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Sample records for sulphate monohydrate single

  1. EPR and optical absorption study of Cu{sup 2+} doped lithium sulphate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheela, K. Juliet; Subramanian, P., E-mail: psubramaniangri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram, Dindigul-624302, Tamilnadu (India); Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M. [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi-63006, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    EPR study of Cu{sup 2+} doped NLO active Lithium Sulphate monohydrate (Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4.}H{sub 2}O) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The principal values of g and A tensors indicate existence of orthorhombic symmetry around the Cu{sup 2+} ion. From the direction cosines of g and A tensors, the locations of Cu{sup 2+} in the lattice have been identified as interstitial site. Optical absorption confirms the rhombic symmetry and ground state wave function of the Cu{sup 2+} ion in a lattice as d{sub x2-y2}.

  2. EPR study of gamma irradiated N-methyl taurine (C 3H 9NO 3S) and sodium hydrogen sulphate monohydrate (NaHSO 3·H 2O) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, İlkay; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2011-03-01

    EPR study of gamma irradiated C 3H 9NO 3S and NaHSO 3.H 2O single crystals have been carried out at room temperature. There is one site for the radicals in C 3H 9NO 3S and two magnetically distinct sites for the radicals in NaHSO 3. The observed lines in the EPR spectra have been attributed to the species of SO3- and RH radicals for N-methyl taurine, and to the SO3- and OH radicals for sodium hydrogen sulfate monohydrate single crystals. The principal values of the g for SO3-, the hyperfine values of RH and OH proton splitting have been calculated and discussed.

  3. Radiation damage mechanisms in single crystals of creatine monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.W.; Ko, C.

    1978-01-01

    ENDOR spectroscopy is utilized to define the temperature dependent sequence of molecular fragmentation processes occuring in x-irradiated single crystals of creatine monohydrate. Two conformations of the primary reduction product =OOC--C(H 2 ) --N(CH) 3 --C(NH 2 ) 2 + are found to undergo a series of subtle changes before deamination. The resultant radical -OOC--CH 2 then induces hydrogen abstraction to form a final room temperature product - OOC--CH--N(CH 3 ) --C(NH 2 ) + . An unknown initial oxidation species is found to decarboxylate forming the radical H 2 C--N(CH 3 ) --C(NH 2 ) 2 + which, although similar to the deamination product, exists at room temperature. The stability of this species is attributed to a delocalization of spin indicated by calculation and measurement

  4. Influence of solvents on the habit modification of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-02-01

    Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.

  5. Unidirectional growth and characterization of L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangeetha, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → L-Arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate (LAHCl) single crystal was grown successfully by unidirectional solution growth method for the first time. → High crystalline perfection was observed for UDS grown crystal compared to CS grown crystal. → The optical transparency and mechanical stability are high for UDS grown LAHCl single crystal. → Optical birefringence measurement on this material. → The piezoelectric resonance frequencies observation - first time observation on this material. - Abstract: L-Arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate (LAHCl) single crystals were grown successfully by conventional and unidirectional solution growth methods. The crystalline perfection of grown crystals was analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction. The linear optical transmittance, mechanical stability of conventional and unidirectional grown LAHCl single crystals were analyzed and compared along (0 0 1) plane. The refractive index and birefringence of LAHCl single crystals were also measured using He-Ne laser source. From the dielectric studies, piezoelectric resonance frequencies were observed in kHz frequency range for both conventional and unidirectional grown LAHCl single crystals along (0 0 1) plane.

  6. Pyroelectric effect in tryglicyne sulphate single crystals - Differential measurement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybus, M.

    2018-06-01

    A simple mathematical model of the pyroelectric phenomenon was used to explain the electric response of the TGS (triglycine sulphate) samples in the linear heating process in ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Experimental verification of mathematical model was realized. TGS single crystals were grown and four electrode samples were fabricated. Differential measurements of the pyroelectric response of two different regions of the samples were performed and the results were compared with data obtained from the model. Experimental results are in good agreement with model calculations.

  7. Thermal, mechanical, optical and dielectric properties of piperazinium hydrogen phosphite monohydrate NLO single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, R.; Praveen Kumar, P.

    2018-05-01

    Optical transparent crystal of piperazinium hydrogen phosphite monohydrate (PHPM) was grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystal was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The functional groups present in PHPM crystal were confirmed by FTIR analysis. UV-Visible spectrum shows that the PHPM crystal is transparent in the visible region. The mechanical behavior of PHPM crystal was characterized by Vickers hardness test. Thermal stability of PHPM crystal was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis. Dielectric studies were also carried out for the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient have been calculated using Z scan technique.

  8. Structural, vibrational and thermal characterization of phase transformation in L-histidinium bromide monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, G.M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará, ICEN, Marabá, PA 68505-080 (Brazil); Carvalho, J.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Instituto Federal do Tocantins, Araguaína, TO, 77.826-170 (Brazil); Silva, M.C.D.; Façanha Filho, P.F. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Santos, A.O. dos, E-mail: adenilson1@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil)

    2015-09-01

    L-Histidinium bromide monohydrate (LHBr) single crystal is a nonlinear optical material. In this work the high temperature phase transformation and the thermal stability of single crystals of LHBr was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the LHBr phase transformation of orthorhombic (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}) to monoclinic system (P 1 2 1) at 120 °C, with the lattice parameters a = 12.162(1) Å, b = 16.821(2) Å, c = 19.477(2) Å and β = 108.56(2)°. These techniques are complementary and confirm the structural phase transformation due to loss water of crystallization. - Highlights: • -histidinium bromide single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. • X-ray diffraction characterize the high-temperature phase transformation. • The structural phase transformation occur due to loss of water of crystallization. • The LHBr thermal expansion coefficients exhibit an anisotropic behavior.

  9. Design, structural investigation and physicochemical properties of benzotriazolium m-nitrophthalate monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekala, R.; Mani, Rajaboopathi; Jagdish, P.; Mathammal, R.

    2018-04-01

    The single crystals of organic salt benzotriazolium m-nitrophthalate monohydrate were grown by slow evaporation technique. It crystallizes in orthorhombic system with space group Pbca. The molecular interactions of the compound have been pictured using Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprints plots and the results were compared with BZD+·mNPA-. The functional groups were identified by FTIR and FT-Raman spectra. The proton transfer from acid to base was identified from the 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The absorption and emission spectrum of BTA+·mNPA-·H2O was recorded in aqueous solution and different solvents, respectively The HOMO and LUMO energy gap of benzotriazole and BTA+·mNPA-·H2O were calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The thermal stability and melting point of hydrated salt was analysed and compared by TG-DTG/DSC study. The anti-oxidant activity of the title compound was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS+ Radical scavenging assay. The anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity showed a potential impact in the crystal.

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigations of non-centrosymmetric 8-hydroxyquinolinium dibenzoyl-(L)-tartrate methanol monohydrate single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudharsana, N.; Krishnakumar, V.; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ORTEP diagram of HQDBT. - Highlights: • Single crystal XRD and NMR studies confirm the formation of the title compound. • SHG efficiency was found to be 0.6 times that of KDP. • First-order hyperpolarizability (β) was calculated using HF and B3LYP methods. - Abstract: A novel 8-hydroxyquinolinium dibenzoyl-(L)-tartrate methanol monohydrate crystal has been grown by slow evaporation technique. The single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis has been done for the title compound and is found to crystallize in orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 . The optical absorption cut-off wavelength is found to be 440 nm. The vibrational analysis has been carried out to assess the functional groups present in the title compound. The molecular structure of the title compound has been confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetric and differential thermal analyses reveal the melting point and thermal stability of the title compound. The second harmonic generation efficiency is confirmed by Kurtz–Perry powder technique. Further quantum chemical calculations are performed using Gaussian 03 software

  11. Effects of Manganese (Ii Sulphate on Structural, Spectral, Optical, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of L-Alanine Sodium Sulphate Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Praveena

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available New Non-linear Optical materials have been attracting in the research world for their potential applications in emerging opto-electronic technology. The dipolar nature of amino acid leads to peculiar physical and chemical properties, thus making a good candidate for NLO applications. Single crystals of manganese(II sulphate doped L-Alanine sodium sulphate(LASS has been synthesized by slow evaporation technique. Structural property of the grown crystals are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction,FT-IR spectral analysis conforms all the functional groups. Thermogravity (TG and differential themogravimetric (DTA analysis have been performed to study the thermal stability of the crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. The transmission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation is analysed through UV-VIS spectrum. Microhardness was measured at different applied load to understand the mechanical stability of the crystal.

  12. Dehydration of detomidine hydrochloride monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldre, K; Actiņš, A; Jaunbergs, J

    2011-10-09

    The thermodynamic stability of detomidine hydrochloride monohydrate has been evaluated on the basis of phase transition kinetics in solid state. A method free of empirical models was used for the treatment of kinetic data, and compared to several known solid state kinetic data processing methods. Phase transitions were monitored by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermal analysis. Full PXRD profiles were used for determining the phase content instead of single reflex intensity measurements, in order to minimize the influence of particle texture. We compared the applicability of isothermal and nonisothermal methods to our investigation of detomidine hydrochlorine monohydrate dehydration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of amino acid doping on the growth and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, C.M.; Sankar, R.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of amino acids (L-leucine and isoleucine) doping on the growth aspects and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate crystals has been studied. Pure and doped crystals were grown from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique. The cell parameter values were found to significantly vary for doped crystals. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups in the grown crystal. Morphology study reveals that amino acid doping induces faster growth rate along b-direction leading to a wide b-plane and hence suitable for pyroelectric detector applications. Ferroelectric domain structure has been studied by atomic force microscopy and hysteresis measurements reveal an increase of coercive field due to the formation of single domain pattern

  14. Bulk crystal growth and nonlinear optical characterization of semiorganic single crystal: Cadmium (II) dibromide L - Proline monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, T., E-mail: balacrystalgrowth@gmail.com [Crystal Growth Laboratory, PG & Research Department of Physics, Periyar EVR College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli, 620 023, Tamil Nadu (India); Sathiskumar, S. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, PG & Research Department of Physics, Periyar EVR College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli, 620 023, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, 603 203, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu (India); Thamotharan, S. [Department of Bioinformatics, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, 613 401 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Single crystal of a novel metal organic nonlinear optical (NLO) cadmium (II) dibromide L - proline monohydrate (CBLPM) of size 7 × 7 × 5 mm{sup 3} was grown from slow evaporation technique. Single crystal X – ray diffraction analysis reveals that the crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with lattice parameters a = 10.1891 (8) Å, b = 13.4961 (11) Å, c = 7.4491 (5) Å and space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. The powder X – ray diffraction pattern of CBLPM was recorded and the X – ray diffraction peaks were indexed. The various functional groups of CBLPM were identified by the FT – IR and FT – Raman spectral analyses. The optical transmittance window and lower cut off wavelength of CBLPM were identified from UV – Vis – NIR studies. The mechanical strength of the grown crystal was estimated using Vickers microhardness test. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out at different temperatures in the frequency range of 50 Hz - 2 MHz. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded in the wavelength range 200–400 nm and the estimated optical band gap was ∼4.1 eV. Etching studies were carried out for different etching time. Thermal stability of CBLPM was determined using thermogravimetric analysis. Laser induced damage threshold study was carried out for the grown crystal using Nd:YAG laser. Size dependent second harmonic generation efficiency of the grown crystal was determined by Kurtz and Perry powder technique with different particle size using Nd:YAG laser with wavelength 1064 nm. Second harmonic generation efficiency of the powdered CBLPM crystal was ∼2.3 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. - Highlights: • CBLPM crystal belongs to orthorhombic crystal system with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1.} • Transmittance of CBLPM is ∼80% in the 650–1100 nm range. • Powder SHG efficiency of CBLPM increases with increase in particle size. • SHG efficiency of 0.57 μm size powdered CBLPM is ∼2

  15. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder after single sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan; Akbas, Seher; Aydin, Berna; Say, Gokce Nur

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in chronic sexual abuse victims with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that PTSD in adolescents exposed to a single sexual trauma may function as a chronic stressor leading to HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of this study was to assess dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels in female adolescents |with single sexual trauma-related PTSD compared to healthy controls. We assessed 20 female adolescent (age 12-18) single sexual trauma victims with PTSD from the Ondokuz Mayis University Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry between December 2013 and December 2014. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI). Blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured in 20 female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD and 20 healthy adolescents after 12-h fasting using the chemiluminescence method. Compared to age-matched controls, female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD had significantly lower DHEA-S levels (U = 70.00, Z = - 3.517, p = 0.01, r = 0.55). There was also a significant negative correlation between DHEA-S and CDI scores (Spearman r = - 0.522, p < 0.01). Decreased DHEA-S levels and correlation with depressive symptoms are evidence for a dysregulated HPA-axis in female adolescent single sexual trauma victims with PTSD. Further research is now recommended with large patient groups in order to maximize generalizations.

  16. Growth of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde doped triglycine sulphate single crystals and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Chitharanjan; Sreenivas, K.; Dharmaprakash, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Single crystals of triglycine sulphate (TGS) doped with 1 mol% of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde (DB) have been grown from aqueous solution at ambient temperature by slow evaporation technique. The effect of dopant on the crystal growth and dielectric, pyroelectric and mechanical properties of TGS crystal have been investigated. X-ray powder diffraction pattern for pure and doped TGS was collected to determine the lattice parameters. FTIR spectra were employed to confirm the presence of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde in TGS crystal, qualitatively. The dielectric permittivity has been studied as a function of temperature by cooling the sample at a rate of 1 deg. C/min. An increase in the Curie temperature T c =51 deg. C (for pure TGS, T c =48.5 deg. C) and decrease in maximum permittivity has been observed for doped TGS when compared to pure TGS crystal. Pyroelectric studies on doped TGS were carried out to determine pyroelectric coefficient. The Vickers's hardness of the doped TGS crystals along (0 1 0) face is higher than that of pure TGS crystal for the same face. Domain patterns on b-cut plates were observed using scanning electron microscope. The low dielectric constant, higher pyroelectric coefficient and higher value of hardness suggest that doped TGS crystals could be a potential material for IR detectors.

  17. Growth of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde doped triglycine sulphate single crystals and its characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Chitharanjan, E-mail: raichitharanjan@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India); Kalpataru First Grade Science College, Tiptur 572 202 (India); Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Dharmaprakash, S.M., E-mail: smdharma@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Single crystals of triglycine sulphate (TGS) doped with 1 mol% of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde (DB) have been grown from aqueous solution at ambient temperature by slow evaporation technique. The effect of dopant on the crystal growth and dielectric, pyroelectric and mechanical properties of TGS crystal have been investigated. X-ray powder diffraction pattern for pure and doped TGS was collected to determine the lattice parameters. FTIR spectra were employed to confirm the presence of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde in TGS crystal, qualitatively. The dielectric permittivity has been studied as a function of temperature by cooling the sample at a rate of 1 deg. C/min. An increase in the Curie temperature T{sub c}=51 deg. C (for pure TGS, T{sub c}=48.5 deg. C) and decrease in maximum permittivity has been observed for doped TGS when compared to pure TGS crystal. Pyroelectric studies on doped TGS were carried out to determine pyroelectric coefficient. The Vickers's hardness of the doped TGS crystals along (0 1 0) face is higher than that of pure TGS crystal for the same face. Domain patterns on b-cut plates were observed using scanning electron microscope. The low dielectric constant, higher pyroelectric coefficient and higher value of hardness suggest that doped TGS crystals could be a potential material for IR detectors.

  18. Growth of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde doped triglycine sulphate single crystals and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Chitharanjan; Sreenivas, K.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2009-11-01

    Single crystals of triglycine sulphate (TGS) doped with 1 mol% of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde (DB) have been grown from aqueous solution at ambient temperature by slow evaporation technique. The effect of dopant on the crystal growth and dielectric, pyroelectric and mechanical properties of TGS crystal have been investigated. X-ray powder diffraction pattern for pure and doped TGS was collected to determine the lattice parameters. FTIR spectra were employed to confirm the presence of 4-(dimethylamino) benzaldehyde in TGS crystal, qualitatively. The dielectric permittivity has been studied as a function of temperature by cooling the sample at a rate of 1 °C/min. An increase in the Curie temperature Tc=51 °C (for pure TGS, Tc=48.5 °C) and decrease in maximum permittivity has been observed for doped TGS when compared to pure TGS crystal. Pyroelectric studies on doped TGS were carried out to determine pyroelectric coefficient. The Vickers's hardness of the doped TGS crystals along (0 1 0) face is higher than that of pure TGS crystal for the same face. Domain patterns on b-cut plates were observed using scanning electron microscope. The low dielectric constant, higher pyroelectric coefficient and higher value of hardness suggest that doped TGS crystals could be a potential material for IR detectors.

  19. Evaluation of a single-dose of intravenous magnesium sulphate for prevention of postoperative pain after inguinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to study efficacy of single dose of intravenous magnesium sulphate to reduce post-operative pain in patients undergoing inguinal surgery. One hundred patients undergoing inguinal surgery were divided randomly in two groups of 50 each. The patients of magnesium sulphate group (Group-I received magnesium sulphate 50 mg/kg in 250 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution IV whereas patients in control group (Group-II received same volume of isotonic sodium chloride over 30 minutes preoperatively. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg and pethidine (1 mg/kg. Atracurium besylate (0.5 mg/kg was given to facilitate insertion of LMA. Pain at emergence from anaesthesia and 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours after surgery was evaluated. The timing and dosage of rescue analgesic during first 24 hrs after operation was noted. Pain in postop period was significantly lower in magnesium sulphate group in comparison to control group at emergence from anaesthesia and 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hrs postop [1.86 vs. 1.96 (P=0.138, 1.22 vs. 1.82 (P=0.001, 1.32 vs. 1.88 (P=0.000, 2.74 vs. 3.84 (P=0.000, 1.36 vs. 2.00 (P=0.000 and 0.78 vs 1.30 (P=0.000, respectively]. Patients in group-I were more sedated as compared to group-II [sedation score 1.86 vs. 1.40 (P=0.000]. Rescue analgesia requirement postoperatively in first 4, 8 and 16 hrs was significantly lower in patients of group-1 than in group- II [1.9 vs. 3.8 (P<0.05, 25.50 vs. 52.50 (P<0.05 and 0.000 vs. 7.5 (P<0.05]. Preoperative magnesium sulphate infusion decreases postop pain and requirement of rescue analgesia.

  20. Experimental and density functional theory (DFT): A dual approach to probe the key properties of creatininium L-tartrate monohydrate single crystal for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurugan, R.; Babu, B.; Anitha, K.; Chandrasekaran, J.

    2017-12-01

    A novel organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material, creatininium L-tartrate monohydrate (CTM) was synthesized and it was grown as single crystals with optical quality. 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies were performed and molecular structure of synthesized CTM compound was confirmed. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) analysis confirmed that CTM was crystallized in orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric (NCS), P212121, space group. The grown crystal exhibited admirable properties such as second harmonic generation efficiency (SHG) (1.9 times KDP), and high laser damage threshold (LDT) value of 3.7 GW cm-2. CTM crystal displayed high transparency (∼60%) in the visible and near-IR region with low cut-off wavelength at 249 nm. Photoluminescence study confirmed blue wavelength emission (∼463 nm) of grown crystal. Thermal and mechanical behaviours have been successfully analysed for grown crystals. The dielectric studies were carried out for grown crystal as a function of frequencies at different temperatures. Hirshfeld surface and fingerprint plots provided the percentage of individual interactions contributed by each atom. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to probe the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and first hyperpolarizability (β) analysis of the optimized CTM structure. These results validated CTM as a suitable NLO candidate and were discussed in this work.

  1. Synthesis, optical, experimental and theoretical investigation of third order nonlinear optical properties of 8-hydroxyquinolinium 2-carboxy-6-nitrophthalate monohydrate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, M. Divya; Bhuvaneswari, R.; Srividya, J.; Vinitha, G.; Prithiviraajan, R. N.; Anbalagan, G.

    2018-02-01

    Single crystals of 8-hydroxyquinolinium 2-carboxy-6-nitrophthalate monohydrate (8HQNP) were obtained from slow evaporation solution growth method using methanol-water (1:1) as a solvent. Powder X-ray diffraction was utilized to compute the unit cell parameters and dislocation density of 8HQNP crystal. The crystalline perfection of the as-grown crystal was investigated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The molecular structure was analyzed by identifying the functional groups from FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The cut-off wavelength and the corresponding optical band gap obtained from an optical spectrum were 376 nm and 3.29 eV respectively. The dispersion nature of refractive index was investigated by the single-oscillator Wemple and Di-Domenico model. Red emission was observed in the photoluminescence spectrum when excited with 376 nm. The low birefringence and high laser damage threshold (8.538 GW/cm2) values dictate the suitability of the crystal for optical devices. Z-scan studies revealed the third order nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and refractive index (n2) of the 8HQNP crystal. The theoretical value of third order nonlinear susceptibility obtained from density function theory is good accordance with the experimental value. The frontier molecular orbital energy gap decreases with increasing external electric field in different directions which attributed to the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability. The grown title crystal is thermally stable up to 102 °C which was identified using thermal analysis. Mechanical strength of 8HQNP was estimated by using Vicker's microhardness studies.

  2. Studies on the concentration dependence of specific rotation of Alpha lactose monohydrate (α-LM) aqueous solutions and growth of α-LM single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodhini, K.; Divya Bharathi, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    2018-02-01

    Lactose is an optically active substance. As it is one of the reducing sugars, exhibits mutarotation in solution when it dissolves in any solvent. In solution, lactose exists in two isomeric forms, alpha-Lactose (α-L) and beta-lactose (β-L) through the mutarotation reaction. Mutarotation produces a dynamic equilibrium between two isomers in a solution and kinetics of this process determines the growth rate of alpha lactose monohydrate (α-LM) crystals. Since no data were available on the specific rotation of aqueous α-LM solutions at different concentrations at 33 °C, the initial experiments were carried out on the specific rotation of aqueous α-LM solutions at different concentrations at 33 °C. The specific rotations of the solutions were decreased with increasing time through the mutarotation reaction. The initial and final (equilibrium) specific rotations of the solutions were determined by using automatic digital polarimeter. The compositions of α and β-L in all prepared solutions were calculated from initial and final optical rotations by the method of Sharp and Doob. The composition of α-L decreased whereas, the composition of β-L increased in solutions with increasing concentration of α-LM at 33 °C. Experimental results revealed that this method could be easily and safely employed to study the dependence of specific rotation of solutions on their concentration. The effect of β-lactose on the morphology of nucleated α-LM single crystals has been studied at different experimental conditions.

  3. Influence of MgSO{sub 4} doping on the properties of zinc tris–thiourea sulphate (ZTS) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvapandiyan, M., E-mail: mselvapandiyan@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Vidya Mandir Arts and Science College, Uthangarai 635 207 (India); Arumugam, J. [Department of Physics, Sri Vidya Mandir Arts and Science College, Uthangarai 635 207 (India); Sundaramoorthi, P. [Department of Physics, Thiruvalluvar Government Arts College, Rasipuram 637 401 (India); Sudhakar, S. [CSIR–National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •The influence of MgSO{sub 4} doping on the properties of ZTS single crystals grown at room temperature. •Thermal stability of the crystals increased with incorporation of Mg atom. •Energy band gap was estimated from UV–vis spectra. •ZTS is a potential material for frequency conversion. •Both pure and doped ZTS crystals are belonging to category of typical insulating materials. -- Abstract: The influence of MgSO{sub 4} doping on the properties of zinc tris–thiourea sulphate single crystals grown at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique was studied. Powder XRD analysis confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure with noncentrosymmetric space group Pca2{sub 1}. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals were analysed by Vicker’s microhardness method. Functional groups present in the materials were identified by FTIR spectral analysis in the range between 4000 and 400 cm{sup −1}. The UV–Vis spectrum indicates that the UV cut-off wavelength of the crystals has less than 297 nm. The thermal stability of the grown crystals was determined with the aid of thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Second order nonlinear optical behaviour of the grown crystals have been confirmed by Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test.

  4. Trapping crystal nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline nucleation of cholesterol at the air-water interface has been studied via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The various stages of cholesterol molecular assembly from monolayer to three bilayers incorporating interleaving hydrogen-bonded water layers......, at least initially, an intralayer cholesterol rearrangement in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transition. The preferred nucleation of the monoclinic phase of cholesterol . H2O followed by transformation to the stable monohydrate phase may be associated with an energetically more stable cholesterol...... bilayer arrangement of the former and a more favorable hydrogen-bonding arrangement of the latter. The relevance of this nucleation process of cholesterol monohydrate to pathological crystallization of cholesterol from cell biomembranes is discussed....

  5. Radioprotective effects of dextran sulphate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, A.; Bartonickova, A.; Rotkovska, D.; Palyga, G.F.; Zhukova, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Influence of a single i.p. injection of dextran sulphate on radiosensitivity of mice was investigated. The administration of dextran sulphate 24, 48 and 72 hours prior to irradiation increased formation of endogenous colonies of the hemopoietic tissue on the surface of the spleen. DRF calculated from an equieffective exposure for 5 colonies was 1.96 when dextran sulphate was administered 24 hours before irradiation, and 2.25 when dextran sulphate was administered 72 hours before irradiation. The radioprotective effects of dextran sulphate were manifested also in the survival of animals exposed to lethal doses of short-termed as well as long-termed gamma radiation. (orig.) [de

  6. The formation of radiation defects in monohydrate of lithium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahytzhan, A.B.; Zhussupov, A.A.; Kim, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The crystals of lithium sulfate are monohydrate. At heating it pass waterless form. This crystals are represented the convenient for study of the crystal water influence on the radiation-induced processes. After irradiation in Li 2 SO 4 · H 2 O it was established the radicals SO 3 - and SO 4 - by the EPR method. The similar radiation induced centres are characteristic for the all sulphates. We established that at after irradiation by X-rays monohydrate sulphate lithium have not the absorption bands in a range 200-800 nm. It complicates study of the given systems. The dominant peak of recombination luminescence (TL) has a maximum in area 100 K. On its high-temperature wing there is 'shoulder' showing of more high-temperature and weak luminescence. At higher temperatures some very weak of TL peaks are observed. The dehydration of the samples does not essential influence for this weak TL. Because we have concentrated the basic attention only on low temperature peaks of recombination luminescence. The TL peak of a luminescence with a maximum at 100 K as a result of thermo treatment has disappeared. Dominant emission became the TL peak with a maximum at 130 K. It is necessary to note, that after dehydration the radiative sensitivity of sulphate lithium sharply has increased. Our rough estimation for this change give value almost two orders. In monohydrate the maximum of TL peak is observed at 130 K radiation by UV. This peak can be divided into two peaks with maximums at 100 K and 130 K. At an irradiation dehydrated samples by ultraviolet light the TL peaks are not observed. The given results allow connecting a luminescence at 100 K with disintegration of defects in the subsystem of crystal water. The products radiolysis of water molecules essential influence on recombination processes in sulphate subsystem. The one hand they suppress them, with another - there is a new channel of disintegration complex anions. It is established that photoconductivity of the

  7. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food... Table Sirups § 168.111 Dextrose monohydrate. (a) Dextrose monohydrate is purified and crystallized D.../mass (m/m), and the reducing sugar content (dextrose equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not less...

  8. Studies on the effect of different operational parameters on the crystallization kinetics of α-lactose monohydrate single crystals in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2014-09-01

    Supersaturation dependent nucleation, size and morphology of alpha-lactose monohydrate (α-LM) crystals from aqueous solution were investigated by adopting two different crystallization methods, slow evaporation and fast evaporation, in the supersaturation range between σ=0.05 and 1.30. The induction period of nucleation is comparatively long in case of slow evaporation and is very short in case of fast evaporation process as the interconversion between α-L and β-L is uncontrollable in the former and is under control in the latter case. Moreover α-LM crystals with tomahawk morphology were obtained throughout the supersaturation range by slow evaporation method whereas crystals with tomahawk, triangular and needle-like morphologies were obtained in supersaturation ranges σ=0.05-0.5, σ=0.5-0.9 and σ=0.9-1.30 respectively by fast evaporation method. Experimentally observed nucleation parameters were verified with theoretically deuced values. It is realized that the fast evaporation method employed in the present study is found to be highly efficient in controlling the interconversion between α-L and β-L as well as in suppressing the inhibitory activity of β molecule on the nucleation and growth of α-LM crystals when compared to conventional slow evaporation method and is successful in producing the industrially preferred needle-like crystals at high supersaturation ranges.

  9. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  10. Effect of Nickel sulphate on Growth, Structural, Optical, Mechanical and thermal properties of L-alanine Single Crystals (LANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothimani, R.; Selvarajan, P.

    2017-08-01

    The nonlinear optical materials find excellent place in frequency conversion, optical telecommunication, image processing, optical computing, and data storage. Due to possessing chiral symmetry and nature of crystallize in noncentro-symmetric space groups, the amino acids are applicable in NLO applications. A transparent nickel sulphate admixtured L-alanine crystal has been developed by solution method. X ray diffraction analysis depicts the orthorhombic crystal system of the sample. NLO efficiency of the sample was found to be highly pronounced compare to KDP. An enhanced linear optical property of the sample shows its suitability for NLO applications. Thermal behaviour of the sample was found by TGA/DTA analysis. Hardness parameters were also found for the sample by microhardness measurements. Laser damage threshold were also measured using Nd: YAG laser.

  11. Effect of L-aspartic acid on the growth, structure and spectral studies of Zinc (tris) Thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Bincy Susan; Krishnamurthy, R.; Rajasekaran, R.

    2014-11-01

    Single crystals of pure and L-aspartic acid doped Zinc (Tris) Thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) were grown from aqueous solution by solution growth method. The cell parameters and structure of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The presence of functional group in the compound has been confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman analysis. The optical transparency range has been studied through UV-Vis spectroscopy. TGA/DTA studies show thermal stability of the grown crystals. Microhardness study reveals that the hardness number (Hv) increases with load for pure and doped ZTS crystals. Dielectric studies have been carried out and the results are discussed. The second harmonic generation was confirmed for L-aspartic acid doped ZTS which is greater than pure ZTS.

  12. 2-Hydroxy-1-methoxyanthraquinone monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Meng Liu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H10O4·H2O, also known as alizarin 1-methyl ether monohydrate, was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two outer benzene rings being 3.07 (4°. In the crystal structure, O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the organic molecules and the water molecules, forming a three-dimensional network.

  13. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dawson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology.

  14. Structure of sodium perbromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, A.C.; Gallucci, J.C.; Gerkin, R.E.; Reppart, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    NaBrO 4 .H 2 O, M r =184.90, monoclinic, C2/c, a=15.7575(19), b=5.7373(15), c=11.3390(19) A, β=111.193(10)deg. In this structure, there are two inequivalent Na ions, each coordinated by six O atoms. In each of the two types of distorted octahedra, there are three inequivalent Na-O distances; the average Na(1)-O and Na(2)-O distances are 2.379(10) and 2.405(23) A, respectively. The perbromate ion in this structure displays very nearly regular tetrahedral geometry, although it is subject to no symmetry constraints; the average observed Br-O distance is 1.601(4) A, while the average observed O-Br-O angle is 109.5(9)deg. These values agree well with previously reported values. The perbromate ion, but neither of the sodium coordination polyhedra, shows rigid-body behavior. The average rigid-body corrected Br-O distance in the perbromate ion is 1.624(3) A. Refinement of the two inequivalent H atoms permitted detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonding, which is slightly different from that reported for the isomorphic sodium perchlorate monohydrate. Dynamic disordering of the H atoms as detailed by magnetic resonance methods for sodium perchlorate monohydrate is not clearly indicated in our X-ray study of sodium perbromate monohydrate. (orig./GSCH)

  15. A single exposure of sediment sulphate-reducing bacteria to oxytetracycline concentrations relevant to aquaculture enduringly disturbed their activity, abundance and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M L; Granados-Chinchilla, F; Rodríguez, C

    2015-08-01

    Although feed medicated with antibiotics is widely used in animal production to prevent and treat bacterial infections, the effect of these drugs on nontarget anaerobic bacteria is unknown. We aimed to clarify whether a single exposure of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from a tilapia pond to oxytetracycline (OTC) concentrations relevant to aquaculture impacts their function, abundance and community structure. To demonstrate changes in SO4(2-) content, SRB abundance, dsrB copy number and SRB diversity, sediment mesocosms were spiked with 5, 25, 50 and 75 mg OTC kg(-1) and examined for 30 days by means of ion chromatography, qPCR, cultivation and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). On day 3, we measured higher SO4(2-) concentrations (ca. two-fold) and a reduction in dsrB copy numbers of approximately 50% in the treatments compared to the controls. After 30 days, a subtle yet measurable enrichment of bacteria from the order Desulfovibrionales occurred in mesocosms receiving ≥ 50 mg OTC kg(-1), notwithstanding that SRB counts decreased two orders of magnitude. OTC was dynamically and reversibly converted into 4-epioxytetracycline and other related compounds in a dose-dependent manner during the experiment. A single exposure to rather high OTC concentrations triggered functional and structural changes in a SRB community that manifested quickly and persisted for a month. This study improves our limited knowledge on the ecotoxicology of antibiotics in anaerobic environments. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Dipotassium hydrogencarbonate fluoride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kahlenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, K2(HCO3F·H2O, were obtained as a secondary product after performing flux synthesis experiments aimed at the preparation of potassium rare earth silicates. The basic building unit of the structure is an [(HCO3(H2OF]2− zigzag chain running parallel to [001]. Both types of anions as well as the water molecules reside on mirror planes perpendicular to [010] at y = 0.25 and y = 0.75, respectively. Linkage between the different constituents of the chains is provided by O—H...O and O—H...F hydrogen bonding. The K+ cations are located between the chains and are coordinated by two F and five O atoms in form of a distorted monocapped trigonal prism.

  17. Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate monohydrate (coenzyme M sodium salt monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mayr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2-thioethanesulfonate anion is the smallest known coenzyme in nature (HS–CoM and plays a key role in methanogenesis by anaerobic archaea, as well as in the oxidation of alkenes by Gram-negative and Gram-positive eubacteria. The title compound, Na+·C2H5O3S2−·H2O, is the Na+ salt of HS–CoM crystallized as the monohydrate. Six O atoms form a distorted octahedral coordination geometry around the Na atom, at distances in the range 2.312 (4–2.517 (3 Å. Two O atoms of the sulfonate group, one O atom of each of three other symmetry-related sulfonate groups plus the water O atom form the coordination environment of the Na+ ion. This arrangement forms Na–O–Na layers in the crystal structure, parallel to (100.

  18. Physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulphate/excipient spray dried mixtures for use in dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Deirdre O; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2006-09-28

    The physicochemical and aerodynamic properties of spray dried powders of the drug/drug mixture salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide were investigated. The in vitro deposition properties of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and the spray dried drug/excipient mixtures salbutamol sulphate/lactose and salbutamol sulphate/PEG were also determined. Spray drying ipratropium bromide monohydrate resulted in a crystalline material from both aqueous and ethanolic solution. The product spray dried from aqueous solution consisted mainly of ipratropium bromide anhydrous. There was evidence of the presence of another polymorphic form of ipratropium bromide. When spray dried from ethanolic solution the physicochemical characterisation suggested the presence of an ipratropium bromide solvate with some anhydrous ipratropium bromide. Co-spray drying salbutamol sulphate with ipratropium bromide resulted in amorphous composites, regardless of solvent used. Particles were spherical and of a size suitable for inhalation. Twin impinger studies showed an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of spray dried salbutamol sulphate compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate:ipratropium bromide 10:1 and 5:1 systems also showed an increase in FPF compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Most co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate/excipient systems investigated demonstrated FPFs greater than that of micronised drug alone. The exceptions to this were systems containing PEG 4000 20% or PEG 20,000 40% both of which had FPFs not significantly different from micronised salbutamol sulphate. These two systems were crystalline unlike most of the other spray dried composites examined which were amorphous in nature.

  19. Intensify dodecylamine adsorption on magnesite and dolomite surfaces by monohydric alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Wengang; Han, Cong; Wei, Dezhou

    2018-06-01

    The flotation of magnesite and dolomite were investigated with the presence of single dodecylamine (DDA) and combined mixtures of DDA and monohydric alcohols, respectively. The adsorption behavior of DDA, butanol, hexanol and octanol on the surface of the two minerals were shown by molecular dynamics simulation, and the results were corresponding with the analysis of zeta potential, measurements of the contact angle and adsorption. Flotation results indicated that part of DDA could be replaced by the three alcohols (butanol, hexanol, octanol) to get better flotation results. Molecular dynamics simulation and the results of zeta potential and contact angle measurements indicated that adsorption of DDA on mineral surfaces could be strengthened by monohydric alcohols.

