WorldWideScience

Sample records for sulphur chlorine potassium

  1. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  2. Chlorine- and Sulphur-substituted Pyrrolo[3,4-b]quinolines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorine- and Sulphur-substituted Pyrrolo[3,4-b]quinolines and Related Derivatives .... J. Chem., 2003, 56, 40–46,. . .... It is evident from the above that by judicious selection and application of reagents ...

  3. 40 CFR 415.60 - Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.60 Section 415.60 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chlor-alkali Subcategory (Chlorine and Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide Production) § 415.60 Applicability; description of the chlorine and sodium or potassium hydroxide production...

  4. Gas Phase Sulfur, Chlorine and Potassium Chemistry in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løj, Lusi Hindiyarti

    2007-01-01

    Gas Phase Sulfur, Chlorine and Alkali Metal Chemistry in Biomass Combustion Concern about aerosols formation, deposits, corrosion, and gaseous emissions during biomass combustion, especially straw, continues to be a driving force for investigation on S, Cl, K-containing species under combustions...... conditions. These trace species contained in the biomass structure will be released to the gas phase during combustion and contribute to the problems generated during the process. The investigation during this PhD project is done to stepwise improve the understanding in the chemistry and reduce...... the uncertainties. In the present work, the detailed kinetic model for gas phase sulfur, chlorine, alkali metal, and their interaction has been updated. The K/O/H/Cl chemistry, S chemistry, and their interaction can reasonably predict a range of experimental data. In general, understanding of the interaction...

  5. Effects of chlorine and sulphur on particle formation in wood combustion performed in a laboratory scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olli Sippula; Terttaliisa Lind; Jorma Jokiniemi [University of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland). Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences

    2008-09-15

    Fine particle formation in wood combustion was studied in a laboratory scale laminar flow reactor at various flue gas chlorine and sulphur concentrations. Aerosol samples were quenched at around 850{sup o}C using a porous tube diluter. Fine particle number concentrations, mass concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions were measured. In addition, flue gas composition, including SO{sub 2} and HCl, was monitored. Experimental results were interpreted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Addition of HCl clearly raised fine particle mass concentration (PM1.0) which was because of increased release of ash-forming material to fine particles. Especially the release of K, Na, Zn and Cd to fine particles increased. These species form chlorides which apparently increases their volatilization from the fuel. When a sufficient amount of SO{sub 2} was supplied in a chlorine rich combustion (S/Cl molar ratio from 4.7 to 7.5), most of the HCl stayed in the gas phase, release of ash-forming elements decreased and also fine particle concentrations dropped significantly. The sulphation of alkali metals is suggested to play a key role in the observed decrease in the fine particle concentration. It seems that the formation of sulphates leads to alkali metal retention in the coarse particle fraction. 27 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Release and transformation of chlorine and potassium during pyrolysis of KCl doped biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Hao; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2017-01-01

    –850 °C), and KCl contents (0–5 wt%). The volatiles were collected and analyzed for CH3Cl concentration by GC–MS. The solid residue was analyzed by ICP-OES for the contents of total and water soluble K and Cl. Considerable amounts of CH3Cl, corresponding to 20–50% of the fuel chlorine, were formed......The formation of CH3Cl and the transformation of chlorine and potassium during pyrolysis of biomass were investigated. Model biomass compounds (cellulose, xylan, lignin and pectin) and pine wood doped with KCl were pyrolysed in a TGA at different heating rates (10–1000 °C/min), temperatures (300...

  7. The Inhibition Effect of Potassium Iodide on the Corrosion of Pure Iron in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Attar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of inorganic inhibitors as an alternative to organic compounds is based on the possibility of degradation of organic compounds with time and temperature. The inhibition effect of potassium iodide on the corrosion of pure iron in 0.5 M H2SO4 has been studied by weight loss. It has been observed from the results that the inhibition efficiency (IE% of KI increases from 82.17% to 97.51% with the increase in inhibitor concentration from 1·10−4 to 2·10−3 M. The apparent activation energy (Ea and the equilibrium constant of adsorption (Kads were calculated. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the pure iron surface is in agreement with Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  8. Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly as possible. Removing and disposing of clothing: Quickly take off clothing that has liquid chlorine on it. Any clothing that has to ...

  9. Sulphurous mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous waters contain at least 1mg H2S, HS, S or thiosulphate per liter or complex colloidal sulfur water is presented as of simple or mixed sulphide (alkali, carbonated, chlorinated sodium.In the sulphurous waters, sulfur is found in several forms (hydrogen sulfide, free sulfide, sulfide groups, polysulfides acids. Yellow, opalescent white precipitate and deposit a glass of water on the bottom of sulphur oxidation by indicates the intensity of the wateroxidation process by oxygen in the air.

  10. Toxic effects of chlorinated organic compounds and potassium dichromate on growth rate and photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Nyholm, Niels

    1992-01-01

    The toxic effects of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) on the photosynthesis of natural marine phytoplankton and five species of marine microalgae were investigated. Effect concentrations corresponding to a 50 % depression of photosynthesis (6h...

  11. A study of the chlorine nuclear quadrupole resonance frequency spectrum in potassium hexachloro-osmate by Fourier transform methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, D.J.; Armstrong, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the chlorine nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum of K 2 OsCl 6 in the vicinity of the structural phase transition using Fourier transform techniques is reported. At high temperatures a single symmetric line spectrum is observed as expected from the high temperature cubic antifluorite structure. Below T(sub)c = 45 K the two symmetric line spectrum characteristic of a tetragonal distortion is seen. At intermediate temperatures, 45< T<150 K the spectrum consists of a single asymmetric line. A detailed analysis reveals that for the single crystal sample the asymmetric line is composed of two symmetric components, a main line, and a weak satellite shifted - 1.5 kHz relative to the main line. This feature is unaffected by changes in temperature near T(sub)c. It is attributed to the influence of interstitial impurities on neighbouring chlorine ions. For the powder sample, the asymmetry is qualitatively different. A detailed analysis shows that the line is a superposition of three components. In addition to the two components present in the single crystal, a third, broad component develops as the temperature approaches T(sub)c. This feature of the spectrum is the cluster induced order-disorder manifestation of the local dynamics. The most probable reason that this third component is not observed in the single crystal spectrum is because it is too broad due to a difference in the detailed dynamics of two samples. (auth)

  12. Reinforced sulphur concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  13. Pyrotechnic countermeasures: IV. Radiometric performance of a sulphur-based Flare composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ernst-Christian [NATO Munitions Safety Information Analysis Center (MSIAC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-10-15

    Radiometric performance of a sulphur-based flare composition has been investigated. Composition comprising sulphur, potassium perchlorate and antimony sulphide has acceptable band ratio but an order of magnitude weaker spectral efficiency than typical carbon-based compositions. The use of other sulphur compounds with potential for increased performance is discussed. For part III see Ref. [1]. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Role of sulphur in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, Pamila; Sachdev, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential plant nutrient growing in international importance. Rice farmers usually apply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium at high rates to the crop. Whenever there is an imbalance between off take and input of nutrients, it may lead to a decline in soil fertility and increase incidence of deficiencies of certain plant nutrients especially sulphur and zinc. On the basis of available information, nutritional requirement, uptake values, crop response and measures to overcome S deficiency are some of the aspects critically dealt with

  15. Forest fuel and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1994-10-01

    This report illustrates the sulphur cycle in forest fuel and in the forest ecosystem. The hypothesis is that sulphur dioxide from combustion of forest fuel is not more acidifying than sulphur that is mineralized from tree biomass if it is left in the forest instead of being burnt. The report gives an overview of the sulphur cycle in general together with the acidifying effect of sulphur. The sulphur content in wood biomass is about 1 mg/g in the needles and 0.2-0.3 mg/g in wood. Chipped forest fuel contains 0.2-0.5 mg S/g. A removal of 40 tonnes of felling residues per hectare may contain about 8-30 kg S. The sulphur occurs both in organic, often reduced, form and as sulphate. In situations of high availability to sulphur there will be an increased proportion of sulphate. After combustion some, perhaps half, of the sulphur is left in the ashes, most of which appears to be sulphate. In mineralisation of reduced organic sulphur, of type R-SH, the sulphur is released in the form of sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide, H2S, can be oxidised by microbes to sulphate, which should be acidifying (2 H+ will remain). A very rough estimate suggests that emissions of sulphur dioxide from forest fuel, spread over the period the trees are growing, and on the area from which the trees are taken, corresponds to 0.5% of the sulphur deposition in southern Sweden. Sulphur emissions from biofuel combustion are much lower than Sweden's and the EU's most stringent emission limits for coal. Whole-tree removal with return of ashes will theoretically give a considerable reduction in soil acidity since large quantities of nitrogen are removed and thus the acidifying effect of nitrogen will not occur. This should be of greater importance for forest acidification than the effect of biomass sulphur. 80 refs, numerous tabs

  16. Sulphur in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  17. Determination of the sodium, aluminium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, bromine, cadmium and chlorine concentration values in the whole blood samples of human cancer using neutron activation analysis facility of the second Egyptian research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Soliman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis (NAA using the Second Egyptian Research Reactor (ETRR-2 has been utilized to analyze whole blood samples. The National Cancer Institute of Egypt provided us with 18 blood samples (11 breast, 2 prostate, 2 colon, 1 pancreatic, 1 ovarian and a random sample of normal person to estimate the concentration values of Sodium, Aluminium, Potassium, Manganese, Magnesium, Bromine, Chlorine. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS built in the vertical thermal column of the ETRR-2 reactor is used for short time irradiation at constant power. Elemental concentrations were estimated from measurements of the gamma-ray spectra of the product short lived isotopes in the samples. The calculated thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio was found to be 196 at irradiation position. The tabulated concentrations were calculated by using k0-neutron activation analysis (k0NAA standardization method.

  18. Sulphur recirculation for reduced boiler corrosion; Minskad pannkorrosion med svavelrecirkulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven; Karlsson, Martin (Goetaverken Miljoe AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Blomqvist, Evalena; Baefver, Linda; Claesson, Frida; Davidsson, Kent (SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden)); Froitzheim, Jan; Pettersson, Jesper; Steenari, Britt-Marie (Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Oorganisk miljoekemi, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Sulphur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation, which was demonstrated in full-scale tests performed at the Renova Waste to Energy plant at Saevenaes in Goeteborg (Sweden). Sulphur is recirculated from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, which reduces the chloride content of the deposits, which in turn reduces boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. Sulphur dioxide was separated from the flue gas in a wet scrubber by adding hydrogen peroxide, producing sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid was injected into the furnace using nozzles with atomization air, surrounded by recirculated flue gas for improved mixing. By recirculating the sulphur, the sulphur dioxide concentration was increased in the boiler. Each sulphur atom passed the boiler several times and no external sulphur had to be added. Dioxin, ash, deposits and particle samplings together with 1000 h corrosion probe measurements were performed for normal operation (reference) and with sulphur recirculation respectively. During spring 2009, reference measurements were made and the recirculation system was installed and tested. During autumn 2009, a long term test with sulphur recirculation was made. An SO{sub 2} concentration of approximately 800 mg/m3 (n, d.g.) was maintained in the boiler by the system except during a period of extremely low sulphur content in the waste. The sulphur dioxide stack concentrations have been far below the emission limit. Sulphuric acid dew point measurements have shown that the sulphuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO{sub 3} concentrations, which may otherwise lead to low temperature corrosion. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulphur content increased during the sulphur recirculation tests. The molar chlorine/sulphur ratio (Cl/S) decreased by two thirds in the fly ash as well as in the boiler ash, except for one sample. With sulphur recirculation in operation, the deposit growth was

  19. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  20. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquin, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations

  1. Strategies to reduce gaseous KCl and chlorine in deposits during combustion of biomass in fluidised bed boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassman, Haakan

    2012-11-01

    Combustion of a biomass with an enhanced content of alkali and chlorine (Cl) can result in operational problems including deposit formation and superheater corrosion. The strategies applied to reduce such problems include co-combustion and the use of additives. In this work, measures were investigated in order to decrease the risk of superheater corrosion by reducing gaseous KCl and the content of chlorine in deposits. The strategies applied were sulphation of KCl by sulphur/sulphate containing additives (i.e. elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate (AS)) and co-combustion with peat. Both sulphation of KCl and capture of potassium (K) in ash components can be of importance when peat is used. The experiments were mainly performed in a 12 MW circulation fluidised bed (CFB) boiler equipped for research purposes but also in a full-scale CFB boiler. The results were evaluated by means of IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous KCl), conventional gas analysis, deposit and corrosion probe measurements and ash analysis. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. Thus the presence of SO{sub 3} (i.e. AS) is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} (i.e. S) for sulphation of gaseous KCl and reduction of chlorine in deposits. Only a minor reduction of gaseous KCl was obtained during co-combustion with peat although chlorine in the deposits was greatly reduced. This reduction was supposedly due to capture of K by reactive components from the peat ash in parallel to sulphation of KCl. These compounds remained unidentified. The effect of volatile combustibles on the sulphation of gaseous KCl was investigated. The poorest sulphation was attained during injection of ammonium sulphate in the upper part of the combustion chamber during the lowest air excess ratio. The explanation for this is that SO{sub 3} was partly consumed by side reactions due to the presence of combustibles. These experimental results were supported by modelling, although the

  2. Chlorine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gas) Gas released when opening a partially filled industrial container of chlorine tablets that have been sitting ... change in acid level of the blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the ...

  3. Solving the sulphur situation : research assesses viability of burying sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proce, B.

    2006-01-01

    Oil sands mining companies are looking for ways to manage growing levels of sulphur production from the Athabasca region. Infrastructure is not in place to economically transport the sulphur even though there is a global market for it. Sulphur cannot be stockpiled indefinitely as it can react with air to produce sulphur dioxide. Although above-ground sulphur storage has been regulated for more than 30 years, the underground storage of sulphur is still in a research and development phase. Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd. is currently conducting an ongoing experiment in which 100 tonne test blocks have been buried above and below the water table so that surrounding areas could be monitored over a period of years. A series of tests is being conducted to examine changes in pH in water and sulphate levels. A multi-layered engineering casing to contain the sulphur and prevent seepage is also being investigated. Once stored underground, operators also have to consider how the sulphur will be accessed in the future, as it is subject to government royalties. The storage of sulphur may have economic benefits as the product can be sold when prices are high. Most sulphur produced in Alberta is sold as an export product in the United States for use in products such as fertilizer. Shell Canada penetrated the Chinese market in 2001 and has since become one of Canada's largest sulphur exporters. Shell has also introduced a number of products using sulphur, including fertilizers, enhanced asphalt, and concrete. It was concluded that companies must take action now to mitigate future losses and to utilize current markets in order to remain competitive. 3 figs

  4. Measurement of sulphur-35 in the coolant gas of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalls, F.J.

    1978-03-01

    Sulphur is an important element in some food chains and the release of radioactive sulphur to the environment must be closely controlled if the chemical form is such that it is available or potentially available for entering food chains. The presence of sulphur-35 in the coolant gas of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor warranted a study to assess the quantity and chemical form of the radioactive sulphur in order to estimate the magnitude of the potential environmental hazard which might arise from the release of coolant gas from Civil Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors. A combination of gas chromatographic and radiochemical analyses revealed carbonyl sulphide to be the only sulphur-35 compound present in the coolant gas of the Windscale Reactor. The concentration of carbonyl sulphide was found to lie in the range 40 to 100 x 10 -9 parts by volume and the sulphur-35 specific activity was about 20 mCi per gramme. The analytical techniques are described in detail. The sulphur-35 appears to be derived from the sulphur and chlorine impurities in the graphite. A method for the preparation of carbonyl sulphide labelled with sulphur-35 is described. (author)

  5. Oxidation of inorganic compounds of sulphur by various sulphur bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C D; Prisk, J

    1953-01-01

    Cultures of thiobacillus thiooxidans, Th. thioparus, Th. novellus, Thiobacillus b strains t and kand Th. concretivorus, Thiobacillus x and the m strains, organisms isolated from concrete were examined to elucidate the mode of oxidation and to establish the identity of the organisms recently isolated from corroded concrete. Thiosulphate was oxidized by all these bacteria. Th. thiooxidans, Th. concretivorus and Thiobacillus x first converted it to tetrathionate and sulphate and then oxidized the tetrathionate to sulphate and free sulphuric acid. Thiobaciullus x differed from the other two in that, owing to a lesser acid tolerance, some tetrathionate was found in the final products of oxidation. Th. Thioparus converted thiosulphate to sulphate and sulphur, followed by partial oxidation of the sulphur to sulphuric acid. Th. novellus produced sulphate and sulphuric acid. Thiobacillus b, the t and k strains and the m strains formed sulphate and tetrathionate with temporary increase in pH value; only Thiobacillus x oxidized tetrationate, yielding sulphate and sulphuric acid. Elementary sulphur was oxidized by Th. thiooxidans, th. Concretivorus, thiobacillus x and Th. thioparus; the rates of oxidation decreased in that order, and the only product was sulphuric acid. Hydrogen sulphide was oxidized only at low concentrations and only by th. Concretivorus and Thiobacillus x; sulphuric acid was the end-product, and elementary sulphur may have been an intermediate. Thiobacillus x differed from Th. thiooxidans in pH range for growth and from Th. thioparus in its method of oxidation of thiosulphate, tetrathionate and H/sub 2/S. The m strains were similar to thiobacillus b and the t and k strains of trautwein.

  6. Sulphur in liquid fuels 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Fuels Div., Oil, Gas and Energy Branch ; Sabourin, R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Environment Canada has developed new regulations for sulphur content in fuels in an effort to align with requirements recently passed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report summarizes data regarding sulphur content in liquid fuels for the year 2002. The requirements of the Sulphur in Gasoline Regulation came into effect in 2002, limiting the average sulphur content of gasoline to 150 mg/kg. In January 2005, a 30 mg/kg average limit will come into effect. Also, in July 2002, the Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulation stipulated a maximum limit of 500 mg/kg for on-road diesel fuel. The new regulation continues this limit until mid-2006 at which time a 15 mg/kg limit will come into effect for on-road diesel fuel. Nationally, the average sulphur content in gasoline in 2002 was 246 mg/kg, which was 14.3 per cent lower than in 2001. The data covers the period from January 1 to December 31, 2002 and was obtained from petroleum refineries and importing companies that are required to submit quarterly information to the regional office of Environment Canada. Failure to comply results in penalties. The report includes data for aviation turbo fuel, motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, kerosene oil, low-sulphur diesel fuel, diesel fuel, light fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil. 16 tabs., 17 figs., 7 appendices.

  7. Sulphur highways : value-added solutions to create sulphur demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, R.

    2010-09-15

    Producers generally view sulphur as a nuisance with essentially no benefit. In Alberta, a greater portion of sulphur production will shift from natural gas to the oilsands producing areas where there is limited infrastructure to move it out. Increased amounts of sour oil and gas production together with greater fuel desulphurization have also led to more sulphur being produced. In order to address the inevitable storage issue, Shell is considering value-added uses for the product, such as sulphur asphalt. The company developed Thiopave, a sulphur-based product for use in asphalt paving mixtures that can improve the mechanical performance of asphalt. The sulphur can be added to the asphalt mix as a solid pellet, which helps reduce the emission of sulphur vapour, odour and eye irritation. Twenty Thiopave projects are planned for the 2010 paving season in 9 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. Sulphur Enhanced Asphalt Modifier (SEAM) was the first generation of Thiopave developed in 2003. SEAM replaces 20 to 25 percent by volume of the bitumen in asphalt mix. The properties allow Thiopave-enhanced roads to perform better than conventional roads in both consistently high temperature regions and climates with wide temperature variations. In 2007, an asphalt mix containing 40 percent by mass of Thiopave was used in a trial in Qatar. The Thiopave asphalt mix was compared with a conventional mix at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 degrees C to determine the stiffness ratio. It was determined that Thiopave mixes containing high-penetration bitumen can be used to build temperature resistant roads that are stiffer in hot summer temperatures while improving the pavement's cold weather cracking performance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  8. Determination of chemical states of sulphur 35 obtained from the 35Cl (n, p)35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Filho, S.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical states of sulphur-35 obtained from the 35 Cl(n,p) 35 S reaction by the irradiation of potassium chloride without any previous treatment and with previous heating under vacuum, were determined. The influence of irradiation time and temperature after irradiation was examined. Paper electrophoresis technique was employed for the determination of the chemical states. (Author) [pt

  9. The existence of the potassium dioxodifluorobromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantot, Georges; Bougon, Roland

    1975-01-01

    The reaction of liquid bromine pentafluoride with potassium bromate allows the formation of an oxyfluorinated complex ion of bromine V: the dioxodifluorobromate ion BrO 2 F 2 - . From Raman spectroscopy data this ion has a structure related to those of the chlorine and iodine corresponding ions [fr

  10. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulphur in coal possesses important environmetal problems in its usage. The sulphur dioxide (S02 emissions produced during coal combustion account for a significant proportion of the total global output of anthropogenic SO2. The extent of sulphur separation depends on several variables such as the form of sulphur in coal, intimacy of contact between minerals and the products of devolatilization. The total sulphur in coal varies in the range of 0.2 - 11 wt %, although in most cases it is beetwen 1 and 3 wt %. Sulphur occurs in a variety of both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic sulphur is found mainly as iron pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopirite and as sulphates (rarely exceeds w = 0,1 %. Organic sulphur is found in aromatic rings and aliphatic functionalities usually as mercaptans, aliphatic and aryl sulfides, disulfides and thiophenes. Organic and pyritic sulphur quantities depend on coal rank. Higher rank coals tend to have a high proportion of labile sulphur. All the organic sulphur is bivalent and it is spread throughout the organic coal matrix. Sulphur occurs in all the macerals and most minerals. Vitrinite contains the major part of organic sulphur and metals. Elemental sulphur is produced during coal weathering. The depolymerization methods as pyrolysis and hydrogenation are very drastic methods wich change the structure of the coal and the sulphur groups. In the case of pyrolysis, high levels of desulphurization, in chars and additional production of liquid hydrocarbon can be achieved. Thiophenes and sulphides were the major sulphur components of tars from coal pyrolysis. Hyrdogen sulphide and the lower mercaptans and sulphides were found in the volatile matters. Hydrogen sulphide and thiophenes are practically the only sulphur products of coal hydrogenation. H2S is produced in char hydrodesulphurization. A number of options are available for reducing sulphur emissions including the

  11. Chlorine in the stratosphere

    OpenAIRE

    VON CLARMANN, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the various aspects of chlorine compounds in the stratosphere, both their roles as reactants and as tracers of dynamical processes. In the stratosphere, reactive chlorine is released from chlorofluorocarbons and other chlorine-containing organic source gases. To a large extent reactive chlorine is then sequestered in reservoir species ClONO2 and HCl. Re-activation of chlorine happens predominantly in polar winter vortices by heterogeneous reaction in combination with sunlig...

  12. Sulphur removal in IGCC projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F. (Parsons (United Kingdom))

    1998-01-01

    The technology for recovering elemental sulphur from H[sub 2]S bearing gases is well established. The modified Claus Process is the principal work-horse in sulphur recovery and can customarily achieve conversion efficiencies of 95% or better. Nowadays, such a level of recovery is no longer sufficient in most instances and sulphur recovery facility must then include some form of enhanced recovery, usually by treating the Claus tail gas. A number of processes have been introduced to enable the overall recovery to be increased. Recoveries in excess of 99% are both feasible and economic. Use of oxygen in place has become very popular in cases where oxygen is available cheaply or where capacity increases are designed. Most IGCC projects needing an air separation plant would automatically benefit from extending the use of oxygen to the sulphur recovery plant. The most popular route to minimising sulphur emissions in the context of IGCC projects has involved an oxygen based Claus plant followed by tail gas hydrogenation, hydrogen sulphide recovery and its recycle to the Claus section. The recovery of H[sub 2]S from the Claus tail gas can be integrated with the main gas treating system in the gasification plant. The cost advantage of doing so is significant. Parsons has been involved with the technology since 1949 and has been responsible for developments such as the ammonia burning Claus and jointly with Unocal, the BSRP tail gas process and Selectox processes. Recent innovations in response changing environmental and production requirements have included catalytic and tail gas processes which reduce sulphur emissions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Sulphur removal in IGCC projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F. [Parsons (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The technology for recovering elemental sulphur from H{sub 2}S bearing gases is well established. The modified Claus Process is the principal work-horse in sulphur recovery and can customarily achieve conversion efficiencies of 95% or better. Nowadays, such a level of recovery is no longer sufficient in most instances and sulphur recovery facility must then include some form of enhanced recovery, usually by treating the Claus tail gas. A number of processes have been introduced to enable the overall recovery to be increased. Recoveries in excess of 99% are both feasible and economic. Use of oxygen in place has become very popular in cases where oxygen is available cheaply or where capacity increases are designed. Most IGCC projects needing an air separation plant would automatically benefit from extending the use of oxygen to the sulphur recovery plant. The most popular route to minimising sulphur emissions in the context of IGCC projects has involved an oxygen based Claus plant followed by tail gas hydrogenation, hydrogen sulphide recovery and its recycle to the Claus section. The recovery of H{sub 2}S from the Claus tail gas can be integrated with the main gas treating system in the gasification plant. The cost advantage of doing so is significant. Parsons has been involved with the technology since 1949 and has been responsible for developments such as the ammonia burning Claus and jointly with Unocal, the BSRP tail gas process and Selectox processes. Recent innovations in response changing environmental and production requirements have included catalytic and tail gas processes which reduce sulphur emissions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Degradation behaviour of potassium K-phosphite in apple trees

    OpenAIRE

    Kelderer, Markus; Matteazzi, Aldo; Casera, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Although potassium phosphite is not registered for organic fruit production in Europe, it has long been regarded as a potential alternative to sulphur- and copper-containing fungicides. In 2005/2006 a field trial was carried out to verify the presence of residues of phosphoric acid over time in apples after applications of potassium phosphite at different time-points. No residues were present on fruits if treatments were applied before flowering, whereas treatments after flower...

  15. Discontinuities in Jovian sulphur plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekler, Y [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA); Eviatar, A; Siscoe, G L

    1979-10-01

    In recent years, the Jovian sulphur nebula, which is the only component of the thermal plasma in the magnetosphere of Jupiter which emits in the visible, has been the subject of considerable study. A large number of investigators have come up with widely differing models for the density, composition and temperature of the Jovian magnetospheric plasma. In this paper a different characteristic of the sulphur emission, namely its radial distribution is discussed and an attempt is made to assess its implications for the plasma and magnetic field configuration of the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  16. Muon transfer to sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhauser, F.; Schneuwly, H.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic study of muon capture and muon transfer has been performed in seven different H 2 + SO 2 gas mixtures. From the single-exponential time structure of the muonic sulphur x-rays, one determines the lifetime of the μp atoms under the given experimental conditions. The reduced muon transfer rates to the sulphur dioxide molecule, deduced from these lifetimes, all agree well with each other. The muonic oxygen time spectra show an additional structure as if μp atoms of another kind were present. Comparable time structures are observed in a D 2 + SO 2 mixture. (author)

  17. Chlorinated drinking water for lightweight laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of chlorine in drinking water of laying hens on zootechnical performance, eggs shell quality, hemogasometry levels and calcium content in tibia. 144 Hy-Line laying hens, 61 weeks old, were used distributed in 24 metabolism cages. They were subjected to water diets, for a period of 28 days, using sodium hypochlorite as a chlorine source in order to obtain the following concentrations: 5ppm (control, 20ppm, 50ppm, and 100ppm. Their performance was evaluated through water consumption, feed intake, egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion. Shell quality was measured by specific gravity. At the end of the experiment, arterial blood was collected for blood gas level assessment and a poultry of each replicate was sacrificed to obtain tibia and calcium content measurement. There was a water consumption reduction from 20ppm of chlorine and feed intake reduction in poultry receiving water with 100ppm of chlorine. The regression analysis showed that the higher the level of chlorine in water, the higher the reduction in consumption. There were no differences in egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion, specific gravity, tibia calcium content, and hemogasometry levels (hydrogenionic potential, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide total concentration, anion gap and oxygen saturation. The use of levels above 5ppm of chlorine is not recommended in the water of lightweight laying hens.

  18. Sulphur cement pre-composition and process for preparing such sulphur cement pre-composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the preparation of a sulphur cement pre-composition comprising reacting sulphur modifier with polysulphide-containing organosilane to obtain in the presence of sulphur the sulphur cement pre-composition, wherein the organosilane has the general molecular formula:

  19. Chlorination of uranium ore for extraction of uranium, thorium and radium and for pyrite removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeaf, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The high-temperature chlorination of uranium ore was investigated. The objective was to develop a process which is both economically viable and environmentally acceptable. Test work was directed toward obtaining high extractions of uranium, thorium and radium-226, as well as iron, sulphur and the rare earths, and consists of chlorinating samples of an Elliot Lake uranium ore at elevated temperatures and repulping the resulting calcine in dilute hydrochloric acid. The effect of temperature and chlorine throughput on the extraction of the various metals was investigated. The best conditions yielded extractions of uranium, iron and sulphur (all as chlorides) greater than 95 percent. Chlorine consumption varied between 6 and 16 percent by weight of the ore charge. (author)

  20. Potassium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperkalemia ) may be due to: Addison disease (rare) Blood transfusion Certain medicines Crushed tissue injury Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis ... released. This may cause a falsely high result. Alternative Names Hypokalemia test; K+ Images Blood test References Mount DB. Disorders of potassium balance. ...

  1. Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain other liquids including low-fat white or chocolate milk, flat soda, orange juice, raspberry syrup, or ... Potassium iodide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: swollen glands metallic taste in the ...

  2. Effect of sulphur forms on colour and residue of sulphur during the storage at drying grapes by sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boztepe Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is the world leader in the manufacture and export of seedless raisins. Requirement of golden bleached raisins is increasing in food Industry of especially cake, bread and pastry year by year. In this research, the lowest residual value and the practical realization of such production was intended to determine by drying grapes with application of sulphur. In this case, sulphur residue and colour situations were determined during 12-mounth-storage according to sulphur forms. In this study sulphur studies were applied by Vitis Vinifera cv. “Sultani Çekirdeksiz” with Na2S2O5, which is liquid source of sulphur and SO2, which is gas source of sulphur. SO2 application were studied during 3, 6 and 8 hours and liquid form of sulphur is Na2S2O5 that was used during by 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Applications were prepared with 3 replicates which contain 20 kg fresh grape in each replicate. In conclusion, changes in dried grape have been identified in point of colour (chroma and hue and the sulphur content was determined according to sulphur forms in packing. Gas form of sulphur (SO2 which was applied 3 hours, gave the best result during 12-mounth-storage for colour and sulphur residue.

  3. High temperature chlorination of uranium and some radionuclides from rich sulphide ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the application of the high temperature chlorination technique upon a sulphide-rich uranium ore from elliot lake, ontario, canada. The purpose is to find a substitute to conventional sulphuric acid leaching which involves both acid drainage and radionuclide dissolution problems. Test work has therefore been directed towards studying some relevant factors of chlorination beside the effect of a number of additives

  4. Low Potassium (Hypokalemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low potassium (hypokalemia) By Mayo Clinic Staff Low potassium (hypokalemia) refers to a lower than normal potassium level ... 2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A very low potassium level (less than 2.5 mmol/L) ...

  5. Formation of chlorinated organic compounds in fluidized bed combustion of recycled fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterinen, R.; Kallio, M.; Kirjalainen, T.; Kolsi, A.; Merta, M.

    1997-01-01

    Four tests of co-combustion of recycled fuels (REP) with peat and coal in the 15 kW fluidized bed reactor were performed. The recycled fuel was so-called dry fraction in four vessels sampling at Keltinmaeki. In three tests a part of peat energy was replaced with coal. The mixtures were prepared so that in all mixtures 25 % of energy was recycled fuel and 75 % was either peat or the mixture of peat and coal. The concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and chlorophenols decreased with increasing part of coal due to the increasing sulphur/chlorine ratio. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square regression analysis (PLS) showed that the chlorine, copper and sulphur contents of the fuel effected most on the concentrations of chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes, PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs. Other variables influencing on a model were the lead concentration and the sulphur/chlorine ratio in fuel and the hydrogen chloride concentration of the flue gas. The concentrations of chlorophenols and chlorobenzenes were also significant for PCDD/PCDF concentrations in flue gas. The sulphur, chlorine, copper and chromium contents in fly ash and the temperature of the reactor influenced on the chlorophenol, chlorobenzene, PCB and PCDD/PCDF concentrations in fly ash. The chlorophenol and chlorobenzene contents in fly ash, the sulphur/chlorine ratio and the lead content in fuel, the sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide concentrations in flue gas had also influence on PCDD/PCDF concentrations in fly ash

  6. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  7. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquin, G. [Con-Sul Inc., Bigfork, MT (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations.

  8. Sulphur Extraction at Bryan Mound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Carolyn L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Bryan Mound caprock was subjected to extens ive sulphur mining prior to the development of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Undoubtedl y, the mining has modified the caprock integrity. Cavern wells at Bryan Mound have been subject to a host of well integr ity concerns with many likely compromised by the cavernous capro ck, surrounding corrosive environment (H 2 SO 4 ), and associated elevated residual temperatures al l of which are a product of the mining activities. The intent of this study was to understand the sulphur mining process and how the mining has affected the stability of the caprock and how the compromised caprock has influenced the integrity of the cavern wells. After an extensiv e search to collect pert inent information through state agencies, literature sear ches, and the Sandia SPR librar y, a better understanding of the caprock can be inferred from the knowledge gaine d. Specifically, the discovery of the original ore reserve map goes a long way towards modeling caprock stability. In addition the gained knowledge of sulphur mining - subs idence, superheated corrosive wa ters, and caprock collapse - helps to better predict the post mi ning effects on wellbore integrity. This page intentionally left blank

  9. Technology assessment: Chlorine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, H.; Alwast, H.; Buttgereit, R.

    1994-01-01

    Chlorine is not just one of many chemical feedstocks which is used in a few definitely harmful products like PVC or CFC but is irrelevant in all other respects. Just the opposite is true: There is hardly any product line of the chemical industry that can do without chlorine, from herbicides and pesticides to dyes, plastics, pharmaceuticals, photographic atricles, and cosmetics. Chlorine is not only a key element of chemical production but also an ubiquitous element of everyday life in civilisation. There are even many who would agree that the volume of chlorine production is an indicator of the competitive strength and national wealth of a modern society. By now, however, it has become evident that the unreflected use of chlorine is no longer ecologically acceptable. The consequences of a chlorine phase-out as compared to the continued chlorine production at the present level were investigated scientifically by a PROGNOS team. They are presented in this book. (orig.) [de

  10. Chlorine inactivation of Tubifex tubifex in drinking water and the synergistic effect of sequential inactivation with UV irradiation and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Bao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Long, Yuan-Nan; He, Pan-Pan; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    The inactivation of Tubifex tubifex is important to prevent contamination of drinking water. Chlorine is a widely-used disinfectant and the key factor in the inactivation of T. tubifex. This study investigated the inactivation kinetics of chlorine on T. tubifex and the synergistic effect of the sequential use of chlorine and UV irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the Ct (concentration × time reaction ) concept could be used to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex with chlorine, thus allowing for the use of a simpler Ct approach for the assessment of T. tubifex chlorine inactivation requirements. The inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be well-fitted to a delayed pseudo first-order Chick-Watson expression. Sequential experiments revealed that UV irradiation and chlorine worked synergistically to effectively inactivate T. tubifex as a result of the decreased activation energy, E a , induced by primary UV irradiation. Furthermore, the inactivation effectiveness of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be affected by several drinking water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand with potassium permanganate (COD Mn ) concentration. High pH exhibited pronounced inactivation effectiveness and the decrease in turbidity and COD Mn concentrations contributed to the inactivation of T. tubifex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hot atom chemistry of sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovski, D. S.; Koleva, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt to cover all papers dealing with the hot atom chemistry of sulpphur is made. Publications which: a) only touch the problem, b) contain some data, indirectly connected with sulphur hot atom chemistry, c) deal with 35 S-production from a chloride matrix, are included as well. The author's name and literature source are given in the original language, transcribed, when it is necessary, in latine. A number of primery and secondary documents have been used including Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atomindex, the bibliographies of A. Siuda and J.-P. Adloff for 1973 - 77, etc. (authors)

  12. Effect of NPK fertilization and elemental sulphur on growth and yield of lowbush blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. STARAST

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of fertilizers on the pH of former arable soils and on the growth and the yield of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.. Lowbush blueberry fertilization experiments were established in 1999 at two locations – at Kärla, Saaremaa, West Estonia and at Vasula, Tartu County, South Estonia. Experimental sites were situated on different soils: soil pHKCl at Kärla was 5.5 and at Vasula 6.2. Elemental sulphur and acidifying fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and superphosphate were used in both plantations. Fertilizers were applied based on nutrient in the soil and sulphur was applied at 100 g m–2. Plant growth was recorded in 2001, 2002 and 2003. A positive influence of NPK fertilization on yield was found in both Kärla and Vasula, and yield were 336 g and 41 g higher compared to the control, respectively. The vegetative growth and yield of blueberry depended significantly on soil pH. Elemental sulphur increased soil acidity and on loamy sand soil did not increase plant productivity. The sulphur effect on soil pH began to decrease three years after application. Sulphur can be recommended to increase soil acidity in nutrient-rich soil but, not nutrient poor soil with light texture, where only NPK fertilizers were effective.;

  13. Alternative methods for chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiessinger, F; Rook, J J; Duguet, J P

    1985-12-01

    Existing disinfectants are oxidative agents which all present negative effects on subsequent treatment processes. None of them has decisive advantages over chlorine, although chlorine-dioxide and chloramines might at times be preferable. Optimum treatment practices will improve the removal of organic precursors before final disinfection which could then consist in a light chlorine addition. A philosophy of radical change in water treatment technology encompassing physical treatment without chemicals such as membrane filtration, solid disinfectants is presented.

  14. Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for sulphur removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... gation of sulphur production in floating sulphur biofilms as a means for addressing this problem. These 50 µm ... Preliminary studies on the use of the FSB system for sulphur removal in Integrated Managed Passive Treatment ...

  15. Chlorination and chloramines formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Lim Fang; Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Sadia Ata; Abbas Abdullah; Basar IShak; Khairul Nidzham

    2008-01-01

    Chlorination is the most important method of disinfection in Malaysia which aims at ensuring an acceptable and safe drinking water quality. The dosing of chlorine to surface water containing ammonia and nitrogen compounds may form chloramines in the treated water. During this reaction, inorganic and organic chloramines are formed. The recommended maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) for chloramines in drinking water is 3000 μg/L. The production of monochloramine, dichloramine and trichloramine is highly dependent upon pH, contact time and the chlorine to ammonia molar ratio. The purpose of this study is to examine the formation of chloramines that occur upon the chlorination during the treatment process. Chloramines were determined using the N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) colorimetric method. The influences of ammonia, pH and chlorine dosage on the chloramines formation were also studied. This paper presents a modeling approach based on regression analysis which is designed to estimate the formation of chloramines. The correlation between the concentration of chloramines and the ammonia, pH and chlorine dosage was examined. In all cases, the quantity of chloramines formed depended linearly upon the amount of chlorine dosage. On the basis of this study it reveals that the concentration of chloramines is a function of chlorine dosage and the ammonia concentration to the chlorination process. PH seems to not significantly affect the formation of chloramines. (author)

  16. Optimal sulphuric acid production using Acidithiobacillus caldus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... oxygen uptake rate of 1.35 g/L.day (OUR), 52% sulphur conversion at a rate of 0.83 ... achieving a sulphuric acid production rate of 2.76 g/L.day (dP/dt), while the ...

  17. Formation of chlorinated organic compounds in fluidized bed combustion of recycled fuels; Kloorattujen orgaanisten yhdisteiden muodostuminen kierraetyspolttoaineiden leijukerrospoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterinen, R.; Kallio, M.; Kirjalainen, T.; Kolsi, A.; Merta, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Four tests of co-combustion of recycled fuels (REP) with peat and coal in the 15 kW fluidized bed reactor were performed. The recycled fuel was so-called dry fraction in four vessels sampling at Keltinmaeki. In three tests a part of peat energy was replaced with coal. The mixtures were prepared so that in all mixtures 25 % of energy was recycled fuel and 75 % was either peat or the mixture of peat and coal. The concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and chlorophenols decreased with increasing part of coal due to the increasing sulphur/chlorine ratio. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square regression analysis (PLS) showed that the chlorine, copper and sulphur contents of the fuel effected most on the concentrations of chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes, PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs. Other variables influencing on a model were the lead concentration and the sulphur/chlorine ratio in fuel and the hydrogen chloride concentration of the flue gas. The concentrations of chlorophenols and chlorobenzenes were also significant for PCDD/PCDF concentrations in flue gas. The sulphur, chlorine, copper and chromium contents in fly ash and the temperature of the reactor influenced on the chlorophenol, chlorobenzene, PCB and PCDD/PCDF concentrations in fly ash. The chlorophenol and chlorobenzene contents in fly ash, the sulphur/chlorine ratio and the lead content in fuel, the sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide concentrations in flue gas had also influence on PCDD/PCDF concentrations in fly ash

  18. Chlorine solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, J.K.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The chlorine solar neutrino experiment in the Homestake Gold Mine is described and the results obtained with the chlorine detector over the last fourteen years are summarized and discussed. Background processes producing 37 Ar and the question of the constancy of the production rate of 37 Ar are given special emphasis

  19. Sulphurous Mineral Waters: New Applications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Carbajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous mineral waters have been traditionally used in medical hydrology as treatment for skin, respiratory, and musculoskeletal disorders. However, driven by recent intense research efforts, topical treatments are starting to show benefits for pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, peptic ulcer, and acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The beneficial effects of sulphurous mineral waters, sulphurous mud, or peloids made from sulphurous mineral water have been attributed to the presence of sulphur mainly in the form of hydrogen sulphide. This form is largely available in conditions of low pH when oxygen concentrations are also low. In the organism, small amounts of hydrogen sulphide are produced by some cells where they have numerous biological signalling functions. While high levels of hydrogen sulphide are extremely toxic, enzymes in the body are capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to harmless sulphate. Hence, low levels of hydrogen sulphide may be tolerated indefinitely. In this paper, we review the chemistry and actions of hydrogen sulphide in sulphurous mineral waters and its natural role in body physiology. This is followed by an update of available data on the impacts of exogenous hydrogen sulphide on the skin and internal cells and organs including new therapeutic possibilities of sulphurous mineral waters and their peloids.

