functions. In this review, we will address the importance of LINC complex-regulated processes, describe the plant NE bridging complexes and compare them to opisthokont LINC complexes.

  18. International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three US satellites designed to study the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. ISEE-1 and 2 were placed into highly elliptical Earth orbits. ISEE-3 was placed in a halo orbit at the L1 Lagrangian point between the Sun and Earth. It gave advance warning of solar storms heading towards Earth. (See also INTERNATIONAL COMETARY EXPLORER and EXPLORER.)...

  19. Operational Art and the Rising Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-16

    shall run wild for the first six months or a year, but I have utterly no confidence for the second or third ’Potter, p. 46; Michael Slackman, Target...attack that no american carriers in 26Joseph K. Taussig , "A Tactical View of Pearl Harbor", Paul Stillwell, ed., Air Raid: Pearl Harbor! (Annapolis, MD...Weiner, 1991. Slackman, Michael . Target: Pearl Harbor. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. Stephan, John J. Hawaii Under the Rising Sun

  20. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-Tian; LIM Boon-Han; LIM Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuthelevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  1. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  2. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  3. ON FELICITOUS CHARACTER OF GENERALIZED SUN-GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-hua; YAO Bing; YAO Ming

    2015-01-01

    Felicitous character of some generalized sun-graphs is investigated in this note, and furthermore the exact felicitous labellings of two classes of generalized sun-graphs are obtained by analyzing the structures of the generalized sun-graphs. And the constructed graph theory models in coding theory, communication networks, logistics and other aspects have important applications.

  4. Design and Fabrication of an Albedo Insensitive Analog Sun Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Leijtens, J.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    A sun sensor is usually included in a satellite for optically measuring the position relative to the sun. The accuracy of a conventional sun sensor is affected by reflected sunlight at the nearby earth atmosphere: the albedo radiation. The part of the spectrum at near IR (1.5 μm) is not included in

  5. Exploring Young People's Beliefs and Images about Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. M.; Robinson, N. G.; Young, R. McD.; Anderson, P. J.; Hyde, M. K.; Greenbank, S.; Keane, J.; Rolfe, T.; Vardon, P.; Baskerville, D.

    2008-01-01

    To understand young people's low levels of sun protection behaviour, 145 young people (aged 12 to 20 years) were recruited from Queensland, to participate in a one-hour focus group where they discussed issues related to sun protection and images of tanned and non-tanned people. Responses were content analysed to identify common sun protection…

  6. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  7. Watching the Sun to Improve Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Looking for stars that wobble is one of the key ways by which we detect exoplanets: the gravitational pull of planets cause tiny variations in stars radial velocities. But our ability to detect Earth twins is currently limited by our ability to distinguish between radial-velocity variations caused by exoplanets, and those caused by noise from the star itself. A team of scientists has recently proposed that the key to solving this problem may be to examine our own star.Precision Amid NoiseThe radial-velocity technique works well for detecting large planets on close orbits, but detecting an Earth twin requires being able to detect star motion on the order of 10 cm/s! This precision is hard to reach, because activity on the stellar surface i.e., sunspots, plages (bright spots), or granulation can also cause variations in the measured radial velocity for the star, obscuring the signature of a planet.Because the stars were examining arent resolved, we cant track the activity on their surfaces so how can we better understand the imprint that stellar activity has on radial-velocity measurements? A team of scientists has come up with a clever approach: examine the Sun as though it were a distant star.Wealth of InformationThe team, led by Xavier Dumusque (Branco-Weiss Fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and David F. Phillips (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), has begun a project to observe the Sun with a ground-based solar telescope. The telescope observes the full disk of the Sun and feeds the data into the HARPS-N spectrograph in Spain, a spectrograph normally used for radial-velocity measurements of other stars in the hunt for exoplanets.But the team has access to other data about the Sun, too: information from satellites like the Solar Dynamics Observatory and SORCE about the solar activity and total irradiance during the time when the spectra were taken. Dumusque and collaborators have combined all of this information, during a week

  8. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  9. Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal holes are where the fast solar wind streams out of the Suns atmosphere, sending charged particles on rapid trajectories out into the solar system. A new study examines how the distribution of coronal holes has changed over the last 40 years.Coronal holes form where magnetic field lines open into space (B) instead of looping back to the solar surface (A). [Sebman81]Source of the Fast Solar WindAs a part of the Suns natural activity cycle, extremely low-density regions sometimes form in the solar corona. These coronal holes manifest themselves as dark patches in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet imaging, since the corona is much hotter than the solar surface that peeks through from underneath it.Coronal holes form when magnetic field lines open into space instead of looping back to the solar surface. In these regions, the solar atmosphere escapes via these field lines, rapidly streaming away from the Suns surface in whats known as the fast solar wind.Coronal Holes Over Space and TimeAutomated detection of coronal holes from image-based analysis is notoriously difficult. Recently, a team of scientists led by Kenichi Fujiki (ISEE, Nagoya University, Japan) has developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes that relies instead on magnetic-field data for the Sun, obtained at the National Solar Observatorys Kitt Peak between 1975 and 2014. The team used these data to produce a database of 3335 coronal hole predictions over nearly 40 years.Latitude distribution of 2870 coronal holes (each marked by an x; color indicates polarity), overlaid on the magnetic butterfly map of the Sun. The low-latitude coronal holes display a similar butterfly pattern, in which they move closer to the equator over the course of the solar cycle. Polar coronal holes are more frequent during solar minima. [Fujiki et al. 2016]Examining trends in the coronal holes distribution in latitude and time, Fujiki and collaborators find a strong correlation between the total area covered

  10. Sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors: testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet exposure among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melinda; Caputi, Peter; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build on existing understanding of adolescent sun-related behavior by combining sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors and testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Data were collected for 692 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years. General linear modeling was undertaken to test the relationship of sun-related behaviors with indicators of UV exposure. Overall, the combined sun protection and sun exposing behaviors accounted for 13.8% of the variance in the number of sunburns, 28.1% of the variance in current tan and 57.5% of the variance in desired tan, respectively. Results indicated that having a strong desire for a tan was significantly associated with spending time tanning, delaying the use of sun protection, wearing brief clothing and using no sun protection; whereas the number of sunburns was significantly associated with sunscreen use, avoiding peak hours and delaying sun protection. Current tan was significantly associated with wearing sunglasses, shade use and time spent tanning. In examining sun-related behaviors among adolescents, consideration needs to be given to both sun exposing and sun protecting behaviors. This research has important implications for conceptualizing outcomes in programs designed to reduce UV exposure.

  11. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  12. [Research on absolute calibration of sun channel of sun photometer using laser raster scanning method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bing

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a new calibration method of absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of sun channel of sun photometer was developed. A tunable laser was used as source and a standard tranfer detector, calibrated against cryogenic absolute radiometer, was used to measure laser beam power. By raster scanning of a single collimated laser beam to generate the uniform irradiance field at the plane of effective aperture stop of sun photometer, the absolute irradiance responsivity of center wavelength of the 870 nm unpolarized sun channels of sun photometer was obtained accurately. The relative spectral irradiance responsivity of corresponding channel was obtained by using lamp-monochromator system and then used to acquire the absolute spectral irradiance responsivity in the laboratory. On the basis of the above results, the top-of-the-atmosphere responsive constant V0 was obtained by integration with extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance data. Comparing the calibration result with that from GSFC, NASA in 2009, the difference is only 3.75%. In the last, the uncertainties of calibration were evaluated and reached to 2.06%. The principle feasibility of the new method was validated.

  13. Effects of motives on reactions to safe sun messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspden, Trefor; Ingledew, David K; Parkinson, John A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether appearance motive for sun exposure, which strongly predicts exposure behaviour, would predict reactions to safe sun messages. In a survey with an embedded experiment, 245 individuals completed measures of motives, read a safe sun message framed by incentive (appearance/health), tone (directive/nondirective) and valence (gain/loss), then completed measures of reactions. For participants high in appearance motive, an appearance-nondirective message was most persuasive. Regardless of individual's appearance motive, appearance messages produced lower reactance if phrased using nondirective language. To maximise persuasion and minimise reactance in individuals most motivated to sun expose, safe sun messages should focus on appearance using nondirective language.

  14. The Sun's interior structure and dynamics, and the solar cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Broomhall, A -M; Howe, R; Norton, A A; Thompson, M J

    2014-01-01

    The Sun's internal structure and dynamics can be studied with helioseismology, which uses the Sun's natural acoustic oscillations to build up a profile of the solar interior. We discuss how solar acoustic oscillations are affected by the Sun's magnetic field. Careful observations of these effects can be inverted to determine the variations in the structure and dynamics of the Sun's interior as the solar cycle progresses. Observed variations in the structure and dynamics can then be used to inform models of the solar dynamo, which are crucial to our understanding of how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and maintained.

  15. The Apsidal Precession for Low Earth Sun Synchronized Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen Cakaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By nodal regression and apsidal precession, the Earth flattering at satellite low Earth orbits (LEO is manifested. Nodal regression refers to the shift of the orbit’s line of nodes over time as Earth revolves around the Sun. Nodal regression is orbit feature utilized for circular orbits to be Sun synchronized. A sun¬-synchronized orbit lies in a plane that maintains a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-Sun direction. In the low Earth Sun synchronized circular orbits are suited the satellites that accomplish their photo imagery missions. Nodal regression depends on orbital altitude and orbital inclination angle. For the respective orbital altitudes the inclination window for the Sun synchronization to be attained is determined. The apsidal precession represents major axis shift, respectively the argument of perigee deviation. The apsidal precession simulation, for inclination window of sun synchronized orbital altitudes, is provided through this paper.

  16. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    Healthy sun habits acquired in childhood could reduce skin cancer incidence. We examined the sun exposure and protection behavior of an expected high-exposure group of children, and the association to their parents. Open, prospective cohort study. One hundred and thirty nine participants (40...... families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  17. Grand Challenges in the Physics of the Sun and Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The study of stellar structure and evolution is one of the main building blocks of astrophysics, and the Sun has an importance both as the star that is most amenable to detailed study and as the star that has by far the biggest impact on the Earth and near-Earth environment through its radiative and particulate outputs. Over the past decades, studies of stars and of the Sun have become somewhat separate. But in recent years, the rapid advances in asteroseismology, as well as the quest to better understand solar and stellar dynamos, have emphasized once again the synergy between studies of the stars and the Sun. In this article I have selected two "grand challenges" both for their crucial importance and because I thnk that these two problems are tractable to significant progress in the next decade. They are (i) understanding how solar and stellar dynamos generate magnetic field, and (ii) improving the predictability of geo-effective space weather.

  18. Carousel Trackers with 1-Sun or 3-Sun Modules for Commercial Building Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Huang, H, [JX Crystals, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    The goal is lower cost solar electricity. Herein, two evolutional steps are described toward achieving this goal. The first step is to follow the sun with a solar tracker. Herein, a carousel tracker is described for mounting on commercial building flat rooftops in order to produce more kWh per kW relative to fixed PV modules. The second evolutionary improvement is to produce lower cost 3-sun CPV modules where two thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon material is replaced by less expensive mirror material. This paper describes the performance and durability of two prototype installations demonstrating these evolutionary innovations. In the first case, the installation and operation of 2 carousels equipped with traditional flat plate modules is described. In the second case, the operation of a carousel equipped with new 3-sun CPV modules is described. Both systems have been operating as expected for several months through the winter of 2007.

  19. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  20. Performance of 3-sun mirror modules on sun tracking carousels on flat roof buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Minkin, Leonid; Maxey, Curt; Gehl, Tony; Hurt, Rick; Boehm, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  1. A strict test of stellar evolution models: The absolute dimensions of the massive benchmark eclipsing binary V578 Mon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E. V.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, VU Station B 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Pavlovski, K. [Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Hensberge, H. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Chew, Y. Gómez Maqueo [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Claret, A., E-mail: eugenio.v.garcia@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofsica de Andaluca, CSIC, Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    We determine the absolute dimensions of the eclipsing binary V578 Mon, a detached system of two early B-type stars (B0V + B1V, P = 2.40848 days) in the star-forming region NGC 2244 of the Rosette Nebula. From the light curve analysis of 40 yr of photometry and the analysis of HERMES spectra, we find radii of 5.41 ± 0.04 R{sub ☉} and 4.29 ± 0.05 R{sub ☉}, and temperatures of 30,000 ± 500 K and 25,750 ± 435 K, respectively. We find that our disentangled component spectra for V578 Mon agree well with previous spectral disentangling from the literature. We also reconfirm the previous spectroscopic orbit of V578 Mon finding that masses of 14.54 ± 0.08 M{sub ☉} and 10.29 ± 0.06 M{sub ☉} are fully compatible with the new analysis. We compare the absolute dimensions to the rotating models of the Geneva and Utrecht groups and the models of the Granada group. We find that all three sets of models marginally reproduce the absolute dimensions of both stars with a common age within the uncertainty for gravity-effective temperature isochrones. However, there are some apparent age discrepancies for the corresponding mass-radius isochrones. Models with larger convective overshoot, >0.35, worked best. Combined with our previously determined apsidal motion of 0.07089{sub −0.00013}{sup +0.00021} deg cycle{sup –1}, we compute the internal structure constants (tidal Love number) for the Newtonian and general relativistic contribution to the apsidal motion as log k {sub 2} = –1.975 ± 0.017 and log k {sub 2} = –3.412 ± 0.018, respectively. We find the relativistic contribution to the apsidal motion to be small, <4%. We find that the prediction of log k {sub 2,theo} = –2.005 ± 0.025 of the Granada models fully agrees with our observed log k {sub 2}.

  2. 利用QuantStudioTM 3D数字PCR分析转基因玉米MON863含量%Quantification of Genetically Modified Maize (Zea mays) MON863 by QuantStudioTM 3D Digital PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佳莹; 姜羽; 杨立桃

    2016-01-01

    QuantStudioTM 3D数字PCR (QuantStudioTM 3D digital PCR,3D-dPCR)是一种基于超高密度亲疏水微孔芯片实现数字PCR分液原理的新型核酸绝对定量平台,在转基因生物定量领域具有极大的应用前景.本研究基于3D-dPCR平台,以转基因玉米(Zea mays)MON863混合样品为例,建立基于单重和双重数字PCR体系的转基因生物(genetically modified organisms,GMOs)含量分析方法.与传统qRT-PCR比较发现,在缺乏样品纯度、纯合度信息的情况下,数字PCR能够较好地排除这些因素的影响,测定准确的量值.研究结果表明,QuantStudioTM 3D数字PCR是一种适用于转基因生物含量分析的精确定量方法,还可反映转基因玉米种子的基因型.本研究基于3D-dPCR建立的转基因玉米MON863单重和双重定量方法为转基因检测提供了新的方法和参考.