  20. Induced Nanocrystallization of Dextrose Monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Irudayaraj; Raj, B. Kanickai; Sivagami, V.; Selvi, Naga Pondy

    2013-09-01

    Modern ultrasound induction is very much useful in crystallization process. It uses piezoelectric transducers or quartz crystals to convert mechanical waves to electrical signals and vice versa. Growth of a crystal is environment dependent. The characteristics of grown crystals depend on impurities, temperature, preparation of the solution and mechanical agitation. The properties and size of a crystal can be tailored by controlling any one or all the above factors. The most interesting fact is that the ultrasound influences the properties and size of a crystal. It is found that the characteristics are improved and tailored for a specific need of the industry when a crystal is grown by radiating ultrasonic wave. In some cases, it produces nanocrystals. We used a device which generates the Ultrasonic wave of 15 MHz, which is applied to the crystal right from the time before nucleation till the crystal formation. The Dextrose monohydrate crystals are grown by conventional slow cool batch method. In the same slow cool batch method, Ultrasonic waves of 15 MHz are allowed to pass, influence the nucleation, crystal formation and growing process. The crystal formation process under the exposure of Ultrasound is allowed to continue for a sufficiently long time to yield the desired nanocrystals. The FTIR, UV, microhardness and SEM analysis are taken for the crystals with and without ultrasound.

  1. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  2. Thermometric titration of sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M B; Janata, J

    1970-06-01

    Direct thermometric titration of sulphate with a solution of barium perchlorate is proposed. The stoichiometry of the titration is shown to be critically dependent on the concentration of ethanol in the titration medium. The titration is rapid and suffers from only a few interferences.

  3. A Search for Interstellar Monohydric Thiols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Das, Amaresh; Chakrabarti, Sandip K. [Indian Centre for Space Physics, 43 Chalantika, Garia Station Rd., Kolkata, 700084 (India); Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Etim, Emmanuel E., E-mail: ankan.das@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2017-02-10

    It has been pointed out by various astronomers that a very interesting relationship exists between interstellar alcohols and the corresponding thiols (sulfur analog of alcohols) as far as the spectroscopic properties and chemical abundances are concerned. Monohydric alcohols such as methanol and ethanol are widely observed and 1-propanol was recently claimed to have been seen in Orion KL. Among the monohydric thiols, methanethiol (chemical analog of methanol) has been firmly detected in Orion KL and Sgr B2(N2) and ethanethiol (chemical analog of ethanol) has been observed in Sgr B2(N2), though the confirmation of this detection is yet to come. It is very likely that higher order thiols could be observed in these regions. In this paper, we study the formation of monohydric alcohols and their thiol analogs. Based on our quantum chemical calculation and chemical modeling, we find that the Tg conformer of 1-propanethiol is a good candidate of astronomical interest. We present various spectroscopically relevant parameters of this molecule to assist in its future detection in the interstellar medium.

  4. Crystal structure, vibrational and DFT simulation studies of melaminium dihydrogen phosphite monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Kalaivani, M.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2013-08-01

    The crystal structure investigations of melamine with phosphorous acid, namely melaminium dihydrogenphosphite monohydrate (C3N6H7·H2PO3·H2O) have been investigated by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system, and the space group is P21/c with a = 10.069 Å, b = 21.592 Å, c = 12.409 Å and Z = 12. The vibrational assignments and analysis of melaminium dihydrogen phosphite monohydrate have also been performed by FTIR, FT-Raman and far-infrared spectral studies. The quantum chemical simulations were performed with DFT (B3LYP) method using 6-31G**, cc-pVTZ, and 6-311++G** basis sets to determine the energy, structural, thermodynamic parameters and vibrational frequencies of melaminium dihydrogen phosphite monohydrate. The hydrogen atom from phosphorous acid was transferred to the melamine molecule giving the singly protonated melaminium cation. The ability of ions to form spontaneous three-dimensional structure through weak Osbnd H···O and Nsbnd H···O hydrogen bonds shows notable vibrational effects.

  5. 1-Azaniumylcyclobutane-1-carboxylate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C5H9NO2·H2O, the amino acid is in the usual zwitterionic form involving the α-carboxylate group. The cyclobutane backbone of the amino acid is disordered over two conformations, with occupancies of 0.882 (7 and 0.118 (7. In the crystal, N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the zwitterions [with the water molecule involved as both acceptor (with the NH3+ and donor (through a single carboxylate O from two different aminocyclobutane carboxylate moities], resulting in a two-dimensional layered structure lying parallel to (100.

  6. Hexagonal ZnO porous plates prepared from microwave synthesized layered zinc hydroxide sulphate via thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machovsky, Michal, E-mail: machovsky@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Kuritka, Ivo, E-mail: ivo@kuritka.net [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Sedlak, Jakub, E-mail: j1sedlak@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Pastorek, Miroslav, E-mail: pastorek@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was synthesized in 3 min via microwave hydrothermal route. • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was converted into mesh like porous ZnO by calcining at 900°. • The process of transformation is topotactic. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide sulphate (ZHS) was prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal precipitation of zinc sulphate monohydrate with hexamethylenetetramine. Under ambient conditions, the structure of ZHS determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·5H{sub 2}O and tetrahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·4H{sub 2}O. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for characterization of the prepared materials. Based on the interpretation of ZHS's thermal decomposition profile obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ZnO of high purity was prepared by calcination at 900 °C for 2 h. The structure of the resulting ZnO was confirmed by the XRD. The morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous mesh-like ZnO structure developed from the ZHS precursor at the expense of mass removal due to the release of water and sulphate during the calcination.

  7. Dehydration of sodium carbonate monohydrate with indirect microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyrankaya, Abdullah; Ozalp, Baris

    2006-01-01

    In this study, dehydration of sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na 2 CO 3 .H 2 O) (SCM) in microwave (MW) field with silicon carbide (SiC) as an indirect heating medium was investigated. SCM samples containing up to 3% free moisture were placed in the microwave oven. The heating experiments showed that SCM is a poor microwave energy absorber for up to 6 min of irradiation at an 800 W of microwave power. The heat for SCM calcination is provided by SiC which absorbs microwave. The monohydrate is then converted to anhydrous sodium carbonate on the SiC plate by calcining, i.e. by removing the crystal water through heating of the monohydrate temperatures of over 120 deg. C. The calcination results in a solid phase recrystallization of the monohydrate into anhydrate. In the microwave irradiation process, dehydration of SCM in terms of indirect heating can be accelerated by increasing the microwave field power

  8. Solid dispersions of Myricetin with enhanced solubility: Formulation, characterization and crystal structure of stability-impeding Myricetin monohydrate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan-Pop, M.; Pop, M. M.; Borodi, G.; Todea, M.; Nagy-Simon, T.; Simon, S.

    2017-08-01

    Three solid dispersion forms of Myricetin combined with the Polyvinylpyrrolidone were successfully prepared by spray drying method, and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and optical microscopy. Zeta potential measurements provided indications on solid dispersions stability in aqueous suspension related to their storage at elevated temperature and relative humidity, which depends on the Myricetin load. By increase of Myricetin load, the stability of the solid dispersion is impeded due to growth of Myricetin monohydrate crystals. The amorphous dispersions with 10% and 50% Myricetin load are stable and, compared to pure Myricetin, their aqueous solubility is enhanced by a factor of 47 and 13, respectively. The dispersion with 80% Myricetin load is unstable on storage, and this behavior acts in conjunction with the development of Myricetin monohydrate crystals. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction results obtained for Myricetin monohydrate reveal a structure of an infinite 2D network of hydrogen-bonded molecules involving all six hydroxyl groups of Myricetin. The water molecules are positioned in between the infinite chains, and contribute via H-bonds to robust crystal packing. The calculated needle-like morphology of monohydrate form is in agreement with the optical microscopy results. The study shows that the solid amorphous dispersions with up to 50% Myricetin load are a viable option for achieving substantial solubility improvement of Myricetin, and supports their potential use in pharmaceutical applications.

  9. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings

  10. Sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses: implications for the containment of sulphate-bearing nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, M.

    2009-09-01

    The thesis deals with sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses, in order to control sulphate incorporation and sulphate volatilization in nuclear waste glasses. It was conducted on simplified compositions, in the SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -R 2 O (R = Li, Na, K, Cs), SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -BaO and V 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 -BaO systems. These compositions allowed us to study the influence of the nature of network-modifying ions (Li + , Na + , K + , Cs + or Ba 2+ ) and also of former elements (Si, B, V), on structure and properties of glasses. Sulphate volatility is studied in sodium borosilicate melts using an innovative technique of sulphate quantitation with Raman spectroscopy. This technique is useful to obtain kinetic curves of sulphate volatilization. The establishment of a model to fit these curves leads to the determination of diffusion coefficients of sulphate. These diffusion coefficients can thus be compared to diffusion coefficients of other species, determined by other techniques and presented in the literature. They are also linked to diffusion coefficients in relation with the viscosity of the melts. Concerning sulphate solubility in glasses, it depends on glass composition and on the nature of sulphate incorporated. Sulphate incorporation in alkali borosilicate glasses leads to the formation of a sulphate layer floating on top of the melt. Sulphate incorporation in barium borosilicate and boro-vanadate glasses leads to the crystallization of sulphate species inside the vitreous matrix. Moreover, sulphate solubility is higher in these glasses than in alkali borosilicates. Finally, exchanges between cations present in glasses and cations present in the sulphate phase are also studied. (author)

  11. Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate hexahydrate single crystal—An ultrasonic study. GEORGE VARUGHESE. ,∗. , A S KUMAR†, J PHILIP†† and GODFREY LOUIS#. Department of Physics, Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta 689 648, India. †SPAP, M.G. University, Kottayam 686 560, India. ††STIC ...

  12. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of gallic acid and its monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Shaoping; Wang, Chenyang; Zou, Tao; Pan, Tingting; Zhang, Jianbing; Xu, Zhou; Ren, Guanhua; Zhao, Hongwei

    2018-02-01

    The low-frequency spectra of gallic acid (GA) and its monohydrate were investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the range of 0.5 to 4.5 THz. The dehydration process of GA monohydrate was monitored on-line. The kinetic mechanism of the dehydration process was analyzed depending on the THz spectral change at different temperatures. The results indicate that the diffusion of water molecule dominates the speed of the entire dehydration process. Solid-state density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the vibrational modes of both GA and its monohydrate were performed based on their crystalline structures for better interpreting the experimental THz spectra. The results demonstrate that the characterized features of GA mainly originate from the collective vibrations of molecules. And the interactions between GA and water molecules are responsible for THz fingerprint of GA monohydrate. Multi-techniques including differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry (DSC-TG) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were also carried out to further investigate GA and its monohydrate.

  13. Preparation and properties of uranyl bromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, F.

    1983-01-01

    Uranyl bromate monohydrate UO 2 (BrO 3 ) 2 .H 2 O was obtained as a greenish-yellow solid by the metathesis of a uranyl sulfate solution with a stoichiometric amount of barium bromate solution. On evaporation of the supernatant of the precipitated BaSO 4 a greenish-yellow syrup was obtained which, on dehydration with anhydrous carbon tetrachloride, yielded a free-flowing greenish-yellow powder with stoichiometry UO 2 (BrO 3 ) 2 .H 2 O. Powder diffraction diagrams of UO 2 (BrO 3 ) 2 .H 2 O obtained using the Guinier method yielded an orthorhombic lattice (space group, Pbcn (no. 60)) with a = 8.533 +- 0.003 A, b = 7.639 +- 0.003 A and c = 12.293 +- 0.004 A; the X-ray density was 4.507 g cm -3 . The compound was characterized by chemical analysis, IR spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. (Auth.)

  14. Sulphate reduction experiment: SURE-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Bengtsson, A.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, L.; Hallbeck, L.; Johansson, J.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L.

    2013-11-01

    It was previously concluded that opposing gradients of sulphate and methane, observations of 16S rDNA sequences displaying great similarity to those of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea, and a peak in sulphide concentration in groundwater from a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, indicated proper conditions for methane oxidation with sulphate. In the present research (SURE-1), pressure-resistant, gas-tight circulating systems were constructed to enable the investigation of attached and unattached anaerobic microbial populations from a depth of 327 m in Olkiluoto under in situ pressure (2.4 MPa), diversity, dissolved gas, and hydrochemical conditions of groundwater station ONKPVA6. Three parallel flow cell cabinets were configured to allow observation of the influence on microbial metabolic activity of 11 mM methane, 11 mM methane plus 10 mM H 2 , or 2.1 mM O 2 plus 7.9 mM N 2 (i.e., air). The concentrations of these gases and of organic acids and carbon, sulphur chemistry, pH and E h , ATP, numbers of cultivable microorganisms, and total numbers of cells and bacteriophages were subsequently recorded under batch conditions for 105 d. The system containing H 2 and methane displayed microbial reduction of 0.7 mM sulphate to sulphide, while the system containing only methane produced 0.2 mM reduced sulphate. The system containing added air became inhibited and displayed no signs of microbial activity. Added H 2 and methane induced increasing numbers of lysogenic bacteriophages per cell. It appears possible that a microbial anaerobic methane-oxidizing process coupled to acetate formation and sulphate reduction may be ongoing in aquifers at a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, but clear evidence of such an AOM process was not obtained. (orig.)

  15. Sulphate reduction experiment: SURE-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Bengtsson, A.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, L.; Hallbeck, L.; Johansson, J.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    It was previously concluded that opposing gradients of sulphate and methane, observations of 16S rDNA sequences displaying great similarity to those of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea, and a peak in sulphide concentration in groundwater from a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, indicated proper conditions for methane oxidation with sulphate. In the present research (SURE-1), pressure-resistant, gas-tight circulating systems were constructed to enable the investigation of attached and unattached anaerobic microbial populations from a depth of 327 m in Olkiluoto under in situ pressure (2.4 MPa), diversity, dissolved gas, and hydrochemical conditions of groundwater station ONKPVA6. Three parallel flow cell cabinets were configured to allow observation of the influence on microbial metabolic activity of 11 mM methane, 11 mM methane plus 10 mM H{sub 2}, or 2.1 mM O{sub 2} plus 7.9 mM N{sub 2} (i.e., air). The concentrations of these gases and of organic acids and carbon, sulphur chemistry, pH and E{sub h}, ATP, numbers of cultivable microorganisms, and total numbers of cells and bacteriophages were subsequently recorded under batch conditions for 105 d. The system containing H{sub 2} and methane displayed microbial reduction of 0.7 mM sulphate to sulphide, while the system containing only methane produced 0.2 mM reduced sulphate. The system containing added air became inhibited and displayed no signs of microbial activity. Added H{sub 2} and methane induced increasing numbers of lysogenic bacteriophages per cell. It appears possible that a microbial anaerobic methane-oxidizing process coupled to acetate formation and sulphate reduction may be ongoing in aquifers at a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, but clear evidence of such an AOM process was not obtained. (orig.)

  16. Influence of impurities on the crystallization of dextrose monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markande, Abhay; Nezzal, Amale; Fitzpatrick, John; Aerts, Luc; Redl, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The effects of impurities on dextrose monohydrate crystallization were investigated. Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics in the presence of impurities were studied using an in-line focused beam reflectance monitoring (FBRM) technique and an in-line process refractometer. Experimental data were obtained from runs carried out at different impurity levels between 4 and 11 wt% in the high dextrose equivalent (DE) syrup. It was found that impurities have no significant influence on the solubility of dextrose in water. However, impurities have a clear influence on the nucleation and growth kinetics of dextrose monohydrate crystallization. Nucleation and growth rate were favored by low levels of impurities in the syrup.

  17. Structural and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium maleate monohydrate by FTIR, FT-Raman and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Kalaivani, M.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2013-04-01

    The structural investigations of the molecular complex of melamine with maleic acid, namely melaminium maleate monohydrate have been carried out by quantum chemical methods in addition to FTIR, FT-Raman and far-infrared spectral studies. The quantum chemical studies were performed with DFT (B3LYP) method using 6-31G**, cc-pVDZ and 6-311++G** basis sets to determine the energy, structural and thermodynamic parameters of melaminium maleate monohydrate. The hydrogen atom from maleic acid was transferred to the melamine molecule giving the singly protonated melaminium cation. The ability of ions to form spontaneous three-dimensional structure through weak Osbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds shows notable vibrational effects.

  18. Structural and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium maleate monohydrate by FTIR, FT-Raman and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Kalaivani, M; Marchewka, M K; Mohan, S

    2013-04-15

    The structural investigations of the molecular complex of melamine with maleic acid, namely melaminium maleate monohydrate have been carried out by quantum chemical methods in addition to FTIR, FT-Raman and far-infrared spectral studies. The quantum chemical studies were performed with DFT (B3LYP) method using 6-31G(**), cc-pVDZ and 6-311++G(**) basis sets to determine the energy, structural and thermodynamic parameters of melaminium maleate monohydrate. The hydrogen atom from maleic acid was transferred to the melamine molecule giving the singly protonated melaminium cation. The ability of ions to form spontaneous three-dimensional structure through weak OH···O and NH···O hydrogen bonds shows notable vibrational effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Magee, Laura A; Mitton, Craig

    2013-01-01

    of cerebral palsy (CP) averted and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). RESULTS: From a health system and a societal perspective, respectively, a savings of $2,242 and $112,602 is obtained for each QALY gained and a savings of $30,942 and $1,554,198 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at ... sensitivity analyses were used to compare the administration of magnesium sulphate with the alternative of no treatment. Two separate cost perspectives were utilized in this series of analyses: a health system and a societal perspective. In addition, two separate measures of effectiveness were utilized: cases...

  20. Sulphate removal from uraniferous liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the recovery of uranium from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is claimed. An ion exchange resin is used to separate the uranium from the solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate. The ion exchange resin is then eluted with a solution of ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate to provide an eluate containing ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and ammonium sulphate. The eluate is heated to boiling to convert the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate to ammonium uranate and/or diuranate. Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor are released. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is separated from the remaining liquor and calcined to give uranium trioxide

  1. Intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucurescu, I.; Stan, T.

    1990-01-01

    The changes in the particular number of animals in two groups of 40 rats each subjected to intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate was investigated. The two investigations had very different characteristics. In the case of chronic intoxication there was a marked lethality over given time intervals. In the case of subacute intoxication the number of animals decreased with time. It was found empirically that this change can be described by an exponential relationship which lends itself to statistical interpretation. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of dust sulphation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A.

    1997-12-31

    Sulphation reactions of metal oxides with SO{sub 2} and O. or SO{sub 3} play significant roles in sulphation roasting of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as in desulphurisation process of combustion gases. In metallurgical waste-heat boilers for sulphide smelting, the sulphation of the oxidic flue dust in the atmosphere containing sulphur oxides is an unavoidable process, and the sulphation reactions have to be guided in a controlled way in the proper parts of the gas handling equipment. In this report, some thermodynamic analyses were conducted for the oxide sulphation reactions in relation to sulphide smelting processes. The phase stability of Me-S-O systems especially for oxides - sulphates equilibrium was studied under different thermodynamic conditions of gas compositions and temperatures. The sulphate stability was analysed for an example of gas compositions in the copper flash smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy, in relation to temperature. In the report, most of the information was from literature. Moreover, a number of thermodynamic computations were carried out with the HSC program, and the constructed phase stability diagrams were compared with those from the literature whenever possible. The maximum temperatures for stable sulphates under normal operating conditions of the waste-heat boilers in sulphide smelting processes were obtained. This report will serve as the basis for the kinetic studies of the sulphation reactions and the sulphation reaction modelling in pyrometallurgical processes. (orig.) SULA 2 Programme. 36 refs.

  3. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, G.; Pedersen, K.; Tullborg, E.L.; Wallin, B.; Wikberg, P.

    1995-12-01

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl - concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Electron attachment to the guanine-cytosine nucleic acid base pair and the effects of monohydration and proton transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Jaeger, Heather M; Compaan, Katherine R; Schaefer, Henry F

    2012-05-17

    The guanine-cytosine (GC) radical anion and its interaction with a single water molecule is studied using ab initio and density functional methods. Z-averaged second-order perturbation theory (ZAPT2) was applied to GC radical anion for the first time. Predicted spin densities show that the radical character is localized on cytosine. The Watson-Crick monohydrated GC anion is compared to neutral GC·H2O, as well as to the proton-transferred analogue on the basis of structural and energetic properties. In all three systems, local minima are identified that correspond to water positioned in the major and minor grooves of macromolecular DNA. On the anionic surface, two novel structures have water positioned above or below the GC plane. On the neutral and anionic surfaces, the global minimum can be described as water interacting with the minor groove. These structures are predicted to have hydration energies of 9.7 and 11.8 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Upon interbase proton-transfer (PT), the anionic global minimum has water positioned in the major groove, and the hydration energy increases to 13.4 kcal mol(-1). PT GC·H2O(•-) has distonic character; the radical character resides on cytosine, while the negative charge is localized on guanine. The effects of proton transfer are further investigated through the computed adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of GC and monohydrated GC, and the vertical detachment energies (VDE) of the corresponding anions. Monohydration increases the AEAs and VDEs by only 0.1 eV, while proton-transfer increases the VDEs substantially (0.8 eV). The molecular charge distribution of monohydrated guanine-cytosine radical anion depends heavily on interbase proton transfer.

  5. Removal of sulphates from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available are present in almost all types of water, usually as a simple anion SO42-. The sulphates together with hydrogencarbonates and chlorides are principal anions in natural waters. In typical underground and surface waters, the concentration of sulphates is in the range from ten to hundreds milligrams per litre.Nowadays, the importance of the control of sulphate concentration in waste waters increases. According to the Slovak legislation the limit concentration of sulphates in surface and drinking waters is 250 mg.l-1 . In rivers the contents of sulphates increases mainly by the discharge of waste waters, which are coming mainly from chemical, textile, metallurgical, pharmaceutical, paper and mining industry. The concentration of sulphates in these waters is in the order of grams per litre.Many technologies for the sulphates removal from waste waters exist, including biologico-chemical processes. The principle of one of these methods is the reduction of sulphates by sulphate-reducing bacteria to hydrogen-sulphide.The objective of this work was to study the effect of initial sulphates concentration on the activity of anaerobic sulphate reducers as well as the kinetics of the anaerobic sulphate reduction. The batch reactor was used at temperature of 30°C and pH 7,5. Lactate was used as the carbon source.

  6. Synthesis, structure and characterization of a hybrid centrosymmetric material (4-dimethylaminopyridinium nitrate gallic acid monohydrate) well-designed for non-linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, Nasreddine; Jalel, Boutheina; Henchiri, Rokaya; Cordier, Marie; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid material: 4-Dimethylaminopyridinium nitrate gallic acid monohydrate abbreviated DNGA monohydrate has been successfully synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) on a single crystal showed that the latter was crystallized in P-1 space group. Likewise, thermal analyses demonstrated the stability of our crystal up to 80 °C. Besides, the analysis of the infrared spectrum (FTIR), allowed us to confirm the presence of the different groups present in the structure. Furthermore, by studying the UV-Visible spectrum, the transparency of our crystal was proven. Despite the fact that of having a centrosymmetric structure, the nonlinear optical properties of our single crystal, which was tested by Kurtz-Perry technique, proved that its second harmonic generation efficiency was 1.22 times more than that of KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) single crystal. This nonlinear optical behavior of the studied compound was also determined through the calculations of polarizability and first hyperpolarizability values.

  7. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boirie, Ch.

    1959-05-01

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [fr

  8. Effect of monohydric alcohols on structural properties of macromolecular solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, R.; Wanderlingh, F.; Cordone, L.; Cupane, A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the effects of monohydric alcohols on the thixotropic properties of a 1% (by weight) BSA solution is given. The presence of alcohols in the solution medium, even in a very small amount, weakens the structure responsible for the thixotropic properties: this effect increases with increasing alcohol concentration and alkyl group size. Indirect evidence relating the observed effects to the alteration, in the presence of alcohol, of protein-solvent hydrophobic interactions is also presented

  9. Terahertz absorption signatures of lactose monohydrate in crystalline form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euna; Kim, Jeonghoi; Han, Younho; Moon, Kiwon; Lim, Meehyun; Han, Haewook

    2008-01-01

    Terahertz (THz)vibrational modes of biomolecules strongly depend on intermolecular interactions, including electrostatic, Van der Waals, and hydrogen bonds. Upon both the theoretical and experimental investigation of vibrational dynamics in biomolecules that have been done, it is turned out that low frequency vibrational modes of biomolecules exist in 0.1∼3.0THz. Recent advances of THz technology have paved the way for a wide range of practical applications in physics, chemistry, and biology. THz time domain spectroscopy (TDS)is a promising technique for studying the collective vibrational modes of biomolecules and is important to understanding the relationship between their conformation and biological function. Using THz TDS a variety of biomolecules, including DNA, polysaccharides, amino acids, and proteins have been studied, indicating the THz absorption spectroscopy can be used to probe the collective vibrational modes and hence for structural and functional studies of biomolecules. The diluted material was then pressed into 1mm thick pellet with 13mm diameter using a vacuum die. The low frequency absorption signatures of solid α lactose monohydrate have been experimentally obtained in 0.1∼2.0THz. Previous study has already reported that α lactose monohydrate in crystalline form has a strong and narrow absorption signature centered at 0.530THz. In our measurement, we observed that THz spectrum of α lactose monohydrate has strong absorption peaks centered at 0.531, 1.195, and 1.38 THz

  10. Sulphate deposition by precipitation into Lake Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R W; Whelpdale, D M

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of sulphate concentration in precipitation from individual snow storms of several hours duration in the western Lake Ontario region indicate that approximately 9-66 mg/M/sub 2/ of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ is being deposited into the lake per storm. This amount is up to several times more than daily average values over long periods found by other workers. Using a mean sulphate concentration of 4 mg/l and an annual accumulation of precipitation of 760 mm, the yearly sulphate deposition by precipitation is about 0.1% of the total mass of sulphate in the lake; however, more significantly, it is of the same order of magnitude as that discharged directly into the lake by industry.

  11. (R,S-3-Carboxy-2-(isoquinolinium-2-ylpropanoate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stilinović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H11NO4·H2O, is a monohydrate of a betaine exhibiting a positively charged N-substituted isoquinoline group and a deprotonated carboxyl group. In the crystal, molecules are connected via short O—H...O hydrogen bonds between protonated and deprotonated carboxyl groups into chains of either R or S enantiomers along [001]. These chains are additionally connected by hydrogen bonding between water molecules and the deprotonated carboxy groups of neighbouring molecules.

  12. Clarithromycin monohydrate: a synchrotron X-ray powder study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Itai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, clarithromycin (CAM monohydrate, C38H69NO13·H2O, the water molecule behaves as a proton donor and is hydrogen bonded to the hydroxy O atom of the CAM cladinose ring. The hydroxy O atom also behaves as a proton donor, forming an intermolecular hydrogen bond with one of the hydroxy groups of the 14-membered aglycone ring. The CAM molecules are linked through these hydrogen bonds into chains running parallel to the c axis.

  13. The Reclamation of Industrial Wastes Inclusive Sulphates by Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Kušnierová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of using coal mine drainage and gypsum from the „stabilizate“ (the final product from the combustion desulphurisation as the source of sulphate for the cultivation of SRB with the prospect of: purging of mine waste waters inclusive sulphates, recycling of desulphurisation agent (limestone and production of elemental sulphur from hydrogen sulphide. The results confirmed the theoretical assumptions on the use of gypsum, which forms the substantial component of „stabilizate“, as the source of sulphate for sulphate-reducing bacteria, which produce hydrogen sulphide in the process of bacterial reduction of sulphates. They also showed the possibility of recycling the desulphurisation agent – limestone, as well as the realistic alternative of using „stabilizate“ in the production of elemental sulphur which still represents an important raw material needed in chemical, paper or other industries.

  14. Post traumatic tetanus and role magnesium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikendr, R.I.; Samad, B.U.; Memon, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Tetanus is a life threatening disease. Reported mortality for tetanus is 15-39%. Conventional treatment includes heavy sedation and artificial ventilation. Complications resulting from long term heavy sedation and artificial ventilation contribute to 60% of the total mortality caused by tetanus. In this study magnesium sulphate was used to reduce the need for sedation and artificial ventilation. Objectives of this prospective study were to determine the role of magnesium sulphate in post traumatic tetanus. The study was carried out in surgical Intensive Care at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad from Jan 2004 to Dec 2007. Forty-four patients presented during this period and 33 patients were included in the study. All patients had tracheostomy done within 48 hours. Every patient was started Magnesium Sulphate therapy for control of spasms after sending baseline investigations. Patients were given ventilatory support when needed. All data was entered in well structured proforma. SPSS-10 was used to analyse data. Thirty-three patients were included in the study and all patients were given magnesium sulphate. Out of these, 45.5% cases were grade 4 tetanus, 73.6% and 63.3% cases did not require artificial ventilation and additional sedation respectively, 51.1% patients remained free of complications of tetanus. Overall mortality was 30.3%. Use of Magnesium Sulphate is safe and reduces the need for sedation and artificial ventilation in high grade tetanus thus contributing to survival benefit in adult post-traumatic tetanus cases. (author)

  15. Removal of radium from aqueous sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, D.R.; Masters, J.T.; Neven, M.

    1983-01-01

    Radium is often present in ores and an aqueous solution associated with the ore may consequently contain dissolved radium. It is frequently necessary to remove radium from such solutions to reduce the total radium content to a prescribed low level before the solution can be returned to the environment. The present invention is based on the discovery that the total radium content can be reduced to a satisfactory level within a reasonable time by adding a soluble barium salt to a radium-containing sulphate solution which also contains dissolved magnesium at a pH not greater than about 0 to precipitate radium as barium radium sulphate, raising the pH to at least 11 to precipitate an insoluble magnesium compound which collects the barium radium sulphate precipitate, and separating substantially all of the precipitates from the solution

  16. Thermal decomposition of uranyl sulphate hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Ozawa, F.; Ikoma, S.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of uranyl sulphate hydrate (UO 2 SO 4 .3H 2 O) has been investigated by thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrophotometry. As a result, it is concluded that uranyl sulphate hydrate decomposes thermally: UO 2 SO 4 .3H 2 O → UO 2 SO 4 .xH 2 O(2.5 = 2 SO 4 . 2H 2 O → UO 2 SO 4 .H 2 O → UO 2 SO 4 → α-UO 2 SO 4 → β-UO 2 SO 4 → U 3 O 8 . (author)

  17. Computerised analysis of sulphate action on model concrete piles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.M.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venugopal, C.

    Sulphate action severely affects the durability of marine structures. It is imperative to study precisely the effects of magnesium sulphate on pile foundations in the marine environment. In the present paper an attempt is made to assess and analyse...

  18. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  19. Controlling Barium Sulphate Scale Deposition Problems in an unbleached Kraft Paper Mill

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Troubleshooting of scale deposits and defects in paper samples showed that the problem was caused by barium sulphate and calcium sulphate scales. However, it was ascertained that barium sulphate was more of a concern than calcium sulphate...

  20. Formulation and evaluation and terbutaline sulphate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the use of low rugosity lactose, product of controlled crystallization of this carrier, in the formulation of terbutaline sulphate and beclomethasone dipropionate dry powder inhalers. The deposition patterns obtained with inhalation mixtures consisting of the modified lactose and each of the micronised drugs ...

  1. Removal of Sulphate and Manganese on Synthetic Wastewater in Sulphate Reducing Bioreactor Using Indonesian Natural Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Retnaningrum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to investigate sulphate and manganese removal from synthetic wastewater. The continuous laboratory scale of down-flow fluidized-bed reactor (DFBR using sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB consortium and Indonesian natural zeolite as a bacterial support material was designed. At 9 days operation, maximum sulphate and manganese removal was observed to be 23% and 15.4%, respectively. The pH values were also changed to neutral. The population of SRB increased which effect on the raising of their activity for removing sulphate and manganese. Using the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, it was observed that natural zeolite possesses excellent physical characteristics as a bacterial support material in DFBR. The imaging SEM result of SRB consortium on zeolite surface clearly showed the developed SRB biofilm on that particle. Analysis result of EDX confirmed that manganese was precipitated as manganese–sulfides.

  2. Investigation into structure and dehydration dynamic of gallic acid monohydrate: A Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiang; Xue, Jiadan; Wang, Qiqi; Du, Yong

    2018-05-02

    The dehydration process of gallic acid monohydrate was carried out by heating method and characterized using Raman spectroscopic technique. Density functional theory calculation with B3LYP function is applied to simulate optimized structures and vibrational frequencies of anhydrous gallic acid and its corresponding monohydrated form. Different vibrational modes are assigned by comparison between experimental and theoretical Raman spectra of above two polymorphs. Raman spectra show that vibrational modes of the monohydrate are distinctively different from those of anhydrous one. Meanwhile, the dynamic information about dehydration process of gallic acid monohydrate could also be observed and monitored directly with the help of Raman spectral analysis. The decay rate of the characteristic band from gallic acid monohydrate and the growth rate of anhydrous one are pretty consistent with each other. It indicates that there is no intermediate present during the dehydration process of gallic acid monohydrate. The results could offer us benchmark works for identifying both anhydrous and hydrated pharmaceutical compounds, characterizing their corresponding molecular conformation within various crystalline forms, and also providing useful information about the process of dehydration dynamic at the microscopic molecular level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular interactions in the betaine monohydrate-polyol deep eutectic solvents: Experimental and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrina, Ida; Mulia, Kamarza; Yanuar, Arry; Nasikin, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    DES (deep eutectic solvents) are a new class of ionic liquids that have excellent properties. The strength of interaction between molecules in the DES affects their properties and applications. In this work, the strength of molecular interactions between components in the betaine monohydrate salt and polyol (glycerol or/and propylene glycol) eutectic mixtures was studied by experimental and computational studies. The melting point and fusion enthalpy of the mixtures were measured using STA (Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer). The nature and strength of intermolecular interactions were observed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The molecular dynamics simulation was used to determine the number of H-bonds, percent occupancy, and radial distribution functions in the eutectic mixtures. The interaction between betaine monohydrate and polyol is following order: betaine monohydrate-glycerol-propylene glycol > betaine monohydrate-glycerol > betaine monohydrate-propylene glycol, where the latter is the eutectic mixture with the lowest stability, strength and extent of the hydrogen bonding interactions between component molecules. The presence of intra-molecular hydrogen bonding interactions, the inter-molecular hydrogen bonding interactions between betaine molecule and polyol, and also interactions between polyol and H2O of betaine monohydrate in the eutectic mixtures.

  4. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Fischer, H.B

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  5. Fabrication and Characterizations of Hot-Melt Extruded Nanocomposites Based on Zinc Sulfate Monohydrate and Soluplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yi Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnSO4-loaded nanocomposites (NCs were fabricated by using a hot-melt extruder (HME system. Soluplus (SP was adopted as an amphiphilic polymer matrix for HME processing. The micro-size of ZnSO4 dispersion was reduced to nano-size by HME processing with the use of SP. ZnSO4 could be homogeneously dispersed in SP through HME processing. ZnSO4/SP NCs with a 75 nm mean diameter, a 0.1 polydispersity index, and a −1 mV zeta potential value were prepared. The physicochemical properties of ZnSO4/SP NCs and the existence of SP in ZnSO4/SP NCs were further investigated by solid-state studies. Nano-size range of ZnSO4/SP NC dispersion was maintained in the simulated gastrointestinal environments (pH 1.2 and 6.8 media. No severe toxicity in intestinal epithelium after oral administration of ZnSO4/SP NCs (at 100 mg/kg dose of ZnSO4, single dosing was observed in rats. These results imply that developed ZnSO4/SP NC can be used as a promising nano-sized zinc supplement formulation. In addition, developed HME technology can be widely applied to fabricate nanoformulations of inorganic materials.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structures, and enantioselective adsorption property of bis(L-histidinato)nickel(II) monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Christian Paul L.; Conato, Marlon T.

    2018-05-01

    Despite the numerous researches in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), there are only few reports on biologically important amino acids, histidine in particular, on its use as bridging ligand in the construction of open-framework architectures. In this work, hydrothermal synthesis was used to prepare a compound based on Ni2+ and histidine. The coordination assembly of imidazole side chain of histidine with divalent nickel ions in aqueous condition yielded purple prismatic solids. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the product revealed structure for Ni(C6H8N3O2)2 • H2O that has a monoclinic (C2) structure with lattice parameters, a = 29.41, b = 8.27, c = 6.31 Å, β = 90.01 ˚. Circular dichroism - optical rotatory dispersion (CD-ORD), Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform - infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyses are conducted to further characterize the crystals. Enantioselective adsorption analysis using racemic mixture of 2-butanol confirmed bis(L-histidinato)nickel(II) monohydrate MOF crystal's enantioselective property preferentially favoring the adsorption of (S)-2-butanol isomer.

  7. Possibilities of Sulphate Elimination from Mine Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heviánková Silvie

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of „acid water“ (or AMD is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphate-elimination from this locality. Recently, several methods of sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are biological, physical-chemical and chemical precipitation. The method described in this contribution consists of chemical precipitation by sodium aluminate and calcium hydrate. Under application of this method very interesting results were obtained. The amount of SO42- anions decreased to almost zero-value, using optimal doses of the chemical reagents.