  20. Trading sulphur emissions under the Second Sulphur Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foersund, Finn R.; Naevdal, Eric

    1997-07-01

    Emission trading is a potent policy instrument in theoretical analyses of environmental policy. However, trading in emission quotas of non-uniformly dispersed pollutants requires that the offsetting quantities vary with location of sources. Such a system is not yet in use. The Second Sulphur Protocol for Europe makes it possible to try out a system of ``exchange rates`` through a clause allowing ``joint implementation`` of emission reductions. In this report, the authors investigate some properties of a system with exogenous exchange rates within a simultaneous trade model based on cost efficiency. Incorporation of constraints on depositions in third party countries may be necessary in order to get third party country cooperation. It is demonstrated that imposition of constraints is feasible, but it is also revealed what demands such incorporation places on the design of the institutional setting. Constraints on trade should only be introduced when the concern for the environment of the various receptors fail to be captured adequately by the calibration of the exchange rates. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Identification of molecules in graphite furnace by laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: sulfur and chlorine containing compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raseleka, RM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electro thermal vaporizer (ETV) coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with laser ionization (LI) was applied to the identification of molecules from sulphur and chlorine matrices in the furnace. An interface was developed...

  2. Sulphur isotope variations in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.; Krouse, H.R.; Grinenko, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of the isotope ratios of sulphur and oxygen can in principal be used to assess sulphur inputs into, transformation within, and removal from the atmosphere. Major inputs arise from both anthropogenic and biogenic activities. Transformations arise from oxidation, neutralization, and other chemical reactions. Advection causes dilution and the main removal processes are dry deposition (governed by gravitation and diffusion) and rain. The admixture of sources can be discerned from their isotopic signatures whereas transformations and removal can be followed from the isotopic fractionation that might occur. In this chapter, the atmospheric sulphur cycle and the associated chemistry are summarized. Also presented is information on natural isotopic variations and fundamental concepts relating to the use of isotopic data to delineate anthropogenic S in the atmosphere. Examples of successful applications of these concepts are given. Finally, consideration is given to the potential of using isotopically enriched sulphur to study transport and transformation of atmospheric S compounds. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Sulphur recovery and sulphur emissions at Alberta sour gas plants : annual report for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The sulphur recovery of Alberta's grandfathered sour gas plants is monitored by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. This report provides an annual summary of industry performance for sulphur recovery at large acid gas flaring sour gas plants, and sulphur recovery at all acid gas injection sour gas plants. It follows Interim Directive (ID) 2001-3 which stipulates guidelines for sulphur recovery for the province of Alberta. It includes a list of grandfathered and non grandfathered plants in Alberta. Grandfathered sulphur recovery plants that exceed expectations have the option to file a sulphur emission performance credit report and can use the credits to meet some of their sulphur requirement in the future. Acid gas flaring plants face more stringent requirements and cannot earn credits. Several plants have degrandfathered in the past 5 years. Eleven have made upgrades, 4 have been relicensed to meet the requirements for new plants, and 4 have shut down. Forty-one grandfathered plants remain. Sulphur emissions have decreased 39 per cent for grandfathered acid gas flaring plants, and 28 per cent for grandfathered sulphur recovery plants. 10 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bludska, Jana; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. → 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. → New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn 4+ content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn 4+ content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn 3 7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn 5 with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  5. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bludska, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  6. Hypothermia reduces sulphur mustard toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Lei; Gong Wenrong; Nelson, Peggy; Martin, Leanne; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 deg. C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no significant HD-induced toxicity was evident up to 4 days posttreatment when the cells were incubated at 25 deg. C. However, these protective effects were lost by 24 h when the cells were switched back to 37 deg. C. The protective effects of hypothermia were also demonstrated when apoptotic endpoints were examined. The HD concentration-dependent induction of fragmented DNA (as quantitated using soluble DNA and the TUNEL reaction), morphology, and p53 expression were all significantly depressed when cell cultures were incubated at 25 deg. C compared to 37 deg. C. When animals were exposed to HD vapour for 2, 4, and 6 min and left at room temperature, lesions were produced whose severity was dependent on exposure time and that were maximal by 72 h posttreatment. Moderate cooling (5-10 deg. C) of HD exposure sites posttreatment (4-6 h) significantly reduced the severity of the resultant lesions. However, in contrast to the in vitro results, these effects were permanent. It appears that the early and noninvasive act of cooling HD-exposed skin may provide a facile means of reducing the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions

  7. Zirconia concentrate chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.; Albuquerque Brocchi, E. de

    1990-01-01

    Chlorination experiments were conducted in order to study the kinetics of gasification of the zirconium oxide present in the zirconia concentrate. The variables studied are temperature (1173 to 1373 K), percentage of reducing agent (12 to 36%) and porosity (22 to 30%). The results indicated a greater influence of temperature and percentage of reducing agent as well as allowed the conclusion that a balance between the levels of these variables is an important factor in the appropriate chlorination conditions. (author)

  8. Chlorine trifluoride (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, L.M.; Gillardeau, J.

    1963-01-01

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors) [fr

  9. Use of 0.1% chlorine dioxide to inhibit the formation of morning volatile sulphur compounds (VSC Uso do enxaguatório de dióxido de cloro a 0,1% para inibir a formação matinal de compostos sulfurosos voláteis (CSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristina Peruzzo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the VSC-inhibiting effect of a commercially available mouthrinse (0.1% chlorine dioxide when compared to its placebo. A 2-step double blind, crossover, randomised study was conducted with 14 dental students with healthy periodontium, who refrained from any mechanical plaque and tongue coating control during two 4-day experimental periods. The subjects were instructed to rinse 3 times daily with the assigned product during each period. A 7-day washout interval was established. VSCs levels were measured by a sulphide monitor at the beginning (baseline and at the end of each experimental period. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon's and Mann-Whitney's non-parametric tests. At baseline, intragroup analysis revealed that VSCs levels did not differ between groups (p > 0.05; at day 5, the use of the chlorine dioxide mouthrinse did not change the baseline VSCs scores in the control group (p > 0.05, while a 2-fold increase was observed with the use of the placebo mouthrinse (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito inibitório do enxaguatório de dióxido de cloro a 0,1% sobre a formação dos CSVs, quando comparados a um placebo. Um estudo randomizado, cruzado, duplo cego foi conduzido com 14 estudantes de odontologia apresentando saúde periodontal, os quais se abstiveram dos hábitos de escovação dentária e limpeza da língua durante dois períodos experimentais de 4 dias. Os voluntários foram orientados a utilizar o enxaguatório designado 3 vezes ao dia conforme indicado no rótulo. Um intervalo de 7 dias foi estabelecido entre os períodos experimentais. No início ("baseline" e no final de cada período experimental, os níveis de CSVs foram medidos com o uso do monitor de sulfetos. Análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se os testes não-paramétricos de Wilcoxon e Mann-Whitney. No "baseline", uma análise intragrupo revelou que os níveis de CSVs não diferiram entre os

  10. Electrochemical Determination of Low Molecular Mass Thiols Content in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Cultivated in the Presence of Various Sulphur Forms and Infected by Late Blight (Phytophora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers. During the investigation of the influence of different sulphur forms on yield of potato tubers we did not observe significant changes. Average weight of tubers of control plants per one experimental pot was 355 g. Application of sulphur in both forms resulted in moderate potato tubers weight reduction per one experimental pot compared to control group; average value ranged from 320 to 350 g per one experimental pot. Further we treated the plants with two different supplementation of sulphur with cadmium(II ions (4 mg of cadmium(II acetate per kilogram of the soil. The significantly lowest cadmium content (p < 0.05 was determined in tissues of plants treated with the highest dosage of elemental sulphur (0.64 mg Cd/kg compared to control plants (0.82 mg Cd/kg. We also aimed our attention on the cadmium content in proteins, lipids or soluble carbohydrates and ash. Application of sulphate as well as elemental sulphur resulted in significant cadmium content reduction in lipid fraction compared to control plants. In addition to this we quantified content of low molecular mass thiols in potatoes tissues. To determine the thiols content we employed differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. After twelve days of the treatment enhancing of thiols level was observed in all experimental groups regardless to applied sulphur form and its concentration. Finally we evaluated the effect of sulphur supplementation on Phytophora infestans infection of potato plants.

  11. Penicillin V Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin V potassium is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and other ... heart valves and other symptoms) from coming back. Penicillin V potassium is in a class of medications ...

  12. Potassium maldistribution revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:This study investigated maldistribution of concentrated 15% potassium chloride after injection into .... and latter experiments referred to for example as “Control 1” ..... be further investigated as a reliable, simple method of potassium.

  13. Sulphur uptake and yield of soybean as influenced by sulphur fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamima, N.; Farid, A. T. M.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of sulphur fertilization (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg/ha) on sulphur uptake and seed yield was studied in sohag and Bangladesh soybean-4 varieties in the field of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur during the winter (rabi) seasons of 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 in grey Terrace soil (Albaquept). Addition of slphur fertilizer exerted significant influence on the yield attributes of soybean varieties. Sulphur uptake also significantly responded to the application of sulphur fertilizer. Variety Bangladesh soybean-4 was found superior to sohag in respect of sulphur uptake and yield. Greater sulphur utilization was observed at lower levels of fertilizer application. Seed yield and sulphur uptake were increased with the application of 40 kg/ ha for sohag and 60 kg/ha for Bangladesh soybean-4. Response of seed yield to added sulphur was quadratic. The economic optimum doses were found to be 49 kg s/ha for sohag and 52 kg s/ha for Bangladesh soybean-4, yielding 2060 and 2354 kg/ha, respectively. (author)

  14. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  15. Effects of sulphur ion implantation on the electrochemical behaviour of two stainless steels in sulphuric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader-Roux, J.; Becdelievre, A.M. de; Gaillard, F.; Roux, R.; Becdelievre, J. de

    1986-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour in sulphuric acid of two austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304 L and AISI 321) modified by sulphur ion implantation has been studied. Surface analysis of oxygen and sulphur by LEEIXS and XRFS were performed before and after polarization on unimplanted and on implanted samples. I/E curves with implanted steels reveal an important corrosion peak (α peak) recovering widely the active peak of unimplanted samples. For high implanted doses, another peak (β peak) appears in the passive range. High doses implanted steels polarized in the range of the α peak exhibit a sulphur enriched black surface layer. SEM examination of this layer shows it is constituted by flakes rolling up themselves. The formation of a superficial non-protective sulphide layer and the internal stresses of this layer explain the corrosion enhancement of sulphur implanted materials. After dissolution of this layer the behaviour of unimplanted steels is found again. (author)

  16. Potassium fluorotitanate preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, Patricia; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the best conditions for potassium fluotitanate preparation as intermediate step in the electrolytic production of metalic titanium, the effects of a number of experimental variables have been studied. This method is a process of sintering titanium dioxide with potassium fluosilicate and potassium chloride, followed by leaching with boiling water and further crystallization by cooling the solution. An overall yield of 90% has been attained under the following conditions: working temperature: 750 deg C; heating time for sintering: 3 hours; molar ratio: titanium dioxide: potassium fluosilicate: potassium chloride: 1 : 2 : 0.4; number of leachings: 6. (Author) [es

  17. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  18. Chlorine transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautkaski, Risto; Mankamo, Tuomas.

    1977-02-01

    An assessment has been made on the toxication risk of the population due to the bulk rail transportation of liquid chlorine in Finland. Fourteen typical rail accidents were selected and their probability was estimated using the accident file of the Finnish State Railways. The probability of a chlorine leak was assessed for each type of accident separately using four leak size categories. The assessed leakage probability was dominated by station accidents, especially by collisions of a chlorine tanker and a locomotive. Toxication hazard areas were estimated for the leak categories. A simple model was constructed to describe the centring of the densely populated areas along the railway line. A comparison was made between the obtained risk and some other risks including those due to nuclear reactor accidents. (author)

  19. Chlorination leaching of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, E.; Pajak, I.; Bojanowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the investigations on chlorination leaching of cadmium from dust coming from dry dust collector of sinter belt, that is leaching with water saturated with gaseous chlorine and leaching with solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride were given. The optimum conditions for these processes were established. It was found, that the method of leaching in the presence of gaseous chlorine is more effective, as it allows to report into the solution over 90% cadmium contained in dust. Owing to technical difficulties, environmental protection and safety conditions more advantageous seems to be the use as leaching agent of the ammonium chloride solutions. When applying 20% NH 4 Cl and temperature of 60 0 C, the time of 2 hours and the ratio of solid to liquid of 1:5, 70% cadmium contained in the dust can be reported into the solution. (auth.)

  20. Influence of drinking water treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite/chlorate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Disinfection is the last treatment stage of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) and is carried out to maintain a residual concentration of disinfectant in the water distribution system. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used chemical employed for this purpose. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of several treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and on chlorite and chlorate formation in the final oxidation/disinfection stage. A number of tests was performed at laboratory scale employing water samples collected from the DWTP of Cremona (Italy). The following processes were studied: oxidation with potassium permanganate, chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite, coagulation/flocculation with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, filtration and adsorption onto activated carbon. The results showed that the chlorine dioxide demand is high if sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate are employed in pre-oxidation. On the other hand, chlorine dioxide leads to the highest production of chlorite and chlorate. The coagulation/flocculation process after pre-oxidation shows that chlorine dioxide demand decreases if potassium permanganate is employed as an oxidant, both with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate. Therefore, the combination of these processes leads to a lower production of chlorite and chlorate. Aluminum sulfate is preferable in terms of the chlorine dioxide demand reduction and minimization of the chlorite and chlorate formation. Activated carbon is the most effective solution as it reduced the chlorine dioxide consumption by about 50% and the DBP formation by about 20-40%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Where does Chlorine-36 go?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorine-36 and Iodine-129 are the unique long-life radionuclides in the halogen family and halogens are known to be very mobile in the environment. Chlorine-36 is present in slight quantities in radioactive wastes containing carbon or issued from spent fuel reprocessing. The migration of Chlorine-36 in the environment has been very little studied, so a collaboration between the French institute of protection and nuclear safety (IPSN) and the Ukrainian institute for agricultural radioecology (UIAR) has been launched. IPSN will study the migration of Chlorine-36 in soils and UIAR will be in charge of studying the transfer of Chlorine-36 from soil to plants. (A.C.)

  2. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G K; Singh, Beer

    2004-12-31

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m2/gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(VI) as CrO3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 degrees C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO3/C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO3/EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO3)2/C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl3/C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard.

  3. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Singh, Beer

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m 2 /gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(Vi) as CrO 3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 deg. C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO 3 /C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO 3 /EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO 3 ) 2 /C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl 3 /C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard

  4. Sulphur oxidising bacteria in mangrove ecosystem: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria such as photoautotrophs, chemolithotrophs and heterotrophs play an important role in the mangrove environment for the oxidation of the toxic sulphide produced by sulphur reducing bacteria and act as a key driving force behind all sulphur transformations in the mangrove ecosystem which is ...

  5. Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide oxidation in biological water treatment systems. ... The effect of influent sulphide concentrations, flow rate and reactor dimensions on the sulphur biofilm formation were investigated for the optimisation of elemental sulphur recovery and sulphide removal ...

  6. The useful application of sulphur-bound waste materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, M.M.C.; Koene, J.I.A.

    1996-01-01

    An immobilization process is described which is based on sulphur (instead of cement) as a binding agent for the treatment of hazardous waste materials. Elemental sulphur is able to bind chemically metals such as mercury and, to a lesser extent, lead as metal sulphides. Furthermore, sulphur forms a

  7. Handling of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, N.; Komurka, M.

    1983-03-01

    As a result for the Fast Breeder Development extensive experience is available worldwide with respect to Sodium technology. Due to the extension of the research program to topping cycles with Potassium as the working medium, test facilities with Potassium have been designed and operated in the Institute of Reactor Safety. The different chemical properties of Sodium and Potassium give rise in new safety concepts and operating procedures. The handling problems of Potassium are described in the light of theoretical properties and own experiences. Selected literature on main safety and operating problems complete this report. (Author) [de

  8. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štengl, Václav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomáš Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Bludská, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslařská 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  9. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štengl, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; Bludská, Jana; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn 7 5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn 3 7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  10. Strange and non-strange baryon and antibaryon production in sulphur-tungsten and sulphur-sulphur interactions at 200 A Gev/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holme, A.K.

    1995-11-01

    The author has studied production of strange and multistrange baryons and antibaryons in central sulphur-tungsten, sulphur-sulphur, and lead-lead interactions at relativistic energies. The spectra of strange baryons and antibaryons provide information about the dynamics of hadronic matter under the extreme conditions realised in these collisions. The particle ratios allow the degree and the nature of the flavour equilibrium to be studied, while the transverse mass distributions provide independent information of the temperatures achieved. 143 refs.

  11. Strange and non-strange baryon and antibaryon production in sulphur-tungsten and sulphur-sulphur interactions at 200 A Gev/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holme, A.K.

    1995-11-01

    The author has studied production of strange and multistrange baryons and antibaryons in central sulphur-tungsten, sulphur-sulphur, and lead-lead interactions at relativistic energies. The spectra of strange baryons and antibaryons provide information about the dynamics of hadronic matter under the extreme conditions realised in these collisions. The particle ratios allow the degree and the nature of the flavour equilibrium to be studied, while the transverse mass distributions provide independent information of the temperatures achieved. 143 refs

  12. Potassium and Your CKD Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetable in your diet, leach them before using. Leaching is a process by which some potassium can be pulled out ... out of my favorite high-potassium vegetables? The process of leaching will help pull potassium out of some high- ...

  13. Chlorination of zirconyte concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chlorination experiments with zirconyte concentrate were carried out in order to study the effects of temperature, percentage of reducing agent and porosity on the gasification of ZrO 2 for 10 and 20 minutes of reaction. Factorial analysis was applied and the results indicated that temperature and percentage of reducing agent were the two only variables effecting the ZrO 2 gasification. (author) [pt

  14. Quantitative Aspects of Sulphur Metabolism in the Ruminant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, J. [Institut fuer Tierernaehrung, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1968-07-01

    In a series of four experiments {sup 35}S sulphate was given intra-ruminally to lactating dairy goats at feeding times (twice daily) during periods of 10 to 11 d. Rumen contents were sampled on the 8th, 9th and 10th day of {sup 35}S application. Radioactivity was determined in the volatile sulphur fraction (sulphide-sulphur) and in protein-bound sulphur (fraction insoluble in trichloroacetic acid). The ratio between the specific activities of protein sulphur and of sulphide sulphur was considered to be an estimate for that fraction of sulphur-containing amino acids present in the proteins of rumen contents, which was synthesized by microorganisms. This interpretation is based on the assumption that sulphide is the most important source of inorganic sulphur for the synthesis of sulphur amino acids and that incorporation of inorganic sulphur compounds of a a higher state of oxidation into organic molecules may quantitatively be neglected. In three experiments the animals received rations containing 16% to 17% crude protein. In these experiments the ratio of specific activities of protein and sulphide sulphur was found to vary from 0.32 to 0.41. According to the assumptions mentioned above, this would indicate that 32 to 41% of the total amount of protein-bound sulphur amino acids were synthesized by microorganisms from inorganic (sulphide) sulphur. In the fourth experiment the animal received a ration containing only 10% protein but supplemented with urea to bring the total crude protein content to 13%. In this experiment the ratio of specific activities was 0.70, indicating a much higher contribution of microbial synthesis of sulphur amino acids than in the experiments with a more abundant protein supply. The time course of the specific activity of protein-bound-sulphur in the milk is taken as a reference base for an interpretation of labelling of body proteins in terms of turnover rates.

  15. Aqueous-chlorine leaching of typical Canadian uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale aqueous-chlorine leaches were conducted on quartz-pebble conglomerates, pegmatite and vein-type ores. Optimum leach temperatures, pulp density and retention times were determined. Uranium extraction of 98 per cent was obtained from the Elliot Lake, Madawaska Mines of Bancroft and Rabbit Lake ores, 96 per cent from the Key Lake ore and 86 per cent from the Agnew Lake ore. However, tailings containing 15-20 pCi g -1 of radium-226 were obtained only from the Elliot Lake and Agnew lake quartz-pebble conglomerates and Bancroft pegmatite-type ores by second-stage leaches with HCl. The second-stage leach results indicate that multistage (3 or 4) acid-chloride or salt-chloride leaches might be effective to obtain tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the high-grade vein-type ores. Comparative reagent-cost estimates show that the sulphuric-acid leach process is far less expensive than aqueous chlorine leaching. Nevertheless, only the aqueous chlorine and acid-chloride leaches in stages are effective in producing tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the typical Canadian uranium ores. (Auth.)

  16. NA35: sulphur-gold collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    In this image the real particles produced by the collision of a 6400 GeV sulphur ion with a gold target can be seen as they pass through a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. The NA35 experiment, which was in operation in the 1980s, was part of CERN's ongoing heavy ion project.

  17. K lines in the sulphur isonuclear sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmeri, P.; Mendoza, C.; Bautista, M.A.; Garcia, J.; Kallman, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate and complete sets of atomic data are being computed for the radiative and Auger processes giving rise to K lines in ions of sulphur. AUTOSTRUCTURE, HFR and BPRM codes are used, taking into account configuration interaction, core relaxation and relativistic effects so as to generate data following an approach used in our previous studies on iron and oxygen. Level energies, wavelengths, A-values and Auger rates are compared with available measurements and previous calculations

  18. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada

  19. Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giuffrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a 3-yr period, from 2006 to 2009, frequent scattered sunlight DOAS measurements were conducted at Mt. Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt. Etna. Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. The focus of the investigation is the bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO / SO2 ratio, and its variability in relation to volcanic processes. That the halogen/sulphur ratio can serve as a precursor or indicator for the onset of eruptive activity was already proposed by earlier works (e.g. Noguchi and Kamiya 1963; Menyailov, 1975; Pennisi and Cloarec, 1998; Aiuppa et al., 2002. However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts (Carroll and Holloway, 1994, the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt (Aiuppa et al., 2009. With this study we aim to add one more piece to the puzzle of what halogen/sulphur ratios might tell about volcanic activities. Our data set shows an increase of the BrO / SO2 ratio several weeks prior to an eruption, followed by a decline before and during the initial phase of eruptive activities. Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. To explain the observed evolution of the BrO / SO2 ratio, a first empirical model is proposed. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. By using the DOAS method to determine SO2, we actually

  20. Effect of Chlorine and Sulphur on Stainless Steel (AISI 310) Due To High Temperature Corrosion.

    OpenAIRE

    Onaivi Daniel Azamata; Titus Yusuf Jibatswen; Odinize C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    In a power station boiler, there are temperature of regimes of corrosion which occurs mainly in the economizer, boiler steam generation tubes, super-heater tubes and air tubes. The specific gas temperatures in degrees centigrade for the following include: 150 – 370oC for the economizer, 1000 – 1650oC for the boiler steam generation tubes, 650 – 1000oC for super-heater tubes and 1000 – 1200oC for air tubes. For power station boilers that burn coal as the source of fuel it is recommended that a...

  1. Impact of pedospheric and atmospheric sulphur nutrition on sulphur metabolism of Allium cepa L., a species with a potential sink capacity for secondary sulphur compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, M.; De Kok, L.J.

    Onion (Afflum cepa L.) was able to use atmospheric H2S as sole sulphur source for growth. The foliarly absorbed H2S was rapidly metabolized into water-soluble, non-protein thiol compounds, including cysteine, and subsequently into other sulphur compounds in the shoots. In H2S-exposed plants, the

  2. Potassium Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Potassium, Serum; 426–27 p. Lab ...

  3. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level is very high, or if you have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency ... Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Low potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat and prevent low level of potassium. These foods include: Avocados Baked potato Bananas Bran Carrots Cooked lean beef Milk Oranges Peanut butter Peas and beans Salmon Seaweed Spinach Tomatoes Wheat germ

  5. Kinetics of the oxidation of cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a with chlorine, monochloramine and permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eva; Sordo, Ana; Metcalf, James S; Acero, Juan L

    2007-05-01

    Cyanobacteria produce toxins that may contaminate drinking water sources. Among others, the presence of the alkaloid toxins cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and anatoxin-a (ANTX) constitutes a considerable threat to human health due to the acute and chronic toxicity of these compounds. In the present study, not previously reported second-order rate constants for the reactions of CYN and ANTX with chlorine and monochloramine and of CYN with potassium permanganate were determined and the influence of pH and temperature was established for the most reactive cases. It was found that the reactivity of CYN with chlorine presents a maximum at pH 7 (rate constant of 1265 M(-1)s(-1)). However, the oxidation of CYN with chloramine and permanganate are rather slow processes, with rate constants chlorination product of CYN was found to be 5-chloro-CYN (5-Cl-CYN), which reacts with chlorine 10-20 times slower than the parent compound. The reactivity of ANTX with chlorine and chloramines is also very low (kchlorine dose of 1.5 mg l(-1) was enough to oxidize CYN almost completely. However, 3 mg l(-1) of chlorine was able to remove only 8% of ANTX, leading to a total formation of trihalomethanes (TTHM) at a concentration of 150 microg l(-1). Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for CYN degradation during oxidation and disinfection processes but not for ANTX removal. The permanganate dose required for CYN oxidation is very high and not applicable in waterworks.

  6. CLINSULF sub-dew-point process for sulphur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, M.; Marold, F.

    1988-01-01

    In a 2-reactor system, the CLINSULF process allows very high sulphur recovery rates. When operated at 100/sup 0/C at the outlet, i.e. below the sulphur solidification point, a sulphur recovery rate of more than 99.2% was achieved in a 2-reactor series. Assuming a 70% sulphur recovery in an upstream Claus furnace plus sulphur condenser, an overall sulphur recovery of more than 99.8% results for the 2-reactor system. This is approximately 2% higher than in conventional Claus plus SDP units, which mostly consist of 4 reactors or more. This means the the CLINSULF SSP process promises to be an improvement both in respect of efficiency and low investment cost.

  7. Sulphur levels in saliva as an estimation of sulphur status in cattle: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermauw, V.; Froidmont, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Vyverman, W.; Debeer, A.E.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Effective assessment of sulphur (S) status in cattle is important for optimal health, yet remains difficult. Rumen fluid S concentrations are preferred, but difficult to sample under practical conditions. This study aimed to evaluate salivary S concentration as estimator of S status in cattle.

  8. Potassium permanganate in drinking water treatment: reduction of organic matter and disinfection by-products; Permanganato potasico en potabilizacion de aguas : Reduccion de materias organicas y subproductos de desinfeccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    This paper deals on the results obtained with the use of potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) in drinking water treatment. Thus, permanganization of water before chlorination implied the reduction of 50% in odors. Moreover, oxidation with KMnO{sub 4} reduced UV absorbency of water (UV-254nm) by a 17% more as compared with that obtained by chlorine. Finally as far as the production of organo-chlorinated compounds, the treatment with (potassium permanganate+chlorine) allowed an important reduction vs the conventional chlorination: only a 65% of total THMs were generated (between 58% and 80% of specific THM) and between 30 % and 68% of tri-and tetra-phenolchlorinated, as compared with only chlorination. (Author)

  9. Potential to reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide through reducing sulphur levels in heavy and light fuel oils - a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, M.; Bellamy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background information on the sulphur levels in light fuel oil (used in residential heating) and heavy fuel oil (used as industrial fuel oil) is provided. In addition to the description of sulphur levels in light and heavy fuel oils, the report also provides a summary of regulatory limits in Canada and elsewhere, and a description of the emission benefits of decreasing sulphur in fuels. 4 refs., 10 tabs., 12 figs

  10. Use of stable sulphur isotopes to monitor directly the behaviour of sulphur in coal during thermal desulphurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed using stable sulphur isotope analyses to monitor the behaviour of sulphur forms in a coal during thermal desulphurization. In this method, the natural stable isotopic composition of the pyritic and organic sulphur in coal is used as a tracer to follow their mobility during the desulphurization process. This tracer method is based on the fact that the isotopic compositions of pyritic and organic sulphur are significantly different in some coals. Isotopic results of pyrolysis experiments at temperatures ranging from 350 to 750 ??C indicate that the sulphur released with the volatiles is predominantly organic sulphur. The pyritic sulphur is evolved in significant quantities only when pyrolysis temperatures exceed 500 ??C. The presence of pyrite seems to have no effect on the amount of organic sulphur evolved during pyrolysis. The chemical and isotopic mass balances achieved from three different samples of the Herrin (No. 6) coal of the Illinois Basin demonstrate that this stable isotope tracer method is quantitative. The main disadvantage of this tracing technique is that not all coals contain isotopically distinct organic and pyritic sulphur. ?? 1987.

  11. Sulphur capture by co-firing sulphur containing fuels with biomass fuels - optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, A.

    1992-12-01

    Previous results concerning co-firing of high sulphur fuels with biomass fuels have shown that a significant part of the sulphur can be absorbed in the ash by formation of harmless sulphates. The aim of this work has been to (i) determine the maximum reduction that can be obtained in a bench scaled fluidized bed (5 kW); (ii) determine which operating conditions will give maximum reduction; (iii) point out the importance and applicability of experimental designs and multivariate methods when optimizing combustion processes; (iv) determine if the degree of sulphur capture can be correlated to the degree of slagging, fouling or bed sintering; and (v) determine if further studies are desired. The following are some of the more important results obtained: - By co-firing peat with biomass, a total sulphur retention of 70 % can be obtained. By co-firing coal with energy-grass, the total SO 2 emissions can be reduced by 90 %. - Fuel feeding rate, amount of combustion air and the primary air ratio were the most important operating parameters for the reduction. Bed temperature and oxygen level seem to be the crucial physical parameters. - The NO emissions also decreased by the sulphur reducing measures. The CO emissions were relatively high (130 mg/MJ) compared to large scale facilities due to the small reactor and the small fluctuations in the fuel feeding rate. The SO 2 emissions could however be reduced without any increase in CO emissions. - When the reactor was fired with a grass, the bed sintered at a low temperature ( 2 SO 4 and KCl are formed no sintering problems were observed. (27 refs., 41 figs., 9 tabs., 3 appendices)

  12. Studies with solid chlorine chemical for chlorination of sea water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, N.; Kumaraswamy, P.; Santhanam, V.S.; Jeena, P.; Hari Krishna, K.; Rajendran, D.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorination is one of the conventional methods to control biofouling of condenser cooling water systems using either river water, reservoir water or sea water. However, there are many safety concerns associated with handling, storage and application of gaseous chlorine. Studies were carried out with suitable alternative chlorine chemical compounds which do not involve majority of these concerns but meet the functional requirement of gas chlorine. Trichloroisocyanuric Acid (TCCA) is one of the suitable alternatives to Gas chlorine. TCCA is a chlorine stabilized compound, stabilized with Cyanuric acid, thus similar to Gas Chlorine in its functions except that it is available in solid form. Release of chlorine is a gradual process in TCCA unlike Gaseous chlorine. Field studies with TCCA indicated gradual and near uniform release rate of chlorine, for longer duration with the requisite free residual chlorine levels (FRC). Thus, use of TCCA could be considered as a suitable alternative for gas chlorine for regular chlorination requirements. (author)

  13. Changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after an application of straw and elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after the application of straw and elemental sulphur (ES were explored in a 2-year vegetation pot experiment. The following variants were included in the experiment: 1 unfertilised control; 2 wheat straw; 3 rape straw; 4 ES; 5 wheat straw + ES; 6 rape straw + ES. The two types of straw were applied in a dose of 32 g of dry matter and elemental sulphur was applied in a dose of 0.42 g per pot, i.e. 6 kg of soil. The unsatisfactory C:N ratio in the straw was optimised to 25:1 by adding nitrogen in urea. Soil samples were taken prior to sowing of the model plant (spring wheat in 2005 and white mustard in 2006 and then in regular monthly intervals until harvesting (5 times a year. The content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil was evaluated by multifactorial analysis of variance monitoring the effect of the crop, date of soil sampling, application of straw and elemental sulphur.The contents of water-soluble sulphur differed statistically significantly (P > 0.999 when growing the individual model plants. When growing white mustard in 2006 the amount of available sulphur was by 1/5 higher and could have been partly affected by the warm year 2006, as compared to 2005 when spring wheat was grown. Significant differences (P > 0.999 were also discovered among the dates of soil sampling; higher values were detected before the sowing of model plants, i.e. after incubation in the winter, during vegetation the content of water-soluble sulphur decreased and sulphur showed the significantly highest values at the harvest of model plants. When wheat straw was applied the sulphur content did not increase and this may be associated with the wide C:S ratio, whereas after the application of rape straw the content of water-soluble sulphur increased by one third more than in the unfertilised control. The application of elemental sulphur also significantly increased the amount of water-soluble sulphur in

  14. Sulphur in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Including NLTE corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skúladóttir, Á.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Tolstoy, E.; Hill, V.; Salvadori, S.; Korotin, S. A.; Pettini, M.

    In Galactic halo stars, sulphur has been shown to behave like other α-elements, but until now, no comprehensive studies have been done on this element in stars of other galaxies. Here, we use high-resolution ESO VLT/FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra to determine sulphur abundances for 85 stars in the Sculptor

  15. Efficacy and phytotoicity of lime sulphur in organic apple production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holb, I.J.; Jong, de P.F.; Heijne, B.

    2003-01-01

    Curative and preventive efficacy and phytotoxicity of lime sulphur spray schedules, based on a warning system, were evaluated in the Netherlands during two growing seasons under field conditions. In most cases, lime sulphur treatments applied either curatively or preventively resulted in

  16. Biodesulphurisation of high sulphur coal by heap leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Cara; M.T. Carballo; A. Moran; D. Bonilla; O. Escolano; F.J. Garcia Frutos [Universidad de Leon, Leon (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    2005-10-01

    The biodesulphurisation of coal carried out in pile could be an interesting option to clean coal. In view of the good results obtained in biodesulphurisation test column at lab scale on a sample of semianthracite coal that proceed of an industrial plant with a high sulphur content, mainly pyritic sulphur, the feasibility of the process at pilot plant scale was studied. The pile was formed with 6 ton of gravity middlings coal sample with a grain size -12+0.5 mm from S.A. Hullera Vasco-Leonesa industrial plant. The coal has a total sulphur content of 3.78% and a pyritic sulphur content of 2.88%, the rest of sulphur is organic sulphur. The biodesulphurisation process in pilot plant follows three stages: stabilization of the pile, biodesulphurisation and washing. Heap was sampled twice during stabilisation stage, at the end of desulphurisation process and finally once washed. A pyritic sulphur removal of 39% and total sulphur removal of 23% was obtained. To complete the bioleaching process, the treatment of purge of leachate was carried out with the objective to recycling to head of process. The best treatment was a pre-treatment of the leachate until pH 4, and further treatment by reverse osmosis of the clarified water. Comparing this process with conventional precipitation to reach disposal limits, the reagents consumption and sludges were reduced considerably and due to the high quality of permeate it permits to recycle it to head of process. 18 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. SULPHUR CONTAINING LICKS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amounts of sulphur, there are some of particular importance such as the vitamins thiamine and biotin. Sulphur is also ingested in the inorganic sulphide and sulphate forms, fractions of which are utilized in metabolic processes, whereas substantial portions are also excreted. It has been determined that thiol cornpounds.

  18. Organically bound sulphur in coal: A molecular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1992-01-01

    A critical review of literature concerning the molecular characterization of low and high molecular weight organosulphur constitutents present in coal as well as a detailed analysis of organic sulphur compounds present in flash evaporates and pyrolysates of a suite of coals ranging in sulphur

  19. Impact of sulphur fumigation on the chemistry of ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ying; Kong, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Long, Fang; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jin-Di; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2018-01-15

    Ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma), a commonly-consumed food supplement, is often sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling, but it remains unknown if sulphur fumigation induces chemical transformations in ginger. In this study, the effects of sulphur fumigation on ginger chemicals were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based metabolomics. The results showed that sulphur fumigation significantly altered the holistic chemical profile of ginger by triggering chemical transformations of certain original components. 6-Gingesulphonic acid, previously reported as a naturally-occurring component in ginger, was revealed to be a sulphur fumigation-induced artificial derivative, which was deduced to be generated by electrophilic addition of 6-shogaol to sulphurous acid. Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS extracting ion analysis with 6-gingesulphonic acid as a characteristic chemical marker, all the commercial ginger samples inspected were determined to be sulphur-fumigated. The research outcomes provide a chemical basis for further comprehensive safety and efficacy evaluations of sulphur-fumigated ginger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Errors in potassium balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by 40 K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies

  1. Photodynamic tissue adhesion with chlorin(e6) protein conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, J; Veloso, A A; Tolentino, F; Hasan, T; Hamblin, M R

    1999-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that a photodynamic laser-activated tissue solder would perform better in sealing scleral incisions when the photosensitizer was covalently linked to the protein than when it was noncovalently mixed. Conjugates and mixtures were prepared between the photosensitizer chlorin(e6) and various proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, and gelatin) in different ratios and used to weld penetrating scleral incisions made in human cadaveric eyes. A blue-green (488-514 nm) argon laser activated the adhesive, and the strength of the closure was measured by increasing the intraocular pressure until the wound showed leakage. Both covalent conjugates and noncovalent mixtures showed a light dose-dependent increase in leaking pressure. A preparation of albumin chlorin(e6) conjugate with additional albumin added (2.5 protein to chlorin(e6) molar ratio) showed significantly higher weld strength than other protein conjugates and mixtures. This is the first report of dye-protein conjugates as tissue solders. These conjugates may have applications in ophthalmology.

  2. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  3. Organic sulphur in macromolecular sedimentary organic matter. II. Analysis of distributions of sulphur-containing pyrolysis products using multivariate techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Eglinton, T.I.; Pool, W.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Eijkel, G.; Boon, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the analysis of sulphur-containing products from Curie-point pyrolysis (Py) of eighty-five samples (kerogens, bitumen, and petroleum asphaltenes and coals) using gas chromatography (GC) in combination with sulphur-selective detection. Peak areas of approximately forty individual

  4. Sulphur-containing compounds in sulphur-rich crude oils from hypersaline lake sediments and their geochemical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Guoying, S.; Jiamo, F.; Brassell, S.C.; Gowar, A.P.; Eglinton, G.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenck, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three sulphur-rich commercial crude oils have been studied, which contain sulphur as high as up to 4 —12 %. These samples were collected from Tertiary hypersaline lake sediments of the Jianghan Basin, Hubei Province at different depths, but above the oil generation threshold (2200m). FPD-GC and

  5. Development of analytical method used for the estimation of potassium amide in liquid ammonia at HWP (Tuticorin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Potassium amide in liquid ammonia is used as a homogeneous catalyst in mono-thermal ammonia-hydrogen isotopic chemical exchange process employed for the manufacture of heavy water. Estimation of concentration of potassium amide in liquid ammonia is vital for checking whether it is sufficient for catalysis in isotopic exchange towers or for purification in purifiers in the Heavy Water Plants. This estimation was carried out earlier by the conventional method involving evaporation of ammonia, decomposition of potassium amide with water and titration of liberated ammonia with sulphuric acid. This method has been replaced by a newly developed method involving direct titration of potassium amide in ammonia with ammonium bromide. This new method is based on the principle that ammonium bromide and potassium amide act as acid and base respectively in the non-aqueous solvent medium, liquid ammonia. This method has not only proved to be an alternative method of estimation of potassium amide in liquid ammonia but also has been serving as a developed analytical method, because it is faster (with fewer steps), more accurate, safer (as it excludes the use of corrosive sulphuric acid needed for the conventional method) and more convenient (as it doesn't need specially designed apparatus and inert gas like dry nitrogen used in the conventional method). (author)

  6. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  7. Wet precipitators for sulphuric acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojanpera, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Both the service requirements and design construction details have changed considerably in recent years for wet electrostatic precipitators as used for gas cleaning ahead of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. Increased concern over acid quality has resulted in more emphasis on dust efficiencies compared to collection of acid mist. Also, higher static operating pressures have caused large structural loads on casing and internal components. In this paper these two issues are addressed in the following ways: Recognition that all dusts do not collect similarly. The mechanism by which various dusts collect affect the design of the entire wet gas cleaning system. Use of both traditional and newer materials of construction to accommodate the higher design pressures while still maintaining corrosion resistance

  8. Nuclear physical express analysis of solid fuel sulphur content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Yu.; Ponomaryova, M

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Sulphur content is an important qualitative coal parameter. The problem of coal sulphur content determining remains one of the most important both in Kazakhstan and in other coal-mining countries. The traditional method of sampling, the final stage of which is chemical analysis of coal for sulphur, is characterized by high labour intensity and low productivity. That's why it is ineffective for mass express analytical quality control and technological schemes of coal processing control. In this connection it is very urgent to develop a method of coal sulphur content on the base of a series nuclear-geophysical equipment with an isotope source of primary radiation, allowing to increase analysis representativity and maximally take into account coal real composition inconstancy. To solve the problem set it is necessary to study the main laws of X-ray-radiometric method applied to the coal quality analysis for working out instrumental methods of speed determining of coal sulphur content with satisfactory accuracy for technological tasks, to determine laws of changing the flows of characteristic X-ray and scattered radiation from coal sulphur content of various real composition and to optimize methodical and hardware parameters, providing minimal error of sulphur content control. On the base of studying laws of real composition coal components and their interconnections with sulphur content there has been substantiated the expediency of using hardware functions of calcium and iron to control coal sulphur contents; there has been suggested a model to estimate the methodical error of coal sulphur content determining on the base of the data about sensitivity to sulphur and effecting factors using ultimate methods of coal components substitution methods allowing to optimize sulphur control parameters; there has been worked out an algorithm of X-ray-radiometric control of sulphur content based on the sequential radiating the analyzed coal with gamma-radiation of

  9. Vapor mercury uptake with sulphur impregnated active carbons derived using sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.; Methta, H.; Ahmed, I.; Morris, E.; Fuentes de Maria, L.; Jia, C.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Active carbon adsorption is the primary technology used for removal of vapour mercury from flue gases in coal-fired power plants, municipal solid waste combustors, and other sources. It can be carried out using two different processes, notably injection of powder active carbon into flue gas streams upstream of the particulate collection devices, and filtration with a granular active carbon fixed bed downstream of the flue gas desulphurization units and/or particulate collectors. This paper presented an investigation of vapour mercury uptake performance of laboratory-made sulphur impregnated active carbons (SIACs) using a fixed bed reactor in a temperature range of 25 to 200 degrees Celsius. The materials and methods as well as the properties of activated carbons studied were presented. The experimental set-up was also described. The paper discussed the effects of initial concentration, the flow rate, the loading amount of SIACs, temperature, and the sulphur impregnation on the mercury uptake performance. The study showed that SIACs produced with sulphur dioxide exhibited a more complicated behaviour when temperature was varied, implying a mixed adsorption mechanism. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Thermogravimetric studies of high temperature reactions between potassium salts and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmusto, J.; Lindberg, D.; Yrjas, P.; Skrifvars, B.-J.; Hupa, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► K 2 CO 3 reacted with Cr 2 O 3 forming K 2 CrO 4 . ► Presence of chlorine did not alone explain the initiation of accelerated oxidation. ► More light was shed to the role of chromates in accelerated oxidation. ► Accelerated oxidation of chromia protected steels occurs in two consecutive stages. ► Both potassium and chloride are required, so that both stages of reaction occur. - Abstract: This study compares the high temperature reactions of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ), two salts found in fly ashes formed in biomass combustion, with both pure metallic chromium (Cr) and chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ). The reactions were investigated with thermogravimetric measurements and the results discussed based on thermodynamic calculations. In simple terms: potassium chloride reacted with chromium forming potassium chromate (K 2 CrO 4 ) and chromium oxide. Potassium chloride did not react with chromium oxide. Potassium carbonate reacted with chromium oxide, but not with chromium. The presence of potassium is sufficient to initiate accelerated oxidation, but chloride is needed to sustain it.