  3. Variáveis ambientais e níveis de monóxido de carbono exalado e carboxihemoglobina em idosos praticantes de exercício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adriano Salicio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o monóxido de carbono exalado, a carboxihemoglobina e as variáveis cardiopulmonares em idosos praticantes de exercícios em ambientes externos e correlacionar com clima e poluição. Estudo ecológico temporal com 118 idosos ativos em Cuiabá. Foram obtidas informações sobre uso de medicamentos, tabagismo, antropometria, espirometria, peak-flow, saturação de oxigênio, frequência cardíaca, monóxido de carbono exalado, carboxihemoglobina, além de dados climáticos, queimadas e poluição. Temperatura ambiental, umidade relativa do ar e queimadas correlacionaram com monóxido de carbono exalado e carboxihemoglobina (p < 0,05. Frequência cardíaca correlacionou com alterações de temperatura ambiental, tempo de exposição solar e umidade relativa (p < 0,05. Idosos sofrem influências ambientais alterando níveis de monóxido de carbono, carboxihemoglobina e frequência cardíaca, sendo necessário monitoramento destes durante os exercícios, sugerindo-se o uso do monoxímetro para avaliação de exposição a poluentes.

  4. Statement complementing the scientific opinion on application EFSA-GMO-NL-2010-78 to cover the safety of soybean MON 87705 oil for commercial frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this statement, the EFSA GMO Panel responds to a request from the European Commission (EC to assess the safety of soybean MON 87705 oil for commercial frying. The applicant provided exposure assessments based on total and partial substitutions of conventional soybean, rapeseed and sunflower oils with the soybean MON 87705 oil in foods (salad dressings, margarines and spreads, mayonnaise, crackers and salty snacks and soybean/rapeseed/sunflower oils processed foods. No distinction was made between commercial and domestic use, nor whether the oils were used in frying or not. The EFSA GMO Panel considers that this exposure scenario is the most pertinent in that it addresses not only the question raised by the EC about the possible use of soybean MON 87705 oil in frying, but also other possible food uses. Having assessed total replacement, the most conservative scenario arising from both domestic and commercial use of the oil, the EFSA GMO Panel concluded that the use of soybean MON 80775 oil does not impact on human health and nutrition. The Panel recommends a post-market monitoring plan for the marketed foods and feed.

  5. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  6. Magnetic Patches in Internetwork Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wijn, Alfred; Lites, B.; Berger, T.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Katsukawa, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Hinode Team

    2007-05-01

    We study strong flux elements in the quiet sun in the context of the nature of quiet-sun magnetism, its coupling to chromospheric, transition-region and coronal fields, and the nature of a local turbulent dynamo. Strong, kilogauss flux elements show up intermittently as small bright points in G-band and Ca II H images. Although bright points have been extensively studied in the magnetic network, internetwork magnetism has only come under scrutiny in recent years. A full spectrum of field strengths seems to be ubiquitously present in the internetwork at small spatial scales, with the stronger elements residing in intergranular lanes. De Wijn et al. (2005) found that bright points in quiet sun internetwork areas appear recurrently with varying intensity and horizontal motion within long-lived patches that outline cell patterns on mesogranular scales. They estimate that the "magnetic patches" have a mean lifetime of nine hours, much longer than granular timescales. We use multi-hour sequences of G-band and Ca II H images as well as magnetograms recorded by the Hinode satellite to follow up on their results. The larger field of view, the longer sequences, the addition of magnetograms, and the absence of atmospheric seeing allows us to better constrain the patch lifetime, to provide much improved statistics on IBP lifetime, to compare IBPs to network bright points, and to study field polarity of IBPs in patches and between nearby patches. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, build and operation of the mission.

  7. Avaliação funcional de monócitos de bovinos naturalmente infectados pelo vírus da leucose bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Azedo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Para a avaliação funcional de monócitos de bovinos infectados pelo vírus da leucose enzoótica bovina (LEB, foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 10 vacas com sorodiagnóstico negativo (SN, 10 com sorodiagnóstico positivo e que manifestavam linfocitose persistente (LP, e 10 com sorodiagnóstico positivo alinfocitóticas (AL. Os monócitos foram separados por gradiente de densidade e aderência em placa, submetidos aos testes de viabilidade por exclusão do azul de tripan, fagocitose de partículas de Zymosan, espraiamento em lamínula de vidro e quantificação da liberação de peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 e de óxido nítrico (ON. Monócitos de animais com LP apresentaram os menores índices de viabilidade (P<0,001, de fagocitose (P<0,001 e de espraiamento (P=0,006. Também apresentaram maior produção de H2O2 sem prévio estímulo (P=0,001 e após estímulo in vitro com 12-miristato 13-acetato de forbol (P=0,006 do que monócitos de animais SN e AL. O aumento da produção de H2O2 proporcionado pelo estímulo foi menor (P=0,015 nos monócitos de fêmeas que manifestaram LP. Não houve diferença na produção de ON pelos monócitos segundo os grupos. Os resultados indicam que o vírus da LEB, apesar de infectar linfócitos B, altera funcionalmente os monócitos circulantes em bovinos que manifestam LP.

  8. FerryMon: An Unattended Ferry-Based Observatory to Assess Human and Climatically- Induced Ecological Change in the Neuse River-Pamlico Sound System, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, R.; Paerl, H. W.; Hall, N.; Whipple, A.; Luettich, R.

    2007-12-01

    In North Carolina's Neuse River Estuary (NRE)-Pamlico Sound (PS) System, nitrogen (N)-driven eutrophication, water quality and habitat decline have prompted the State and US EPA to mandate watershed-based N load reductions, including a total maximum daily allowable N load (TMDL). Chlorophyll a (chl-a), the indicator of algal biomass, is the measure for the efficacy of N reductions, with "acceptable" values being algal blooms are patchy in time and space, making exceedances of 40 μ g L-1 difficult to track. The North Carolina ferry-based water quality monitoring program, FerryMon (www.ferrymon.org) addresses this and other environmental monitoring needs in the NRE-PS. FerryMon uses NC DOT ferries to provide continuous, space-time intensive, accurate measurements of chl-a and other key water quality criteria, using sensors placed in a flow-through system and discrete sampling of nutrients, organics, diagnostic photopigment and molecular indicators of major algal groups in a near real-time manner. Complementing FerryMon are automated vertical profilers (AVPs), which produce chl-a and other water quality indicator depth profiles with very high time and vertical resolution. In-line spectral fluorometers (Algae Online Analyzers (AOAs)) will be installed starting in late 2007, providing rapid early warning detection and quantification of algal blooms. FerryMon permits spatial characterization of trends in water quality conditions over a range of relevant physical, chemical and biological time scales. This enhanced capability is timely, given a protracted period of increased tropical storm and hurricane activity that, in combination with anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, affects water quality in unpredictable, yet significant ways. FerryMon also serves as a data source for calibrating and verifying remotely sensed indicators of water quality (photopigments, turbidity), nutrient-productivity and hydrologic modeling. Data management and communication links allow FerryMon

  9. Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable suns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Baudon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G = (V,E\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for any sequence \\(\\tau\\ of positive integers adding up to \\(|V|\\, there is a sequence of vertex-disjoint subsets of \\(V\\ whose orders are given by \\(\\tau\\, and which induce connected graphs. The aim of this paper is to study the recursive version of this problem on a special class of graphs called suns. This paper is a complement of [O. Baudon, F. Gilbert, M. Woźniak, Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable graphs, research report, 2010].

  10. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  11. Search for Neutrinos from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1968-09-01

    A solar neutrino detection system has been built to observe the neutrino radiation from the sun. The detector uses 3,900,000 liters of tetrachloroethylene as the neutrino capturing medium. Argon is removed from the liquid by sweeping with helium gas, and counted in a small low level proportional counter. The recovery efficiency of the system was tested with Ar{sup 36} by the isotope dilution method, and also with Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by fast neutrons. These tests demonstrate that Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by neutrino capture can be removed with a 95 percent efficiency by the procedure used.

  12. Dual Axis Light Sensor for Tracking Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Miki; Tambo, Toyokazu

    We have developed convenient light sensors to control a platform of solar cell panel. Dual axis light sensor in the present paper has structure of 5 PD (photodiode) light sensor which is composed of 5 photodiodes attached on a frustum of pyramid(1). Light source can be captured in front of the sensor by rotating the X and Y axis as decreasing the output deviation between two pairs of outside photodiodes. We here report the mechanism of sun tacking using the dual axis 5 PD light sensor and the fundamental results performed in the dark room.

  13. Hinode, the Sun, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.; Tonooka, H.; Shimojo, M.; Tokimasa, N.; Suzuki, D.; Nakamichi, A.; Shimoikura, I.

    2015-03-01

    Extended Abstract Hinode is a solar observation satellite in Japan and its launch was in September 2006. Its name means ``SUNRISE`` in Japanese. It has three instruments onboard in visible light, X-ray, EUV to solve mystery of coronal heating and origins of magnetic fields. Hinode has been providing us with impressive solar data, which are very important for not only investigating solar phenomena but also giving new knowledge about the sun to the public. In order to efficiently communicate Hinode data to the public, we organized working group for public use of Hinode data. which are composed of both researchers and educators in collaboration. As follow, we introduce our activities in brief. For the public use of Hinode data, at first, we produced two DVDs introducing Hinode observation results. In particular, second DVD contains a movie for kids, which are devloped to picturebook. Now, it is under producing an illustrated book and a planetarium program. It turn out that the DVDs help the public understand the sun from questionnaire surveys. Second, we developed teaching materials from Hinode data and had a science classroom about the sun, solar observations, practice with PC such as imaging software at junior high school. As the results, they had much interests in Hinode data. Third, we have joint observations with high school students and so on in a few years. The students compare their own data with Hinode data and have a presentation at science contests. The joint observations make their motivation higher in their activities. It is important to record and report our activities in some ways. So, we positively publish papers and have presentions in domestic/international meetings. Though we are supported in budget, resources and so on by NAOJ Hinode Team, we apply research funds for promoting our EPO activities and acquire some funds such as NAOJ Joint Research Expenses and Grands-Aid for Scientific Research Funds since the launch. This way, since its launch, we

  14. Selective factors in sun-weather research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the correlations between solar wind/IMF disturbances and subsequent winter troposphere vorticity changes (denoted SV) are reviewed to investigate sun-weather relationships. Uncertainties in the research attempting to link short-term solar variations and associated changes in the lower atmosphere are discussed, and it is noted that such analyses have generally not addressed either the choice of parameters or the selective factors involved in the physical relationships existing between parameters. It is suggested that the identification of a viable mechanism scenario would require a detailed multiparameter selective factor analysis, extending to the investigation of the atmospheric data as well as the solar wind/IMF parameters.

  15. Investigation of possible sun-weather relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Businger, S

    1978-01-01

    Statistical correlations between anomalous solar activity (as denoted by large solar flares, active plages, and interplanetary magnetic sector boundaries) and the circulation of the troposphere are reviewed. Two indices (measuring atmospheric vorticity and mean zonal geostrophic flow in the northern hemisphere) are analyzed in an effort to reveal possible sun-weather relationships. The result of this analysis provides no additional statistical evidence for a connection between solar activity and the weather. Finally, physical mechanisms that have been suggested to explain the claimed correlations are discussed.

  16. 2MASS wide field extinction maps: IV. The Orion, Mon R2, Rosette, and Canis Major star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, Marco; lada, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We present a near-infrared extinction map of a large region (approximately 2200 deg^2) covering the Orion, the Monoceros R2, the Rosette, and the Canis Major molecular clouds. We used robust and optimal methods to map the dust column density in the near-infrared (NICER and NICEST) towards ~19 million stars of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) point source catalog. Over the relevant regions of the field, we reached a 1-sigma error of 0.03 mag in the K-band extinction with a resolution of 3 arcmin. We measured the cloud distances by comparing the observed density of foreground stars with the prediction of galactic models, thus obtaining d_{Orion A} = (371 +/- 10) pc, d_{Orion B} = (398 +/- 12) pc, $d_{Mon R2} = (905 +/- 37) pc, $d_{Rosette} = (1330 +/- 48) pc, and $d_{CMa} = (1150 +/- 64) pc, values that compare very well with independent estimates.

  17. Title: Benchmark of the radiation field simulations of the LHC injection lines with the RadMon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, V; Kramer, D; Roeed, K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the high energy hadron (HEH) fluence simulations in the LHC injection regions (TI2 and TI8) performed by the FLUKA Monte-Carlo code and we compare the expected nominal single event upset (SEU) counts in the RadMon detectors with the measured values. During the LHC injection setup the 450 GeV/c proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is progressively adjusted and aligned through the two injection lines until the LHC septum magnets. During the first phase of alignment the beam is dumped onto the injection line dumps TEDs and the debris of the interactions streams trough junction tunnel which contains sensitive electronic equipment. In the case of the TI8 injection lines also the losses on the TCDIH.87904 collimator might represent a problem for the electronics in the UJ87 tunnel.

  18. AmI and Deployment Considerations in AAL Services Provision for Elderly Independent Living: The MonAMI Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ibarz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The MonAMI project aims to investigate the feasibility of the deployment of open platforms for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL services provision based on Ambient Intelligence (AmI and to test user acceptance and the usability of the services. Services were designed to provide support in the areas of environmental control, security, well-being and leisure. These services were installed and evaluated in a Spanish geriatric residence. The participants included elderly persons with disabilities, nursing home care givers and informal carers. The concept of the open platform proved to be satisfactory for the provision of the services in a context aware framework. Furthermore, the usability of the technology was viewed positively and the overall results indicate that this system has the potential to prolong independent living at home for elderly people with disabilities. Deployment was proven successful and awareness of open-platform AAL service delivery was raised in local communities throughout Europe.

  19. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  20. Period studies of classical Algol-type binaries II: UX Leo, RW Mon, EQ Ori, XZ UMa and AX Vul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydugan, F.; Erdem, A.; Doğru, S. S.; Aliçavuş, F.; Soydugan, E.; Çiçek, C.; Demircan, O.

    2011-07-01

    This study presents an investigation of the orbital period variations of five Algol type binaries, UX Leo, RW Mon, EQ Ori, XZ UMa and AX Vul based on all available minima times. The O- C diagrams of all systems exhibit a periodic variation superimposed on a downward parabolic segment. The mass loss due to magnetic braking effect in the cooler components is assumed to account for the parabolic variation with a downward shape, while it is suggested that the light-time effect (LITE) due to an unseen component around the eclipsing binaries explains the tilted sinusoidal changes in their O- C diagrams. The orbital period decrease rates for the systems are estimated as approximately between about 0.7 and 2.5 s per century. It is clearly seen that mass loss effect is more dominant than the expected mass transfer for classical Algols in this study. The minimum mass of the probable third bodies around the eclipsing pairs was calculated to be ⩽0.5 M ⊙ except for UX Leo, in which it was estimated to be approximately 0.9 M ⊙. In order to search for third lights in the light curves of five systems, the V-light curves of the systems were analyzed and their physical and photometric parameters were determined. For UX Leo, a significant third light contribution was determined. We found a very small third light that can be tested using multi-color light curves, for RW Mon, EQ Ori and XZ UMa, while a third light for AX Vul could not be exposed.

  1. Actividad Monástica y acción política en Fructuoso de Braga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Quiroga, Jorge

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The social and political context of Hispania in the second half of 7th century was very difficult. San Fructuoso and his ideas were different from the habitual ones. His religious model and his monastic reform are new in the visigoth world. In this work we analyze the foundations of Fructuoso in the Southeastern of the Iberian Peninsula (Vid. Fruct. 14. This work reflects the religious, social and political consequences of the monacato in the reorganization of Iberian society at the end of the antiquity.