  8. Kinetic study of the dehydration reaction of lithium sulfate monohydrate crystals using microscopy and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Shuiquan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Zondag, Herbert [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Energy research Center of the Netherlands – ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steenhoven, Anton van [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rindt, Camilo, E-mail: c.c.m.rindt@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-12-10

    Highlights: • Kinetics of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O single crystals were modeled based on elementary processes. • Kinetics of nucleation and nuclei growth were studied by using optical microscopy. • A novel experiment was designed to visualize the reaction front into crystal bulk. • Fractional conversion was calculated and compared with TGA-experiments. - Abstract: Simulation of gas–solid reactions occurring in industrial processes requires a robust kinetic model to be applicable in a wide range of complicated reaction conditions. However, in literature it is often seen that even the same reaction under specific controlled conditions is interpreted with different kinetic models. In the present work, a phenomenological model based on nucleation and nuclei growth processes is presented to study the kinetics of the dehydration reaction of lithium sulfate monohydrate single crystals. The two elementary processes of the reaction, nucleation and nuclei growth, are characterized and quantified as a function of temperature by using optical microscopy experiments. The in-situ measured characteristics of the dehydration reaction provided confirmatory evidence that the rate of nucleation obeys an exponential law and the rate of nuclei growth is approximately constant. With knowledge acquired from the optical observations as inputs of the kinetic model, the fractional conversion of the dehydration reaction was calculated and compared with experimental results from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A satisfactory comparison was found both in isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. It is demonstrated that this knowledge-based model has a great potential to represent the gas–solid reaction kinetics in a wide range of process conditions regarding temperature, pressure and particle geometry.

  9. Surfactant controlled low-temperature thermal decomposition route to zinc oxide nanorods from zinc(II) acetylacetonate monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Sarma, Bedabrat; Bhattacharjee, Chira R., E-mail: crbhattacharjee@rediffmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized via a low-temperature thermal decomposition of zinc(II) acetylacetonate monohydrate, [Zn(C{sub 5}H{sub 7}O{sub 2}){sub 2}].H{sub 2}O. A relatively inexpensive surfactant, octadecylamine (C{sub 18}H{sub 37}NH{sub 2}) served both as a reaction solvent and a capping agent during the synthesis of ZnO nanorods. The synthesized nanorods were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, UV–visible, and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The XRD spectrum furnished evidence for the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. TEM images revealed the material to be rod shaped having diameter 30 nm and length 200 nm. The HRTEM image showed that the lattice fringes between the two adjacent planes are 0.244 nm apart, which corresponds to the interplanar separation of the (1 0 1) plane of hexagonal ZnO. The electron diffraction (ED) pattern confirmed the single crystalline nature of the nanorods. The PL spectrum showed two UV emissions at 356 nm (∼3.48 eV) and 382 nm (∼3.25 eV). ZnO nanorods also showed very weak blue bands at 445, 453 and 470 nm. - Highlights: Low temperature thermal decomposition of zinc(II) acetylacetonate monohydrate gave zinc oxide nanorods. Powder XRD showed hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO having average diameter about 24 nm. TEM images revealed the material to be of rod shape having diameter 30 nm and length 200 nm. ZnO showed band gap luminescence at 356 nm, excitonic emission at 382 nm and defect related blue bands. The synthesis is simple and can act as a paradigm for obtaining various metal oxide nanomaterials.

  10. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina; Moura, Jose J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m -2 that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces

  11. Constant current chronopotentiometric stripping of sulphated polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strmečki, S.; Plavšić, M.; Ćosović, B.; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2009), s. 2032-2035 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/07/P497; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sulphated polysaccharides * ióta-carrageenan * catalysis of hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2009

  12. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Moura, Jose J.G. [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail: jose.moura@dq.fct.unl.pt

    2008-12-01

    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m{sup -2} that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces.

  13. Structure of sodium alkyl sulphate micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Sz.

    1990-05-01

    Micellar aggregation numbers of aggregated sodium octyl, decyl, dodecyl and tetradecyl sulphate molecules obtained from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements are reported. The surfactant concentration and solution temperature were varied systematically. A survey of the physical models and evaluation algorithms applied for SANS are presented. By utilizing a new least square fitting algorithm, the formation and annihilation parameters of orthopositronium in the micellar pseudophase and in the aqueous solvent is deduced by evaluating positron lifetime spectra measured by conventional technqiues. (R.P.) 157 refs.; 10 figs

  14. Effectivness of dexametasone vs. Magnesium sulphate in postoperative analgesia: Dexametasone vs. Magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautaj Brikena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preoperative use of additive substances may be very helpful in perioperative acute pain management. Intravenous administration of dexametasone in preoperative period prevents postoperative nausea and vomiting but also provides better pain relief. It is also well known that magnesium sulphate (the NMDA receptor's antagonist by its central mechanism of action may be effective in postoperative pain control. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexametasone and magnesium sulphate on postoperative pain management in patients undergoing abdominal surgery (open cholecystectomy. Methods: Seventy eight patients scheduled for elective surgery (open cholecystectomy were included in this study. This was the prospective cohort randomized placebo- controlled study. A total of 78 patients were randomized into three groups. Each group had twenty six patients. The group D, received dexametasone 0.1 mg/ kg iv 30 minutes before surgery. The group M received magnesium sulphate 3 mg/kg iv 30 minutes before surgery. The third group S was placebo group and patients in this group received saline in the same volume for each patient. For pain control after surgery all patients received tramadol 0.9-1.2 mg/kg and diklophenac 1.76 mg/kg. When necessary (VAS ≥ 7, morphine sulphate in dose 0.15 mg/kg was administred subcutaneously For treatment of emetic episodes metoclopramid 10 mg iv. was used. The patients were observed for intensity of pain measured VAS 0-10, pain relief and satisfaction with therapy, sedation, adverse events, emetic episodes and hemodynamic parameters. Results: There was no difference between groups regarding demographic data (age, gender, body weight, ASA score, comorbidity, duration of surgery and anesthesia and amount of fentanyl received during surgery. In group D 11.54% of patients received additional analgesia (morphine sulphate 0.15 mg/kg sc in the first 4 hours and 27% of patients in the first 24 hours

  15. Anxiolytic effects of orcinol glucoside and orcinol monohydrate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Guiyun; Li, Peng; Huang, Linyuan; Huang, Jianmei; Zhai, Haifeng

    2015-06-01

    Anxiety is a common psychological disorder, often occurring in combination with depression, but therapeutic drugs with high efficacy and safety are lacking. Orcinol glucoside (OG) was recently found to have an antidepressive action. To study the therapeutic potential of OG and orcinol monohydrate (OM) as anxiolytic agents. Anxiolytic effects in mice were measured using the elevated plus-maze, hole-board, and open-field tests. Eight groups of mice were included in each test. Thirty minutes before each test, mice in each group received one oral administration of OG (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg), OM (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg), the positive control diazepam (1 or 5 mg/kg), or control vehicle. Each mouse underwent only one test. Uptake of orcinol (5 mg/kg) in the brain was qualitatively detected using the HPLC-MS method. OG (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) and OM (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) increased the time spent in open arms and the number of entries into open arms in the elevated plus-maze test. OG (5 and 10 mg/kg) and OM (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) increased the number of head-dips in the hole-board test. At all tested doses, OG and OM did not significantly affect the locomotion of mice in the open-field test. Orcinol could be detected in the mouse brain homogenates 30 min after oral OM administration, having confirmed that OM is centrally active. The results demonstrated that OG and OM are anxiolytic agents without sedative effects, indicating their therapeutic potential for anxiety.

  16. Lithium perbromate monohydrate at 296 and 173 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, A.C.; Gerkin, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium tetraoxobromate(1-) monohydrate, LiBrO 4 .H 2 O, whose perchlorate analog has not yet been described, is found to be isomorphic with NaBrO 4 .H 2 O and NaClO 4 .H 2 O. Each of the two inequivalent Li ions is coordinated by six O atoms, thus forming distorted octahedra, each of which has three inequivalent Li-O distances. At room temperature, the average Li(1)-O and Li(2)-O distances are 2.150 and 2.164 A, respectively. The perbromate ion displays very nearly regular tetrahedral geometry, although it is not subject to symmetry constraints. At 296 K the average observed Br-O distance is 1.610 (4) A and the average O-Br-O angle is 109.5 (6) , while at 173 K the corresponding values are 1.613 (4) A and 109.5 (7) . The perbromate ion shows rigid-body behavior but the lithium coordination polyhedra do not. At 296 K, the average rigid-body corrected Br-O distance in the perbromate ion is 1.624 (3) A, in excellent agreement with the corresponding value reported for NaBrO 4 .H 2 O. Refinement of the two inequivalent H atoms allowed detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonding, which is more extensive than in NaBrO 4 .H 2 O or in NaClO 4 .H 2 O. The average observed B values for the H atoms [2.9 (3) A 2 at 296 K and 2.8 (3) A 2 at 173 K] are sufficiently small to suggest that dynamic disordering of the H atoms (determined by magnetic resonance methods for NaClO 4 .H 2 O) is not significant in the title salt. (orig.)

  17. Zinc (tris) thiourea sulphate (ZTS): A single crystal neutron diffraction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    organic crys- tal which is used for electro-optical (EO) applications and frequency doubling ... P U Sastry et al. Table 1. Bond distances (in Å units) in ZTS. Zn–O(1) 1.984(6) S(1)–O(1) 1.463(7) H(2)–O(3) 1.987(8) H(7)–O(4) 1.843(7). Zn–S(2) 2.330(4) ...

  18. Design of γ measurement system of neutron source strength standard with a manganese sulphate bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiong; Wang Pan; Chen Mingchi; Zhang Hui

    2010-01-01

    It mostly introduced the hardware and software design and test of Measurement System of Neutron Source Strength Standard with a Manganese Sulphate Bath Method. Hardware of system mainly contains six modules named detector, high voltage source, head amplifier, main amplifier, single channel pulse-amplitude analyzer and data acquisition system. The software program of system data acquisition is made up of four functional modules: user login, parameter setting, data collection, and data saving. (authors)

  19. EPR and optical study of Mn{sup 2+} doped monohydrated dipotassium stannic chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kripal, Ram, E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Singh, Manju

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • EPR study of Mn{sup 2+}: DPSC crystal is done at room temperature. • The spin Hamiltonian parameters for two Mn{sup 2+} sites are determined. • The optical absorption study is also done. • The nature of metal–ligand bonding is discussed on the basis of EPR and optical data. • Theoretical zero-field splitting parameters match well with the experimental values. - Abstract: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study at room temperature (RT) is used to investigate the property of Mn{sup 2+} doped monohydrated dipotassium stannic chloride (K{sub 2}SnCl{sub 4}⋅H{sub 2}O) single crystal. EPR spectra show that there exist two substitutional sites, the spin Hamiltonian parameters for which are determined. The optical absorption study is also done at room temperature in the wavelength range 195–1100 nm. The observed bands are assigned as transitions from {sup 6}A{sub 1g}(S) ground state to various excited states. These bands are fitted with four parameters, namely Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters B = 792 cm{sup −1}, C = 2278 cm{sup −1}; cubic crystal field splitting parameter Dq = 700 cm{sup −1} and Trees correction α = 76 cm{sup −1}. The nature of metal–ligand bonding is discussed on the basis of EPR and optical data. Superposition model (SPM) is used to find out the crystal field (CF) parameters and the perturbation formulae are used to obtain zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters. Theoretically calculated ZFS parameters match well with the experimental values obtained from EPR study.

  20. Differential responses of freshwater wetland soils to sulphate pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, L.P.M.; Dolle, ten G.E.; Berg, van den S.T.G.; Delft, van S.P.J.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate (SO42-) reduction rates are generally low in freshwater wetlands and are regulated by the scarce availability of the ion. Increased concentrations of this electron acceptor due to sulphur (S) pollution of groundwater and surface water may, however, lead to high sulphate reduction rates now

  1. Safety and efficacy of Bolus administration of magnesium sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safety and efficacy of Bolus administration of magnesium sulphate for preeclampsia. ... On-going research is addressing its administration in terms of dosage, duration and safety. Objective: We evaluated a ... Keywords: safety, efficacy, bolus magnesium sulphate, preeclampsia, University of Benin Teaching Hospital

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of protection of thymine from sulphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The rate constant of sulphate radical anion with caffeic acid has been ... transfer of radical sites from base moiety to sugar moiety. Strand ... titrated with a standard ceric ammonium sulphate solution as reported by Kapoor et al.7. At room ...

  3. Sulphate rocks as an arena for karst development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejchuk V.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The rocks in which karst systems develop are most commonly composed of carbonate sulphate and chloride minerals. The sulphate minerals are quite numerous, but only gypsum and anhydrite form extensive masses in sedimentary sequences. Other minerals, which represent sulphates of K, Mg and Na, normally occur as minor beds (0.1-5.0 m, or as inclusions associated with chloride rocks. However some minerals precipitated in salt-generating basins, such as mirabilite and glauberite (typically formed in the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Gulf, salt lakes of Siberia and in China, form sequences up to 5-10 m thick where karst may develop. Due to the very high solubility of Na -sulphates, karst processes and features occurring in these rocks resemble salt karst. Thus, the term sulphate karst, although not strictly correct, is used mainly to indicate karst developed in gypsum and anhydrite.

  4. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Hannesson, Kirsten O.; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; B?verfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400?d? was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were add...

  5. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1991-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 o C. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300 o C. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130 o C, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  6. Removal heavy metals and sulphate from waste waters by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnierová Mária

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the process of bacterial sulphate reduction, which is used to removal of heavy metals and sulphate ions from waste waters.The life of animals and plants depends on the existence of microscopic organisms – microorganisms (MO, which play an important role in cycle changes of biogenic elements on the earth. The sulphur cycle in the nature is considered as one of the oldest and most significant biological systems (Fig. 1. The sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB miss the assimilatory part of the cycle and produce sulphides. The microbial population of this dissimilatory part is called “sulfuretum”. The SRB can be found in anaerobic mud and sediments of freshwater, thermal or non-thermal sulphur springs, mining waters from sulphide deposits, oil deposits, sea and ocean beds, and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals. The SRB represent a group of chemoorganotrophic, strictly anaerobic and gramnegative bacteria, which exhibit a great morphological and physiological diversity. Despite of their considerable morphological variety, they have one property in common, which is the ability to utilise preferentially sulphates (occasionally sulphites, thiosulphates, tetrathionates as electron acceptors, which are reduced to sulphides, during anaerobic respiration. The electron donors in these processes are simple organic compounds as lactate, malate, etc.,(heterotrophically reduction or gaseous hydrogen (autotrophically reduction. SRB can produce a considerable amount of hydrogen sulphide, which reacts easily in aqueous solution with the cations of heavy metals, forming metal sulphides that have low solubility. The bacterial sulphate reduction can be used for the treatment of acid mine drainage waters, which is considered to be the major problem associated with mining activities.In order to remove heavy metals from waste waters, e.g., from galvanizing plants, mine waters (Smolnik, Šobov locality and metallurgic plants (works

  7. Study of the sulphate expansion phenomenon in concrete: behaviour of the cemented radioactive wastes containing sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guanshu

    1994-01-01

    Sulphate attack is one of the major degradation processes of concrete. It is especially important in storing cemented radioactive wastes containing sulphate. In this thesis, we have thoroughly investigated the degradation mechanisms of cemented radioactive wastes by sulphate. The CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O systems with and without alkalis are studied. For the system without alkalis, experimental results show that it is the formation of a secondary ettringite under external water supply by steric effect that causes the expansion. For the system with alkalis, the ettringite does not appear while a new mineral called 'U', a sodium-substituted AFm phase is detected. This phase is shown to be responsible for the expansion and destruction of the specimens. The conditions for the formation, the product of solubility and many means of its synthesis are discussed, and a complete list of the inter-reticular distances file is given. The behaviour of the different types of cemented wastes containing sulphate are then studied with a special focus on the U phase on entity which was heretofore very little understood. The following three hypothetical mechanisms of sulphate expansion are proposed: the formation of the secondary U phase, the transformation of the U phase to the ettringite and the topochemical hydration of thenardite into mirabilite. Experiments on a simplified system have demonstrated clearly that the formation of the secondary U phase can induce enormous expansion by steric effect, this justifying the first assumption. Simulation by the mass and volume balances is carried out thereafter and enables us to estimate the expansion induced by the formation of the secondary U phase in the cemented wastes. The second assumption is also well verified by a series of leaching tests in different solutions on mixtures containing the U phase. On the basis of the analysis of the specimens under leaching, it has been assumed that the expansion is associated with the

  8. Sulphate Incorporation in Borosilicate Glasses and Melts: a Kinetic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M. [CEA, DEN, Laboratoire d' etude et de Developpement de Matrices de Conditionnement, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, UMR 7047, CNRS- Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris 05 (France); Grandjean, A. [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, Laboratoire des Nanomateriaux Autoreparants, Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Dussossoy, J.L. [CEA, DEN, Laboratoire d' etude et de Developpement de Matrices de Conditionnement, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Neuville, D.R. [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, UMR 7047, CNRS- Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris 05 (France)

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of sulphate departure in a sodium borosilicate melt were studied using in situ Raman spectroscopy. This technique allows the quantification of the amount of sulphate dissolved in a borosilicate glass as a function of heating time by comparison with measurements obtained by microprobe wavelength dispersive spectrometry. To quantify the sulphate content obtained with Raman spectroscopy, the integrated intensity of the sulphate band at 990 cm{sup -1} was scaled to the sum of the integrated bands between 800 and 1200 cm{sup -1}, bands that are assigned to Qn silica units on the basis of previous literature. Calibration curves were then determined for two different samples. An evaluation of the kinetics of departure of sulphate could thus be made as a function of the viscosity of the borosilicate glass, showing that the kinetics were controlled by the diffusion of sulphate and its volatilization from the melt. This experimental method allows in situ measurements of sulphate content at high temperature which cannot be obtained by any other simple technique. (authors)

  9. Isotopic evolution of aqueous sulphate in northern Chile water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Suzuki, O.; Fritz, P.; Pena, H.; Rauert, W.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: The extremely arid condition of northern Chile is the main obstacle to the present and future development of urban centres and economic activities in the region. The existing water resources are scarce. During the last decade, isotope techniques have been applied to investigate aspects such as the origin and residence time of the groundwater, these being extremely important for water development and water management. This paper presents 18 O and 34 S data in aqueous sulphate, as well as 18 O, 2 H, and 3 H from springs, rivers and groundwater samples of the Pampa del Tamarugal and Salar de Llamara basins. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the isotope evolution of the sulphate, the origin of the sulphur, the groundwater flow path, and the possibility of using the 18 O of the sulphate as a tracer for estimation of the residence time of the groundwater. Springs that have their recharge area in the high Altiplano (Salar del Huasco basin) show δ values between +5.0 per mille and +6.0 per mille for the 18 O and +5.0 per mille and +9.0 per mille for the 34 S isotope. Springs from lower altitude, show an isotope content between + 8.6 per mille and + 10.6 per mille for 18 O and +7.4 per mille and + 11.7 per mille for 34 S. The groundwaters in the Pampa aquifers, based on their hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition, are associated with different recharge areas. However, these waters show an isotope range for the sulphate similar to .he one of the springs, and no clear relationships are observed between isotope content, flow path and residence time. This pattern could be related to the poorly defined aquifer systems present in the Pampa. The Llamara groundwaters have a uniform isotope content and are the most enriched in the region (δ 18 O = -6.0 per mille and δ 2 H = -50 per mille). The isotope composition of their sulphate compares well with the Pampa groundwater, indicating a similar sulphate source. The isotope composition of gypsum

  10. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  11. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hans; Hegaard, H K; Greisen, G

    2012-01-01

    Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies....... A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the PubMed database from their inceptions to 1 October, 2010 using the keywords 'magnesium sulphate, children/infant/pre-term/premature and cerebral palsy/mortality/morbidity/adverse effects/outcome' identified 11 reports of observational studies. Two...... authors working independently extracted the data. A meta-analysis of the data found an association between magnesium sulphate treatment and a significantly reduced risk of mortality (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.89) and cerebral palsy (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47-0.89). Antenatal treatment with magnesium sulphate...

  12. Mechanism of protection of adenosine from sulphate radical anion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Repair by caffeic acid; repair of adenosine radicals; oxidation by sulphate radical anions. ... known that hydroxycinnamic acids are natural anti- oxidants ... acid. 2. Experimental ..... ously and independently under kinetic conditions at.

  13. Effects of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmelioglu, O; Sencar, L; Ozdemir, S; Tarkan, O; Dagkiran, M; Surmelioglu, N; Tuncer, U; Polat, S

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy. The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination. Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration.

  14. Short communication: Use of calcium sulphate dihydrate as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flocculant alternative to the conventional use of aluminium sulphate in the primary treatment of wastewater was evaluated using a jar test apparatus. Samples from the State Water Commission (CEA) in Queretaro, Mexico, were collected for the ...

  15. Anodically generated manganese(III) sulphate for the oxidation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    oxidation of dipeptides in aqueous sulphuric acid medium: A kinetic study ... acetic acid (TFA) and N-methylmorpholine (NMM) were purchased ... and chloroform–methanol– acetic acid .... tion), manganese(II) sulphate and water (to keep the.

  16. Decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes using a sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper ... and microflora that augmented a sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. ... and degradation of aromatic compounds from the deco- ... ed that aromatic amines are toxic, carcinogenic and.

  17. Sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses: implications for the containment of sulphate-bearing nuclear wastes; Solubilite et cinetiques de diffusion des sulfates dans differents verres d'oxydes: application au conditionnement des dechets nucleaires sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M.

    2009-09-15

    The thesis deals with sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses, in order to control sulphate incorporation and sulphate volatilization in nuclear waste glasses. It was conducted on simplified compositions, in the SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-R{sub 2}O (R = Li, Na, K, Cs), SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-BaO and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-BaO systems. These compositions allowed us to study the influence of the nature of network-modifying ions (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +} or Ba{sup 2+}) and also of former elements (Si, B, V), on structure and properties of glasses. Sulphate volatility is studied in sodium borosilicate melts using an innovative technique of sulphate quantitation with Raman spectroscopy. This technique is useful to obtain kinetic curves of sulphate volatilization. The establishment of a model to fit these curves leads to the determination of diffusion coefficients of sulphate. These diffusion coefficients can thus be compared to diffusion coefficients of other species, determined by other techniques and presented in the literature. They are also linked to diffusion coefficients in relation with the viscosity of the melts. Concerning sulphate solubility in glasses, it depends on glass composition and on the nature of sulphate incorporated. Sulphate incorporation in alkali borosilicate glasses leads to the formation of a sulphate layer floating on top of the melt. Sulphate incorporation in barium borosilicate and boro-vanadate glasses leads to the crystallization of sulphate species inside the vitreous matrix. Moreover, sulphate solubility is higher in these glasses than in alkali borosilicates. Finally, exchanges between cations present in glasses and cations present in the sulphate phase are also studied. (author)

  18. Sulphate in Liquid Nuclear Waste: from Production to Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M.; Grandjean, A.; Ledieu, A.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Barre, Y.; Tronche, E. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LDMC, Batiment 208 BP17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear industry produces a wide range of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes which can include different radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr. In La Hague reprocessing plant and in the nuclear research centers of CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), the coprecipitation of strontium with barium sulphate is the technique used to treat selectively these contaminated streams with the best efficiency. After the decontamination process, low and intermediate level activity wastes incorporating significant quantities of sulphate are obtained. The challenge is to find a matrix easy to form and with a good chemical durability which is able to confine this kind of nuclear waste. The current process used to contain sulphate-rich nuclear wastes is bituminization. However, in order to improve properties of containment matrices and simplify the process, CEA has chosen to supervise researches on other materials such as cements or glasses. Indeed, cements are widely used for the immobilization of a variety of wastes (low and intermediate level wastes) and they may be an alternative matrix to bitumen. Even if Portland cement, which is extensively used in the nuclear industry, presents some disadvantages for the containment of sulphate-rich nuclear wastes (risk of swelling and cracking due to delayed ettringite formation), other cement systems, such as calcium sulfo-aluminate binders, may be valuable candidates. Another matrix to confine sulphate-rich waste could be the glass. One of the advantages of this material is that it could also immobilize sulphate containing high level nuclear waste which is present in some countries. This waste comes from the use of ferrous sulfamate as a reducing agent for the conversion of Pu{sup 4+} to Pu{sup 3+} in the partitioning stage of the actinides during reprocessing. Sulphate solubility in borosilicate glasses has already been studied in CEA at laboratory and pilot scales. At a pilot scale, low level liquid waste has been

  19. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  20. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, J; Rodhe, H; Crutzen, P J; Zimmermann, P [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    1992-10-22

    Human activities have increased global emissions of sulphur gases by about a factor of three during the past century, leading to increased sulphate aerosol concentrations, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. Sulphate aerosols can affect the climate directly, by increasing the backscattering of solar radiation in cloud-free air, and indirectly, by providing additional cloud condensation nuclei. Here a global transport-chemistry model is used to estimate the changes in the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol and deposition of non-seasalt sulphur that have occurred since pre-industrial times. The increase in sulphate aerosol concentration is small over the Southern Hemisphere oceans, but reaches a factor of 100 over northern Europe in winter. Calculations indicate, however, that at most 6% of the anthropogenic sulphur emissions is available for the formation of new aerosol particles. This is because about one-half of the sulphur dioxide is deposited on the Earth's surface, and most of the remainder is oxidized in cloud droplets so that the sulphate becomes associated with pre-existing particles. Even so, the rate of formation of new sulphate particles may have doubled since pre-industrial times. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sulphate-containing wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, E; Pender, S

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sulphate at an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD):sulphate ratio of 4 on the operational performance of anaerobic hybrid reactors treating molasses wastewater was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in a long-term laboratory-scale study over a 1,081 day period. The presence of sulphate reduced the COD removal efficiency under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. At 55 degrees C, effluent acetate levels were consistently greater than 4000 mg l(-1) indicating that thermophilic acetate-utilising methane-producing bacteria (MPB) or sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) had not developed in the reactor under the conditions applied. At 37 degrees C, acetate was exclusively utilised by acetoclastic methanogens, whereas H2-utilising SRB predominated over H2-utilising MPB in the competition for hydrogen. By contrast, hydrogenotrophic MPB were shown to outcompete H2-utilising SRB during long-term thermophilic operation. 16SrDNA analysis of the seed sludge and reactor biomass on conclusion of the 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C trials illustrated that the dominant methanogen present on conclusion of the thermophilic trial in the absence of influent sulphate was related to Methanocorpusculum parvuum, and was capable of growth on both acetate and hydrogen. By contrast, an organism closely related to Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was the dominant methanogen present in the sulphate-fed reactor on completion of the thermophilic trial.

  2. Salbutamol sulphate-ethylcellulose microparticles: formulation and in-vitro evaluation with emphasis on mathematical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Murtaza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study: This study reports the laboratory optimization for the preparation of salbutamol sulphate-ethylcellulose microparticles by a non-solvent addition coacervation technique through adjustment of the ratio of salbutamol sulphate to ethylcellulose. The variation of drug release between the microparticles and tabletted microparticles was also investigated. "nMethods: In vitro release profiles of developed microparticles and tabletted microparticles were studied using USP XXIV dissolution apparatus I and II, respectively, in 450 ml double distilled water at 50 rpm maintained at 37°C. "nResults: White microparticles with no definite shape having good entrapment efficiency (96.68 to 97.83% and production yield (97.48 ± 1.21 to 98.35 ± 1.08% were obtained. In this investigation, initial burst effect was observed in the drug release behavior. The rate of drug release from microparticles decreased as the concentration of polyisobutylene was increased from 6% to 12% during microencapsulation. The release pattern of tabletted microparticles was affected significantly (p < 0.05 by the addition of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC as excepient and insignificantly (p > 0.05 by the type of dissolution media and stirring speed. Tabletted microparticles showed good stability and reproducibility. Ethylcellulose was found to be compatible with salbutamol sulphate. The drug release from all formulations was best fit to Higuchi's equation and the mechanism of drug release was anomalous diffusion from all formulations. "nConclusion: The results of this study suggest that by using ethylcellulose it is possible to design a single-unit, sustained-release oral dosage form of salbutamol sulphate for indication of twice a day.

  3. Demonstration of immunogenic keratan sulphate in commercial chondroitin 6-sulphate from shark cartilage. Implications for ELISA assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Møller-Pedersen, T; Damsgaard, T E

    1995-01-01

    The prototype monoclonal keratan sulphate (KS) antibody 5D4 that is widely used for detection of KS in tissues and biological fluids reacts strongly with commercial low grade shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate. Characterization of the immunogenic material by chondroitinase ABC digestion, ELISA...... inhibition studies, immunoblotting and HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of substantial amounts of KS, probably as a large proteoglycan (> 120 kDa). Commercial and heterogenic glycosaminoglycan preparations therefore must be used with great caution in immunological analyses. On the other hand the shark...... cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate is an easy accessible source of immunogenic KS that can be used as a reference standard and as coating antigen in KS-ELISAs. The concentration of immunogenic KS in synovial fluid measured with an ELISA based solely on reagents of shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate...

  4. Demonstration of immunogenic keratan sulphate in commercial chondroitin 6-sulphate from shark cartilage. Implications for ELISA assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Møller-Pedersen, T; Damsgaard, T E

    1995-01-01

    The prototype monoclonal keratan sulphate (KS) antibody 5D4 that is widely used for detection of KS in tissues and biological fluids reacts strongly with commercial low grade shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate. Characterization of the immunogenic material by chondroitinase ABC digestion, ELISA...... cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate is an easy accessible source of immunogenic KS that can be used as a reference standard and as coating antigen in KS-ELISAs. The concentration of immunogenic KS in synovial fluid measured with an ELISA based solely on reagents of shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate...... correlated well (r = 0.90) with the concentrations obtained with a traditional KS-ELISA that uses purified aggrecan as standard and coating antigen, and KS in both serum and synovial fluid could be measured with sufficient linearity....

  5. (R,S)-3-Carb?oxy-2-(isoquinolinium-2-yl)propanoate monohydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Stilinovi?, Vladimir; Frkanec, Leo; Kaitner, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C13H11NO4·H2O, is a monohydrate of a betaine exhibiting a positively charged N-substituted isoquinoline group and a deprotonated carboxyl group. In the crystal, molecules are connected via short O—H...O hydrogen bonds between protonated and deprotonated carboxyl groups into chains of either R or S enantiomers along [001]. These chains are additionally connected by hydrogen bonding between water molecules and the deprotonated carboxy groups of neighbourin...

  6. Ammonium (E-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylprop-2-enoate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Cai Zhu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In structure of the title compound ammonium ferulate monohydrate, NH4+·C10H9O4−·H2O, O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the ammonium cations, ferulate anions and water molecules into a three-dimensional array. The ferulate anion is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.307 (2 Å.

  7. Bacterial sulphate reduction and the development of alkalinity. II. Laboratory experiments with soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Rizk, S G

    1963-01-01

    In waterlogged soils sulphate reduction was characterized by increases in counts of sulphate reducers, and increase in titratable alkalinity, insoluble carbonate, and soluble sulphides, and a decrease in soluble Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/. Presence of organic matter greatly enhanced sulphate reduction. A linear relationship between the amount of sulphate reduced and increases in titratable alkalinity and insoluble carbonate were apparent. The potential effects of sulphate reduction on soil fertility through the development of alkalinity are discussed.

  8. Bacterial sulphate reduction and the development of alkalinity. I. Experiments with synthetic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Rizk, S G

    1963-01-01

    In liquid cultures of desulphovibrio desulphuricans the effects of the following on sulphate reduction were determined: The type of cation (ca++ or na+) attached to the sulphate ion; the presence of calcium carbonate alone and with sodium chloride; the concentration of sodium sulphate, sodium lactate and sodium chloride; and the initial pH. The titratable alkalinity formed as a result of sulphate reduction was found to be quantitatively related to the sulphate reduced, and apparently unaffected by strain variation or energy source.

  9. Protective effects of regular aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following creatine monohydrate supplementation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Rahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creatine is one of the most common supplements for improvement of athletic performance which is used by athletes. The most important debate about creatine consumption is its adverse effect on kidneys due to increased protein load. This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following consumption of creatine monohydrate in the rat. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each. Group 1, as control, received only standard food. Group 2 received 5 g/kg b.w. creatine monohydrate supplement daily for 8 weeks through gavage and group 3 received creatine monohydrate supplementation in the same manner30 minutes before aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise was performed 5 times per week on treadmill at speed of 10-25m/min for 10-30 minutes with the slope of 5 degrees. At the end of 8 weeks, water intake and urinary excretion of rats were measured and blood samples were collected for measurement of serum renal function biomarkers including urea, uric acid and creatinine. Finally, the rats were euthanized for renal histopathology. In group 3, by doing regular aerobic exercise, water intake and urinary excretion rates were significantly (p

  10. A novel quantification method of pantaprazole sodium monohydrate in sesquihydrate by thermogravimetric analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V Ranga; Rajmohan, M Anantha; Shilpa, R Laxmi; Raut, Dilip M; Naveenkumar, Kolla; Suryanarayana, M V; Mathad, Vijayavitthal T

    2007-04-11

    To demonstrate the applicability of thermogravimetric analyzer as a tool for the quantification of pantaprazole sodium monohydrate in sesquihydrate, studies have been conducted. Thermal analysis (DSC, TGA) crystallographic (PXRD) and spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR) were used for the characterization of the polymorphs. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis was explored by high-resolution dynamic (Hi-Res-dynamic) and high-resolution modulated (Hi-Res-modulated) test procedures to quantify the hydrate polymorphic mixtures. The two polymorphic forms exhibited significant differences and good resolution in the second derivative thermogram generated by Hi-Res-modulated test procedure. Thus, the TGA with Hi-Res-modulated test procedure was considered for the quantification of monohydrate in sesquihydrate. The calibration plot was constructed from the known mixtures of two polymorphs by plotting the peak area of the second derivative thermogram against the weight percent of monohydrate. Using this novel approach, 1 wt% limit of detection (LOD) was achieved. The polymorphic purity results, obtained by TGA in Hi-Res-modulated test procedure were found to be in good agreement with the results predicted by FT-IR and was comparable with the actual values of the known polymorphic mixtures. The Hi-Res-modulated TGA technique is very simple and easy to perform the analysis.

  11. Plasma Creatine Kinetics After Ingestion of Microencapsulated Creatine Monohydrate with Enhanced Stability in Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Michelle; Kent, Robert M; Scotto di Palumbo, Alessandro; Bleiel, Sinead B; De Vito, Giuseppe; Egan, Brendan

    2017-07-04

    Creatine monohydrate represents one of the largest sports supplement markets. Enhancing creatine (CRE) stability in aqueous solutions, such as with microencapsulation, represents innovation potential. Ten physically active male volunteers were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to either placebo (PLA) (3-g maltodextrin; n = 5) or microencapsulated CRE (3-g creatine monohydrate; n = 5) conditions. Experimental conditions involved ingestion of the samples in a 70-mL ready-to-drink format. CRE was delivered in a novel microencapsulation matrix material consisting entirely of hydrolyzed milk protein. Three hours after ingestion, plasma creatine concentrations were unchanged during PLA, and averaged ∼45 μM. During CRE, plasma creatine concentration peaked after 30 min at 101.6 ± 14.9 μM (p creatine concentration gradually trended downwards but remained significantly elevated (∼50% above resting levels) 3 hr after ingestion. These results demonstrate that the microencapsulated form of creatine monohydrate reported herein remains bioavailable when delivered in aqueous conditions, and has potential utility in ready-to-drink formulations for creatine supplementation.

  12. EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE CONTRACTILE PROPERTIES AFTER CREATINE MONOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC TRAINING RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Boyadjiev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise performance and contractile variables in aerobic-anaerobic training rats. Twenty 90-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups - creatine (Cr and controls (K. The creatine group received creatine monohydrate as a nutritional supplement, whereas the control group was given placebo. Both groups were trained 5 days a week on a treadmill for 20 days in a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic metabolic working regimen (27 m·min-1, 15% elevation for 40 min. The exercise performance (sprint-test, contractile properties (m. tibialis anterior, oxidative enzyme activity (SDH, LDH, NADH2 in m. soleus and blood hematological and chemical variables were assessed in the groups at the end of the experiment. It was found out that creatine supplementation improved the exercise performance after 20 days of administration in a dose of 60 mg per day on the background of a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic exercise training. At the end of the trial the Cr-group demonstrated better values for the variables which characterize the contractile properties of m. tibialis anterior containing predominantly types IIA and IIB muscle fibers. On the other hand, a higher oxidative capacity was found out in m. soleus (type I muscle fibers as a result of 20-day creatine supplementation. No side effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation were assessed by the hematological and blood biochemical indices measured in this study

  13. A dual approach to study the electro-optical properties of a noncentrosymmetric L-asparagine monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkir, Mohd; Muhammad, Shabbir; AlFaify, S; Irfan, Ahmad; Yahia, I S

    2015-02-25

    In this work we reports the experimental and theoretical investigation on an organic noncentrosymmetric monohydrated L-asparagine (LAM) molecule. LAM single crystals were grown in specially designed beaker for the first time. Structural confirmation was done by identifying the vibrational modes using IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic studies. The ultra violet-visible-near infrared absorbance, diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in the spectral range 190-2500 nm. The optical transparency was calculated and found to be ∼80%. Its optical band gap was calculated found to be ∼5.100 eV. Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to optimize the molecular geometry of LAM using B3LYP/6-31G(∗) basis set of theory. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap of 6.047 eV and transition energy of 176 nm (f0=0.024) have been found in semi-quantitative agreement with our experimental results. The dipole moment, polarizability and first hyperpolarizability were calculated at the same level of theory. The obtained results reveals that the titled compound can be a decent contender for nonlinear applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation, crystal structure, vibrational spectral and density functional studies of bis (4-nitrophenol)-2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Renganathan, N. G.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-10-01

    An organic-organic salt, bis (4-nitrophenol) 2,4,6-triamino 1,3,5-triazine monohydrate (BNPM) has been prepared by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the compound crystallizes in triclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P-1. IR and Raman spectra of BNPM have been recorded and analyzed. The study has been extended to confocal Raman spectral analysis. Band assignments have been made for the melamine and p-nitrophenol molecules. Vibrational spectra have also been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical density functional theory calculations using Firefly (PC GAMESS) Version 7.1 G. Vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with the experimental one. The Mulliken charges, HOMO-LUMO orbital energies are calculated and analyzed. The chemical structure of the compound was established by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra.