  11. Biological parameters in technogenic soils of a former sulphur mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwik-Ziomek, Anetta; Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Lemanowicz, Joanna; Koper, Jan; Szarlip, Paweł

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted on the soils originating from a reclamation area of the former sulphur mine in Tarnobrzeg, Poland. Soil was sampled 16 years after the completion of mining works with the open-pit method at Machów, as well as 7 years after sulphur mining via the `smelting' method in the Jeziórko mine was abandoned. Several biological parameters were examined: soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and the activity of rhodanese and arylsulphatase enzymes taking part in sulphur transformation within the site's soils. The soils showed a high total sulphur and sulphates content. The SO42- constituted a large fraction of total sulphur, in some cases, exceeding 80% or even 95% of total sulphur. The soil pH decreased due to the degrading effects of sulphur mining. In the soils studied from the locations with the lowest soil pH value, no activity of arylsulphatase was reported and the activity of rhodanese was lowest. The highest soil respiration values were recorded from the 0-5 cm layer in the areas covered with forest vegetation. A high soil respiration value at the waste heap at Machów wherein a very high concentration of Stot and SO42- was observed can be due to the ability of fungi to produce hyphal strands and to survive unfavourable conditions.

  12. Being green on sulphur: Targets, measures and side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    to sea to reduce congestion, and might ultimately (under certain circumstances) increase the overall level of CO2 emissions along the entire supply chain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the potential effect of sulphur regulations on the share of cargo transported by the waterborne mode vis......Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are not the only emissions of concern to the international transport community. SOx emissions are non-GHG emissions that are caused by the presence of sulphur in the fuel. As the maximum percentage of sulphur in automotive and aviation fuels is strictly regulated...

  13. Characterisation of Chlorine Behavior in French Graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, A.; Moncoffre, N.; Toulhoat, N.; Bererd, N.; Petit, L.; Laurent, G.; Lamouroux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine 36 is one of the main radionuclides of concern for French graphite waste disposal. In order to help the understanding of its leaching behaviour under disposal conditions, the respective impact of temperature, irradiation and gas radiolysis on chlorine release in reactor has been studied. Chlorine 36 has been simulated through chlorine 37 ion implantation in virgin nuclear graphite samples. Results show that part of chlorine is highly mobile in graphite in the range of French reactors operating temperatures in relation with graphite structural recovering. Ballistic damage generated by irradiation also promotes chlorine release whereas no clear impact of the coolant gas radiolysis was observed in the absence of graphite radiolytic corrosion. (author)

  14. Sulphur bacteria mediated formation of Palaeoproterozoic phosphorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2014-05-01

    Modern phosphorite formation is typically associated with high productivity in upwelling areas where apatite (Ca-phosphate) precipitation is mediated by sulphur oxidising bacteria [1]. They inhabit the oxic/anoxic interface within the upper few centimetres of sediment column, accumulating phosphate in their cells under oxic conditions and releasing it rapidly when conditions become anoxic. Sulphur bacteria are known to live in close association with a consortium of anaerobic methane oxidising archaea and syntrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria. Paleoproterozoic, c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation in Karelia, Russia contains several P-rich intervals in the upper part of 1500 m thick succession of organic-rich sedimentary rocks interlayered with mafic tuffs and lavas. Apatite in these P-rich intervals forms impure laminae, lenses and round-oval nodules which diameters typically range from 300 to 1000 μm. Individual apatite particles in P-rich laminae and nodules commonly occur as cylinders that are 1-8 μm long and have diameters of 0.5-4 μm. Cross-sections of best preserved cylindrical apatite particles reveal a thin outer rim whereas the internal parts consist of small anhedral elongated crystallites, intergrown with carbonaceous material. During recrystallization the outer rim thickens towards interior and cylinders may attain hexagonal crystal habit, but their size and shape remains largely unchanged [2]. The sizes of Zaonega nodules are similar to giant sulphide-oxidising bacteria known from modern and ancient settings [3, 4]. Individual apatite cylinders and aggregates have shapes and sizes similar to the methanotrophic archaea that inhabit microbial mats in modern seep/vent areas where they operate in close associations with sulphur-oxidising microbial communities [5]. Seep/vent influence during the Zaonega phosphogenesis is indicated by variable, though positive Eu anomaly, expected in magmatically active sedimentary environment experiencing several lava flows

  15. Process for producing chlorinated polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Shinji; Takayama, Shin-ichi; Kodama, Takashi.

    1970-01-01

    A process for chlorinated polyethylene by the chlorination of an aqueous suspension of polyethylene without the use catalysts is given, using 5-55% by gel content of cross-linked polyethylene powders. The products have favorable material workability, transparency, impact strength and tensile properties. In the case of peroxide cross-linking, a mixture of peroxides with polyethylene must be ground after heat treatment. The polyethylene may preferably have a gel content of 5-55%. The chlorination temperature may be 40 0 C or more, preferably 60 0 to 160 0 C. In one example, high pressure polymerized fine polyethylene powders of 15μ having a density of 0.935 g/cc, a softening point of 114 0 C, an average molecular weight of 35,000 were irradiated in air with 40 Mrad electron beams from a 2 MV Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator at room temperature. The thus irradiated polyethylene had a gel content of 55% and a softening point of 119 0 C. It was chlorinated upto a chlorine content of 33% at 100 0 C. Products were white crystals having a melting point of 122 0 C and a melting heat value of 32 mcal/mg. A sheet formed from this product showed a tensile strength of 280 kg/cm 2 , an elongation of 370% and a hardness of 90. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Availability and uptake of sulphur by mustard in three soils in Udaipur valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Shriniwas

    1976-01-01

    The differential behaviour of three soils (Bargaon, Bhatewar red and Bhatewar black) for availability of sulphur to mustard was studied in a greenhouse pot culture experiment using five doses of sulphur (0,20,40,80,120 ppm) applied as 35 S tagged ammonium sulphate. Application of sulphur significantly increased the dry matter of mustard over control, however, maximum dry matter was obtained when sulphur was applied at 40 ppm level, thereafter, any higher doses did not prove beneficial. Sulphur content in the plant tissue and percent of sulphur in the plant derived from fertilizer increased with successive doses of applied sulphur. (author)

  17. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...

  18. Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cold stratification, sulphuric acid, submersion in hot and tap water pretreatments in the greenhouse and open field conditions on germination of bladder-Senna ( Colutea armena Boiss. and Huet.) seeds.

  19. Rubber composites cured with sulphur and peroxide and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Besides classical applications of rubber products in tyres, ... application of sulphur curing systems leads to the forming ..... mobile sulphidic cross-links which promote crystallization of NR. ... PhD Thesis (Kingston, Ontario: Queen's University).

  20. Sulphur XANES Analysis of Cultured Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Podgorczyk, M.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Balerna, A.; Kisiel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men throughout the world. It is believed that changes to the structure of protein binding sites, altering its metabolism, may play an important role in carcinogenesis. Sulphur, often present in binding sites, can influence such changes through its chemical speciation. Hence there is a need for precise investigation of coordination environment of sulphur. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy offers such possibility. Cell culture samples offer histologically well defined areas of good homogeneity, suitable for successful and reliable X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. This paper presents sulphur speciation data collected from three different human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145). Sulphur X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was performed on K-edge structure. The spectra of cells were compared with those of cancerous tissue and with organic substances as well as inorganic compounds. (authors)

  1. Analytical protocols for characterisation of sulphur-free lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Abächerli, A.; Semke, H.; Malherbe, R.; Käuper, P.; Nadif, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Interlaboratory tests for chemical characterisation of sulphur-free lignins were performed by five laboratories to develop useful analytical protocols, which are lacking, and identify quality-related properties. Protocols have been established for reproducible determination of the chemical

  2. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  3. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  4. Modelled transport and deposition of sulphur over Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient SO2 concentrations and atmospheric deposition of sulphur resulting from emissions on the industrialised highveld region of South Africa are estimated using the multi-scale atmospheric transport and chemistry (MATCH) modelling system...

  5. Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn. I Abdulkadir, L Hassan, F Abdullahi, FD Akeredolu, S Purdue, M Okpe, AM Sobowale, OA Adewumi, U Abdullahi, MA Onadiran, TT Sholadoye, S Baba, WN Ogala ...

  6. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  7. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. A literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S; Karhu, M

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the literature and contemporary research was made on peat sulphur and trace element studies. Marked variance between different peatlands and peat types has been noted. The available information is still inadequate for generalizations or statistical analysis mainly due to methodological variations and temporal and spatial variations in results. At the moment, the criteria applied in peatland inventories and evaluations are inadequate with respect to peat quality determinations. To some extent the quality of fuel peat should be determined in a mire inventory prior to peatland utilization. The areas over sulphide clay and some sulphate depositions may considerably increase the peat sulphur content. A proposal has been made to include the sulphur content monitoring in the cases where it exceeds 0.3 per cent. The trace elements may also bring about an increase in peat emissions if the deepest peat layers or polluted layers are burnt. The most important elements in this respect are Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, V, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, as well as As and U. The first ten because of the relatively high concentrations and last two because of pollution or toxocity and ore deposit factors. The peat hydrogen ion concentration has a positive correlation with copper and vanadium. The correlation is positive with the cobalt and nickel contents when the pH is low, and negative at a higher pH. A general peat type correlation shows maximum trace element contents in basal Carex peats with subsoil effects. The peat ash content and the Ti, Pb, V, Cr, Ni, and S contents have positive correlations. (Refs. 290).

  8. Distribution of sulphur and trace elements in peat. [Literature survey with some additional sulphur analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S; Karhu, M

    1981-01-01

    A survey on the literature and contemporary research was made on peat sulphur and trace element studies. Marked variance between different peatlands and peat types has been noted. The available information is still inadequate for generalizations or statistical analysis mainly due to methodological variations and temporal and spatial variations in results. At the moment, the criteria applied in peatland inventories and evaluations are inadequate with respect to peat quality determinations. To some extent the quality of fuel peat should be determined in a mire inventory prior to peatland utilization. The areas over sulphide clay and some sulphate depositions may considerably increase the peat sulphur content. A proposal has been made to include the sulphur content monitoring in the cases where it exceeds 0.3 per cent. The trace elements may also bring about an increase in peat emissions if the deepest peat layers or polluted layers are burnt. The most important elements in this respect are Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, V, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, as well as As and U. The first ten because of the relatively high concentrations and last two because of pollution or toxocity and ore deposit factors. The peat hydrogen ion concentration has a positive correlation with copper and vanadium. The correlation is positive with the cobalt and nickel contents when the pH is low, and negative at a higher pH. A general peat type correlation shows maximum trace element contents in basal Carex peats with subsoil effects. The peat ash content and the Ti, Pb, V, Cr, Ni and S contents have positive correlations.

  9. Effects of Chlorine on Enterovirus RNA Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary mechanism of disinfection of waterborne pathogens by chlorine has always been believed to be due to the alteration of proteins by free chlorine and subsequent disruption of their biological structure.

  10. Kinetics of molybdenum and chlorine interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelikman, A.N.; Nazarov, Yu.N.; Sarkarov, T.Eh.; Tulyakov, N.V.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics is studied of molybdenite chlorination with gaseous chlorine. The time dependences of the depth and degree of molybdenite chlorination are given along with the dependence on chlorine concentration of molybdenite chlorination rate. Active interaction is shown to take place at 450-470 deg C. At 350-435 deg C, chlorination occurs in the kinetic range, the apparent activation energy being equal to 22.2 kcal/mole and the order of reaction by chlorine to 0.77. At 435-610 deg C, the process takes place in the diffusion range and is restricted by dissipation of the reaction products (activation energy - 4.05 kcal/mole; order of reaction by chlorine - 0.6)

  11. THE SOLUBILITY OF MILAS BAUXITE ORE IN SULPHURIC ACI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GULFEN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcination conditions,sulphuric acid concentrations and dissolvingtemperature and period as parameters to thesolubility of the bauxite ore from Gobekdagı reservesin Mugla-Milas region were investigated. The bauxitesamples were calcined in different periods at differenttemperatures. Then the solubility of the calcinedbauxite samples in sulphuric acid solution wasexamined. Dissolving activation energy (Ea wascalculated using the optimum kinetics equation andthe results obtained from the solubility studiesexamined dissolving temperatures and periods

  12. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1991-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 o C. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300 o C. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130 o C, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  13. Leaching of basic oxygen furnace sludge with sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Miškufová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the hydrometallurgical processing of BOF sludge in the sulphuric acid solutions under atmospheric pressureand temperatures up to 100 °C is investigated on a laboratory scale. The influence of sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, timeand liquid to solid ratio (L:S on the leaching process was studied. The main aim of this study was to determine optimal conditions whenthe maximum amount of zinc passes into the solution.

  14. Formation of aryl-chlorinated aromatic acids and precursors for chloroform in chlorination of humic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leer, E.W.B. de; Galan, L.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of chloroform when humic substances are chlorinated is well known. Other chlorinated products that may be formed are chloral, di- and trichloroacetic acid, chlorinated C-4 diacids, and α-chlorinated aliphatic acids. Several of these compounds are formed in molar yields comparable

  15. Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Budi Sulistyo; Pristi Hartati; Sunardjo

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

  16. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Source of sulphur in the Ebro Basin (Northern Spain). Tertiary nonmarine evaporite deposits as evidenced by sulphur isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, S.J.; Coleman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Ebro Basin is an intermontane basin, located in northern Spain, filled with Tertiary (largely Oligocene and Miocene) elastic and chemical deposits. Sulphur isotopes are utilized to determine the source of sulphur in the sulphate deposits (predominantly gypsum with accessory thenardite, mirabolite and epsomite). Data obtained from Tertiary gypsum rocks produce a range of delta 34 S values from +9.16% to + 14.02% with a mean of +13.61%. Data obtained from Triassic gypsum rocks (in source area) produce a range from +13.73% to +15.14%, with a mean of +14.66%. Values for Tertiary marine water range from +18% to +24%. These data indicate a nonmarine origin for sulpur within the Tertiary sulphate rocks. The contribution of Triassic sulphur to the groundwater system, plus varying degrees of dilution by isotopically lighter (atmospheric and sulphide) sulphur, best explains the isotopic ratios observed in the Tertiary Basin deposits. (Auth.)

  18. Sulphur fertilization influences the sulphur species composition in Allium sativum: sulphomics using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Andrea; Ronzan, Marilena; Feldmann, Joerg

    2017-10-18

    Garlic (A. sativum) contains a large number of small sulphur (S)-containing metabolites, which are important for its taste and smell and vary with A. sativum variety and growth conditions. This study was designed to investigate the influence of different sulphur-fertilization regimes on low molecular weight S-species by attempting the first sulphur mass balance in A. sativum roots and bulbs using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS. Species unspecific quantification of acid soluble S-containing metabolites was achieved using HPLC-ICP-MS/MS. For identification of the compounds, high resolution ESI-MS (Orbitrap LTQ and q-TOF) was used. The plants contained up to 54 separated sulphur-containing compounds, which constitute about 80% of the total sulphur present in A. sativum. The roots and bulbs of A. sativum contained the same compounds, but not necessarily the same amounts and proportions. The S-containing metabolites in the roots reacted more sensitively to manipulations of sulphur fertilization than those compounds in the bulbs. In addition to known compounds (e.g. γ-glutamyl-S-1-propenylcysteine) we were able to identify and partially quantify 31 compounds. Three as yet undescribed S-containing compounds were also identified and quantified for the first time. Putative structures were assigned to the oxidised forms of S-1-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-2-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-allyl/propenyl-containing PC-2 and 2-amino-3-[(2-carboxypropyl)sulfanyl]propanoic acid. The parallel use of ICP-MS/MS as a sulphur-specific detector and ESI-MS as a molecular detector simplifies the identification and quantification of sulphur containing metabolites without species specific standards. This non-target analysis approach enables a mass balance approach and identifies the occurrence of the so far unidentified organosulphur compounds. The experiments showed that the sulphur-fertilization regime does not influence sulphur-speciation, but the concentration of some S

  19. Sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capture with active calcium minerals in mineral–rich coals / Mchabe, D.

    OpenAIRE

    Mchabe, Dursman

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide information for the development of clean coal technology, the sulphur self–retention and sulphur dioxide capturing properties of minerals present in low grade coals was investigated. This study consisted of detailed mineral analyses of coal and ash samples using results obtained from QEMSCAN and separate retention (coal) and capture (ash) experiments with laboratory scale reactors. Typical South African coal samples were used in this study. The ash content v...

  20. HPLC determination of chlorine in air and water samples following precolumn derivatization to 4-bromoacetanilide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, A. (Rani Durgavati Univ., Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry); Verma, K.K. (Rani Durgavati Univ., Jabalpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-11-01

    Chlorine has been determined in air and water samples by a rapid and sensitive method entailing precolumn derivatization to 4-bromoacetanilide. A mixed potassium bromide - acetanilide reagent was used as a trapping agent for chlorine in air, and for its derivatization. The 4-bromoacetanilide formed was determined by reversed-phase HPLC on an ODS column, using methanol-water, 65:35 (v/v) as mobile phase; detection was at 240 nm. A rectilinear calibration graph was obtained for the range 0.1-30 [mu]g mL[sup -1] chlorine; the limit of detection found to be 0.01 [mu]g mL[sup -1]. The precolumn derivative has been found to have a shelf-life of at least 21 days; this enables the use of the method for samples transported from the field to the analytical laboratory, or the testing of a variety of conditions for chlorine scrubbing studies without the need for immediate analysis of samples. Humic substances do not cause any interference with the proposed method and the presence of nitrite does not lead to artificially high results and consequent misleading conclusions of the presence of high levels of chlorine. (orig.)

  1. HPLC determination of chlorine in air and water samples following precolumn derivatization to 4-bromoacetanilide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.; Verma, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    Chlorine has been determined in air and water samples by a rapid and sensitive method entailing precolumn derivatization to 4-bromoacetanilide. A mixed potassium bromide - acetanilide reagent was used as a trapping agent for chlorine in air, and for its derivatization. The 4-bromoacetanilide formed was determined by reversed-phase HPLC on an ODS column, using methanol-water, 65:35 (v/v) as mobile phase; detection was at 240 nm. A rectilinear calibration graph was obtained for the range 0.1-30 μg mL -1 chlorine; the limit of detection found to be 0.01 μg mL -1 . The precolumn derivative has been found to have a shelf-life of at least 21 days; this enables the use of the method for samples transported from the field to the analytical laboratory, or the testing of a variety of conditions for chlorine scrubbing studies without the need for immediate analysis of samples. Humic substances do not cause any interference with the proposed method and the presence of nitrite does not lead to artificially high results and consequent misleading conclusions of the presence of high levels of chlorine. (orig.)

  2. Radioisotopic determination methods of sulphur dispersion and sulphur blooming in rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczka, W.; Koczorowska, E.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that the concentration of sulphur in rubber compounds essentially effects the structure of the vulkanizate network. But there are no efficient and accurate methods to estimate the dispersion and migration (blooming) of curatives in raw rubber. In the work radioisotope methods have been analyzed to study the dispersion of curatives, physical and chemical processes in rubber and to optimize technical conditions of tire production. The radioactivity of the 35 S isotope introduced into rubber compounds has been measured by volumetric and surface methods. It was proved that the radioisotopic methods can be used in the studies. Experimental data of the effect of selected technological factors on these processes are presented. Rubber compounds containing soluble sulphur were made for such investigations. These methods permit detection of concentrations 10 -6 g of the radioactive isotope per 0.1 g of rubber compound. The sensitivity of these methods enables the investigation of radioisotope behaviour in rubber compounds during processing on an industrial scale without any hazards for workers

  3. Detection of chlorine in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašík, Ivan; Mrázek, Jan; Podrazký, Ondřej; Seidl, Miroslav; Aubrecht, Jan; Tobiška, Petr; Pospíšilová, Marie; Matějec, Vlastimil; Kovács, B.; Markovics, A.; Szili, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 1 (2009), s. 139-142 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0948 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical fiber sensor * chlorine Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.083, year: 2009

  4. Ionic dependence of sulphur mustard cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Nelson, Peggy; Bjarnason, Stephen; Vair, Cory; Shei Yimin; Tenn, Catherine; Lecavalier, Pierre; Burczyk, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1 h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC 50 values of ∼ 100-150 μM when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solution of potassium hydroxide with excess carbon dioxide to produce potassium carbonate; (3) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce potassium bicarbonate, which is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food...

  6. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  7. Concentration of volatile sulphur-containing compounds along the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed a high-sulphur or a low-sulphur diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Canibe, Nuria; Finster, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Volatile sulphur-containing compounds (VSC) are formed in large quantities in the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) of pigs and upon excretion from the animal; these compounds are released from the faeces causing emission of foul odour. However, very little is known about the rate and extent of t...

  8. Chlorination Revisited: Does Cl- Serve as a Catalyst in the Chlorination of Phenols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephanie S; Abraham, Sonali M; Roberts, A Lynn

    2016-12-20

    The aqueous chlorination of (chloro)phenols is one of the best-studied reactions in the environmental literature. Previous researchers have attributed these reactions to two chlorine species: HOCl (at circum-neutral and high pH) and H 2 OCl + (at low pH). In this study, we seek to examine the roles that two largely overlooked chlorine species, Cl 2 and Cl 2 O, may play in the chlorination of (chloro)phenols. Solution pH, chloride concentration, and chlorine dose were systematically varied in order to assess the importance of different chlorine species as chlorinating agents. Our findings indicate that chlorination rates at pH pH 6.0 and a chlorine dose representative of drinking water treatment, Cl 2 O is predicted to have at best a minor impact on chlorination reactions, whereas Cl 2 may contribute more than 80% to the overall chlorination rate depending on the (chloro)phenol identity and chloride concentration. While it is not possible to preclude H 2 OCl + as a chlorinating agent, we were able to model our low-pH data by considering Cl 2 only. Even traces of chloride can generate sufficient Cl 2 to influence chlorination kinetics, highlighting the role of chloride as a catalyst in chlorination reactions.

  9. Determination of sulphur with total reflection x-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, S.; Kolbesen, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The potential and limitations of total reflection x-ray spectrometry (TXRF) were tested for the quantitative determination of the light element sulphur in inorganic and biological samples. As representatives of inorganic samples alkali, transition metal, magnesium and aluminum sulphates were investigated. As biological samples the sulphur containing amino acid methionine and the pharmaceutical drug insulin were chosen. All measurements were performed on a TXRF-spectrometer EXTRA IIA (Atomika Instruments, Oberschleissheim/Germany) using tungsten L-radiation as the excitation tube. Various concentrations of all samples ranging from 20 mg/l to 0.5 mg/l were determined. In addition the surface topography and thickness of the dry residue of these samples were investigated with SEM and a thickness profilometer (Alpha-Step). The result show that the reliable determination of sulphur in sulphates depends on the cation involved. Alkali sulphates like Na 2 SO 4 , or K 2 SO 4 form bulky residues resulting in significant deviations of the recovery rate of sulphur. In this case the use of smoothing detergents like 1 % HF, 1 % malic acid and 2 % hydrazinhydrat was found to be necessary for accurate determination. The results for the biological samples agree well with the expected values. The investigations lead to the conclusion that TXRF combined with a proper samples preparation is well suited for the determination of sulphur in different samples with various concentrations and matrices. (author)

  10. Mathematical modelling of demineralisation of high sulphur coal by bioleaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weerasekara, N.S.; Frutos, F.J.G.; Cara, J.; Lockwood, F.C. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    During coal combustion various toxic compounds are generated from its sulphur content. Their environmental impacts are considered to be very important. While there are various conventional preparation methods to remove the sulphur in the fuel, recent work reveals that newly-isolated micro-organisms, naturally present in coal, have the ability to reduce its sulphur content. The removal of sulphur using biological leaching involving acidophilic iron oxidising bacteria like Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans are examined and a computational technique based on computational fluid dynamics is developed to model the biological leaching of sulphur from coal. The model was validated against a pack-column experiment carried out for iron separation during 60 days. The mathematical model predicted iron separation over time is similar to experimental measurements, with an average difference of 5.5%. According to the experimental results, there was an overall reduction of 33% of pyrite, whereas the model prediction was 32%. The model results shows overall good agreement with pack-column experimental data.

  11. How sulphur was dislodged to sustain plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, A.N.; Agarwal, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant (Kota) employs chemical exchange between water and hydrogen sulphide gas. Formation of sulphur is a known phenomena during production of heavy water in G.S. process plants. It is observed that after three years of plant operation this sulphur is enough to choke the cold tower trays causing flooding of exchange towers and resultant decrease in throughput. G.S. process plants normally go for major turn around once in four years when sulphur is either manually cleaned or removed by steam wash after hydrogen sulphide gas has been removed from the system and towers have been fully decontaminated. As throughput starts decreasing after third year and plant operation becomes more difficult in fourth year, HWP (Kota) had evolved a procedure of heating the towers for dislodging sulphur from sieve trays when plant is running. With these procedures plant operation could be sustained without tower floodings even in fourth year, before plant could go for major turn around for manual removal of sulphur

  12. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  13. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature of this reso...

  14. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  15. Analytical protocols for the determination of sulphur compounds characteristic of the metabolism of Chlorobium limicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aliboni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorobium limicola belongs to the green sulphur bacteria that has a potential for technological applications such as biogas clean up oxidising hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulphur through photosynthetic process. In the present work, analytical methods are described for the determination of different sulphur species in C. limicola cultures – sulphide by GC-FPD, sulphate by ionic HPLC and elemental sulphur by RP HPLC. The latter method eliminates the need for chloroform extraction of water suspensions of elemental sulphur. Data from sulphide and elemental sulphur analyses have been compared with ones coming from more traditional analytical methodologies.

  16. Potassium iodide stockpiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    After examination by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other federal agencies of federal policy on the use and distribution of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid-blocking agent for use in off-site preparedness around commercial nuclear powerplants, FEMA believes the present shelf life of KI is too short, that the minimum ordering quantities are an obstacle to efficient procurement, and that the packaging format offered by the drug industry does not meet the wishes of state and local government officials. FEMA has asked assistance from the Food and Drug Administration in making it possible for those states wishing to satisfy appropriate requirements to do so at the minimum cost to the public. Given an appropriate packaging and drug form, there appears to be no reason for the federal government to have further involvement in the stockpiling of KI

  17. Potassium-argon technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassignol, Charles; Cornette, Yves; David, Benjamin; Gillot, P.-Y.

    1978-04-01

    The main features of the method of processing rocks and minerals and measuring the extracted argon, for the purpose of potassium-argon dating are described. It differs in several respects from the conventional one, as described, f.i., in Dalrymple and Lanphere's monography. Principally it was established that the continual purification of the gases in the mass spectrometer cell during the measurement, stops the peaks of current drift, and renders them representative of the introduced argon. This allows on the one hand to improve the reliability and accuracy of measurements, on the other hand to get rid of the isotopic dilution method, with 38 A as a spike. Moreover the reliability of the radiogenic argon is improved by taking into account the mislinearness of the M.S. response. All this results in a higher performance of the K/Ar dating method, especially in the recent ages range. The technological side of the problem was only dealt with [fr

  18. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  19. Water Chlorination for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocenti, A.; Giacosa, D.; Segatori, M.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning from this issue, an initiative of Federgasacqua (Federal association dealing with the gas and the water) takes place through the activities of the Task Forces Water Quality Control and Materials and Processes, which aim is to offer to the water industry operators and updated information concerning some main subjects, emphasizing in particular the technical and management applied topics. The paper deals with the chlorination processes in drinking water treatment. An overview of the italian situation is presented, concerning disinfection as well as other oxidation processes, together with an historical background on chlorination. Concerning the applications, the chemical technologies and the main processes, the disinfectant effectiveness and the byproducts formation have been described. Further, the regulations in force have been reported and discussed on national and international bases [it

  20. The effect of chlorine and combined chlorine/UV treatment on coliphages in drinking water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyara, Alyaa M; Torvinen, Eila; Veijalainen, Anna-Maria; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2016-08-01

    Chlorine disinfection is a globally used method to ensure the safety of drinking water. However, it has not always been successful against viruses and, therefore, it is important to find new methods to disinfect water. Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with different dosages of chlorine in drinking water, and a combined chlorine/ultraviolet irradiation treatment for the chlorine-resistant coliphages. Chlorine disinfection with 0.3-0.5 mg/L total chlorine (free Cl-dosage 0.12-0.21 mg/L) for 10 min achieved 2.5-5.7 Log10-reductions for 11 sensitive coliphages. The six most resistant coliphages showed no reduction with these chlorine concentrations. MS2 was intermediate in chlorine resistance, and thus it is not a good indicator for viruses in chlorine disinfection. In the combined treatment total chlorine of 0.05-0.25 mg/L (free Cl-dosage 0.02-0.08 mg/L) and ultraviolet irradiation (14-22 mWs/cm(2)) were more effective than chlorine alone, and 3-5 Log10-reductions were achieved for the chlorine-resistant strains. The chlorination efficiency could be increased by higher dosages and longer contact times, but this could increase the formation of disinfection by-products. Therefore, the combination treatment is a recommended disinfection method.

  1. Metabolic fate of chlorinated paraffins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Biessmann, A.; Brandt, I.

    1982-01-01

    The disposition of three [1- 14 C]-chlorododecanes (MCDD, PCDD I and PCDD II; 17.4%, 55.9%, and 68.5% chlorination) was studied in C57Bl mice. [1- 14 C]-lauric acid (LA) was studied as reference compound. Fifty-two percent (MCDD), 32% (PCDD I), and 8% (PCDD II) of the radioactive doses were exhaled as 14 CO 2 during 12 h after i.v. injection. Similar results were obtained after p.o. administration. In addition to a marked labelling of the liver and fat, the distribution patterns observed at 24 h after administration revealed an uptake of radioactivity in tissues with high cell turnover/high metabolic activity, e.g., intestinal mucosa, bone marrow, salivary glands and thymus. The concentration of radioactivity in these sites and the exhalation of 14 CO 2 , which were inverse to the degree of chlorination, indicate that the chloroalkanes are degraded to metabolites which can be utilized in the intermediary metabolism. A similar, although more pronounced, distribution pattern and 14 CO 2 -exhalation (70% of i.v. dose) was observed after LA administration. The long time retention of heptane-soluble radioactivity in liver and fat (indicating unmetabolized substance) increased with degree of chlorination. On the contrary, the administration of LA and the chlorododecanes MCDD and PCDD I, but not of PCDD II, resulted in a selective labelling of the central nervous system 30-60 days after injection. (orig.)

  2. Prediction of sulphur content in the industrial hydrotreatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukec, Ivana; Lukec, Darko [Model d.o.o, Pazinska 36, 10110 Zagreb (Croatia); Sertic-Bionda, Katica [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Marulicev trg 19, 10000, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-03-15

    The artificial neural network models were developed to determine sulphur content in the hydrotreatment product. Two models for two different types of feed were developed: light gas oil and vacuum gas oil. The developed ANN models use 6 input variables that are continuously measured in the process and are in accordance with the engineering knowledge and thermodynamics of hydrotreatment processes. Given models show good predictability of sulphur content in the hydrotreatment product and are, therefore, used in practice for continuous monitoring and optimization. This kind of application can be easily developed in any other hydrotreatment process with the available adequate historical data. (author)

  3. Muonium states and dynamics in phosphorus and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.; Cottrell, S.P.; Hopkins, G.A.; Kay, M.; Pratt, F.L.

    1997-01-01

    The various states formed by positive muons implanted into phosphorus and sulphur have been characterized as a model for interstitial hydrogen, of which little is known in these elements. Repolarization studies reveal muonium-like states in each case, giving estimates of the hyperfine parameters and, for sulphur at least, an indication of the coexistence of a molecular radical state. The longitudinal-field relaxation functions suggest conversion of the paramagnetic states to diamagnetic, i.e. ionization or chemical reaction, in competition with strong spin-lattice relaxation

  4. Potassium channels in brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channels are the most widely distributed class of ion channels. These channels are transmembrane proteins known to play important roles in both normal and pathophysiological functions in all cell types. Various potassium channels are recognised as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, brain/spinal cord ischaemia and sepsis. In addition to their importance as therapeutic targets, certain potassium channels are known for their beneficial roles in anaesthesia, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. Some types of potassium channels present in the plasma membrane of various cells have been found in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well. Potassium channels have been proposed to regulate mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, matrix volume and Ca(+) ion homeostasis. It has been proposed that mitochondrial potassium channels mediate ischaemic preconditioning in various tissues. However, the specificity of a pharmacological agents and the mechanisms underlying their effects on ischaemic preconditioning remain controversial. The following potassium channels from various tissues have been identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated (mitoK(ATP)) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoBK(Ca)) channel, intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoIK(Ca)) channel, voltage-gated (mitoKv1.3 type) channel, and twin-pore domain (mitoTASK-3) channel. It has been shown that increased potassium flux into brain mitochondria induced by either the mitoK(ATP) channel or mitoBK(Ca) channel affects the beneficial effects on neuronal cell survival under pathological conditions. Recently, differential distribution of mitoBK(Ca) channels has been observed in neuronal mitochondria. These findings may suggest a neuroprotective role for the mitoBK(Ca) channel in specific brain structures. This minireview summarises current data on brain mitochondrial potassium channels and the efforts to identify

  5. Oral potassium supplementation in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Gatenby, Piers A

    2008-08-01

    Hospital inpatients are frequently hypokalaemic. Low plasma potassium levels may cause life threatening complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias. Potassium supplementation may be administered parenterally or enterally. Oral potassium supplements have been associated with oesophageal ulceration, strictures and gastritis. An alternative to potassium salt tablets or solution is dietary modification with potassium rich food stuffs, which has been proven to be a safe and effective method for potassium supplementation. The potassium content of one medium banana is equivalent to a 12 mmol potassium salt tablet. Potassium supplementation by dietary modification has been shown to be equally efficacious to oral potassium salt supplementation and is preferred by the majority of patients. Subsequently, it is our practice to replace potassium using dietary modification, particularly in surgical patients having undergone oesophagogastrectomy or in those with peptic ulcer disease.

  6. Study on removing chlorin by conversion-aborption of chlorin resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yunbai; Zhao Jinfang; Tang Zhijuan; Huang Qijin; Deng Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Theon version of chlorin resin and the reclamation of acid and uranium in converting solution were investigated. The results indicated the residual chlorin can meet the requirement after converting, acid and uranium in converting solution can be reclaimed. (authors)

  7. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  8. Chlorine-36 investigations of salt lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivas, A.R.; Kiss, E.

    1987-01-01

    The first chlorine-36 measurements are reported for surficial halite in lakes from a west-to-east traverse in Western Australia and from Lake Amadeus NT. Measurements of chlorine-36 were made using a 14 MV tandem accelerator. Isotopic chlorine ratios ranged from 8 to 53 x 10 exp-15, with no clear evidence for bomb-spike chlorine-36. The Western Australian samples have values close to secular equilibrium values for typical granite and groundwaters in this rock type. Studies are aimed at calculating the residence time of chloride in the surficial environment. 1 tab

  9. Sulphur loading of respirable and inhalable dust at a platinum smelter / Swanepoel J.D.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Johannes Deon.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution that sulphur, in the form of sulphates, has on ill health is still a focal point of many a study, especially in environmental studies depicting the effects that particulate air pollution has on health. Although the implication of sulphur on particulate matter is not yet well defined, numerous studies do state that the presence of sulphur on particulate matter contributes to poor health. Sulphur adhered to dust has been associated with cardiovascular mortality and the ability ...

  10. Chlorination of cooling water: a source of chlorine-containing organic compounds with possible environmental significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Gehrs, C.W.; Pitt, W.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters may be a source of environmentally significant pollutants. Many water-soluble chlorine-containing organic compounds of low volatility were found in a sample of cooling water chlorinated to a 2-mg/l chlorine concentration in the laboratory. The compounds were separated and detected using a coupled 36 Cl-tracer--high-resolution liquid chromatographic technique developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for determination of chlorinated organics in process effluents. For a chlorination contact time of 75 min at 25 0 C, the yield of chlorine in the form of chloro-organics amounted to 0.78% of the chlorine dosage. It is estimated that the yield is about 0.5% under typical reaction conditions in the electric power plant cooling system chosen for study. Because chlorine is commonly used to remove slime films from the cooling systems of electric power plants, as a means of maintaining high operational efficiency, it is estimated that several hundred tons of chlorinated organics are produced annually in the nation by this antifoulant process. The chromatographic elution positions of some of the separated constituents correspond to those of compounds separated and partially identified from chlorinated sewage treatment plant effluents. The results of this study indicate the formation of chloro-organics during the chlorination of cooling waters should be thoroughly examined, particularly with respect to their identification and determination of possible toxicological properties

  11. Data for comparison of chlorine dioxide and chlorine disinfection power in a real dairy wastewater effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Akhlaghi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection of water refers to a special operation that is doing to kill or disable causative organisms (i.e. Pathogens and in particular, intestinal bacteria. The aim of this pilot study is comparison of disinfection power of Chlorine dioxide and chlorine in a real dairy wastewater effluent. In this regard, firstly prepared two 220-l tanks made of polyethylene as reaction tanks and filled by effluent of a dairy wastewater treatment plant. Both tanks were equipped with mechanical stirrer. Then a Diaphragm dosing pumps with the maximum capacity of 3.9 l per hour were used for the chlorine dioxide and chlorine (Calcium hypochlorite 0.5 up to 3 ppm injection. Residual level of Chlorine dioxide and Chlorine were measured by portable photometric method DT4B kit, Germany. Finally, the Multiple-Tube Fermentation, Brilliant Green Bile Broth (BGB and Eosin methylene blue Agar (EMB technique was used for microbial analysis and the results were reported as the most probable number index (MPN respectively. The data showed that the residual of chlorine dioxide could stood more active than residual of chlorine in the aqueous environment significantly. Therefore, Use of chlorine dioxide is more effective than chlorine for removal fecal and total coliform from dairy wastewater effluent. Keywords: Disinfection, Chlorine dioxide, Chlorine, Total coliform, Fecal coliform

  12. Three-decade changes in chemical composition of precipitation in Guangzhou city, southern China: has precipitation recovered from acidification following sulphur dioxide emission control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunting Fang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined if precipitation had recovered from acidification in Guangzhou, the third biggest city in China, and if sulphur deposition in precipitation had decreased, and to what extent if yes, following abatement strategies in sulphur dioxide (SO2 emission and energy use implemented since 2001. SO2 emissions were decreasing steadily since 2001, but a marked recovery of precipitation acidity occurred only since 2005; precipitation pH values decreased from 4.65 in 2001 to 4.34 in 2005 and then increased to 5.08 in 2010, while in the same period acid rain (pH<5.6 frequency increased from 70% to 81% and then decreased to 48%. During this period, the change in pH value and sulphate concentration more reflected the patterns of SO2 emission at provincial and national scales than at the local scale, suggesting that precipitation chemical composition was largely controlled by the emissions of pollutants from surrounding areas of the study city. Since 2001, sulphate deposition in precipitation decreased significantly (by 40% but nitrogen deposition remained unaltered. More importantly, the current sulphur (43 kg S ha−1 yr−1 as sulphate and nitrogen depositions (35 kg N ha−1 yr−1 as ammonium plus nitrate in 2010 were still among the highest in China. These results highlight the fact that ambient sulphur and nitrogen deposition still pose a threat to the health of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Precipitation may become more acidified in the future because the deposition of alkaline dusts containing calcium is also likely to decrease with stricter SO2 emission control policy and reduced construction activities. Additionally, we recommend that a reduction of emissions of nitrogen and chlorine bearing pollutants is urgently required for complete control on acid deposition.

  13. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T. indica (10 seeds per Petri dish) with ...

  14. Effects of sulphuric acid, mechanical scarification and wet heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different treatment methods on the germination of seeds of Parkia biglobosa (mimosaceae) were carried out. Prior treatment of seeds with sulphuric acid, wet heat and mechanical scarification were found to induce germination of the dormant seeds. These methods could be applied to raise seedlings of the plant for ...

  15. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  16. Effect of irrigation frequency and application levels of sulphur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during the crop season of 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009 to study the effect of irrigation and sulphur on yield and water use efficiency of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea var. PusaJagannath). The experiment was carried out in split plot ...

  17. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, J.; Van Dijk, E.; De Munck, S.; Van den Brink, R. [Energy research Centre of The Netherlands, ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, P.O. Box 1, NL1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-11

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  18. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Jurriaan; van Dijk, Eric; de Munck, Sander; van den Brink, Ruud

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475 °C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800 °C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  19. Sulphur oxidising bacteria in mangrove ecosystem: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... factors such as salinity and nutrient availability highly variable. Mangrove .... sulphate and converts it into organic sulphur compound. (Subba Rao ..... of organic fertilizer long favored in Australia. .... Fish. Technol. Soc. 21:126-130. Dias ACF, Andreote FD, Rigonato J, Fiore MF, Melo IS, Araujo WL. (2010).