    En el marco de un contexto socio-político particularmente difícil, como es el que correspondería a la Hispania visigoda de la segunda mitad del siglo VII d. C., la aparición de una figura como Fructuoso supondría un auténtico tournant no sólo en lo que respecta al modelo religioso que propugna, sino, sobre todo, en el conflicto latente entre el tipo de vida monástica «fructuosiana» y el Estado visigodo, personalizado aquí en la figura del monarca. En este breve trabajo, el episodio referente a las fundaciones monásticas de Fructuoso en el Sureste Peninsular (narrado en la Vit Fruct. 14 nos servirá de hilo conductor para hacer una pequeña reflexión sobre las implicaciones no sólo religiosas, sino, sobre todo, sociales y políticas del monacato como uno de los exponentes del proceso de desestructuración que conduce al 'final de la Antigüedad' en la Península Ibérica.

  2. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  3. The Sun and the Earth's Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigh Joanna D.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in solar activity, at least as observed in numbers of sunspots, have been apparent since ancient times but to what extent solar variability may affect global climate has been far more controversial. The subject had been in and out of fashion for at least two centuries but the current need to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change has brought it again to the forefront of meteorological research. The absolute radiometers carried by satellites since the late 1970s have produced indisputable evidence that total solar irradiance varies systematically over the 11-year sunspot cycle, relegating to history the term “solar constant”, but it is difficult to explain how the apparent response to the Sun, seen in many climate records, can be brought about by these rather small changes in radiation. This article reviews some of the evidence for a solar influence on the lower atmosphere and discusses some of the mechanisms whereby the Sun may produce more significant impacts than might be surmised from a consideration only of variations in total solar irradiance.

  4. Seismic Sounding of Convection in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun, primarily composed of ionized hydrogen and helium, has a surface temperature of 5777~K and a radius $R_\\odot \\approx 696,000$ km. In the outer $R_\\odot/3$, energy transport is accomplished primarily by convection. Using typical convective velocities $u\\sim100\\,\\rm{m\\,s^{-1}}$ and kinematic viscosities of order $10^{-4}$ m$^{2}$s$^{-1}$, we obtain a Reynolds number $Re \\sim 10^{14}$. Convection is thus turbulent, causing a vast range of scales to be excited. The Prandtl number, $Pr$, of the convecting fluid is very low, of order $10^{-7}$\\,--\\,$10^{-4}$, so that the Rayleigh number ($\\sim Re^2 Pr$) is on the order of $10^{21}\\,-\\,10^{24}$. Solar convection thus lies in extraordinary regime of dynamical parameters, highly untypical of fluid flows on Earth. Convective processes in the Sun drive global fluid circulations and magnetic fields, which in turn affect its visible outer layers ("solar activity") and, more broadly, the heliosphere ("space weather"). The precise determination of the depth of sola...

  5. Exoplanets Clue to Sun's Curious Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    A ground-breaking census of 500 stars, 70 of which are known to host planets, has successfully linked the long-standing "lithium mystery" observed in the Sun to the presence of planetary systems. Using ESO's successful HARPS spectrograph, a team of astronomers has found that Sun-like stars that host planets have destroyed their lithium much more efficiently than "planet-free" stars. This finding does not only shed light on the lack of lithium in our star, but also provides astronomers with a very efficient way of finding stars with planetary systems. "For almost 10 years we have tried to find out what distinguishes stars with planetary systems from their barren cousins," says Garik Israelian, lead author of a paper appearing this week in the journal Nature. "We have now found that the amount of lithium in Sun-like stars depends on whether or not they have planets." Low levels of this chemical element have been noticed for decades in the Sun, as compared to other solar-like stars, and astronomers have been unable to explain the anomaly. The discovery of a trend among planet-bearing stars provides a natural explanation to this long-standing mystery. "The explanation of this 60 year-long puzzle is for us rather simple," adds Israelian. "The Sun lacks lithium because it has planets." This conclusion is based on the analysis of 500 stars, including 70 planet-hosting stars. Most of these stars were monitored for several years with ESO's High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher. This spectrograph, better known as HARPS, is attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope and is the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. "This is the best possible sample available to date to understand what makes planet-bearing stars unique," says co-author Michel Mayor. The astronomers looked in particular at Sun-like stars, almost a quarter of the whole sample. They found that the majority of stars hosting planets possess less than 1% of the amount of lithium shown by most of the other stars

  6. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES Bruce William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3″ size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  7. Promoting sun safety among zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J A; Lewis, E C; Eckhardt, L; Slymen, D; Belch, G; Elder, J; Engelberg, M; Eichenfield, L; Achter, A; Nichols, T; Walker, K; Kwon, H; Talosig, M; Gearen, C

    2001-09-01

    Each year, millions of children visit zoological parks, where they are exposed to long bouts of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We conducted a study in the winter and replicated it in the summer to evaluate an intervention for reducing UVR exposure during the zoo visit. Each study used a nonequivalent control group design: one zoological site received the intervention and a second received evaluation only. Key outcome measures consisted of observed prevalence of hat use by exiting children (N = 8,721 and 8,524, respectively, in winter and summer studies) and purchase rates of sunscreen and hats in zoo gift shops. Intervention consisted of tip sheets for parents, children's activities, prompts, and discounts off the price of sunscreen and sun-protective hats. In the summer study, sales of both sunscreen and target hats increased significantly at the intervention site relative to the control site, whereas in the winter study, only sunscreen sales at the intervention site had a significant (relative) increase. Children's hat use increased significantly at the intervention site, but only in the winter study. The multicomponent program was effective in promoting purchases of sun-safe items, but its impact on children's hat use was inconclusive. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  8. Light Work: Contemporary Artists Consider the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Modern day life and timekeepers have profoundly affected the way we conceptualize time and our position in the universe. Over the past year, I have been investigating the apparent movement of the Sun both sculpturally and photographically. In this paper, I discuss my collaborations with Woody Sullivan and highlight several of the sundials, both gigantic and intimate, created by University of Washington students in the class Where is Noon? Regarding Giant Sundials that we co-taught in Spring 2003. I have continued to develop artistic approaches to solar events. Some of these sunworks have not been designed specifically to measure the exact time of day as a classic sundial does, but to stimulate a greater awareness of our subjective and paradoxical relationship to nature and technology. Other, almost domestic, poetic, humorous or intimate ways of interacting with science and technology are being actively explored. I will also provide a background to previous works I have done in relation to the Sun and optics, and briefly mention artists who are using astronomical events as a point of departure.

  9. Two sun-like superflare stars rotating as slow as the Sun*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Daisaku; Notsu, Yuta; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of high dispersion spectroscopy of two "superflare stars," KIC 9766237 and KIC 9944137 with Subaru/HDS. Superflare stars are G-type main sequence stars, but show gigantic flares compared to the Sun, which have recently been discovered in the data obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Though most of these stars are thought to have a rotation period shorter than 10 d on the basis of photometric variabilities, the two targets of the present paper are estimated to have rotation periods of 21.8 d and 25.3 d. Our spectroscopic results clarified that these stars have stellar parameters similar to those of the Sun in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity. The projected rotational velocities derived by us are consistent with the photometric rotation period, indicating a fairly high inclination angle. The average strength of the magnetic field on the surface of these stars are estimated to be 1-20 G, by using the absorption line of Ca II 8542. We could not detect any hint of binarity in our spectra, although more data are needed to firmly rule out the presence of an unseen low-mass companion. These results claim that the spectroscopic properties of these superflare stars are very close to those of the Sun, and support the hypothesis that the Sun might cause a superflare.

  10. Perry, Kelvin, and the age of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2013-04-01

    Lord Kelvin argued that the Sun had to be between 20 and 100 million years old, based on the assumption that the Sun's energy source was gravitational contraction. As everyone now knows, the Sun's actual power source is the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. But Kelvin's number is based on a physical assumption for which he could give no justification: the Sun's density is approximately constant. Had Kelvin assumed instead that the Sun had a small core near a black hole radius - an assumption allowed by the knowledge of physicists at the end of the nineteenth century - he would have obtained an age for the Sun as long as 10 trillion years, completely consistent with the long time scale required for evolution. Conversely, had Kelvin accepted the geologists' time scale, he would have been forced to acknowledge the existence of very dense objects, making it easier for twentieth century astronomers to accept the existence of black holes and neutron stars.

  11. Scalar model of SU(N) glueball \\`a la Heisenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Nonperturbative model of glueball is studied. The model is based on the nonperturbative quantization technique suggested by Heisenberg. 2- and 4-point Green functions for a gauge potential are expressed in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field describes quantum fluctuations of a subgroup $SU(n) \\subset SU(N)$, and the second one describes quantum fluctuations of coset $SU(N) / SU(n)$. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar fields is obtained. The coefficients for all terms in the Lagrangian are calculated, and it is shown that they depend on $\\dim SU(n), \\dim SU(N)$. It is demonstrated that spherically symmetric solution describing the glueball does exist.

  12. Sun One Portal Server体系架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇泉

    2003-01-01

    目前,门户市场上存在着国内外多种多样的产品,本文主要介绍Sun公司的Sun ONE Portal Servero Sun ONE Portal Server到目前为止,在全球拥有400多个客户,分布于金融、电信、政府、汽车、制造、教育等行业。Sun ONE Portal Server是Sun ONE的重要组成部分。首先,让我们来看看Sun ONE(Sun Open Net Environment)的

  13. Multi-Aperture CMOS Sun Sensor for Microsatellite Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grassi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the high precision digital sun sensor under development at the University of Naples. The sensor determines the sun line orientation in the sensor frame from the measurement of the sun position on the focal plane. It exploits CMOS technology and an original optical head design with multiple apertures. This allows simultaneous multiple acquisitions of the sun as spots on the focal plane. The sensor can be operated either with a fixed or a variable number of sun spots, depending on the required field of view and sun-line measurement precision. Multiple acquisitions are averaged by using techniques which minimize the computational load to extract the sun line orientation with high precision. Accuracy and computational efficiency are also improved thanks to an original design of the calibration function relying on neural networks. Extensive test campaigns are carried out using a laboratory test facility reproducing sun spectrum, apparent size and distance, and variable illumination directions. Test results validate the sensor concept, confirming the precision improvement achievable with multiple apertures, and sensor operation with a variable number of sun spots. Specifically, the sensor provides accuracy and precision in the order of 1 arcmin and 1 arcsec, respectively.

  14. Sun Protection Belief Clusters: Analysis of Amazon Mechanical Turk Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Schnur, Julie B; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of their sun protection belief profiles and individual characteristics and (ii) explore the use of a crowdsourcing web service for the assessment of sun protection beliefs. A sample of 500 adults completed an online survey of sun protection belief items using Amazon Mechanical Turk. A two-phased cluster analysis (i.e., hierarchical and non-hierarchical K-means) was utilized to determine clusters of sun protection barriers and facilitators. Results yielded three distinct clusters of sun protection barriers and three distinct clusters of sun protection facilitators. Significant associations between gender, age, sun sensitivity, and cluster membership were identified. Results also showed an association between barrier and facilitator cluster membership. The results of this study provided a potential alternative approach to developing future sun protection promotion initiatives in the population. Findings add to our knowledge regarding individuals who support, oppose, or are ambivalent toward sun protection and inform intervention research by identifying distinct subtypes that may best benefit from (or have a higher need for) skin cancer prevention efforts.

  15. Interstellar Dust Close to the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Priscilla C

    2012-01-01

    The low density interstellar medium (ISM) close to the Sun and inside of the heliosphere provides a unique laboratory for studying interstellar dust grains. Grain characteristics in the nearby ISM are obtained from observations of interstellar gas and dust inside of the heliosphere and the interstellar gas towards nearby stars. Comparison between the gas composition and solar abundances suggests that grains are dominated by olivines and possibly some form of iron oxide. Measurements of the interstellar Ne/O ratio by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft indicate that a high fraction of interstellar oxygen in the ISM must be depleted onto dust grains. Local interstellar abundances are consistent with grain destruction in ~150 km/s interstellar shocks, provided that the carbonaceous component is hydrogenated amorphous carbon and carbon abundances are correct. Variations in relative abundances of refractories in gas suggest variations in the history of grain destruction in nearby ISM. The large observed ...

  16. Imaging convection and magnetism in the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the field of helioseismology and its outstanding challenges and also offers a detailed discussion of the latest computational methodologies. The focus is on the development and implementation of techniques to create 3-D images of convection and magnetism in the solar interior and to introduce the latest computational and theoretical methods to the interested reader. With the increasing availability of computational resources, demand for greater accuracy in the interpretation of helioseismic measurements and the advent of billion-dollar instruments taking high-quality observations, computational methods of helioseismology that enable probing the 3-D structure of the Sun have increasingly become central. This book will benefit students and researchers with proficiency in basic numerical methods, differential equations and linear algebra who are interested in helioseismology.

  17. Choosing an expected sun protection factor value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, John R; Caswell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sun protection factor, SPF, is a measure of the efficacy of a topical sunscreen product; the higher the SPF, the greater the blockage of ultraviolet-induced erythema. While there are several methods to determine SPF, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) methods are unique. The FDA methods define the label SPF value as the largest whole integer after subtracting an "A" value from the mean SPF. The A value, composed of the product of the upper 5% point of the t-distribution and the standard deviation (SD), divided by √(n), where n equals the number of subjects, has a significant impact on the label SPF value. Two examples explore this impact. Development of strategies to mitigate the impact of A using expected SPF values are explored using historical clinical trial data. A more enlightened choice of expected SPF values is shown to lead to higher label SPF values.

  18. Coronal Mass Ejections: From Sun to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourakos, S.

    2016-06-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are gigantic expulsions of magnetized plasmas from the solar corona into the interplanetary (IP) space. CMEs spawn ~ 1015 gr of mass and reach speeds ranging between several hundred to a few thousand km/s (e.g., Gopalswamy et al. 2009; Vourlidas et al. 2010). It takes 1-5 days for a CME to reach Earth. CMEs are one of the most energetic eruptive manifestations in the solar system and are major drivers of space weather via their magnetic fields and energetic particles, which are accelerated by CME-driven shocks. In this review we give a short account of recent, mainly observational, results on CMEs from the STEREO and SDO missions which include the nature of their pre-eruptive and eruptive configurations and the CME propagation from Sun to Earth. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting capabilities in CME studies that will soon become available from new solar and heliospheric instrumentation.

  19. An Encounter between the Sun and Venus

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The astronomical event of the year will take place on Tuesday, 8 June, when Venus transits across the disk of the sun. In the framework of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations, the CERN Astronomy Club and the Orion Club invite you to attend their observation of the event on the car park of the Val-Thoiry shopping centre (France) between 7.15 a.m. and 1.30 p.m. Various instruments will be set up in a special tent so that the event can be observed without any risk of damage to the eyes. As the observation of this astronomical event will depend on the weather forecast, confirmation of the above arrangements will be given on the 50th anniversary website the day before.

  20. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar and black hole systems. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our a...