  15. Paddle-wheel versus percolation mechanism for cation transport in some sulphate phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bandaranyake, P.W.S.K.; Careem, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    in these phases. A single-crystal neutron diffraction study has been performed for cubic lithium sulphate. The refinement of the data gives a very complex model for the location of the lithium ions. There is definitely a void at and near the octahedral (1/2, 1/2, 1/2) position. 90% of the lithium ions are located...... and interdiffusion, all studied mono- and divalent cations are very mobile in the rotor phases, which lack the pronounced correlation with ionic radii that is characteristic for diffusion in other classes of solid electrolytes. The quoted studies are to be considered as strong evidence against a percolation model...

  16. Uranium and sulphate values from carbonate leach process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.

    1983-01-01

    The process concerns the recovery of uraniferous and sulphur values from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate. Ammonia is introduced into the liquor to convert any HCO 3 - to CO 3 2- . The neutralised liquor from this step is then contacted with an anion exchange resin to fix the uranium and sulphate ions, leaving a liquor containing ammonia, sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate in solution. Uranium and sulphate ions are eluted with an ammonia carbonate and/or bicarbonate solution to yield a solution of ammonium uranyl carbonate complex and ammonium sulphate. The solution is subjected to thermal treatment until a suspension of precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is obtained in a solution of the ammonium sulphate. Carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor are driven off. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is then separated from the solution of ammonium sulphate and the precipitate is calcined to yield uranium trioxide and ammonia

  17. Relationship between sulphate and sulphur dioxide in the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugas, M; Gentilizza, M

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the sulphate in suspended particulates and sulphur dioxide in the air was studied in various urban and industrial areas. The relationship is best described by the equation y = ax/sup b/, where y is the percentage of the sulphate S in the total S (sulphate and sulphur dioxide) and x is the concentration of the total S in the air. The regression coefficients a and b seem to be characteristics of the area. In urban areas studied so far a was between 316 and 378 and b between -0.74 and -0.83. In industrial areas polluted by dust which contains elevated concentrations of metals a was between 91 and 107 and b between -0.35 and -0.49. In the area polluted by cement dust there was practically no correlation between the sulphate S (%) and the total S, but a relatively high correlation between absolute amounts of the sulphate S and the total S. The relations indicate that the limitation of SO/sub 2/ conversion is influenced by aerosol composition. Aerosols containing certain metals may promote the conversion by a catalytic effect while alkaline substances by increasing the pH. Whether this can only happen in the plume or in the air as well remains to be clarified.

  18. Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

    2006-01-01

    The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxy-sulpahte green rust GR2(SO 4 -2 ) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2(SO 4 -2 ) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2(SO 4 -2 ) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2(SO 4 -2 ) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

  19. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  20. Sulphate Removal from Water by Carbon Residue from Biomass Gasification: Effect of Chemical Modification Methods on Sulphate Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Runtti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate removal from mine water is a problem because traditional chemical precipitation does not remove all sulphates. In addition, it creates lime sediment as a secondary waste. Therefore, an inexpensive and environmental-friendly sulphate removal method is needed in addition to precipitation. In this study, carbon residues from a wood gasification process were repurposed as precursors to a suitable sorbent for SO42- ion removal. The raw material was modified using ZnCl2, BaCl2, CaCl2, FeCl3, or FeCl2. Carbon residues modified with FeCl3 were selected for further consideration because the removal efficiency toward sulphate was the highest. Batch sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of the initial pH, initial SO42- ion concentration, and contact time on sulphate removal. The removal of SO42- ions using Fe-modified carbon residue was notably higher compared with unmodified carbon residue and commercially available activated carbon. The sorption data exhibited pseudo-second-order kinetics. The isotherm analysis indicated that the sorption data of Fe-modified carbon residues can be represented by the bi-Langmuir isotherm model.

  1. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor DarulTa’zim (Malaysia)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) into hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x}(OH){sub 2−x}) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O), ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure.

  2. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO 4 2− ) into hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6−x (SO 4 ) x (OH) 2−x ) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO 4 2− ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O), ((NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 ) and (Na 2 SO 4 ) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO 4 2− ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure

  3. X-ray diffraction study of polycrystalline dipalmitoylcephalin and dipalmitoyllecithin monohydrate. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, G.; Doerfler, H.D.; Sackmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    Using VAND's indexing method the powder diagrams of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-DL-phosphatidyl-choline (lecithin) monohydrate were indexed in the measured angle range of 0.20 0 0 . Cephalin crystallizes monoclinically with a = 0.986 nm, b = 0.779 nm, c = 5.462 nm, β = 92.6 0 ; lecithin triclinically with a = 0.996 nm, b = 0.859 nm, c = 5.371 nm, α = 90 0 , β = 93.3 0 , γ = 91.4 0 . The results are confronted with literature data of synthetic cephalins and lecithins with a chain length of C12, C14 and C16. (author)

  4. (R,S)-3-Carb­oxy-2-(isoquinolinium-2-yl)propanoate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilinović, Vladimir; Frkanec, Leo; Kaitner, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C13H11NO4·H2O, is a monohydrate of a betaine exhibiting a positively charged N-substituted isoquino­line group and a deprotonated carboxyl group. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected via short O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between protonated and deprotonated carboxyl groups into chains of either R or S enanti­omers along [001]. These chains are additionally connected by hydrogen bonding between water mol­ecules and the deprotonated carb­oxy groups of neighbouring mol­ecules. PMID:21579503

  5. (R,S)-3-Carb-oxy-2-(isoquinolinium-2-yl)propanoate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilinović, Vladimir; Frkanec, Leo; Kaitner, Branko

    2010-05-22

    The title compound, C(13)H(11)NO(4)·H(2)O, is a monohydrate of a betaine exhibiting a positively charged N-substituted isoquino-line group and a deprotonated carboxyl group. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected via short O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between protonated and deprotonated carboxyl groups into chains of either R or S enanti-omers along [001]. These chains are additionally connected by hydrogen bonding between water mol-ecules and the deprotonated carb-oxy groups of neighbouring mol-ecules.

  6. Theoretical calculation of zero field splitting parameters of Cr{sup 3+} doped ammonium oxalate monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kripal, Ram, E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar, E-mail: aky.physics@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    Zero field splitting parameters (ZFSPs) D and E of Cr{sup 3+} ion doped ammonium oxalate monohydrate (AOM) are calculated with formula using the superposition model. The theoretically calculated ZFSPs for Cr{sup 3+} in AOM crystal are compared with the experimental value obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Theoretical ZFSPs are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The energy band positions of optical absorption spectra of Cr{sup 3+} in AOM crystal calculated with CFA package are in good match with the experimental values.

  7. Micrometeorological measurement of the dry deposition flux of sulphate and nitrate aerosols to coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyers, G.P.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of sulphate and nitrate have been determined over a coniferous canopy using the aerodynamic gradient technique. Vertical concentration gradients of sulphate and nitrate were measured with filters; the gradient of ammonium bisulphate was measured with thermodenuders. Filter

  8. Grass-cellulose as energy source for biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised during anaerobic degradation, producing volatile...

  9. Interdependent action of nickel sulphate and X-rays on human lymphoblastoid leukeamic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensimon, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    In a first experiment, cells were cultured in media supplemented by nickel sulphate, irradiated in same media and cultured in same media after irradiation. In a second experiment, cells were cultured during 18hrs. in media supplemented by nickel sulphate, and then cells were washed and cultured in normal media where they were irradiated. The nickel sulphate toxicity appears as a creasing function of the nickel sulphate concentration and the nickel sulphate action endurance. The nickel sulphate toxic effect is amplified by X-rays. This amplification is a time function that depends on the X-ray dose, nickel sulphate concentration and period of time from the outset of culture to the irradiation. The nickel sulphate toxic effect appears faster when nickel works after X-rays [fr

  10. Gastrointestinal tract wall visualization and distention during abdominal and pelvic multidetector CT with a neutral barium sulphate suspension: comparison with positive barium sulphate suspension and with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M R; Erturk, S M; Ichikawa, T; Rocha, T; Ros, P R; Silverman, S G; Mortele, K J

    2012-01-01

    When examining patients with contrast-enhanced multidetector-row CT, we determined if the stomach and small bowel were visualized and distended better with a neutral barium sulphate suspension than with positive barium sulphate suspension or water. After obtaining approval from our institutional review board, 156 patients (women: 84; mean age: 54 yrs) with no history of gastrointestinal tract disease were randomized prospectively to receive orally either 900 ml of neutral (0.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), 900 ml of positive (2.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), or 900 ml of water (n = 50), prior to undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT. Two independent radiologists evaluated the stomach, and small bowel, for luminal distension and wall visualization, using a five point scale. Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The walls of the stomach, and small bowel were visualized better in patients who were administered neutral barium sulphate suspension than those who were administered either positive barium sulphate suspension (p barium sulphate suspension, the stomach and small bowel were distended better compared to patients administered water (p barium sulphate suspension (p contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT, orally administered neutral barium sulphate suspension allows the gastrointestinal tract to be visualized and distended better than either positive barium sulphate suspension, or water.

  11. The hypobranchial mucin of the whelk Buccinum undatum L. The polysaccharide sulphate component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S; Jevons, F R

    1966-02-01

    1. A polysaccharide sulphate has been isolated from the hypobranchial mucin of the whelk Buccinum undatum. 2. The molecular weight of this polysaccharide, which is a glucan carrying one ester sulphate group per monosaccharide residue, is 1.7x10(5). 3. Some investigations bearing on the location of the ester sulphate groups are reported. 4. The viscosity of the whole mucin has been shown to depend mainly on the glucan sulphate.

  12. The effect of water on the sulphation of limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan; E.J. Anthony [North China Electric Power University, Baoding City (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2010-09-15

    A series of tests was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to study the sulphation behaviour of limestone in the presence of water over the temperature range of 800-850{sup o}C. Four different Canadian limestones, all with a particle size range of 75-425 {mu}m, were sulphated using a synthetic flue gas with a composition of 15% CO{sub 2}, 3% O{sub 2}, 0% or 10% H{sub 2}O, 1750 ppm SO{sub 2} and the balance N{sub 2}. Water was shown to have a significant promotional effect on sulphation, especially in the diffusion-controlled stage. However, the effect of water during the kinetic-controlled stage appeared to be much less pronounced. Based on these results, it is proposed that the presence of water leads to the transient formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} as an intermediate, which in turn reacts with SO{sub 2} at a faster rate than CaO does. Alternatively stated, it appears that H{sub 2}O acts as catalyst for the sulphation reaction of CaO. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Growth morphology of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The growth morphology of crystals of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate (ZTS) is investigated experimentally, and computed using the Hartman–Perdok approach. Attachment energies of the observed habit faces are calculated for determining their relative morphological importance. A computer code is developed for carrying out ...

  14. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the ...

  15. Magnesium sulphate as an anticonvulsant in the management of eclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO/sub 4/) as an anticonvulsant in the management of eclamptic patients. Patients and Methods: Out of a total of 6050 pregnant women, 31 patients had eclampsia and were managed according to the set protocol. MgSO/sub 4/ 'Nas given to eclamptic patients according to protocol who had no contraindication to this agent. Recurrence of convulsion, side effects of magnesium sulphate, maternal and fetal outcome was noted. Results: Over two years' study period, out of 6050 patients, 31 were admitted with eclampsia (0.51 %). There was no maternal death. Out of 31 eclamptic patients only 5 patients were booked. Twenty-two patients (70.9%) were primigravida and 9 (29%) were multigravida. Seventeen (54%) were less than 20 years of age, 22 (79.9%) patients were admitted with antepartum and 6 (19.35%) had postpartum eclampsia. Magnesium sulphate was effective in 29 (93.54%) patients. Fifteen patients delivered by caesarean (C) section and 16 delivered vaginally. Twenty-nine (93.5%) babies were born alive. Two patients had recurrent convulsion i.e. 6.4%. Only one patient had respiratory depression after the use of magnesium sulphate. Conclusion: Eclampsia was well controlled by the use of MgSO/sub 4/. There were only 2 patients who had recurrence of convulsion. Convulsions were controlled in 29 (93.54%) patients despite lack of monitoring facilities of serum magnesium level. (author)

  16. Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R; Multhaupt, Hinke; Sanderson, Ralph D

    2016-01-01

    behaviour. Here, we review some recent advances, emphasising that many tumour-related functions of proteoglycans are revealed only after their modification in processes subsequent to synthesis and export to the cell surface. These include enzymes that modify heparan sulphate structure, recycling of whole...

  17. Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer and cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer on Panicum maximum yield and chemical composition of the resultant herbage harvested at 3, 4 and 5 weeks of age was investigated. The treatments were labeled T1 to T6. T1 was fertilized and harvested at 3 weeks cutting interval, T2 was fertilized and harvested at 4 ...

  18. Decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes using a sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Successful decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes was achieved in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor using biodigester sludge from a local municipality waste treatment plant as a source of carbon and microflora that augmented a sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. Orange II (O II) was decolourised by ...

  19. Decolourisation and degradation of reactive blue 2 by sulphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was performed to determine the influence of heat treatment on sewage sludge and addition of zero valent iron (ZVI) on the degradation and decolourisation of an anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 2 (RB 2). A consortium of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in a biosulphidogenic batch reactor with biodigester ...

  20. Crystallisation of mixtures of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and soot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dougle, P.G.; Veefkind, J.P.; Brink, H.M. ten

    1998-01-01

    Crystallisation of laboratory aerosols of ammonium nitrate and of internal mixtures of this salt with ammonium sulphate were investigated using humidity controlled nephelometry. The aerosol was produced via nebulizing of solutions and then dried to 25% RH, which is a realistic minimum value for

  1. calcium sulphate hemihydrate and bioactive glass composites for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 41; Issue 2. In vitro bioactivity evaluation of α -calcium sulphate hemihydrate and bioactive glass composites for their potential use in bone regeneration. YANYAN ZHENG CHENGDONG XIONG DUJUAN ZHANG LIFANG ZHANG. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 Article ID ...

  2. Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of the UASB reactor depends largely on the settling properties and stability of the sludge bed which comprises the anaerobic active biomass. The solid-liquid separation behaviour of the sludge bed in 2 UASB reactors (R1 at 35oC and R2 at 20oC) fed with primary sewage sludge and sulphate was investigated ...

  3. Endogenous and bioaugmented sulphate reduction in calcareous gypsiferous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaya, F.; Cuenca-Sanchez, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Gypsiferous soils have a high agricultural value, but their utilization is limited by the presence of gypsum that can induce hardpan and vertical crusting. This paper reports on sulphate reduction in this soil type as a basis of a bioremediation technology to remove the gypsum content of calcareous

  4. Inhibition of bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SRB) and Iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB) using Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) extract was tested. The water sample revealed a heterotrophic bacterial count of 1.7x103 cfu/ml for the sulphate reducing bacteria and 4.1x103 cfu/ml for the Iron oxidizing ...

  5. Green chemical incorporation of sulphate into polyoxoanions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Green chemical incorporation of sulphate into polyoxoanions of molybdenum to nano level ... Keywords. Polyoxometalate; green synthesis; nanostructures; surfactant. ... The effects of reaction parameters such as concentration of surfactant, temperature and pH of solution on the synthesis of nanospheres were investigated.

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of copper sulphate test in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The accuracy of the copper sulphate method for the rapid screening of prospective blood donors has been questioned because this rapid screening method may lead to false deferral of truly eligible prospective blood donors. Objective: This study was aimed at determining the sensitivity and specificity of copper ...

  7. Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Inhibition of Bio corrosion of steel coupon by sulphate reducing bacteria and Iron oxidizing bacteria using .... Ethanol for 24 h. The extract was ... with distilled water to get a zero reading from the meter before .... Ethanol extract of musa species peels as a green corrosion ... Eco friendly extract of banana peel as corrosion ...

  8. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Sulphate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL USER

    22, No. 1, 2017. 39. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Sulphate from Aqueous Solution by. Magnetite ... poison catalysts, and affect the .... C for 1 h in a stainless steel reactor placed in a furnace ... N2 gas for 30 min. 50 ml of ...... adsorption for designing and evaluating the ... is the equilibrium liquid-phase.

  9. EFFECT OF PREEMPTIVE MAGNESIUM SULPHATE ON PAIN RELIEF AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Vasupalli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The concept of preemptive analgesia was introduced by C. J. Woolf et al demonstrating that a post-injury hypersensitivity results via a central mechanism. The effect of magnesium on perioperative analgesic requirements was first evaluated by Koinig and his colleagues in patients with identical levels of surgical stimulation. Magnesium Sulphate is an antagonist of Nmethyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors and its associated channels and regulation of calcium influx into the cell. Magnesium causes modulation of acute pain reducing postsurgical pain intensity and dosage of analgesics. Seyhan et al have reported that magnesium sulphate boluses were effective for postoperative pain relief after gynaecological surgery. Fucs-Budder et al, Kussman B et al used continuous infusion (15 mg/kg/hr. in addition to initial bolus (50 mg/kg of magnesium sulphate in their studies, which caused bradycardia and delayed extubation time, which can be attributed to the infusion of Iva Bacak Kochman et al studied effect of low dose MgSO4 (7.5 mg/kg as analgesic agent after induction in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This bolus dose of MgSO4 given for control of sympathetic response during intubation also reduced early postoperative pain. Study conducted by O Mentes et al on postoperative analgesic efficacy of single dose MgSO4 (50 mg/kg after laparoscopic cholecystectomy measured significantly less VAS scores. On this background, our study was done to evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of single dose of magnesium sulphate (50 mg/kg as preemptive analgesic and measured after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In addition to VAS scores, total tramadol consumption and time for first rescue analgesia, postoperative haemodynamic parameters and side effects if any were evaluated. METHODS After obtaining Institutional Ethical committee clearance and written informed consent from the patients, a randomised prospective study was conducted at King

  10. Electrochemical study in the molten sodium acid sulphate - potassium acid sulphate eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ber, F.

    1964-01-01

    The general properties of the NaHSO 4 - KHSO 4 molten eutectic resemble those of neutral sulphates and those of concentrated H 2 SO 4 . We have been able to show the existence in solution of the ions HSO - 4 SO 2- 4 , and H 3 O + , these last being formed by the action of the HSO - 4 ions on dissolved H 2 O. The electro-active zone with a polished platinum electrode is limited in oxidation by the ions H 3 O + and SO 2- 4 , and in reduction by the protons of HSO - 4 . We have compared the electro-active zones obtained with different electrodes (Ag-Au-graphite-mercury). We have considered the dissolution of a few metallic oxides and halides. This work shows the role as O 2- ion acceptors of HSO - 4 ions. We have undertaken an electro-chemical study of a few oxido-reduction Systems: H + / H 2 , Ag↓ / Ag (1), the vanadium and uranium Systems, those of mercury Hg↓ / Hg 2- 2 and of gold Au/Au 3+ , then of the attack by the solvent of a few common metals such as aluminium, iron, copper and nickel. The study of silver Systems has made it possible to obtain the solubility products of AgCl and AgBr and to consider the possibility of coulometric titration Cl - ions with Ag + ions. We have shown the existence of various chemical species of vanadium which may exist in the molten eutectic. (author) [fr

  11. Feasibility of lead removal from industrial effluents by sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L. A.; Diez, M.; Rodriguez, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Battery manufacturing wastewater contains high concentration of sulphate and lead at low pH values. Biogical treatment by anaerobic reduction of sulphate to sulphite, with organic matter as electron donor, increases alkalinity and allow precipitating lead as sulphide. the type of organic matter, COD/SO 4 ratio and lead concentration over sulphate reduction rate are investigated in this work. (Author)

  12. Qualitative and quantitative approach towards the molecular understanding of structural, vibrational and optical features of urea ninhydrin monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasikala, V. [Department of Physics, Bishop Moore College, Mavelikara, Alappuzha, Kerala 690110 (India); Sajan, D., E-mail: drsajanbmc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bishop Moore College, Mavelikara, Alappuzha, Kerala 690110 (India); Chaitanya, K. [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xialingwei 200, Nanjing (China); Sundius, Tom [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Devi, T. Uma [Department of Physics, Government Arts College for Women (Autonomous), Pudukottai (India)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, single crystals of urea ninhydrin monohydrate (UNMH) have been grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopies. The Kurtz and Perry powder method was employed to confirm the near-zero SHG efficiency of the as-grown centrosymmetric UNMH crystal. The third order nonlinearity of the crystal has been studied by the open aperture Z-scan method. The nonlinear absorption coefficient is calculated and the potentiality of UNMH in optical limiting applications is identified. The molecular geometry and the origin of optical non-linearity at the molecular level have been investigated by the density functional theory. The normal coordinate analysis was carried out to assign the molecular vibrational modes. Vibrational spectral studies confirms the presence of weak O-H⋯O and moderate O-H⋯O type hydrogen bonds in the molecule as well as O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and blue-shifted C-H⋯O type H-bonds in the crystal. The intramolecular charge transfer interactions and the electronic absorption mechanisms have been discussed. The static and the dynamic values of hyperpolarizabilities for UNMH were estimated theoretically by DFT methods. - Highlights: • Molecular geometric and NBO interaction features of UNMH were analyzed. • Vibrational spectral features and types of H-bonding in isolated gaseous phase molecule were discussed. • Electronic absorption maxima of different phases of UNMH were found out. • The non-linear absorption behaviour of UNMH is investigated using z-scan. • First- and second- order hyperpolarizability values were estimated theoretically.

  13. Solution thermodynamics of creatine monohydrate in binary (water + ethanol) solvent systems at T = (278.15 to 328.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Liangcheng; Wei, Lihua; Si, Tao; Guo, Huai; Yang, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubilities of creatine monohydrate in (ethanol + water) mixtures were investigated. • The solubility data were well correlated by Jouyban–Acree model. • Solution thermodynamic properties were calculated. • The dissolving process of creatine monohydrate in was endothermic and entropy-driven. - Abstract: In order to optimize the crystallization process of creatine monohydrate, the solubility of creatine monohydrate in the binary (water + ethanol) mixture was measured at temperatures ranging from 278.15 K to 328.15 K using the laser monitoring technique. The solubility increased with both the temperature and the mole fraction of water in the solvent mixture. The experimental solubility was well correlated by the Jouyban–Acree model, which generated a sensitive solubility surface for creatine monohydrate. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters of this dissolution process were also estimated. The results showed that the dissolution process of creatine monohydrate in each solvent mixture was endothermic and entropy-driven, and that the dissolution of creatine monohydrate became much easier when the mole fraction of water in the solvent mixture increased.

  14. Deacidification of palm oil using betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrina, Ida; Nasikin, Mohammad; Krisanti, Elsa; Mulia, Kamarza

    2018-02-01

    In the palm oil industry, the deacidification process is performed by steam stripping which causes the loss of most of palm oil's natural antioxidants due to high temperature. The liquid-liquid extraction process which is carried out at low temperature is preferable in order to preserve these compounds. The use of hydrated ethanol can reduce the losses of antioxidants, but the ability of this solvent to extract free fatty acids also decreases. Betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have extensive potential for this process. The selectivity of these NADES was determined to select a preferable solvent. The betaine monohydrate-glycerol NADES in a molar ratio of 1:8 was determined to be the preferred solvent with the highest selectivity. This solvent has an efficiency of palmitic acid extraction of 34.14%, and the amount of antioxidants can be preserved in the refined palm oil up to 99%. The compounds are stable during extraction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The impact of material attributes and process parameters on the micronisation of lactose monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariare, M H; de Matas, M; York, P; Shao, Q

    2011-04-15

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs), which are important medicines for drug delivery to the lungs, require drug particles in the respirable size range of 1-6 μm for optimal lung deposition. Drugs administered by the oral route also derive benefit from particles in this size range owing to their large surface area to volume ratio, which provides potential for rapid dissolution. Micronisation used in the production of particles, however often leads to heterogeneous product containing mechanically activated surfaces with amorphous content. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of particle properties of three grades of lactose monohydrate, with sizes above and below the brittle-ductile transition (dcrit) and their interaction with process variables on the quality of micronised material. Following an experimental design, the impact of three factors (grinding pressure, injector pressure and feed rate) on the particulate attributes of micronised powders produced from the different size grades was assessed. Processing conditions were shown to be important determinants of powder properties only for the coarsest starting material. Ultrafine material was achieved by processing finer grade feed stock below dcrit. However the resultant product was more crystalline and transformed on heating to the anhydrous state with markedly reduced onset temperature with lower energy surfaces than powders produced from larger sized starting material. Thus the propensity for micronisation of lactose monohydrate can be altered through control of starting materials and optimal settings for process variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Creatine Monohydrate on Permeability of Coronary Artery Endothelium and Level of Blood Lipoprotein in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Asghar; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Soleimannejad, Kourosh; Khalighi, Zahra; Mohsenzadeh, Yosouf; Hemati, Ruhollah; Moradkhani, Atefeh; Abangah, Ghobad

    2016-09-01

    Creatine monohydrate has beneficial effects on serum glucose. This study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine on serum biochemical markers and permeability of coronary arteries among diabetic rats. 32 Wistar rats, which weighed 150-200 grams were randomly divided into 4 groups including: group I, control; group II, creatine monohydrate; group III, diabetic rats; and group IV, diabetic rats + creatine. Creatine monohydrate was applied by 400 mg/kg/daily for 5 months. Animals' weights and blood samples were taken before and after the study. Endothelial permeability rate was measured by Evans Blue method. Data were analysed by SPSS 16. At the end of fifth month, rats' weights in diabetic group under treatment with creatine, compared to those without, increased significantly (pcreatine (pcreatine compared to untreated groups, closed to the intact group (pcreatine monohydrate caused an improvement of serum biochemical markers associated with diabetes and reduced the permeability rate of coronary arteries among diabetic rats. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  17. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  18. Study of fatigue crack nucleation in 12% chromium stainless steel in sulphate and phosphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, H.M.; Begley, J.A.; Macdonald, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology of fatigue crack nucleation has been studied in 12%Cr stainless steel at a single stress level of 448 MN m -2 in deaerated H 2 SO 4 -Na 2 SO 4 -NaOH ([SO 4 2- ] = 0.01M and 1M) and in H 3 PO 4 -NaOH ([PO 4 3- ] = 0.01M and 1M) solutions at pH 2, 7 and 10 at 100 0 C. In sulphate solutions at pH 2, the specimen suffered overall surface attack without the initiation of microcracks. The surface attack intensified at the prior austenite grain boundaries, martensite platelet boundaries, and non-metallic inclusions. In contrast, cracks initiated transgranularly in sulphate solutions at pH 7 and 10 with the development of selective attack at crack sites at later stages in the fatigue life. This attack was ascribed to local acidification as a result of hydrolysis of corrosion products extruded from inside the cracks. Long cracks with crack branching and debonded zones were observed in all phosphate solutions, except in 0.01M phosphate solution at pH 7. In this latter environment, short intrusion-extrusion microcracks were observed. This difference in behaviour was attributed to changes in the characteristics of the passive film as influenced by the local environmental conditions, mechanical rupture by plastic deformation, and electrochemical differences at the metal surface. (author)

  19. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulisz Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of knowledge on coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland. The properties of these soils are closely related to the influence of brackish water from the Baltic Sea, high accumulation of organic matter and human activity. The obtained results demonstrate that the sulphide accumulation in soils refers to a relatively small areas of the Polish coastal zone with the unique and very valuable habitats. They require an adequate regulation of the water relations to avoid the risk of strong soil acidification and environmental pollution by heavy metals. Currently, there are no relevant criteria for classification of acid sulphate soil materials in the Polish Soil Classification (2011. Therefore, based on the presented data, the authors proposed to identify these features at the lower classification level (for different soil types. The criteria for the Thionic and Sulfidic qualifiers used in the WRB classification (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015 could be accepted for this purpose.

  1. Effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols on the thermal stability of a protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Shota [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kinoshita, Masahiro, E-mail: kinoshit@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-03-28

    The thermal stability of a protein is lowered by the addition of a monohydric alcohol, and this effect becomes larger as the size of hydrophobic group in an alcohol molecule increases. By contrast, it is enhanced by the addition of a polyol possessing two or more hydroxyl groups per molecule, and this effect becomes larger as the number of hydroxyl groups increases. Here, we show that all of these experimental observations can be reproduced even in a quantitative sense by rigid-body models focused on the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of solvent molecules. The solvent is either pure water or water-cosolvent solution. Three monohydric alcohols and five polyols are considered as cosolvents. In the rigid-body models, a protein is a fused hard spheres accounting for the polyatomic structure in the atomic detail, and the solvent is formed by hard spheres or a binary mixture of hard spheres with different diameters. The effective diameter of cosolvent molecules and the packing fractions of water and cosolvent, which are crucially important parameters, are carefully estimated using the experimental data of properties such as the density of solid crystal of cosolvent, parameters in the pertinent cosolvent-cosolvent interaction potential, and density of water-cosolvent solution. We employ the morphometric approach combined with the integral equation theory, which is best suited to the physical interpretation of the calculation result. It is argued that the degree of solvent crowding in the bulk is the key factor. When it is made more serious by the cosolvent addition, the solvent-entropy gain upon protein folding is magnified, leading to the enhanced thermal stability. When it is made less serious, the opposite is true. The mechanism of the effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols is physically the same as that of sugars. However, when the rigid-body models are employed for the effect of urea, its addition is predicted to enhance the

  2. Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    strate that co-adsorbed sulphate ions in the (√3 × √3)R30° UPD adlayer are replaced by chloride ions and, ..... phase 1 by the (5 × 5)-like chlo- ride phase 2 was mentioned in. 45,46,48,56 but not stud- ied in detail. These authors suggested that the replacement of SO. 2. 4. – .... A nonlinear regression fit of (1) to the experi-.

  3. Sulphate and desertification signals in Middle Eastern temperature trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrallah, H.A.; Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of Middle Eastern annual temperature anomalies over the past 40 years reveals statistically significant warming over this time period of 0.07 C per decade. The warming is most pronounced over the spring season and least apparent in the winter season. Spatial analysis reveals a positive relationship between Middle Eastern warming and the degree of human-induced desertification and a negative relationship between local warming and the atmospheric concentration of sulphate

  4. Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-31

    Jul 31, 2009 ... The success of the UASB reactor depends largely on the settling properties and stability of the sludge bed which comprises the anaerobic active biomass. The solid-liquid separation behaviour of the sludge bed in 2 UASB reactors (R1 at 35oC and. R2 at 20oC) fed with primary sewage sludge and sulphate ...

  5. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B. [Children' s Hospital, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M. [Department for Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  6. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B.; Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  7. Sodium Sulphate Effect on Cement Produced with Building Stone Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Sancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the blended cements produced by using the building stone waste were exposed to sulphate solution and the cement properties were examined. Prepared mortar specimens were cured under water for 28 days and then they were exposed to three different proportions of sodium sulphate solution for 125 days. Performances of cements were determined by means of compressive strength and tensile strength tests. The broken parts of some mortar bars were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Besides, they were left under moist atmosphere and their length change was measured and continuously monitored for period of 125 days. In blended cements, solely cements obtained by replacing 10–20% of diatomites gave similar strength values with ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5R at the ages of 7, 28, and 56 days. In all mortar specimens that included either waste andesite (AP or marble powder (MP showed best performance against very severe effective sodium sulphate solutions (13500 mg/L.

  8. Molecular structure of dextran sulphate sodium in aqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Every, Hayley A.; Jiskoot, Wim; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Buijs, Wim

    2018-03-01

    Here we propose a 3D-molecular structural model for dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in a neutral aqueous environment based on the results of a molecular modelling study. The DSS structure is dominated by the stereochemistry of the 1,6-linked α-glucose units and the presence of two sulphate groups on each α-glucose unit. The structure of DSS can be best described as a helix with various patterns of di-sulphate substitution on the glucose rings. The presence of a side chain does not alter the 3D-structure of the linear main chain much, but affects the overall spatial dimension of the polymer. The simulated polymers have a diameter similar to or in some cases even larger than model α-hemolysin nano-pores for macromolecule transport in many biological processes, indicating a size-limited translocation through such pores. All results of the molecular modelling study are in line with previously reported experimental data. This study establishes the three-dimensional structure of DSS and summarizes the spatial dimension of the polymer, serving as the basis for a better understanding on the molecular level of DSS-involved electrostatic interaction processes with biological components like proteins and cell pores.

  9. Sulphated galactopyran derived from Gracilaria opuntia, a marine macroalgae restores the antioxidant metabolic enzymes during STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Rayapu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the effect of sulphated galactopyran fraction isolated from Gracilaria opuntia (G. opuntia (FM4 in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: In vitro antioxidant assays of FM4 were estimated by DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl free radical and Nitric oxide free radical activities. FM4 was purified and characterized by 1H-NMR spectra and FTIR as sulphated galactopyran. Diabetes was induced intraperitonially by single dose of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight. FM4 was administrated orally (80, 100, 125 mg/kg BW to diabetic rats for 60 days. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, lipid peroxidase (LPx, glutathione reduced (GSH, vitamin-C (VIT-C and vitamin-E (VIT-E levels were estimated. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. Results: Our results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of G. opuntia possess free radical scavenging activity. During FM4 fraction treatment (100 mg/kg BW, the SOD, GPx, CAT, GST, GSH, VIT-C and VIT-E levels were significantly (P < 0.05 increased, and the LPx levels were decreased in different organs such as liver, kidney, brain and pancreas of diabetic rats. Conclusions: The sulphated galactopyran fraction of the marine macroalgae (G. opuntia possesses the antioxidant activity which might help in the prevention of oxidative damage that occurs during diabetes.

  10. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  11. Molecular structures and thermodynamic properties of monohydrated gaseous iodine compounds: Modelling for severe accident simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudolská, Mária; Cantrel, Laurent; Budzák, Šimon; Černušák, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Monohydrated complexes of iodine species (I, I2, HI, and HOI) have been studied by correlated ab initio calculations. The standard enthalpies of formation, Gibbs free energy and the temperature dependence of the heat capacities at constant pressure were calculated. The values obtained have been implemented in ASTEC nuclear accident simulation software to check the thermodynamic stability of hydrated iodine compounds in the reactor coolant system and in the nuclear containment building of a pressurised water reactor during a severe accident. It can be concluded that iodine complexes are thermodynamically unstable by means of positive Gibbs free energies and would be represented by trace level concentrations in severe accident conditions; thus it is well justified to only consider pure iodine species and not hydrated forms.

  12. A second monoclinic polymorph of ethylenediammonium bis(hydrogen squarate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza Zenkhri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C2H10N22+·2HC4O4−·H2O, a new polymorph of ethylenediammonium bis(hydrogen squarate monohydrate, was synthesized by slow evaporation of an acid solution. The asymetric unit contains two hydrogen squarate anions, two half-molecules of protonated ethylenediamine arranged around a twofold axis and one water molecule. In the crystal, N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the hydrogen squarate anions, protonated N atoms from the amine group and water molecules lead to a three-dimensional framework. In particular, the cohesion between the squarate groups is ensured by very short intermolecular hydrogen bonds bonds. The title compound crystallized together with the previously reported polymorph [Mathew et al. (2002. J. Mol. Struct. 641, 263–279].

  13. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 {mu}m existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  14. 1,3-Dicyclohexyl-3-[(pyridin-2-ylcarbonyl]urea monohydrate from synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange M. S. V. Wardell

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The title urea derivative crystallizes as a monohydrate, C19H27N3O2·H2O. The central C3N grouping is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0092 Å, and the amide and pyridine groups are substantially twisted out this plane [dihedral angles = 62.80 (12 and 34.98 (10°, respectively]. Supramolecular double chains propagating along the b-axis direction feature in the crystal packing whereby linear chains sustained by N—H...O hydrogen bonds formed between the amide groups are linked by helical chains of water molecules (linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The H atom that participates in these water chains is disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. The double chains are connected into a two-dimensional array by C—H...O contacts and the layers stack along the a axis.