  20. Growth of Sulphuric Acid Nanoparticles Under Wet and Dry Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škrabalová, Lenka; Brus, David; Antilla, T.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Lihavainen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2014), s. 6461-6475 ISSN 1680-7316 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Grant - others:AFCEP(FI) 1118615 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : binary nucleation * sulphuric acid - water * condensational growth Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 5.053, year: 2014

  1. Development of the floating sulphur biofilm reactor for sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    The formation of floating sulphur biofilm was observed in the microbial ecology studies of tannery ponds undertaken by the. Environmental Biotechnology Group at Rhodes University. This was related to the steep Redox gradients established at the air/ water interface of anaerobic, organically loaded and actively sulphate ...

  2. Sulphur removal from used automotive lubricating oil by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Sato, Ivone Mulako

    2007-01-01

    Following the worldwide evolution with the purpose of a higher control of vehicular emissions, the specialists have looked for clean technologies and efficient procedures to make vehicular emissions free of pollutants. Much attention is given to the sulphur concentration in the gasoline, diesel and lubricating oils. The ionizing radiation is a promising technology for the removal of this pollutant when compared to other conventional treatment methods. In this work, the ionizing radiation was used to remove in significant levels the presence of sulphur in automotive motor oil. A 1000 mL sample of used automotive lubricating oil from a gas station was collected. This sample was fractioned and irradiated with 10, 20 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses in a 60 Co irradiator (GAMMACELL-220 - 12 kCi). The 50 and 70% (v/v) of MilliQ water and 30% (v/v) of hydrogen peroxide was used to improve the radiolysis The sulphur element before and after the irradiation was determined by X-ray fluorescence technique (WDXRF) using the Fundamental Parameters Method. The results showed approximately 70% sulphur removal at 500 kGy irradiation dose with 70% (v/v) of MilliQ water addition. (author)

  3. Uptake and metabolism of sulphur dioxide by Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, T.A.W.; De Kok, L.J.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnug, E.

    Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. was exposed to various concentrations of SO2 during almost the entire life cycle. No negative effects of SO2 on shoot biomass production were observed. There was a linear relation between the deposition of SO2 and the atmospheric SO2 concentration. Sulphur

  4. Effects of sulphur addition on modification and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CW Onyia, BA Okorie, NI Amalu, SI Neife ... The results showed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy modified the Al-Si eutectic ... of the eutectic silicon structure with significant decrease in mechanical properties of the alloy and this ...

  5. Distribution of Sulphur in Soils Formed from Different Parent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: A study on the profile distribution of sulphate - sulphur (SO4-S) and the relationship with some soil properties was carried out in three ... Aluminum, content and nature of organic matter, pH and the presence of other ions. ... were extracted using 1N neutral ammonium acetate. (NH4OAC) and Ca and Mg was ...

  6. Optimisation of Dilute Sulphuric Acid Hydrolysis of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis of waste paper was investigated in this study. The effects of acid concentration, time, temperature and liquid to solid ratio on the total reducing sugar concentration were studied over three levels using a four variable Box-Behnken design (BBD). A statistical model was developed for the ...

  7. Cellulose sulphuric acid as a biodegradable catalyst for conversion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article describes simple and efficient method for the diazotization and azidation of different aromatic amines over cellulose sulphuric acid, sodium nitrite and sodium azide under mild conditions at room temperature. Various aryl amines possessing electron-withdrawing groups or electron-donating groups have been ...

  8. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    on the microstructure and mechanical properties of sand cast been investigated ... owed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy. 12wt%Si alloy .... 28 materials. 29. Element. Aluminum. Silicon. Al. Si. Ca. Fe. Cu. Zn. Mn. Mg. Cr. B. 99.71.

  9. Synergetic effect of sulphur and nitrogen oxides on corrosion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synergetic effect of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) on corrosion of galvanized iron roofing sheets has been investigated. The field studies were conducted in Ibeno and Ebocha (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Specimens of the roofing sheets were exposed for one year to outdoor environment to record the ...

  10. 78 FR 64526 - Information Collection Activities: Sulphur Operations; Submitted for Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...: Sulphur Operations; Submitted for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request ACTION: 30... paperwork requirements in the regulations under Subpart P, Sulphur Operations. This notice also provides the..., Currently Under Review). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart P, Sulphur Operations. OMB...

  11. A new technology aimed at re-establishing a global sulphur supply/demand balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavens, A.F.; Jorgensen, C.; Ogg, D.

    2009-01-01

    The world's sulphur supply is mainly determined by involuntary production of elemental sulphur during the processing of oil and gas. As a result, sulphur supply is decoupled from demand, resulting in an imbalance between the two. For almost two decades, sulphur supply has exceeded demand, which has raised significant concerns for oil and gas producers such as where to store all of the excess sulphur, and how to transport a low-value commodity to market in an economically attractive fashion. Black and Veatch is involved in the development of a new technology called sulphur to energy process (STEP TM ) which has the potential to assist in balancing global sulphur supply and demand, as well as affording other benefits such as low-emission energy production. This paper presented the potential merits of the STEP as a means to reestablish a global sulphur supply/demand balance for the world trading market. It explored the other potential benefits that may result from the use of this new technology and compared STEP to other technologies and operating schemes that regulate sulphur supply. It was concluded that STEP has the potential to allow the processor to produce elemental sulphur when demand is high, or to provide safe and ecological disposal when demand is low, with the added benefits of energy recovery from the sulphur combustion process, and sour gas reservoir sweetening over time as sulphur dioxide reacts with hydrogen sulphide present in the reservoir. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 22 figs

  12. Preparation and characterization compatible pellets for immobilization of colloidal sulphur nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlim, M.; Zarlaida, F.; Khaldun, I.; Dewi, R.; Jamilah, M.

    2018-03-01

    Mercury pollution in atmosphere is dominated by mercury vapour release from coal burning and gold-amalgam separation in gold mining. The initial steps in formulating a compatible mercury absorbent for mercury stabilization was fabrication of pellet supported colloidal sulphur. Sulphur is used to stabilize mercury vapour by formation of metacinnabar that has much lower toxicity. The sulphur reactivity toward mercury vapour can be enhanced by using colloidal sulphur nanoparticles immobilized on compatible pellets. Clay pellets would have heat resistance but in fact, they were less stable in aqueous solution although their stability increased with inclusion of rice husk ash and sawdust or pineapple leaf fibre in the composite. Pellets made of rice husk ash and polyvinyl acetate were stable in water at least for 24 hours. Sulphur from thiosulfate precursor that immobilized onto surface of pellet using chitosan as the stabilizer and the binding agent gave lower sulphur content compared to sulphur from other precursors (sulphur powder and sulphur-CS2). Sulphur from thiosulfate precursor was in form of colloid, has nanosize, and disperse particles on the surface of rice husk ash pellets. Sulphur immobilization methods affect on sulphur particles exposure on the pellet surface.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  16. Potassium distribution in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the distribution of potassium in sugarcane has been studied during its growth in two different conditions. In the first one the sugarcane soil was prepared with natural fertilizers, using sugarcane bagasse and, in another plantation the soil was prepared with commercial fertilizer NPK with a proportion of 10-10-10. For the measurement of potassium concentration in each part of the plant, gamma ray spectrometry techniques have been used to measure gamma-rays emitted from the radioisotope 40 K present in the sugarcane samples. The concentration of potassium in roots, stems and leaves were measured periodically. The results for sugarcane cultivated in soil with natural fertilizer show a higher concentration of potassium at the beginning of plant development and over time there is an oscillatory behavior in this concentration in each part of the plant, reaching a lower concentration in the adult plant. The results for the plant grown in soil with NPK fertilizer, indicate that the potassium concentration is higher in the stem at the beginning of cultivation and remained practically constant over time in various parts of the plant, with higher values in the leaves and stem than at the root. On the other hand, the results obtained using fertilizer NPK shows a lower potassium concentration, since the fertilizer provoked a much higher growth rate. (author)

  17. Potassium supplements for oral diarrhoea regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Hughes, T P; Rust, J; Tome, F C

    1980-10-18

    A study is proposed for supplementing potassium loss from diarrhea in rehydration therapies with fresh fruit and other naturally potassium-rich foods. Bananas contain .1 mol of potassium per gm. Freshly squeezed lemon or orange juices were tested for potassium and sodium content and found to have very low potassium concentration. Therefore, the banana was chosen for an upcoming study that will determine if infants and children suffering from diarrhea can ingest the amounts of the fruit necessary to elevate the potassium level sufficiently. Bananas as the potassium source are thought to be well-accepted in developing areas.

  18. Regional modelling of anthropogenic sulphur in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engardt, M.; Leong, C. P.

    A co-operative research project between the Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) focussing on the usage of an atmospheric transport and chemistry model, has just been initiated. Here, we describe the main features of the dispersion model and discuss a first set of calculations in light of available measurements of sulphuric species in Southeast Asia. According to our results, anthropogenic sulphur concentrations and depositions are particularly high near the large cities of the region, around a metal smelter in the southern Philippines, and in a region extending from northern Vietnam into southeastern China. These areas coincide with the high-emissions regions of Southeast Asia and we tentatively conclude that regional transport of acidifying species is not as far-reaching as in the mid-latitudes. From our calculations, and from supporting measurements we conclude that most of rural Southeast Asia is not yet severely affected by anthropogenic sulphur, but given the rapid rate of economical development in this region the situation may deteriorate quickly. Areas that are particularly at risk include the large cities, northern Vietnam, most of central Thailand, most of peninsular Malaysia, eastern Sumatra and parts of Java, all of which receive total-sulphur depositions in excess of 0.5 g S m -2 yr -1. Our model simulates sulphate in precipitation in accordance with measurements, but it has a tendency to overestimate atmospheric SO 2. It remains to be investigated whether this is a problem in the model formulation or a result of unrepresentative sampling. An immediate continuation of this study should be performed with higher spatial resolution than the currently used 100×100 km 2. Other imperfections in this model study, which should be addressed in future work, include parameterised vertical transport in deep convective clouds, the influence of natural emissions (primarily from volcanoes) on the

  19. Behavior of chlorine in lake water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriraman, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Water from monsoon fed Sagre lake is being used as a source of raw water for Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS--1 and 2). The raw water from the lake is initially pumped to Sagre water treatment plant (SWTP) operated by Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) from where, the processed water is sent to cater the needs of both the units of TAPS-1 and 2, townships of TAPS and MIDC, and the nearby villages. At the SWTP the raw water is treated with alum to remove the turbidity, filtered and chlorinated using bleaching powder. All these years the raw water is chlorinated in such a way whereby a residual chlorine level of 0.5-1.0 mg/l, is maintained at the outlet of water treatment plant. The adequacy of the current chlorination practice was investigated, at the request of the NPC-500 MWe group during 1990, so that the future requirements of raw water for TAPP-3 and 4, can be met from the expanded SWTP. In this connection experiments on chlorine dose -- residual chlorine relationship and the decay pattern of chlorine with time was carried out in the lake water (with low value of total dissolved solids and total hardness 3 sample at the site. The total bacterial count in the raw water observed to be 10 7 counts/ml originally came down to 10 3 counts/ml at the end of one-hour exposure time to chlorine. It was found that the chlorine demand of the water was around 6 mg/l. In addition Jar test to evaluate the aluminum dose was also carried out. Based on these experiments a chlorine dose of 6 mg/l for one hour contact time was arrived at. The experimental findings were in agreement with the current chlorination practices. (author)

  20. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of wastewaters from chlorine and total chlorine-free bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, G.; Soto, M.; Field, J.; Mendez-Pampin, R.; Lema, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Chlorine bleaching effluents are problematic for anaerobic wastewater treatment due to their high methanogenic toxicity and low biodegradability. Presently, alternative bleaching processes are being introduced, such as elemental chlorine-free (ECF) and total chlorine-free (TCF) bleaching. The

  1. Origin of organic sulphur compounds and sulphur-containing high molecular weight substances in sediments and immature crude oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenck, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution patterns of Organic Sulphur Compounds (OSC), occurring in certain sediments and immature crude oils, were compared with those of the corresponding hydrocarbons. Because of the complexity of the OSC mixtures, they were desulphurized to hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, isoprenoid alkanes,

  2. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate. It occurs as transparent crystals or a white... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS...

  3. Chlorine demand and residual chlorine decay kinetics of Kali river water at Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Bhat, D.; Prakash, T.R.; Thimme Gowda, B.; Sherigara, B.S.; Khader, A.M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power plant at Kaiga would use Kali river water for condenser cooling. This necessitated studies on the chemistry of chlorination such as chlorine demand, kinetics of chlorination and other water characteristics aimed at obtaining base line data. The study revealed significant seasonal variation of chlorine demand ranging from 0.5 ppm to 1.7 ppm (3.0 ppm dose, 30 min contact time) and total consumption of 5.0 ppm (10.0 ppm dose, 48 hours contact time). The reaction follows first order kinetics in chlorine. High correlation of chlorine demand with chlorophyll a, suspended matter, turbidity, silica, nitrite, phosphate and sulphate indicated that chlorine demand is greatly influenced by water quality. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  4. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  5. Monitoring chlorination practices during operation at TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriraman, A.K.; Wani, B.N.; Gokhale, A.S.; Yuvaraju, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters is aimed at the condenser surfaces to minimize the biogrowth, while the residual oxidants in the effluents are negligible. This paper describes the fulfillment of the above criteria, as observed during the monitoring of chlorination practices at Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) during 1990. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  6. The Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials using Chlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of chlorine on the morphology of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) prepared from a Fe-Co/CaCO3 catalyst was investigated using chlorobenzene (CB), dichlorobenzene (DCB), trichlorobenzene (TCB), dichloroethane (DCE), trichloroethane (TCE) and tetrachloroethane (TTCE) as chlorine sources using a catalytic ...

  7. Utilization of activated carbon loaded with sulphur for sulphur fertilization in agriculture; Verwertung von mit Schwefel beladener Aktivkohle als Schwefelduenger in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirfel, Kristina; Hoffmann, Heide [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). AG Agraroekologie und Oekologischer Landbau

    2013-01-15

    Due to the decrease of atmospheric sulphur deposition, sulphur fertilization has gained significance for agriculture in recent years. Carbon-sulphur-pellets (CSP), activated carbon pellets loaded with sulphur, previously used for desulphurization in biogas plants, are up to now disposed of as waste. In this context the question arises if CSP could be of use for sulphur fertilization of agricultural crops. The objective of this study was to test sulphur release and plant availability from, and plant tolerance towards CSP. A pot experiment using Zea mays with different shares of CSP was carried out. Leaf green intensity of vital plants, indicating plants' current nutritional status, was measured and differences in plant development were documented regularly. At the end of the trial period biomass and elemental contents of the test plants, as well as electrical conductivity and pH-value of the substrate-CSP-mixtures were determined. Amendments of 0.2 m.-% to 1.0 m.-% had a positive effect on plants' dry mass yield; higher shares led to considerable yield losses. By addition of CSP, sulphur content in the plant dry mass increased compared to the control without sulphur fertilization. This result indicates that sulphur adsorbed to activated carbon becomes plant available when applicated to cultural substrate. (orig.)

  8. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  9. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  11. Radiochemical analysis of chlorine-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Pina, G.; Lara, E.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive chlorine isotope, 36 Cl, decays with a half-life of 3x10 5 years by emitting a beta particle (98 %) and by electron capture. The aim of this paper is to propose a radiochemical separation method of 36 Cl from the other beta-gamma emitters present in low and medium radioactive wastes such as spent ion exchange resins and evaporator concentrates, that arise from Nuclear Power Plants and particularly in the wastes that come from decommissioning activities of graphite reactors, in order to provide data for 36 Cl inventory calculations. The separation method proposed is based on an oxidation technique where chlorine is trapped by NaOH. 36 Cl beta emissions are measured by liquid scintillation counting by the dual label technique in order to avoid the contamination produced by 14 C which is also trapped by NaOH and which is the main contaminant present in graphite samples. The sensitivity of this method is sufficient to achieve the needed thresholds for the radiological characterization of the radioactive materials to which this method can be applied. (author)

  12. Chlorination of irradiated polyethylene single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    The chlorination of electron beam-irradiation polyethylene (PE) single crystals was studied for a range of irradiation doses, temperatures, and chlorine interaction times. The results presented show that PE chlorination was quite extensive, even in unirradiated PE single crystals at 25 0 C in the dark. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR, EPR) was used in this study in order to determine the alkyl radical concentration, decay constant, and diffusivity for (unchlorinated) specimens. An alkyl radical diffusivity D/sub a/ = 1.6 x 10 -17 cm 2 /sec at 25 0 C was estimated from ESR data and alkyl radical migration as one-dimensional unsteady-state diffusion process. In irradiated PE, chlorination occurred mainly via chain reactions which were initiated by the irradiation-produced free radicals. Chlorine content values were determined by X-ray Energy Spectroscopy (XES). It was found that the magnitude of the chlorine uptake increased with increasing dose, and decreased with decreasing temperature at constant dose. Otherwise the observed PE chlorination phenomena was quite similar for all of the doses and temperatures studied here, consisting of a two step mechanism: a fast uptake which occurred between time tCl 2 = 0 - 5 minutes and a slower, approximately first-order rate of uptake which occurred between times tCl 2 = 5 - 120 minutes. Chlorination was essentially complete by time tCl 2 = 120 minutes. The rapid uptake probably occurred in the amorphous surface zones where Cl 2 is relatively high and the second, slower step was probably attributable to Cl 2 diffusion into the crystalline regions and subsequent chlorination there. Inasmuch as the PE density decreases with increasing dose (for 1-600 Mrad), Cl 2 diffusivity was enhanced, resulting in higher chlorine uptake values at higher doses

  13. Sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Caffau, E.

    2011-10-01

    Sulphur (S) is a non-refractory α-element that is not locked into dust grains in the interstellar medium. Thus no correction to the measured, interstellar sulphur abundance is needed and it can be readily compared to the S content in stellar photospheres. Here we present the first measurement of sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, as detected in a MIKE/Magellan high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectrum of one red giant star. While abundance ratios of sulphur are available for a larger number of Galactic stars down to an [Fe/H] of ~ -3.5 dex, no measurements in globular clusters more metal poor than -1.5 dex have been reported so far. We find aNLTE, 3-D abundance ratio of [S/Fe] = +0.52 ± 0.20 (stat.) ± 0.08 (sys.), based on theS I, Multiplet 1 line at 9212.8 Å. This value is consistent with a Galactic halo plateau as typical of other α-elements in GCs and field stars, but we cannot rule out its membership with a second branch of increasing [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H], claimed in the literature, which leads to a large scatter at metallicities around - 2 dex. The [S/Mg] and [S/Ca] ratios in this star are compatible with a Solar value to within the (large) uncertainties. Despite the very large scatter in these ratios across Galactic stars between literature samples, this indicates that sulphur traces the chemical imprints of the other α-elements in metal poor GCs. Combined with its moderate sodium abundance ([S/Na]NLTE = 0.48), the [S/Fe] ratio in this GC extends a global, positive S-Na correlation that is not seen in field stars and might indicate that proton-capture reactions contributed to the production of sulphur in the (metal poor) early GC environments. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  14. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme. In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 505.6 mg GAE/kg ±25.18 to 621.49 mgGAE/kg ±13.41. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 32.20 %± 0.58 to 44.67 % ±0.68.

  15. The role of potassium and other ions in the control of aldosterone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, C.J.; Shepherd, R.M.; Fraser, R.; Pediani, J.D.; Elder, H.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Fast and slow K+ efflux components, independently regulated by angiotensin II (AII), have been identified in bovine adrenocortical cells. The authors have further investigated the role of potassium in the control of aldosterone synthesis in two ways. Firstly, isotopic tracers, in conjunction with channel modulators, have been used to study the interrelationship of K+ and Ca2+ in the control of AII-stimulated aldosterone synthesis. Secondly, electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) was used to quantify potassium, sodium, chlorine and phosphorous in control and AII-stimulated cells. The effects of verapamil on 43K efflux were measured at two stages during AII stimulation. During the first ten minutes of treatment, when efflux via the fast component predominates, AII and verapamil both slowed efflux and their effects were additive. If verapamil was added later, at the time when efflux by the fast component appeared exhausted and the stimulatory effect of AII on the slow efflux component was apparent, it again slowed efflux. These data suggest that verapamil prevents calcium-gated K+ channels from opening by blocking Ca2+ channels. However, verapamil had no effect on AII-stimulated calcium efflux. In addition to blocking Ca2+ channels, verapamil may directly inhibit potassium efflux. EPXMA showed a bimodal distribution of potassium concentrations in control cells. However, in cells stimulated with AII for five minutes, the mean potassium content was less than in controls and was not bimodally distributed. Sodium content was increased by AII-treatment, chlorine was lowered and phosphorus remained unchanged. The data confirm previous observations that AII inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase activity

  16. Analysis of Coniferous Forest Damage: Effects of Trichloroacetic Acid, Sulphur, Fluorine and Chlorine on Needle Loss of Norway Spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coufal, D.; Matucha, Miroslav; Uhlířová, H.; Lomský, B.; Forczek, Sándor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2003), s. 89-102 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Forest decline * polyfactorial problem * dose/response relationship Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  17. Analysis of Coniferous Forest Damage: Effects of Trichloroacetic Acid, Sulphur, Fluorine and Chlorine on Needle Loss of Norway Spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coufal, David; Matucha, P.; Uhlířová, H.; Lomský, B.; Forczek, Sándor; Matucha, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2003), s. 89-102 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/1465; GA MŠk OC 274.001 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 274 TARSKI Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : forest decline * polyfactorial problem * monitoring * stress factors * dose/response-relationship Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Primordial helium abundance determination using sulphur as metallicity tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Vital; Terlevich, Elena; Díaz, Angeles I.; Terlevich, Roberto; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.

    2018-05-01

    The primordial helium abundance YP is calculated using sulphur as metallicity tracer in the classical methodology (with YP as an extrapolation of Y to zero metals). The calculated value, YP, S = 0.244 ± 0.006, is in good agreement with the estimate from the Planck experiment, as well as, determinations in the literature using oxygen as the metallicity tracer. The chemical analysis includes the sustraction of the nebular continuum and of the stellar continuum computed from simple stellar population synthesis grids. The S+2 content is measured from the near infrared [SIII]λλ9069Å, 9532Å lines, while an ICF(S3 +) is proposed based on the Ar3 +/Ar2 + fraction. Finally, we apply a multivariable linear regression using simultaneously oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur abundances for the same sample to determine the primordial helium abundance resulting in YP - O, N, S = 0.245 ± 0.007.

  19. Determination of sulphur-35 impurity in solutions of phosphorus-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Pasques, R.H.; Iglicki, F.A; Cittadini, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed in order to evaluate the activity of sulphur-35 impurity in solutions of phosphorus-32. The procedure is based on the precipitation on benzidine sulphate in acid solution and further purification by dissolving and reprecipitating under appropriate conditions. 35 S beta radiation is measured with and end-window gas counter. A correction for any remaining 32 P is determined by differential absorption through aluminum. (author) [es

  20. Predicting sulphur and nitrogen deposition using a simple statistical method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, F.; Kopáček, Jiří; Chuman, T.; Černohous, V.; Hůnová, I.; Hruška, Jakub; Krám, Pavel; Lachmaová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Štěpánek, Petr; Tesař, Miroslav; Christopher, Evans D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, sep (2016), s. 456-468 ISSN 1352-2310 Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985874 Keywords : precipitation * sulphur * nitrogen * deposition * monitoring * upscaling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S); DI - Air Pollution ; Quality (BC-A); BK - Fluid Dynamics (UH-J) Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2016

  1. Isotopic equilibria between sulphur solute species at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.W.

    1978-01-01

    Sulphur solute species in ore solutions and geothermal discharges include HSO 4 - , SO 4 2- , H 2 S, and HS - , as well as the ion-paired species, NaHS 0 , NaHSO 4 - and Na 2 SO 4 0 . Observed sulphate-sulphide fractionation factors and the rates of attainment of isotopic equilibrium are likely to depend on the nature of the sulphur species actually taking part in these isotopic equilibria. Preliminary experiments in alkaline solution (pH 10.1 at 20 0 C) were carried out in a gold cell. No significant isotope fractionation was observed between the SO 4 2- and HS - in 29 days at 200 0 C, 63days at 300 0 C, or 90 days at 250 0 C. However, similar experiments at 350 0 C in sealed gold capsules at room temperature pH 8.5 showed slow exchange(t( 1 / 2 ) was calculated to be 510 days for the SO 4 2- -HS - exchange reaction using the theoretical fractionation of 20.2 0 / 00 ). The addition of NaCl appeared to have no affect on the exchange. However, pH strongly controls the reaction rate, and exchange probably involves H 2 S and the HSO 4 - ion. Additional preliminary experiments were conducted with a fivefold increase in the sulphur concentration; a decrease in t( 1 / 2 ) to 142 days resulted. Some inter-relationship between sulphur concentration and exchange rate thus exists. The important controlling parameters of isotope exchange (temperature, pH, and ΣS) can be seen to have influenced exchange in natural systems.(auth.)

  2. Sulphur chemistry in the L1544 pre-stellar core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastel, Charlotte; Quénard, D.; Le Gal, R.; Wakelam, V.; Andrianasolo, A.; Caselli, P.; Vidal, T.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Bachiller, R.

    2018-05-01

    The L1544 pre-stellar core has been observed as part of the ASAI IRAM 30m Large Program as well as follow-up programs. These observations have revealed the chemical richness of the earliest phases of low-mass star-forming regions. In this paper we focus on the twenty-one sulphur bearing species (ions, isotopomers and deuteration) that have been detected in this spectral-survey through fifty one transitions: CS, CCS, C3S, SO, SO2, H2CS, OCS, HSCN, NS, HCS+, NS+ and H2S. We also report the tentative detection (4 σ level) for methyl mercaptan (CH3SH). LTE and non-LTE radiative transfer modelling have been performed and we used the NAUTILUS chemical code updated with the most recent chemical network for sulphur to explain our observations. From the chemical modelling we expect a strong radial variation for the abundances of these species, which mostly are emitted in the external layer where non thermal desorption of other species has previously been observed. We show that the chemical study cannot be compared to what has been done for the TMC-1 dark cloud, where the abundance is supposed constant along the line of sight, and conclude that a strong sulphur depletion is necessary to fully reproduce our observations of the prototypical pre-stellar core L1544.

  3. Recent Development of Carbonaceous Materials for Lithium–Sulphur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change are just beginning to be felt, and as such, society must work towards strategies of reducing humanity’s impact on the environment. Due to the fact that energy production is one of the primary contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, it is obvious that more environmentally friendly sources of power are required. Technologies such as solar and wind power are constantly being improved through research; however, as these technologies are often sporadic in their power generation, efforts must be made to establish ways to store this sustainable energy when conditions for generation are not ideal. Battery storage is one possible supplement to these renewable energy technologies; however, as current Li-ion technology is reaching its theoretical capacity, new battery technology must be investigated. Lithium–sulphur (Li–S batteries are receiving much attention as a potential replacement for Li-ion batteries due to their superior capacity, and also their abundant and environmentally benign active materials. In the spirit of environmental harm minimization, efforts have been made to use sustainable carbonaceous materials for applications as carbon–sulphur (C–S composite cathodes, carbon interlayers, and carbon-modified separators. This work reports on the various applications of carbonaceous materials applied to Li–S batteries, and provides perspectives for the future development of Li–S batteries with the aim of preparing a high energy density, environmentally friendly, and sustainable sulphur-based cathode with long cycle life.

  4. Quantifying Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin Congener Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Bo; Bogdal, Christian; Berger, Urs; MacLeod, Matthew; Gebbink, Wouter A.; Alsberg, Tomas; Wit, de Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are

  5. Sulphate sulphur concentration in vegetable crops, soil and ground water in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from Plock oil refinery (central Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikula, W.

    1995-01-01

    Research was carried out in 1984-1990 in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from one of the greatest oil refineries in Europe (Plock, central Poland). The sulphate sulphur concentration in the vegetable crops (red beet, carrot, parsley, bean, cabbage and dill), the soil and in ground water was defined in selected allotment gardens of Plock city and in a household garden located in the rural area about 25 km from the town. The highest amount of sulphur was found in the vegetable crops cultivated in the garden situated in the closest vicinity of the refinery. Sulphate sulphur contents harmful for plants (above 0.50 per cent d.m.) were noted in cabbage and carrot leaves in almost all the gardens (except one). The soil in all examined gardens was characterised by high sulphate sulphur concentration, which considerably exceeds the maximum amount admissible for light soil in Poland, i.e. 0.004 per cent d.m. The sulphate sulphur concentration in ground water in all the gardens exceeded the highest permissible content in drinking water in Poland. The sulphate sulphur content in the soil and ground water was not significantly dependent on the garden's distance from the refinery. Generally, the above normal sulphate sulphur concentrations occurred quite universally in the examined region and they concerned all the considered environmental components (vegetable crops, soil, ground water) and all the gardens. 22 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Extrarenal potassium adaptation: role of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachley, J.D.; Crider, B.P.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Following the ingestion of a high-potassium-content diet for only a few days, the plasma potassium of rats rises only modestly in response to a previously lethal dose of potassium salts. This acquired tolerance, termed potassium adaptation, is principally the result of increased capacity to excrete potassium into the urine. However, a substantial portion of the acute potassium dose is not immediately excreted and is apparently translocated into cells. Previous studies have failed to show an increase in the content of potassium of a variety of tissues from such animals. Using 86 Rb as a potassium analogue, we have shown that the skeletal muscle of potassium-adapted rats takes up significantly greater amounts of potassium in vivo in response to an acute challenge than does that of control animals. Furthermore, the same animals exhibit greater efflux of 86 Rb following the termination of the acute infusion. We have also shown that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity of skeletal muscle microsomes are increased by the process of potassium adaptation. We conclude that skeletal muscle is an important participant in potassium adaptation and acts to temporarily buffer acute increases in the extracellular concentration of potassium

  7. Studies on chlorinated bromide salt for microfouling control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, K.K.; Rajmohan, R.; Rao, T.S.; Nair, K.V.K.; Mathur, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Fast Breeder Test reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam has been facing various problems in cooling water systems in spite of intermittent chlorination.Effects of chlorinated-bromide mixture was evaluated against heterotrophic bacteria (TVC) and iron oxidising bacteria (IOB) vis-a-vis chlorine. Results indicated that chlorinated-bromide mixture was far superior (2 orders of magnitude for TVC and 2 times for IOB) to chlorine in microfouling control. Results also showed that at bromide to chlorine ratio of one effectiveness of chlorinated-bromide was at its maximum. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  8. Chlorine isn't Just for Swimming Pools Anymore... Chlorination of Organic Compounds in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, A.; Raab, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    The cycling of chlorine between its organic and inorganic forms is known to occur in forest soils, but little is known about the generality of this mechanism, which soil components chlorine attaches to, and at what rate chlorination occurs. The study uses peat-rich tundra soils from Barrow, Alaska varying in age since formation of 50 yrs - 5500 yrs BP, and seeks to measure the rate at which organic molecules are chlorinated and to understand what changes those molecules undergo once chlorinated. Soil abundance of chlorine and bromine was estimated in soils of varying age using X-ray fluorescence, and org-Cl levels were measured using pyro-hydrolysis [Table 1]. We considered activity of the enzyme Chloroperoxidase, and data was gathered using absorbance scans of the organic molecule monochlorodimedone to determine whether it had been chlorinated and if so, at what rate. Additional information was gathered from the chlorination of small organic components of the macromolecule lignin, whose constituent molecules make up a large portion of humic materials critical to soil health, through emission scans and fluorescence scans. The results showed that the enzyme chloroperoxidase, which is found in nature and is associated with fungi or bacteria, attaches a chlorine atom to monochlorodimedone and that similar enzymes found in Arctic soils act on it, as well as the lignin model subunits cinnamaldehyde ((2E)-3-phenylprop-2-enal) and naringenin-7-rhamnoglucoside. The results may provide more information on chlorination rates in the Arctic and may contribute to an understanding of how and at what rate chlorine changes form in nature, and answer questions about ozone deterioration or anthropogenic chlorine impact(s) on the environment.Average Halogen Abundance in Arctic Soils xrf=Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescencepyro= TOX Pyro-Hydrolysis

  9. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aggravated by eating potassium-rich foods such as bananas and potatoes. Stiffness occurs in skeletal muscles throughout the body. Potassium-aggravated myotonia ranges in severity from mild episodes ...

  10. The heart and potassium: a banana republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ehsan; Spiers, Christine; Khan, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The importance of potassium in maintaining stable cardiac function is a clinically understood phenomenon. Physiologically the importance of potassium in cardiac function is described by the large number of different kinds of potassium ions channels found in the heart compared to channels and membrane transport mechanisms for other ions such as sodium and calcium. Potassium is important in physiological homeostatic control of cardiac function, but is also of relevance to the diseased state, as potassium-related effects may stabilize or destabilize cardiac function. This article aims to provide a detailed understanding of potassium-mediated cardiac function. This will help the clinical practitioner evaluate how modulation of potassium ion channels by disease and pharmacological manipulation affect the cardiac patient, thus aiding in decision making when faced with clinical problems related to potassium.

  11. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  12. Status of potassium permanganate - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on catfish/HSB): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish (June 1999). A hazard charac...

  13. Determination of chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunqing; Liu Fuyun; Huang Dianfan

    1988-01-01

    The determination of chlorine in nuclear-grade uranium compounds is discribed. Chlorine is separated from uranium oxide pyrohydrolytically with stream of wet oxygen in a furnace at 800 ∼ 900 deg C. Chlorine is volatilized as hydrochloric acid, absorbed in a dilute alkaline solution and measured with chlorine-selective electrode. This method covers the concentration range of 10 ∼ 500 pm chlorine in uranium oxide. Precision of at least ± 10% and recovery of 85 ∼ 108% have been reported

  14. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  15. Microbial transformation of chlorinated aromatics in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, J.E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous contaminants like heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated benzenes (CBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated furans (PCDFs) are detected in the major rivers in the

  16. Study for the chlorination of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, E.S.M.; Takiishi, H.; Paschoal, J.O.A.; Andreoli, M.

    1990-12-01

    In the development of new ceramic and metallic materials the chlorination process constitutes step in the formation of several intermediate compounds, such as metallic chlorides, used for the production of high, purity raw materials. Chlorination studies with the aim of fabrication special zirconium-base alloys have been carried out at IPEN. Within this program the chlorination technique has been used for zirconium tetrachloride production from zirconium oxide. In this paper some relevant parameters such as: time and temperature of reaction, flow rate of chloride gas and percentage of the reducing agent which influence the efficiency of chlorination of zirconium oxide are evaluated. Thermodynamical aspects about the reactions involved in the process are also presented. (author)

  17. Chain dechlorination of organic chlorinated compounds in alcohol solutions by 60Co gamma-rays, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Teruko; Hosoda, Ieji; Kondo, Masaharu.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made on radiolytic dechlorination of pentachlorobenzene in alkaline alcohol solutions. The dechlorination yield (G(Cl - )) was found to depend on the alcohols used as solvent and the concentrations of the chlorinated benzene and hydroxide ion. The high yields obtained in alkaline 2-propanol, sec-butanol and ethanol indicate a chain process in the dechlorination reaction. The value of G(Cl - ) was highest in 2-propanol, and the principal products generated were potassium chloride, acetone and the lower chlorinated benzenes, while a decrease was seen in the hydroxide ion concentration. The concentrations produced of potassium chloride and acetone, as well as the decrease in hydroxide ion concentration, are all roughly equal at all doses. With increasing irradiation dose, pentachlorobenzene was dechlorinated to tetra, tri, di and monochlorobenzene. 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were main products. A discussion is given of the detailed mechanism of the dechlorination in alkaline alcohols and the effect of alcohols on G(Cl - ). (auth.)

  18. Effects of chlorine and its cresylate byproducts on brain and lung performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H

    2003-12-01

    Chlorine and potassium cresylate spilled from a train wreck forced evacuation of nearly 1000 people in and near the town of Alberton, Montana, in 1996. Because respiratory and other symptoms persisted in this population, neurobehavioral and pulmonary functions were evaluated in a cohort of exposed vs. unexposed individuals. Ninety-seven subjects were tested 7 wk after exposure. Three years later, 36 of the original subjects were retested, along with 21 new patients exposed in the same incident. These 57 were compared with 22 unexposed individuals. Twenty-six neurobehavioral functions were tested, and spirometry was performed on each subject. At 7 wk postexposure, patients showed significant differences in 5 neurobehavioral functions (i.e., balance, simple reaction time, abnormal visual quadrants, vocabulary, and information), compared with the unexposed individuals recruited in 1999. Patients' Profile of Mood States scores and frequencies of 35 symptoms were also elevated, compared with the unexposed group. At 3 yr postexposure, patients exhibited differences in 7 additional neurobehavioral functions (i.e., choice reaction time, balance with eyes open, color errors, visual fields, Culture Fair, and verbal recall). Respiratory symptoms were increased, but pulmonary functions did not change. Exposure to chlorine and potassium cresylate produced neurobehavioral impairments that have been observed to increase across 3 yr. Spills in heavily populated areas could injure thousands, overwhelming medical facilities.

  19. Obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarova, M.A.; Solojenkin, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to obtaining of potassium dicyan-argentate. By means of exchange reaction between silver nitrate and potassium cyanide the potassium dicyan-argentate was synthesized. The analysis of obtained samples was carried out by means of titration and potentiometry.

  20. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Dehalogenation of Chlorinated Hydroxybiphenyls by Fungal Laccase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Asgard; Jonas, Ulrike; Hammer, Elke; Schauer, Frieder

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the transformation of chlorinated hydroxybiphenyls by laccase produced by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. The compounds used were transformed to sparingly water-soluble colored precipitates which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as oligomerization products of the chlorinated hydroxybiphenyls. During oligomerization of 2-hydroxy-5-chlorobiphenyl and 3-chloro-4-hydroxybiphenyl, dechlorinated C—C-linked dimers were formed, demonstrating the dehalogenation ability of laccase. In addition to these nonhalogenated dimers, both monohalogenated and dihalogenated dimers were identified. PMID:11526052

  5. Radiolytic removal of trihalomethane in chlorinated seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamohan, R.; Rajesh, Puspalata; Venugopalan, V.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Natesan, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling is one of the major operational problems in seawater cooling systems. It is controlled by application of chlorine based biocides in the range of 0.5-2.0 mg L -1 . The bromide in seawater reacts with the added chlorine and forms hypobromous acid. The brominated residual biocides react with natural organic matter present in the seawater, resulting in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) such as bromoform (CHBr 3 ), dibromochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl) bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl 2 ). Though THMs represent a small fraction of the added chlorine, they are relatively more persistent than residual chlorine, and hence pose a potential hazard to marine life because of their reported mutagenicity. There have been few reports on removal of THMs from chlorinated seawater. In this work, the efficacy of gamma irradiation technique for the removal of THMs from chlorine-dosed seawater was investigated. Experiments were carried out using seawater collected from Kalpakkam. Irradiation study was conducted in chlorinated (1, 3, and 5 mg L -1 of Cl 2 ) seawater by applying various dosages (0.4-5.0 kGy) of gamma radiation using a 60 Co Gamma Chamber 5000. Bromoform showed a faster rate of degradation as compared to other halocarbons like bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane. This shows the change in total THM concentration with variation in the radiation dose and initial Cl 2 dosing. When the percentage degradation of all the three trihalomethane species was compared with applied doses, it was found that the maximum reduction occurred at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The reduction was almost similar for all the three doses (1, 3, 5 ppm of Cl 2 ) used for chlorination. With a further increase in radiation dose to 5.0 kGy, a slight increase in reduction was observed

  6. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Stratospheric chlorine: Blaming it on nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, G.

    1993-01-01

    Much of the bitter public debate over ozone depletion has centered on the claim that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) pale into insignificance alongside natural sources of chlorine in the stratosphere. If so, goes the argument, chlorine could not be depleting ozone as atmospheric scientists claim, because the natural sources have been around since time immemorial, and the ozone layer is still there. The claim, put forward in a book by Rogelio Maduro and Ralf Schauerhammer, has since been touted by former Atomic Energy Commissioner Dixy Lee Ray and talk-show host Rush Limbaugh, and it forms the basis of much of the backlash now being felt by atmospheric scientists. The argument is simple: Maduro and Schauerhammer calculate that 600 million tons of chlorine enters the atmosphere annually from seawater, 36 million tons from volcanoes, 8.4 million tons from biomass burning, and 5 million tons from ocean biota. In contrast, CFCs account for a mere 750,000 tons of atmospheric chlorine a year. Besides disputing the numbers, scientists have both theoretical and observational bases for doubting that much of this chlorine is getting into the stratosphere, where it could affect the ozone layer. Linwood Callis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center points out one crucial problem with the argument: Chlorine from natural sources is soluble, and so it gets rained out of the lower atmosphere. CFCs, in contrast, are insoluble and inert and thus make it to the stratosphere to release their chlorine. What's more, observations of stratospheric chemistry don't support the idea that natural sources are contributing much to the chlorine there

  8. The implications of the new sulphur limits on the European Ro-Ro sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    -based alternatives. The exact repercussions of the new sulphur limits are difficult to identify in the wake of significant recent reductions of the fuel prices for both low-sulphur and heavy fuel oil. This paper presents a modal split model that estimates modal shifts vis-a-vis competing maritime and land......In an effort to reduce the environmental impacts of maritime transportation, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) designated special Sulphur Emission ControlAreas (SECAs) where ships are required to use low-sulphur fuel. In January 2015, the sulphur limit within SECAs was lowered to 0.......1%, which can only be achieved if vessels are using pricier ultra-low sulphur fuel, or invest in abatement technologies. The increased operating costs borne by Ro-Ro operators in SECAs due to the stricter limits can result in the shutting down of some routes and a redistribution of cargo flows with land...