  1. Convectively driven vortex flows in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez; Cabello, I; Domingo, V

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered small whirlpools in the Sun, with a size similar to the terrestrial hurricanes (<~0.5 Mm). The theory of solar convection predicts them, but they had remained elusive so far. The vortex flows are created at the downdrafts where the plasma returns to the solar interior after cooling down, and we detect them because some magnetic bright points (BPs) follow a logarithmic spiral in their way to be engulfed by a downdraft. Our disk center observations show 0.009 vortexes per Mm^2, with a lifetime of the order of 5 min, and with no preferred sense of rotation. They are not evenly spread out over the surface, but they seem to trace the supergranulation and the mesogranulation. These observed properties are strongly biased by our type of measurement, unable to detect vortexes except when they are engulfing magnetic BPs.

  2. Substructure of Quiet Sun Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Andic, Aleksandra; Goode, Phillip R

    2010-01-01

    Since photospheric bright points (BPs) were first observed, there has been a question as to how are they structured. Are they just single flux tubes or a bundle of the flux-tubes? Surface photometry of the quiet Sun (QS) has achieved resolution close to 0.1" with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. This resolution allowed us to detect a richer spectrum of BPs in the QS. The smallest BPs we observed with TiO 705.68 nm were 0.13", and we were able to resolve individual components in some of the BPs clusters and ribbons observed in the QS, showing that they are composed of the individual BPs. Average size of observed BPs was 0.22".

  3. Cartography of the sun and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, Coralie

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of the surface of stars requires diverse skills, analysis techniques and advanced modeling, i.e. the collaboration of scientists in various specialties. This volume gives insights into new techniques allowing for the first time to obtain resolved images of stars. It takes stock of what has been achieved so far in Chile, on the ESO VLTI instrument or, in the States, on the CHARA instrument. In recent times interferometry, combined with adaptive optics has allowed to reconstruct images of stars. Besides the Sun (of course) by now five stars have been resolved in detail. In addition to interferometry, this book highlights techniques used for mapping the surfaces of stars using photometry made by space observatories; Zeeman- and Doppler Imaging; mapping the surface element abundances via spectroscopy. This book will also take stock of the best images of the  solar surface, made by connecting the differential rotation to the underlying physical parameters derived from helioseismology. Recent measureme...

  4. Quantitative reconstruction of temperature at a Jōmon site in the Incipient Jōmon Period in northern Japan and its implications for the production of early pottery and stone arrowheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Hodaka; Ishizaki, Yui; Kuroyanagi, Azumi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ohkushi, Ken-ichi

    2017-02-01

    The first emergence and development of pottery is an important archeological research topic. Climate change and associated ecological changes likely promoted the development of pottery. However, little is known about these environmental factors at the regional scale. Sedimentary Core MD01-2409 was collected off the coast of northern Honshu, Japan, and provided an excellent opportunity to quantitatively estimate temperature using an alkenone proxy. This estimation is based upon the positive correlation between the sea surface temperature (SST) and the atmospheric temperature (AT) near the core collection site. The Jōmon began to produce the earliest pottery found in Japan during this period. This corresponds to a climatic anomaly that could be attributed to one of the global effects of the Heinrich Event I. The event's origin in the northern North Atlantic consequently weakened the Asian Monsoon because the two are linked via atmospheric circulation. Japan experienced its coldest summer (SST of 8.7 °C; AT of 5.2 °C) around 15.68 cal kyr BP; these summer temperatures were approximately 7-11 °C lower than they are currently (∼15.7 °C and ∼16.7 °C), respectively. The summer environment was a little colder than those experienced in the present-day cities of Nemuro and/or Nosappu in Hokkaido. Subsistence in a terrestrial environment would have been difficult for the Jōmon people; however, marine products such as fish and shellfish would have been plentiful. These conditions are consistent with the evidence that the earliest pottery was predominantly used for cooking marine and freshwater resources and increased diversification in the range of aquatic products used. The Bølling-Allerød and pre-Boreal warm Episodes during deglaciation warmed climatic environments and enhanced marine biogenic production. The maximum SST during this period is comparable to the modern SST despite its short duration (of approximately a century or less). Even though the

  5. 13th Annual Systems Engineering Conference: Tues- Wed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    through system implementation and SoS integration activities. OMT , FED files, and Word. Doc includes FOM and Federation Agreement info. HTML...including the SE, with a goal of minimal impact to all participants and the infrastructure while delivering new functionality. OMT , FED files

  6. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  7. From forced collapse to H ii region expansion in Mon R2: Envelope density structure and age determination with Herschel⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelon, P.; Motte, F.; Tremblin, P.; Hill, T.; Hony, S.; Hennemann, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Anderson, L. D.; Galliano, F.; Schneider, N.; Rayner, T.; Rygl, K.; Louvet, F.; Zavagno, A.; Könyves, V.; Sauvage, M.; André, Ph.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Griffin, M.; González, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Bernard, J.-P.; Benedettini, M.; Di Francesco, J.; Men'shchikov, A.; Minier, V.; Nguyên Luong, Q.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Russeil, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The surroundings of H ii regions can have a profound influence on their development, morphology, and evolution. This paper explores the effect of the environment on H ii regions in the MonR2 molecular cloud. Aims: We aim to investigate the density structure of envelopes surrounding H ii regions and to determine their collapse and ionisation expansion ages. The Mon R2 molecular cloud is an ideal target since it hosts an H ii region association, which has been imaged by the Herschel PACS and SPIRE cameras as part of the HOBYS key programme. Methods: Column density and temperature images derived from Herschel data were used together to model the structure of H ii bubbles and their surrounding envelopes. The resulting observational constraints were used to follow the development of the Mon R2 ionised regions with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. Results: The four hot bubbles associated with H ii regions are surrounded by dense, cold, and neutral gas envelopes, which are partly embedded in filaments. The envelope's radial density profiles are reminiscent of those of low-mass protostellar envelopes. The inner parts of envelopes of all four H ii regions could be free-falling because they display shallow density profiles: ρ(r) ∝ r- q with q ≤slant 1.5. As for their outer parts, the two compact H ii regions show a ρ(r) ∝ r-2 profile, which is typical of the equilibrium structure of a singular isothermal sphere. In contrast, the central UCH ii region shows a steeper outer profile, ρ(r) ∝ r-2.5, that could be interpreted as material being forced to collapse, where an external agent overwhelms the internal pressure support. Conclusions: The size of the heated bubbles, the spectral type of the irradiating stars, and the mean initial neutral gas density are used to estimate the ionisation expansion time, texp ~ 0.1 Myr, for the dense UCH ii and compact H ii regions and ~ 0.35 Myr for the extended H ii region. Numerical simulations with and

  8. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  9. El saber de los claustros: las escuelas monásticas y catedralicias en la Edad Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijarro González, Susana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a summary of the role played by the monastic and cathedral schools in the transmission of knowledge during the Middle Ages. Using the periods established by the Medieval historiography as reference, the following factors are considered in the shaping of the school curriculum: libraries, manuscripts production and the activity of the schoolmasters. What is more, these factors let us identify the centres of the cultural geography of Medieval Western Europe up to the birth of the universities at the beginning of the Thirteenth century. The monastic and cathedral schools provided a syllabus that combined knowledge and ethics (littera et mores through the study of grammar and rhetoric (cultivation of classical virtues. The majority of literate people were educated in these institutions during the medieval centuries, especially clerks and monks, versatile men who served both to the Church and the royal and lordship courts with equal skill. In this way, the ecclesiastical schools symbolized the close alliance between learning and power that was consolidated during the Late Middle Ages.En este artículo se presenta una síntesis de papel jugado por las escuelas monásticas y catedralicias en la transmisión del conocimiento en la Edad Media. Siguiendo los períodos cronológicos establecidos por la historiografía medieval, las bibliotecas, la producción de manuscritos y la actividad de los maestros son considerados factores de primer orden en la configuración del curriculum escolar. Además, permiten perfilar los centros de la geografía cultural del Occidente medieval hasta el surgimiento de las universidades a comienzos del siglo XIII. Las escuelas monásticas y catedralicias ofrecieron un programa que conjugaba el saber con la ética (littera et mores, a través del estudio de la gramática y la retórica (cultus virtutum. Estas instituciones formaron a la mayoría de los alfabetizados (litterati durante los siglos medievales

  10. Geology of the western, eastern and northern flanks of the Olympus Mons volcano as seen in HRSC and MOC images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Werner, S. C.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.; Dumke, A.; Ivanov, B. A.; Gwinner, K.

    This study is based on the analysis of images taken by MEX High Resolution Stereo Camera and in combination with MGS MOC images. 3-D imagery in the form of HRSC-based anaglyphs and DTMs were very helpful for the study. Our observation and analysis confirm the well-known interpretation of Olympus Mons as a giant shield volcano, but also show that this construct locally has probably partly been made of airborne dust (and/or ash) and ice layered deposits (Neukum et al, 2004; Basilevsky et al., 2005; this study). The deposits form mesas locally standing above the lava fields in the volcano western and eastern flanks as well as ridges locally observed at the top parts of the scarps rimming the Olympus construct on its western and northern flanks. The ridge tops stand a few hundred meters above the adjacent lava flows coming from the volcano top. Ice presence in these deposits was inferred from the presence of "collapse" features locally extending downslope as channel-like forms. The neutron-spectrometry measurements (Feldman et al., 2004) show a noticeable decrease in the neutron flux suggesting presence of up to 15-18 vol. % of equivalent water (ice) in the upper 1 m surface layer in the western part of the construct. The ice-rich deposits could have been emplaced during the epochs of high orbital inclination of Mars (Mishna et al., 2004) and could be partly preserved in the modern epoch due to protecting dust covers (Skorov et al., 2001). At the foot of the western slope of the volcano are seen flow-like features interpreted as remnants of rock glaciers (Lucchitta, 1981; Milkovich and Head, 2006). The dating by crater statistics shows that different areas of the Olympus Mons construct and lava fields at its foot have a spread of ages from >3.5 b.y. to 2 m.y. and glacier-like flows show a 0.5 b.y. to 4 m.y. age range. The eastern flank of the volcano shows a complex of morphologies caused by fluvial (channels), tectonic (wrinkle ridges) and volcanic (lava flows and

  11. Adoption et utilisation du porte-monnaie électronique Monéo – Essai empirique sur un échantillon test

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Chanel; Zouhaïer M’Chirgui

    2011-01-01

    Le porte-monnaie électronique (PME) est l’une des dernières innovations technologiques de paiement fondée sur la technologie « carte à puce ». Toutefois, le PME Monéo peine à se généraliser en France alors même que d’autres PME dans le monde connaissent le succès. Nous nous appuyons sur un échantillon test de 100 consommateurs de la région marseillaise pour examiner les facteurs expliquant la décision d’adopter Monéo, et la fréquence de son usage chez 50 utilisateurs. En modélisant la dépenda...

  12. Polar Magnetic Field Reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. I. Makarov; A. G. Tlatov

    2000-09-01

    A possible scenario of polar magnetic field reversal of the Sun during the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) is discussed using data of magnetic field reversals of the Sun for 1880-1991 and the 14C content variations in the bi-annual rings of the pine-trees in 1600-1730 yrs.

  13. Quadrant to Measure the Sun's Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A Morgan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The changing altitude of the Sun (either over the course of a day or longer periods) is a phenomenon that students do not normally appreciate. However, the altitude of the Sun affects many topics in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, meteorology, navigation, or horology, such as the basis for seasons, determination of latitude and longitude, or…

  14. Sun avoidance strategies at the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souccar, Kamal; Smith, David R.; Schloerb, F. Peter; Wallace, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope observatory is extending its night time operation to the day time. A sun avoidance strategy was therefore implemented in the control system in real-time to avoid excessive heating and damage to the secondary mirror and the prime focus. The LMT uses an "on-the-fly" trajectory generator that receives as input the target location of the telescope and in turn outputs a commanded position to the servo system. The sun avoidance strategy is also implemented "on-the-fly" where it intercepts the input to the trajectory generator and alters that input to avoid the sun. Two sun avoidance strategies were explored. The first strategy uses a potential field approach where the sun is represented as a high-potential obstacle in the telescope's workspace and the target location is represented as a low-potential goal. The potential field is repeatedly calculated as the sun and the telescope move and the telescope follows the induced force by this field. The second strategy is based on path planning using visibility graphs where the sun is represented as a polygonal obstacle and the telescope follows the shortest path from its actual position to the target location via the vertices of the sun's polygon. The visibility graph approach was chosen as the favorable strategy due to the efficiency of its algorithm and the simplicity of its computation.

  15. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  16. Regular Biology Students Learn Like AP Students with SUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Ann; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Bo; Gruhl, Mary; Nelson, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Ning, Ling; Roberts, Marisa; Knopp, Jonathan; Harrington, Tom; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Marcey, David

    2016-01-01

    The SUN approach to biological energy transfer education is fundamentally different from past practices that trace chemical and energy inputs and outputs. The SUN approach uses a hydrogen fuel cell to convince learners that electrons can move from one substance to another based on differential attraction. With a hydrogen fuel cell, learners can…

  17. Wien's Law and the Temperature of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Mark L.; Katz, Debora M.; Aho, Robert; Diaz-Barriga, James; Petron, Jerome

    2002-10-01

    A simple approach is used in an attempt to determine the temperature of the sun by modeling the sun as a blackbody radiator and applying Wein's Law. Apparently excellent results are obtained, but the results are false as a consequence of two corrections which cancel out.

  18. Mr. Sun Laiyan Appointed as Administrator of CNSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The State Council of the People's Republic of China announced on April 23, 2004 that Mr. Sun Laiyan was appointed to be the Administrator of China National Space Administration (CNSA). Mr. Luan Enjie was announced to retire from the office. Mr. Sun Laiyan, born in October 1957, graduated from Xian Communication

  19. Growth and morphogenesis of sun and shade plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    A number of species of sun and shade plants in the vegetative phase were grown in different light intensities, different light qualities (r/fr ratio) and different combinations of light intensity and nutrient supply. Sun and shade species were also grown at various plant densities and in interspecif

  20. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  1. Description of the Sun as a Star: General Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Theresa; Crannell, Carol Jo

    2000-01-01

    Numerical parameters characterizing the size and energy output of the sun are presented. These values are the standard yardstick by which other stars are measured. The large number of significant digits tabulated here serve mainly to illustrate the precision to which these parameters are known. Also listed are parameters characterizing the earth's orbit around the sun and the intensity of the sun's radiation at the mean orbital distance. The appearance of the sun depends critically on how it is observed. Each type of radiation observed carries specific information about the physical processes at work on the sun. Special types of instruments reveal aspects otherwise invisible. Coronagraphs reveal the dimmer outer regions of the sun's atmosphere otherwise visible only during total solar eclipses. Spectroscopy can reveal motions, magnetic field strengths, temperatures and densities. In situ measurements have revealed the characteristics of the solar wind and extended our knowledge of the solar magnetic field both near the earth and beyond the orbits of the planets. As an example, the sun's disk observed almost simultaneously in six different wavelengths of light is shown. In visible light we can see the white disk of the sun with the dark spots known as sunspots. By analyzing the spectral lines produced by the sun we can measure the strength of the sun's magnetic field at its surface, producing a magnetogram. This magnetogram reveals that the sunspots are regions of intense magnetic field. Further images of the sun reveal that the sunspot regions are just the bases of systems of hot loops which emit radio-waves, ultraviolet light and X-rays. The sun imaged in a spectral line of hydrogen known as "H alpha" is shown. In this line we also see the long dark "filaments". These filaments form in long channels between areas of opposing magnetic field. Such channels can be seen in the ultraviolet image. Data concerning the sun are obtained with many different kinds of

  2. El papel de la contabilidad monástica a lo largo de la historia en el orbe cristiano. Una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Maté Sadornil

    2017-07-01

    Este análisis revela una diversidad de objetivos para los que esta ha resultado de utilidad. Ha supuesto un elemento clave para la supervivencia de estas instituciones a lo largo de los siglos, razón por la cual se le presta una atención primordial en las normas de gobierno de las distintas órdenes monásticas.