  15. In vitro and in vivo studies of creatine monohydrate supplementation to Duroc and Landrace pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette F.; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2007-01-01

    Duroc and Landrace pigs as well as primary myotubes from these breeds were used to investigate mechanisms behind differences in their response to creatine monohydrate (CMH). Pigs were supplemented with 0, 12.5, 25 or 50g CMH/d for 5 days (n=10 per treatment and breed). Plasma levels of creatine...... increased dose-dependently in both breeds, while muscle-creatine phosphate content increased only in the Duroc pigs. (1)H NMR metabolic profiling showed a tendency towards clustering according to CMH supplementation only among Duroc pigs, revealing a stronger response compared to Landrace pigs....... The abundance of insulin-like growth factor I and myostatin mRNA was decreased by CMH supplementation while that of type 1 IGF-receptor and creatine transporter was unaffected. Protein synthesis, increased in the myotubes from both breeds, indicating protein accretion, but no effect was observed on the m...

  16. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Miloslav; Virtanen, S.; Simojoki, A.; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Yli-Halla, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 466, January (2014), s. 663-672 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/1570; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) GAJU 138/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : acid sulphate soil * carbon * CARD-FISH * microorganisms * nitrogen * PLFA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2014

  17. Chemical sulphate removal for treatment of construction and demolition debris leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) is a product of construction, renovation or demolition activities. It has a high gypsum content (52.4% of total gypsum), concentrated in the CDD sand (CDDS) fraction. To comply with the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulphate present in building sand, excess sulphate needs to be removed. In order to enable reuse of CDDS, a novel treatment process is developed based on washing of the CDDS to remove most of the gypsum, and subsequent sulphate removal from the sulphate-rich CDDS leachate. This study aims to assess chemical techniques, i.e. precipitation and adsorption, for sulphate removal from the CDDS leachate. Good sulphate removal efficiencies (up to 99.9%) from the CDDS leachate can be achieved by precipitation with barium chloride (BaCl2) and lead(II) nitrate (Pb(NO3)2). Precipitation with calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium oxide (CaO) gave less efficient sulphate removal. Adsorption of sulphate to aluminium oxide (Al2O3) yielded a 50% sulphate removal efficiency, whereas iron oxide-coated sand as adsorbent gave only poor (10%) sulphate removal efficiencies.

  18. The action of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat blood vessels: a comparison with cromakalim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgreen, D. T.; Bray, K. M.; McHarg, A. D.; Weston, A. H.; Duty, S.; Brown, B. S.; Kay, P. B.; Edwards, G.; Longmore, J.; Southerton, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    1. The actions of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate have been compared with those of cromakalim in rat aorta and portal vein. 2. Diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate hyperpolarized the rat portal vein in a similar manner to cromakalim. 3. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K and 86Rb efflux from rat portal vein, although minoxidil sulphate had only a small effect on 86Rb efflux. 4. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K efflux from rat aorta but only cromakalim and diazoxide increased 86Rb efflux from this tissue. 5. Glibenclamide inhibited the relaxant actions of cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat aorta and the increase in 42K efflux produced by these agents in this tissue. 6. Diazoxide relaxed an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta, whilst cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate were without effect. 7. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate had no effect on cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP concentrations in rat aorta. 8. It is concluded that diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate like cromakalim exhibit K+ channel opening properties in vascular smooth muscle. Diazoxide exerts an additional inhibitory action not related to the production of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. The action of minoxidil sulphate may be primarily located at a K+ channel which is relatively impermeable to 86Rb. PMID:2167738

  19. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization...... between 18% and 25% to the prokaryotic rRNA pool. The dominant SRB were related to complete oxidizing genera (Desulphococcus, Desulphosarcina and Desulphobacterium), while Desulpho-bacter could not be detected. The vertical profile and quantity of rRNA from SRB was compared with sulphate reduction rates......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  20. The Influence of Creatine Monohydrate on Strength and Endurance After Doing Physical Exercise With Maximum Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrofi Shicas Nabawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was: (1 to analyze the effect of creatine monohydrate to give strength after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, towards endurance after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, (2 to analyze the effect of non creatine monohydrate to give strength after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, towards endurance after doing physical exercise with maximum intensity, (3 to analyze the results of the difference by administering creatine and non creatine on strength and endurance after exercise with maximum intensity. This type of research used in this research was quantitative with quasi experimental research methods. The design of this study was using pretest and posttest control group design, and data analysis was using a paired sample t-test. The process of data collection was done with the test leg muscle strength using a strength test with back and leg dynamometer, sit ups test with 1 minute sit ups, push ups test with push ups and 30 seconds with a VO2max test cosmed quart CPET during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 series. The results showed: (1 There was the influence of creatine administration against the strength after doing exercise with maximum intensity; (2 There was the influence of creatine administration against the group endurance after doing exercise with maximum intensity; (3 There was the influence of non creatine against the force after exercise maximum intensity; (4 There was the influence of non creatine against the group after endurance exercise maximum intensity; (5 The significant difference with the provision of non creatine and creatine from creatine group difference delta at higher against the increased strength and endurance after exercise maximum intensity. Based on the above analysis, it can be concluded that the increased strength and durability for each of the groups after being given a workout.

  1. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  2. Serum and urinary oestrone sulphate in pregnancy and delivery measured by a direct radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honjo, Hideo; Kitawaki, Jo; Itoh, Masafumi; Yasuda, Jinsuke; Yamamoto, Takara; Yamamoto, Takao; Okada, Hiroji; Ohkubo, Tadashi; Nambara, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    Serum and urinary levels of oestrone sulphate in pregnancy and delivery were measured by a direct radioimmunoassay without hydrolysis. the serum and urinary oestrone sulphate increased as pregnancy progressed. the mean level of serum oestrone sulphate increased to the highest peak of 494 pmol/ml at the 35th gestational week and then decreased. The mean level of urinary oestrone sulphate increased to the highest peak of 1.28 μmol/l at the 34th gestational week and the decreased. At vaginal deliveries, the mean level of maternal peripheral serum oestrone sulphate increased hourly at as high a level as 979 pmol/ml. The mean serum level of oestrone sulphate was 204 pmol/ml in the umbilical artery and 145 pmol/ml in the umbilical vein. At Caesarean section, on the other hand, the maternal peripheral serum level of oestrone sulphate averaged 362 pmol/ml. The mean serum levels of oestrone sulphate wre 90.7 pmol/ml and 171 pmol/ml in the umbilical artery and umbilical vein, respectively. These results suggest a maternal origin of oestrone sulphate in pregnancy, with fluctuations in the levels being of interest in relation to labour pain. (author)

  3. Recovery of uranium from sulphate solutions containing molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, D.R.; Genik-Sas-Berezowsky, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A process for recovering uranium from a sulphate solution containing dissolved uranium and molybdenum includes reacting the solution with ammonia (pH 8 to 10), the pH of the original solution must not exceed 5.5 and after the addition of ammonia the pH must not be in the vicinity of 7 for a significant time. The resultant uranium precipitate is relatively uncontaminated by molybdenum. The precipitate is then separated from the remaining solution while the pH is maintained within the stated range

  4. Effect of radiation on activity of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaev, N.M.; Smorodin, A.E.; Gusejnov, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation on activity of sulphate reducing bacteria has been studied. Concentration of biogenic hydrogen, generated in the medium, is the main criterion, characterizing corrosion activity of the bacteria studied. The developed method of suppression of active development of sulfate reducing bacteria considerably reduces, and at lethal doses of γ-radiation eliminates altogether the bacteria activity and formation of the main corrosion agent-hydrogen sulphide-in the medium and that, in its turn, liquidates hydrogen sulphide corrosion

  5. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh Singh; Poddar, S S

    2009-01-01

    Mucoadhesive patch releasing the drug in the oral cavity at predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms such as tablets, gels and solutions. The present study was concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patches for the controlled systemic delivery of Salbutamol sulphate to avoid first pass hepatic metabolism. The developed patches were evaluated for the physicochemical, mechanical and drug release characteristics. The patches showed desired mechanical and physicochemical properties to withstand environment of oral cavity. The in-vitro release study showed that patches could deliver drug to the oral mucosa for a period of 7 h. the patches exhibited adequate stability when tested under accelerated conditions.

  6. Dielectric dispersion in pure and doped lithium rubidium sulphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, M. E.; El-Muraikhi, M.; Al-Houty, L.; Mohamed, A. A.

    The frequency (102 - 105 Hz) dependence of the dielectric properties of lithium rubidium sulphate (LRS) are reported in the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc = 477 K. The a.c. conductivity σ(ω) shows a strong temperature dependence and weak frequency response. The dielectric constant in this region shows a strong frequency dispersion. A Cole-Cole diagram was used to determine the distribution parameter and the molecular relaxation time. The effect of doping with Dy+3, Sm+3 and V+3, was also studied. It was found that doping gives rise to localized states which produce a disorder in the structure of LiRbSO4.

  7. Interactions between cement grouts and sulphate bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, P.L.; Duerden, S.L.; Atkins, K.M.; Majumdar, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mixtures of Ordinary Portland cement and blastfurnace slag or pulverized fuel ash, exposed to a sulphate-bearing ground water at different temperatures and pressures, were investigated in order to assess the long term durability of cements for encapsulating radioactive waste and backfilling a repository. The effect of the ground water on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the cements is minimal. Calcite and C-S-H are present in all the samples and are durable throughout the test. Dimensional changes in the cements during setting and curing may cause weaknesses in the materials which may increase the effects of a percolating ground water. (author)

  8. Vibrational, DFT, and thermal analysis of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium 3-(prop-2-enoyloxy) propanoate acrylic acid monosolvate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, V.; Govindarajan, M.; Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-12-01

    New organic crystals of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium 3-(prop-2-enoyloxy) propanoate acrylic acid monosolvate monohydrate (MAC) have been obtained from aqueous solution by the slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the compound crystallises in the triclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P-1. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of MAC have been recorded and analyzed. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies and intensity of the vibrational bands are interpreted with the aid of structure optimization based on density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The results of the optimized molecular structure are presented and compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction data. The theoretical results show that the optimized geometry can well reproduce the crystal structure, and the calculated vibrational frequency values show good agreement with experimental values. A study of the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies and Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were performed. Mulliken charges and NBO charges of the title molecule were also calculated and interpreted. Thermogravimetric analysis has been done to study the thermal behaviour of MAC. The 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule are calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results.

  9. The role of hydrogen bonds in the crystals of 2-amino-4-methyl-5-nitropyridinium trifluoroacetate monohydrate and 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate - X-ray and spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndal, I; Marchewka, M; Wandas, M; Sąsiadek, W; Lorenc, J; Lis, T; Dymińska, L; Kucharska, E; Hanuza, J

    2014-04-05

    Two new organic-organic salts, 2-amino-4-methyl-5-nitropyridinium trifluoroacetate monohydrate (AMNP-TFA), and 2-amino-4-methyl-5-nitropyridinium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate (AMNP-HBS), were obtained and characterized by means of FT-IR, FT-Raman and single crystal X-ray crystallography. In the former crystal, the cations, anions and water molecules are linked into layers by three types of hydrogen bonds, NPH⋯O, NAH⋯O and OH⋯O. These layers are connected by weaker CH⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the latter crystal, the cations and anions form one-dimensional structure through a number of hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the OH, NH(+) and NH2 groups as donors. In this case the NPH⋯O and NAH⋯O hydrogen bonds are formed. The combination of interactions between cations and anions results in the formation of columns. Additionally, there are π-π stacking interactions between the columns. The obtained X-ray structural data are related to the vibrational spectra of the studied crystals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gasification of sulphate soap for the lime kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saviharju, Kari (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology); Timonen, Tuomas (Finnish Energy Economy Association, Espoo (Finland). Finnish Recovery Boiler Committee)

    1993-01-01

    Sulphate soap is a by-product of pulp mills utilized as a raw material for the chemical industry. However, this results in an increase in sulphur input of several kilograms SO[sub 2] per ADt pulp into the mill. Another increasingly interesting alternative is to utilize soap in the lime kiln of the mill. This has a positive effect, in addition to sulphur problems, on the energy balance of the mill. The crucial problem is the high Na + K content of soap, from 4 to 8%, which can result in plugging of the lime kiln. The operational problems can be avoided by gasifying the soap and by separating the inorganic materials from the product gas before the kiln. This paper describes research work on the gasification of crude sulphate soap carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) over the years 1991 and 1992. This work will be continued in 1993 by focusing on specified problems, after which commercial applications should be available. (author)

  11. Preparation of Magnetite Nanocrystals from Ferrous Sulphate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho Yu Mon; Tint Tint Kywe; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2010-12-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticle were prepared by hydrothermal process in two ways, which would be used for production of copier toner.In this investigation, the first process was made from ferrous sulphate (FeSO4 . 7H2O) by using 10 M sodium hydroxide solution. In this method, magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by changing aeration time from 1 to 3 hr and heated at 90C for 15 min. The alternative process was carried out from ferrous sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) by using 6.6 M sodium hydroxide solution and sodium silicate solution.Magnetite (black iron oxide) was synthesized by using different aeration times and reaction times. Aeration time was changed from 1 to 2 hr and reaction time was changed from 1 to 5.5 hr at 85 C. The magnetites obtained were examined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique. The average particle size range of magnetite nanoprticles were 90-120 nm and 120-150 nm in each process. The maximum yied percentages of magnetite based on FeSO4 in both processing were found to be 46.30% and 60.72%. The precent yields of magnetite in both preparation based on theoretical yields were 91.02% and 94.83% respectively.

  12. The Sulphate Effect on Lijiaxia Concrete Dam (China Gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufen Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concrete degradation is one of the most serious problems for a dam construct during the normal operation, which determines the dam service life. Hence, it is very important to reduce the extent of the dam concrete degradation for the safety of the dam normal operation. Here, Lijiaxia hydroelectric station is taken as an example, and a comprehensive method to assess the sulphate effect on dam gallery is proposed. Eleven samples in total were taken from three difference locations by the drill bore. The microstructural investigations including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were conducted to assess the sulphate attack and the degradation degree. Meanwhile, the water chemical analysis was applied to reveal the mechanism of concrete degradation. The experimental and analysis results indicate that the concrete degradation degree varies with the location of the samples. The components of the concrete change and the content of SO3 increase dramatically during degradation. Moreover, the mineral facies of the concrete change correspondingly, with the cement paste substituted by the calcite, calcium vitriol, and gypsum. The reinforcement and precaution measures are suggested based on the results of the degradation assessment.

  13. Polyferric sulphate: preparation, characterisation and application in coagulation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, A I; Moussas, P A; Vasilakou, F

    2008-07-15

    The process of coagulation is a core environmental protection technology, which is mainly used in the water or wastewater treatment facilities. Research is now focused on the development of inorganic pre-polymerised coagulants. A characteristic example is PFS (polyferric sulphate), a relatively new pre-polymerised inorganic coagulant with high cationic charge. In this paper, the role of major parameters, including temperature, types of chemical reagents, ratio r=[OH]/[Fe], rate of base addition in the preparation stages of PFS were investigated. Furthermore, the prepared PFS was characterised based on typical properties, such as the percentage of the polymerised iron present in the compound, z-potential, pH, etc. Moreover, dynamics of coagulation process were examined by means of the Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA). Finally, the coagulation efficiency of PFS in treating kaolin suspension and biologically pre-treated wastewater was evaluated in comparison with the respective conventional coagulant agent. The results indicate that certain parameters, such as the r value, the rate of base addition and the duration and temperature of the polymerisation stage, significantly affected the properties of the PFS. Additionally, the prepared PFS polymerised coagulants exhibit a significantly better coagulation performance than the respective non-polymerised one, i.e. ferric sulphate.

  14. Are high rates of sulphate reduction associated with anaerobic oxidation of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devol, A H; Ahmed, S I

    1981-01-01

    Classical models of sulphur diagenesis in marine sediments are based on the assumption that the rate of sulphate reduction is first order with respect to oxidizable particulate organic carbon (POC). This assumption requires that oxidizable POC, sulphate concentration and the sulphate reduction rate be highest at the top of the sulphate reduction zone and decrease exponentially with increasing sediment depth. However, to explain recent observations of concave upwards methane distributions, the anaerobic consumption of methane has been proposed. Furthermore, it has been proposed that this consumption takes place near the bottom of the sulphate reducing zone where sulphate concentrations are low. Thus, if sulphate reducing bacteria are associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane, a peak in sulphate reduction rate might be expected in this deep consumption zone. The importance of the process in sedimentary sulphur diagenesis is indicated by calculations estimating that 30 to 75% of the downward sulphate flux at depth may be consumed by methane oxidation within this zone. We present here profiles of sulphate reduction rate in anoxic sediments that show distinct local maxima at the depth where the anaerobic oxidation of methane would be expected. Our measurements were made during July and August 1978 in Saanich Inlet, an anoxic fjord located on the south-east of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The inlet has a shallow sill (approx 70 m) which restricts circulation of the deeper water (maximum depth 225 m) inside the basin to the extent that for about 8 months of the year the bottom waters contain hydrogen sulphide, the inlet is an ideal location for studying sedimentary sulphate reduction because reactions with oxygen and the effects of burrowing organisms can be neglected.

  15. Correlation analysis between sulphate content and leaching of sulphates in recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbudo, Auxi; Galvín, Adela P; Agrela, Francisco; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, Jose Ramón

    2012-06-01

    In some recycled aggregates applications, such as component of new concrete or roads, the total content of soluble sulphates should be measured and controlled. Restrictions are usually motivated by the resistance or stability of the new structure, and in most cases, structural concerns can be remedied by the use of techniques such as sulphur-resistant cements. However, environmental risk assessment from recycling and reuse construction products is often forgotten. The purpose of this study is to analyse the content of soluble sulphate on eleven recycled aggregates and six samples prepared in laboratory by the addition of different gypsum percentages. As points of reference, two natural aggregates were tested. An analysis of the content of the leachable amount of heavy metals regulated by European regulation was included. As a result, the correlation between solubility and leachability data allow suggest a limiting gypsum amount of 4.4% on recycled aggregates. This limit satisfies EU Landfill Directive criteria, which is currently used as reference by public Spanish Government for recycled aggregates in construction works. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of Pb (II from Aqueous Solutions Using Mixtures of Bamboo Biochar and Calcium Sulphate, and Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption characteristics of Pb(II from aqueous solutions through a low-cost adsorbent mixture comprising of Bamboo biochar (BB and Calcium Sulphate (CS, and a more expensive mixture of Hydroxyapatite (HAP and Calcium Sulphate (CS, were investigated. The effects of equilibrium contact time, and adsorbate concentration conducted in batch experiments were studied. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 40 (min. The adsorption mechanism of Pb(II from these two adsorbent mixtures was carried out through a kinetic rate order. A pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied for the adsorption processes. The model yielded good correlation (R2 >0.999 of the experimental data. Adsorption of Pb(II using (BB&CS and (HAP&CS correlated well (R2 >0.99 with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations under the concentration range studied. Hence, the effectiveness of an inexpensive natural material (BB&CS mixture in Pb(II removal is established, and is promising for use in other heavy metal adsorptions.

  17. Phase Behavior and Rheology of Fatty Alcohol Sulphate, Fatty Alcohol Ether Sulphate from Palm based and Mixtures with other Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.K.; Nur Syazani Harun; Mohd Suzeren Mohd Jamil; Rahimi Mohd Yusop

    2013-01-01

    The phase diagrams of fatty alcohol sulphate (FAS)/ fatty alcohol ether sulphate (FAES)/ soap (4.5:4.5:1.0)/ propylene glycol/ water mixtures were established at 60 degree Celsius. The birefringence was observed under cross polarizers and their phases changes examined under a polarized microscope. The results showed that the liquid crystalline region for FAS and FAES occurred only in a small region. The optical patterns of lamellar liquid crystal were identified as oily streaks structure. The rheological tests of lamellar liquid crystal were carried out in the region of 4.5/ 4.5/ 1 FAES/ FAS/ soap with 0 % PG and 10 % of water. The rheological tests used were flow curve, 3 interval thixotropy test (3ITT), oscillation (dynamic test) stress sweep test and frequency sweep test measurement done using a cone-plate sensor (25 mm, 1 degree). The flow curve was fitted to a Casson model to obtain values for the consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index. The lamellar liquid crystal show typical flow behavior and stress influenced the recovery of the structure. Linear visco-elastic (LVE) range analysis show the critical stress value at 0.475%, and elastic modulus was dominant over an angular frequency range studied. (author)

  18. Modelling the competition between sulphate reducers and methanogens in a thermophilic methanol-fed bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Weijma, J.; Abusam, A.

    2002-01-01

    Sulphate can be removed from wastewater by means of biological anaerobic reduction to sulphide. The reduction requires the presence of a substrate that can serve as an electron donor. Methanol a suitable electron donor for sulphate reduction under thermophilic conditions. In an anaerobic system

  19. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Lex W.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Middleton, Philippa; Marret, Stephane; Rouse, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and basic science evidence suggests that magnesium sulphate before birth may be neuroprotective for the fetus. Objectives To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate as a neuroprotective agent when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth. Search strategy We

  20. Treatment of acid and sulphate-rich effluents in an integrated biological/chemical process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available .4 g SO4/(l.d). The rate of biological sulphate removal was found to be directly related to the square root of sulphate, COD and VSS concentrations respectively, and inversely proportional to sulphide concentration. The practical value of simultaneous...

  1. Volcanic lake systems as terrestrial analogue for sulphate-rich terrains on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, A.

    2016-01-01

    Remote-sensing observations and rover missions have documented the abundant presence of sulphate-rich mineral associations on the surface of Mars. Together with widespread occurrences of silica and frequent enrichments of chlorine and bromine in soils and rocks, the sulphate associations are

  2. Performance of cement solidification with barium for high activity liquid waste including sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, Toshikazu; Yamada, Motoyuki; Horikawa, Yoshihiko; Kaneko, Masaaki; Saso, Michitaka; Haruguchi, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Yu; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    The target liquid waste to be solidified is generated from PWR primary loop spent resin treatment with sulphate acid, so, its main constituent is sodium sulphate and the activity of this liquid is relatively high. Waste form of this liquid waste is considered to be a candidate for the subsurface disposal. The disposed waste including sulphate is anticipated to rise a concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water around the disposal facility and it may cause degradation of materials such as cement and bentonite layer and comprise the disposal facility. There could be two approaches to avoid this problem, the strong design of the disposal facility and the minimization of sulphaste ion migration from the solidified waste. In this study, the latter approach was examined. In order to keep the low concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water, it is effective to make barium sulphate by adding barium compound into the liquid waste in solidification. However, adding equivalent amount of barium compound with sulphate ion causes difficulty of mixing, because production of barium sulphate causes high viscosity. In this study, mixing condition after and before adding cement into the liquid waste was estimated. The mixing condition was set with consideration to keep anion concentration low in the ground water and of mixing easily enough in practical operation. Long term leaching behavior of the simulated solidified waste was also analyzed by PHREEQC. And the concentration of the constitution affected to the disposal facility was estimated be low enough in the ground water. (author)

  3. Complete sulphate removal from neutralised acidic mine drainage with barium carbonate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available -barium-calcium) Desalination process which uses barium salts to further reduce the sulphate concentration to acceptable levels with the added advantage that sulphate removal can be controlled due to the low solubility of BaSO4. This paper reports on the results...

  4. Studies on calcium, magnesium and sulphate in the Mandovi and Zuari river system (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Naik, S.

    -conservative parameters. Sulphate, however behaves in a purely conservative manner and remains in a steady state in the rivers. A'Simple mixture'relationship is applied to calculate the dilution and mixing processes in the rivers using calcium, magnesium and sulphate...

  5. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique, E-mail: torres@udc.es; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulphate effect on cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff. • Cadmium increases the sulphur requirements in Chlamydomonas moewusii. • Kinetic coefficients for sulphate utilization and cadmium effect on them. • Sulphate and cadmium influence on the biosynthesis of low-molecular mass thiols. • Cadmium toxicity reduction by sulphate due to higher biosynthesis of thiols. - Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu–Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC{sub 50} value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 m

  6. Selectivity of a heterogeneous rhodium catalyst for the carbonylation of monohydric alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, B; Scurrell, M S

    1977-01-01

    Selectivity of a heterogeneous rhodium catalyst for the carbonylation of monohydric alcohols with carbon monoxide in the presence of the corresponding alkyl iodides as promotors was studied in a glass reactor at approx. 0.05:1 alcohol/carbon monoxide ratio. The 1% by wt rhodium-zeolite catalyst was prepared by immersing a Linde molecular sieve zeolite Type 13X in rhodium trichloride at 80/sup 0/C for 15 hr. Methanol was converted to methyl acetate at 433/sup 0/-513/sup 0/K with selectivites > 90% even at the highest temperatures, and dimethyl ether was by-produced. In the absence of methyl iodide, the carbonylation rate decreased drastically but the dehydration was virtually unaffected. The selectivity for ethanol carbonylation decreased from 99% at 383/sup 0/K to 6% at 523/sup 0/K due to the formation of ethylene (predominant at > 470/sup 0/K) and diethyl ether. The only product of the reaction with propan-2-ol studied at 433/sup 0/ or 473/sup 0/K was propene with 100% conversion at 473/sup 0/K. These results are consistent with the relative ease of reactant dehydration on polar catalysts. Table and 13 references.

  7. 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmin E. González-Padilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title molecular salt, C13H11N2O+·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes as a monohydrate. In the cation, the phenol and benzimidazole rings are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 3.18 (4°. The chloride anion and benzimidazole cation are linked by two N+—H...Cl− hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [010]. These chains are linked through O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds involving the water molecule and the chloride anion, which form a diamond core, giving rise to the formation of two-dimensional networks lying parallel to (10-2. Two π–π interactions involving the imidazolium ring with the benzene and phenol rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.859 (3 and 3.602 (3 Å, respectively], contribute to this second dimension. A strong O—H...O hydrogen bond involving the water molecule and the phenol substituent on the benzimidazole unit links the networks, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  8. Absolute Oral Bioavailability of Creatine Monohydrate in Rats: Debunking a Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraddadi, Eman A; Lillico, Ryan; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L; Lakowski, Ted M; Miller, Donald W

    2018-03-08

    Creatine is an ergogenic compound used by athletes to enhance performance. Supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CM) has been suggested for musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. Until now, little is known about its pharmacokinetic profile. Our objective was to determine the oral bioavailability of CM and the influence of dose on oral absorption. Rats were dosed orally with low dose (10 mg/kg) or high dose (70 mg/kg) 13 C-labeled CM. Blood samples were removed at various time points. Muscle and brain tissue were collected at the conclusion of the study. Plasma and tissue levels of 13 C-labeled creatine were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of CM were built using GastroPlus™. These models were used to predict the plasma concentration-time profiles of creatine hydrochloride (CHCL), which has improved aqueous solubility compared to CM. Absolute oral bioavailability for low dose CM was 53% while high dose CM was only 16%. The simulated C max of 70 mg/kg CHCL was around 35 μg/mL compared to 14 μg/mL for CM with a predicted oral bioavailability of 66% with CHCL compared to 17% with CM. Our results suggest that the oral bioavailability of CM is less than complete and subject to dose and that further examination of improved dosage formulations of creatine is warranted.

  9. High-temperature dehydration behavior and ionic conduction of 2,5-dimethylanilinium chloride monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidara, Sameh, E-mail: sameh_guidara@yahoo.fr; Feki, Habib; Abid, Younes

    2016-07-05

    The 2,5-dimethylanilinium chloride monohydrate compound is obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature. This material is characterized by DSC, X-Ray powder diffraction, Raman and impedance spectroscopy technique measured in the 2.10{sup 2}–5.10{sup 6} Hz frequency and 292–422 K temperature ranges. The calorimetric study has revealed three endothermic peaks at 355 K, 392 K and 403 K which defines four successive phases denoted I, II, III and IV. The first peak corresponds to water escape from the crystal. After heating above 355 K, the compound dehydrates and the crystal space group changes from non-centrosymmetric to centrosymmetric symmetry. The activation energy responsible for dielectric relaxation extracted from the modulus spectra is found to be almost the same as the value obtained from temperature variation of dc conductivity for phases I and IV. These results indicate that the transport is through ion hopping mechanism. The influence of the dehydration process on the compound conductivity was also discussed. - Highlights: • The calorimetric study of 2,5-DACM has revealed three endothermic peaks. • The dielectrical properties were studied using the impedance measurements. • The X ray powder diffraction has been performed. • The mobility of the charge carriers was reported and discussed.

  10. Interactions between tenocytes and monosodium urate monohydrate crystals: implications for tendon involvement in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhana, Ashika; Callon, Karen E; Dray, Michael; Pool, Bregina; Naot, Dorit; Gamble, Greg D; Coleman, Brendan; McCarthy, Geraldine; McQueen, Fiona M; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    Advanced imaging studies have demonstrated that urate deposition in periarticular structures, such as tendons, is common in gout. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on tenocyte viability and function. The histological appearance of tendons in joints affected by advanced gout was examined using light microscopy. In vitro, colorimetric assays and flow cytometry were used to assess cell viability in primary rat and primary human tenocytes cultured with MSU crystals. Real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the relative mRNA expression levels of tendon-related genes, and Sirius red staining was used to measure changes in collagen deposition in primary rat tenocytes. In joint samples from patients with gout, MSU crystals were identified within the tendon, adjacent to and invading into tendon, and at the enthesis. MSU crystals reduced tenocyte viability in a dose-dependent manner. MSU crystals decreased the mRNA expression of tendon collagens, matrix proteins and degradative enzymes and reduced collagen protein deposition by tenocytes. These data indicate that MSU crystals directly interact with tenocytes to reduce cell viability and function. These interactions may contribute to tendon damage in people with advanced gout. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra and DFT calculations of melaminium perchlorate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Renganathan, N. G.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-08-01

    Melaminium perchlorate monohydrate (MPM), an organic material has been synthesized by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that MPM crystal belongs to triclinic system with space group P-1. FTIR and FT Raman spectra are recorded at room temperature. Functional group assignment has been made for the melaminium cations and perchlorate anions. Vibrational spectra have also been discussed on the basis of quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Firefly (PC GAMESS) version 7.1 G. Vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with experimental values. The assignment of the bands has been made on the basis of the calculated PED. The Mulliken charges, HOMO-LUMO orbital energies are analyzed directly from Firefly program log files and graphically illustrated. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The theoretically constructed FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of MPM coincide with the experimental one. The chemical structure of the compound has been established by 1H and 13C NMR spectra. No detectable signal was observed during powder test for second harmonic generation.

  12. Crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate at dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Deng, Sui-Ping; Zhong, Jiu-Ping; Tieke, Bernd; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2004-10-01

    The growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals beneath dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A (C4S) was systematically examined under different surface pressure. The results indicated that the addition of C4S can inhibit the crystal growth and prevent the aggregation of COM crystals. Under a DPPC monolayer, well-defined three-dimensional hexagonal prisms and three-dimensional rhombus prisms with sharply angled tips were obtained. The DPPC monolayer at a surface pressure of 10 mN/m can match the Ca2+ distance of the (1 bar 0 1) face of COM better than at 20 mN/m. The addition of C4S could cooperatively modulate the interaction strength between the monolayer (or itself) with the specific morphology determining faces such as (1 bar 0 1) and (0 2 0), and thus results in remarkable stabilization of the (1 bar 0 1) faces. The dramatic changes in morphological details were due to the strong electrostatic interactions between the Ca2+-rich (1 bar 0 1) crystal faces of COM and the polyanionic polysaccharide C4S together with the negatively charged sites of the zwitterionic DPPC monolayers. The increase of the concentration of C4S can further enhance the stabilization of the (1 bar 0 1) face.

  13. Sulphation reactions of oxidic dust particles in waste heat boiler environment. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranki, T.

    1999-09-01

    Sulphation of metal oxides has an important role in many industrial processes. In different applications sulphation reactions have different aims and characteristics. In the flash smelting process sulphation of oxidic flue dust is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomena, which takes place in the waste heat boiler (WHB) when cooling down hot dust laden off-gases from sulphide smelters. Oxidic dust particles (size 0 - 50 {mu}m) react with O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} in a certain temperature range (500 - 800 deg C). Sulphation reactions are highly exothermic releasing large amount of heat, which affects the gas cooling and thermal performance of the boiler. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the system have to be known to improve the process and WHB operation. The rate of sulphation is affected by the prevailing conditions (temperature, gas composition) and particle size and microstructure (porosity, surface area). Some metal oxides (CuO) can react readily with SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and act as self-catalysts, but others (NiO) require the presence of an external catalyst to enhance the SO{sub 3} formation and sulphation to proceed. Some oxides (NiO) sulphate directly, some (CuO) may form first intermediate phases (basic sulphates) depending on the reaction conditions. Thus, the reaction mechanisms are very complex. The aim of this report was to search information about the factors affecting the dust sulphation reactions and suggested reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Many investigators have studied sulphation thermodynamics and reaction kinetics and mechanisms of macroscopical metal oxide pieces, but only few articles have been published about sulphation of microscopical particles, like dust. All the found microscale studies dealt with sulphation reactions of calcium oxide, which is not present in the flash smelting process, but used as an SO{sub 2} absorbent in the combustion processes. However, also these investigations may give some hints about the sulphation

  14. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Santos Costa de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina, and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS. It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.

  15. Identification of nitrates and sulphates with dynamic SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, M.; Goschnick, J.; Ache, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sputter conditions are outlined for the identification of chemically sensitive salt compounds, such as nitrates or sulphates, in multicomponent samples of environmental origin using dynamic SIMS for depth-profiling with nanoscale resolution. Sputtering with 1 keV Xe + has been found to be appropriate to enable both the emission of decisive molecular ions with enough intensity as well as substantial erosion for depth-profiling. The use of heavy projectiles reduces the destruction of chemical compounds in the surface of the solid and enhances sensitivity and identification power of SIMS. The method was applied to the analysis of urban outdoor aerosol particles to investigate the conversion of NaCl into Na 2 SO 4 or NaNO 3 by the interaction of sea salt aerosol with the atmospheric pollutants NO x and SO x . Only NaNO 3 was found in the sea salt fraction. (orig.)

  16. Bronchography in dogs. Comparative study with two barium sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibaut, J.; Gallardo, P.; Vargas, L.; Deppe, R.; Born, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two solutions of barium sulphate, 60 and 30% w/v, were compared with the ''overflow'' Bronchographic method. Two groups of eight healthy adult does of both sexes, weighing 7 to 18 kg were used for the study. The dogs were anaesthetised with thiopentone sodium 2% (20 mg/kg iv). After intubation, each dog received contrast medium by a catheter connected to a syringe, in a 9 mi dose. Two series of two x-rays plates were taken in left lateral recumbent, 3 and 6 min after administering the contrast medium and in ventrodorsal projection, 30 sec. later. The x-ray plates obtained were analysed and compared intra and inter group considering the advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outlines. Adverse reactions were controlled

  17. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šimek, Miloslav, E-mail: misim@upb.cas.cz [Biology Centre AS CR, v. v. i., Institute of Soil Biology, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko [Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav [Biology Centre AS CR, v. v. i., Institute of Soil Biology, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Yli-Halla, Markku [Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils along the Baltic coasts contain significant amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen in their subsoils. The abundance, composition, and activity of microbial communities throughout the AS soil profile were analysed. The data from a drained AS soil were compared with those from a drained non-AS soil and a pristine wetland soil from the same region. Moreover, the potential production of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from the soils was determined under laboratory conditions. Direct microscopic counting, glucose-induced respiration (GIR), whole cell hybridisation, and extended phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis confirmed the presence of abundant microbial communities in the topsoil and also in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil. The patterns of microbial counts, biomass and activity in the profile of the AS soil and partly also in the non-AS soil therefore differed from the general tendency of gradual decreases in soil profiles. High respiration in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil (5.66 μg C g{sup − 1} h{sup − 1}, as compared to 2.71 μg C g{sup − 1} h{sup − 1} in a top Ap horizon) is unusual but reasonable given the large amount of organic carbon in this horizon. Nitrous oxide production peaked in the BCgc horizon of the AS and in the BC horizon of the non-AS soil, but the peak value was ten-fold higher in the AS soil than in the non-AS soil (82.3 vs. 8.6 ng N g{sup − 1}d{sup − 1}). The data suggest that boreal AS soils on the Baltic coast contain high microbial abundance and activity. This, together with the abundant carbon and total and mineral nitrogen in the deep layers of AS soils, may result in substantial gas production. Consequently, high GHG emissions could occur, for example, when the generally high water table is lowered because of arable farming. - Highlights: •Boreal acid sulphate soils contain large amounts of organic C and N in subsoils. •Microbial communities throughout the acid

  18. Preparation of Microcrystals of Piroxicam Monohydrate by Antisolvent Precipitation via Microfabricated Metallic Membranes with Ordered Pore Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rahimah; Vladisavljević, Goran T; Simone, Elena; Nagy, Zoltan K; Holdich, Richard G

    2017-12-06

    Microcrystals of piroxicam (PRX) monohydrate with a narrow size distribution were prepared from acetone/PRX solutions by antisolvent crystallization via metallic membranes with ordered pore arrays. Crystallization was achieved by controlled addition of the feed solution through the membrane pores into a well-stirred antisolvent. A complete transformation of an anhydrous form I into a monohydrate form of PRX was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The size of the crystals was 7-34 μm and was controlled by the PRX concentration in the feed solution (15-25 g L -1 ), antisolvent/solvent volume ratio (5-30), and type of antisolvent (Milli-Q water or 0.1-0.5 wt % aqueous solutions of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), poly(vinyl alcohol) or Pluronic P-123). The smallest crystals were obtained by injecting 25 g L -1 PRX solution through a stainless-steel membrane with a pore size of 10 μm into a 0.06 wt % HPMC solution stirred at 1500 rpm using an antisolvent/solvent ratio of 20. HPMC provided better steric stabilization of microcrystals against agglomeration than poly(vinyl alcohol) and Pluronic P-123, due to hydrogen bonding interactions with PRX and water. A continuous production of large PRX monohydrate microcrystals with a volume-weighted mean diameter above 75 μm was achieved in a continuous stirred membrane crystallizer. Rapid pouring of Milli-Q water into the feed solution resulted in a mixture of highly polydispersed prism-shaped and needle-shaped crystals.