  9. Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalheiro, A.A.; Bruno, J.C.; Saeki, M.J.; Valente, J.P.S.; Florentino, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of silver insertion on the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diclofenac potassium were reported here. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to comprehend the relation between structure and properties of the silver-modified TiO 2 thin films obtained by the sol-gel method. The lattice parameters and the crystallinity of TiO 2 anatase phase were affected by inserted silver, and the film thickness increased about 4 nm for each 1 wt.% of silver inserted. The degradation of diclofenac potassium and by-products reached an efficiency of 4.6 mg C W -1 when the material was modified with silver. Although the first step of degradation involves only the photochemical process related to the loss of the chlorine and hydrogen atoms. This cyclization reaction leads to the formation of intermediate, which degradation is facilitated by the modified material

  10. An isotope view on ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Bork, Nicolai Christian; Hattori, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a miss...... yields of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV) to S(VI) conversion....

  11. An isotopic analysis of ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Bork, Nicolai Christian; Hattori, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a miss...... of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV) to S(VI) conversion....

  12. New model of chlorine-wall reaction for simulating chlorine concentration in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ian; Kastl, George; Sathasivan, Arumugam

    2017-11-15

    Accurate modelling of chlorine concentrations throughout a drinking water system needs sound mathematical descriptions of decay mechanisms in bulk water and at pipe walls. Wall-reaction rates along pipelines in three different systems were calculated from differences between field chlorine profiles and accurately modelled bulk decay. Lined pipes with sufficiently large diameters (>500 mm) and higher chlorine concentrations (>0.5 mg/L) had negligible wall-decay rates, compared with bulk-decay rates. Further downstream, wall-reaction rate consistently increased (peaking around 0.15 mg/dm 2 /h) as chlorine concentration decreased, until mass-transport to the wall was controlling wall reaction. These results contradict wall-reaction models, including those incorporated in the EPANET software, which assume wall decay is of either zero-order (constant decay rate) or first-order (wall-decay rate reduces with chlorine concentration). Instead, results are consistent with facilitation of the wall reaction by biofilm activity, rather than surficial chemical reactions. A new model of wall reaction combines the effect of biofilm activity moderated by chlorine concentration and mass-transport limitation. This wall reaction model, with an accurate bulk chlorine decay model, is essential for sufficiently accurate prediction of chlorine residuals towards the end of distribution systems and therefore control of microbial contamination. Implementing this model in EPANET-MSX (or similar) software enables the accurate chlorine modelling required for improving disinfection strategies in drinking water networks. New insight into the effect of chlorine on biofilm can also assist in controlling biofilm to maintain chlorine residuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on 137Cs uptake by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of 137 Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The 137 Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K + ) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K + concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K + for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of 137 Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The 137 Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. - Highlights: • Potassium application reduced 137 Cs uptake by rice grown in pot experiments. • Readily available K fertilizer more effectively decreased brown rice 137 Cs concentration. • Potassium should be applied before heading to reduce brown rice 137 Cs concentration.

  14. Interrogating trees for isotopic archives of atmospheric sulphur deposition and comparison to speleothem records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn, P.M.; Loader, N.J.; Fairchild, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    Palaeorecords which depict changes in sulphur dynamics form an invaluable resource for recording atmospheric pollution. Tree rings constitute an archive that are ubiquitously available and can be absolutely dated, providing the potential to explore local- to regional-scale trends in sulphur availability. Rapid isotopic analysis by a novel “on-line” method using elemental analyser isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) is developed, achieving sample precision of <0.4‰ using sample sizes of 40 mg wood powder. Tree cores from NE Italy show trends in pollution, evidenced through increasing concentrations of sulphur towards the youngest growth, and inverse trends in sulphur isotopes differentiating modern growth with light sulphur isotopes (+0.7‰) from pre-industrial growth (+7.5‰) influenced by bedrock composition. Comparison with speleothem records from the same location demonstrate replication, albeit offset in isotopic value due to groundwater storage. Using EA-IRMS, tree ring archives form a valuable resource for understanding local- to regional-scale sulphur pollution dynamics. - Highlights: • Sulphur isotopes from tree rings are analysed using ‘on-line’ EA combustion. • Isotopes differentiate modern growth influenced by pollution from pre-industrial growth. • Biogeochemical cycling imparts minimal delay in sulphur incorporation into tree rings. • Trends in pollution are replicated between speleothems and trees from the same location. - Sulphur isotopes extracted from tree ring records are used to identify twentieth century pollution dynamics at the local- to regional-scale

  15. Preparation of potassium-reduced tantalum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosov, V.N.; Miroshnichenko, M.N.; Orlov, V.M.; Prokhorova, T.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of tantalum powders prepared by reduction of molten potassium heptafluorotantalate with liquid potassium are studied in a temperature range of 750 - 850 deg C using potassium chloride as a flux at a ratio of K 2 TaF 7 : KCl = 1, 2, and 3. The use of potassium as a reducing agent facilitates washing of tantalum powders for impurity salt removal, reduces sodium content and leakage currents in the anodes. As compared to sodium process, the potassium reduction results in a high yield of sponge material, a decrease in the specific surface area and yield of tantalum powder suitable for manufacture of capacitor anodes [ru

  16. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} New stechiometric materials for sulphur mustard degradation. {yields} High degree of degradation, more then 95% h{sup -1}. {yields} One-pot synthesis procedure. - Abstract: Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr{sup 4+} to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr{sup 4+} doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  17. A Colonial Conundrum: Boy with Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Findlay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of the perplexing painting Boy with Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo. Unfortunately, there is little information on the provenance of the portrait, including the identity of the artist, sitter and patron. It will be argued that it is the work of Augustus Earle and that it is a portrait of Daniel Cooper II and was commissioned by his uncle, also named Daniel Cooper. The aim of this article is to start to unravel the ambiguities of the image, and I suggest that the painting is a strong statement on the rights of freed convicts in Australian colonial society

  18. Intensification of zinc dissolution process in sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many high purity salts are produced by dissolving pure metal in non-oxidizing mineral acids. If hydrogen overpotential on the given metal is high, then the rate of overall process is defined by reaction of hydrogen ion reduction. This study investigated the possibility of accelerated dissolving of metal zinc in sulphuric acid by introducing copper cathode on which evolving hydrogen is much easier than on zinc. It was found out that the acceleration of zinc dissolving is possible and, at constant surface of copper cathode depends on the quality of electrical contact between copper electrode and zinc.

  19. Galactic evolution of sulphur as traced by globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacharov, N.; Koch, A.; Caffau, E.; Sbordone, L.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Sulphur is an important volatile α element, but its role in the Galactic chemical evolution is still uncertain, and more observations constraining the sulphur abundance in stellar photospheres are required. Aims: We derive the sulphur abundances in red giant branch (RGB) stars in three Galactic halo globular clusters (GC) that cover a wide metallicity range (-2.3 noise (S/N ~ 200 per px) spectra in the region of the S I multiplet 3 at 1045 nm for 15 GC stars selected from the literature (six stars in M 4,six stars in M 22, and three stars in M 30). Multiplet 3 is better suited for S abundance derivation than the more commonly used lines of multiplet 1 at 920 nm, since its lines are not blended by telluric absorption or other stellar features at low metallicity. Results: We used spectral synthesis to derive the [S/Fe] ratio of the stars assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We find mean [S/Fe]LTE = 0.58 ± 0.01 ± 0.20 dex (statistical and systematic error) for M 4, [S/Fe]LTE = 0.57 ± 0.01 ± 0.19 dex for M 22, and [S/Fe]LTE = 0.55 ± 0.02 ± 0.16 dex for M 30. The negative NLTE corrections are estimated to be in the order of the systematic uncertainties. We do not detect star-to-star variations of the S abundance in any of the observed GCs, with the possible exception of two individual stars, one in M 22 and one in M 30, which appear to be highly enriched in S. Conclusions: With the tentative exception of two stars with measured high S abundances, we conclude that sulphur behaves like a typical α element in the studied Galactic GCs, showing enhanced abundances with respect to the solar value at metallicities below [Fe/H]-1.0 dex without a considerable spread. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes ID 091.B-0171(A).The reduced spectra and the best fit synthetic models are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  20. Isotope exchange reaction in uranous-uranyl-sulphuric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Daren; Yue Tingsheng; Mu Dehai; Wang Yani

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of the isotope exchange reaction between U(IV) and U(VI) has been studied in low concentrations of sulphuric acid. A minimum exchange rate appears at 0.25 M H 2 SO 4 . From the rates at different temperatures ranging from 20deg to 35deg C, an apparent activation energy of 86 kcal/mole was calculated. The exchange rate was found to be accelerated by the addition of ferrous ions, and a half-life of less than 1 s, was obtained. Probable mechanisms for the acceleration of the uranium isotope exchange reactions by acidity and ferrous ions are proposed. (orig.)

  1. Sodium-sulphur batteries for electric road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangan, M.F. (Chloride Silent Power Ltd., Runcorn (UK))

    1989-04-01

    The sodium sulphur couple is, in principle, very well behaved and has operational characteristics which make it ideal for electric vehicle use. Design of the battery system for road use requires that a number of practical considerations are addressed. In particular, the battery operates at 350 deg C and requires a thermal enclosure with thermal management. The cell interconnection network must address the consequences of end-of-life failure and the voltages across the individual cells should be limited, both in charge and discharge. (author).

  2. Sulphur-containing Amino Acids: Protective Role Against Free Radicals and Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colovic, Mirjana B; Vasic, Vesna M; Djuric, Dragan M; Krstic, Danijela Z

    2018-01-30

    Sulphur is an abundant element in biological systems, which plays an important role in processes essential for life as a constituent of proteins, vitamins and other crucial biomolecules. The major source of sulphur for humans is plants being able to use inorganic sulphur in the purpose of sulphur-containing amino acids synthesis. Sulphur-containing amino acids include methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and taurine. Methionine and cysteine are classified as proteinogenic, canonic amino acids incorporated in protein structure. Sulphur amino acids are involved in the synthesis of intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine. Moreover, naturally occurring sulphur-containing ligands are effective and safe detoxifying agents, often used in order to prevent toxic metal ions effects and their accumulation in human body. Literature search for peer-reviewed articles was performed using PubMed and Scopus databases, and utilizing appropriate keywords. This review is focused on sulphur-containing amino acids - methionine, cysteine, taurine, and their derivatives - glutathione and N-acetylcysteine, and their defense effects as antioxidant agents against free radicals. Additionally, the protective effects of sulphur-containing ligands against the toxic effects of heavy and transition metal ions, and their reactivation role towards the enzyme inhibition are described. Sulphur-containing amino acids represent a powerful part of cell antioxidant system. Thus, they are essential in the maintenance of normal cellular functions and health. In addition to their worthy antioxidant action, sulphur-containing amino acids may offer a chelating site for heavy metals. Accordingly, they may be supplemented during chelating therapy, providing beneficial effects in eliminating toxic metals. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Distribution and isotopic abundance of sulphur in recent marine sediments off southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I R; Emergy, K O; Rittenberg, S C

    1963-01-01

    Analyses of sulphur compounds in basin sediments off southern California indicate that elemental sulphur, free sulphide, hydrotroilite, organic sulphur, sulphate and pyrite are present in quantities that vary with environment and depth in the sediments. Pyrite is generally the most abundant form, occurring in oxidizing as well as in reducing sediments and often constituting 90% of total sulphur. A material balance indicates that the total sulphur content is far in excess of the sulphate-sulphur initially trapped in the interstitial water. This evidence, together with failure to detect significant alternate sources, suggests that sulphate-sulphur is extracted from the overlying sea water at the sediment-water interface. Isotope measurements confirm many of the conclusions suggested by the quantitative chemical analyses. The show that biological sulphate reduction is the single most important process in the sulphur cycle. The sulphide released is converted to hydrotrolite and then to pyrite. Elemental and organic sulphur appear to be continually forming and reacting in the sediment column. The organic sulphur released from decaying organic matter apparently plays only a small role in the sulphur economy. Enrichment in S/sup 32/ ranging from 9 to 62% was measured in pyrite fragments, a spread similar to that previously observed in ancient sediments. Data from field and laboratory experiments were combined to determine rate of sulphate reduction, number of sulphate reducing bacteria and the amount of organic matter decomposed during sulphate reduction in the sediment, as well as rate of renewal of water in the basins. The results suggest that the methods used may have many applications for elucidating in situ rate processes.

  4. Quantification of chemical sulphur species in bulk soil and organic sulphur fractions by S K-edge Xanes spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, K; Almkvist, G; Nilsson, S I

    2011-01-01

    residue (CR) incorporation and farmyard manure (FYM) application, with equal applications of mineral nutrients were included in the study. In the new data treatment method, internally calibrated spectra of dilute solutions (30 mm) of model compounds were used to fit the sample spectra. This greatly...... the opposite trend was observed. Sulphur XANES spectroscopy of acetylacetone extracts of physically protected and unprotected organic S in two of the soils revealed that physical protection was not related to S speciation; however, intermediate forms of oxidized S species appeared to accumulate in the residual...

  5. Selective methods for polyphenols and sulphur dioxide determination in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guzmán, Juan J; Hernández-Artiga, María P; Palacios-Ponce de León, Lourdes; Bellido-Milla, Dolores

    2015-09-01

    A critical review to the methods recommended by international bodies and widely used in the winery industry and research studies was performed. A Laccase biosensor was applied to the selective determination of polyphenols in wines. The biosensor response was characterised and it responds mainly to o-diphenols which are the principal polyphenols responsible for the stability and sensory qualities of wines. The spectrophotometric method to determine free and total sulphur dioxide recommended for beers was applied directly to wines. A sampling of 14 red and white wines was performed and they were analysed for biosensor polyphenol index (IBP) and sulphur dioxide concentration (SO2). The antioxidant capacity by the ABTS(+) spectrophotometric method was also determined. A correlation study was performed to elucidate the influence of the polyphenols and SO2 on the wines stability. High correlations were found between IBP and antioxidant capacity and low correlation between SO2 and antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the benefits of wine drinking a new parameter (IBP/SO2) is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between sulphate and sulphur dioxide in the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugas, M; Gentilizza, M

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the sulphate in suspended particulates and sulphur dioxide in the air was studied in various urban and industrial areas. The relationship is best described by the equation y = ax/sup b/, where y is the percentage of the sulphate S in the total S (sulphate and sulphur dioxide) and x is the concentration of the total S in the air. The regression coefficients a and b seem to be characteristics of the area. In urban areas studied so far a was between 316 and 378 and b between -0.74 and -0.83. In industrial areas polluted by dust which contains elevated concentrations of metals a was between 91 and 107 and b between -0.35 and -0.49. In the area polluted by cement dust there was practically no correlation between the sulphate S (%) and the total S, but a relatively high correlation between absolute amounts of the sulphate S and the total S. The relations indicate that the limitation of SO/sub 2/ conversion is influenced by aerosol composition. Aerosols containing certain metals may promote the conversion by a catalytic effect while alkaline substances by increasing the pH. Whether this can only happen in the plume or in the air as well remains to be clarified.

  7. CHLORINE ABUNDANCES IN COOL STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Z. G.; Pilachowski, C. A. [Indiana University Bloomington, Astronomy Department, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Hinkle, K., E-mail: zmaas@indiana.edu, E-mail: cpilacho@indiana.edu, E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and 1 M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H{sup 35}Cl at 3.69851 μ m. The high-resolution L -band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4 m telescope. The average [{sup 35}Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with −0.72 < [Fe/H] < 0.20 is [{sup 35}Cl/Fe] = (−0.10 ± 0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [{sup 35}Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16 ± 0.15) dex. The [{sup 35}Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of ∼0.35 dex above model predictions, suggesting that chemical evolution models are underproducing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and H ii regions. In one star where both H{sup 35}Cl and H{sup 37}Cl could be measured, a {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl isotope ratio of 2.2 ± 0.4 was found, consistent with values found in the Galactic ISM and predicted chemical evolution models.

  8. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of chlorination on the development of marine biofilms dominated by diatoms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, J.S.; Jagadeesan, V.

    , and Thalassionema did not increase in density after chlorine treatment. It was also demonstrated that diatoms can colonize, grow and photosynthesize on chlorine-treated surfaces. Under pulse chlorination (treatment every 6 h), irrespective of chlorine concentration...

  10. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, Juan L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: jlacero@unex.es; Benitez, F. Javier; Real, Francisco J.; Gonzalez, Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-05-01

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 {sup o}C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M{sup -1} s{sup -1} for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L{sup -1} was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

  11. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, Juan L.; Benitez, F. Javier; Real, Francisco J.; Gonzalez, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 o C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M -1 s -1 for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L -1 was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety

  12. Automatic analyzing device for chlorine ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugibayashi, Shinji; Morikawa, Yoshitake; Fukase, Kazuo; Kashima, Hiromasa.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device of automatically analyzing a trance amount of chlorine ions contained in feedwater, condensate and reactor water of a BWR type power plant. Namely, zero-adjustment or span calibration in this device is conducted as follows. (1) A standard chlorine ion liquid is supplied from a tank to a mixer by a constant volume pump, and the liquid is diluted and mixed with purified water to form a standard liquid. (2) The pH of the standard liquid is adjusted by a pH adjuster. (3) The standard liquid is supplied to an electrode cell to conduct zero adjustment or span calibration. Chlorine ions in a specimen are measured by the device of the present invention as follows. (1) The specimen is supplied to a head tank through a line filter. (2) The pH of the specimen is adjusted by a pH adjuster. (3) The specimen is supplied to an electrode cell to electrically measure the concentration of the chlorine ions in the specimen. The device of the present invention can automatically analyze trance amount of chlorine ions at a high accuracy, thereby capable of improving the sensitivity, reducing an operator's burden and radiation exposure. (I.S.)

  13. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  14. The study of chlorination of nickel oxide by chlorine and calcium chloride in the presence of active additives

    OpenAIRE

    Ilic, Ilija; Krstev, Boris; Stopic, Srecko; Cerovic, K

    1997-01-01

    Chlorination of nickel oxide by chlorine and calcium chloride in the presence of C, BaS and S were studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Chlorination of nickel oxide by chlorine was carried out in the temperature range 573-873 K and by calcium chloride in the temperature range 1023-1223 K. The results obtained of the chlorination of nickel oxide by chlorine showed that C has the strongest and S the weakest effect on the process. Addition of BaS has a favorable effect on the chlorina...

  15. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. Utilización de azufre micronizado en la corrección del pH de compost de residuos de poda Correction of the pH of pruning waste compost with micronized sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barbaro

    2010-12-01

    , potassium and sodium were analyzed. To obtain compost with pH values between 5.3 and 6.2, two to three g of sulphur / liter were required. The higher the sulphur doses, the lower the compost pH and the higher the electrical conductivity. Micronized sulphur is a viable alternative to correct the pH of the compost remains of pruning to the desired values.

  17. Past and future trends in concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hole, Lars R.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in nitrogen and sulphur compounds in air and precipitation from a range of Arctic monitoring stations are presented, with seasonal data from the late 70s to 2004 or 2005. Earlier findings of declining sulphur concentrations are confirmed for most stations, while the pattern is less ...

  18. The remaining percentage of 32P after burning of sulphur tablet containing 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur tablet containing 32 P are made artificially. The remaining percentage of 32 P after burning of three types of sulphur tablets containing 32 P is 98.1 ± 1.3% for 1st and 2nd types and 97.2 ± 2.8% for 3rd type

  19. Sulphur-oxidising and Sulphate-reducing Communities in Brazilian Mangrove Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varon-Lopez, Maryeimy; Dias, A.C.F; Fasanella, C.C.; Durrer, A.; Melo, I.S.; Kuramae, E.E.; Andreote, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of

  20. Separation of uranium, molibdenum and vanadium in sulphuric solutions by extraction with alamine 336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floh, B.

    1976-01-01

    Alamine 336 - varsol - sulphuric acid-water system used for uranium, molibdenum and vanadium extraction, from sulphuric leaching and an appropriate plan for fractioning those elements are investigated. The behavior of cited elements in pure solutions followed by interaction that occurs in both bynary and tertiary systems are studied. Distribution coefficient is regarded for measuring such effects [pt

  1. Analysis of sulphur, phosphorus and silica in metals, alloys, inorganic compounds and solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhya, J.C.; Naik, S.S.; Khedikar, W.K.; Sudersanan, M.; Mathur, P.K

    1999-10-01

    Procedures for the analysis of sulphur, phosphorus and silica in various metals and alloys like mild steel, carbon steel and stainless steel as well as nickel base alloys are described. Procedures were also developed for the analysis of sulphur in thoria pellets and in other materials like crack check fluids, coal etc. Typical results obtained are summarised. (author)

  2. Dry deposition of sulphur on the Mpumalanga highveld: a pilot study using the inferential method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available contributions come from SO2 at night and from particulates during the day in both seasons. The contribution to the total dry deposition sulphur load by particulates at night appears to be negligible. Assuming that sulphur precipitation for the two monitoring...

  3. Transport of metals and sulphur in magmas by flotation of sulphide melt on vapour bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, J. E.; Brenan, J. M.; Godel, B.; Barnes, S. J.; Gaillard, F.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions of sulphur and metals from magmas in Earth’s shallow crust can have global impacts on human society. Sulphur-bearing gases emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions affect climate, and metals and sulphur can accumulate in the crust above a magma reservoir to form giant copper and gold ore deposits, as well as massive sulphur anomalies. The volumes of sulphur and metals that accumulate in the crust over time exceed the amounts that could have been derived from an isolated magma reservoir. They are instead thought to come from injections of multiple new batches of vapour- and sulphide-saturated magmas into the existing reservoirs. However, the mechanism for the selective upward transfer of sulphur and metals is poorly understood because their main carrier phase, sulphide melt, is dense and is assumed to settle to the bottoms of magma reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments as well as gas-speciation and mass-balance models to show that droplets of sulphide melt can attach to vapour bubbles to form compound drops that float. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism for the upward mobility of sulphide liquids to the shallow crust. Our work provides a mechanism for the atmospheric release of large amounts of sulphur, and contradicts the widely held assumption that dense sulphide liquids rich in sulphur, copper and gold will remain sequestered in the deep crust.

  4. Separation of chlorinated diastereomers of decarboxy-betacyanins in myeloperoxidase catalyzed chlorinated Beta vulgaris L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Starzak, Karolina; Szneler, Edward; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew

    2016-11-15

    A comparative chromatographic evaluation of chlorinated decarboxylated betanins and betanidins generated under activity of hypochlorous acid exerted upon these highly antioxidative potent decarboxylated pigments derived from natural sources was performed by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Comparison of the chromatographic profiles of the chlorinated pigments revealed two different directions of retention changes in relation to the corresponding substrates. Chlorination of all betacyanins that are decarboxylated at carbon C-17 results in an increase of their retention times. In contrast, all other pigments (the non-decarboxylated betacyanins as well as 2-decarboxy- and 15-decarboxy-derivatives) exhibit lower retention after chlorination. During further chromatographic experiments based upon chemical transformation of the related pigments (decarboxylation and deglucosylation), the compounds' structures were confirmed. The elaborated method for determination of chlorinated pigments enabled analysis of a chlorinated red beet root extract that was submitted to the MPO/H 2 O 2 /Cl - system acting under inflammation-like conditions (pH 5). This indicates a promising possibility for measurement of these chlorinated pigments as indicators of specific inflammatory states wherein betacyanins and decarboxylated betacyanins act as hypochlorite scavengers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of aging on chlorinated plasma polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turri, Rafael Gustavo; Amorim, Milena Kowalczuk Manosso; Hadich, Tayan Vieira; Fernandes, Isabela Cristina; Fernandes, Gabriel Ferreira; Rossi, Diego; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Durrant, Steven Frederick, E-mail: steve@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Plasmas Tecnologicos

    2017-07-15

    Thin films deposited from propanol-chloroform-argon mixtures by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at different partial pressures of chloroform in the feed, C{sub Cl}, were characterized after two years of aging and their characteristics compared with their as-deposited properties. Film thickness decreased and surface roughness increased with aging. Surface contact angles also increased with aging for the chlorinated films. For the film deposited with 40% chloroform in the feed the contact angle increased about 14°. Transmission infrared and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the films gain carbonyl and hydroxyl groups and lose chlorine and hydrogen on aging. Chlorination appears to make the films more durable. Delamination was observed for the unchlorinated films. (author)

  6. Investigation of molybdenum pentachloride interaction with chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Vovkotrub, Eh.G.; Strekalovskij, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    In Raman spectra of molybdenum pentachloride solutions in liquid chlorine lines were recorded in case of 397, 312, 410, 217 and 180 cm - 1 vibrations of ν 1 (A 1 '), ν 2 (A 1 '), ν 5 (E'), ν 6 (E') and ν 8 (E'') monomer (symmetry D 3h ) molecules of MoCl 5 . Interaction of molten molybdenum pentachloride with chlorine at increased (up to 6 MPa) pressures of Cl 2 was studied. In Raman spectra of its vapour distillation in liquid chlorine alongside with MoCl 5 lines appearance of new lines at 363 and 272 cm -1 , similar in their frequency to the ones calculated for the vibrations ν 1 (A 1g ) and ν 2 (E g ) of MoCl 6 molecules (symmetry O h ), was observed

  7. The effects of low level chlorination and chlorine dioxide on biofouling control in a once-through service water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, W.E. Jr.; Laylor, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Continuous chlorination has been successfully used for the control of Corbicula at a nuclear power plant located on the Chattahoochee River in southeastern Alabama, since 1986. The purpose of this study was to investigate further minimization of chlorine usage and determine if chlorine dioxide is a feasible alternative. Four continuous biocide treatments were evaluated for macro and microfouling control effectiveness, operational feasibility, and environmental acceptability. One semi-continuous chlorination treatment was also evaluated for macrofouling control effectiveness. Higher treatment residuals were possible with chlorine dioxide than with chlorination due to the river discharge limitations. At the levels tested, continuous chlorine dioxide was significantly more effective in providing both macro and microfouling control. Semi-continuous chlorination was just as effective as continuous chlorination for controlling macrofouling. The Corbicula treatment programs that were tested should all provide sufficient control for zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide was not as cost effective as chlorination for providing macrofouling control. The semi-continuous treatment save 50% on chemical usage and will allow for the simultaneous treatment of two service water systems. Chlorite levels produced during the chlorine dioxide treatments were found to be environmentally acceptable. Levels of trihalomethanes in the chlorinated service water were less than the maximum levels allowed in drinking water

  8. Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jørn; Villeneuve, Sara

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  9. Blends of caprolactam/caprolactone copolymers and chlorinated polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberda van Ekenstein, G.O.R.; Deuring, H.; ten Brinke, G.; Ellis, T.S.

    The phase behaviour of blends of chlorinated polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC with random copolymers of caprolactone and caprolactam has been investigated and the results correlated with a binary interaction model. The known miscibility of polycaprolactone in the

  10. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  11. Integrated sulphur management : gas, oil sands, reclamation and the challenges of fluctuating demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, R.

    2009-01-01

    International Commodities Export Corporation is a privately held company that provides fully integrated service offerings to add maximum value in designing, building, owning, and operating sulphur assets. The company also offers in-house, engineering, procurement and project management, as well as supply management, transportation and distribution services. It also has expertise in marine transportation. This presentation discussed integrated sulphur management, with particular focus on gas, oil sands, reclamation and the challenges of fluctuating demand. The presentation provided an overview of the sulphur market and oil sands sulphur. Key considerations for oil sands producers were also presented. The challenges of fluctuating demand include price and volume considerations; logistics; geography and distance to market; export/offshore versus domestic/United States; seasonal considerations; and an inelastic sulphur market. The presentation concluded with a status update of ICEC's initiative and the advantages of Prince Rupert, an economically viable export infrastructure to producers without onsite forming facilities. figs

  12. Simultaneous analysis of gaseous and particulate sulphur in the atmosphere by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yatsuka; Mamuro, Tetsuo

    1975-01-01

    An analytical technique for the simultaneous measurements of the atmospheric concentrations of SO 2 gas and sulphur absorbed by aerosol particles has been developed. Aerosol particles are collected on membrane filter and at the same time SO 2 gas is captured on alkali impregnated filter. The sulphur content in each filter is measured by an energy dispersive X -ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of a Si(Li) semiconductor detector connected to a multi-channel pulse height analyzer and an excitation source of 55 Fe. Two methods are acceptable for the determination of the sulphur content in impregnated filter by X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the first method X-ray fluorescence analysis is made after the collected sulphur gas diffused and distributed uniformly enough throughout the filter, and in the second method X-ray fluorescence analysis gas to be finished before the diffusion of the collected sulphur becomes appreciable. (author)

  13. Development of a Temperature Programmed Identification Technique to Characterize the Organic Sulphur Functional Groups in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Ghauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR technique is employed for the characterisation of various organic sulphur functional groups in coal. The TPR technique is modified into the Temperature Programmed Identification technique to investigate whether this method can detect various functional groups corresponding to their reduction temperatures. Ollerton, Harworth, Silverdale, Prince of Wales coal and Mequinenza lignite were chosen for this study. High pressure oxydesulphurisation of the coal samples was also done. The characterization of various organic sulphur functional groups present in untreated and treated coal by the TPR method and later by the TPI method confirmed that these methods can identify the organic sulphur groups in coal and that the results based on total sulphur are comparable with those provided by standard analytical techniques. The analysis of the untreated and treated coal samples showed that the structural changes in the organic sulphur matrix due to a reaction can be determined.

  14. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confusion listlessness tingling, prickling, burning, tight, or pulling sensation of arms, hands, legs, or feet heaviness or weakness of legs cold, pale, gray skin stomach pain unusual stomach bulging ...

  15. Chlorin derivatives for potential use in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, J.; Neumann, M.; Ruf, S.; Gabel, D.

    2000-01-01

    A series of BSH containing alkyl ether homologues of pytropheophorbide a has been prepared. Cellular uptake studies show that is possible to accumulate 2.2 mg of the heptyl ether after 2 h of incubation with a 0.04 mM solution. That means a boron amount of 330 μg per gram cell mass. Cytotoxicity studies allow radiobiological experiments. The patterns of subcellular localisation visualised by fluorescence microscopy and CLSM show that much of the chlorins is located close to the nucleus and in the nucleus membrane. However, no chlorin was found in the nucleus. (author)

  16. Chlorinated tyrosine derivatives in insect cuticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2004-01-01

    A method for quantitative measurement of 3-monochlorotyrosine and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine in insect cuticles is described, and it is used for determination of their distribution in various cuticular regions in nymphs and adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. The two chlorinated tyrosine......, not-yet sclerotized cuticle of adult femur and tibia, the amounts increased rapidly during the first 24 h after ecdysis and more slowly during the next two weeks. Control analyses using stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry have confirmed that the chlorinated tyrosines are not artifacts formed...

  17. Determination of carbon chlorine and fluorine in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijko, N.I.; Timofeev, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques of chlorine and fluorine determination and simultaneous determination of carbon and chlorine in electrolytic uranium dioxide are described. The method of chlorine and fluorine determination is based on their separation during oxide pyrohydrolysis with subsequent spectrophotometric analysis of condensate. Lower determination limits constitute 1 μg for chlorine, 0.5 μg for fluorine. Relative standard deviation when the content of impurities analyzed is 10 -3 % constitutes 0.05-0.07

  18. Comparison of methods for the determination of reduced inorganic sulphur in acid sulphate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santomartino, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The management of acid sulphate soils requires analytical methods that provide accurate data on the quantity of reduced inorganic sulphur within a soil, as it is this fraction that produces acid upon oxidation. This study uses sulphidic Coode Island Silt samples to compare common analytical methods including POCAS (Peroxide Oxidation-Combined Acidity and Sulphate) which consists of TSA (Total Sulphidic Acidity), S pos (Peroxide Oxidisable Sulphur), TOS (Total Oxidisable Sulphur) and chromium-reducible sulphur. The determination of total sulphur by Leco sulphur is strongly correlated with, but slightly less than, that analysed by XRF. Comparison of soil sulphide content by chromium-reducible sulphur, TSA and TOS methods indicates that TOS values are substantially higher than both other methods. The problem with the TOS method lies in the sulphate extraction procedure. Hot distilled water and HCI are commonly used as extractants, however hot distilled water fails to remove organic sulphur, thereby overestimating the sulphide content of the soil. Leco carbon analyses verify that a substantial proportion of organic matter exists within the samples. The HCI extraction process, which uses Ion Chromatography to analyse for sulphate, produces highly inaccurate results due to the interference of the sulphate peak by the chloride peak during analysis. An alternative method involving HCI extraction and XRF analysis of the soil residue is currently being undertaken. The use of KCI to extract sulphate generally produces values similar to the hot distilled water method. The sulphidic content measured by TSA is strongly correlated with, but slightly higher than that determined by the chromium-reducible sulphur method. This is attributed to the use of hydrogen peroxide in the TSA method, which oxidises organic matter to organic acids in addition to oxidising sulphides. These preliminary findings indicate that the chromium-reducible sulphur method is the most suitable

  19. Studies on the availability of sulphur in four soil series of soil and water management project, Patiala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kesho Ram; Dev, G.

    1974-01-01

    Differential behaviour of four soils series (Banra, Fatehpur, Temple and Samana) for availability of S to wheat (Kalyan-sona) was studied in a pot experiment using five doses of labelled sulphur (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 kg/ha) applied as (NH 4 ) 2 35 SO 4 . The yield, sulphur content and total removal of sulphur by plant, was found dependent upon sulphur supplying power of the soil, which was confirmed by the radioassay data as well. (author)

  20. Corrosion-electrochemical behavior of nickel in an alkali metal carbonate melt under a chlorine-containing atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, E. V.; Kudyakov, V. Ya.; Malkov, V. B.; Plaksin, S. V.

    2013-08-01

    The corrosion-electrochemical behavior of a nickel electrode is studied in the melt of lithium, sodium, and potassium (40: 30: 30 mol %) carbonates in the temperature range 500-600°C under an oxidizing atmosphere CO2 + 0.5O2 (2: 1), which is partly replaced by gaseous chlorine (30, 50, 70%) in some experiments. In other experiments, up to 5 wt % chloride of sodium peroxide is introduced in a salt melt. A change in the gas-phase composition is shown to affect the mechanism of nickel corrosion.

  1. Operating experience with potassium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, N.F.

    1984-04-01

    In an international cooperation R and D work for the realization of potassium topping cycles to increase the conversion efficiency of thermal power stations is going on. Feasibility studies show that the realization of such a process can be achieved under economic considerations with existing materials and today's technology. Nevertheless, it has to be shown that the assumptions with respect to material behaviour and component reliability are based on sound technical premises. Therefore, in continuation of design studies, a hardware programme has been initiated in the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. First results with respect to component and material behaviour are described. (Author) [de

  2. 21 CFR 177.2430 - Polyether resins, chlorinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyether resins, chlorinated. 177.2430 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2430 Polyether resins, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyether resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use in...

  3. Reduced emissions from inexpensive high-sulphur coal briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Wachter, E.A.; Wade, J.; Wilson, D.L.; Haas, J.W.; Ahmad, N.; Siltain, F.; Raza, M.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne emissions were measured during the combustion of Pakistani high-sulphur coal, cold briquetted with lime and clay; comparison was made to emissions from raw coal and traditional fuels burnt in a native, mud-lined Angethi stove. Compared to raw coal, the amended coal gave fourfold reduced emission of respirable-size particles (RSP) and threefold reduced total releases of SO 2 . In domestic cooking, substitution of the amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality with respect to CO, SO 2 , NO x , and RSP. The high peak amounts of CO (100--250 ppm), SO 2 (2--5 ppm), and NO x (1--5 ppm) were limited to the early phase of burning. The high thermal value of the coal briquettes together with a simple briquetting technology, make this fuel an attractive energy alternative in countries that are underdeveloped, developing, or experiencing major restructuring

  4. Characterization of dross and its recovery by sulphuric acid leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, S. A.; Meidianto, A.; Amal, M. I.; Wismogroho, A. S.; Widayatno, W. B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the characterization of dross from galvanizing process and its recovery using acidic leaching method. The diffraction profile of dross showed identical peaks with that of ZnO. The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis identified the content of following metals: Zn, Fe, Mn, Ga, Co, and W. The thermal behaviour examination revealed the existence of some volatiles within the initial sample. The acidic leaching at various concentrations of sulphuric acid was conducted to determine the optimum concentration for zinc recovery and the highest yield of zinc sulphate. It is concluded that the optimum concentration of H2SO4 for this kind of dross is 4 M with 71.9% yield of ZnSO4. The result of leaching process was confirmed by infrared spectrum, where various absorptions corresponding to SO4 2- and Zn-O bands were observed.

  5. Sulphur self as a bioindicator of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihelska, N.; Semerad, M.; Cernansky, S.; Ruzickova, J.; Takacova, A.

    2015-01-01

    Road transport is one of the major sources of air polluting emissions. An average passenger car produces emissions of 228 g/km, trucks produce emissions of around 317 g/km. Emissions from combustion engines contain carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and various solids. Emissions also contain compounds of toxic metals/metalloids - arsenic, cadmium, chrome, nickel and lead. To detect metal/metalloid contamination from vehicle emissions, samples were collected and analyzed from biomass and soil near Bratislava's busiest road. We focused our attention on concentration of metals/metalloids in Laetiporus sulphureus because it's a very popular edible mushroom. Mushrooms are very good proxies for the state of nearby environment because of their excellent accumulation ability. (authors)

  6. Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T; Planavsky, Noah J; Lyons, Timothy W

    2013-05-02

    The accumulation of substantial quantities of O2 in the atmosphere has come to control the chemistry and ecological structure of Earth's surface. Non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulphur isotope anomalies in the rock record are the central tool used to reconstruct the redox history of the early atmosphere. The generation and initial delivery of these anomalies to marine sediments requires low partial pressures of atmospheric O2 (p(O2); refs 2, 3), and the disappearance of NMD anomalies from the rock record 2.32 billion years ago is thought to have signalled a departure from persistently low atmospheric oxygen levels (less than about 10(-5) times the present atmospheric level) during approximately the first two billion years of Earth's history. Here we present a model study designed to describe the long-term surface recycling of crustal NMD anomalies, and show that the record of this geochemical signal is likely to display a 'crustal memory effect' following increases in atmospheric p(O2) above this threshold. Once NMD anomalies have been buried in the upper crust they are extremely resistant to removal, and can be erased only through successive cycles of weathering, dilution and burial on an oxygenated Earth surface. This recycling results in the residual incorporation of NMD anomalies into the sedimentary record long after synchronous atmospheric generation of the isotopic signal has ceased, with dynamic and measurable signals probably surviving for as long as 10-100 million years subsequent to an increase in atmospheric p(O2) to more than 10(-5) times the present atmospheric level. Our results can reconcile geochemical evidence for oxygen production and transient accumulation with the maintenance of NMD anomalies on the early Earth, and suggest that future work should investigate the notion that temporally continuous generation of new NMD sulphur isotope anomalies in the atmosphere was likely to have ceased long before their ultimate disappearance from the rock record.

  7. Potassium adsorption ratios as an indicator for the fate of agricultural potassium in groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Fertilization of agricultural land in groundwater infiltration areas often causes deterioration of groundwater quality. In addition to nitrogen and phosphorous, potassium deserves attention. The fate of potassium in the subsurface is controlled mainly by cation-exchange. Use of the Potassium

  8. 21 CFR 177.1610 - Polyethylene, chlorinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chlorine in Vinyl Chloride Polymers and Copolymers,” which is incorporated by reference (Copies may be..., Philadelphia, PA 19428-2959, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For... percent in plastic articles prepared from polyvinyl chloride and/or from vinyl chloride copolymers...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-31 - Chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inside diameter manhole, fitted with a cover located above the maximum liquid level and as close as... accessary equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with chlorine and shall be made of metal, corrosion... shutoff valves and with safety relief valves. All valves shall be bolted to the cover or covers specified...

  10. Thermodynamic consideration on chlorination of uraniferous phosphorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Kimio; Tozawa, Kazuteru; Taki, Tomihiro; Hirono, Shuichiro.

    1989-01-01

    The uranium ore of low grade which has apatite as a main mineral, but is different from the phosphorite used as the raw material for phosphoric acid production, exists in large amount in South America and Africa continents, and the importance of its effective utilization as future uranium resources is recognized. The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. took up the establishment of the treatment techniques to make this ore into resources as the subject of a project, and proposed the process of volatilizing the uranium in the ore as the chloride and recovering it, and at present, it attempts the experiment on the chlorination treatment. In this paper, the thermodynamic examination on the feasibility of this process, the optimum condition for leaving calcium existing in a large amount in the ore as the phosphate without chlorination and recovering only uranium by chlorination and volatilization, the phase reaction equilibrium chart and the calculation method according to thermodynamics concerning the behavior of chlorination of accompanying elements such as iron, silicon and aluminum and the effect of moisture in the ore are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using alum and moringa flocculation before household chlorination in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kelsey; Lantagne, Daniele; Kotlarz, Nadine; Jellison, Kristen

    2010-03-01

    Over 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved drinking water. Diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. The Safe Water System (SWS) is a household water treatment intervention that reduces diarrhoeal disease incidence among users in developing countries. Turbid waters pose a particular challenge to implementation of SWS programmes; although research shows that a 3.75 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite dose effectively treats turbid waters, users sometimes object to the strong chlorine taste and prefer to drink water that is more aesthetically pleasing. This study investigated the efficacy of two locally available chemical water treatments-alum and Moringa oleifera flocculation-to reduce turbidity and chlorine demand at turbidities of 10, 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU. Both treatments effectively reduced turbidity (alum flocculation 23.0-91.4%; moringa flocculation 14.2-96.2%). Alum flocculation effectively reduced chlorine demand compared with controls at 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU (p=0.01-0.06). Moringa flocculation increased chlorine demand to the point where adequate free chlorine residual was not maintained for 24 hours after treatment. Alum pretreatment is recommended in waters>or=30 NTU for optimum water disinfection. Moringa flocculation is not recommended before chlorination.

  12. A study on chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, H.C.; Kim, T.J.; Jang, J.H.; Kim, G.Y.; Lee, S.J.; Hur, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the chlorination of uranium metal using ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) was conducted to derive an easy and simple uranium chloride production method without impurities. In thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, it was predicted that only uranium chlorides can be produced by the reactions between uranium metal and NH 4 Cl. Experimental conditions for the chlorination of uranium metal were determined using a chlorination test of cerium metal using NH 4 Cl. It was confirmed that UCl 3 and UCl 4 in the form of particles as uranium chlorination products can be obtained from the chlorination method using NH 4 Cl. (author)

  13. Effects of acid conditions on element distribution beneath a sulphur basepad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, J.H.; Fennell, J.W.; Sharma, A.