  3. The Sun is Condensed Matter and has a Real Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    The idea that the Sun was a gaseous in nature was born from 1858-65. At that time, a group of men, including Herbert Spencer, Father Angelo Secchi, Warren de la Rue, Balfour Stewart, and Benjamin Loewy, advanced that the Sun was a ball of gas. In 1865, Hervé Faye was the first to argue that the solar surface was merely an illusion. Dismissing all signs to the contrary, solar physics has promoted this idea to the present day, as manifested by the Standard Solar Model. In this work, overwhelming observational evidence will be presented that the Sun does indeed possess a distinct surface (see P.M. Robitaille, Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter -- The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block, Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 4, 90-143). Our telescopes and satellites are sampling real structures on the surface of the Sun.

  4. Exotic World Blisters Under the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept shows a Jupiter-like planet soaking up the scorching rays of its nearby 'sun.' NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope used its heat-seeking infrared eyes to figure out that a gas-giant planet like the one depicted here is two-faced, with one side perpetually in the cold dark, and the other forever blistering under the heat of its star. The illustration portrays how the planet would appear to infrared eyes, showing temperature variations across its surface. The planet, called Upsilon Andromedae b, was first discovered in 1996 around the star Upsilon Andromedae, located 40 light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. This star also has two other planets orbiting farther out. Upsilon Andromedae b is what's known as a 'hot-Jupiter' planet, because it is made of gas like our Jovian giant, and it is hot, due to its tight, 4.6-day-long jaunt around its star. The toasty planet orbits at one-sixth the distance of Mercury from our own sun. It travels in a plane that is seen neither edge- nor face-on from our solar system, but somewhere in between. Scientists do not know how fast Upsilon Andromedae b is spinning on its axis, but they believe that it is tidally locked to its star, just as our locked moon forever hides its 'dark side' from Earth's view. Spitzer observed Upsilon Andromedae b at five points during the planet's trip around its star. The planet's light levels went up or down, as detected by Spitzer, depending on whether the planet's sunlit or dark side was pointed toward Earth. These data indicate that the temperature difference between the two hemispheres of the planet is about 1,400 degrees Celsius (2,550 degrees Fahrenheit). According to astronomers, this means that the side of the planet that faces the star is always as hot as lava, while the other side could potentially be as cold as ice. Specifically, the hot side of the planet ranges from about 1,400 to 1,650 degrees Celsius (2,550 to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit), and the cold side from about

  5. Økologisk risikovurdering af en genmo-dificeret glyfosat-tolerant raps MON 88302 i anmeldelse til godkendelse vedr. import til markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Damgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Den genmodificerede raps, MON88302, adskiller sig fra konventionel raps ved at have indsat et gen der gør planten tolerant over for herbicidet glyfosat. Rapsen søges kun godkendt til import til foder og fødevarer for human konsumtion. DCE, Bioscience anser det for sandsynligt at MON 88302-rapsen ...... and surroundings. Although, not directly an environmental issue, we find that dispersal of the MON 88302 oilseed rape could result in problems for co-existence with non-GMO-cultivation......., Bioscience concludes, that accidental dispersal, hybridisation and persistence of the MON 88302-oilseed rape is likely to take place over time. The consequences to the environment are likely to be small. Fur-thermore, there are methods to monitor such dispersal of the GMO-plant into cultivated fields......Den genmodificerede raps, MON88302, adskiller sig fra konventionel raps ved at have indsat et gen der gør planten tolerant over for herbicidet glyfosat. Rapsen søges kun godkendt til import til foder og fødevarer for human konsumtion. DCE, Bioscience anser det for sandsynligt at MON 88302-rapsen og...

  6. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  7. The risks and benefits of sun exposure 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G.; Berwick, Marianne; de Gruijl, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public health authorities in the United States are recommending that men, women and children reduce their exposure to sunlight, based on concerns that this exposure will promote skin cancer. On the other hand, data show that increasing numbers of Americans suffer from vitamin D deficiencies and serious health problems caused by insufficient sun exposure. The body of science concerning the benefits of moderate sun exposure is growing rapidly, and is causing a different perception of sun/UV as it relates to human health. Melanoma and its relationship to sun exposure and sunburn is not adequately addressed in most of the scientific literature. Reports of favorable health outcomes related to adequate serum 25(OH)D concentration or vitamin D supplementation have been inappropriately merged, so that benefits of sun exposure other than production of vitamin D are not adequately described. This review of recent studies and their analyses consider the risks and benefits of sun exposure which indicate that insufficient sun exposure is an emerging public health problem. This review considers the studies that have shown a wide range health benefits from sun/UV exposure. These benefits include among others various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease/dementia, myopia and macular degeneration, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The message of sun avoidance must be changed to acceptance of non-burning sun exposure sufficient to achieve serum 25(OH)D concentration of 30 ng/mL or higher in the sunny season and the general benefits of UV exposure beyond those of vitamin D. PMID:27942349

  8. Monólogos humorísticos televisivos en la clase de español como lengua extranjera: Herramientas de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Martos Eliche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio que presentamos pretende añadir una visión interdisciplinar del uso de un tipo de discurso muy extendido en nuestra sociedad que ejemplifica muy adecuadamente la llamada inteligencia cultural: el monólogo. Se trata de acercar al estudiante de español de niveles avanzados a elementos subyacentes - difícilmente explicables- de los diferentes niveles lingüísticos y culturales del español a través de los monólogos humorísticos que aparecen en televisión. Analizamos la importancia del humor y de la inteligencia cultural en estos monólogos, haciendo hincapié en lo que llamamos minimonólogos y su utilidad en la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera, pues en ellos confluyen los más diversos elementos culturales de la lengua, lo que permite al estudiante acercarse a la realidad a la vez que se divierte durante el proceso educativo.

  9. The spectroscopic evolution of the $\\gamma$-ray emitting classical nova Nova Mon 2012. I. Implications for the ONe subclass of classical novae

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; Schwarz, G J; Augusteijn, T; Cheung, C C; Walter, F M; Starrfield, S

    2013-01-01

    Nova Mon 2012 was the first classical nova to be detected as a high energy $\\gamma$-ray transient, by Fermi-LAT, before its optical discovery. We study a time sequence of high resolution optical echelle spectra (Nordic Optical Telescope) and contemporaneous NOT, STIS UV, and CHIRON echelle spectra (Nov 20/21/22). We use [O III] and H$\\beta$ line fluxs to constrain the properties of the ejecta. We derive the structure from the optical and UV line profiles and compare our measured line fluxes for with predictions using Cloudy with abundances from other ONe novae. Mon 2012 is confirmed as an ONe nova. We find E(B-V)=0.85$\\pm$0.05 and hydrogen column density $\\approx 5\\times 10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$. The corrected continuum luminosity is nearly the same in the entire observed energy range as V1974 Cyg, V382 Mon, and Nova LMC 2000 at the same epoch after outburst. The distance, about 3.6 kpc, is quite similar to V1974 Cyg. The line profiles can be modeled using an axisymmetric bipolar geometry for the ejecta with variou...

  10. Retraduzir a obra para traduzir o rascunho: tradução da poética do rascunho em Mon coeur mis à nu, de Charles Baudelaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Thiago Mattos de

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Similarly to Fernando Pessoa’s Livro do Desassossego, Mon coeur mis à nu presents itself as an unfinished work, constituted by disperse, provisional, sometimes incomplete notes. Some critics believe that such works were not meant to be oeuvres, but drafts, works in progress, unachieved-unachievable texts. Based on Didier’s (1973 notion of draft poetics, it is now possible to consider that incompleteness is inherent to these works; they constitute themselves in and through their incompleteness. Provisionality, hesitancy, unfinishedness are constitutive of this draft poetics. It is our aim to discuss and work out a way of translating Mon coeur mis à nu by building on its procedural and incomplete dimension, seeking to highlight the many ways of ordering and structuring the text, and paying attention to the materiality of the manuscript and its revision process. Therefore, I propose resorting to hypertext, a translational and editorial strategy that would allow a rhizomatic and multicursal reading of this material, enabling the reader to experience the haunting and the “monstrosity” of the moving textuality that appears in Mon coeur mis à nu.

  11. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  12. Chemical and physical parameters from X-ray high resolution spectra of the Galactic nova V959 Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Peretz, U; Behar, E; Bianchini, A; Gallagher, J; Rauch, T; Tofflemire, B; Zemko, P

    2016-01-01

    Two observations of V959 Mon, done using the Chandra X-ray gratings during the late outburst phases (2012 September and December), offer extraordinary insight into the physics and chemistry of this Galactic ONe nova. the X-ray flux was 1.7 x 10(-11) erg/cm(2)/s and 8.6 x 10(-12) erg/cm(2)/s, respectively at the two epochs. The first result, coupled with electron density diagnostics and compared with published optical and ultraviolet observations, indicates that most likely in 2012 September the X-rays originate from a very small fraction of the ejecta, concentrated in very dense clumps. We obtained a fairly good fit to the September spectrum with a model of plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) with two components; one at a temperature of 0.78 keV, blueshifted by 710-930 km/s, the other at a temperature of 4.5 keV, mostly contributing to the high-energy continuum. However, we cannot rule out a range of plasma temperatures between these two extremes. In December, the central white dwarf (WD) becam...

  13. RelMon: A general approach to QA, validation and physics analysis through comparison of large sets of histograms

    CERN Document Server

    Piparo, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of the compatibility of large amounts of histogram pairs is a recurrent problem in high energy physics. The issue is common to several different areas, from software quality monitoring to data certification, preservation and analysis. Given two sets of histograms, it is very important to be able to scrutinize the outcome of several goodness of fit tests, obtain a clear answer about the overall compatibility, easily spot the single anomalies and directly access the concerned histogram pairs. This procedure must be automated in order to reduce the human workload, therefore improving the process of identification of differences which is usually carried out by a trained human mind. Some solutions to this problem have been proposed, but they are experiment specific. RelMon depends only on ROOT and offers several goodness of fit tests (e.g. chi-squared or Kolmogorov-Smirnov). It produces highly readable web reports, in which aggregations of the comparisons rankings are available as well as all the pl...

  14. CoRoT photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of the interacting eclipsing binary AU Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Desmet, M; Baudin, F; Harmanec, P; Lampens, P; Pacheco, E Janot; Briquet, M; Degroote, P; Neiner, C; Mathias, P; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Amado, P J; Valtier, J -C; Prsa, A; Maceroni, C; Aerts, C

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of very accurate CoRoT space photometry, past Johnson V photoelectric photometry and high-resolution \\'echelle spectra led to the determination of improved and consistent fundamental stellar properties of both components of AU Mon. We derived new, accurate ephemerides for both the orbital motion (with a period of 11.113d) and the long-term, overall brightness variation (with a period of 416.9d) of this strongly interacting Be + G semi-detached binary. It is shown that this long-term variation must be due to attenuation of the total light by some variable circumbinary material. We derived the binary mass ratio $M_{\\rm G}/M_{\\rm B}$ = 0.17\\p0.03 based on the assumption that the G-type secondary fills its Roche lobe and rotates synchronously. Using this value of the mass ratio as well as the radial velocities of the G-star, we obtained a consistent light curve model and improved estimates of the stellar masses, radii, luminosities and effective temperatures. We demonstrate that the observed lines of the...

  15. Relatos de historias de pareja en el Chile actual: la intimidad como un monólogo colectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariela Sharim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A la luz de los procesos de individualización social, se han descrito importantes cambios en el ámbito de la intimidad. En este marco, esta investigación indaga en los significados y en la experiencia subjetiva respecto a las relaciones de pareja, focalizándose en la dimensión psicológica de la intimidad. Se recogieron relatos de vida de hombres y mujeres adultos chilenos, quienes narraron sus historias de pareja. El supuesto de esta relación como emblemática del espacio de intimidad, se ve cuestionado por los resultados. Al hablar de pareja, los narradores no hablaron de intimidad. Transmitieron más bien un sentimiento de temor o amenaza y la evitación del otro en este espacio. De sus relatos se desprende que los ideales de pareja se construyen paradojalmente de manera individual, instalándose una manera de ser en pareja que hemos denominado "monólogo colectivo".

  16. The first CO+ image. I. Probing the HI/H2 layer around the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Morales, S. P.; Fuente, A.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Pilleri, P.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Roueff, E.; Rizzo, J. R.; Gerin, M.; Berné, O.; Cernicharo, J.; Gónzalez-García, M.; Kramer, C.; García-Burillo, S.; Pety, J.

    2016-09-01

    The CO+ reactive ion is thought to be a tracer of the boundary between a Hii region and the hot molecular gas. In this study, we present the spatial distribution of the CO+ rotational emission toward the Mon R2 star-forming region. The CO+ emission presents a clumpy ring-like morphology, arising from a narrow dense layer around the Hii region. We compared the CO+ distribution with other species present in photon-dominated regions (PDR), such as [Cii] 158 μm, H2 S(3) rotational line at 9.3 μm, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and HCO+. We find that the CO+ emission is spatially coincident with the PAHs and [Cii] emission. This confirms that the CO+ emission arises from a narrow dense layer of the Hi/H2 interface. We determined the CO+ fractional abundance relative to C+ toward three positions. The abundances range from 0.1 to 1.9 × 10-10 and are in good agreement with the previous chemical model, which predicts that the production of CO+ in PDRs only occurs in dense regions with high UV fields. The CO+ linewidth is larger than those found in molecular gas tracers, and their central velocity are blueshifted with respect to the molecular gas velocity. We interpret this as a hint that the CO+ is probing photoevaporating clump surfaces.

  17. R2E-related MD: slow controlled losses for RadMon/BLM cross-checks

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, M; Spiezia, G; Sapinski, M; Priebe, A; Nordt, A; Pojer, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the dedicated R2E MD has been to evaluate the R factor (i.e. the ratio between the thermal neutron fluence and the high energy hadron fluence (>20MeV) for various tunnel locations, to measure the HEH radiation level gradient along the MBC dipole and on the MQ, to check the ratio the BLM measured dose and RadMon SEU counts and to study the dose gradient between the standard BLM beam axis location and at the level of the equipment location. Within the R2E Mitigation Project, these accurate measurement and cross-check of the mentioned parameters are of great importance for the evaluation and interpretation of the R2E-related radiation levels, as well as for the evaluation of the failure cross-section of specific equipment (i.e. QPS ISO150). In addition, a short part of the MD has been devoted to the comparison of BLM signals generated by loss directed inwards and outwards with respect to the LHC ring.

  18. Remnant buried ice in the equatorial regions of Mars: Morphological indicators associated with the Arsia Mons tropical mountain glacier deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Kathleen E.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.