  19. Comparison of the crystal structures of the potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic agent regorafenib and its monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng Ying; Wu, Su Xiang; Zhou, Xin Bo; Gu, Jian Ming; Hu, Xiu Rong

    2016-04-01

    Regorafenib {systematic name: 4-[4-({[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethy)phenyl]carbamoyl}amino)-3-fluorophenoxy]-1-methylpyridine-2-carboxamide}, C21H15ClF4N4O3, is a potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic agent that possesses various activities on the VEGFR, PDGFR, raf and/or flt-3 kinase signaling molecules. The compound has been crystallized as polymorphic form I and as the monohydrate, C21H15ClF4N4O3·H2O. The regorafenib molecule consists of biarylurea and pyridine-2-carboxamide units linked by an ether group. A comparison of both forms shows that they differ in the relative orientation of the biarylurea and pyridine-2-carboxamide units, due to different rotations around the ether group, as measured by the C-O-C bond angles [119.5 (3)° in regorafenib and 116.10 (15)° in the monohydrate]. Meanwhile, the conformational differences are reflected in different hydrogen-bond networks. Polymorphic form I contains two intermolecular N-H...O hydrogen bonds, which link the regorafenib molecules into an infinite molecular chain along the b axis. In the monohydrate, the presence of the solvent water molecule results in more abundant hydrogen bonds. The water molecules act as donors and acceptors, forming N-H...O and O-H...O hydrogen-bond interactions. Thus, R4(2)(28) ring motifs are formed, which are fused to form continuous spiral ring motifs along the a axis. The (trifluoromethyl)phenyl rings protrude on the outside of these motifs and interdigitate with those of adjacent ring motifs, thereby forming columns populated by halogen atoms.

  20. Oxygen isotopic composition of sulphates from some mineral waters and mine waters in western Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smejkal, V.

    1979-01-01

    Two main genetic types of sulphate can be distinguished according to the delta 18 O(SO 4 2- ) measurements in sulphate-rich mineral and mine waters of western Bohemia - sulphates in descending mine waters and in weathered outcrops of graphitic pyrite slates from areas outside Tertiary basins, which originated in recent time by the oxidation of sulphides in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, have delta 18 O values from -2.1 to -6.1 per mille SMOW; and sulphates from springs of mineral waters of the renowned spas of Karlovy Vary, Frantiskovy Lazne and Marianske Lazne show distinctly heavier delta 18 O values - from +4.0 to +6.4 per mille, with maximum of values between +5.0 and +6.0 per mille. Similar delta 18 O values have been established in thenardites and in gypsum in Miocene claystones and in sulphates of some mine waters in the nearby Tertiary Cheb and Sokolov Basins. The presented results indicate that sulphates in mineral waters of the Karlovy Vary type originate mainly by leaching of Miocene sulphates and not by present-day oxidation of sulphidic sulphur. (author)

  1. Development of a glass matrix for vitrification of sulphate bearing high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Mishra, R.K.; Thorat, Vidya; Ramchandran, M.; Amar Kumar; Ozarde, P.D.; Raj, Kanwar; Das, D.

    2004-07-01

    High level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In the earlier reprocessing flow sheet ferrous sulphamate has been used for valancy adjustment of Pu from IV to III for effective separation. This has resulted in generation of HLW containing significance amount of sulphate. Internationally borosilicate glass matrix has been adopted for vitrification of HLW. The first Indian vitrification facility at Waste Immobilislition Plant (WIP), Tarapur a five component borosilicate matrix (SiO 2 :B 2 O 3 :Na 2 O : MnO : TiO 2 ) has been used for vitrification of waste. However at Trombay HLW contain significant amount of sulphate which is not compatible with standard borosilicate formulation. Extensive R and D efforts were made to develop a glass formulation which can accommodate sulphate and other constituents of HLW e.g., U, Al, Ca, etc. This report deals with development work of a glass formulations for immobilization of sulphate bearing waste. Different glass formulations were studied to evaluate the compatibility with respect to sulphate and other constituents as mentioned above. This includes sodium, lead and barium borosilicate glass matrices. Problems encountered in different glass matrices for containment of sulphate have also been addressed. A glass formulation based on barium borosilicate was found to be effective and compatible for sulphate bearing high level waste. (author)

  2. Kidney stone matrix proteins ameliorate calcium oxalate monohydrate induced apoptotic injury to renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Shifa; Tandon, Simran; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2016-11-01

    Kidney stone formation is a highly prevalent disease, affecting 8-10% of the human population worldwide. Proteins are the major constituents of human kidney stone's organic matrix and considered to play critical role in the pathogenesis of disease but their mechanism of modulation still needs to be explicated. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effect of human kidney stone matrix proteins on the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) mediated cellular injury. The renal epithelial cells (MDCK) were exposed to 200μg/ml COM crystals to induce injury. The effect of proteins isolated from human kidney stone was studied on COM injured cells. The alterations in cell-crystal interactions were examined by phase contrast, polarizing, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, its effect on the extent of COM induced cell injury, was quantified by flow cytometric analysis. Our study indicated the antilithiatic potential of human kidney stone proteins on COM injured MDCK cells. Flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence imaging ascertained that matrix proteins decreased the extent of apoptotic injury caused by COM crystals on MDCK cells. Moreover, the electron microscopic studies of MDCK cells revealed that matrix proteins caused significant dissolution of COM crystals, indicating cytoprotection against the impact of calcium oxalate injury. The present study gives insights into the mechanism implied by urinary proteins to restrain the pathogenesis of kidney stone disease. This will provide a better understanding of the formation of kidney stones which can be useful for the proper management of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. fruit extract against calcium oxalate monohydrate induced proximal tubular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraft-Bahloul, Nassima; Husson, Cécile; Ourtioualous, Meriam; Sinaeve, Sébastien; Atmani, Djebbar; Stévigny, Caroline; Nortier, Joëlle L; Antoine, Marie-Hélène

    2017-09-14

    The world prevalence of kidney stones is increasing and plants are frequently used to treat urolithiasis. Pistacia lentiscus L, a plant which freely grows around the Mediterranean basin areas, is widely used for various pathologies. P. lentiscus has an important impact as it has economical value on top of its pharmacological interest. Decoctions of its aerial parts and/or resin are used to treat kidney stones. To in vitro assess the potential nephroprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus ethanolic fruit extract (PLEF) on proximal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Human Kidney [HK]-2 cells were incubated with and without COM in the presence or absence of PLEF. Cell viability was measured by the resazurin assay. The expression of E-cadherin was analyzed by PCR. The extracellular production of H 2 O 2 was measured by Amplex® Red H 2 O 2 Assay. The numbers of detached or non-adherent COM crystals in the presence of PLEF were microscopically captured and counted using ImageJ software. The interaction of PLEF with COM and the effect of PLEF on crystal size were analyzed by flow cytometry. The spectrophotometric measurement of turbidity was performed for assessing the COM concentration. PLEF incubated with COM was able to increase the cell viability. The decrease of E-cadherin expression after incubation with COM was counteracted by PLEF. Overproduction of H 2 O 2 induced by COM was also inhibited by PLEF. Observations using flow cytometry showed that interactions between PLEF and the COM crystals occurred. PLEF was also effective in reducing the particles size and in lowering COM concentration. Our data show that COM tubulotoxicity can be significantly reversed by PLEF -at least in part- via an inhibition of COM crystals adhesion onto the apical membrane. This early beneficial effect of PLEF needs to be further investigated as a useful strategy in nephrolithiasis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  4. Mimicking the biomolecular control of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth: effect of contiguous glutamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohe, Bernd; Hug, Susanna; Langdon, Aaron; Jalkanen, Jari; Rogers, Kem A; Goldberg, Harvey A; Karttunen, Mikko; Hunter, Graeme K

    2012-08-21

    Scanning confocal interference microscopy (SCIM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the adsorption of the synthetic polypeptide poly(l-glutamic acid) (poly-glu) to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals and its effect on COM formation. At low concentrations (1 μg/mL), poly-glu inhibits growth most effectively in ⟨001⟩ directions, indicating strong interactions of the polypeptide with {121} crystal faces. Growth in directions was inhibited only marginally by 1 μg/mL poly-glu, while growth in directions did not appear to be affected. This suggests that, at low concentrations, poly-glu inhibits lattice-ion addition to the faces of COM in the order {121} > {010} ≥ {100}. At high concentrations (6 μg/mL), poly-glu resulted in the formation of dumbbell-shaped crystals featuring concave troughs on the {100} faces. The effects on crystal growth indicate that, at high concentrations, poly-glu interacts with the faces of COM in the order {100} > {121} > {010}. This mirrors MD simulations, which predicted that poly-glu will adsorb to a {100} terrace plane (most calcium-rich) in preference to a {121} (oblique) riser plane but will adsorb to {121} riser plane in preference to an {010} terrace plane (least calcium-rich). The effects of different poly-glu concentration on COM growth (1-6 μg/mL) may be due to variations between the faces in terms of growth mechanism and/or (nano)roughness, which can affect surface energy. In addition, 1 μg/mL might not be adequate to reach the critical concentration for poly-glu to significantly pin step movement on {100} and {010} faces. Understanding the mechanisms involved in these processes is essential for the development of agents to reduce recurrence of kidney stone disease.

  5. Automatic colorimetric determination of low concentrations of sulphate for measuring sulphur dioxide in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, G A

    1966-01-01

    An automatic colorimetric method for the determination of low concentrations of sulphate (0-10 microgram/ml) using the thoron indicator is described. Total amounts of sulphate as small as 0.3 micrograms can be determined. The sulphate is precipitated with barium perchlorate and the excess of barium is indicated with 1-(o-arsenophenylazo)-2-naphthol-3-6-disulfonic acid(thoron). The procedure is worked out primarily for the determination of sulphur dioxide in air after absorption in diluted hydrogen peroxide.

  6. Tyrosine sulphation is not required for microvillar expression of intestinal aminopeptidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1988-01-01

    incorporation of [35S]sulphate into aminopeptidase N and other major microvillar hydrolases by 70-85% compared with controls, indicating an inhibition of their post-translational tyrosine sulphation. In labelling experiments with [35S]methionine from 0.5 to 5 h, DCNP was tested for its possible influence...... on synthesis, processing and microvillar expression of aminopeptidase N, but no effect on any of these parameters could be detected. It can therefore be concluded that tyrosine sulphation is not required (for instance as a sorting signal) for the targeting of newly synthesized enzymes to the microvillar...

  7. Detecting the global and regional effects of sulphate aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Highwood, Ellie

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming is unequivocal. In addition to carbon dioxide emission mitigation, some geoengineering ideas have been proposed to reduce future surface temperature rise. One of these proposals involves injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere to increase the planet's albedo. Monitoring the effectiveness of sulphate aerosol injection (SAI) would require us to be able to distinguish and detect its cooling effect from the climate system's internal variability and other externally forced temperature changes. This research uses optimal fingerprinting techniques together with simulations from the GeoMIP data base to estimate the number of years of observations that would be needed to detect SAI's cooling signal in near-surface air temperature, should 5 Tg of sulphur dioxide be injected into the stratosphere per year on top of RCP4.5 from 2020-2070. The first part of the research compares the application of two detection methods that have different null hypotheses to SAI detection in global mean near-surface temperature. The first method assumes climate noise to be dominated by unforced climate variability and attempts to detect the SAI cooling signal and greenhouse gas driven warming signal in the "observations" simultaneously against this noise. The second method considers greenhouse gas driven warming to be a non-stationary background climate and attempts to detect the net cooling effect of SAI against this background. Results from this part of the research show that the conventional multi-variate detection method that has been extensively used to attribute climate warming to anthropogenic sources could also be applied for geoengineering detection. The second part of the research investigates detection of geoengineering effects on the regional scale. The globe is divided into various sub-continental scale regions and the cooling effect of SAI is looked for in the temperature time series in each of these regions using total least squares multi

  8. The investigation of deactivation the tailings from sulphate uranium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, V.I.; Knjazev, O.I.; Ruzin, L.I.; Smolnya, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of investigation is to decrease contamination of the environment from wastes, produced on treatment of uranium ores by traditional sulphate uranium technology. In the result of treatment the sulphate uranium leaching cakes by 1-3 M chloride or nitrate of alkali-earth metals solutions, the content of radium decrease till (2.4 - 3.0) x 10 -8 Ci/kg. Produced deactivating solutions in which the content of radium-226 and other natural radionuclides exceeds of ten times the limit of tolerance safe concentrations for water (5.4 x 10 -11 Ci/l Ra-226) further may be treated by sorption or extraction. Due to the reason we pay our attention to the class of non-traditional ion-exchangers, which is the micellar wastes from production of antibiotics (MPW). The problems of it's utilization is very acute. MPW from antibiotics generates everyday is amount of tens tones (on dried mass), contents till 80% of moisture and include in solid phase 50 - 95 % organics in the work we used MPW from erythromycin in form of dried powder with size of particles to 0.05 - 0.16 mm. The possibility of radionuclides extraction by mixture of D2EHPA with TBP or TOPO for nitric deactivated solutions are investigated. It was received the complete extraction Th-230 into organic phase and next concentration with high content of isotope Th-230. Ra-D and Po are not recovered by the extractant. Using the extractant preliminary saturated with barium permit to extract completely Ra from solution. The method purification of technological solutions from activity with using solid extractants - TVEKS was developed. The TVEKS samples on styren-divinylbenzen copolymer base with size 1.0 - 1.5 mm were synthesized. The solid carrier was impregnated by D2EHPA or PN-1200 extractant solution in kerosene and used for extraction of radioactive elements (mainly Ra) from chloride acid solutions with summary activity 8.7 x 10 -10 Ci/l. TVEKS was activated by barium to capacity 1-3 mg/l for increasing purification

  9. Sulphate-reducing bacteria associated with biocorrosion: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania C. de Araujo-Jorge

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion means any process of corrosion in wich microorganisms are somehow involved. As far as the petroleum industry is concerned, the anaerobic type is the more important, with Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB accouting for half of the described processes. SRB are obligate anaerobs that use sulphur, sulphate or other oxidized sulphur compounds as oxidizing agents when decomposing organic material. A typical product of SRB metabolism, hydrogen sulphide -H2S-, is extremely toxic. In the present work we review the literature on mechanisms underlying biocorrosive process in wich SRB are involved and summarize some of the ultrastructural and eletrochemical work developed using SRB obtained from water injection flow in wells located on PETROBRAS offshore marine plataforms, sampled directly in the field over metallic probes, or cultured under laboratory conditions. Biofilms develop when SRB adhere to inert surfaces. A high diversity of morphological types is found inside these biofilms. Their extracellular matrix is highly hydrated and mainly anionic, as shown by its avid reaction with cationic compounds like ruthenium red. We have noted that variations in iron contet lead to interesting changes in the ultrastructure of the bacterial cell coat and also in the rate of corrosion induced in metallic test cupons. Since routine methods to prevent and treat SRB contamination and biodeterioration involve the use of biocides that are toxic and always have some environmental impact, an accurate diagnosis of biocorrosion is always required prior to a treatment decision. We developed a method that detects and semi-quantifies the presence of living or dead SRB by using free silver potentials as an indicator of corrosive action by SRB-associated sulphides. We found a correlation between sulphide levels (determined either by spectrophotometry, or using a silver electrode -E(Ag- that measured changes in free potentials induced by the presence of exogeneously

  10. A study of a novel coprocessed dry binder composed of α-lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose and corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mužíková, Jitka; Srbová, Alena; Svačinová, Petra

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with a study of the novel coprocessed dry binder Combilac®, which contains 70% of α-lactose monohydrate, 20% of microcrystalline cellulose and 10% of native corn starch. These tests include flow properties, compressibility, lubricant sensitivity, tensile strength and disintegration time of tablets. Compressibility is evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression process, test of stress relaxation and tablet strength. The above-mentioned parameters are also evaluated in the physical mixture of α-lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose and native corn starch and compared with Combilac. Combilac shows much better flowability than the physical mixture of the used dry binders. Its compressibility is better, tablets possess a higher tensile strength. Neither Combilac, nor the physical mixture can be compressed without lubricants due to high friction and sticking to the matrix. Combilac has a higher lubricant sensitivity than the physical mixture of the dry binders. Disintegration time of Combilac tablets is comparable with the disintegration time of tablets made from the physical mixture.

  11. Solution properties and taste behavior of lactose monohydrate in aqueous ascorbic acid solutions at different temperatures: Volumetric and rheological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Sinha, Biswajit

    2016-11-15

    The densities and viscosities of lactose monohydrate in aqueous ascorbic acid solutions with several molal concentrations m=(0.00-0.08)molkg(-1) of ascorbic acid were determined at T=(298.15-318.15)K and pressure p=101kPa. Using experimental data apparent molar volume (ϕV), standard partial molar volume (ϕV(0)), the slope (SV(∗)), apparent specific volumes (ϕVsp), standard isobaric partial molar expansibility (ϕE(0)) and its temperature dependence [Formula: see text] the viscosity B-coefficient and solvation number (Sn) were determined. Viscosity B-coefficients were further employed to obtain the free energies of activation of viscous flow per mole of the solvents (Δμ1(0≠)) and of the solute (Δμ2(0≠)). Effects of molality, solute structure and temperature and taste behavior were analyzed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions; results revealed that the solutions are characterized predominantly by solute-solvent interactions and lactose monohydrate behaves as a long-range structure maker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bio-corrosion of water pipeline by sulphate-reducing bacteria in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esiri

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Key words: Sulphate-reducing bacteria, corrosion, water pipeline, biocide. INTRODUCTION ... small amount of organic material required to produce biomass):. )1(. 3. 2 .... Oil, gas and shipping industries are seriously affected.

  13. Measurement of dynamic wedge angles and beam profiles by means of MRI ferrous sulphate gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Magnus; Furre, Torbjørn; Rødal, Jan; Skretting, Arne; Olsen, Dag R.

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the possible value of measuring the dose distribution in dynamic wedge photon beams using ferrous sulphate gel phantoms analysed by MRI. The wedge angles and dose profiles were measured for a field size of and for dynamic wedge angles of , , and using a 15 MV photon beam generated from a Clinac 2100 CD (Varian). The dose profiles obtained from MRI ferrous sulphate gel were in good agreement with the dose measurements performed with a diode detector array. Also, the wedge angles determined from the MRI ferrous sulphate gel agreed well with the values obtained by using film dosimetry and with calculations by use of TMS (treatment planning system) (Helax, Uppsala, Sweden). The study demonstrated that MRI ferrous sulphate gel dosimetry is an adequate tool for measurements of some beam characteristics of dynamic radiation fields.

  14. The Metal And Sulphate Removal From Mine Drainage Waters By Biological-Chemical Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenčárová Jana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mine drainage waters are often characterized by high concentrations of sulphates and metals as a consequence of the mining industry of sulphide minerals. The aims of this work are to prove some biological-chemical processes utilization for the mine drainage water treatment. The studied principles of contamination elimination from these waters include sulphate reduction and metal bioprecipitation by the application of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Other studied process was metal sorption by prepared biogenic sorbent. Mine drainage waters from Slovak localities Banská Štiavnica and Smolník were used to the pollution removal examination. In Banská Štiavnica water, sulphates decreased below the legislative limit. The elimination of zinc by sorption experiments achieved 84 % and 65 %, respectively.

  15. Particle engineering using sonocrystallization: salbutamol sulphate for pulmonary delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, Ravindra S; Biradar, Shailesh V; Paradkar, Anant R; York, Peter

    2009-02-23

    The aim of present work was to produce fine elongated crystals of salbutamol sulphate (SS) by sonocrystallization for pulmonary delivery and compare with micronized and spray dried SS (SDSS) for in vitro aerosolization behavior. Application of ultrasound during anti-solvent crystallization resulted in fine elongated crystals (sonocrystallized SS; SCSS) compared to aggregates of large irregular crystals obtained without sonication. Higher sonication amplitude, time, concentration and lower processing temperatures favored formation of smaller crystals with narrow particle size distribution (PSD). SCSS was separated from dispersion by spray drying in the form of loose aggregates (SD-SCSS). The fine particle fraction (FPF) of formulations with coarse lactose carrier in cascade impactor increased from 16.66% for micronized SS to 31.12% for SDSS (obtained by spray drying aqueous SS solution) and 44.21% for SD-SCSS, due to reduced cohesive/adhesive forces and aerodynamic size by virtue of elongated shape of crystals. SD-SCSS was stable without any change in crystallinity and aerodynamic behavior for 3 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH, but amorphous SDSS showed recrystallization with poor aerosolization performance on storage. Sonocrystallization, a rapid and simple technique is reported for production of SS crystals suitable for inhalation delivery.

  16. Absorption of ammonium sulphate 15N by coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenilli, Tatiele Anete Bergamo; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny Oliveira Santos; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Dourado Neto, Durval

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the absorption of ammonium sulphate 15 N by coffee plants. Treatments consisted of five sub-plots of 9 plants, of which the three central ones received 280 kg ha -1 of 15 N, applied at four times: 1/4 on 01 Set 03; 1/4 on 03 Nov 03; 1/4 on 15 Dec 03 and 1/4 on 30 Jan 04. The isotopic enrichment was 2,072 ± 0,001 atom % 15 N. The dry matter of the shoot was evaluated every 60 days, using one plant per replicate, collected outside the sub-plot. They were as similar as possible to the labeled plants, which were used only for isotopic and Total N analysis, after being dried at 65 deg C until constant weight. At harvest, plants had absorbed 42,88% of the fertilizer N. Leaves accumulated the largest amount of fertilizer N, and were also the compartments that received most N from other parts of the plant. The following partition of the fertilizer N was found at harvest: 23.01% in young leaves, 6.23% in old leaves, 4,46% in stem, 3.46% in fruits, 3.10% in young branches and 2.63% in old branches. (author)

  17. Chitosan microparticles for sustaining the topical delivery of minoxidil sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Taís; Simão, Patrícia Sper; de Freitas, Luís Alexandre Pedro; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that microparticles can penetrate the skin barrier along the transfollicular route, this work aimed to obtain and characterise chitosan microparticles loaded with minoxidil sulphate (MXS) and to study their ability to sustain the release of the drug, attempting a further application utilising them in a targeted delivery system for the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan microparticles, containing different proportions of MXS/polymer, were prepared by spray drying and were characterised by yield, encapsulation efficiency, size and morphology. Microparticles selected for further studies showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼82%), a mean diameter of 3.0 µm and a spherical morphology without porosities. When suspended in an ethanol/water solution, chitosan microparticles underwent instantaneous swelling, increasing their mean diameter by 90%. Release studies revealed that the chitosan microparticles were able to sustain about three times the release rate of MXS. This feature, combined with suitable size, confers to these microparticles the potential to target and improve topical therapy of alopecia with minoxidil.

  18. Chondroitin sulphate-guided construction of polypyrrole nanoarchitectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Liao, Jingwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Huang, Shishu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University (China); Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong (China); Chen, Junqi; He, Tianrui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [Faculty of Light and Chemical, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Nanospheres, nanocones, and nanowires are three typical polypyrrole (PPy) nanoarchitectures and electrochemically polymerized with the dope of chondroitin sulphate (CS) in this study. CS, a functional biomacromolecule, guides the formation of PPy nanoarchitectures as the dopant and morphology-directing agent. Combined with our previous reported other PPy nanoarchitectures (such as nanotube arrays and nanowires), this work further proposed the novel mechanism of the construction of PPy/CS nanoarchitectures with the synergistic effect of CS molecular chains structure and the steric hindrance. Compared to the undoped PPy, MC3T3-E1 cells with PPy/CS nanoarchitectures possessed stronger proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capability. This suggests that PPy/CS nanoarchitectures have appropriate biocompatibility. Altogether, the nanoarchitectured PPy/CS may find application in the regeneration of bone defect. - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of PPy nanoarchitectures was proposed. • CS acted as biofunctional dopant and morphology-directing agent in PPy forming. • PPy-CS nanoarchitectures were dependent on the Py/CS ratio.

  19. Phase transition in lithium ammonium sulphate doped with cesium metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, M.; Kassem, M. E.; Kandil, S. H.

    2000-07-01

    Effects of doped cesium (C s+) metal ions (with different molar ratios n) on the phase transition of lithium ammonium sulphate LiNH 4SO 4 system have been studied by measuring the specific heat Cp( T) of the doped systems in the temperature range from 400 to 480 K. The study shows a peculiar phase transition of the pure system ( n=0) characterized by double distinct peaks, changed to a single sharp and narrow one as a result of the doping process. The measurements exhibit different effects of enhanced molar ratios of dopants on the phase transition behaviour of this system. At low dopant content ( n≤3%), the excess specific heat (Δ Cp) max at the transition temperature T1 decreases till a minimum value at n=0.8%, then it increases gradually. In this case, Δ Cp( T) behaviour is varied quantitatively and not modified. Enhanced dopant content ( n>3%) has a pronounced effect on the critical behaviour, which is significantly changed and considerably modified relative to the pure system. In addition, broadening of the critical temperature region, and decrease of (Δ Cp) max associated with changes of the Landau expansion coefficients are obtained and discussed. The study deals with the contribution of the thermally excited dipoles to the specific heat in the ferroelectric region and shows that their energy depends on doping.

  20. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...... and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields...... at in site conditions....

  1. Determination of Oversulphated Chondroitin Sulphate and Dermatan Sulphate in unfractionated heparin by (1)H-NMR - Collaborative study for quantification and analytical determination of LoD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, I; Mulloy, B; Hellwig, E; Kozerski, L; Beyer, T; Holzgrabe, U; Wanko, R; Spieser, J-M; Rodomonte, A

    2008-12-01

    Oversulphated Chondroitin Sulphate (OSCS) and Dermatan Sulphate (DS) in unfractionated heparins can be identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). The limit of detection (LoD) of OSCS is 0.1% relative to the heparin content. This LoD is obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 2000:1 of the heparin methyl signal. Quantification is best obtained by comparing peak heights of the OSCS and heparin methyl signals. Reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD) has been obtained. The accuracy of quantification was good.

  2. Sulphate Potasium Extraction From Banana Stem Ash with Bleaching Earth Waste Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Edahwati, Luluk

    2010-01-01

    Sulphate potassium is one of the important chemistry compound for industrial at our country, usually for fertilizerindustry. Therefore, necessary done sulphate potassium maker watchfulness from various ingredient that containsulphate potassium compound. Among others with extract banana stem ash. Watchfulness methodology that is withmix banana stem ash with aquadest (20 gram ash/1 water litre) in temperature 100oc during 30 minutes and stirringrotation 300 rpm. Ash extract that got reaction wi...

  3. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Sulphate Ion from Aqueous Environments Using Plate Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a.h Mahvi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Sulphate ion is one of the main ions available in natural and waste water. The high rate of sulphate in drinking water causes health problems such as irritation and digestive problems and makes water taste bitter. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphate ion removal from drinking water through Electrocogualation process (EC using plate aluminum electrodes. Methods: This study was conducted as a pilot plant using one glass tank in the volume of 1.3liter containing 6 plate aluminum electrodes. These electrodes were attached to a power supply in a mono-polar and parallel arrangement in order to switch the alternating current to the direct one. That is, each electrode was attached to positive and negative poles directly and alternately. The tank was filled with synthetic water containing sulphate ion with the concentration of 350 & 700mg/L. Percentage of sulphate ion removal in potential range of 10, 20 and 30 V, reaction times of 40, 20 and 60min and pH 7.0, 3.0 & 11.0 were measured. Results: In this study the maximum efficiency of sulphate ion removal was in the electrical potential of 30 V, reaction time of 60min and pH 11.0. With increase of ion concentration, the time needed to achieve a suitable efficiency of removal increased, that is, it indicated the direct effect of pH and difference of electrical potential on removal of sulphate ion through EC process. Conclusion: The results of this research show that Electrocogualation technology can be introduced as a suitable and promising technique to remove sulphate ion from aqueous environments using plate aluminum electrodes.

     

  4. Performance of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Sulphate Ion from Aqueous Environments Using Plate Aluminum Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabizadeh A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sulphate ion is one of the main ions available in natural and waste water. The high rate of sulphate in drinking water causes health problems such as irritation and digestive problems and makes water taste bitter. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphate ion removal from drinking water through Electrocogualation process (EC using plate aluminum electrodes.Methods: This study was conducted as a pilot plant using one glass tank in the volume of 1.3liter containing 6 plate aluminum electrodes. These electrodes were attached to a power supply in a mono-polar and parallel arrangement in order to switch the alternating current to the direct one. That is, each electrode was attached to positive and negative poles directly and alternately. The tank was filled with synthetic water containing sulphate ion with the concentration of 350 & 700mg/L. Percentage of sulphate ion removal in potential range of 10, 20 and 30 V, reaction times of 40, 20 and 60min and pH 7.0, 3.0 & 11.0 were measured.Results: In this study the maximum efficiency of sulphate ion removal was in the electrical potential of 30 V, reaction time of 60min and pH 11.0. With increase of ion concentration, the time needed to achieve a suitable efficiency of removal increased, that is, it indicated the direct effect of pH and difference of electrical potential on removal of sulphate ion through EC process.Conclusion: The results of this research show that Electrocogualation technology can be introduced as a suitable and promising technique to remove sulphate ion from aqueous environments using plate aluminum electrodes.

  5. Formation of sulphite, cysteic acid and taurine from sulphate by the egg embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Fromageot, P.

    1959-01-01

    It is shown that the formation of taurine from sulphate by the chicken embryo involves the reduction of sulphate to sulphite (I), the synthesis of cysteic acid (II) and its decarboxylation (Ill). The reaction (I) takes place in the vitellin sac. The reaction (II) results from the condensation of the sulphite with a-amino-acrylic acid and is carried out by the yolk. The enzymes responsible for the decarboxylation (III) are distributed both in the embryo and in its appendages. (author) [fr

  6. Susceptibility of salmonid fish to poisons under estuarine conditions. I. Zinc sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, D W.M.; Wakeford, A C

    1964-01-01

    The resistance of yearling rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon smolts to zinc sulphate increases with salinity up to 30-40 percent sea water, in which these species can withstand for 2 days respectively 15 and 13 times as much zinc sulphate as on fresh water. Further increase in salinity to 72 percent sea water reduces tolerance for the zinc salt. Salmon smolts were more susceptible to zinc poisoning than trout in fresh water and at all salinities tested.

  7. High dose, fast delivery magnesium sulphate in a 3-year-old acute severe asthmatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Elton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute severe asthma when respiratory failure is imminent is not addressed in world asthma guidelines. Intravenous magnesium sulphate, salbutamol and aminophylline all have advocates but what order, speed of delivery or dosage is left up to the individual physician treating the patient. A child in respiratory failure was given a large, fast dose of intravenous magnesium sulphate before intravenous salbutamol which relaxed bronchial smooth muscle immediately and tracheal intubation and lung ventilation was avoided. Justification for this treatment is discussed.

  8. Production of ferric sulphate from pyrite by thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Application to uranium ore leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouas, C.

    1988-12-01

    A process for uranium extraction by oxidizing solutions of ferric sulphate produced by T. ferrooxidans from pyrite is developed. A new counting method specific of T. ferrooxidans is designed. An uranium resistant wild strain, with oxidizing properties as high as the strain ATCC 19859, is isolated. Optimal conditions for ferric sulphate production from pyrite are defined (pH 1.8, density of the medium 1.2%, pyrite granulometry [fr

  9. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  10. CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF POWDER MIXTURES .2. BINARY-MIXTURES OF DIFFERENT PARTICLE-SIZE FRACTIONS OF ALPHA-LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; VEENSTRA, J; DEBOER, AH; BOLHUIS, GK; ZUURMAN, K; LERK, CF; VROMANS, H

    1991-01-01

    Binary mixtures of different particle size fractions of alpha-lactose monohydrate were compacted into tablets. The results showed decreased crushing strengths and decreased internal specific surface areas of the tablets as compared with the values calculated by linear interpolation of the data

  11. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (pMonosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in vivo by dextran sulphate and fucoidan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Van Osselaer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial cells is a prerequisite step followed by firm adhesion and extravasation into the inflamed tissue. This initial contact can be suppressed by sulphated polysaccharides. We have studied the effect of sulphated polysaccharides on the ultimate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN recruitment and plasma leakage in rabbit skin in response to intradermal injection of various inflammatory mediators. PMN infiltration evoked by various PMN chemoattractants (FMLP, C5a desArg, LTB4 and IL-8 was significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of dextran sulphate (25 mg/kg, heparin (2 × 90 mg/kg or fucoidan (1 mg/kg. PMN-dependent plasma leakage was equally well reduced by the different sulphated polymers. Vascular permeability induced by histamine or thrombin acting via a PMN-independent mechanism was not reduced. Fucoidan was the only polysaccharide able to suppress IL-1-induced PMN infiltration for 60–70%. Local administration of dextran sulphate had no effect on PMN-dependent plasma leakage. Differential inhibition of PMN recruitment was determined after injection of dextran sulphate or fucoidan depending on the type of insult. Therefore, these results suggest that different adhesion pathways are utilized during PMN recruitment in vivo in response to chemoattractants and IL-1.

  13. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  14. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution (translated from German)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1990-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for the final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister without the intervention of sulphate-reducing bacteria. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible. On the other hand, copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron is available. Because little specific information is available about this subject the problem was extended to the much more general question of the reducibility of sulphur in dilute aqueous solution. It is a part of the general knowledge of chemistry, and there is also unanimity about it in the geochemical literature, that purely chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 degrees C. This fact is, however, poorly documented and it was therefore necessary to substantiate it by drawing on numerous individual findings from different areas of pure and applied chemistry. The investigation confirms that sulphur in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be ruled out with a probability verging on certainty. (85 refs.)

  15. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal pain in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, A; Prodi, A; Pesel, G; Ronchese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Larese Filon, F

    2017-12-30

    The serum level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) has been suggested as a biological marker of stress. To assess the association between serum DHEA-S, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal (MS) pain in university workers. The study population included voluntary workers at the scientific departments of the University of Trieste (Italy) who underwent periodical health surveillance from January 2011 to June 2012. DHEA-S level was analysed in serum. The assessment tools included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and a modified Nordic musculoskeletal symptoms questionnaire. The relation between DHEA-S, individual characteristics, pain perception and psychological factors was assessed by means of multivariable linear regression analysis. There were 189 study participants. The study population was characterized by high reward and low effort. Pain perception in the neck, shoulder, upper limbs, upper back and lower back was reported by 42, 32, 19, 29 and 43% of people, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, gender, age and pain perception in the shoulder and upper limbs were significantly related to serum DHEA-S. Effort and overcommitment were related to shoulder and neck pain but not to DHEA-S. The GHQ score was associated with pain perception in different body sites and inversely to DHEA-S but significance was lost in multivariable regression analysis. DHEA-S was associated with age, gender and perception of MS pain, while effort-reward imbalance dimensions and GHQ score failed to reach the statistical significance in multivariable regression analysis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Copper sulphate use in South African traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Renée A; Kabera, Gaëtan M; Connolly, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential element to humans; however, exposure to elevated concentrations through occupational hazard and/or environmental means may be detrimental. This paper provides results of a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of copper sulphate (CuSO 4 ) use in South African traditional medicine by traditional health practitioners (THPs) and details the use thereof. A total of 201 THPs were enrolled from two main municipal areas of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Information on demographic characteristics of THPs, reasons for using or not using CuSO 4 as well as administration methods and age groups of recipients were collected. Of the 201 THPs interviewed, 145 (72 %) use CuSO 4 for healing purposes. The use of CuSO 4 was strongly associated with gender (p = 0.009) where the proportion of CuSO 4 users was higher for female than male THPs. CuSO 4 was reportedly administered to individuals of all ages, including infants and children. The main routes of administration were enema (n = 110; 76 %), oral (n = 40; 28 %) and use in bath (n = 40; 28 %). The reasons cited for use are diverse and included skin rashes (n = 43; 30 %), aches, pains and swelling (n = 38; 28 %) as well as sexually transmitted diseases (n = 28; 19 %). This study identified a high prevalence of THPs using CuSO 4 for healing purposes. These findings support the need to regulate South African traditional medicine to safeguard the user.