    1997-04-01

    A reconnaissance-scale study was conducted to determine the extent of acid conditions beneath a sulphur basepad at Canadian Occidental's Balzac sour gas plant and to examine the effects of acid conditions on element distribution in the subsurface. Sulphur which is extracted from sour natural gas is stored in large blocks directly on the ground. The elemental sulphur will oxidize to H 2 SO 4 under aerobic conditions and with the proper microorganisms can result in possible removal of metals from the soil and transportation in the groundwater. The basepad at the sour gas plant is 36 years old and is covered by about 1 metre of elemental sulphur. EM31 terrain conductivity and electrical resistivity tomography geophysical surveys were conducted to determine aerial and subsurface bulk electrical conductivity. The objective was to locate the indurated layer using the geophysical techniques and soil boring. The extent of acid conditions beneath the sulphur block was determined. Migration rates for the site were also estimated. Results suggested that minimal soil and groundwater impact can be expected from sulphur blocks overlying properly buffered soils, and that synthetic liners beneath sulphur blocks may not be a necessary measure at sour gas plants in Alberta. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs., 5 appendices

  14. Effect of Sulphur Fertilization on Grain Quality and Protein Composition of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Pompa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of atmosphere emission of SO2 and the massive use of fertilizers high in nitrogen and phosphorus resulted in a decrease of the sulphur content in the soil. In durum wheat cultivation, sulphur supply plays a key role not only for plant growth, but also for grain quality. Sulphur is an essential macronutrient primarily used to synthesize methionine and cysteine and it is also involved in establishing protein structures by disulphide bonds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sulphur nutrition on grain quality and protein composition of durum wheat cultivars grown under water deficit conditions, typical of Mediterranean areas. To this purpose, in the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 crop seasons a field trial was carried out by comparing two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed, two sulphur fertilizer levels and two durum wheat cultivars. Under our experimental conditions, an increase in protein and gluten content in the rainfed treatment and a positive effect of sulphur fertilization on quality parameters were observed. Few changes were observed in protein composition in response to sulphur fertilization.

  15. Assessing the suitability of Norway spruce wood as an environmental archive for sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrelet, T.; Ulrich, A.; Rennenberg, H.; Zwicky, C.N.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of Norway spruces (Picea abies L. Karst.) as an environmental archive for sulphur. For this purpose spruce trees were sampled in two distinct regions of Switzerland: the Alps and the Swiss Plateau, which differ significantly with respect to S immission. Wood samples were measured using two methods: LASER Ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. Independently corroborated by previous measurements of sulphur in peat bogs, the rise and fall of sulphur dioxide pollution in Switzerland appears to be reflected in spruce wood sulphur content. While the wood sulphur content profile of trees sampled in the Alps is relatively flat, the profiles of trees located on the Swiss Plateau display a characteristic sulphur peak. This corresponds to air pollution data in the different regions and indicates that the trees reacted on the changing S supply and recorded a pollution signal in the wood. - Norway spruce is a suitable archive for sulphur when physiological aspects and limitations are taken into account

  16. Nitrogen and Sulphur Relations in Effecting Yield and Quality of Cereals and Oilseed Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Nad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and sulphur, both vital structural elements, are especially needed for the synthesis of proteins and oils. Investigations revealed the required application of sulphur is one half to one third the amount of nitrogen, and the ratio becomes narrower in mustard (Brassica juncea L., followed by wheat and rice. The efficiency of an increased level of nitrogen required a proportionately higher amount of sulphur. A critical investigation on the effective utilization of applied vis-à-vis absorbed nitrogen in wheat and mustard envisaged accumulation of NO3-N in vegetative parts when sulphur remained proportionately low. Application of sulphur hastened the chemical reduction of absorbed NO3– for its effective utilization. The effect was more pronounced in mustard than in wheat. Easily available forms of sulphur, like ammonium sulphate and gypsum, as compared to pyrite or elemental sulphur, maintained adequate N to S ratio in rice, resulting in a reduction in the percent of unfilled grain, a major consideration in rice yield. A narrow N to S ratio, with both at higher levels, increased the oil content but raised the saponification value of the oil, a measure of free fatty acids. Whereas, a proportionately narrow N to S ratio at moderate dose resulted in adequately higher seed and oil yield with relatively low saponification value, associated with increased iodine value of the oil, indicating respectively low free fatty acids and higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, an index for better quality of the oil.

  17. Effect of Thiobacillus thioparus 1904 and sulphur addition on odour emission during aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenjie; Sun, Wen; Lu, Yusheng; Li, Xia; Xu, Peizhi; Xie, Kaizhi; Sun, Lili; Wu, Hangtao

    2018-02-01

    The effects of sulphur and Thiobacillus thioparus 1904 on odour emissions during composting were studied. Results indicated that the sulphur addition reduced the pH and decreased cumulative emission of ammonia and the nitrogen loss by 47.80% and 44.23%, respectively, but the amount of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) and the sulphur loss increased. The addition of T. thioparus 1904 effectively reduced the cumulative emissions of H 2 S, methyl sulphide, methanethiol, dimethyl disulphide and the sulphur loss by 33.24%, 81.24%, 32.70%, 54.22% and 54.24%, respectively. T. thioparus 1904 also limited the nitrogen loss. The combined application of sulphur and T. thioparus 1904 resulted in the greatest amount of nitrogen retention. The accumulation of ammonia emissions was reduced by 63.33%, and the nitrogen loss was reduced by 71.93%. The combined treatment did not increase the emission of VSCs. The application of sulphur and T. thioparus 1904 may help to control the odour of compost. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effect of sulphur on the strengthening of a Zr-Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.I.; Hong, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sulphur on the strengthening and the thermally activated deformation of cold-worked Zr-1 Nb alloy was investigated. In the present study, the sulphur strengthening was observed even at room temperature unlike the previous study of Ferrer et al. The flow stress increased by 65 MPa at room temperature with the addition of sulphur as little as 20 ppm. With further increase of sulphur content up to 300 ppm, negligible change of the flow stress was observed. The additive strengthening behavior in which the entire stress-strain curve shift upward by the friction stress due to the addition of sulphur was observed in the Zr-Nb alloy of the present study. The activation volume decreased slightly (from 110b 3 to 80b 3 ) with the addition of 300 ppm sulphur at room temperature. The rate-controlling mechanism of the deformation can best be explained by the dislocation interaction mechanism in which the segregation of alloying elements such as oxygen and sulphur atoms affects the activation length of dislocations

  19. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Abdullahi Dyadya; Isah, Abubakar Garba; Umaru, Musa; Ahmed, Shehu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna (Nigeria); Abdullahi, Yababa Nma [National Petroleum Investment Management Services (Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation), Lagos (Nigeria)

    2012-07-01

    Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

  20. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a)...

  1. Potassium doped MWCNTs for hydrogen storage enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabi Qomi, S.; Gashtasebi, M.; Khoshnevisan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Here we have used potassium doped MWCNTs for enhancement of hydrogen storage process. XRD and SEM images have confirmed the doping of potassium. For studying the storage process a hydrogenic battery set up has been used. In the battery the working electrode has been made of the silver foam deposited by the doped MWCNTs electrophoretically.

  2. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China. SUMMARY: The... on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  3. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China... of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to...

  4. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be...

  5. Ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    A portion of the binary phase diagram for the system ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate has been determined from -55/sup 0/C to 185/sup 0/C. Results are presented for the ammonium-nitrate-rich end of the system up to 30 wt% potassium nitrate.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections and...) of this chapter 0.25 Do. All other food categories 0.01 Do. (d) Prior sanctions for potassium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food...

  7. Development of a Chlorine Dosing Strategy for Fresh Produce Washing Process to Maintain Microbial Food Safety and Minimize Residual Chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Hung, Yen-Con

    2018-05-22

    The residual free chlorine level in fresh produce wash solution is closely correlated to the chemical and microbial safety of produce. Excess amount of free chlorine can quickly react with organic matters to form hazardous disinfection by-products (DBPs) above EPA-permitted levels, whereas deficiency of residual chlorine in produce wash solution may result in incompletely removing pathogens on produce. The purpose of this study was to develop a chlorine dosing strategy to optimize the chlorine dosage during produce washing process without impacting the microbial safety of fresh produce. Prediction equations were developed to estimate free chlorine needed to reach targeted residual chlorine at various sanitizer pH and organic loads, and then validated using fresh-cut iceberg lettuce and whole strawberries in an automated produce washer. Validation results showed that equations successfully predicted the initial chlorine concentration needed to achieve residual chlorine at 10, 30, 60, and 90 mg/L for both lettuce and strawberry washing processes, with the root mean squared error at 4.45 mg/L. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 reductions only slightly increased on iceberg lettuce and strawberries with residual chlorine increasing from 10 to 90 mg/L, indicating that lowering residual chlorine to 10 mg/L would not compromise the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine-based sanitizer. Based on the prediction equations and E. coli O157:H7 reduction results, a chlorine dosing strategy was developed to help the produce industry to maintain microbial inactivation efficacy without adding excess amount of free chlorine. The chlorine dosing strategy can be used for fresh produce washing process to enhance the microbial food safety and minimize the DBPs formation potential. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Toxic effects of chlorinated cake flour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, H M; Lawrence, G A; Tryphonas, L

    1977-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted using weanling Wistar rats to determine whether chlorinated cake flour or its constituents were toxic. Levels of 0.2 and 1.0% chlorine added to unbleached cake flour significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced growth rate by 20.7 and 85.2% and increased liver weight relative to body weight by 16.7 and 25.3%, respectively. Lipids extracted from flour chlorinated at the same levels had similar effects. Rat chow diets containing 0.2 and 0.6% chlorine in the form of chlorinated wheat gluten reduced growth rate and increased liver weight as a percentage of body weight. A rat chow diet containing 0.2% chlorine as chlorinated flour lipids increased absolute liver weight by 40%, kidney by 20%, and heart by 10% compared to pair-fed controls.

  9. Leaching of potassium in a lysimeter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1996-11-01

    Leaching of potassium was studied in the lysimeter plant in Seibersdorf/Austria (Pannonian climate). Averaged over three years, gravitational water amounted to 15.7% of the sum of precipitation (mean 485 mm) and irrigation (mean 138 mm). Differences between the four soils with respect to drainage were explained by the specific percentage of the soil skeleton. The average yearly potassium leaching ranged from 3.64 kg K/ha·yr (Dystric-Cambisol) to 22.7 kg K/ha·yr (drained Gleysol). Correlation between gravitational water volume and potassium leaching were only significant for one out of four soil types. No correlation was observed between extractable potassium in the soil profiles and potassium leaching. (author)

  10. Electron capture detection of sulphur gases in carbon dioxide at the parts-per-billion level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector has been used to determine sulphur gases in CO 2 at the parts-per-billion level, with particular application to the analysis of coolant from CO 2 cooled nuclear reactors. For COS, CS 2 , CH 3 SH, H 2 S and (CH 3 ) 2 S 2 the detector has a sensitivity comparable with the more commonly used flame photometric detector, but it is much less sensitive towards (CH 3 ) 2 S and thiophene. In addition, the paper describes a simple method for trapping sulphur gases which might enable detection of sub parts-per-billion levels of sulphur compounds. (Auth.)

  11. Sulphur and lead isotopes in strata-bound deposits, ch. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangster, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    The use of sulphur and lead isotopes as isotopic tracers in the study of ore deposits containing these elements is reviewed. A discussion of the general theory, including abundance and fractionation of sulphur isotopes, single-stage leads, and anomalous leads (two-stage) is given. Attention is paid to sulphur isotopes enclosed in deposits which are located in marine host rocks and in rocks of continental or near-continental origin, as well as in deposits of the conglomerate-U(-Au) type. The lead isotope content of volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits and carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits is discussed

  12. The separation of sulphur-35 and phosphorus-32 from urine and their subsequent estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.

    1981-07-01

    A method has been developed that will specifically separate sulphur-35 and phosphorus-32 from urine. Interfering cations are removed by cation exchange and differential precipitation is used to remove the unwanted anion(s). The anion of interest is estimated by liquid scintillation counting and recoveries are 95% for sulphur-35 and 70% for phosphorus-32. The detection limits for sulphur-35 and phosphorus-32 are estimated to be 1.5 pCi and 1.3 pCi, respectively (1 pCi = 37 mBq)

  13. Chronic potassium depletion increases adrenal progesterone production that is necessary for efficient renal retention of potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabida, Boutaïna; Edwards, Aurélie; Salhi, Amel; Azroyan, Anie; Fodstad, Heidi; Meneton, Pierre; Doucet, Alain; Bloch-Faure, May; Crambert, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Modern dietary habits are characterized by high-sodium and low-potassium intakes, each of which was correlated with a higher risk for hypertension. In this study, we examined whether long-term variations in the intake of sodium and potassium induce lasting changes in the plasma concentration of circulating steroids by developing a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in mice. One finding of this model was that mice increase their plasma progesterone levels specifically in response to potassium depletion. This prediction was confirmed by measurements in both male mice and men. Further investigation showed that progesterone regulates renal potassium handling both in males and females under potassium restriction, independent of its role in reproduction. The increase in progesterone production by male mice was time dependent and correlated with decreased urinary potassium content. The progesterone-dependent ability to efficiently retain potassium was because of an RU486 (a progesterone receptor antagonist)-sensitive stimulation of the colonic hydrogen, potassium-ATPase (known as the non-gastric or hydrogen, potassium-ATPase type 2) in the kidney. Thus, in males, a specific progesterone concentration profile induced by chronic potassium restriction regulates potassium balance.

  14. Sulphur isotope measurements on sulphates from Antarctic atmospheric precipitations, lake waters and salt efflorescences: a contribution to the study of the natural sulphur cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, U.; Maass, I.; Haendel, D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulphur isotope analyses are an important tool for the study of the natural sulphur cycle. However, on the northern hemisphere such studies particularly of the atmospheric component of the cycle are seriously hampered and in many regions practically impossible because of the high emission rate of anthropogenic sulphur. Only in remote areas of the world such as the Antarctic 34 S analyses can be used with success to identify the various natural sulphur sources (marine, biogenic and volcanic sources). We report here preliminary results of 34 S isotope measurements on sulphates from recent atmospheric precipitations (snow), lake waters and salt efflorescences sampled in the Schirmacher Oasis and the Wohlthat Massif, central Queen Maud Land, East Antarctica. Except for 4 efflorescence samples the sulphates investigated in this work are enriched in 34 S relative to the meteoritic sulphur standard (CDT). On an average the sulphates of our study area are isotopically lighter than those from the McMurdo region, South Victoria land. The latter region is characterized by the predominance of salts of marine origin. (author)

  15. Relation between chlorine with the quality of crude water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Fang Yee; Mohd Pauzi Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Chlorine as disinfection agent in drinking water was used widely since it was successfully been practiced in drinking water in Jersey City, 1908. Mostly, water treatment plants in Malaysia were using chlorine as disinfection agent to kill pathogen and contaminated materials that can be dangerous to consumer. Because of chlorine was a strongly disinfection agent, it also can react with another chemical components such as manganese, hydrogen, sulfides, ammonia and phenol in water. These reactions happen very fast, and chlorine will not react as disinfection agent unless all the organic and inorganic substitution presented in water reacts with chlorine. These reactions between components will increase demand of chlorine in water. The demand of chlorine in water must be filled before the free radical chlorine occurred. These free radical chlorine will decay into hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion that so important in disinfection process to kill pathogens and pollutants in water. Most of water treatment plant to maintain free chlorine up to 0.2 mg/ L in distribution system to consumer. These researches involved determination of parameters that can be trusted to react with the chlorine in nine sampling station along Semenyih River and four stations in water treatment plants. These parameters were determined from ammonia, cyanides, sulfides, phenol, phosphorus, nitrite, manganese, iron and sum of organic carbons. Overall, these researches concluded that ammonia and sum of organic carbons were the most compounds that react with the chlorine to produce tryhalometane and chloramines. Besides that, the concentration of cyanides compounds, sulfide, phenol, phosphorus, nitrite, manganese and iron also decrease after the chlorination process. Results can used to evaluate demanding levels of chlorine in Semenyih River. (author)

  16. Oxidative elimination of cyanotoxins: comparison of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eva; Onstad, Gretchen D; Kull, Tomas P J; Metcalf, James S; Acero, Juan L; von Gunten, Urs

    2007-08-01

    As the World Health Organization (WHO) progresses with provisional Drinking Water Guidelines of 1 microg/L for microcystin-LR and a proposed Guideline of 1 microg/L for cylindrospermopsin, efficient treatment strategies are needed to prevent cyanotoxins such as these from reaching consumers. A kinetic database has been compiled for the oxidative treatment of three cyanotoxins: microcystin-LR (MC-LR), cylindrospermopsin (CYN), and anatoxin-a (ANTX) with ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate. This kinetic database contains rate constants not previously reported and determined in the present work (e.g. for permanganate oxidation of ANTX and chlorine dioxide oxidation of CYN and ANTX), together with previously published rate constants for the remaining oxidation processes. Second-order rate constants measured in pure aqueous solutions of these toxins could be used in a kinetic model to predict the toxin oxidation efficiency of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate when applied to natural waters. Oxidants were applied to water from a eutrophic Swiss lake (Lake Greifensee) in static-dose testing and dynamic time-resolved experiments to confirm predictions from the kinetic database, and to investigate the effects of a natural matrix on toxin oxidation and by-product formation. Overall, permanganate can effectively oxidize ANTX and MC-LR, while chlorine will oxidize CYN and MC-LR and ozone is capable of oxidizing all three toxins with the highest rate. The formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the treated water may be a restriction to the application of sufficiently high-chlorine doses.

  17. Transformation mechanism of benzophenone-4 in free chlorine promoted chlorination disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Wei, Dongbin; Yin, Junxia; Wei, Guohua; Du, Yuguo

    2013-10-15

    The UV-filter BP-4 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid) has been frequently observed in the environment, showing high potentials to invade drinking water, swimming water, or wastewater reclamation treatment systems. With the help of high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 10 new products from free chlorine-promoted BP-4 disinfection have been disclosed and their possible transformation routes have been investigated. The first route is chlorine substitution of BP-4 and its transformation products, forming mono-, di-, and tri-chlorinated BP-4 analogs. The second is Baeyer-Villiger-Type oxidation, converting diphenyl ketone to phenyl ester derivatives. The third is ester hydrolysis, generating corresponding phenolic and benzoic products. The fourth is decarboxylation, replacing the carboxyl group by chloride in the benzoic-type intermediate. The fifth is desulfonation, degrading the sulfonic group through an alternative chlorine substitution on the benzene ring. Orthogonal experiments have been established to investigate the species transformed from BP-4 at different pH values and free available chlorine (FAC) dosages. The reaction pathways are strongly dependent on pH conditions, while an excessive amount of FAC eliminates BP-4 to the smaller molecules. The initial transformation of BP-4 in chlorination system follows pseudo-first-order kinetics, and its half-lives ranged from 7.48 s to 1.26 × 10(2) s. More importantly, we have observed that the FAC-treated BP-4 aqueous solution might increase the genotoxic potentials due to the generation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antiradiation effectiveness of the chlorine C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnova, O.M.; Grechka, I.I.; Znamensky, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    At present ever more attention of the experimenters in the field of search of high-effective antiray means - is directed to development of preparations from bio-active substances of a natural origin. In this connection all greater interest is caused by researches of antiray activity of these compounds, distinguished, as a rule, from known preparations of synthetic manufacture of low toxicity, absence of expressed collateral effects and possibility of course application. It has biological (antiray) activity in dozes 5-10 mg/kg and chlorine C which is derivative of chlorophil A. At present it passes tests in oncology. Porphyrines (synthetic and natural) are recently subjected to wide study as potential medicinal means, due to their ability to be accumulated in bodies of the reticulo-endothelial system and proliferous tissues, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics (fluorescence, photosensitizing action, colouring). All this testifies for the benefit of perspective use of porphyrin for treatment and diagnostics of tumors. According to the above described properties of porphyrines there is that fact, that for some of them radioprotective properties are revealed during the injections as well as before and after radiation treatment. The above said has formed the basis for study of antiray properties of the chlorine C during the experiments on small-sized laboratory animals. Antiradiation effectivity of chlorine C was studied on the mice (CBA x C57 B1) F1. Chlorine C was applied in a wide range of dozes with its' use in 3 variants: before radiation treatment, after radiation treatment, combined (before and after radiation treatment). Radioprotective activity of chlorine C reduces at an increase of a time of the injection before radiation treatment and at other ways of injection (intramuscularly, subcutaneously, per os). Studies of medical activity of chlorine C in experiments on mice have shown, that the compound does not possess medical activity. The death of

  19. Catalysts macroporosity and their efficiency in sulphur sub-dew point Claus tail gas treating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsybulevski, A.M.; Pearson, M. [Alcoa Industrial Chemicals, 16010 Barker`s Point Lane, Houston, TX (United States); Morgun, L.V.; Filatova, O.E. [All-Russian Research Institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technologies VNIIGAZ, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sharp, M. [Porocel Corporation, Westheimer, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-10-08

    The efficiency of 4 samples of alumina catalyst has been studied experimentally in the course of the Claus `tail gas` treating processes at the sulphur sub-dew point (TGTP). The samples were characterized by the same chemical and crystallographic composition, the same volume of micropores, the same surface area and the same catalytic activity but differed appreciably in the volume of macropores. An increase in the effective operation time of the catalysts before breakthrough of unrecoverable sulphur containing compounds, with the increasing macropore volume has been established. A theoretical model of the TGTP has been considered and it has been shown that the increase in the sulphur capacity of the catalysts with a larger volume of macropores is due to an increase in the catalysts efficiency factor and a slower decrease in their diffusive permeability during filling of micropores by sulphur

  20. Investigation of the possibility of binding fly ash particles by elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojković V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants in Serbia use lignite for electrical power production The secondary product of coal combustion is fly ash in the amount of 17%. Fly ash causes the pollution of air, water and soil, and also cause many human, especially lung diseases. Secondary sulphur is a product of crude oil refining. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of sulphur as a bonding material in ultra fine particle agglomeration (smaller than 63 μm in fly ash. The agglomeration should make the ash particles larger and heavy enough to fall without flying fractions. The experiments showed that during the homogenization of the ashes and sulphur from 150 to 170 °C in a reactor with intensive mixing, an amount of 15% sulphur was sufficient to bond particles and cause agglomeration without visible flying fractions.

  1. Sulphur enrichment in a sediment core from the central western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    deposited in anoxic environment. Our study indicate that the excess sulphur is mainly due to the addition of sulphides from the shallow regions by mass sedimentation processes rather than water column sulphide formation as observed in anoxic environment...

  2. Di- or polysulphide-bound biomarkers in sulphur-rich geomacromolecules as revealed by selective chemolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Kock-van Dalen, A.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur-rich, high-molecular-weight material in the alkylsulphide, the polar and the asphaltene fracions isolated from the bitumen of an immature bituminous shale from the Vena del Gesso basin (Italy) were desulphurised.

  3. Sulphur management in onion (Allium cepa) cultivation in hills of Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, R C; Sharma, R K

    2010-05-01

    Field experiment were conducted at CSK HPKV Research Farm, Palampur during Rabi seasons of 2000-01 and 2001-02, to study the response of onion (Allium cepa var Patna red) at four sulphur levels (0, 15, 30 and 60 kg ha(-1)) applied through Gypsum and S95. The analysis was done to allocate the limited availability of sulphur for maximizing net profit over fertilizer cost. The results show that the dose of sulphur under its full availability is 43.02 kg ha(-1). But under its scarce availability the maximum benefit would occur when it is applied up to 32.11 kg ha(-1) followed by even distribution of fertilizer i.e. 20 kg ha(-1). The returns following sulphur application at these rates, would be Rs 69340, 73092 and 68700 ha(-1) respectively.

  4. Total mineral material, acidity, sulphur, and nitrogen in rain and snow at Kentville, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F A; Gorham, E

    1957-01-01

    Analyses of total ash, sulphur, ph, ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen have been made on 23 monthly precipitation samples and 17 individual snow samples collected between June 1952 and May 1954 at Kentville, Nova Scotia, in a predominantly agricultural area. Mean annual supply of total mineral ash was 95 kg/ha, of sulphur 9.1 hg/ha, of ammonia nitrogen 2.8 kg/ha, and of nitrate nitrogen 1.1 kg/ha. Average pH was 5.7, and rains more acid than this exhibited higher levels of both nitrate and sulphur, and a marked correlation between the latter and ammonia. Snow samples had much lower concentrations of ash, sulphur, and nitrogen than rain samples collected in the same months, which may perhaps indicate a lower efficiency of snow flakes in removing materials from the atmosphere.

  5. The effect of nitrogen and sulphur on the agronomical and water use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nitrogen and sulphur on the agronomical and water use efficiencies of canola (Brassica napus L.) grown in selected localities of the Western Cape province, South Africa. Wonder Ngezimana, Gert A. Agenbag ...

  6. Effect of dietary molybdenum and sulphur on the copper status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in all groups receiving supplementary Mo. A dietary supplement of 70 mg Mo for a restricted period is ... Keywords: Sheep nutrition, copper toxicity, molybdenum toxicity, sulphur. ..... observation supports the suggestion by Dick, et af. (1975).

  7. Determination of trace concentrations of chlorine in aqueous solutions by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machyňák, Ľubomír; Čacho, František; Němeček, Martin; Beinrohr, Ernest

    2016-11-01

    Trace concentrations of total chlorine were determined by means of molecular absorption of indium mono-chloride (InCl) at 267.217 nm using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry. The effects of chemical modifiers and the amount of In on the sensitivity and accuracy were investigated. The optimum pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 600 °C and 1400 °C, respectively. The limit of detection and characteristic mass were found to be 0.10 ng and 0.21 ng, respectively. Potential non-spectral and spectral interferences were tested for various metals and non-metals at concentrations up to 50 mg L- 1 and for phosphoric, sulphuric and nitric acids. No spectral interferences were observed. Significant non-spectral interferences were observed with F, Br, and I at concentrations higher than 1 mg L- 1, 5 mg L- 1 and 25 mg L- 1, respectively, which is probably caused by formation of competitive indium halogen molecules. Higher concentrations of mineral acids depressed the signal owing to the formation of volatile HCl. The calibration curve was linear in the range between 0.3 and 10 ng with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.993. The elaborated method was used for the chlorine determination in various waters and a drug sample.

  8. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  9. Dispersion of chlorine at seven southern California coastal generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine chlorine concentrations and exposure time gradients of chlorine through seven coastal generating stations and (2) assess the dispersion characteristics of chlorine in the receiving waters. Remarkable variability in chlorine injection concentrations, condenser outlet concentrations, outfall concentrations, and dissipation rates between generating stations and, to a lesser extent, between surveys at the same generating station was found in this chlorine monitoring study. Other than quite consistent low injection and correspondingly low outfall concentrations at San Onofre (a generating station that had one of the more rigorous chlorine control and minimization programs in effect at the time), no recognizable patterns of chlorination could be discerned in the data. Over half of the outfall chlorine surveys had chlorine concentrations below 0.08 mg/L, which is the accepted level of detection for the titrator being used in the surveys. The post-outfall dilution calculations further showed that the chlorine that does enter the receiving water is initially diluted with entrained ambient water at a ratio of 5.2:19.0

  10. The fate of sulphur in the Cu-based Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adánez-Rubio, Iñaki; Abad, Alberto; Gayán, Pilar; García-Labiano, Francisco; Diego, Luis F. de; Adánez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 15 h of CLOU experiments using lignite were carried out in a continuously unit. • The sulphur split between fuel- and air-reactor streams in the process was analysed. • Most of the sulphur introduced with the fuel exits as SO 2 at the fuel-reactor. • The use of a carbon separation system to reduce the S emission was evaluated. • Coals with high S content can be burnt in a CLOU process with a Cu-based material. - Abstract: The Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process is a type of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) technology that allows the combustion of solid fuels with air, as with conventional combustion, through the use of oxygen carriers that release gaseous oxygen inside the fuel reactor. The aim of this work was to study the behaviour of the sulphur present in fuel during CLOU combustion. Experiments using lignite as fuel were carried out in a continuously operated 1.5 kW th CLOU unit during more than 15 h. Particles containing 60 wt.% CuO on MgAl 2 O 4 , prepared by spray drying, were used as the oxygen carrier in the CLOU process. The temperature in the fuel reactor varied between 900 and 935 °C. CO 2 capture, combustion efficiency and the sulphur split between fuel and air reactor streams in the process were analysed. Complete combustion of the fuel to CO 2 and H 2 O was found in all experiments. Most of the sulphur introduced with the fuel exited as SO 2 at the fuel reactor outlet, although a small amount of SO 2 was measured at the air reactor outlet. The SO 2 concentration in the air reactor exit flow decreased as the temperature in the fuel reactor increased. A carbon capture efficiency of 97.6% was achieved at 935 °C, with 87.9 wt.% of the total sulphur exiting as SO 2 in the fuel reactor. Both the reactivity and oxygen transport capacity of the oxygen carrier were unaffected during operation with a high sulphur content fuel, and agglomeration problems did not occur. Predictions were calculated regarding the use

  11. Spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamin, G.

    1965-04-01

    Experimental conditions have been investigated in order to obtain the highest sensitivity in spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine using the Fassel method of excitation in an inert atmosphere. The influence of the nature of the atmosphere, of the discharge conditions and of the matrix material has been investigated. The following results have been established: 1. chlorine determination is definitely possible: a working curve has been drawn between 10 μg and 100 μg, the detection limit being around 5 μg; 2. fluorine determination is not satisfactory: the detection limit is still of the order of 80 μg. The best operating conditions have been defined for both elements. (author) [fr

  12. Density of states of adsorbed sulphur atoms on pristine and defective graphene layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, J S

    2017-01-01

    The density of states for adsorbed sulphur atom on a graphene layer system is discussed for pristine graphene layer and for mono and divacancies on the graphene layer. To our knowledge this is the first time that an entire adsorption of the sulphur atom is reported at the plane of the carbon atoms, when there is a pair of closer vacancies at the graphene layer. (paper)

  13. Effects of phosphorus and sulphur on dry matter yield of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A screen-house experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) on maize dry-matter yield (MDY) in soils of five locations (Obantoko I, II, Alabata I, II, and III) in Abeokuta, Ogun State of Nigeria. Three levels of sulphur (0, 10 and 20 kg S ha–1) and phosphorus (0, 30 and 45 kg P ha–1) ...

  14. Sulphur Nutrition and its Effect on Yield and Oil Content of Oilseed Rape (Brassica Napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Varényiová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the importance of sulphur in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. nutrition as well as the effect of rising doses of sulphur in combination with nitrogen on yield, oiliness, oil production, nutrients content in seed and nutrients uptake by rapeseed. The plot–scale experiment was established in years 2013/14 and 2014/15 within the agricultural cooperative in Mojmírovce. There were four fertilization treatments on 600 m2 experimental plots in three replications in this experiment. The first treatment was unfertilized control. Other three treatments were fertilized by the same nitrogen dose of 160 kg.ha−1 and by increasing doses of sulphur. The second treatment was fertilized by a dose of 15 kg.ha−1 S, the third by a dose of 40 kg.ha−1 and a dose of 65 kg.ha−1 S was applied at the fourth treatment. The highest average yield 3.96 t.ha-1 was found when a dose of 40 kg.ha−1 S was applied. The application of sulphur in a dose of 65 kg.ha−1 was accompanied by a yield decrease by 11.4 % as compared to the treatment where a sulphur dose of 40 kg.ha−1 was used. An average oil content of 45.1, 45.5, and 44.0 % was found in treatments in which the doses of sulphur of 15, 40 and 65 kg.ha−1 were applied. No significant difference among the treatments fertilized by sulphur was found. The average oil production reached 1809, 1802 and 1595 kg.ha−1 in cases of treatments fertilized by sulphur doses of 15, 40 and 65 kg.ha−1.

  15. Gamma rays from fast neutron capture in silicon and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, A.; Nilsson, L.; Bergqvist, I.

    1975-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra from neutron capture in natural samples of silicon and sulphur have been recorded at eight neutron energies between 4 and 15 MeV. Time-of-flight techniques were used to improve the signal-to-background ratio and the gamma radiation was detected by a large NaI(Tl) scintillator. Cross sections have been determined for transitions to individual (or groups of) levels in the final nucleus. Calculations based on the direct-semidirect model show that this model gives a reasonable description of the shapes of the gamma-ray spectra, but fails to account for observed excitation functions. The inclusion of the compound-nucleus capture process gives a conclusive improvement in the description of the excitation functions, in particular at low neutron energies. The ability of the compound-nucleus model to account for the shapes of the gamma-ray spectra is as good as that of the direct-semidirect model. At higher neutron energies, an improvement is obtained for transitions to the region of weakly bound levels, where the single-particle structure is poorly known. (Auth.)

  16. Field studies with radioactive sulphur-labelled gypsum fertiliser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K.M.; Gregg, P.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of the sizes of different sulphur (S) cycling pools in the soil-pasture system have been determined in soils belonging to the recent and yellow-brown earth soil groups. Several field trials were conducted, involving applications of 35 S-labelled gypsum fertiliser. An equilibrium was attained in the specific activity of the pasture herbage at about 240 days after fertiliser application. This was used to estimate pool sizes. At all sites, the amount of S involved in cycling ranged from 105 to 292 kg S/ha, which was sufficiently large to sustain active plant growth if cycled rapidly. However, most of the S was in the inert fraction (80-90% of total soil S) which appeared not to enter the active S cycling pool. At 3 of the sites studied, the major contributor to the cycling S pool was the residues pool of plant residues and soil organisms. No relationship was found between the size of the cycling S pool and topdressing responses of pastures. The significance of the results obtained is discussed in relation to the availability of S to pasture plants. (auth)

  17. Chlorine-36 dating of continental evaporites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qi

    1990-01-01

    Teh chloring-36 production, principle and experimental method of 36 Cl dating are briefly described. The ages calculated from the 36 Cl/Cl ratios are generally concordant with those obtained by using 14 C, 230 Th and magnetostratigraphic techniques. It confirms the constancy of the chlorine input ratio over the last million years and implys that 36 Cl can provide accurate dates on continental saline sediments

  18. Microbial transformation of chlorinated aromatics in sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Beurskens, J.E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous contaminants like heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated benzenes (CBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated furans (PCDFs) are detected in the major rivers in the Netherlands. These contaminants have relatively low aqueous solubilities and bind substantially to the suspended solids in river water. Due to decreasing stream velocities in the downstream stretches of a...

  19. Thermal diffusion of chlorine in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipon, Y.; Toulhoat, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Jaffrezic, H.; Gavarini, S.; Martin, P.; Raimbault, L.; Scheidegger, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor, isotopes such as 35 Cl present as impurities in the nuclear fuel are activated by thermal neutron capture. During interim storage or geological disposal of nuclear fuel, the activation products such as 36 Cl may be released from the fuel to the geo/biosphere and contribute to the ''instant release fraction'' as they are likely to migrate in defects and grain boundaries. In order to differentiate diffusion mechanisms due to ''athermal'' processes during irradiation from thermally activated diffusion, both irradiation and thermal effects must be assessed. This work concerns the measurement of the thermal diffusion coefficient of chlorine in UO 2 . 37 Cl was implanted at a 10 13 at/cm 2 fluence in depleted UO 2 samples which were then annealed in the 900-1200 C temperature range and finally analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to obtain 37 Cl depth profiles. The migration process appears to be rather complex, involving mechanisms such as atomic, grain boundary, directed diffusion along preferential patterns as well as trapping into sinks before successive effusion. However, using a diffusion model based on general equation of transport, apparent diffusion coefficients could be calculated for 1000 and 1100 C and a mean activation energy of 4.3 eV is proposed. This value is one of the lowest values compared to those found in literature for other radionuclides pointing out a great ability of chlorine to migrate in UO 2 at relatively low temperatures. In order to unequivocally determine the diffusion behaviour of both implanted and pristine chlorine before and after thermal annealing, the structural environment of chlorine in UO 2 was examined using micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (micro-XAS). (orig.)

  20. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  1. On the fusibility of potassium heptafluorotantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agulyanskij, A.I.; Bessonova, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Phase transformations of potassium heptafluorotantalate near the liquidus temperature have been studied. Thermograms and polytherm of the electric condUctivity of potassium heptafluorotantalate, thermogram of the mechanical mixture 0.5 K 2 TaF 7 +0.5 KF and thermogram of K 3 TaF 8 crystallization are plotted. The phase diagram of the K 2 TaF 7 -KF system is presented. In the temperature range 746 to 778 deg, i.e. above K 2 TaF 7 melting point, the melt is shown to remain heterogeneous. A portion of the phase diagram rich in potassium heptafluorotantalate is qualified as an ordinary eutectics

  2. X-ray absorption in atomic potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomilsek, Jana Padeznik; Kodre, Alojz; Arcon, Iztok; Nemanic, Vincenc

    2008-01-01

    A new high-temperature absorption cell for potassium vapor is described. X-ray absorption coefficient of atomic potassium is determined in the energy interval of 600 eV above the K edge where thresholds for simultaneous excitations of 1s and outer electrons, down to [1s2p] excitation, appear. The result represents also the atomic absorption background for XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) structure analysis. The K ionization energy in the potassium vapor is determined and compared with theoretical data and with the value for the metal

  3. Sulphur isotopes in a metamorphogenic gold deposit, Macraes mine, Otago Schist, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craw, D.; Hall, A.J.; Fallick, A.E.; Boyce, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Macraes gold quartz vein deposit, New Zealand, is located in a shear zone cutting greenschist facies metasediments of the Otago Schist. The deposit has been interpreted as being metamorphogenic in origin as there is no evidence for coeval magmatic activity in the Otago Schist orogen. The immediate host rock at the Macraes deposit is pyritic (δ 34 S = -2.7 to -1.3 per mil ) and locally weakly graphitic schist, a rare rock type in the Otago Schist. Sulphur isotope analyses of pyrite and arsenopyrite extracts from auriferous veins and wall-rock schist provide a similar narrow range in δ 34 S values, from -3.0 to -1.0 per mil (n=9). The lack of isotopically depleted sulphur, the narrow range in values, and the replacement sulphide textures help discount a primary bacteriogenic origin for host-rock sulphide. Sulphide in both veins and wall rock is of hydrothermal origin. Sulphides in metasediments and metavolcanics elsewhere in the Otago Schist have δ 34 S in the narrow range -6 to +6 per mil. The sulphur isotope data are consistent with origin of hydrothermal sulphur within the metamorphic pile but provide no constraint on specific rock types which contributed the sulphur to the hydrothermal fluid. The study demonstrates that sulphur isotopic signatures near zero per mil can arise without any direct magmatic input into the mineralisation process. (author). 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well.

  5. Polioencephalomalacia in ruminants caused by excessive amount of sulphur - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutnicki Krzysztof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polioencephalomalacia as a result of sulphur excess is a growing problem in cattle and sheep, mainly in young, growing animals. It is common in different regions of the world. The disease develops favoured by certain conditions such as sustained provision of feed and water with high sulphur content, use of dietary supplements containing sulphur, and a habitat with high hydrogen sulphide concentration. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex, but very important are oxidative-antioxidative imbalance, dysfunction of vessels, and secondary cerebral cortex ischaemia as a result of direct and/or indirect action of sulphur metabolites, namely hydrogen sulphide, sulphides, and sulphites. Clinical signs and changes in the cerebral cortex in the form of degenerative necrotic lesions are similar to those observed in polioencephalomalacia caused by vitamin B1 deficiency, and lead and salt intoxication. Highly increased sulphur content (more than 0.3-0.4 of dry matter in the diet is the basis for differential diagnosis, as well the high concentration of hydrogen sulphide in gas and sulphides in rumen fluid. In prophylaxis and treatment the most important measure is to limit sulphur intake and in acute cases to neutralise low pH in rumen and administer vitamin B1 injections.

  6. Chlorination and Carbochlorination of Cerium Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Marcelo; Bohe, Ana; Pasquevich, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    The chlorination and carbochlorination of cerium oxide were studied by thermogravimetry under controlled atmosphere (TG) in the 700 0 C 950 0 C temperature range.Both reactants and products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (RX), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Thermodynamic calculations were performed by computer assisted software.The chlorination starts at a temperature close to 800 0 C.This reaction involves the simultaneous formation and evaporation of CeCl3.Both processes control the reaction rate and their kinetic may not be easily separated.The apparent chlorination activation energy in the 850 0 C-950 0 C temperature range is 172 to 5 kJ/ mole.Carbon transforms the CeO2-Cl2 into a more reactive system: CeO2-C-Cl2, where the effects of the carbon content, total flow rate and temperature were analyzed.The carbochlorination starting temperature is 700 0 C.This reaction is completed in one step controlled by mass transfer with an apparent activation energy of 56 to 5 kJ/mole in the 850 0 C-950 0 C temperature range

  7. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Yamamoto, Takeshi [Fukui Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fukui (Japan); Hatashita, Masanori [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Research Dept., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with {gamma} rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O{sub 2} concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO{sub 2}. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  8. Radioimmunoassay for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albro, P.W.; Chae, K.; Luster, M.I.; Mckinney, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention provides a double-antibody radioimmunoassay method for the determination of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, particularly, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, in environmental samples including animal tissues such as monkey liver and adipose tissues. The limit of detection is approximately 25 picograms for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Assuming an appropriate cleanup procedure is used, chlorinated dibenzofurans are the only likely interferences, and these can be distinguished through the use of two antisers of different dibenzo-furan/dibenzodioxin selectivities. The invention includes the preparation of a reproducible antigen, an appropriate radiolabeled hapten, and effective sample extracts. A feature of the assay method is the use of a nonionic detergent (e.g., ''cutscum'' or ''triton x-305'') to solubilize the extremely hydrophobic dibenzo-p-dioxins in a manner permitting their binding by antibodies. The immunoassay is applicable to screening samples in order to minimize the demand for mass spectrometric screening, and to routine monitoring for exposure to known chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in potentially contaminated environments

  9. Identification of intermediates leading to chloroform and C-4 diacids in the chlorination of humic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leer, E.W.B. de; Erkelens, Corrie; Galan, L.