    2015-06-01

    The fan-shaped deposit (FSD) on the western and northwestern flanks of Arsia Mons is the remnant of tropical mountain glaciers, deposited several tens to hundreds of millions of years ago during periods of high spin-axis obliquity. Previous workers have argued that the Smooth Facies in the FSD contains a core of ancient glacial ice. Here, we find evidence that additional glacial ice remains preserved within several other landforms in the Smooth Facies and Ridged Facies. These include landforms that we interpret as kame and kettle topography on the basis of their distribution, size, and morphologies ranging progressively from knobs to degraded knobs to pits. We argue that some moraines in the Ridged Facies are ice-cored on the basis of their interactions with lava flows and the axial troughs at the crests of some moraines. We also argue that dunes with axial troughs, found in and surrounding the FSD, are the remnants of sediment-covered snow dunes formed by reworking of snow or glacial ice, and that the axial troughs form as tension cracks in the sediment and deepen by sublimation of the underlying ice. Long-term preservation of water ice in equatorial environments is assisted by a meters- to decameters-thick debris cover (lag) formed from sublimation of dirty ice, as well as burial beneath volcanic tephra and aeolian deposits. This ancient ice could contain preserved biosignatures, provide information on Martian climate and atmospheric history, and serve as a resource for human exploration.

  19. The first CO+ image: Probing the HI/H2 layer around the ultracompact HII region Mon R2

    CERN Document Server

    Trevino-Morales, S P; Sanchez-Monge, A; Pilleri, P; Goicoechea, J R; Ossenkopf-Okada, V; Roueff, E; Rizzo, J R; Gerin, M; Berne, O; Cernicharo, J; Gonzalez-Garcia, M; Kramer, C; Garcia-Burillo, S; Pety, J

    2016-01-01

    The CO+ reactive ion is thought to be a tracer of the boundary between a HII region and the hot molecular gas. In this study, we present the spatial distribution of the CO+ rotational emission toward the Mon R2 star-forming region. The CO+ emission presents a clumpy ring-like morphology, arising from a narrow dense layer around the HII region. We compare the CO+ distribution with other species present in photon-dominated regions (PDR), such as [CII] 158 mm, H2 S(3) rotational line at 9.3 mm, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and HCO+. We find that the CO+ emission is spatially coincident with the PAHs and [CII] emission. This confirms that the CO+ emission arises from a narrow dense layer of the HI/H2 interface. We have determined the CO+ fractional abundance, relative to C+ toward three positions. The abundances range from 0.1 to 1.9x10^(-10) and are in good agreement with previous chemical model, which predicts that the production of CO+ in PDRs only occurs in dense regions with high UV fields. The CO...

  20. Interstellar Clouds Near the Sun, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Priscilla C.

    We propose to continue a study of interstellar sight-lines with low total column densities in order to determine the nature (temperature, density, fractional ionization) of the low density gas near the Sun and within the interior of the local superbubble. IUE data, combined with previous Copernicus observations, can be used to delimit the filling factor of nearby low density warm gas, and by default restrict the filling factor of 10^6 K plasma. In the proposed program, observations of MgI and ZnII(and in one region CIV) are combined with cloud maps and ground-based NaI observations (from a separate program) to restrict gas temperature, spatial and electron densities. The Welty et al. (1986) technique for removing fixed pattern noise through observations of a template star (used to flat-field the target stars on a pixel-by-pixel basis) is used to enable 3sigma absorption line detections at the 6-9 mA level, depending on the number of exposures involved. The ultimate goal of both the IUE and ground-based program is to map out the local interstellar medium. Apart from the intrinsic interest of this problem, it will help define regions where ultraviolet sources can be observed with FUSE/Lyman at lambda<912 A.

  1. The Chemical Composition of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Martin; Grevesse, Nicolas; Sauval, A. Jacques; Scott, Pat

    2009-09-01

    The solar chemical composition is an important ingredient in our understanding of the formation, structure, and evolution of both the Sun and our Solar System. Furthermore, it is an essential reference standard against which the elemental contents of other astronomical objects are compared. In this review, we evaluate the current understanding of the solar photospheric composition. In particular, we present a redetermination of the abundances of nearly all available elements, using a realistic new three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent hydrodynamical model of the solar atmosphere. We have carefully considered the atomic input data and selection of spectral lines, and accounted for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) whenever possible. The end result is a comprehensive and homogeneous compilation of the solar elemental abundances. Particularly noteworthy findings are significantly lower abundances of C, N, O, and Ne compared to the widely used values of a decade ago. The new solar chemical composition is supported by a high degree of internal consistency between available abundance indicators, and by agreement with values obtained in the Solar Neighborhood and from the most pristine meteorites. There is, however, a stark conflict with standard models of the solar interior according to helioseismology, a discrepancy that has yet to find a satisfactory resolution.

  2. Framing the Sun and Buildings as Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. S. Brownson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study frames integration of Solar Energy Conversion Systems (SECS with the built environment, addressing on-site limitations for resource allocation in the urban context. The Sun, buildings, and solar technologies are investigated as resource systems within Ostrom’s framework of the commons and shared governance, with associated goods (as resource units appropriated from light conversion (products of daylight, heat, power, shade, money. Light is transient and unevenly distributed across the hours of the day across the year. Building surfaces utilized to convert light into useful products such as electricity are often “area-constrained” and cannot provide total power to all occupants in urban structures. Being unevenly distributed over time and being area-constrained makes the appropriated goods from the solar resource system scarce to commercial buildings and multi-family residences. Scarce commodities require management strategies to distribute the variable returns derived from technologies such as PV and solar hot water. The balance between sustainable urban communities and limited surface area to deliver solar products to all occupants will soon drive communities to consider how the solar goods are managed and allocated. Examples demonstrate management of solar resource and associated goods through collective actions of local communities via utility sponsored models, solar gardens, and crowd-sourced investment.

  3. Supersonic Magnetic Flows in the Quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Borrero, J M; Schlichenmaier, R; Schmidt, W; Berkefeld, T; Solanki, S K; Bonet, J A; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Domingo, V; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we describe some recent observations of high-speed magnetized flows in the quiet Sun granulation. These observations were carried out with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) onboard the stratospheric balloon {\\sc Sunrise}, and possess an unprecedented spatial resolution and temporal cadence. These flows were identified as highly shifted circular polarization (Stokes $V$) signals. We estimate the LOS velocity responsible for these shifts to be larger than 6 km s$^{-1}$, and therefore we refer to them as {\\it supersonic magnetic flows}. The average lifetime of the detected events is 81.3 s and they occupy an average area of about 23\\,000 km$^2$. Most of the events occur within granular cells and correspond therefore to upflows. However some others occur in intergranular lanes or bear no clear relation to the convective velocity pattern. We analyze a number of representative examples and discuss them in terms of magnetic loops, reconnection events, and convective collapse.

  4. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  5. South Australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrou, N; Casson, R; Fung, S; Ferdowsi, N; Lee, G; Selva, D

    2008-06-01

    To study student's knowledge of the effects of sunlight on the eyes, as well as their sun protective behaviours. In total, 640 [corrected] students aged 13-18 years were surveyed in South Australia, during August-September 2004, using a standardized previously used survey. Scores were calculated regarding knowledge about ultraviolet light, sunlight effects on eyes, as well as eye and body protection. Risk factor scores were produced for each student. The data were analysed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA), as well as the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel methods. Results were compared to the same survey conducted in 1995 in Queensland Australia. This group demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge, similar to the 1995 survey. Students in the older age groups demonstrated significantly higher knowledge. The majority of students (74%) owned a pair of sunglasses; however, 44.5% almost never wore their glasses. The reported frequency of wearing sunglasses was significantly related to advertising, believing sunglasses protect the eyes, as well as personal, family, and peer attitudes towards wearing sunglasses. The results of our survey suggest no significant change in knowledge and behaviours of students, compared to the 1995 survey. We feel it is imperative that adolescents be made more aware of the damaging effects of sunlight and the benefits of eye protection. Health promotion campaigns should target the youth and consider that as a group, they are significantly influenced by the media, peers, and family attitudes.

  6. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 Wm-2 during the late Archean), but geological evidence points to the Earth being at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduce the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a~forcing of +25 Wm-2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 ...

  7. Saturation of Stellar Winds from Young Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Kataoka, Ryuho; Kato, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Takuma; Miyahara, Hiroko; Tsuneta, Saku

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged)We investigate mass losses via stellar winds from sun-like main sequence stars with a wide range of activity levels. We perform forward-type magnetohydrodynamical numerical experiments for Alfven wave-driven stellar winds with a wide range of the input Poynting flux from the photosphere. Increasing the magnetic field strength and the turbulent velocity at the stellar photosphere from the current solar level, the mass loss rate rapidly increases at first owing to the suppression of the reflection of the Alfven waves. The surface materials are lifted up by the magnetic pressure associated with the Alfven waves, and the cool dense chromosphere is intermittently extended to 10-20% of the stellar radius. The densities of the corona and transition region above the chromosphere is also high, which leads to efficient radiative losses. Eventually most of the input Poynting energy from the stellar surface escapes by the radiation. As a result, there is no more sufficient energy remained for the kinetic energy...

  8. Alterações Induzidas Pelo Exercício no Número, Função e Morfologia de Monócitos de Ratos

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.

    2008-01-01

    O propósito desse estudo foi verificar as alterações histofisiológicas em monócitos e macrófagos induzidas por curtos períodos de exercícios. Ratos Wistar (idade = 2 meses, peso corporal = 200g) foram divididos em sete grupos (n=6 cada): controle sedentário (C), grupos exercitados (natação) na intensidade leve por 5 (5L), 10 (10L) e 15 minutos (15L), e grupos exercitados em intensidade moderada por 5 (5M), 10 (10M) e 15 minutes (15M). Na intensidade moderada os animais carregaram uma carga de 5% do peso corporal dos mesmos em seus respectivos dorsos. Os monócitos sangüíneos foram avaliados quanto à quantidade e morfologia e os macrófagos peritoneais foram analisados quanto à quantidade e atividade fagocitária. Os dados foram analisados usando ANOVA e Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0,05). Os grupos de intensidade leve e 5M apresentaram aumento nos níveis dos monócitos quando comparados com o controle. Foi observado aumento na área celular dos monócitos para os grupos 5L, 10L, 5M e 10M; a área nuclear aumentou para os grupos 10L, 5M e 10M em comparação com o controle. Houve aumento nos macrófagos peritoneais para os grupos 15L, 10M, 15M e diminuição no grupo 5M. A capacidade fagocitária dos macrófagos aumentou nos grupos de intensidade leve e para o grupo 10M. O exercício realizado por curtos períodos modulou o número e função dos macrófagos, assim como o número e morfologia dos monócitos, sendo tais alterações dependentes da intensidade. A soma das respostas agudas observadas nesse estudo pode exercer um efeito protetor contra doenças, podendo ser utilizada para a melhora da saúde e qualidade de vida.

  9. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine F. H. McLeod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand (NZ has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  10. Catastrophic rotational braking among Sun-like stars. A model of the Sun's rotation evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondoin, P.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Observations of young open clusters show a bimodal distribution of stellar rotation. In those clusters, Sun-like stars group into two main populations of fast and slow rotators. Beyond an age of approximately 600 Myr, the two populations converge towards a single sequence of slow rotators. Aims: The present study addresses the origin of this bimodal distribution and the cause of its observed evolution. Methods: New prescriptions of mass-loss rate and Alfven radius dependences on Rossby number suggested by observations are implemented in a phenomenological model of angular-momentum loss and redistribution. The obtained model is used to calculate the time evolution of a rotation-period distribution of solar-mass stars similar to that observed in the 5 Myr-old NGC 2362 open cluster. The simulated distributions at subsequent ages are compared with those of h Per, the Pleiades, M 50, M 35, and M 37. Results: The model is able to reproduce the appearance and disappearance of a bimodal rotation-period distribution in open clusters providing that a brief episode of large-angular-momentum loss is included in the early evolution of Sun-like stars. Conclusions: I argue that a transitory episode of large-angular-momentum loss occurs on Sun-like stars with Rossby numbers between 0.13 and 0.3. This phenomenon of enhanced magnetic braking by stellar wind would be mainly driven by a rapid increase of mass loss at a critical rotation rate. This scenario accounts for the bimodal distribution of stellar rotation in open clusters with ages between 20-30 Myr and approximately 600 Myr. The mass-loss rate increase could account for a significant fraction of the X-ray luminosity decay of Sun-like stars in the 0.13-0.3 Rossby number range where a transition from the saturated to the non-saturated regime of X-ray emission is observed. Observed correlations between Li abundance and rotation sequences in the Pleiades and M 34 clusters support this scenario.

  11. Traditions of the Sun, One Model for Expanding Audience Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Paglierani, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool with which to expand audience access, bringing students, teachers and the public to places and resources they might not otherwise visit or make use of. We will present Traditions of the Sun, an experiential Web site that invites exploration of the world's ancient observatories with special emphasis on Chaco Culture National Historic Park in the Four Corners region of the US and several sites in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Traditions of the Sun includes resources in English and Spanish along with a unique trilingual on-line book, "Traditions of the Sun, A Photographic Journal," containing explanatory text in Yucatec Maya as well. Traditions of the Sun offers rich opportunities for virtual visits to ancient sites used for solar observing while learning about current NASA research on the Sun and indigenous solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context. The site contains hundreds of photographs, historic images and rich multimedia to help tell the story of the Sun-Earth Connection. Visitors to the site can zoom in on the great Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, and Mayapan to learn about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science. They can also visit Chaco Canyon to watch sunrise over Pueblo Bonito on the summer solstice, take a virtual reality tour of the great kiva at Casa Rinconada or see panoramic vistas from Fajada Butte, an area which, for preservation purposes, is restricted to the public. Traditions of the Sun provides one model of how exploration and discovery can come to life for both formal and informal audiences via the Internet. Traditions of the Sun is a collaborative project between NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, the National Park Service, Instituto National de Antropologia e Historia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and Ideum.

  12. THE UBV(RI){sub C} COLORS OF THE SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, I. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Michel, R.; Schuster, W. J. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 877, Ensenada, B.C., CP 22800 (Mexico); Sefako, R.; Van Wyk, F. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Tucci Maia, M. [UNIFEI, DFQ-Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba MG (Brazil); Melendez, J. [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, 05508-900 SP (Brazil); Casagrande, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Castilho, B. V. [Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica/MCT, Rua Estados Unidos 154, 37504-364 Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2012-06-10

    Photometric data in the UBV(RI){sub C} system have been acquired for 80 solar analog stars for which we have previously derived highly precise atmospheric parameters T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. UBV and (RI){sub C} data for 46 and 76 of these stars, respectively, are published for the first time. Combining our data with those from the literature, colors in the UBV(RI){sub C} system, with {approx_equal} 0.01 mag precision, are now available for 112 solar analogs. Multiple linear regression is used to derive the solar colors from these photometric data and the spectroscopically derived T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] values. To minimize the impact of systematic errors in the model-dependent atmospheric parameters, we use only the data for the 10 stars that most closely resemble our Sun, i.e., the solar twins, and derive the following solar colors: (B - V){sub Sun} = 0.653 {+-} 0.005, (U - B){sub Sun} = 0.166 {+-} 0.022, (V - R){sub Sun} = 0.352 {+-} 0.007, and (V - I){sub Sun} = 0.702 {+-} 0.010. These colors are consistent, within the 1{sigma} errors, with those derived using the entire sample of 112 solar analogs. We also derive the solar colors using the relation between spectral-line-depth ratios and observed stellar colors, i.e., with a completely model-independent approach, and without restricting the analysis to solar twins. We find (B - V){sub Sun} = 0.653 {+-} 0.003, (U - B){sub Sun} = 0.158 {+-} 0.009, (V - R){sub Sun} = 0.356 {+-} 0.003, and (V - I){sub Sun} = 0.701 {+-} 0.003, in excellent agreement with the model-dependent analysis.