  17. Thermochemical sulphate reduction can improve carbonate petroleum reservoir quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Worden, Richard H.; Yang, Changbing

    2018-02-01

    Interest in the creation of secondary pore spaces in petroleum reservoirs has increased because of a need to understand deeper and more complex reservoirs. The creation of new secondary porosity that enhances overall reservoir quality in deeply buried carbonate reservoirs is controversial and some recent studies have concluded it is not an important phenomenon. Here we present petrography, geochemistry, fluid inclusion data, and fluid-rock interaction reaction modeling results from Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Sichuan Basin, China, core samples and explore the relative importance of secondary porosity due to thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) during deep burial diagenesis. We find that new secondary pores result from the dissolution of anhydrite and possibly from dissolution of the matrix dolomite. Assuming porosity before TSR was 16% and the percentage of anhydrite was 6%, modelling shows that, due to TSR, 1.6% additional porosity was created that led to permeability increasing from 110 mD (range 72-168 mD within a 95% confidence interval) to 264 mD (range 162-432 mD within a 95% confidence interval). Secondary porosity results from the density differences between reactant anhydrite and product calcite, the addition of new water during TSR, and the generation of acidity during the reaction of new H2S with the siderite component in pre-existing dolomite in the reservoir. Fluid pressure was high during TSR, and approached lithostatic pressure in some samples; this transient overpressure may have led to the maintenance of porosity due to the inhibition of compactional processes. An additional 1.6% porosity is significant for reserve calculations, especially considering that it occurs in conjunction with elevated permeability that results in faster flow rates to the production wells.

  18. The soil sulphate effect and maize plant (Zea mays L.) growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculation in acid sulfate soils with the different soil water condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmarlaili, S.; Rauf, A.; Hanafiah, D. S.; Sudarno, Y.; Abdi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the potential application of sulphate reducing bacteria on acid sulfate soil with different water content in the green house. The research was carried out in the Laboratory and Green House, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara. This research used Randomized Block Design with two treatments factors, ie sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) isolate (control, LK4, LK6, TSM4, TSM3, AP4, AP3, LK4 + TSM3, LK4 + AP4, LK4 + AP3, LK6 + TSM3, LK6 + AP4, LK6 + AP3, TSM4 + TSM3, TSM4 + AP4, TSM4 + AP3) and water condition (100% field capacity and 110% field capacity). The results showed that application of isolate LK4 + AP4 with water condition 110% field capacity decreased the soil sulphate content (27.38 ppm) significantly after 6 weeks. Application of isolate LK4 + AP3 with water condition 110% field capacity increased soil pH (5.58) after-week efficacy 6. Application of isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field capacity increased plant growth (140 cm; 25.74 g) significantly after week 6. The best treatment was application isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field Capacity (SRB population 2.5x108; soil sulphate content 29.10ppm; soil acidity 4.78; plant height 140cm; plant weight 25.74g).

  19. Sulphation of calcium-based sorbents in circulating fluidised beds under oxy-fuel combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Luis F. de Diego; Alberto Abad; Pilar Gayan; Margarita de las Obras-Loscertales; Aranzazu Rufas; Juan Adanez [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. Energy and Environment

    2009-07-01

    Sulphur Retention (SR) by calcium-based sorbents is a process highly dependent on the temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. In circulating fluidised beds combustors (CFBC's) operating under oxy-fuel conditions, the sulphation process takes place in atmospheres enriched in CO{sub 2} with bed concentrations that can vary from 40 to 95%. Under so high CO{sub 2} concentrations, very different from that in conventional coal combustion atmosphere with air, the calcination and sulphation behaviour of the sorbent must be defined to optimise the SR process in the combustor. The objective of this work was to determine the SO{sub 2} retention capacity of a Spanish limestone at typical oxy-fuel conditions in CFBC's. Long term duration tests of sulphation (up to 24 h), to simulate the residence time of sorbents in CFBC's, were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Clear behaviour differences were found under calcining and non-calcining conditions. Especially relevant was the result obtained at calcining conditions but close to the thermodynamic temperature given for sorbent calcination. This situation must be avoided in CFBC's because the CO{sub 2} produced inside the particle during calcination can destroy the particles if a non-porous sulphate product layer has been formed around the particle. The effect of the main variables on the sorbent sulphation such as SO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and particle size were analysed in the long term TGA tests. These data were also used to determine the kinetic parameters for the sulphation under oxy-fuel combustion conditions, which were able to adequately predict the sulphation conversion values in a wide range of operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Comparison of methods for the determination of reduced inorganic sulphur in acid sulphate soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santomartino, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The management of acid sulphate soils requires analytical methods that provide accurate data on the quantity of reduced inorganic sulphur within a soil, as it is this fraction that produces acid upon oxidation. This study uses sulphidic Coode Island Silt samples to compare common analytical methods including POCAS (Peroxide Oxidation-Combined Acidity and Sulphate) which consists of TSA (Total Sulphidic Acidity), S pos (Peroxide Oxidisable Sulphur), TOS (Total Oxidisable Sulphur) and chromium-reducible sulphur. The determination of total sulphur by Leco sulphur is strongly correlated with, but slightly less than, that analysed by XRF. Comparison of soil sulphide content by chromium-reducible sulphur, TSA and TOS methods indicates that TOS values are substantially higher than both other methods. The problem with the TOS method lies in the sulphate extraction procedure. Hot distilled water and HCI are commonly used as extractants, however hot distilled water fails to remove organic sulphur, thereby overestimating the sulphide content of the soil. Leco carbon analyses verify that a substantial proportion of organic matter exists within the samples. The HCI extraction process, which uses Ion Chromatography to analyse for sulphate, produces highly inaccurate results due to the interference of the sulphate peak by the chloride peak during analysis. An alternative method involving HCI extraction and XRF analysis of the soil residue is currently being undertaken. The use of KCI to extract sulphate generally produces values similar to the hot distilled water method. The sulphidic content measured by TSA is strongly correlated with, but slightly higher than that determined by the chromium-reducible sulphur method. This is attributed to the use of hydrogen peroxide in the TSA method, which oxidises organic matter to organic acids in addition to oxidising sulphides. These preliminary findings indicate that the chromium-reducible sulphur method is the most suitable

  1. Sulphate content of the Muntimpa dam water and its impact on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tembo, F; Shitumbanuma, V; Simukanga, S; Mudenda, G; Chileshe, P; Mulenga, S; Phiri, Y

    2004-01-01

    This article presents results of a study of the quality of water from Muntimpa Dam, a reservior of waste mine water released from the processing of copper and cobalt ores by Konkola Copper Mines(KCM) Plc in Chingola. The mine water is discharged into the local Muntimpa stream, a possible source of drinking and domestic water for the local population. The purpose of the study was to determine levels of sulphate in the dam and stream water and recommend possible methods of partial sulphate removal to levels below the recommended statutory limits and secondly, to assess the impact of high sulphate levels on water quality. Study methods included the sampling of water from the Muntimpa dam and catchment area. Stream water samples were collected about 5m from the stream banks while water samples from the dam were randomly collected from the near the centre of the dam at a depth of 50cm. Laboratory methods involved the determination of physical and chemical properties of the water using standard analytical techniques. Results of the study indicate that both total (2470mg/l) and available (1965mg/l) sulphate concentrations are higher than the recommended statutory limit for the discharge of sulphates into natural streams of 1500mg/l. From the study it is concluded that water in Muntimpa dam and stream is not suitable for drinking and other domestic use due to the high sulphate levels. From theorectical considerations, it was established that sulphate reduction could be achieved by addition of lime, which however had the consquence of increasing the pH of the water in excess of the recommended Zambian statutory value of nine, and would thus require an additional process to reduce the pH. (author)

  2. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist AZD7371 tartrate monohydrate (robalzotan tartrate monohydrate) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossman, Douglas A; Danilewitz, Mervyn; Naesdal, Jørgen; Hwang, Clara; Adler, John; Silberg, Debra G

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of the 5-hydroxytrypamine 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor antagonist AZD7371 tartrate monohydrate (robalzotan tartrate monohydrate), termed AZD7371 here, in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients meeting the Rome II criteria for IBS (N = 402) were randomized to treatment with AZD7371 20 mg or 5 mg or matching placebo tablets twice daily for 12 wk. The patients completed daily and weekly diary assessments, reporting abdominal discomfort or pain and description of bowel movements. They also completed validated symptom and quality-of-life questionnaires. Neither AZD7371 regimen was significantly more effective than placebo in providing adequate relief from IBS symptoms in at least 2 out of 4 wk per month over the 12 wk of treatment. There was also no significant difference between the treatment groups and placebo in the change in score in the validated symptom and quality-of-life questionnaires. Overall, 22.1% of patients experienced adverse events (AEs) attributed to the study medication: 44 of 133 (33.1%) in the 20 mg AZD7371 group, 27 of 131 (20.6%) in the 5 mg AZD7371 group, and 17 of 134 (12.7%) in the placebo group. Also, 31 of 57 (54%) of AEs leading to discontinuation were central nervous system-related. Hallucinations or hallucination-like AEs were reported by eight patients taking AZD7371, and by none of the patients in the placebo group. After these events led to discontinuation in six patients, the study was prematurely terminated. In view of the AE profile and lack of efficacy in IBS, the clinical development of AZD7371 has been stopped.

  3. Growth of triglicine sulphate single crystals doped by cobalt (II) phosphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokopová, Lucie; Novotný, Jan; Mička, Z.; Malina, Václav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 11 (2001), s. 1189-1195 ISSN 0232-1300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/0364; GA AV ČR KSK1010601 Projekt 7/96/K:4076 Grant - others:GA MSk(CZ) OC P3.160 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : crystal growth * pyroelectric devices * domains Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2001

  4. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, Miloslav; Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils along the Baltic coasts contain significant amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen in their subsoils. The abundance, composition, and activity of microbial communities throughout the AS soil profile were analysed. The data from a drained AS soil were compared with those from a drained non-AS soil and a pristine wetland soil from the same region. Moreover, the potential production of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from the soils was determined under laboratory conditions. Direct microscopic counting, glucose-induced respiration (GIR), whole cell hybridisation, and extended phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis confirmed the presence of abundant microbial communities in the topsoil and also in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil. The patterns of microbial counts, biomass and activity in the profile of the AS soil and partly also in the non-AS soil therefore differed from the general tendency of gradual decreases in soil profiles. High respiration in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil (5.66 μg Cg(-1)h(-1), as compared to 2.71 μg Cg(-1)h(-1) in a top Ap horizon) is unusual but reasonable given the large amount of organic carbon in this horizon. Nitrous oxide production peaked in the BCgc horizon of the AS and in the BC horizon of the non-AS soil, but the peak value was ten-fold higher in the AS soil than in the non-AS soil (82.3 vs. 8.6 ng Ng(-1)d(-1)). The data suggest that boreal AS soils on the Baltic coast contain high microbial abundance and activity. This, together with the abundant carbon and total and mineral nitrogen in the deep layers of AS soils, may result in substantial gas production. Consequently, high GHG emissions could occur, for example, when the generally high water table is lowered because of arable farming. © 2013.

  5. Evaluation of tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR: the influence of moisture and mixtures with theophylline monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Karsten; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was firstly to investigate the influence of moisture on the tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR and secondly to investigate the influence of theophylline monohydrate on the tableting behavior and tablet properties produced from binary mixtures with Kollidon SR. In comparison to Kollidon SR, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the powder over the whole range of RH (0-90%), and in addition, the Tg of tablets of Kollidon SR were measured. Densities and flowability of the powders were analyzed. The tablets were produced at five different maximum relative densities (rho(rel), max) on an instrumented eccentric tableting machine. They were produced at three different relative humidities (RH), 30%, 45%, and 60% RH for the pure substances and binary mixtures with different ratios of drug and excipient were tableted at 45% RH. The tableting properties were analyzed by 3D modeling, force-displacement profiles, and compactibility plots. First, the Tg of the powder decreased with increasing RH and the Tg of the tablet was 4-8 K lower than the powder. The predominant deformation of Kollidon SR is plastic deformation and Kollidon SR showed a higher compactibility than MCC. The parameters of the 3D model showed an extreme change between 45 and 60% RH, and at higher RH more and more particles deformed elastically. This was confirmed by analysis of force-displacement profiles. At 60% RH, the radial tensile strength of the Kollidon SR tablets was half of the radial tensile strength at 45% RH. The reason is a higher relative energy of plastic deformation than for MCC. This results in a better utilization of the energy to deform the powder into a tablet and the exceeding of the glass transition temperature at higher RH. In conclusion, at 60% RH at the same rho(rel, max), tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR are extremely changed since plasticity is significantly higher. In the second part of the

  6. Expanding the structural landscape of niclosamide: a high Z ' polymorph, two new solvates and monohydrate HA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sovago, Ioana; Bond, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    to be twinned by twofold rotation around that axis. The acetonitrile molecules occupy channels in the structure. A complete structure is provided for niclosamide monohydrate, C13H8Cl2N2O4·H2O, polymorph HA, obtained by Rietveld refinement against laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data. It has been suggested...... that this compound is related to the methanol solvate of niclosamide [Harriss, Wilson & Radosevljevic Evans (2014). Acta Cryst. C70, 758-763], but it is found that the two are not fully isostructural: they contain isostructural two-dimensional layers, but the layers are arranged differently in the two structures....... This suggests that HA may have the potential for polytypism, and features in the Rietveld difference curve indicate that a polytype fully isostructural with the methanol solvate might be present....

  7. Kinetic isotope effect in dehydration of ionic solids. II. The kinetics of dehydration of calcium oxalate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manche, E.P.; Carroll, B.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics of the isothermal dehydration of the protonated and deuterated monohydrate of calcium oxalate has been investigated at 120, 150, and 170 0 C. The rate of dehydration for these salts was found to be k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.025 +- 0.012. This result rules out the enormous kinetic isotope effect as given in the literature. An isotope effect of a few percent is not ruled out; this magnitude is in keeping with that found by Heinzinger in other dehydration processes. An estimated difference of about 150 cal/mol between the heat of desorption for H 2 O and D 2 O should have led to a ratio, k/sub h//k/sub D/ = 1.20. The smaller observed ratio has been explained on the basis of a compensation effect and may be considered an example of the Barclay--Butler correlation

  8. Selection of Suitable Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphate Source for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath BHUNIA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selection of suitable carbon, nitrogen and sulphate sources were carried out by one-variable-at-time approach for the production of alkaline protease enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042. Maximum levels of alkaline protease were found in culture media supplemented with magnesium sulphate, starch and soybean meal as a good sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources which influenced the maximum yield of this enzyme (137.69�4.57, 135.23�1.73 and 134.74�1.77, respectively in comparison with the other sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources.

  9. Selection of Suitable Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphate Source for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath BHUNIA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selection of suitable carbon, nitrogen and sulphate sources were carried out by one-variable-at-time approach for the production of alkaline protease enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042. Maximum levels of alkaline protease were found in culture media supplemented with magnesium sulphate, starch and soybean meal as a good sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources which influenced the maximum yield of this enzyme (137.694.57, 135.231.73 and 134.741.77, respectively in comparison with the other sulphate, carbon and nitrogen sources.

  10. Setting constraints on the nature and origin of the two major hydrous sulfates on Mars: Monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Liu, Yang; Connor, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    Monohydrated Mg sulfate (MgSO4·H2O) and polyhydrated sulfate are the most common and abundant hydrous sulfates observed thus far on Mars. They are widely distributed and coexist in many locations. On the basis of results from two new sets of experiments, in combination with past experimental studies and the subsurface salt mineralogy observed at a saline playa (Dalangtan, DLT) in a terrestrial analogue hyperarid region on the Tibet Plateau, we can now set new constraints on the nature and origin of these two major Martian sulfates. Starkeyite (MgSO4·4H2O) is the best candidate for polyhydrated sulfate. MgSO4·H2O in the form of "LH-1w," generated from dehydration of Mg sulfates with high degrees of hydration, is the most likely mineral form for the majority of Martian monohydrated Mg sulfate. Two critical properties of Mg sulfates are responsible for the coexistence of these two phases that have very different degrees of hydration: (1) the metastability of a substructural unit in starkeyite at relatively low temperatures, and (2) catalytic effects attributed to coprecipitated species (sulfates, chlorides, oxides, and hydroxides) from chemically complex brines that help overcome the metastability of starkeyite. The combination of these two properties controls the coexistence of the LH-1w layer and starkeyite layers at many locations on Mars, which sometimes occur in an interbedded stratigraphy. The structural H2O held by these two broadly distributed sulfates represents a large H2O reservoir at the surface and in the shallow subsurface on current Mars.

  11. Structural and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium glutarate monohydrate by FTIR, FT-Raman and DFT methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Marchewka, M. K.; Raj, Arushma; Yang, Haifeng; Mohan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Melaminium glutarate monohydrate has been synthesised and FTIR and FT-Raman spectral investigations are carried out. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of melaminium glutarate monohydrate in the ground state have been determined by using B3LYP method with 6-31++G**, 6-31++G and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The stability of the system, inter molecular hydrogen bonding and the electron donor-acceptor interactions of the complex have been investigated by using natural bonding orbital analysis. It reveals that the Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯O intermolecular interactions significantly influence crystal packing of this molecular complex. The glutarate anion forms hydrogen bonds to the melaminium cation as the proton donor of the type Nsbnd H⋯O with a distance (N⋯O) = 2.51 Å. It is also linked by other hydrogen bonds to the water molecule of the type Osbnd H⋯O with (O⋯O) = 2.82 Å and to the amino (sbnd NH2) group of melaminium cation of the type Nsbnd H⋯O with (N⋯O) = 2.82 Å as the proton acceptor. The electrostatic potential of the complex is in the range +1.892e × 10-2 to -1.892e × 10-2. The limits of total electron density of the complex is +6.679e × 10-2 to -6.679e × 10-2.

  12. Characterisation of 1,3-diammonium propylselenate monohydrate by XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, DSC and DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunarayanan, S.; Arjunan, V.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.; Atalay, Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    The crystals of 1,3-diammonium propylselenate monohydrate (DAPS) were prepared and characterised X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopy, and DFT/B3LYP methods. It comprises protonated propyl ammonium moieties (diammonium propyl cations), selenate anions and water molecule which are held together by a number of hydrogen bonds and form infinite chains. The XRD data confirm the transfer of two protons from selenic acid to 1,3-diaminopropane molecule. The DAPS complex is stabilised by the presence of O-H···O and N-H···O hydrogen bonds and the electrostatic interactions as well. The N···O and O···O bond distances are 2.82-2.91 and 2.77 Å, respectively. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 1,3-diammonium propyl selenate monohydrate are recorded and the complete vibrational assignments have been discussed. The geometry is optimised by B3LYP method using 6-311G, 6-311+G and 6-311+G* basis sets and the energy, structural parameters, vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities are determined. Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) data were also presented to analyse the possibility of the phase transition. Complete natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis is carried out to analyse the intramolecular electronic interactions and their stabilisation energies. The electrostatic potential of the complex lies in the range +1.902e × 10-2 to -1.902e × 10-2. The limits of total electron density of the complex is +8.43e × 10-2 to -8.43e × 10-2.

  13. Structural and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium glutarate monohydrate by FTIR, FT-Raman and DFT methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Marchewka, M K; Raj, Arushma; Yang, Haifeng; Mohan, S

    2015-01-25

    Melaminium glutarate monohydrate has been synthesised and FTIR and FT-Raman spectral investigations are carried out. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of melaminium glutarate monohydrate in the ground state have been determined by using B3LYP method with 6-31++G(**), 6-31++G and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The stability of the system, inter molecular hydrogen bonding and the electron donor-acceptor interactions of the complex have been investigated by using natural bonding orbital analysis. It reveals that the N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O intermolecular interactions significantly influence crystal packing of this molecular complex. The glutarate anion forms hydrogen bonds to the melaminium cation as the proton donor of the type N-H⋯O with a distance (N⋯O)=2.51 Å. It is also linked by other hydrogen bonds to the water molecule of the type O-H⋯O with (O⋯O)=2.82 Å and to the amino (NH2) group of melaminium cation of the type N-H⋯O with (N⋯O)=2.82 Å as the proton acceptor. The electrostatic potential of the complex is in the range +1.892e×10(-2) to -1.892e×10(-2). The limits of total electron density of the complex is +6.679e×10(-2) to -6.679e×10(-2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Height Waterlogging on Soil Physical Properties of Potential and Actual Acid Sulphate Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Fahmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water management is main factor that determines the successful of rice cultivation in acid sulphate soil. Soil waterlogging determines the direction and rate of chemical, geochemical and biological reaction in the soil, indirectly these reactions may influence to the changes of soil psycal properties during soil waterlogging process. The experiment was aimed to study the changes of two type of acid sulphate soils physical properties during rice straw decomposition processes. The research was conducted in the greenhouse consisting of the three treatment factors using the completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was soil type: potential acid sulphate soil (PASS and actual acid sulphate soil (AASS. The second factor was height of water waterlogging: 0.5-1.0 cm (muddy water–level condition and 4.0 cm from above the soil surface (waterlogged. The third factor was organic matter type: rice straw (RS, purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis (PT and mixed of RS and PT (MX. Soil physical properties such as aggregate stability, total soil porosity, soil permeability, soil particle density and bulk density were observed at the end of experiment (vegetative maximum stage. The results showed that acid sulphate soil type had large effect on soil physicl properties, soil waterlogging decreased aggregate stability, soil particle density and bulk density both of soil type.

  15. Evaluating portland cement concrete degradation by sulphate exposure through artificial neural networks modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Douglas Nunes de; Bourguignon, Lucas Gabriel Garcia; Tolentino, Evandro, E-mail: tolentino@timoteo.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Timoteo, MG (Brazil); Costa, Rodrigo Moyses, E-mail: rodrigo@moyses.com.br [Universidade de Itauna, Itauna, MG (Brazil); Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    A concrete is durable if it has accomplished the desired service life in the environment in which it is exposed. The durability of concrete materials can be limited as a result of adverse performance of its cement-paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either chemical or physical attack. Among other aggressive chemical exposures, the sulphate attack is an important concern. Water, soils and gases, which contain sulphate, represent a potential threat to the durability of concrete structures. Sulphate attack in concrete leads to the conversion of the hydration products of cement to ettringite, gypsum, and other phases, and also it leads to the destabilization of the primary strength generating calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. The formation of ettringite and gypsum is common in cementitious systems exposed to most types of sulphate solutions. The present work presents the application of the neural networks for estimating deterioration of various concrete mixtures due to exposure to sulphate solutions. A neural networks model was constructed, trained and tested using the available database. In general, artificial neural networks could be successfully used in function approximation problems in order to approach the data generation function. Once data generation function is known, artificial neural network structure is tested using data not presented to the network during training. This paper is intent to provide the technical requirements related to the production of a durable concrete to be used in the structures of the Brazilian near-surface repository of radioactive wastes. (author)

  16. Influence on ammonium-sulphate fertilizer on P-uptake by upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, N; Mitrosuhardjo, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment to study the influence of ammonium -sulphate fertilizer on P-uptake by Atomita I/1 rice variety on latosol soil of Pasar Jumat has been conducted. Factorial experiment consisting of eight treatments was arrange in a fully randomized design. Each treatment was replicated three times. The rate of ammonium sulphate fertilizer was equivalent to 0, 30, 60, and 90 kg N/ha, and TSP at the rate of 90 and 180 kg P/ha. Ammonium sulphate fertilizer with 2% atom 15-N and TSP with specific activity of 0.2 mCi/g P2O5 were used in the experiment. The plant was harvested 70 days after planting, It was turned out that ammonium sulphate fertilizer gave a highly significant difference (p=<0.01) of dry weight of plant. The rate of TSP did not effect significantly on plant dry weight. Ammonium sulphate fertilizer gave highly significant difference on P-uptake. Fertilizer use efficiency was in the range of 3.88 - 6.60% for 90 kg P and 2.51 - 4.46% for 180 kg P. Fertilizer-N uptake was significantly increased (p=<0.05) with the increase of N rate. Rate of fertilizer-N use efficiency was in the range of 47-60% of the applied fertilizer. (authors). 4 refs, 9 tabs

  17. [Concordance between the zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inês, Elizabete De Jesus; Pacheco, Flavia Thamiris Figueiredo; Pinto, Milena Carneiro; Mendes, Patrícia Silva de Almeida; Da Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Soares, Neci Matos; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections depends on the parasite load, the specific gravity density of the parasite eggs, oocysts or cysts, and the density and viscosity of flotation or sedimentation medium where faeces are processed. To evaluate the concordance between zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation in the recovery of parasites in faecal samples of children. Faecal samples of 330 children from day care centers were evaluated by zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation techniques. The frequencies of detection of parasites by each method were determined and the agreement between the diagnostic techniques was evaluated using the kappa index, with 95% confidence intervals. The faecal flotation in zinc sulphate diagnosed significantly more cases of Trichuris trichiura infection when compared to centrifugal sedimentation (39/330; 11.8% vs. 13/330; 3.9%, p<0.001), with low diagnostic concordance between methods (kappa=0.264; 95% CI: 0.102-0.427). Moreover, all positive samples for Enterobius vermicularis eggs (n=5) and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (n=3) were diagnosed only by zinc sulphate. No statistical differences were observed between methods for protozoa identification. The results showed that centrifugal flotation in zinc sulphate solution was significantly more likely to detect light helminths eggs such as those of T. trichiura and E. vermicularis in faeces than the centrifugal sedimentation process.

  18. Risk minimisation of FGD gypsum leachates by incorporation of aluminium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA, CSIC, Apto. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail: ealvarez@ija.csic.es; Querol, X. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ballesteros, J.C.; Gimenez, A. [Endesa Generacion, S.A., C/ Ribera de Loira, 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    The incorporation of aluminium sulphate to (flue gas desulphurisation) FGD gypsum before its disposal was investigated as a way to minimise the risk supposed by the high fluoride content of its leachates. Using a bath method the kinetic and equilibrium processes of fluoride removal by aluminium sulphate were studied at fluoride/aluminium molar concentration (F/Al) ratios in the range 1.75 10{sup -2}-1.75 under the pH conditions (about 6.5) of FGD gypsum leachates. It was found that fluoride removal was a very fast process at any of the (F/Al) ratios subject of study, with equilibrium attained within the first 15 min of interaction. High decreases in solution fluoride concentrations (50-80%) were found at the equilibrium state. The use of aluminium sulphate in the stabilization of FGD gypsum proved to greatly decrease its fluoride leachable content (in the range 20-90% for aluminium sulphate doses of 0.1-5%, as determined by the European standard EN 12457-4). Such fluoride leaching minimisation assures the characterization of this by-product as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal. Furthermore, as derived from column leaching studies, the proposed stabilization system showed to be highly effective in simulated conditions of disposal, displaying fluoride leaching reduction values about 55 and 80% for aluminium sulphate added amounts of 1 and 2%, respectively.

  19. The Protective Role of Zinc Sulphate on Ethanol -Induced Liver and Kidney Damages in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdalla

    2007-01-01

    Around the world more and more people suffer from alcoholism. Addiction problems, alcoholism and excessive use of drugs both medical and nonmedical, are major causes of liver and kidney damage in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate on the protective role of zinc sulphate on liver and kidney in rats with acute alcoholism. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I; control group, group 2; given only Zinc Sulphate (100 mg/kg/day for 3days), group 3; rats given absolute ethanol (1 ml of absolute ethanol administrated by gavage technique to each rat), group 4 given Zinc sulphate prior to the administration of absolute ethanol. The results of this study revealed that acute ethanol exposure caused degenerative morphological changes in the liver and kidney. Significant difference were found in the levels of serum, liver, kidney super oxide dismutase(SOD), catalase (CAT), nitric oxide(NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ethanol group compared to the control group. Moreover ,serum urea, creatnine, uric acid, alkaline phoshpatase and transaminases activities (GOTand GPT) were increased in the ethanol group compared to the control group. On the other hand,administration of zinc sulphate in the ethanol group caused a significant decrease in the degenerative changes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, and nitric oxide in serum, liver, and kidney. It can be concluded that zinc Sulphate has a protective role on the ethanol induced liver and kidney injury. In addition ,nitric oxide is involved in the mechanism of acute alcohol intoxication. (author)

  20. Evaluating portland cement concrete degradation by sulphate exposure through artificial neural networks modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Douglas Nunes de; Bourguignon, Lucas Gabriel Garcia; Tolentino, Evandro; Costa, Rodrigo Moyses; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2015-01-01

    A concrete is durable if it has accomplished the desired service life in the environment in which it is exposed. The durability of concrete materials can be limited as a result of adverse performance of its cement-paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either chemical or physical attack. Among other aggressive chemical exposures, the sulphate attack is an important concern. Water, soils and gases, which contain sulphate, represent a potential threat to the durability of concrete structures. Sulphate attack in concrete leads to the conversion of the hydration products of cement to ettringite, gypsum, and other phases, and also it leads to the destabilization of the primary strength generating calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. The formation of ettringite and gypsum is common in cementitious systems exposed to most types of sulphate solutions. The present work presents the application of the neural networks for estimating deterioration of various concrete mixtures due to exposure to sulphate solutions. A neural networks model was constructed, trained and tested using the available database. In general, artificial neural networks could be successfully used in function approximation problems in order to approach the data generation function. Once data generation function is known, artificial neural network structure is tested using data not presented to the network during training. This paper is intent to provide the technical requirements related to the production of a durable concrete to be used in the structures of the Brazilian near-surface repository of radioactive wastes. (author)

  1. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, F., E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, C., E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cibati, A., E-mail: alessio.cibati@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Uccelletti, D., E-mail: daniela.uccelletti@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, L., E-mail: luigi.toro@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Palleschi, C., E-mail: claudio.palleschi@uniroma1.it [Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L{sup -1}), ethanol (1.5 g L{sup -1}) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L{sup -1}). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 {+-} 5% of sulphate and 95 {+-} 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  2. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnanelli, F.; Cruz Viggi, C.; Cibati, A.; Uccelletti, D.; Toro, L.; Palleschi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use of ethanol as electron donor for sulphate-reducing bacteria for the treatment of Cr(VI). ► Isolation of contribution in Cr removal (adsorption vs. bioprecipitation). ► Bioassessment of the process effectiveness by ecotoxicological in vivo tests using C. elegans. - Abstract: Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L −1 ), ethanol (1.5 g L −1 ) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L −1 ). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 ± 5% of sulphate and 95 ± 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent.

  3. Effect of clonidine and magnesium sulphate on anaesthetic consumption, haemodynamics and postoperative recovery: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjushree Ray

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to assess the effect of intravenous clonidine and magnesium sulphate on intraoperative haemodynamics, anaesthetic consumption and postoperative recovery. Seventy five patients undergoing elective upper limb orthopaedic surgery were randomised into three groups. Group C received clonidine 3 μg/kg as a bolus before induction and 1μg/kg/hour by infusion intraopertively. Group M received magnesium sulphate 30 mg/kg as a bolus before induction and 10 mg/kg/hour by infusion. Group P received same volume of isotonic saline. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with fentanyl citrate and propofol. Muscular relaxation was achieved by vecuronium bromide. Induction time, recovery time and consumption of propofol as well as fentanyl citrate were recorded. Induction of anaesthesia was rapid with both clonidine and magnesium sulphate. Time of bispectral index (BIS to reach 60 was significantly lower in Group C and Group M (P < 0.0001. Requirements of propofol and fentanyl were significantly less in Group C and Group M (P < 0.001. Postoperative recovery was slower in Group M compared with other two groups (P < 0.001. Perioperative use of both clonidine and magnesium sulphate significantly reduced the consumption of propofol and fentanyl citrate. Magnesium sulphate caused a delayed recovery.

  4. The solvent extraction of cerium from sulphate solution - mini plant trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldenhoff, K.; Wilkins, D.; Ring, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Mt. Weld deposit in Western Australia has a complex rare earth mineralisation. The rare earth phosphate minerals, which include monazite, are amenable to conventional caustic cracking followed by hydrochloric acid dissolution of the trivalent rare earths. The presence of the mineral cerianite in the ore, which is unaffected by the alkali attack, results in rejection of a considerable proportion of the cerium to the acid leach residue. The recovery of cerium from a sulphate solution, resulting from the processing of such a residue, is the subject of the current paper. The liquor treated by solvent extraction contained 63 g L -1 rare earths and the cerium to total rare earth ratio was 75%. Other impurities, including Fe and Th, totalled 2000 ppm. A solvent mixture of commercially available extractants in a low aromatic content diluent was used to extract Ce 4+ selectively over the trivalent rare earths. Partial co-extraction of Fe and Th occurred but it was found that these elements were not easily stripped and therefore selective back extraction of cerium was possible. The cerium was stripped from the organic phase by hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. In continuous counter-current trials two extraction stages and three strip stages were used. In order to produce two grades of strip liquor, stripping was divided into two circuits. The first strip circuit consisting of a single stage, contained proportionally more of the trivalent rare earths. The second strip circuit, consisting of two stages, removed the remaining cerium with proportionally less of the rare earths. A bleed solvent stream was treated for removal of impurities to prevent build-up in the solvent. In the continuous counter current trials, 95% Ce 4+ extraction was achieved and the Ce to total rare earth ratio was upgraded to > 99%

  5. CHRONIC Cd TOXICITY OF BEAN PLANTS CAN BE PARTIALLY REDUCED BY SUPPLY OF AMMONIUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon VASSILEV

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ammonium sulphate supply on plant Cd uptake, growth and photosynthesis of bean plants (cv. Limburgse vroege grown in Cd-contaminated artifi cial soil was studied. The experiments were performed at controlled conditions in absence or presence of Cd (0 or 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil and with or without supply of ammonium sulphate [0 or 0.687 g (NH42SO4 kg-1]. Cadmium inhibited both growth and photosynthetic activity of bean plants. The supply of ammonium sulphate had no signifi cant effect on plant Cd uptake and growth inhibition, but to some extend, reduced Cd-induced stress and its negative impact on the photosynthetic performance.

  6. Precipitation of calcium sulphate on hot walls - influence of impurities, thermal and hydraulic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Roger

    1973-01-01

    After some generalities on desalination by distillation processes and on problems due to scaling, this research thesis aims at a better understanding of the formation of deposits and their effects in the case of precipitation of calcium sulphate hemihydrate which precipitates above 100 C in pure solution and between 100 and 300 C in brine. Deposit growth, influence of impurities, and influence of the deposit on heat exchange and loss of load are the main issues of this research. The author addresses general principles of salt crystallization and the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of calcium sulphate precipitation, studies the growth kinetics of the calcium sulphate hemihydrate in a transient concentration regime, reports the study of thermal and hydraulic effects of the formation of a hemihydrate deposit, notably by discussing the different phases involved in the covering of a metallic surface

  7. Barium sulphate preparations for use in double contrast examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.; Harthill, J.E.; James, W.B.; Montgomery, D.

    1980-01-01

    Physical properties relevant to upper gastrointestinal radiology have been compared for five barium sulphate preparations and related to radiographic results. Evaluation of particles (size and stability) and whole suspension (dispersibility and fluidity) resulted in ranking of the preparations generally in accord with that based on radiological experience in double contrast examinations of the stomach. Experiments with extirpated pig stomach revealed a tendency for large particles in a low viscosity barium sulphate suspension to settle in mucosal grooves. This is believed to contribute to good radiographic definition of both the areae gastricae and small lesions. Particle size is therefore important and susceptibility to flocculation, a possible cause of random change in size during use, was assessed by measuring particle electrophoretic mobility under varying conditions; quantitative differences in suspension flow and dispersibility were also demonstrated. Fluidity and dispersibility together with rapid sedimentation of suitably sized particles resistant to flocculation underlie the successful use of low viscosity high density barium sulphate suspensions. (U.K.)

  8. The influence of nickel sulphate on some physiological aspects of two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Helmy H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two cultivars of radish Raphanus sativus cv. longipinnatus (white radish and Raphanus sativus cv. Cherry Belle (red radish were treated with different concentrations of nickel sulphate (0.0-50-100-150-200 ppm. The fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigments, some antioxidant enzymes, total carbohydrates, total proteins and the SDS-PAGE protein profile of both cultivars were determined after 32 days. The results showed that increasing nickel sulphate concentrations decreased the fresh and dry weights of the shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates and total protein in both cultivars. Higher concentrations of nickel sulphate increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase and polypenol oxidase. Electrophoresis banding profiles of proteins revealed qualitative and quantitative changes, and also the appearance or disappearance of some bands of the two cultivars. .

  9. Performance of Periwinkle Shell Ash Blended Cement Concrete Exposed to Magnesium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umoh A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the compressive strength of periwinkle shell ash (PSA blended cement concrete in magnesium sulphate medium. Specimens were prepared from designed characteristics strength of 25 MPa. The cement replacement with PSA ranged between 0 and 40% by volume. A total of 180 cube specimens were cast and cured in water. At 28 days curing, 45 specimens each were transferred into magnesium sulphate of 1%, 3%, and 5% solution, while others were continuously cured in water and tested at 62, 92, and 152 days. The results revealed a higher loss in compressive strength with the control mix, and that it increases with increased in MgSO4 concentration and exposure period, whereas, the attack on the PSA blended cement concrete was less and the least value recorded by 10% PSA content. Therefore, the study concluded that the optimum percentage replacement of cement with 10% PSA could mitigate magnesium sulphate attack.

  10. Magnesium sulphate as a safe treatment for persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn resistant to mechanical hyperventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehdashtian, M.; Tebatebae, K.