    1985-01-01

    The chlorination of terrestrial humic acid was studied at pH 7. 2 with varying chlorine to carbon ratios. The principal products are chloroform, di- and trichloroacetic acid, and chlorinated C-4 diacids. At a high chlorine dose many new chlorination products were detected, among them

  10. An analytical procedure for determination of sulphur species and isotopes in boreal acid sulphate soils and sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BACKLUND

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical scheme suitable for boreal acid sulphate (AS soils and sediments was developed on the basis of existing methods. The presented procedure can be used to quantify and discriminate among acid volatile sulphide, cold chromium reducible sulphur, hot chromium reducible sulphur, elemental sulphur, sulphate sulphur, organic sulphur, total reducible sulphur and total sulphur. The sulphur fractions are recovered as either Ag2S or BaSO4 precipitates and can further be used for isotope analysis. Overlaps between sulphur species are common during speciation, and must be minimized. Some of these overlaps are caused by poor sampling and storage, inappropriate conditions during the distillation, or natural variations in the sample (e.g. Fe3+ interference and grain size. The procedural impact was determined by conducting tests on both artificial and natural samples containing one or several sulphur species. The method is applied on reduced sediment from an AS soil locality (Överpurmo and a brackish lake (Larsmo Lake in western Finland and the results, including S-isotopes, are discussed.;

  11. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition

  12. Features of copper etching in chlorine-argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.M.; Svettsov, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorine mixtures with inert gases including argon exhibit promise as plasma feed gases for etching metals and semiconductors in the microelectronics industry. It was shown that even strong dilution of reactive gas with an inert gas (up to 80-90% of the latter) has virtually no effect in decreasing the rate of plasma etching of materials such as silicon and gallium arsenide, compared to etching in pure chlorine. The principal reactive species responsible for etching these substrates are chlorine atoms therefore, a possible explanation of the effect is an increase in the rate of bulk generation of chlorine atoms in the presence of argon. In this work the authors studied the influence of argon on the rate of copper etching in chlorine, because copper, unlike the above substrates, reacts effectively not only with the atoms but with the ground-state molecules of chlorine

  13. Kinetic modelling of chlorination of nitrided ilmenite using MATLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar, E-mail: srsivakumar@usm.my; Kwok, Teong Chen, E-mail: ctck@live.com; Hamid, Sheikh Abdul Rezan Sheikh Abdul, E-mail: rezanshk@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    In the present study, chlorination of nitride ilmenite using 2{sup k} factorial design was investigated. The reduction experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 400°C to 500°C, chlorination duration from 1 hour to 3 hours and using different type of carbon reactant. Phases of raw materials and reduced samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ilmenite was reduced to TiO{sub x}C{sub y}N{sub z} through carbothermal and nitridation for further chlorination into titanium tetrachloride. The Design of Experiment analysis suggested that the types of carbon reactant contribute most influence to the extent of chlorination of nitride ilmenite. The extent of chlorination was highest at 500°C with 3 hours chlorination time and carbon nanotube as carbon reactant.

  14. Effect of potassium on micromorphological and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... study the effect of potassium on yield and internal leaf tissues composition of cotton ... Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were applied at 150 mg N/kg soil and 75 mg ..... Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts: Polyphenol.

  15. Crystal structure transformation in potassium acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai Verneker, V. R.; Vasanthakumari, R.

    1983-10-01

    Potassium acrylate undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 335°K with an activation energy of 133 kcal/mole. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction techniques have been used to probe this phenomenon.

  16. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nilesh Keshav Tumram

    2014-02-18

    Feb 18, 2014 ... particularly vitreous potassium has received most attention. It is known that ... respect to different age and sex at different death intervals. The details regarding the ... Analyser by the Ion selective method. The reagents used ...

  17. Photoconductivity and dielectric studies of potassium pentaborate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal of potassium pentaborate (KB5) has been grown by solution growth ... equipped with the Gunn Oscillator guided with rectangular wave-guide. ... its dielectric behaviour with the change of frequency has also been investigated.

  18. Regiospecific synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans with chlorine-37 excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoonseok Chang; Deinzer, M.L.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of regiospecifically chlorine-37 labeled di-and trichlorodibenzofurans is described. The strategy for introducing a chlorine-37 label regiospecifically has been to reduce the nitro derivative to the corresponding amine. The amine is converted to the diazonium salt with t-butyl nitrite, and this product is converted to the final product via the Sandmeyer reaction with chlorine-37 labeled cuprous chloride. (author)

  19. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chung-Jung

    1988-01-01

    Treatability studies were performed on oily wastewaters produced by petroleum and canning industries. Chlorine dioxide was used for the removal of phenolic compounds from these oily wastewaters. Most of phenolic compounds can be destroyed by chlorine dioxide within 15 minutes if CI02-to-phenol ratios of higher than 5.0 are provided. Factors such as pH, temperature, and COD have little effect on phenol removal. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment depends critic...

  20. Chlorine gas processing of oxide nuclear fuel particles containing thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotik, K.; Bildstein, H.; Falta, G.; Wagner, H.

    Experimental studies on the chloride extraction and separation of U and Th from coated Th--U oxide particles are reported. After a description of the chlorination equipment and the experimental procedures, the results are discussed. The yield of U is determined as a function of the reaction temperature. The results of a thermogravimetric analysis of the chlorination of uranium carbide and thorium carbides are reported and used to establish the reaction mechanism for the chlorination

  1. Leaching of copper concentrates with high arsenic content in chlorine-chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreros, O.; Fuentes, G.; Quiroz, R.; Vinals, J.

    2003-01-01

    This work reports the results of copper concentrates leaching which have high arsenic concepts (up to 2.5%). The treatments were carried out using chlorine that forms from sodium hypochlorite and sulphuric acid. The aim of this work is to obtain a solution having high copper content 4 to 6 g/l and 5 to 7 g/l free acid in order to submit it directly to a solvent extraction stage. In addition, this solution should have minimum content of arsenic and chloride ions. To carry out this investigation, an acrylic reactor was constructed where the leaching tests were made at constant temperature in a thermostatic bath under atmospheric pressure. The concentrate samples were obtained from mineral processing plants from Antofagasta, Chile. Typical variables were studied, such as leaching agent concentration, leaching time, pulp density and temperature among others. Some of the residues were analyzed by XRD and EPS. On the other hand, the solutions were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results indicate solutions having the contents stated above can be obtained. (Author) 19 refs

  2. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  3. Effect of feedstock end boiling point on product sulphur during ultra deep diesel hydrodesulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratiev, D.; Ivanov, A.; Jelyaskova, M. [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas AD, Bourgas (Bulgaria)

    2004-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to test the feasibility of producing 50 and 10 ppm sulphur diesel in a conventional hydrotreating unit operating at low pressure conditions by varying the feedstock end boiling point. Middle distillate fractions distilled from a mixture of Ural crude oil, reduced crude, vacuum gas oil, naphtha and low sulphur crude oils with 95% vol. points of 274, 359, 343, 333, and 322 C (ASTM D-86 method) and sulphur contents of 0.36, 0.63, 0.99, 0.57, and 0.47%, respectively, were hydrotreated using the Akzo Nobel Stars family Co-Mo KF-757 catalyst in a trickle bed pilot plant at following conditions: reactor inlet temperature range of 320-360 C; liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) range of 1-2 h{sup -1}; total reactor pressure of 3.5 MPa; treating gas: feedstock ratio of 250 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was found that the determinant factor for the attainment of ultra low sulphur levels during middle distillate hydrodesulphurization was not the total sulphur content in the feed but the content of the material boiling above 340 C (according to TBP). For all LHSVs and reactor inlet temperatures studied the product sulphur dependence on the feed 340 C+ fraction content was approximated by second order power law. The specification of 50 ppm sulphur was achieved with all studied feedstocks. However the 10ppm sulphur limit could be met only by feedstocks with 95% vol. points below 333 C, which is accompanied by about 10% reduction of the diesel potential. The hydrotreatment tests on a blend 80% straight run gas oil (ASTM D-86 95% vol. of 274 C)/20%FCC LCO (ASTM D-86 95% vol. of 284 C) showed product sulphur levels which were not higher than those obtained by hydrotreatment of the straight run gas oil, indicating that undercutting the FCC LCO gives the refiner the opportunity to increase the potential for the production of 10 ppm sulphur diesel at the conditions of the conventional hydrotreating unit operating at low pressure. The product cetane index was

  4. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  5. The recovery of tin, and the production of niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride, from a tin slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Tyler, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the results of testwork on the recovery of tin, niobium, and tantalum from a tin slag. The slag, which consisted mainly of amorphous silica, with varying amounts of calcuim, magnesium, manganese, iron, and aluminium, contained an average of 8,8 per cent niobium pentoxide and 6,2 per cent tantalum pentoxide. The metallic tin-ion phase was removed from the crushed slag by magnetic separation. The slag was then leached with hydrochloric acid to remove magnesium, calcium, aluminium, iron, manganese, and the remainder of the tin. Leaching with sodium hydroxide for the removal of silica and phosphorous was followed by a final leach with hydrochloric acid for the removal of sodium. The upgraded concentrate thus obtained was purified by leaching with hydrofluoric acid, solvent extraction of niobium and tantalum into tri-n-butyl phosphate and methyl isobutyl ketone, and selective stripping of niobium with sulphuric acid and tantalum with ammonium floride. Niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride were then precipitated by the addition of ammonium hydroxide and potassium fluoride to the respective strip liquors. The overall recoveries in the upgraded concentrate were 98 per cent for tantalum and 92 per cent for niobium. Dissolutions and recoveries of over 99 per cent were obtained for both tantalum and niobium in the purification steps. The niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride precipitates obtained were of high purity

  6. A new kind of Molotov? Gasoline-pool chlorinator mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutches, Katherine; Lord, James

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the reaction between pool chlorinators and gasoline. In particular, the propensity for self-ignition and the resulting chemical products were studied. An organic pool chlorinator was combined with gasoline in varying proportions in an attempt to form a hypergolic mixture. None of the combinations resulted in self-ignition, but larger quantities of chlorinator produced vigorous light-colored smoke and a solid mass containing isocyanuric acid and copper chloride. Additionally, the chlorinating abilities of different commercially available pool chlorinators were explored. When Ca(ClO)(2) and sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinators were used, the presence of gasoline was still visible after 10 days, despite limited chlorination. The trichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinator, however, caused efficient chlorination of the C(2)- and C(3)-alkylbenzenes, making gasoline no longer identifiable. 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  7. Inactivation of viruses in municipal effluent by chlorine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hajenian, H. G.; Butler, M.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of pH and temperature on the efficiency of chlorine inactivation of two unrelated picornaviruses in a typical urban wastewater effluent was examined. Temperature, unlike pH, had relatively little effect on the rate of inactivation. The pH effect was complex and the two viruses differed. The f2 coliphage was more sensitive to chlorine at low pH, but at all values there was a threshold above which additional chlorine resulted in very rapid inactivation. The amount of chlorine requ...

  8. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  9. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...... that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...... and modeling of a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. The system consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal, a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an ORC. Results of numerical modeling efforts suggest...

  10. DBP formation from degradation of DEET and ibuprofen by UV/chlorine process and subsequent post-chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdam, Ehsan; Xiang, Yingying; Sun, Jianliang; Shang, Chii; Yang, Xin; Fang, Jingyun

    2017-08-01

    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the degradation of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzoyl amide (DEET) and ibuprofen (IBP) by the ultraviolet irradiation (UV)/chlorine process and subsequent post-chlorination was investigated and compared with the UV/H 2 O 2 process. The pseudo first-order rate constants of the degradation of DEET and IBP by the UV/chlorine process were 2 and 3.1 times higher than those by the UV/H 2 O 2 process, respectively, under the tested conditions. This was due to the significant contributions of both reactive chlorine species (RCS) and hydroxyl radicals (HO) in the UV/chlorine process. Trichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone and dichloroacetic acid were the major known DBPs formed after 90% of both DEET and IBP that were degraded by the UV/chlorine process. Their yields increased by over 50% after subsequent 1-day post-chlorination. The detected DBPs after the degradation of DEET and IBP comprised 13.5% and 19.8% of total organic chlorine (TOCl), respectively, and the proportions increased to 19.8% and 33.9% after subsequent chlorination, respectively. In comparison to the UV/H 2 O 2 process accompanied with post-chlorination, the formation of DBPs and TOCl in the UV/chlorine process together with post-chlorination was 5%-63% higher, likely due to the generation of more DBP precursors from the attack of RCS, in addition to HO. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Transverse thermal magnetoresistance of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newrock, R.S.; Maxfield, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of extensive thermal magnetoresistance measurements on single-crystal and polycrystalline specimens of potassium having residual resistance ratios (RRR) ranging from 1100 to 5300. Measurements were made between 2 and 9 0 K for magnetic fields up to 1.8 T. The observed thermal magnetoresistance cannot be understood on the basis of either semiclassical theories or from the electrical magnetoresistance and the Wiedemann-Franz law. A number of relationships are observed between the thermal and electrical magnetoresistances, many of which are not immediately obvious when comparing direct experimental observations. The thermal magnetoresistance W(T,H) is given reasonably well by W(T,H)T = W(T,0)T + AH + BH 2 , where both A and B are temperature-dependent coefficients. Results show that A = A 0 + A 1 T 3 , while B(T) cannot be expressed as any simple power law. A 0 is dependent on the RRR, while A 1 is independent of the RRR. Two relationships are found between corresponding coefficients in the electrical and thermal magnetoresistance: (i) the Wiedmann--Franz law relates A 0 to the Kohler slope of the electrical magnetoresistance and (ii) the temperature-dependent portions of the electrical and thermal Kohler slopes are both proportional to the electron--phonon scattering contribution to the corresponding zero-field resistance. The latter provides evidence that inelastic scattering is very important in determining the temperature-dependent linear magnetoresistances. Part, but by no means all, of the quadratic thermal resistance is accounted for by lattice thermal conduction. It is concluded that at least a portion of the anomalous electrical and thermal magnetoresistances is due to intrinsic causes and not inhomogeneities or other macroscopic defects

  12. Pulse radiolysis investigations on the oxidation of bilirubin by chlorinated peroxyl radicals (Preprint No. RC.18)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Hari; Gopinathan, C.

    1989-01-01

    Chlorinated peroxyl radicals were observed to oxidize bilirubin. The rate constants, estimated from the formation kinetics of bilirubin cation, were observed to decrease with decrease in the chlorine substitution of various chlorinated peroxyl radicals. (author)

  13. Comparison of the SAWNUC model with CLOUD measurements of sulphuric acid-water nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ickes, Luisa; Almeida, Joao; Amorim, Antonio; Barmet, Peter; Bianchi, Federico; Dommen, Josef; Dunne, Eimear M; Duplissy, Jonathan; Franchin, Alessandro; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Kürten, Andreas; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Rondo, Linda; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomé, António; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Wagner, Paul E; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-10-27

    Binary nucleation of sulphuric acid-water particles is expected to be an important process in the free troposphere at low temperatures. SAWNUC (Sulphuric Acid Water Nucleation) is a model of binary nucleation that is based on laboratory measurements of the binding energies of sulphuric acid and water in charged and neutral clusters. Predictions of SAWNUC are compared for the first time comprehensively with experimental binary nucleation data from the CLOUD chamber at European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experimental measurements span a temperature range of 208-292 K, sulphuric acid concentrations from 1·10 6 to 1·10 9  cm -3 , and distinguish between ion-induced and neutral nucleation. Good agreement, within a factor of 5, is found between the experimental and modeled formation rates for ion-induced nucleation at 278 K and below and for neutral nucleation at 208 and 223 K. Differences at warm temperatures are attributed to ammonia contamination which was indicated by the presence of ammonia-sulphuric acid clusters, detected by an Atmospheric Pressure Interface Time of Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. APi-TOF measurements of the sulphuric acid ion cluster distributions ( (H2SO4)i·HSO4- with i = 0, 1, ..., 10) show qualitative agreement with the SAWNUC ion cluster distributions. Remaining differences between the measured and modeled distributions are most likely due to fragmentation in the APi-TOF. The CLOUD results are in good agreement with previously measured cluster binding energies and show the SAWNUC model to be a good representation of ion-induced and neutral binary nucleation of sulphuric acid-water clusters in the middle and upper troposphere.

  14. Modified sulphur cement: A low porosity encapsulation material for low, medium and alpha waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalen, A. van; Rijpkema, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Modified sulphur cement, available under the trade name Chement 2000, is a thermoplastic candidate material for the matrix of low, intermediate and alpha radioactive waste. The main source of sulphur is the desulphurization of fossil fuels. In view of the future increase of this product a modified compound of sulphur has been developed at the US Bureau of Mines. Modified sulphur cement as matrix material has properties in common with Portland or blast furnace cement and bitumen. The mechanical strength is comparable to hydraulic cement products. The process to incorporate waste materials is identical to bitumization. The leachability and the resistance to attack by chemicals is nearly the same as for bituminized products. This study showed also that the radiation resistance is high without radiolytic gas production and without change in dimensions (swelling). The rigidity of the matrix is a disadvantage when internal pressures are built up. The thermal conductivity and the heat of combustion of sulphur is low resulting in slow damage to the waste form under fire conditions, even when the temperature of self ignition in air is 220 0 C. The low leachability, the very slow effective diffusion of H 2 O and HTO, and the low permeability is due to the small pore diameters in the modified sulphur matrix. The loading capacity of modified sulphur cement depends on grain size and distribution and is for ungraded ashes, precipitates, dried sludges, etc., in the order of 40-50% of weight. The price of Chement 2000 per tonne is equal to those of blown bitumen

  15. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines: Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G. M.

    2018-02-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper describes changes in chemical and δ37Cl signatures observed in a 1750 h isothermal evaporation experiment on hyperacid (pH 0.1) sulphate-chloride brine water from the active lake of Kawah Ijen volcano (Indonesia). Although gypsum was the only evaporite mineral identified in the evolving brine, decreasing Si concentrations may ultimately result in amorphous silica precipitation. Geochemical simulations predict the additional formation of elemental sulphur at lower water activities (aH2O ≤ 0.65) that were not reached in the experiment. Absence of other sulphates and halides despite the high load of dissolved elements (initial TDS ca. 100 g/kg) can be attributed to increased solubility of metals, promoted by extensive formation of complexes between the variety of cations and the major anions (HSO4-, Cl-, F-) present. Chlorine deviations from a conservative behaviour point to losses of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl(g)) and consequently an increase in Br/Cl ratios. Chlorine isotope fractionation that accompanied the escape of HCl(g) showed a marked change in sign and magnitude in the course of progressive evaporation of the brine. The calculated factor of fractionation between HCl(g) and dissolved Cl for the initial interval (before 500 h) is positive (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = + 1.55 ± 0.49‰to + 3.37 ± 1.11‰), indicating that, at first, the escaping HCl(g) was isotopically heavier than the dissolved Cl remaining in the brine. Conversely, fractionation shifted to the opposite direction in the subsequent interval (1000lnαHCl(g)-Cldiss. = 5.67 ± 0.17‰to - 5.64 ± 0.08‰), in agreement with values reported in literature. It is proposed that Cl isotopic fractionation in

  16. Skeletal and chlorine effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts of chlorinated polycyclic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa V.E.U.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish a comparative analysis of chemical shifts caused by ring compression effects or by the presence of a chlorine atom on strained chlorinated carbons, a series of the chlorinated and dechlorinated polycyclic structures derived from "aldrin" (5 and "isodrin" (14 was studied. Compounds were classified in four different groups, according to their conformation and number of ring such as: endo-exo and endo-endo tetracyclics, pentacyclics and hexacyclics. The 13C chemical shift comparison between the chlorinated and dechlorinated compounds showed that when C-9 and C-10 are olefinic carbons, it occurs a shielding of 0.5-2.4 ppm for endo-endo tetracyclics and of 4.7-7.6 ppm for endo-exo tetracyclic. The chemical shift variation for C-11 reaches 49-53 ppm for endo-exo and endo-endo tetracyclics, 54 ppm for pentacyclic and 56-59 ppm for hexacyclic compounds. From these data, it was possible to observe the influence of ring compression on the chemical shifts.

  17. Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Michael J. Truex; Charles J. Newell; Brian Looney

    2007-02-28

    Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in the remediation of chlorinated solvents from the subsurface. Yet these pervasive contaminants continue to present a significant challenge to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), other federal agencies, and other public and private organizations. The physical and chemical properties of chlorinated solvents make it difficult to rapidly reach the low concentrations typically set as regulatory limits. These technical challenges often result in high costs and long remediation time frames. In 2003, the DOE through the Office of Environmental Management funded a science-based technical project that uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's technical protocol (EPA, 1998) and directives (EPA, 1999) on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as the foundation on which to introduce supporting concepts and new scientific developments that will support remediation of chlorinated solvents based on natural attenuation processes. This project supports the direction in which many site owners want to move to complete the remediation of their site(s), that being to complete the active treatment portion of the remedial effort and transition into MNA. The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and

  18. A current driven capacitively coupled chlorine discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shuo; Gudmundsson, J T

    2014-01-01

    The effect of driving current, driving frequency and secondary electrons on capacitively coupled chlorine discharge is systematically investigated using a hybrid approach consisting of a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation and a volume-averaged global model. The driving current is varied from 20 to 80 A m −2 , the driving frequency is varied from 13.56 to 60 MHz and the secondary electron emission coefficient is varied from 0.0 to 0.4. Key plasma parameters including electron energy probability function, electron heating rate, ion energy and angular distributions are explored and their variations with control parameters are analyzed and compared with other discharges. Furthermore, we extend our study to dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled chlorine discharge by adding a low-frequency current source and explore the effect of the low-frequency source on the discharge. The low-frequency current density is increased from 0 to 4 A m −2 . The flux of Cl 2 + ions to the surface increases only slightly while the average energy of Cl 2 + ions to the surface increases almost linearly with increasing low-frequency current, which shows possible independent control of the flux and energy of Cl 2 + ions by varying the low-frequency current in a DF capacitively coupled chlorine discharge. However, the increase in the flux of Cl + ions with increasing low-frequency current, which is mainly due to the increased dissociation fraction of the background gas caused by extra power supplied by the low-frequency source, is undesirable. (paper)

  19. Sonolysis of chlorinated compounds in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myung Hee; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Young Uk; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2007-02-01

    To examine the reaction rates of sonochemical degradation of aqueous phase carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and 1,2,3-trichloropropane at various temperatures, power intensities, and saturating gases, the batch tests were carried out. The degradations of chlorinated hydrocarbons were analyzed as pseudo first order reactions and their reaction rate constants were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-3)/min. The reaction was fast at the low temperature with higher power intensity. Also, the reaction went fast with the saturating gas with high specific heat ratio, high solubility and low thermal conductivity. The main mechanism of destruction of chemicals was believed the thermal combustion in the bubble.

  20. Chlorine and bromine solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R. Jr.; Cleveland, B.T.; Rowley, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The solar neutrino experiment based upon the neutrino capture reaction 37 Cl (ν, e - ) 37 Ar has been in operation in the Homestake Gold Mine at Lead, South Dakota since 1967. The results of this experiment are well known, and have been reported most recently to the solar neutrino conference at Lead in 1984. We report here the latest results from this experiment. A radiochemical neutrino detector based upon the neutrino capture reaction 81 Br (ν, e - ) 81 Kr* → 81 Kr has recently been shown to be feasible. Our plans for performing a full scale test of the method using the Homestake chlorine detector are discussed briefly. 8 refs

  1. Biological Chlorine Cycling in Arctic Peat Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamal, J. E.; Raab, T. K.; Lipson, D.

    2014-12-01

    Soils of the Arctic tundra near Barrow, Alaska are waterlogged and anoxic throughout most of the profile due to underlying permafrost. Microbial communities in these soils are adapted for the dominant anaerobic conditions and are capable of a surprising diversity of metabolic pathways. Anaerobic respiration in this environment warrants further study, particularly in the realm of electron cycling involving chlorine, which preliminary data suggest may play an important role in arctic anaerobic soil respiration. For decades, Cl was rarely studied outside of the context of solvent-contaminated sites due to the widely held belief that it is an inert element. However, Cl has increasingly become recognized as a metabolic player in microbial communities and soil cycling processes. Organic chlorinated compounds (Clorg) can be made by various organisms and used metabolically by others, such as serving as electron acceptors for microbes performing organohalide respiration. Sequencing our arctic soil samples has uncovered multiple genera of microorganisms capable of participating in many Cl-cycling processes including organohalide respiration, chlorinated hydrocarbon degradation, and perchlorate reduction. Metagenomic analysis of these soils has revealed genes for key enzymes of Cl-related metabolic processes such as dehalogenases and haloperoxidases, and close matches to genomes of known organohalide respiring microorganisms from the Dehalococcoides, Dechloromonas, Carboxydothermus, and Anaeromyxobacter genera. A TOX-100 Chlorine Analyzer was used to quantify total Cl in arctic soils, and these data were examined further to separate levels of inorganic Cl compounds and Clorg. Levels of Clorg increased with soil organic matter content, although total Cl levels lack this trend. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) was used to provide information on the structure of Clorg in arctic soils, showing great diversity with Cl bound to both aromatic and alkyl groups

  2. Effect of polacrilin potassium as disintegrant on bioavailability of diclofenac potassium in tablets : a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Mrudula H; Derle, Diliprao V

    2012-09-01

    Polacrilin potassium is an ion exchange resin used in oral pharmaceutical formulations as a tablet disintegrant. It is a weakly acidic cation exchange resin. Chemically, it is a partial potassium salt of a copolymer of methacrylic acid with divinyl benzene. It ionizes to an anionic polymer chain and potassium cations. It was hypothesized that polacrilin potassium may be able to improve the permeability of anionic drugs according to the Donnan membrane phenomenon. The effect of polacrilin potassium on the permeability of diclofenac potassium, used as a model anionic drug, was tested in vitro using diffusion cells and in vivo by monitoring serum levels in rats. The amount of drug permeated across a dialysis membrane in vitro was significantly more in the presence of polacrilin potassium. Significant improvement was found in the extent of drug absorption in vivo. It could be concluded that polacrilin potassium may be used as a high-functionality excipient for improving the bioavailability of anionic drugs having poor gastrointestinal permeability.

  3. Effect of sulphur fertilisation on yield and quality of white mustard seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of different forms of sulphur on yields and qualitative parameters of white mustard seeds. This topic was studied in 2004 in the form of a pot trial in a vegetation hall and linked up with an identical experiment with spring wheat conducted in 2003. Besides the control variant not fertilised with sulphur (1 we fertilised the soil with elemental sulphur (2, ammonium sulphate (3 and gypsum (4 and applied foliar dressing of elemental sulphur with bentonite (5. For all variants the nitrogen dose was 0.9 g per pot (0.15 g . kg−1 of soil and for va­riants 2 to 4 it was 1 g of sulphur per pot (0.17 g. kg−1 of soil. Foliar dressing of elemental sulphur (S0 was not applied until the stage of six true leaves in a dose of 10 kg per ha (0.032 g per pot.Significantly higher yields of white mustard seeds were achieved after foliar application of S0 which can be also due to its fungicide action. The variants where gypsum was applied showed the highest average number of branches and pods and also straw yields. After gypsum fertilisation or foliar application of S0 the oil content in the mustard seeds exceeded 25%; this is the minimal content required for the production of good quality mustard. The 1000-seed weight was significantly higher after foliar application of S0. The proportion of seeds greyish on the surface, a sign of mildew, significantly decreased after fertilisation with all forms of sulphur, but most of all after foliar application of S0.Fertilisation with ammonium sulphate reduced the exchangeable soil reaction after harvest. On the other hand gypsum alkalised the soil environment and increased the content of available calcium and water-soluble sulphur. The soil of the variant where foliar dressing of S0 was applied had a higher content of available calcium after harvest. The least amount of available sulphur and phosphorus in the soil was seen after foliar

  4. Fractal and variability analysis of simulations in ozone level due to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rashmi; Pruthi, Dimple

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air. These pollutants are detrimental to human the planet as a whole. Apart from causing respiratory infections and pulmonary disorders, rising levels of Nitrogen Dioxide is worsening ozone pollution. Formation of Ground-level ozone involves nitrogen oxides and volatile gases in the sunlight. Volatile gases are emitted from vehicles primarily. Ozone is harmful gas and its exposure can trigger serious health effects as it damages lung tissues. In order to decrease the level of ozone, level of oxides leading to ozone formation has to be dealt with. This paper deals with the simulations in ozone due to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. The data from Central Pollution Control Board shows positive correlation for ozone with oxides of sulphur and nitrogen for RK Puram, Delhi in India where high concentration of ozone has been found. The correlation between ozone and sulphur, nitrogen oxides is moderate during summer while weak during winters. Ozone with nitrogen and sulphur dioxide follow persistent behavior as Hurst exponent is between 0.5 and 1. The fractal dimension for Sulphur dioxide is 1.4957 indicating the Brownian motion. The behavior of ozone is unpredictable as index of predictability is close to zero.

  5. Thermal stability studies on atomically clean and sulphur passivated InGaAs surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalit; Hughes, Greg [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-03-15

    High resolution synchrotron radiation core level photoemission measurements have been used to study the high temperature stability of sulphur passivated InGaAs surfaces and comparisons made with atomically clean surfaces subjected to the same annealing temperatures. Sulphur passivation of clean InGaAs surfaces prepared by the thermal removal of an arsenic capping layer was carried out using an in situ molecular sulphur treatment in ultra high vacuum. The elemental composition of the surfaces of these materials was measured at a series of annealing temperatures up to 530 C. Following a 480 C anneal In:Ga ratio was found to have dropped by 33% on sulphur passivated surface indicating a significant loss of indium, while no drop in indium signal was recorded at this temperature on the atomically InGaAs surface. No significant change in the As surface concentration was measured at this temperature. These results reflect the reduced thermal stability of the sulphur passivated InGaAs compared to the atomically clean surface which has implications for device fabrication. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Trends in atmospheric deposition fluxes of sulphur and nitrogen in Czech forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hůnová, Iva; Maznová, Jana; Kurfürst, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We present the temporal trends and spatial changes of deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Czech forests based on records from long-term monitoring. A statistically significant trend for sulphur was detected at most of the sites measuring for wet, dry, and total deposition fluxes and at many of these the trend was also present for the period after 2000. The spatial pattern of the changes in sulphur deposition flux between 1995 and 2011 shows the decrease over the entire forested area in a wide range of 18.1–0.2 g m −2 year −1 with the most pronounced improvement in formerly most impacted regions. Nitrogen still represents a considerable stress in many areas. The value of nitrogen deposition flux of 1 g m −2 year −1 is exceeded over a significant portion of the country. On an equivalent basis, the ion ratios of NO 3 − /SO 4 2− and NH 4 + /SO 4 2− in precipitation show significantly increasing trends in time similarly to those of pH. -- Highlights: • Significant decrease of sulphur deposition at most of sites has been recorded. • Nitrogen deposition still represents a considerable stress in Czech forests. • Significantly increasing trends of NO 3 − /SO 4 2− , NH 4 + /SO 4 2− , and pH in precipitation. -- While sulphur deposition significantly decreased with the highest improvement in formerly most affected areas, nitrogen deposition still represents a considerable stress in Czech forests

  7. Pore development in anodic alumina in sulphuric acid and borax electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vergara, S.J.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Habakaki, H.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of porous anodic films on an Al-3.5 at.%W alloy is compared in sulphuric acid and borax electrolytes in order to investigate pore development processes. The findings disclose that for anodizing in sulphuric acid, the pores develop mainly due to the influences of field-induced plasticity of the film and growth stresses; in borax, field-assisted dissolution dominates. The films formed in sulphuric acid are consequently much thicker than the layer of oxidized alloy and tungsten species are retained in the film. In contrast, with borax, the films and oxidized alloy layers are of similar thickness and tungsten species are lost to the electrolyte. Efficiencies of film growth are also significantly different, about 65% in sulphuric acid and about 52% in borax. The retention of tungsten species during anodizing in sulphuric acid is due to the localization of tungsten in the inner regions of the barrier layer and cell walls, with a layer of anodic alumina separating the tungsten-containing regions from the electrolyte. For borax, the tungsten is distributed more uniformly through the film material, enabling loss of tungsten species to the electrolyte from the pore base

  8. Growth and yield response of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) to sulphur and boron application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.; Shah, S.A.; Tanveer, A.; Rehman, H.U.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the growth and yield response of sunflower to sulphur and boron application. Sulphur (control, 15, 30 kg/ha) and foliar sprays of 1% boron solution (control, spray at 4 week after emergence, 20 days after first spray, at 4 weeks after germination + 20 days after first spray) was applied in soil. The results showed significant increase of all growth and yield parameters by varying levels of sulphur and boron application. Application of 30 kg sulphur/ha enhanced stem diameter (1.99 cm), number of achene per head (765.75) and oil content (36.42%). In case of combined use of sulphur and boron application, maximum plant height (171 cm), head diameter (20.71 cm), 1000-achene weight (54.56 g), biological yield (16.49 t/ha) and achene yield (3.99 t/ha) was recorded by the application of 2 sprays of boron solution (1%) at 4 weeks after germination and reproductive stage. (author)

  9. Leaching of vanadium from sulphuric acid manufacture spent catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Diego Juan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of vanadium contained in spent catalysts from the manufacture of sulphuric acid has been studied in this work, resulting in an industrial multistage process for the treatment of them avoiding direct deposition or dumping. Characterization of supplied spent catalysts samples, confirmed vanadium levels showed in the literature. The study of variables influencing leaching process: type of leaching agent, leaching agent concentration, S/L ratio, stirring speed and temperature, allows to fix the most advantageous conditions using industrial application criterion and verifying that the process is difusión controlled. The work is completed by developing an industrial leaching cycle simulation with the aim of reproducing real performance of spent catalyst, proposing operating conditions, and verifying the non-toxic character of the final residue obtained.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la recuperación del vanadio contenido en los catalizadores agotados procedentes de la fabricación del ácido sulfúrico, planteando un proceso industrial multietapa para el tratamiento de estos residuos, evitando su deposición o vertido directos. La caracterización de las muestras de catalizadores agotados disponibles confirmó los valores encontrados en la bibliografía. Se estudiaron las variables que influyen en el proceso de lixiviación (tipo de agente de lixiviación y concentración del mismo, relación S/L, velocidad de agitación y temperatura definiendo las condiciones más adecuadas desde el punto de vista industrial y verificando que el proceso está controlado por mecanismos difusionales. El trabajo se completa con la simulación de un ciclo industrial de lavado del catalizador y la verificación de la nula toxicidad de los lixiviados obtenidos por degradación del residuo final. 24 Aplicación de la resistencia de ruido al estudio de pinturas ricas en zinc Noise resistance applied to the study of zinc rich paints

  10. pH-dependent toxicity of sulphur mustard in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Vair, Cory; Nelson, Peggy; Shei Yimin; Bjarnason, Stephen; Tenn, Catherine; McWilliams, Michael; Villanueva, Mercy; Burczyk, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sulphur mustard (HD) toxicity on intracellular (pH i ) and extracellular pH was examined in CHO-K1 cells. HD produced an immediate and significant concentration-dependent decline in cytosolic pH, and also inhibited the mechanisms responsible for restoring pH i to physiological values. The concentration-response of HD-induced cytosolic acidification, closely paralleled the acidification of the extracellular buffer through HD hydrolysis. A viability study was carried out in order to assess the importance of HD-induced cytosolic acidification. Cultures were exposed to HD for 1 h in media that were adjusted through a pH range (pH 5.0-10), and the 24 h LC 50 values were assessed using the viability indicator dye alamarBlue TM . The toxicity of HD was found to be dependent on extracellular pH, with a greater than eight-fold increase in LD 50 obtained in cultures treated with HD at pH 9.5, compared to those treated at pH 5.0. Assays of apoptotic cell death, including morphology, soluble DNA, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL also showed that as pH was increased, much greater HD concentrations were required to cause cell death. The modest decline in HD half-life measured in buffers of increasing pH, did not account for the protective effects of basic pH. The early event(s) that HD initiates to eventually culminate in cell death are not known. However, based on the data obtained in this study, we propose that HD causes an extracellular acidification through chemical hydrolysis and that this, in both a concentration and temporally related fashion, results in cytosolic acidification. Furthermore, HD also acts to poison the antiporter systems responsible for maintaining physiological pH i , so that the cells are unable to recover from this insult. It is this irreversible decline in pH i that initiates the cascade of events that results in HD-induced cell death

  11. Release model for black liquor droplet; Mustalipeaepisaran vapautumismalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The release of sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur from black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification is studied by modelling work. A model for drying, pyrolysis and swelling of black liquor has been developed earlier. A submodel for the release of sulphur, which takes place at temperatures below 500 deg C has been incorporated to this model. A previous model for the combustion and gasification of char particles has been further developed to account for the effect of sodium, potassium and chlorine. A model for the release of these components as function of time has been developed. (orig.)

  12. Bacterial oxidation of low-chlorinated compounds under anoxic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons belong to the most frequently encountered contaminants in soil and groundwater. Many of them were found to be toxic and recalcitrant, which causes a potential threat to the environment. Therefore, it is of great importance that sites contaminated with chlorinated

  13. 78 FR 66767 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...)] Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Japan of chlorinated isocyanurates, provided for in subheadings 2933.69... (LTFV) from Japan and subsidized by the Government of China.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2...

  14. Chlorine-containing natural compounds in higher plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    More than 130 chlorine-containing compounds have been isolated from higher plants and ferns; about half are polyacetylenes, thiophenes and sesquiterpene lactones from the Asteraceae. A chlorinated chlorophyll may be an important part of photosystem 1. High biological activity is found in 4...

  15. Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, K.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Pankow,J.F. & Cherry,J.A.: Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater. Waterloo Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 1996......Anmeldelse af Pankow,J.F. & Cherry,J.A.: Dense chlorinated solvents and other DNAPLs in groundwater. Waterloo Press, Portland, Oregon, USA, 1996...

  16. UASB reactor effluent disinfection by ozone and chlorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro da Silvia, G.H.; Bruning, H.; Gerrity, D.; Daniel, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the sequential ozone and chlorine process with respect to, the inactivation of indicator bacteria and the formation of ozone disinfection byproducts in sanitary wastewater effluent. The applied ozone doses were 5, 8 and 10 mg.O3.L-1, followed by chlorine doses of 10, 20 and 30

  17. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qiao, Juan, E-mail: qjuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Yun, E-mail: luyun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  18. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Atmosphereic Inorganic Chlorine Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last five years substantial progress has been made in defining the realm of new chlorine chemistry in the polar stratosphere. Application of existing experimental techniques to potentially important chlorine-containing compounds has yielded quantitative kinetic and spectroscopic data as well as qualitative mechanistic insights into the relevant reactions.

  20. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffman, V.G.; Gorokhovsky, A.V.; Kompan, M.M.; Tretyachenko, E.V.; Telegina, O.S.; Kovnev, A.V.; Fedorov, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 10 4 –10 5 . • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10 −2 to 10 −6 –10 −7 Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10 −2 Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10 −6 –10 −7 Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 10 4 –10 5 . This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures

  1. Preliminary GRS Measurement of Chlorine Distribution on Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Taylor, G. J.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ongoing measurements with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard Mars Odyssey provide preliminary detection of chlorine at the surface of Mars. Summing all data since boom deployment and using a forward calculation model, we estimate values for chlorine concentration at 5° resolution. Rebinning this data and smoothing with a 15-degree-radius boxcar filter reveal regions of noticeable chlorine enrichment at scales larger than the original 5° resolution and allow for preliminary comparison with previous Mars datasets. Analyzing chlorine concentrations within 30 degrees of the equator, we find a negative correlation with thermal inertia (R2=0.55) and positive correlation with albedo (R2=0.52), indicating that chlorine is associated with fine, non-rock surface materials. Although possibly a smoothing artifact, the spatial correlation is more noticeable in the region covering Tharsis and Amazonis than around Arabia and Elysium. Additionally, a noticeable region of chlorine enrichment appears west of Tharsis Montes ( ˜0 to 20N, ˜110 to 150W) and chlorine concentration is estimated to vary in the equatorial region by over a factor of two. A simplified two-component model involving chlorine-poor rocks and a homogenous chlorine-rich fine material requires rock abundance to vary from zero to over 50%, a result inconsistent with previous measurements and models. In addition to variations in rock composition and distribution, substantial variations in chlorine content of various types of fine materials including dust, sand, and duricrust appear important in explaining this preliminary observation. Surprisingly, visual comparison of surface units mapped by Christensen and Moore (1992) does not show enrichment in chlorine associated with regions of indurated surfaces, where cementation has been proposed. Rather, Tharsis, a region of active deposition with proposed mantling of 0.1 to 2 meters of recent dust (Christensen 1986), shows the greatest chlorine signal. In light of

  2. Effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins on soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchlebová, Jitka; Cernohlávková, Jitka; Kobeticová, Klára; Lána, Jan; Sochová, Ivana; Hofman, Jakub

    2007-06-01

    Despite the fact that chlorinated paraffins have been produced in relatively large amounts, and high concentrations have been found in sewage sludge applied to soils, there is little information on their concentrations in soils and the effect on soil organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of chlorinated paraffins in soils. The effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (64% chlorine content) on invertebrates (Eisenia fetida, Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus albidus, Enchytraeus crypticus, Caenorhabditis elegans) and substrate-induced respiration of indigenous microorganisms were studied. Differences were found in the sensitivity of the tested organisms to short-chain chlorinated paraffins. F. candida was identified as the most sensitive organism with LC(50) and EC(50) values of 5733 and 1230 mg/kg, respectively. Toxicity results were compared with available studies and the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of 5.28 mg/kg was estimated for the soil environment, based on our data.