  13. CUNY Sun-Earth Research, Space Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, D. E.; Cheung, T. D.; Marchese, P. J.; Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S.; Tremberger, G.

    2007-05-01

    Faculty and students at Queensborough Community College and Medgar Evers College of the City University of New York (CUNY) have, over several years now, employed simple software familiar to most undergraduate students to perform useful calculations, including statistical analyses, regarding various geophysical phenomena. Topics have included Space Weather, Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction and strength fluctuations, geomagnetic and ionospheric responses to solar flares, and Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) events. Our statistical analyses have utilized second-order measures of fluctuation of the IMF strength, especially what we now call the Cheung number: the number of times that the value of Sigma-B, as provided by the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) data, has exceeded 0.5nT during a 6 hour interval. We have also utilized the Higuchi fractal dimension of various somewhat random fluctuations, including Sigma-B and the brightness or strength of adjacent pixels or data points in somewhat random data sequences in time or spatial dimension, including IMF fluctuations and SOHO (Solar Heliographic Observer) images of the Sun. These we have correlated with each other and with such variables as SEP (Solar Energetic Particle) peak flux, TEC (Total Electron Content) of the ionosphere, and Dst (Disturbance storm-time) in the geomagnetic field. Recent results indicate that the IMF fluctuation measures are well correlated with the SEP peak flux, the Dst, and TEC. Higuchi fractal analysis of SOHO photospheric ultraviolet brightness indicates, consistent with concomitant increased chaos or randomness of photospheric brightness, an increased likelihood of solar flare events or CME affecting interplanetary space and the earth's magnetosphere/ionosphere/atmosphere.

  14. Synthetic Spectroscopy and Photometry for the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. A.

    1993-05-01

    The availability of a digital version of the solar line spectrum (Kitt Peak Preliminary Solar Atlas, Brault & Testerman 1972) has made it possible to carry out detailed comparisons of observed and synthetic spectra. The more accurately the spectrum of the Sun, and other standard stars, can be reproduced, the more likely the line list is to give reliable results in other applications. Detailed comparisons have been made using three lists. The first two are: 1) One which has been used repeatedly by the author and collaborators e.g. Bell, Dickens & Gustafsson (ApJ,229,604,1979); Tripicco & Bell (AJ,103,1285,1992); 2) One derived from Kurucz (Stellar Atmospheres: Beyond Classical Models, Kluwer, Dordrecht, p408,1991) for elements between Ca and Ni, supplemented with lines for other elements from Kurucz & Peytremann (SAO Spec Rept 362,1975) and molecular lines from the author's list (e.g. Bell & Gustafsson MNRAS,236,653,1989). The Kurucz list predicts many lines in the solar spectrum which are either not seen or are observed to be far weaker. The errors in oscillator strength may exceed a factor of 10. On the other hand, there are not a corresponding number of lines which are observed but which are not present in the synthetic spectra. Needless to say, this excess in the computed line absorption will affect the calculation of both model atmospheres and synthetic magnitudes. For example, the computed U-B colors will be too red. In view of these errors, and the much better fit which spectra calculated using the author's lists give to the solar line spectrum, the Kurucz list has been used only to fill in gaps in the author's list, thereby creating a third list. This list also incorporates new laboratory gf values (e.g. O'Brian et al. JOSA B,8,1185,1991). Detailed comparisons of observed and synthetic solar spectra from the different lists are shown.

  15. AsteroFLAG - from the Sun to the stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Appourchaux, T; Baudin, F [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Batiment 121, F-91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Arentoft, T; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Kjeldsen, H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ballot, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, 85741, Garching (Germany); Bazot, M [Centro de AstrofIsica Universidade do Porto, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Bedding, T R [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Creevey, O L [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Duez, V; Garcia, R A [DAPNIA/CEA, CE Saclay, FR-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fletcher, S T [Faculty of Arts, Computing, Engineering and Sciences, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Gough, D O; Houdek, G [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jimenez, A; Jimenez-Reyes, S J [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lazrek, M [LPHEA, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco); Leibacher, J W, E-mail: w.j.chaplin@bham.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-10-15

    We stand on the threshold of a critical expansion of asteroseismology of Sun-like stars, the study of stellar interiors by observation and analysis of their global acoustic modes of oscillation. The Sun-like oscillations give a very rich spectrum allowing the internal structure and dynamics to be probed down into the stellar cores to very high precision. Asteroseismic observations of many stars will allow multiple-point tests of crucial aspects of stellar evolution and dynamo theory. The aims of the asteroFLAG collaboration are to help the community to refine existing, and to develop new, methods for analysis of the asteroseismic data on the Sun-like oscillators.

  16. On the Observations of the Sun in Polynesia

    CERN Document Server

    Rjabchikov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The role of the Polynesian sun god Tagaloa has been studied. The Polynesian characters Maui-tikitiki, Tane and Tiki were related to the sun as well. The solar data of Easter Island are essential indeed. The rongorongo text on the Santiago staff about the solar eclipse of December 20, 1805 A.D. has been decoded. The Mataveri calendar was probably incised on a rock in 1775 A.D. So, a central event during the bird-man festval was the day of vernal equinox. The priests-astronomers watched not only the sun and the moon, but also some stars of the zodiacal constellations and other bright stars.

  17. Spacecraft Attitude Determination with Earth Albedo Corrected Sun Sensor Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    This thesis focuses on advanced modeling of the Earth albedo experienced by satellites in Earth orbit. The model of the Earth albedo maintains directional information of the Earth albedo irradiance from each partition on the Earth surface. This allows enhanced modeling of Sun sensor current outputs......-Method, Extended Kalman Filter, and Unscented Kalman Filter algorithms are presented and the results are compared. Combining the Unscented Kalman Filter with Earth albedo and enhanced Sun sensor modeling allows for three-axis attitude determination from Sun sensor only, which previously has been perceived...

  18. Human eye and the sun hot and cold light

    CERN Document Server

    Vavilov, S I

    1965-01-01

    The Human Eye and the Sun, """"Hot"""" and """"Cold"""" Light is a translation from the Russian language and is a reproduction of texts from Volume IV of S.I. Vavilov, president of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The book deals with theoretical and practical developments in lighting techniques. The text gives a brief introduction on the relationship of the human eye and the sun, describing the properties of light, of the sun, and of the human eye. The book describes hot (incandescence) and cold light (luminescence) as coming from different sources. These two types of light are compared. The

  19. System modeling based measurement error analysis of digital sun sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; M; insong; XING; Fei; WANG; Geng; YOU; Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Stringent attitude determination accuracy is required for the development of the advanced space technologies and thus the accuracy improvement of digital sun sensors is necessary.In this paper,we presented a proposal for measurement error analysis of a digital sun sensor.A system modeling including three different error sources was built and employed for system error analysis.Numerical simulations were also conducted to study the measurement error introduced by different sources of error.Based on our model and study,the system errors from different error sources are coupled and the system calibration should be elaborately designed to realize a digital sun sensor with extra-high accuracy.

  20. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  1. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  2. The Iconography and Symbolism of Sun God in Urartian Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Gayane

    2016-12-01

    The predominating symbol of the winged sun disc in Urartian religious iconography testifies the significant role and importance of the sun in worship. The stylistic variation and peculiar iconographic features of the winged discs, sacred animals and divine images associated with solar deity shows the relationship between the cult of the sun god, sequence of the different phases of the year and constellations in Urartian culture. Such kind of iconography is possibly formed and stylized in result of interaction of ancient human imaginations, influence of rock paintings and religious beliefs.

  3. Study of Black Consciousness in A Raisin in The Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kousar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores Black Consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun by Hansberry. Black Consciousness elaborates an awareness of and pride in one’s identity as a black person. It analyzes A Raisin in the Sun by applying the theory of Black Consciousness under the perspective of Fanon. This study analysis the drama at three levels: sense of pride on black culture and identity, struggle against Apartheid and Blacks’ resolution to accept the challenges of White Community. Keywords: Black Consciousness, Apartheid, Identity, Culture, A Raisin in the Sun, cross – cultural studies, diasporic, African Literature

  4. The Maunder minimum and the variable sun-earth connection

    CERN Document Server

    Wei Hock Soon, Willie

    2003-01-01

    This book takes an excursion through solar science, science history, and geoclimate with a husband and wife team who revealed some of our sun's most stubborn secrets. E Walter and Annie S D Maunder's work helped in understanding our sun's chemical, electromagnetic and plasma properties. They knew the sun's sunspot migration patterns and its variable, climate-affecting, inactive and active states in short and long time frames. An inactive solar period starting in the mid-seventeenth century lasted approximately seventy years, one that E Walter Maunder worked hard to make us understand: the Maun

  5. Nearest star the surprising science of our sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2014-01-01

    How did the Sun evolve, and what will it become? What is the origin of its light and heat? How does solar activity affect the atmospheric conditions that make life on Earth possible? These are the questions at the heart of solar physics, and at the core of this book. The Sun is the only star near enough to study in sufficient detail to provide rigorous tests of our theories and help us understand the more distant and exotic objects throughout the cosmos. Having observed the Sun using both ground-based and spaceborne instruments, the authors bring their extensive personal experience to this sto

  6. Two Sun-like Superflare Stars Rotating as Slow as the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Nogami, Daisaku; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results of high dispersion spectroscopy of two `superflare stars', KIC 9766237, and KIC 9944137 with Subaru/HDS. Superflare stars are G-type main sequence stars, but show gigantic flares compared to the Sun, which have been recently discovered in the data obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Though most of these stars are thought to have a rotation period shorter than 10 days on the basis of photometric variabilities, the two targets of the present paper are estimated to have a rotation period of 21.8 d, and 25.3 d. Our spectroscopic results clarified that these stars have stellar parameters similar to those of the Sun in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity. The projected rotational velocities derived by us are consistent with the photometric rotation period, indicating a fairy high inclination angle. The average strength of the magnetic field on the surface of these stars are estimated to be 1-20 G, by using the absorption line of Ca II 8542. We could not det...

  7. Sun, the Earth, and Near-Earth Space: A Guide to the Sun-Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In a world of warmth and light and living things we soon forget that we are surrounded by a vast universe that is cold and dark and deadly dangerous, just beyond our door. On a starry night, when we look out into the darkness that lies around us, the view can be misleading in yet another way: for the brightness and sheer number of stars, and their chance groupings into familiar constellations, make them seem much nearer to each other, and to us, that in truth they are. And every one of them--each twinkling, like a diamond in the sky--is a white-hot sun, much like our own. The nearest stars in our own galaxy--the Milky Way-- are more than a million times further away from us than our star, the Sun. We could make a telephone call to the Moon and expect to wait but a few seconds between pieces of a conversation, or but a few hours in calling any planet in our solar system.

  8. Low Frequency Radio Emission from the 'Quiet' Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Ramesh

    2000-09-01

    We present observations of the 'quiet' Sun close to the recent solar minimum (Cycle 22), with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph. Our main conclusion is that coronal streamers also influence the observed radio brightness temperature.

  9. On Sun-to-Earth Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ying D; Lugaz, Noé; Möstl, Christian; Davies, Jackie A; Bale, Stuart D; Lin, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagate through, and interact with, the inner heliosphere between the Sun and Earth, a key question in CME research and space weather forecasting. CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics are constrained by combining wide-angle heliospheric imaging observations, interplanetary radio type II bursts and in situ measurements from multiple vantage points. We select three events for this study, the 2012 January 19, 23, and March 7 CMEs. Different from previous event studies, this work attempts to create a general picture for CME Sun-to-Earth propagation and compare different techniques for determining CME interplanetary kinematics. Key results are obtained concerning CME Sun-to-Earth propagation. Our comparison between different techniques (and data sets) also has important implications for CME observations and their interpretations. Future CME observations and space weather forecasting are discussed based on these results. See detail in the PDF.

  10. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  11. Some Melanoma Survivors Still Seek Out the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163887.html Some Melanoma Survivors Still Seek Out the Sun 1 in ... Even after surviving the potentially deadly skin cancer melanoma, some people continue to go out in the ...

  12. A New Way that Planets can Affect the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Charles; Patrone, Paul

    2010-01-01

    As planets orbit the Sun, the Sun also has to move to keep the total momentum of the solar system constant. The Sun's small orbital motion plus its 25 day rotation about its axis combine to invigorate some solar instabilities. Occasional convection cells at the proper phase in their short life can be strengthened by factors of two or more. This local burst of extra kinetic energy eventually reaches the surface where it can increase the intensity of solar activity. It might explain some reports in the last century of how planetary positions correlate with solar activity. This is the first effect of planets that is large enough to cause a significant response on the Sun.

  13. Science Experimenter: Observing the Sun and Solar Eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Forrest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of simple optical aids that allow the amateur scientist to safely observe sunspots and solar eclipses and also to measure the sun's rotation. (five references) (JJK)

  14. Thermal evaluation of a sun tracking solar cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El-Tous, Omar. O. Badran, Anwar Al-Mofleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is one of many important types of renewable energy. Jordan is of great needs for renewable energy systems applications since it depends totally in generation of its required energy on imported oil. This study is an experimental work of tracking system developed for enhancing the solar heating using solar cooker. An electronic sun tracking device was used for rotating the solar heater with the movement of the sun. A comparison between fixed and sun tracked cooker showed that the use of sun tracking increased the heating temperature by 36% due to the increase in radiation concentration and using internal mirror reflectors. The programming method used for tracking control works efficiently in all weather conditions regardless of the presence of clouds. It can be used as backup control circuit in which relays are the essential control devices.

  15. A Short Proof to Some Results of Sun and Wang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Cao

    2007-01-01

    We give a short proof to some results of Sun and Wang on counting the number of solutions of a class of equations over finite fields. Our proof is elementary and only based on matrix properties and recursion techniques.

  16. 'Eye Freckles' May Predict Sun-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167479.html 'Eye Freckles' May Predict Sun-Related Problems The spots ... on the iris -- the colored part of the eye -- aren't cancerous, but these "eye freckles" could ...

  17. With Summer Sun Comes Heightened Skin Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166481.html With Summer Sun Comes Heightened Skin Cancer Risk Doctor shares tips for prevention, recognition To ... skies comes a warning to protect yourself from skin cancer. "Skin cancer, like all types of cancer, is ...