  3. Release of chlorine from biomass at gasification conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkman, E.; Stroemberg, B. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the project was to investigate the influence of different gasifying atmospheres on the release of chlorine from biomass during gasification conditions. Furthermore, the purpose was also to try and identify the formed chloro compounds. The results showed that O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} had negligible effect on the chlorine release at temperatures under 700 deg C. At temperatures above 800 deg C the reactivity towards CO{sub 2} increased and could be seen as higher chlorine release and less solid residue. No chloro organic compounds (aliphatic one to six carbons or aromatic one to two rings) could be detected in the tar or the fuel gas produced during pyrolysis/gasifying. On the other hand, comparable amounts of chlorinated benzenes were found in the cooling section during combustion of lucerne and of synthetic waste, indicating that oxygen is essential for chlorination reactions. 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  4. Release of chlorine from biomass at gasification conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerkman, E.; Stroemberg, B.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the project was to investigate the influence of different gasifying atmospheres on the release of chlorine from biomass during gasification conditions. Furthermore, the purpose was also to try and identify the formed chloro compounds. The results showed that O 2 , H 2 O and CO 2 had negligible effect on the chlorine release at temperatures under 700 deg C. At temperatures above 800 deg C the reactivity towards CO 2 increased and could be seen as higher chlorine release and less solid residue. No chloro organic compounds (aliphatic one to six carbons or aromatic one to two rings) could be detected in the tar or the fuel gas produced during pyrolysis/gasifying. On the other hand, comparable amounts of chlorinated benzenes were found in the cooling section during combustion of lucerne and of synthetic waste, indicating that oxygen is essential for chlorination reactions. 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  5. Detecting chlorinated hydrocarbon residues: Rachel Carson's villains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Anthony S

    2012-07-01

    In 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring drew the public's attention to the deleterious effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons employed as economic poisons in agriculture. However, she did not discuss how their residues could be routinely identified and quantified. In part, this was because the introduction of instruments for use in environmental analysis had only just begun, and she was probably unaware of their existence. The development of the instrumental methods began in industry, particularly at Dow and Shell, in the mid-1950s. Dow scientists, by combining mass spectrometry with gas chromatography, developed the most powerful technique, then and now, for the separation, quantitation and identification of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Shell scientists were no less innovative, particularly with the application of highly sensitive gas chromatography detectors to trace analysis. The first of these detectors, the electron capture detector, was invented by James Lovelock at the National Institute of Medical Research, North London, at the end of the 1950s. Around the same time, Dale Coulson in the USA developed his microcoulometric detector.

  6. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in a pelagic community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    For several years data have been accruing on the distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine ecosystems. An overall picture of ambient levels in biota, water and sediments is now emerging however, despite the vast amount of data collected to date, questions still arise as to whether certain pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons are indeed magnified through the marine food web. Evidence both for and against trophic concentration of PCB and DDT compounds has been cited. The answer to this question remains unclear due to lack of adequate knowledge on the relative importance of food and water in the uptake of these compounds as well as the fact that conclusions are often confounded by comparing pollutant concentrations in successive links in the food chain sampled at different geographical locations and/or at different points in time. The situation is further complicated by complex prey-predator relationships that exist in many marine communities. In the present study we have tried to eliminate some of these problems by examining PCB and DOT concentrations in species belonging to a relatively well-defined pelagic food chain sampled at one point in space and time

  7. Bioremediation of chlorinated solvents and diesel soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huismann, S.S.; Peterson, M.A.; Jardine, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Army, in a cooperative effort with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and its cooperator, ENSR, performed an innovative enhanced bioremediation project at Fort Gillem in Atlanta, Georgia. The objective of the project was to remediate six hundred cubic yards of soil affected by a mixture of chlorinated compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons which posed a threat to uppermost groundwater and private drinking water wells. ENSR completed a demonstration project to measure the effects of bioremediation on both chlorinated compounds (primarily TCE) and petroleum hydrocarbons (number-sign 2 diesel). Contaminated soil was placed on top of a bermed polyethylene liner to construct an ex-situ biovault. Nutrients were added to the soil as it was loaded onto the liner. Contaminated soil was also used to construct a control vault. A methane barrier cover was placed over both piles. The cover was designed to prevent short circuiting of induced airflow in and around the enhanced pile, and to prevent the release of fugitive emissions from either pile

  8. The non-participation of organic sulphur in acid mine drainage generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, D J; Finkelman, R B; Caruccio, F T

    1989-12-01

    Acid mine drainage is commonly associated with land disturbances that encounter and expose iron sulphides to oxidising atmospheric conditions. The attendant acidic conditions solubilise a host of trace metals. Within this flow regime the potential exists to contaminate surface drinking water supplies with a variety of trace materials. Accordingly, in evaluating the applications for mines located in the headwaters of water sheds, the pre-mining prediction of the occurrence of acid mine drainage is of paramount importance.There is general agreement among investigators that coal organic sulphur is a nonparticipant in acid mine drainage generation; however, there is no scientific documentation to support this concensus. Using simulated weathering, kinetic, mass balance, petrographic analysis and a peroxide oxidation procedure, coal organic sulphur is shown to be a nonparticipant in acid mine drainage generation. Calculations for assessing the acid-generating potential of a sedimentary rock should not include organic sulphur content.

  9. Modelling of catalytic oxidation of NH3 and reduction of NO on limestone during sulphur capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Bhatia, Suresh K.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1996-01-01

    activity with respect to each species involved. An existing particle model, the Grain-Micrograin Model, which simulates sulphur capture on limestone under oxidizing conditions is considered in the modelling. Simulation results in good qualitative agreement with experimental data are obtained here......A theoretical study of the complex transient system of simultaneous sulphur capture and catalytic reactions of N-containing compounds taking place on a single limestone particle is conducted. The numerical technique developed previously by the authors (Kiil et al. 1994) based on collocation...... for the catalytic chemistry of NH3 during simultaneous sulphur capture on a Stevns Chalk particle. The reduction of NO by NH3 over CaSO4 (which is the product of the reaction between SO2, O2 and limestone) was found to be important because this reaction could explain the change in selectivity with increased solid...

  10. Impurity photovoltaic effect in silicon solar cell doped with sulphur: A numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouzi, Ghania; Chegaar, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The impurity photovoltaic effect (IPV) has mostly been studied in various semiconductors such as silicon, silicon carbide and GaAs in order to increase infrared absorption and hence cell efficiency. In this work, sulphur is used as the IPV effect impurity incorporated in silicon solar cells. For our simulation we use the numerical device simulator (SCAPS). We calculate the solar cell performances (short circuit current density J sc , open circuit voltage V oc , conversion efficiency η and quantum efficiency QE). We study the influence of light trapping and certain impurity parameters like impurity concentration and position in the gap on the solar cell performances. Simulation results for IPV effect on silicon doped with sulphur show an improvement of the short circuit current and the efficiency for sulphur energy levels located far from the middle of the band gap especially at E c -E t =0.18 eV.

  11. Past and future trends in concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hole, Lars R.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in nitrogen and sulphur compounds in air and precipitation from a range of Arctic monitoring stations are presented, with seasonal data from the late 70s to 2004 or 2005. Earlier findings of declining sulphur concentrations are confirmed for most stations, while the pattern is less...... clear for reduced and oxidized nitrogen. In fact there are positive trends for nitrogen compounds in air at several stations. Acidity is generally reduced at many stations while the precipitation amount is either increasing or stable. Variability of sulphate concentrations in air for the period 1991......-2000 is reasonably well reproduced at most stations using an Eulerian, hemispherical model. Results for nitrogen compounds are weaker. Scenario studies show that even if large sulphur emission reductions take place in important source regions in South-East Asia in the coming decades, only small changes in Arctic...

  12. The implications of the new sulphur limits on the European Ro-Ro sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the environmental impacts of maritime transportation, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) designated special Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) where ships are required to use low-sulphur fuel. In January 2015, the sulphur limit within SECAs was lowered to 0...... and the redistribution of transport. Recommendations to mitigate and reverse the negative side-effects of such environmental legislation are proposed....... analyses on market share data, cargo values, freight rates, and haulers rates are conducted. Emissions inventories are constructed to assess the environmental efficacy of the SECA regulation. The novelty of the proposed model lies in the examination of the ex-post implications of shutting down a service...

  13. Continental scale Antarctic deposition of sulphur and black carbon from anthropogenic and volcanic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-F. Graf

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While Antarctica is often described as a pristine environment, there is an increasing awareness of the potential threats from local pollution sources including tourist ships and emissions associated with scientific activities. However, to date there has been no systematic attempt to model the impacts of such pollutants at the continental scale. Indeed, until very recently there was not even a sulphur emission budget available for Antarctica. Here we present the first comprehensive study of atmospheric pollution in Antarctica using a limited area chemistry climate model, and a monthly emissions inventory for sulphur from maintenance of research stations, ground and air traffic, shipping and the active Erebus volcano. We find that ship emissions, both sulphurous and black carbon, dominate anthropogenic pollution near the ground. Their prevalence is likely to rise dramatically if recent trends in tourism continue.

  14. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  15. Potassium cardioplegia: early assessment by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.J.; Born, M.; Feit, T.; Ebert, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Left ventricular function was evaluated by single pass /sup 99m/Tc radionuclide ventriculography when potassium cardioplegia was combined with hypothermia. In 35 patients undergoing myocardial revascularization (3 CABG/patient) in which potassium cardioplegia at 4 0 C was used, no patient developed a myocardial infarction either by electrocardiogram or /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate imaging in the postoperative period. In 22 patients, aortic cross-clamp time was greater than 60 min, and the ejection fraction by the single pass radionuclide technique was 50% preoperatively and 53% postoperatively (NS). Wall motion in the single RAO view was not worse postoperatively. No patient required any inotropic agents in the immediate postoperative period. It appears that no significant ventricular impairment occurred in the immediate postoperative period (48 to 72 hours) when potassium cardioplegia combined with hypothermia was used for a 60-minute period

  16. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  17. Passivation of chalcopyrite during the leaching with sulphuric acid solution in presence of sodium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miroslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the process of the chalcopyrite leaching in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. Sodium nitrate was used as oxidant in the leaching process. Chemical reactions of leaching and their thermodynamic possibilities are predicted based on the calculated Gibbs energies and analysis of E−pH diagrams. The negative values of the Gibbs energy show that all chemical reactions are thermodynamically feasible at atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range 25-90°C. At high electrode potential and low pH values, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions exist in water solutions. The increase of temperature reduces the probability of Fe3+ ion existence in the system. The chalcopyrite concentrate, enriched in the “Rudnik” flotation plant, with 27.08% Cu, 25.12% Fe, 4.15% Zn and 2.28% Pb was used in the work. XRD and DTA analysis of the concentrate reveals that the sample contains mainly the chalcopyrite with small amount of sphalerite. For the description of the reaction of leaching process the leach residuals, obtained at different conditions, were chosen for XRD, TG/DTA and SEM/EDX analyses. The elemental sulphur and chalcopyrite phases identified in leach residuals confirm our prediction that the elemental sulphur is formed during the leaching process. Accordingly, elemental sulphur is the main product of the reaction, while a minor amount of sulphide sulphur is oxidized to sulphate during the leaching. The sulphur formed during the reaction was precipitated at the particle surfaces, and slowed down the leaching rate in the final stage of leaching process. In the initial stage, the reaction rate was controlled by the surface reaction. The mechanism, latter has been changed into a diffusion controlled one.

  18. Suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals: a rare encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A C; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8(th) day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion.

  19. Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalheiro, A.A. [Depto de Quimica - Instituto de Biociencias - UNESP, Distrito de Rubiao Junior, s/n, Zip Code 18.618-000, P.O. Box 510, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: albecava@bol.com.br; Bruno, J.C.; Saeki, M.J.; Valente, J.P.S.; Florentino, A.O. [Depto de Quimica - Instituto de Biociencias - UNESP, Distrito de Rubiao Junior, s/n, Zip Code 18.618-000, P.O. Box 510, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-31

    The effects of silver insertion on the TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diclofenac potassium were reported here. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to comprehend the relation between structure and properties of the silver-modified TiO{sub 2} thin films obtained by the sol-gel method. The lattice parameters and the crystallinity of TiO{sub 2} anatase phase were affected by inserted silver, and the film thickness increased about 4 nm for each 1 wt.% of silver inserted. The degradation of diclofenac potassium and by-products reached an efficiency of 4.6 mg{sub C} W{sup -1} when the material was modified with silver. Although the first step of degradation involves only the photochemical process related to the loss of the chlorine and hydrogen atoms. This cyclization reaction leads to the formation of intermediate, which degradation is facilitated by the modified material.

  20. Potassium fertilization for pineapple: effects on soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out on an Ultisol located at the city of Agudos (22º30'S; 49º03'W, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine the effects of rates and sources of potassium fertilizer on nutritional status of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple and on some soil chemical properties. The experiment was a complete factorial design with four rates (0, 175, 350, and 700 kg ha-1 of K2O and three combinations of K sources (100% KCl, 100% K2SO4 and 40% K2SO4 + 60% KCl. Soil samples were taken from the depths 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm at planting and 14 months after. Nutritional status of pineapple plants was assessed by means of tissue analysis. Soil K availability increased with application of K fertilizer, regardless of K sources. Soil chlorine and Cl concentration in pineapple leaves increased with application of KCl or K2SO4+KCl. Plant uptake of potassium was shaped by soil K availability and by the application rates of K fertilizer, independently of K sources.

  1. In-situ Spectroscopic Studies and Modelling of Crystallization Processes of Sulphuric Acid Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlers, C.; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Masters, Stephen Grenville

    1996-01-01

    Deactivation of commercial and prototype sulphuric acid catalysts has been investigated in-situ by ESR spectroscopy. The influence of support pore structure,and the chemical composition of the catalyst and the gas phase was dicussed.A statistical lattice model was applied to describe the crystall......Deactivation of commercial and prototype sulphuric acid catalysts has been investigated in-situ by ESR spectroscopy. The influence of support pore structure,and the chemical composition of the catalyst and the gas phase was dicussed.A statistical lattice model was applied to describe...

  2. Effects of phosphorus, silicon and sulphur on microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels during electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, K.; Nakahigashi, S.; Ozaki, S.; Shima, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fe-18Cr-9Ni-1,5Mn austenitic alloys containing phosphorus, silicon and sulphur were irradiated by 1 MeV electrons at 573-773 K. Phosphorus increased the interstitial loop nucleation and decreased the void swelling by increasing void number density and suppressing void growth. Silicon had a similar effect to phosphorus but its effect was weaker than phosphorus. Sulphur enhanced void swelling through increasing the void density. Nickel enrichment at grain boundaries was suppressed only in the alloy containing phosphorus. These phosphorus effects may be explained by a strong interaction with interstitials resulting in a high density of sinks for point defects. (orig.)

  3. New perspectives for the petroleum industry. Bioprocesses for the selective removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel biocatalytic conversion is a process that removes, through selective enzyme-catalyzed reactions, sulphur, nitrogen and metals. The mild operating conditions, the specificity of reactions and the quality of coproducts (particularly the organo sulphur compounds, a source for the petrochemical industry) are just a few of the attractive aspects of this new technology which could open a new world of possibilities in the technology and in the environmental impact of fuels. The paper shows the state-of-the-art of the research and applications of bioprocesses to the petroleum field [it

  4. Formation of assimilable organic carbon during oxidation of natural waters with ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, permanganate, and ferrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseier, Maaike K; Peter, Andreas; Traber, Jacqueline; von Gunten, Urs

    2011-02-01

    Five oxidants, ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, permanganate, and ferrate were studied with regard to the formation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and oxalate in absence and presence of cyanobacteria in lake water matrices. Ozone and ferrate formed significant amounts of AOC, i.e. more than 100 μg/L AOC were formed with 4.6 mg/L ozone and ferrate in water with 3.8 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. In the same water samples chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and permanganate produced no or only limited AOC. When cyanobacterial cells (Aphanizomenon gracile) were added to the water, an AOC increase was detected with ozone, permanganate, and ferrate, probably due to cell lysis. This was confirmed by the increase of extracellular geosmin, a substance found in the selected cyanobacterial cells. AOC formation by chlorine and chlorine dioxide was not affected by the presence of the cells. The formation of oxalate upon oxidation was found to be a linear function of the oxidant consumption for all five oxidants. The following molar yields were measured in three different water matrices based on oxidant consumed: 2.4-4.4% for ozone, 1.0-2.8% for chlorine dioxide and chlorine, 1.1-1.2% for ferrate, and 11-16% for permanganate. Furthermore, oxalate was formed in similar concentrations as trihalomethanes during chlorination (yield ∼ 1% based on chlorine consumed). Oxalate formation kinetics and stoichiometry did not correspond to the AOC formation. Therefore, oxalate cannot be used as a surrogate for AOC formation during oxidative water treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dispersion of sulphur in the northern hemisphere. A study with a 3-dimensional time-resolved model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrason, L

    1996-12-31

    This thesis on atmospheric dispersion of sulphur presents a calculation of intercontinental transport of oxidized sulphur and allocates different contributions to sulphur background levels over Europe. It is found that a significant fraction of anthropogenic sulphur (AS) is transported out of continental boundaries thus affecting the background levels over major parts of the northern hemisphere. Over Europe, the contribution of AS from North America is similar in amount to that of Asian AS and natural sources from the North Atlantic Ocean. Although the yearly contribution of intercontinental transport to deposition of sulphur over Europe is quite small, it can be much more important over certain areas and seasons and is comparable to the contributions from individual European countries. The calculations are based on a three-dimensional Eulerian time-resolved model that describes sulphur dispersion in the atmosphere in connection with large-scale synoptic flows and agree well with observations. The thesis emphasizes the role of synoptic scale atmospheric motions in determining intercontinental transport of sulphur. It indicates the need to resolve individual cyclones and anticyclones in order to describe the dispersion and distribution of atmospheric sulphur in the northern hemisphere and stresses the value of comparing model calculations with observations, both in atmospheric chemistry studies and in climate applications. 260 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Assessment of sulphur and H2S corrosion by use of simultaneous ER, galvanic and optical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Tor; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    2003-01-01

    Sulphur and H2S corrosion on carbon steel is relevant in a range of industrial applications, including oil and gas production, district heating systems, and geothermal energy production. Bacterial activity may participate in the sulphur cycle and contribute to H2S production. As a part...

  7. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo

    2017-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  8. Dispersion of sulphur in the northern hemisphere. A study with a 3-dimensional time-resolved model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrason, L.

    1995-12-31

    This thesis on atmospheric dispersion of sulphur presents a calculation of intercontinental transport of oxidized sulphur and allocates different contributions to sulphur background levels over Europe. It is found that a significant fraction of anthropogenic sulphur (AS) is transported out of continental boundaries thus affecting the background levels over major parts of the northern hemisphere. Over Europe, the contribution of AS from North America is similar in amount to that of Asian AS and natural sources from the North Atlantic Ocean. Although the yearly contribution of intercontinental transport to deposition of sulphur over Europe is quite small, it can be much more important over certain areas and seasons and is comparable to the contributions from individual European countries. The calculations are based on a three-dimensional Eulerian time-resolved model that describes sulphur dispersion in the atmosphere in connection with large-scale synoptic flows and agree well with observations. The thesis emphasizes the role of synoptic scale atmospheric motions in determining intercontinental transport of sulphur. It indicates the need to resolve individual cyclones and anticyclones in order to describe the dispersion and distribution of atmospheric sulphur in the northern hemisphere and stresses the value of comparing model calculations with observations, both in atmospheric chemistry studies and in climate applications. 260 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Incisional Colopexy for Treatment of Chronic, Recurrent Colocloacal Prolapse in a Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne; Schoemaker, Nico; van Sluijs, Freek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a surgical technique for treatment of chronic, recurrent cloacal prolapse in a sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita). Study Design Clinical report Animals Sulphur-crested cockatoo (n = 1) Methods The bird was admitted with a 2-year history of periodic lethargy, decreased

  10. Ultrafast measurements of chlorine dioxide photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludowise, P.D.

    1997-08-01

    Time-resolved mass spectrometry and time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy are used to study the ultrafast photodissociation dynamics of chlorine dioxide, an important constituent in stratospheric ozone depletion. Chapter 1 introduces these pump/probe techniques, in which a femtosecond pump pulse excites a molecule to a dissociative state. At a later time, a second femtosecond probe pulse ionizes the molecule. The resulting mass and photoelectron spectra are acquired as a function of the delay between the pump and probe pulses, which follows the evolution of the molecule on the excited state. A comparison to other techniques used to study reaction dynamics is discussed. Chapter 2 includes a detailed description of the design and construction of the experimental apparatus, which consists of a femtosecond laser system, a molecular beam time-of-flight spectrometer, and a data acquisition system. The time-of-flight spectrometer is specifically designed to have a short flight distance to maximize the photoelectron collection efficiency without degrading the resolution, which is limited by the bandwidth of the femtosecond laser system. Typical performance of the apparatus is demonstrated in a study of the time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of nitric oxide. The results of the time-resolved mass spectrometry experiments of chlorine dioxide are presented in Chapter 3. Upon excitation to the A {sup 2}A{sub 2} state near 3.2 eV, the molecule dissociates through an indirect two-step mechanism. The direct dissociation channel has been predicted to be open, but is not observed. A quantum beat is observed in the OClO{sup +} species, which is described as a vibrational coherence of the optically prepared A {sup 2}A{sub 2} state. Chapter 4 presents the results of the time-resolved photoelectron experiments of chlorine dioxide. At short delay time, the quantum beat of the OClO{sup +} species is observed in the X {sup 1}A{sub 1} state of the ion. At infinite delay, the signal

  11. Does Chlorination of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Membranes Control Biofouling?

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Hong, Pei-Ying; Nada, Nabil; Croue, Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling is the major problem of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes used for desalting seawater (SW). The use of chlorine is a conventional and common practice to control/prevent biofouling. Unlike polyamide RO membranes, cellulose triacetate (CTA) RO membranes display a high chlorine tolerance. Due to this characteristic, CTA membranes are used in most of the RO plants located in the Middle East region where the elevated seawater temperature and water quality promote the risk of membrane biofouling. However, there is no detailed study on the investigation/characterization of CTA-RO membrane fouling. In this investigation, the fouling profile of a full–scale SWRO desalination plant operating with not only continuous chlorination of raw seawater but also intermittent chlorination of CTA-RO membranes was studied. Detailed water quality and membrane fouling analyses were conducted. Profiles of microbiological, inorganic, and organic constituents of analysed fouling layers were extensively discussed. Our results clearly identified biofilm development on these membranes. The incapability of chlorination on preventing biofilm formation on SWRO membranes could be assigned to its failure in effectively reaching throughout the different regions of the permeators. This failure could have occurred due to three main factors: plugging of membrane fibers, chlorine consumption by organics accumulated on the front side fibers, or chlorine adaptation of certain bacterial populations.

  12. Radiation-Initiated Chlorination of 1, 2-Dichloroethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danno, A.; Abe, T.; Washino, M.; Souda, T.; Shimada, K. [Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma-ken (Japan)

    1969-12-15

    Radiation-initiated chlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane was carried out with a batch system to study the chlorination reaction in the laboratory and also with a flow system to obtain information on its scale-up. It was found that the direct chlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane in the presence of gamma radiation takes place by a free-radical chain reaction with a high G-value of the order of 10{sup 5}. Successive chlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane gives 1,1, 2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1, 2- and 1,1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethane, pentachloroethane and hexachloroethane. No products other than these polychloro ethanes were detected. The composition of the reaction products depends on the degree of chlorination; it is independent of the dose rate and the chlorine feed rate. A promising application of this process is to produce trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene by thermal dehydrochlorination of a mixture of tetrachloroethane and pentachloroethane. The optimum conditions of producing these compounds with high yields depend on the feed rate of 1, 2-dichloroethane and chlorine gas, the dose rate and the reaction temperature. A pilot experimental facility with a 2-litre reaction vessel has been completed and is now in operation. (author)

  13. Does Chlorination of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Membranes Control Biofouling?

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad Tariq

    2015-04-01

    Biofouling is the major problem of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes used for desalting seawater (SW). The use of chlorine is a conventional and common practice to control/prevent biofouling. Unlike polyamide RO membranes, cellulose triacetate (CTA) RO membranes display a high chlorine tolerance. Due to this characteristic, CTA membranes are used in most of the RO plants located in the Middle East region where the elevated seawater temperature and water quality promote the risk of membrane biofouling. However, there is no detailed study on the investigation/characterization of CTA-RO membrane fouling. In this investigation, the fouling profile of a full–scale SWRO desalination plant operating with not only continuous chlorination of raw seawater but also intermittent chlorination of CTA-RO membranes was studied. Detailed water quality and membrane fouling analyses were conducted. Profiles of microbiological, inorganic, and organic constituents of analysed fouling layers were extensively discussed. Our results clearly identified biofilm development on these membranes. The incapability of chlorination on preventing biofilm formation on SWRO membranes could be assigned to its failure in effectively reaching throughout the different regions of the permeators. This failure could have occurred due to three main factors: plugging of membrane fibers, chlorine consumption by organics accumulated on the front side fibers, or chlorine adaptation of certain bacterial populations.

  14. [Toxicity and influencing factors of liquid chlorine on chironomid larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-Bin; Cui, Fu-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song; Guo, Zhao-Hai; Xu, Feng; Liu, Li-Jun

    2005-09-01

    The excessive propagation of Chironomid larvae (red worm) in the sedimentation tanks is a difficult problem for the normal function of waterworks. The toxic effect of liquid chlorine on the different instar larvae of Chironomid was studied using distilled water as test sample. Furthermore, the effect of pH value, organic matter content, ammonia nitrogen, and algae content on toxicity of liquid chlorine was observed. The results show that the tolerance of Chironomid larvae to liquid chlorine is strengthened with the increase in instar. The 24h semi-lethal concentration (LC50) of liquid chlorine to the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid is 3.39 mg/L. Low pH value and high algae content are helpful to improve the toxic effect of liquid chlorine to Chironomid larvae. In neutral water body, the increase in organic matter content results in the decrease in the death rate of Chironomid larvae. The toxicity of liquid chlorine differs greatly in different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen. The death rate of the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid in raw water is higher by contrast with that in sedimentation tanks water for 24h disposal with various amount of liquid chlorine.

  15. Chlorine diffusion in uranium dioxide under heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipon, Y.; Bererd, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Peaucelle, C.; Toulhoat, N.; Jaffrezic, H.; Raimbault, L.; Sainsot, P.; Carlot, G.

    2007-01-01

    The radiation enhanced diffusion of chlorine in UO 2 during heavy ion irradiation is studied. In order to simulate the behaviour of 36 Cl, present as an impurity in UO 2 , 37 Cl has been implanted into the samples (projected range 200 nm). The samples were then irradiated with 63.5 MeV 127 I at two fluxes and two temperatures and the chlorine distribution was analyzed by SIMS. The results show that, during irradiation, the diffusion of the implanted chlorine is enhanced and slightly athermal with respect to pure thermal diffusion. A chlorine gain of 10% accumulating near the surface has been observed at 510 K. This corresponds to the displacement of pristine chlorine from a region of maximum defect concentration. This behaviour and the mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient found for the implanted chlorine, around 2.5 x 10 -14 cm 2 s -1 , reflect the high mobility of chlorine in UO 2 during irradiation with fission products

  16. Chlorine diffusion in uranium dioxide under heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipon, Y.; Bérerd, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Peaucelle, C.; Toulhoat, N.; Jaffrézic, H.; Raimbault, L.; Sainsot, P.; Carlot, G.

    2007-04-01

    The radiation enhanced diffusion of chlorine in UO2 during heavy ion irradiation is studied. In order to simulate the behaviour of 36Cl, present as an impurity in UO2, 37Cl has been implanted into the samples (projected range 200 nm). The samples were then irradiated with 63.5 MeV 127I at two fluxes and two temperatures and the chlorine distribution was analyzed by SIMS. The results show that, during irradiation, the diffusion of the implanted chlorine is enhanced and slightly athermal with respect to pure thermal diffusion. A chlorine gain of 10% accumulating near the surface has been observed at 510 K. This corresponds to the displacement of pristine chlorine from a region of maximum defect concentration. This behaviour and the mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient found for the implanted chlorine, around 2.5 × 10-14 cm2 s-1, reflect the high mobility of chlorine in UO2 during irradiation with fission products.

  17. Simultaneous analyses of gaseous and particulate sulphur compounds in the atmosphere by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yatsuka; Mamuro, Tetsuo

    1974-01-01

    An analytical technique for the simultaneous measurements of the atmospheric concentrations of SO 2 gas and sulphur absorbed by aerosol particles has been developed. Aerosol particles are collected on membrane filter and at the same time SO 2 gas is captured on alkali impregnated filter. The sulphur content in each filter is measured by an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of a Si(Li) semiconductor detector connected to a multichannel pulse hight analyzer and an excitation source of 55 Fe. Two methods are acceptable for the determination of the sulphur content in impregnated filter by X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the first method X-ray fluorescence analysis is made after the collected sulphur has diffused and distributed uniformly enough throughout filter, and in the second method X-ray fluorescence analysis has to be finished before the diffusion of the collected sulphur becomes appreciable. (auth.)

  18. Experimental lifetimes for Mg-like chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, L.; Bengtsson, P.; Jupen, C.; Livingston, A.E.; Martinson, I.

    1995-01-01

    The results of beam-foil measurements of lifetimes for low-lying singlet levels in Mg-like chlorine, Cl VI, are presented. The decay curves were analyzed by means of the arbitrarily normalized decay curve method, combined with the recently developed CANYL code, which facilitates studies of decay chains. Cascade corrected data are presented for the levels 3s3p 1 P, 3p 2 1 S, 3p 2 1 D, and 3s3d 1 D, whereas less rigorous lifetime values, based on curve fits, were obtained for the 3p3d 1 D, 3p3d 1 F, and 3s4f 1 F levels. The data are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical values, and previous discrepancies between experiment and theory for short-lived states have been removed

  19. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor electrolyte balance in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases conditions characterized by low or high blood potassium levels. (b) Classification. Class II. ...

  20. Preparation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene labelled with radioactive chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, G.E.; Shalygin, V.A.; Zel'venskij, Ya.D.; Prosyanov, N.N.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical synthesis of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane is carried out. 1,2,2,2-tetrachloroethane is labelled with radioactive chlorine by chlorinating the mixture of cis-, transisomeres of dichlorethylene with elementary chlorine. Trichloroethylene labelled with radioactive chlorine is prepared by the effect of alkali alcohol solution on radioactive 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane

  1. Corrosion of copper by chlorine trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, L.

    1966-01-01

    The research described called for a considerable amount of preliminary development of the test methods and equipment in order that the various measurements and observations could be carried out without contaminating either the samples or this highly reactive gas. The chlorine trifluoride was highly purified before use, its purity being checked by gas-phase chromatography, micro-sublimation and infrared spectrography. The tests were carried out on copper samples of various purities, in particular a 99.999 per cent copper in the form of mono-crystals. They involved kinetic measurements and the characterization of corrosion products under different temperature and pressure conditions. The kinetics showed reactions of the same order of magnitude as those obtained with elementary fluorine. At atmospheric pressure there occurs formation of cupric fluoride and cuprous chloride. The presence of this latter product shows that it is not possible to consider ClF 3 simply as a fluorinating agent. At low pressures an unknown product has been characterized. There are strong grounds for believing that it is the unstable cuprous fluoride which it has not yet been possible to isolate. A germination phenomenon has been shown to exist indicating an analogy between the initial phases of fluorination and those of oxidation. Important effects resulting from the dissociation of the copper fluorides and the solubility of chlorine in this metal have been demonstrated. Finally, tests have shown the considerable influence of the purity of the gas phase and of the nature of the reaction vessel walls on the rates of corrosion which can in certain cases be increased by a factor of several powers of ten. (author) [fr

  2. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  3. Resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Mullin, C.S.; Shen, Y.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-06-01

    Picosecond pulses are used to study resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor. Although the process is both microscopically and macroscopically forbidden, it can readily be observed. The results can be quantitatively understood by a multiphoton-ionization-initiated, dc-field-induced, coherent transient model

  4. Computational study on potassium picrate crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Xue-Hai; Lu, Ya-Lin; Ma, Xiu-Fang; Xiao, He-Ming [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094 (China)

    2006-08-15

    DFT calculation at the B3LYP level was performed on crystalline potassium picrate. The frontier bands are slightly fluctuant. The energy gap between the highest occupied crystal orbital (HOCO) and the lowest unoccupied crystal orbital (LUCO) is 0.121 a.u. (3.29 eV). The carbon atoms that are connected with the nitro groups make up the narrow lower energy bands, with small contributions from nitro oxygen and phenol oxygen. The higher energy bands consist of orbitals from the nitro groups and carbon atom. The potassium bears almost 1 a.u. positive charge. The potassium forms ionic bonding with the phenol oxygen and the nitro oxygen at the same time. The crystal lattice energy is predicted to be -574.40 kJ/mol at the B3LYP level determined with the effective core pseudopotential HAYWSC-31G basis set for potassium and 6-31G** basis set for other atoms. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Altered potassium homeostasis in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Bosaller, C.; Lehr, L.

    1983-01-01

    The total body potassium (TBK), serum potassium, and the number of red blood cell ouabain-binding sites was studied in 94 patients with Crohn's diease. TBK was measured by counting the endogenous 40 K in a whole body counter. TBK was 87%+-13% in 94 patients was Crohn's disease, while in control subjects, it was 97%+-12% (n=24). This significant reduction in TBK was accompanied by normal serum potassium levels (4.4+-0.5 mM). TBK was significantly correlated with the Crohn's disease activity index (r=0.79, n=113, P 3 H-ouabain showed a significant increse in the number of Na-K pumps in Crohn's disease (396+-65, n=27) compared with the control group. 290+-45 (n=24). These results support the suggestion that changes in TBK may regulate the synthesis of Na-K pump molecules. The total body potassium depletion and the need for a preoperative nutritional support in Crohn's disease are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  7. Rheological properties of potassium barium borate glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwejda, K.A.; Vogel, D.L.; Stevels, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Several series of potassium barium borate glasses have been investigated as to their rheological properties. It has been found, that all these glasses show deviations from ‘Newtonian’ behaviour below temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 1010 poises. The activation energies of viscous flow

  8. Potassium ferrate treatment of RFETS' contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The potassium ferrate treatment study of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) groundwater was performed under the Sitewide Treatability Studies Program (STSP). This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of potassium ferrate in a water treatment system to remove the contaminants of concern (COCS) from groundwater at the RFETS. Potassium ferrate is a simple salt where the iron is in the plus six valence state. It is the iron at the plus six valence state (Fe +6 ) that makes it an unique water treatment chemical, especially in waters where the pH is greater than seven. In basic solutions where the solubility of the oxides/hydroxides of many of the COCs is low, solids are formed as the pH is raised. By using ferrate these solids are agglomerated so they can be effectively removed by sedimentation in conventional water treatment equipment. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of water after treatment with potassium ferrate and to determine if the Colorado Water Quality Control Commission (CWQCC) discharge limits for the COCs listed in Table 1.0-1 could be met. Radionuclides in the groundwater were of special concern

  9. Acute Renal Failure following Accidental Potassium Bromate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental poisoning is common in children. Potassium bromate is a commonly used additive and raising agent in many edibles particularly bread, a staple food worldwide, yet its accidental poisoning has hitherto, not been documented in Nigeria. We report an unusual case of acute renal failure following accidental ...

  10. Chlorination of niobium oxide in the presence of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, L.R. de

    1984-01-01

    The chlorination kinetics of niobium pentoxide in the presence of carbon monoxide between 500-800 0 C of temperature is studied. The following variable that influences on the reaction rate are analysed: gas flow, geometry and volume of the Nb 2 O 5 samples, reaction temperature and composition of the chlorinated mixture. At the same time, two other materials were studied: the CaO.Nb 2 O 5 (synthetized in laboratory) and pyrochlorine concentrates. The three materials are compared for the chlorination method used. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Release of Chlorine and Sulfur during Biomass Torrefaction and Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Flensborg, Julie Pauline; Shoulaifar, Tooran Khazraie

    2014-01-01

    The release of chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S) during biomass torrefaction and pyrolysis has been investigated via experiments in two laboratory-scale reactors: a rotating reactor and a fixed bed reactor. Six biomasses with different chemical compositions covering a wide range of ash content and ash...... reporting that biomasses with a lower chlorine content release a higher fraction of chlorine during the pyrolysis process. A significant sulfur release (about 60%) was observed from the six biomasses investigated at 350 degrees C. The initial sulfur content in the biomass did not influence the fraction...

  12. Chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesaenen, E.; Manninen, P.K.G.; Himberg, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, V.

    1990-01-01

    The chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke in both the particulate and gaseous phases were studied by neutron activation analysis. Eleven popular brands of western filter cigarettes were tested. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide concentrations were measured in the gaseous phase in two leading brands in Finland. The results suggest that the mainstream smoke from one cigarette conveys into the lungs about 150 μg chlorine and about 5 μg bromine. Probably most of the chlorine and bromine is in the form of organic compounds and the main components are methyl chloride and methyl bromide. (author) 14 refs.; 1 tab

  13. Effect of Chlorine on Giardia lamblia Cyst Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jarroll, Edward L.; Bingham, Alan K.; Meyer, Ernest A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of chlorine concentration on Giardia lamblia cyst viability was tested under a variety of conditions. The ability of Giardia cysts to undergo excystation was used as the criterion of viability. The experimental variables employed included temperature (25, 15, and 5°C), pH (6, 7, and 8), chlorine-cyst contact time (10, 30, and 60 min), and chlorine concentration (1 to 8 mg/liter). In the pH range studied, cyst survival generally was observed to increase as buffer pH increased. Water...

  14. Nonaqueous chlorination of uranium metal in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchikhin, E.P.; Kuznetsov, A.Yu.; Shatalov, V.V.; Vidanov, V.L.; Chekmarev, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Low-temperature (30-50 deg C) chlorination of uranium metal in the TBP-TCE-Cl 2 system (TCE = tetrachloroethylene) was studied. Dissolution of uranium in the dipolar aprotic solvent proceeds with formation of U(IV) compounds. The activation energy of this process is 31.24 kJ mol -1 , and relative reaction order with respect to Cl 2 is 2. The effect of TBP concentration on chlorination was examined. The chlorination rate sharply increases at a water content in the TBP-TCE system of 0.2- 0.6 vol % [ru

  15. Effect of the temperature and the chlorine pressure, over the aluminium chlorides obtained by direct chlorination of the 6061 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Fabiola J.; Bohe, Ana E.; Pasquevich, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    The aluminium chloride is synthesized by direct chlorination of aluminium, in agreement with the following reaction: Al(s) + 3/2 Cl 2 AlCl 3 (s,g).The present work focuses on the preparation of aluminium chlorides by two methods: (a) Chlorination of 6061 aluminium alloy with gaseous chlorine in sealed containers, filled with different pressures of gas, from 0.8 to 74 Kpa and in the range of temperature between 200 0 and 500 0 C.(b) Chlorination of the same alloy in chlorine flow between 150 0 and 400 0 C.In the sealed systems, the hexahydrated aluminium trichloride predominated over the anhydrous form. For pressures lower than 14 Kpa and temperatures under 250 0 C, the chloride didn't appear.The residues were rich in aluminium, chlorine and magnesium.In the other systems, the anhydrous chloride was found in the areas of the reactor of temperatures above 100 0 C, for all the thermal treatments. The waste was composed by CrCl 3 and AlCl 3 .6H 2 O.The influence of the chlorine pressures and the heating temperature over the characteristics of the product, was studied.The characterization techniques were x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the evolution of the structure was followed by scanning electron microscopy

  16. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffman, V.G.; Gorokhovsky, A.V. [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Kompan, M.M. [Physico-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tretyachenko, E.V.; Telegina, O.S.; Kovnev, A.V. [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Fedorov, F.S., E-mail: fedorov_fs@daad-alumni.de [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}. • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10{sup −2} to 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10{sup −2} Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}. This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures.

  17. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  18. Ball-milling synthesis of ZnO@sulphur/carbon nanotubes and Ni(OH)_2@sulphur/carbon nanotubes composites for high-performance lithium-sulphur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Xingxing; Tong, Chuan-jia; Wen, Bo; Liu, Li-min; Lai, Chao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal oxides or hydroxides coating sulfur-based composite are successfully prepared. • Large-scale synthesis can be realized via the facile wet ball-milling strategy. • Density functional theory (DFT) calculation is applied to calculate adsorption energy. • ZnO exhibits a higher adsorption energy for Li_2S_8 than that Ni(OH)_2. • ZnO@sulphur/carbon nanotubes composite show excellent cycle and discharge performance. - Abstract: Zinc oxide wrapped sulphur/carbon nanotubes (ZnO@S/CNT) and nickel hydroxide wrapped sulphur/carbon nanotubes (Ni(OH)_2@S/CNT) nanocomposites are prepared using a simple, low cost and scalable ball-milling method. As the cathodes in Li-S batteries, the as-prepared ZnO@S/CNT composite illustrates a superior high initial capacity of 1663 mAh g"−"1 at a charge/discharge rate of 160 mA g"−"1, and maintains a reversible capacity at approximately 942 mAh g"−"1 after 70 cycles. While for Ni(OH)_2@S/CNT composites, its initial capacity is also as high as 1331 mAh g"−"1, but a poorer cycling stability is presented. When the charge/discharge current is increased to 1600 mA g"−"1, a high reversible capacity of 698 mAh g"−"1 after 200 cycles still can be obtained for the ZnO@S/CNT composite, far better than that of Ni(OH)_2@S/CNT composites. The better cycling performance and high discharge capacity can be attributed to the strong interactions between ZnO and S_x"2"− species, which is verified by the density functional theory (DFT) calculation result that the ZnO exhibits a higher adsorption energy for Li_2S_8 than the Ni(OH)_2.

  19. Sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing communities in Brazilian mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varon-Lopez, Maryeimy; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipolla; Durrer, Ademir; Melo, Itamar Soares; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2014-03-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of sulphur-oxidizing (SOB) and sulphate-reducing (SRB) bacteria in sediments from three Brazilian mangrove communities: two contaminated, one with oil (OilMgv) and one with urban waste and sludge (AntMgv), and one pristine (PrsMgv). The community structures were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and clone libraries, using genes for the enzymes adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate reductase (aprA) and sulphite reductase (Dsr) (dsrB). The abundance for qPCR showed the ratio dsrB/aprA to be variable among mangroves and higher according to the gradient observed for oil contamination in the OilMgv. The PCR-DGGE patterns analysed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling revealed differences among the structures of the three mangrove communities. The clone libraries showed that Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant groups associated with sulphur cycling in mangrove sediments. We conclude that the microbial SOB and SRB communities in mangrove soils are different in each mangrove forest and that such microbial communities could possibly be used as a proxy for contamination in mangrove forests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Formation and colloidal behaviour of elemental sulphur produced from the biological oxidation of hydrogensulphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.H.

    1996-01-01


    The formation and aggregation of elemental sulphur from the microbiological oxidation of hydrogensulphide (H 2 S) by a mixed population of aerobic Thiobacillus -like bacteria has been investigated. Sulphide is