  18. Les épouses de mon père. À propos de la polygamie en pays beti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Houseman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les épouses de mon père. À propos de la polygamie en pays beti. Chez les Beti du Cameroun, un homme de conséquence se reconnaît, entre autres choses, par son aptitude à entretenir un foyer polygame. En retraçant la carrière matrimoniale du père de famille de la maison où je résidais, les rapports conflictuels entre ses épouses ainsi que mes propres relations avec elles — dont notamment une intervention désastreuse que j’ai essayé de réparer treize ans plus tard —, je tente dans cet article de faire ressortir à la fois la précarité de l’entente polygyne et la place essentielle qu’occupe cette instabilité dans le cycle de développement des groupes domestiques.The wives of my father: polygamy in Beti country. Among the Beti of Cameroon, one way of recognising a man of importance is by his ability to maintain a polygamous household. By retracing the matrimonial career of the father of the family I was staying with, the antagonistic relations between the wives, and my own relations with them - including one disastrous intervention that I tried to repair thirteen years later -, this article aims to bring to light both the precarious nature of the polygynous concord and the important role this instability plays in the development cycle of domestic groups.

  19. Razonamiento revocable y lógicas no monótonas: un análisis conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Legris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se llama revocables a todos aquellos razonamientos no deductivos en los cuales la conclusión es obtenida a partir de información incompleta, es decir, a partir de premisas que representan condiciones insuficientes para afirmar la conclusión. En los razonamientos revocables, nueva información que se agregue a las premisas puede invalidar la inferencia hecha, pues daría lugar a inconsistencias. Así, la relación de inferencia que subyace a los razonamientos revocables no cumple con la propiedad de monotonía que satisface la relación usual de inferencia deductiva. Las lógicas no monótonas han surgido con la idea de formalizar este tipo de razonamientos. En este trabajo se sostendrá que el problema de la revocabilidad no atañe a operadores lógicos ni a la lógica en sentido estricto, sino a cómo la lógica es aplicada en diferentes contextos, lo que implica tomar en cuenta factores externos a la caracterización de operadores lógicos. Esta perspectiva no conduce a una modificación de la lógica, sino de la manera en que se organiza la información a partir de la cual se hacen las inferencias. Así, se debe agregar estructura a la información, considerando un razonamiento revocable como una estructura más compleja que un razonamiento deductivo.

  20. Intraoperative simulation of remnant liver function during anatomic liver resection with indocyanine green clearance (LiMON) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael N; Weninger, Ernst; Angele, Martin; Bösch, Florian; Pratschke, Sebastian; Andrassy, Joachim; Rentsch, Markus; Stangl, Manfred; Hartwig, Werner; Werner, Jens; Guba, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is the major cause of death following liver resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intraoperative simulation of post-resection liver function. Intraoperative liver function was measured by indocyanine green (ICG) clearance using the LiMON technology. In 20 patients undergoing anatomic liver resection, ICG plasma disappearance rate (PDR (%/min) and ICG retention at 15 min (R15 ) (%) were measured immediately after the induction of anaesthesia (t0 ), after selective arterial and portovenous inflow trial clamping (TC) of the resected liver segments (t1 ), after the completion of resection (t2 ) and before the closure of the abdominal cavity (t3 ). The median baseline (t0 ) PDR was 16.5%/min. Trial clamping of the inflow (t1 ) resulted in a significant reduction in PDR to 10.5%/min. Results under TC were similar to those obtained after resection (t2 ) (median PDR: 10.5%/min). Linear regression modelling showed that post-resection liver volume could be accurately predicted by TC of liver inflow (P < 0.0001), but not by determining the resected liver volume. Simulated post-resection liver function under TC correlated well with PHLF and length of hospital stay. Intraoperative ICG clearance measurements allow real-time monitoring of intraoperative liver function during surgery. Trial clamping of arterial and portovenous inflow accurately predicts immediate post-resection liver function. The intraoperative measurement of liver function and simulation of post-resection liver function may help to avoid PHLF. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  1. Monash Chemical Yields Project (Monχey) Element production in low- and intermediate-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Carolyn; Lattanzio, John; Angelou, George; Campbell, Simon W.; Church, Ross; Constantino, Thomas; Cristallo, Sergio; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Karakas, Amanda; Lugaro, Maria; Stancliffe, Richard

    The Monχey project will provide a large and homogeneous set of stellar yields for the low- and intermediate- mass stars and has applications particularly to galactic chemical evolution modelling. We describe our detailed grid of stellar evolutionary models and corresponding nucleosynthetic yields for stars of initial mass 0.8 M⊙ up to the limit for core collapse supernova (CC-SN) ~ 10 M⊙. Our study covers a broad range of metallicities, ranging from the first, primordial stars (Z = 0) to those of super-solar metallicity (Z = 0.04). The models are evolved from the zero-age main-sequence until the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the nucleosynthesis calculations include all elements from H to Bi. A major innovation of our work is the first complete grid of heavy element nucleosynthetic predictions for primordial AGB stars as well as the inclusion of extra-mixing processes (in this case thermohaline) during the red giant branch. We provide a broad overview of our results with implications for galactic chemical evolution as well as highlight interesting results such as heavy element production in dredge-out events of super-AGB stars. We briefly introduce our forthcoming web-based database which provides the evolutionary tracks, structural properties, internal/surface nucleosynthetic compositions and stellar yields. Our web interface includes user- driven plotting capabilities with output available in a range of formats. Our nucleosynthetic results will be available for further use in post processing calculations for dust production yields.

  2. Sunscreen Keeps People Out In Dangerous Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maggie; Fox; 陈鸣煜

    1999-01-01

    本文最吸引读者、最值得回味的是标题。其含义和主题句一致,彼此呼应。但是,标题更简洁、更精彩,它是一句具有拟人色彩的非人称主语句(ImpersonalSubject Sentence)。标题是否可译为:防晒露将人们置于“毒日”之下! 防晒霜的作用本来是 shield people from the sun’s burning rays。 然而,为什么 people who use sunscreen have higher rates of skin cancer andalso develop more moles(痣). which can become cancerous(致癌的)? 值得好好研究!原来,原因之一是防晒霜使用者的微妙的心理在起作用: …people feel a false sense of security when they use sunscreen. 另一个原因是:本来只能使用4次的一瓶防晒霜,不少人却使用了整整一个夏季。自然, 防晒霜就没有能够发挥其作用。为此,作者出语诙谐: Sunscreen should be something on your weekly or monthly grocery list. 文章的末句是: People should be warned to avoid the sun,period, and told sunscreen is foruse when they have to be out,she added. 其中出现的period不是名词,而是感叹词。它常用于美国口语,意思是:就是这么回事。用于叙述事实或看法后表示强调。另如: I could have prevented them,and I didn’t.Period. 我本可以拦住?

  3. Grid Modeling for the SunShot Vision Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Ela, E.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the use of production cost modeling in the SunShot Vision study, including methods used to create the SunShot Vision scenarios, their implementation in the Gridview model, and assumptions regarding transmission system and operation of each generator type. It also describes challenges and limitations of modeling solar generation technologies in production cost models, and suggests methods for improving their representation in current models.

  4. Tactile Sun: Bringing an Invisible Universe to the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, G. M.; Pantoja, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    A tactile model of the Sun has been created as a strategy for communicating astronomy to the blind or visually impaired, and as a useful outreach tool for general audiences. The model design was a collaboration between an education specialist, an astronomy specialist and a sculptor. The tactile Sun has been used at astronomy outreach events in Puerto Rico to make activities more inclusive and to increase public awareness of the needs of those with disabilities.

  5. Exact solution of an su(n) spin torus

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Kun; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    The trigonometric su(n) spin chain with anti-periodic boundary condition (su(n) spin torus) is demonstrated to be Yang-Baxter integrable. Based on some intrinsic properties of the R-matrix, certain operator product identities of the transfer matrix are derived. These identities and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrix together allow us to obtain the exact eigenvalues in terms of an inhomogeneous T-Q relation via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz.

  6. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF).......Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  7. Exact solution of an su(n) spin torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Cao, Junpeng; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2016-07-01

    The trigonometric su(n) spin chain with anti-periodic boundary condition (su(n) spin torus) is demonstrated to be Yang-Baxter integrable. Based on some intrinsic properties of the R-matrix, certain operator product identities of the transfer matrix are derived. These identities and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrix together allow us to obtain the exact eigenvalues in terms of an inhomogeneous T  -  Q relation via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz.

  8. Space Science for Children: All about the Sun [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This 23-minute videotape aims to give children, grades K-4, a broad understanding of the center of our solar system, the sun. It explains how the sun provides us with life-giving light and heat, how it's responsible for our seasons and weather, and why it's the primary source of energy on Earth. A hands-on activity in which children create their…

  9. What does the Sun teach us about properties of matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.

    2003-05-01

    Helioseismology has proved to be an extremely powerful tool to study the structure and dynamics of the Sun. This technique also allows the Sun to be used as a laboratory to study the properties of matter. In this talk I shall discuss how we use helioseismology to study properties of matter, and what we have learned so far. In particular, I shall concentrate on neutrinos and stellar equations of state.

  10. Magnetic Bipoles in Emerging Flux Regions on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. S.; Livi, S. H. B.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT. We analyse magnetograms and H-alpha filtergrams of an Emerging Flux Region. Small bipoles have been observed on the magnetograms emerging between opposite polarities. Separation velocities of the opposite poles for 45 bipoles observed on June 9, 1985 have been measured and are in the range 0.5 contribuciones de los bipolos emergentes. Key words: SUN-CHROMOSPHERE - SUN-MAGNETIC FIELDS

  11. 孙美琳的礼物%Sun Meilin's Gift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sun Meilin was thinking about the time when she lived in Guangzhou with her husband. Their marriage was a happy one, until one day when she came home early from work and found her husband in bed, making love to an old friend of hers. Sun had walked into her apartment using her key to get in, and then into her room, expecting nothing out of the ordinary.

  12. The EUV emission from sun-grazing comets

    OpenAIRE

    Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, W Dean

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has observed two sun-grazing comets as they passed through the solar atmosphere. Both passages resulted in a measurable enhancement of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiance in several of the AIA bandpasses. We explain this EUV emission by considering the evolution of the cometary atmosphere as it interacts with the ambient solar atmosphere. Molecules in the comet rapidly sublimate as it approaches the Sun. They are th...

  13. Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure Pyramids and the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the orientation of the Egyptian pyramids at Giza with respect to sunrises and sunsets, using SunCalc.net software. We can see that Khufu and Khafre pyramids had been positioned in a manner that, from each pyramid, it was always possible to observe the points of the horizon where the sun was rising and setting on each day of the year. A discussion for the Menkaure pyramid is also proposed.

  14. SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the SunShot Vision Study is to provide an in-depth assessment of the potential for solar technologies to meet a significant share of electricity demand in the United States during the next several decades. Specifically, it explores a future in which the price of solar technologies declines by about 75% between 2010 and 2020 - in line with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's targets.

  15. Sun position calculator (SPC) for Landsat imagery with geodetic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Jeong C.

    2015-12-01

    Landsat imagery comes with sun position information such as azimuth and sun elevation, but they are available only at the center of a scene. To aid in the use of Landsat imagery for various solar radiation applications such as topographic correction, solar power, urban heat island, agriculture, climate and vegetation, it is necessary to calculate the sun position information at every pixel. This research developed a PC application that creates sun position data layers in ArcGIS at every pixel in a Landsat scene. The SPC program is composed of two major routines - converting universal transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates to geographic longitudes and latitudes, and calculating sun position information based on the Meeus' routine. For the latter, an innovative method was also implemented to account for the Earth's flattening on an ellipsoid. The Meeus routine implemented in this research showed about 0.2‧ of mean absolute difference from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) routine when solar zenith and azimuth angles were tested with every 30 min data at four city locations (Fairbanks, Atlanta, Sydney and Rio Grande) on June 30, 2014. The Meeus routine was about ten times faster than the SPA routine. Professionals who need the Sun's position information for Landsat imagery will benefit from the SPC application.

  16. CONCEPTUAL STEPS TOWARDS EXPLORING THE FUNDAMENTAL NATURE OF OUR SUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grandpierre

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic questions of solar research is the nature of the Sun. We show here how the plasma nature of the Sun leads to the self-generation of solar activity. The release of magnetic, rotational, gravitational, nuclear energies and that of the gravity mode oscillations deviate from uniformity and spherical symmetry. Through instabilities they lead to the emergence of sporadic and localized regions like flux tubes, electric filaments, magnetic elements and high temperature regions. A systematic approach exploring the solar collective degrees of freedom, extending to ordering phenomena of the magnetic features related to Higgs fields, is presented. Handling solar activity as transformations of energies from one form to another one presents a picture on the network of the energy levels of the Sun, showing that the Sun is neither a mere "ball of gas" nor a "quiescent steady-state fusion-reactor machine", but a complex self-organizing system. Since complex self-organizing systems are similar to living systems (and, by some opinion, identical with them, we also consider what arguments indicate the living nature of the Sun. Thermodynamic characteristics of the inequilibrium Sun are found important in this respect and numerical estimations of free energy rate densities and specific exergies are derived.

  17. From 1 Sun to 10 Suns c-Si Cells by Optimizing Metal Grid, Metal Resistance, and Junction Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant A. Chaudhari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of a solar cell in concentrator PV technology requires reduction in its series resistance in order to minimize the resistive power losses. The present paper discusses a methodology of reducing the series resistance of a commercial c-Si solar cell for concentrator applications, in the range of 2 to 10 suns. Step by step optimization of commercial cell in terms of grid geometry, junction depth, and electroplating of the front metal contacts is proposed. A model of resistance network of solar cell is developed and used for the optimization. Efficiency of unoptimized commercial cell at 10 suns drops by 30% of its 1 sun value corresponding to resistive power loss of about 42%. The optimized cell with grid optimization, junction optimization, electroplating, and junction optimized with electroplated contacts cell gives resistive power loss of 20%, 16%, 11%, and 8%, respectively. An efficiency gain of 3% at 10 suns for fully optimized cell is estimated.

  18. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity — comparison with the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanovskaya, Elena; Bruevich, Vasiliy; Bruevich, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from the HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycle, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with a low level of chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by its minimum level of coronal radiation and minimum level of variations in photospheric flux.

  19. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity -- comparison with the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A; Shimanovskaya, E V

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycles, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of the chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with the low level of the chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by the minimum level of its coronal radiation and the minimum level of its variations of the photospheric flux.

  20. New Suns in the Cosmos II: Differential rotation in $Kepler$ Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chagas, M L Das; Costa, A D; Lopes, C E Ferreira; Sobrinho, R Silva; Paz-Chinchón, F; Leão, I C; Valio, A; de Freitas, D B; Martins, B L Canto; Lanza, A F; De Medeiros, J R

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the discovery of Sun-like stars, namely main-sequence stars with $T_{\\rm eff}$, $\\log g$ and rotation periods $P_{rot}$ similar to solar values, presenting evidence of surface differential rotation. An autocorrelation of the time series was used to select stars presenting photometric signal stability from a sample of 881 stars with light curves collected by the $Kepler$ space-borne telescope, in which we have identified 17 stars with stable signals. A simple two-spot model together with a Bayesian information criterion were applied to these stars in the search for indications of differential rotation; in addition, for all 17 stars, it was possible to compute the spot rotation period $P$, the mean values of the individual spot rotation periods and their respective colatitudes, and the relative amplitude of the differential rotation.