    2007-01-01

    To see the effects of magnesium sulphate in newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN) who did not respond to mechanical hyperventilation and are candidate for Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). Ten newborn who were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) with profound hypoxia and respiratory failure due to PPHN were treated with conventional mechanical ventilation and then mechanical hyperventilation. The newborns who did not respond to mechanical Hyperventilation were treated with magnesium sulphate infusion. Nine out of ten babies survived and one of them died. The differences between the mean AaDo2, OI index, and PH after mechanical hyperventilation and magnesium sulphate administration was significant. Magnesium has a role in the treatment of PPHN patients who do not respond to hyperventilation or may be applied instead of hyperventilation. (author)

  11. Analgesic effect of intra-articular magnesium sulphate compared with bupivacaine after knee arthroscopic menisectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Radwan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intra-articular injection of magnesium sulphate (4% compared with equivalent volume of bupivacaine (0.5% after outpatient knee arthroscopic meniscectomy. Forty patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group M (n = 20 received intra-articular magnesium sulphate 4%, group B (n = 20 received bupivacaine (0.5%. Analgesic effect was evaluated by analgesic duration, and by measuring pain intensity at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h both at rest and on knee movement to 90°. The primary outcome variable was pain intensity on the VAS at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h post arthroscopy at rest and on movement (flexion of knee to 90°, although the magnesium group had lower time weighted averages (TWAs at rest and on movement, these TWAs were not statistically significant. The median duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly longer in the patients treated with magnesium sulphate (528 min than in the bupivacaine group (317 min (p < 0.0001, with less number of patients needing supplementary analgesia in magnesium group (8/20 than those of the bupivacaine group (16/20 (p < 0.022. Also analgesic consumption was significantly lower in the magnesium sulphate group (p < 0.002. We concluded that the use of magnesium sulphate is rational and effective in reducing pain, and is more physiological and shortens convalescence after outpatient arthroscopic meniscectomy, however our hypotheses that analgesic efficacy of intra-articular isotonic magnesium sulphate would be superior to intra-articular local anaesthetic cannot be supported with this study.

  12. Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of premature labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaeb, Shadi N.; Rassi, Adriana I.; Yunis, Khalid A. [Department of Pediatrics, American University of Beirut Medical Center, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Haddad, Maurice C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Seoud, Muhieddine A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2004-05-01

    Prolonged maternal magnesium sulphate infusion therapy for tocolysis of premature labour may result in secondary fetal hypermagnesaemia, which has been associated with bony abnormalities in the newborn. We report on four infants, members of two twin pregnancies, who were exposed to prolonged fetal hypermagnesaemia. Three of the infants, all appropriate for gestational age, showed abnormal radiological findings consisting of abnormal mineralisation of long-bone metaphyses owing to fetal hypermagnesaemia. The fourth infant, who was growth retarded, had normal bones. Intrauterine growth restriction appears to be protective against magnesium sulphate-induced abnormal bone mineralisation in the newborn. (orig.)

  13. Toxic effects of chromic sulphate on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Lau, W.M.; Tong, T.Y.; Liu, W.K.; Luk, K.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of chromic sulphate, which is commonly used in the tanning of leather, on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio and the bighead, Aristichthys nobilis, were studied. C. carpio was found to be more susceptible than A. nobilis to chromic sulphate at the lowest concentration tested (100 mg/l) whereas results obtained at other concentration were similar for both species. Damage to the gills, liver and intestine was observed by histopathological examination. A wide range of chemicals is used in the different stages of treating leather and a possible treatment of the effluent from the tanneries is suggested.

  14. Thalassiolin D: a new flavone O-glucoside Sulphate from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawas, Usama W; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T

    2017-10-01

    Thalassiolin D, a new flavone O-glucoside sulphate along with three flavonoids, two steroids, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and nitrogen compound, octopamine were isolated from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii, collected from the Saudi Red Sea coast. By extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as diosmetin 7-O-β-glucosyl-2″-sulphate. The new compound displayed moderately in vitro antiviral HCV protease activity with IC 50 value 16 μM.

  15. The bioactivation procedure for increasing the sulphate-reducing bacteria in a UASB reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. M. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivation, a procedure to obtain anaerobic sulphidogenic sludge, was developed in order to increase sulphate reduction and, consequently, sulphide production to remove metals from effluents. This procedure, in which the source of carbon/energy (lactate is gradually replaced, consisted of three operational conditions. It was observed that bioactivation took six months so there was a 100-fold increase in the population of sulphate-reducing bacteria estimated by the most-probable-number (MPN when molasses was employed as a new source.

  16. Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of premature labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaeb, Shadi N.; Rassi, Adriana I.; Yunis, Khalid A.; Haddad, Maurice C.; Seoud, Muhieddine A.

    2004-01-01

    Prolonged maternal magnesium sulphate infusion therapy for tocolysis of premature labour may result in secondary fetal hypermagnesaemia, which has been associated with bony abnormalities in the newborn. We report on four infants, members of two twin pregnancies, who were exposed to prolonged fetal hypermagnesaemia. Three of the infants, all appropriate for gestational age, showed abnormal radiological findings consisting of abnormal mineralisation of long-bone metaphyses owing to fetal hypermagnesaemia. The fourth infant, who was growth retarded, had normal bones. Intrauterine growth restriction appears to be protective against magnesium sulphate-induced abnormal bone mineralisation in the newborn. (orig.)

  17. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti,Thâmara F. M.; Zuba,Geraldo R.; Sampaio,Regynaldo A.; Carneiro,João P.; Oliveira,Ely S. A. de; Rodrigues,Márcio N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1): two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis), applied base...

  18. Bacterial sulphate reduction and the development of alklinity. III. Experiments under natural conditions in the Wadi Natrun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Malek, Y; Rizk, S G

    1963-01-01

    Evidence that microbial sulphate reduction is mainly responsible for the formation of the natron (hydrated Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) deposits in Wadi Natrun is presented. The sulphate in the infiltrating water is reduced during passage through the surrounding waterlogged soil and the bicarbonate formed is later concentrated by evaporation in the lakes.

  19. Cognitive effects of creatine monohydrate adjunctive therapy in patients with bipolar depression: Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fernandes, Francy de Brito Ferreira; Silva, Michelle; Dias, Rodrigo da Silva; Lafer, Beny

    2017-12-15

    Depressive episodes and cognitive impairment are major causes of morbidity and dysfunction in individuals suffering from bipolar disorder (BD). Novel treatment approaches that target clinical and cognitive aspects of bipolar depression are needed, and research on pathophysiology suggests that mitochondrial modulators such as the nutraceutical creatine monohydrate might have a therapeutic role for this condition. Eighteen (N=18) patients with bipolar depression according to DSM-IV criteria who were enrollled in a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of creatine monohydrate 6g daily as adjunctive therapy were submitted to neuropsychological assessments (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition, Stroop Color-Word Test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, FAS Verbal Fluency Test) at baseline and week 6. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment groups of the change on the total scores after 6 weeks in the verbal fluency test, with improvement in the group receiving adjunctive treatment with creatine. We did not find significant differences between the groups of the changes on other neuropsychological tests. Small sample and lack of a control group of healthy subjects. Our trial, which was the first to investigate the cognitive effects of creatine monohydrate on bipolar depression, indicates that supplementation with this nutraceutical for 6 weeks is associated with improvement in verbal fluency tests in patients with this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sulphur-oxidising and Sulphate-reducing Communities in Brazilian Mangrove Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varon-Lopez, Maryeimy; Dias, A.C.F; Fasanella, C.C.; Durrer, A.; Melo, I.S.; Kuramae, E.E.; Andreote, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of

  1. Effect of water hyacinth on distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub, on the distribution of populations of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sediments from various stations on the shores of Lake Victoria around Mwanza Municipality, Tanzania, was studied. Lactate-utilising SRB were observed to be the dominant ...

  2. Thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite with chromate, molybdate or sulphate in the interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Ray L. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.frost@qut.edu.au; Musumeci, Anthony W. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Bostrom, Thor [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Adebajo, Moses O. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Weier, Matt L. [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia); Martens, Wayde [Inorganic Materials Research Program, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2005-05-15

    The thermal decomposition of hydrotalcites with chromate, molybdate and sulphate in the interlayer has been studied using thermogravimetric analysis coupled to a mass spectrometer measuring the gas evolution. X-ray diffraction shows the hydrotalcites have a d(0 0 3) spacing of 7.98 A with very small differences in the d-spacing between the three hydrotalcites. XRD was also used to determine the products of the thermal decomposition. For the sulphate-hydrotalcite decomposition the products were MgO and a spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, for the chromate interlayered hydrotalcite MgO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and spinel. For the molybdate interlayered hydrotalcite the products were MgO, spinel and MgMoO{sub 4}. EDX analyses enabled the formula of the hydrotalcites to be determined. Two processes are observed in the thermal decomposition namely dehydration and dehydroxylation and for the case of the sulphate interlayered hydrotalcite, a third process is the loss of sulphate. Both the dehydration and dehydroxylation take place in three steps each for each of the hydrotalcites.

  3. The reductive decomposition of calcium sulphate I. Kinetics of the apparent solid-solid reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, B.; Potma, A.W.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    The reductive decomposition of calcium sulphate by hydrogen is used for the regeneration of calcium-based atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) SO2 sorbents. The apparent solid¿solid reaction between CaS and CaSO4, one of the steps involved in the reaction mechanism of the reductive

  4. Behaviour of Type 316 steel in acidic sulphate solutions at 300-3500C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.F.

    1987-11-01

    Most cation resin beds in service in CEGB power stations, and particularly those in AGR stations, are regenerated with sulphuric acid. Slippage results in trace levels of sulphate passing into the boilers. Previous work has shown that in once-through boilers, feedwater containing 2 μg kg -1 of sulphate could concentrate at localized dry-out sites to form solutions having from 0.1 to 7 wt% of solute. It has been shown also that if the sulphate was present in an acidic solution and it were to be in contact with Type 316 austentitic superheater steel, then intergranular corrosion and intergranular cracking could occur. Previous data, including some unreported results, are tabulated and discussed. The current work had two main objectives. The first was to extend the previous investigations to examine a wider range of acidic sulphate concentrations (as indicated by calculations on the concentration of solute in feedwater), the influence of environment pH, and the effect of sensitization of specimens. The second objective was primarily concerned with elucidating the causes of scatter in the results. This involved examining the influence of electrode potential, the ageing characteristics of the environment, and the method of applying stress to the specimens. (author)

  5. Optimisation of the zinc sulphate turbidity test for the determination of immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, I; Doherty, M; Fagan, J; Kennedy, E; Conneely, M; Crowe, B; Lorenz, I

    2016-02-13

    Failure of passive transfer of maternal immunity occurs in calves that fail to absorb sufficient immunoglobulins from ingested colostrum. The zinc sulphate turbidity test has been developed to test bovine neonates for this failure. The specificity of this test has been shown to be less than ideal. The objective was to examine how parameters of the zinc sulphate turbidity test may be manipulated in order to improve its diagnostic accuracy. One hundred and five blood samples were taken from calves of dairy cows receiving various rates of colostrum feeding. The zinc sulphate turbidity test was carried out multiple times on each sample, varying the solution strength, time of reaction and wavelength of light used and the results compared with those of a radial immunodiffusion test, which is the reference method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in serum. Reducing the time over which the reaction occurs, or increasing the wavelength of light used to read the turbidity, resulted in decreased specificity without improving sensitivity. Increasing the concentration of the zinc sulphate solution used in the test was shown to improve the specificity without decreasing sensitivity. Examination of the cut-off points suggested that a lower cut-off point would improve the performance. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Aluminum-contaminant transport by surface runoff and bypass flow from an acid sulphate soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the process and the amount of acid-contaminant released to the surroundings is important in assessing the environmental hazards associated with reclaiming acid sulphate soils (ASS). The roles of surface runoff and bypass flow (i.e. the rapid downward flow of free water along macropores

  7. Treatment of acid and sulphate-rich effluents in an integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... sludge obtained from a sewage treatment plant. Sludge was recy- ... tration (0 - 1 g/l); alkalinity (0 - 1 g/l); CaCO3 solids concentration. (0 - 1 g/l); COD (0.5 - 2 ..... Ph.D. Thesis, Agricultural University of Wageningen. 103 pp. ... VISSER A (1995) The Anaerobic Treatment of Sulphate Containing Waste. Water.

  8. Should Magnesium Sulphate Prophylaxis be Used in all Cases of Severe Preeclampsia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Bhattacharya,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case control study, undertaken in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in a tertiary referral centre, was designed to administer standard dose of magnesium sulphate to 50 randomly selected severely preeclamptic women in labor (Group 1. 48 women who formed the control group did not receive the drug (Group 2. The admission – delivery interval, rate of Cesarean section showed no statistically significant difference. Four patients developed convulsions in Group 1 in contrast to twelve patients in Group 2. Efficacy of magnesium sulphate at preventing eclampsia was calculated as 68%. Mild respiratory depression occurred in two cases and oliguria in eight cases in Group 1. Both the conditions improved on suspending further doses of magnesium sulphate. No patient had post partum haemorrhage in Group 1 although 4% patients had it in Group 2. Neonatal outcome was comparable in both the groups. Hence magnesium sulphate may be regarded as a fairly safe and effective prophylactic agent for eclampsia when used in severe preeclampsia in labor.

  9. Underground Corrosion by Microorganisms Part II : Role of Anaerobic Sulphate Reducing Bacteria-Desulfotomaculum SP

    OpenAIRE

    H. M. Dayal; K. C. Tiwari; Kamlesh Mehta; Mr. Chandrashekhar

    1988-01-01

    During the course of studies on the corrosion causing soil microflora from different geoclimatic regions of India, several strains of anaerobic sulphate reducing bacteria belonging to genus Desulfotomaculum were isolated and characterised. Their corrosive action on mild steel, galvanised iron and structural aluminium, the three main metals of construction of underground structures, have been studied under laboratory conditions.

  10. The use of magnesium sulphate for the treatment of severe pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. There is need to provide the most effective management to pre-eclamptic and eclamptic patients. There is now evidence that magnesium sulphate is the most effective ...

  11. Conductance and bulk vertical detachment energy of hydrated sulphate and oxalate dianions: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Analytical expressions have been derived for the vertical detachment energy (VDE) for hydrated sulphate (SO2 -4) and oxalate (C2O2 -4) dianions that can be used to calculate the same over a wide range of cluster sizes including the bulk from the knowledge of VDE for a finite number of stable clusters. The calculated bulk detachment energies are found to be very good in agreement (within 5%) with the available experimental results for both the systems. It is observed that two or more water molecules will be essential for the stability of sulphate and oxalate dianions against spontaneous electron loss and this is consistent with the experiment. We have, for the first time, provided a scheme to calculate the radius of the solvent berg for sulphate and oxalate dianions. The calculated conductivity values for the sulphate and oxalate dianions using Stokes-Einstein relation and the radius of solvent berg are found to be very good in agreement (within 4%) with the available experimental results.

  12. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The product of the biological sulphate reduction is sulphide. High concentrations of molecular H2S(g) can be inhibitory for microbial activity, especially at a reactor pH of 6 to 7. This paper focuses on the effect of high sulphide concentrations...

  13. Enhanced Soil Chemical Properties and Rice Yield in Acid Sulphate Soil by Application of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurzakiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Swampland development such as acid sulphate soil for agricultural cultivation has various problem, including highsoil acidity, fluctuated and unpredictable water flooding and the presence of toxic elements such as Fe whichresulting in low crop yields. The research was conducted at the experimental station Belandean, Barito Kualaregency in dry season 2007. The objective of research was to study the effect of rice straw on the dynamic of soilpH, the concentration of iron and sulphate and yield on tidal land acid sulphate soil at two different water inletchannel. This research was designed in RCBD (Randomized Completely Block Design with five treatments (0, 2.5,5.0, 7.5 and 10 Mg ha-1 and four replications. Dolomite as much as 1 Mg ha-1 was also applied. This research wasdivided into two sub-units experiment i.e. two conditions of different water inlet channel. The first water channelswere placed with limestone and the second inlet was planted with Eleocharis dulcis. The results showed that (i ricestraw application did not affect the dynamic of soil pH, concentration of iron and sulphate, and (ii the highest yieldwas obtained with 7.5 Mg ha-1 of rice straw.

  14. Highly sulphated galactan from Halymenia durvillei (Halymeniales, Rhodophyta), a red seaweed of Madagascar marine coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoradosoa, T A; Delattre, C; Laroche, C; Wadouachi, A; Dulong, V; Picton, L; Andriamadio, P; Michaud, P

    2009-08-01

    Halymenia durvillei is a red seaweed with a great potential as sulphated galactan producer collected in the coastal waters of small island of Madagascar (Nosy-be in Indian Ocean). To elucidate the structure of its polysaccharide, NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR, HPAEC and different colorimetric methods were carried out. It has been shown that this polysaccharide, consisted mainly of galactose, was branched by xylose and galactose in minor amounts. Arabinose and fucose were also detected. This galactan was found highly sulphated (42%, w/w) and pyruvylated (1.8%, w/w). Analysis of glycosidic linkages by CPG-MS and 13C NMR indicated that the polysaccharide has the defining linear backbone of alternating 3-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and 4-linked alpha-L/D-galactopyranosyl residues. 3,6-Anhydrogalactose units have been also detected in minor quantity. This lambda-carrageenan like polysaccharide has shown original sulphatation patterns with 2-O (26%) or 2/6-O (58%) sulphated 3-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and 6-O (19%) or 2/6-O (47%) 4-linked alpha-L/D-galactopyranosyl residues.

  15. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR

  16. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebisch, T.M.; Pierik, F.H.; Jong, F.H. de; Thomas, C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males

  17. Nickel-sulphate-induced contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Nielsen, G D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1991-01-01

    Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet.) concentrati...

  18. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.

    2009-01-01

    with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in an ordered distribution. The interlayers contain sulphate, water and sodium in an arrangement characteristic for the nikischerite group. The crystal structure is highly disordered by slacking faults. The composition, formula and crystallographic parameters are: NaFe(II)(6)Fe...

  19. Forest land cover continues to exacerbate freshwater acidification despite decline in sulphate emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Robert W.; Donoghue, Daniel N.M.; Burt, Tim P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from a multi-date regional-scale analysis of both high-flow and annual-average water quality data from Galloway, south-west Scotland, demonstrates that forest land cover continues to exacerbate freshwater acidification. This is in spite of significant reductions in airborne pollutants. The relationship between freshwater sulphate and forest cover has decreased from 1996 to 2006 indicating a decrease in pollutant scavenging. The relationship between forest cover and freshwater acidity (pH) is, however, still present over the same period, and does not show conclusive signs of having declined. Furthermore, evidence for forest cover contributing to a chlorine bias in marine ion capture suggests that forest scavenging of sea-salts may mean that the forest acidification effect may continue in the absence of anthropogenic pollutant inputs, particularly in coastal areas. - Highlights: ► Forest cover and water chemistry remain linked despite decreased sulphate emissions. ► Forest cover has significant relationships SO 4 2− , Cl − , Na + , pH, ANC and Na:Cl ratio. ► Forest cover: pH relationships shows some evidence of decline 1996–2006. ► Forest cover: freshwater sulphate relationships show evidence of decline 1996–2006. ► Natural forest-mechanisms may exacerbate acidification, particularly sea-salt scavenging. - Relationships between forest land cover and freshwater pH continue to be evident despite declines in anthropogenic pollutant sulphate deposition; sea-salt scavenging may play a role.

  20. Effects of magnesium sulphate on amplitude-integrated continuous EEG in asphyxiated term neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendaal, F; Rademaker, CMA; Toet, MC; de Vries, LS

    2002-01-01

    In this study it is hypothesized that magnesium sulphate in asphyxiated full-term neonates could lead to a gradual improvement in background pattern of the amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG), an early marker of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled pilot study of 22

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EPIDURAL FENTANYL AND FENTANYL PLUS MAGNESIUM SULPHATE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Magnesium has antinociceptive effects in animal and human models of pain. It is found that the addition of Magnesium sulphate to postoperative Epidural infusion of Fentanyl may decrease the need for Fentanyl. We undertook a study to compare the duration of postoperative analgesia after Epidural Fentanyl and Epidural Fentanyl plus Magnesium sulphate administered postoperatively, along with side effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients undergoing elective lower limb and abdominal surgeries were randomized into one of the two groups with 25 patients in each group. Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia was used for all patients. Spinal anaesthesia with 2.5 cc of 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine was given. When sensory blockade regressed to L1, patients were given either 50 µg of Fentanyl (diluted to 6cc with normal saline, Group F or 50 µg of Fentanyl plus 50 mg Magnesium sulphate (diluted to 6cc with normal saline, Group FM. Parameters like blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were monitored, and other side effects were noted. Data were analysed by using Student t test and Chi-square/ Fisher Exact tests. RESULTS There was significant difference in duration of analgesia between Group F (107 min and Group FM (143 min. Hemodynamic parameters were stable in both the groups with minimal side effects. CONCLUSION Co-administration of Magnesium sulphate with Fentanyl for postoperative Epidural analgesia results in prolongation of Fentanyl analgesia without significant side-effects.

  2. Fentanyl versus magnesium sulphate as adjuvant to peribulbar anesthesia in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Abu Elyazed

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Addition of fentanyl (2 μg/ml or magnesium sulphate (50 mg to peribulbar block in patients undergoing cataract surgery equally prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia. In addition to this effect, fentanyl fastens the onset lid and globe akinesia and provides better akinesia score.

  3. Microfilter paper radioimmunoassay of cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone sulphate in capillary blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodrogi, L.; Feher, T.

    1982-01-01

    A microfilter paper method is reported for cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone sulphate radioimmunoassay in fingertip capillary blood. The steroid content of dry blood spot on filter paper is determined. The results are compared to those obtained by conventional technique used for venous blood. Control experiments validated the introduction of this simple and rapid method to assess hormone function in clinical chemistry. (author)

  4. Relationship Between Hepatic Albumin and Sulphate Synthesis and its Use in Measurement of the Absolute Rate of Synthesis of Liver-Produced Plasma Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwad, H. K.; Sheraki, A. S. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Cancer Institute, University of Cairo, Cairo (Egypt); Radioisotope Unit, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria (Egypt)

    1971-02-15

    A model is proposed whereby serum albumin synthesis is expressed in terms of production of inorganic sulphate in the liver and the entire organism, following the administration of {sup 35}S-L-cystine. The basis assumption involved is that the precursor amino acid pool for albumin synthesis in the liver is either identical with that of inorganic sulphate synthesis or that the two pools concerned are in rapid equilibrium with each other so that they can be treated as a single pool. The feasibility of the proposed model was tested by comparing the synthesis rate of rat serum albumin with the catabolic rate of the radioiodinated protein measured in the same animal. A good agreement between the two rates was noted in a group of adult rats, whereas an excess of anabolism was noted in young growing animals. In rats fed low-protein diet, the synthesis rate exceeded the catabolic rate; both being subnormal. The equilibrium between hepatic and plasma radiosulphate concentration was complete within four hours following the injection of {sup 35}S-cystine. The total radiosulphate production could then be evaluated after such an interval from the urinary excretion and serum concentration multiplied by the volume of the sulphate space. Lack of significant re-utilization was demonstrated following the injection of radiosulphate. This is a decided advantage of the proposed method. However, extensive re-utilization of selenate selenium in the synthesis of the seleno-analogues of sulphur-amino acids was shown. This could explain the poor yield of radioselenate following the injection of {sup 75}Se-selenocystine and precludes the use of the latter agent as a tracer for measurement of synthesis of plasma proteins. (author)

  5. Reuse of partially sulphated CFBC ash as an SO{sub 2} sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Jia, L.; Anthony, E.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy; Nobili, M.; Telesca, A. [Basilicata Univ., Potenza (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Physics; Montagnaro, F. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-06-15

    Ash produced from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boilers typically contains large amounts of unreacted calcium oxide (CaO) when limestone is added into the combustor for in situ removal of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). This paper reported on a study that evaluated the reactivation of partially sulphated ash obtained from an industrial circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler by hydration with liquid water and steam. A pilot-scale mini-CFBC was used to evaluate the results of reactivation on the bed ash by hydrating with liquid water and admixtures of sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in solution or as powder. Re-sulphation tests on the hydrated samples were performed in a Cahn 1000 thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at 850 degrees C for 90 minutes in a simulated flue gas environment with sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) concentration at 5000 ppm. Re-sulphation was carried out on unhydrated ash at the same conditions used in the baseline test. The TGA results showed that although liquid water and steam successfully hydrate and reactivate the unreacted CaO in the bed ash, the treated ashes sulphated to widely different extents. Attempts to reactivate fly ash with hydration failed, but the fly ash by itself was extremely reactive. When the treated ash was re-injected into the combustor with the fuel, the effect on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was negligible if Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was added as powder. Doping with aqueous solution improved SO{sub 2} removal, but to a lesser extent than if only water hydration was used. Increasing the amount of water to reactivate the ash did not improve the sulphur capture capacity in the mini-CFBC. It was concluded that reactivation by water is the most practical way to reuse the partially sulphated bed ash as a sulphur sorbent. 21 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Sulphur and oxygen isotopic compositions of groundwater and sabkha - sulphate in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The climate and topography of landward margins around the southern Mediterranean and the Arabian Gulf have given rise to areas of recent evaporite formation known as 'sabkhas'. These supratidal evaporitic flats have developed as a result of a relative fall in sea level after the last marine transgression (about 4000 years B.P.) which deposited carbonate sediments over coastal areas. Inland sabkhas may also develop in low lying areas and the desert 'soils' often have a 'getch' (duricrust) layer of gypsum or calcite near the surface. Published sulphur isotope studies of the sabkhas in the Gulf of Sirte (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya), Al Khiran (Kuwait) and Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) indicate a sea water influence (δ 34 S ≅ +21 per mille; δ 18 O ≅ +10 per mille) only in the outer sabkha. At Al Khiran, Gulf of Sirte and Bardawil (Egypt) the δ 34 S values decrease to +14 per mille on the landward side. Continental sabkhas in the United Arab Emirates have δ 34 S values between +13 and +16 per mille and the continental getch in Kuwait has δ 34 S=+15.6 per mille. Sulphate minerals from the Al Khiran sabkha have δ 34 S and δ 18 O values up to +17 and +16 per mille respectively, much lower than at Abu Dhabi, where sea water sulphate and bacterial activity are more prevalent. At Al Khiran the δ 34 S mineral values drop to +12 per mille and the spread is connected with mineral transformations. In the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the United Arab Emirates the continental sulphate was thought to be derived from Cretaceous sediments. However, in Kuwait, an aquiclude, the Rus Formation (L. Eocene), prevents older water and sulphate from entering the sabkhas. This widespread sulphate source with δ 34 S=+14 per mille may be derived from continental getch and surface evaporites which are transported and homogenized by dust storms. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  7. Two case studies on the origin of aqueous sulphate in deep crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelot, J.L.; Fontes, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports preliminary results obtained from studies in Central Sweden (Stripa) and in Northern Switzerland (Boettstein). The isotopic compositions ( 34 S, 18 O) of dissolved sulphates in shallow and deep groundwaters from the Stripa test site show that (1) the origins of the salinity in the shallow and in the deep groundwaters are probably different, (2) the low sulphate content of the waters collected from the upper part of the deep aquifer system could be derived from the shallow aqueous sulphate through bacterial reduction, (3) a deeper bulk of sulphate can be identified. After examining several hypotheses, a Permian or Triassic origin is attributed to this deep sulphate. Boettstein is the first drilled borehole of the NAGRA (Swiss National Co-operative for the Storage of Radioactive Wastes programme). In the 34 S versus 18 O diagram, most of the representative points of samples collected at different depths (from apparently different water bodies), lie along a straight line. It seems that this line cannot be a reduction line, nor a precipitation line (gypsum or anhydrite). It is thus interpreted as a mixing line. The end members of this mixing line are still unknown. However, a deep brine is present at the bottom of the system, probably related to brines circulating in the Permian channel found at the same depth, a few kilometres away. A working hypothesis involving this deep brine as a source for both end members of the mixing, through two different processes, is presented, with the problem of possible connections between the different water bodies. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Magnesium sulphate and amiodarone prophylaxis for prevention of postoperative arrhythmia in coronary by-pass operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huysal Kagan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the use of prophylactic magnesium sulphate and amiodarone in treating arrhythmias that may occur following coronary bypass grafting operations. Methods The study population consisted of 192 consecutive patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Sixty-four patients were given 3 g of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 [20 ml = 24.32 mEq/L Mg+2] in 100 cc of isotonic 0.9% solution over 2 hours intravenously at the following times: 12 hours prior to the operation, immediately following the operation, and on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3 (Group 1. Another group of 64 patients was given a preoperative infusion of amiodarone (1200 mg on first post-operative day (Group 2. After the operation amiodarone was administered orally at a dose of 600 mg/day. Sixty-four patients in group 3 (control group had 100 cc. isotonic 0.9% as placebo, during the same time periods. Results In the postoperative period, the magnesium values were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 for all measurements. The use of amiodarone for total arrhythmia was significantly more effective than prophylactic treatment with magnesium sulphate (p = 0.015. There was no difference between the two drugs in preventing supraventricular arrhythmia, although amiodarone significantly delayed the revealing time of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.026. Ventricular arrhythmia, in the form of ventricular extra systole, was more common in the magnesium prophylaxis group. The two groups showed no significant differences in other operative or postoperative measurements. No side effects of the drugs were observed. Conclusion Prophylactic use of magnesium sulphate and amiodarone are both effective at preventing arrhythmia that may occur following coronary by-pass operations. Magnesium sulphate should be used in prophylactic treatment since it may decrease arrhythmia at low doses. If arrhythmia should occur despite this

  9. Quantitation and identification of methanogens and sulphate reducers in Olkiluoto groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomberg, M.; Nyyssoenen, M.; Itaevaara, M.

    2010-08-01

    The GEOFUNC Project focuses on the microbiology connected to safety and risk assessment of the final disposal of high radioactive nuclear waste. Methanogenic archaea and sulphate reducing bacteria are significant groups of microorganisms in anaerobic environments, and are of crucial concern for the safe long term storage of nuclear waste in deep bedrock. The sulphate reducing bacteria are able to produce sulphide which may cause corrosion of the copper in the radioactive waste storage capsules. Methanogens, on the other hand, may produce quantities of methane from various organic carbon compounds, CO 2 and H 2 . Methane may both serve as carbon source for methanotrophic microbial groups, and may also cause mobilization of radionuclides, as a result of gas discharge through fractures in the bedrock. The transition zones between the sulphate rich and methane rich waters are locations for microbial processes where the methane may serve as carbon source for sulphate reducing bacteria, which in turn would produce corrosive sulphides. It has been estimated that only 1-10 % of all the microorganisms present in the environment can be isolated and cultivated. Uncultured microorganisms can be identified and their numbers in the environment quantified by identification of specific marker genes that are essential for their functions by use of molecular methods. Methanogens, for example, can be identified by their genes for methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), which is an essential enzyme involved in the production of methane. The mcrA is specifically present only in methanogenic archaea. Sulphate reducers are identified by their dissimilatory sulphite reductase genes (dsrB), which are present in and essential for all microorganisms performing dissimilatory sulphate reducing. In the GEOFUNC project, a quantitative PCR method (qPCR) was developed for the detection of methanogens and sulphate reducers. This method is based on specific quantitative detection of marker genes

  10. Dose-response testing with nickel sulphate using the TRUE test in nickel-sensitive individuals. Multiple nickel sulphate patch-test reactions do not cause an 'angry back'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lidén, C; Hansen, J

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ the TRUE test assay to confirm the presence or absence of the 'angry back' phenomenon, i.e. that a strong positive patch-test reaction heightens adjacent patch-test response. In addition, we wished to establish the dose-response relationship for nickel sulphate...... back' phenomenon was not apparent in this study, as the spill-over effect was not statistically significant. Strong reactions to high concentrations of nickel sulphate did not enhance the response to adjacent lower concentrations of nickel sulphate....

  11. Comparison of the effects of the K(+)-channel openers cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate on vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenden, A. D.; Grimwood, S.; Grant, T. L.; Todd, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    1 The actions of the potassium channel openers, cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate, were compared in a range of isolated blood vessel preparations. 2 Cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity of the guinea-pig portal vein and relaxed the noradrenaline precontracted rat aorta with similar potency. In contrast, minoxidil sulphate was less potent than cromakalim in inhibiting spontaneous activity in the rat portal vein and was essentially inactive in the noradrenaline precontracted rat mesenteric artery and rabbit aorta. 3 Minoxidil sulphate did not antagonize the effects of cromakalim in the rabbit aorta indicating it was not acting as a partial 'agonist'. 4 Charybdotoxin, noxiustoxin and rubidium failed to discriminate between cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate indicating that the apparently selective effects of minoxidil sulphate were not mediated by either Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels, delayed rectifiers or rubidium impermeable potassium channels. 5 Glibenclamide antagonized the effects of cromakalim in an apparently competitive manner whereas the effects of minoxidil sulphate were antagonized in a non-competitive manner. The involvement of subtypes of ATP-sensitive potassium channels is discussed. PMID:1878752

  12. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-09-06

    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO 3 ·H 2 O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm 2 C -1 ). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm 2 ) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ononitol monohydrate isolated from Cassia tora L. in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulrayer Antonisamy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ononitol monohydrate (OM was isolated from Cassia tora L. leaves. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of OM have been examined in male Wistar rats and mice. The efficacy of OM against inflammation was studied by using carrageenan-induced paw oedema, croton oil-induced ear oedema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and adjuvant-induced arthritis. The analgesic activity of OM was assessed using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response, formalin-induced paw licking response and the hot-plate test. In acute type inflammation models, maximum inhibitions of 50.69 and 61.06% (P < .05 were noted with 20 mg/kg of OM in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema and croton oil-induced ear oedema, respectively. Treatment of OM (20 mg/kg meaningfully (P < .05 reduced the granuloma tissue formation by cotton pellet study at a rate of 36.25%. OM (20 mg/kg inhibited 53.64% of paw thickness in adjuvant-induced arthritis model. OM has also been produced significant (P < .05 analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response, formalin-induced paw licking response and in hot-plate test suggesting its peripheral and central analgesic potential. The outcomes of the present study proposed that OM influenced on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

  14. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. Methods From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. Results The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent calcification by hydroxyapatite (HAP), with calculus morphology and the amount of HAP in the concave zone dependent on the location of the calcified injury. Most of these HAP deposits grew, eroding the epithelium covering the renal papillae, coming into contact with urine and starting the development of COM calculi. Subepithelial HAP plaques may alter the epithelium covering the papillae, resulting in the deposit of COM crystals directly onto the epithelium. Tissue calcification depends on a pre-existing injury, the continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or crystallization inhibitors deficiency. Conclusions Since calculus morphology and the amount of detected HAP are dependent on the location and widespread of calcified injury, all types of papillary COM calculi can be found in the same patient. All patients had subepithelial calcifications, with fewer papillary calculi, demonstrating that some subepithelial calcifications did not further evolve and were reabsorbed. A high number of subepithelial calcifications increases the likelihood that some will be transformed into COM papillary calculi. PMID:23497010

  15. Renal papillary calcification and the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M; Conte, Antonio; Servera, Antonio

    2013-03-11

    The objective of this study is to determine in a case series (four patients) how calcified deposits in renal papillae are associated with the development of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. From the recently collected papillary calculi, we evaluated retrospectively patients, subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy, with COM papillary lithiasis. The COM papillary calculi were found to result from subepithelial injury. Many of these lesions underwent calcification by hydroxyapatite (HAP), with calculus morphology and the amount of HAP in the concave zone dependent on the location of the calcified injury. Most of these HAP deposits grew, eroding the epithelium covering the renal papillae, coming into contact with urine and starting the development of COM calculi. Subepithelial HAP plaques may alter the epithelium covering the papillae, resulting in the deposit of COM crystals directly onto the epithelium. Tissue calcification depends on a pre-existing injury, the continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or crystallization inhibitors deficiency. Since calculus morphology and the amount of detected HAP are dependent on the location and widespread of calcified injury, all types of papillary COM calculi can be found in the same patient. All patients had subepithelial calcifications, with fewer papillary calculi, demonstrating that some subepithelial calcifications did not further evolve and were reabsorbed. A high number of subepithelial calcifications increases the likelihood that some will be transformed into COM papillary calculi.

  16. Role of cellular oxalate in oxalate clearance of patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stone formation and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlschläger, Sven; Fuessel, Susanne; Meye, Axel; Herrmann, Jana; Froehner, Michael; Albrecht, Steffen; Wirth, Manfred P

    2009-03-01

    To examine the cellular, plasma, and urinary oxalate and erythrocyte oxalate flux in patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formation vs normal controls. Pathologic oxalate clearance in humans is mostly integrated in calcium oxalate stone formation. An underlying cause of deficient oxalate clearance could be defective transmembrane oxalate transport, which, in many tissues, is regulated by an anion exchanger (SLC26). We studied 2 groups: 40 normal controls and 41 patients with COM stone formation. Red blood cells were divided for cellular oxalate measurement and for resuspension in a buffered solution (pH 7.40); 0.1 mmol/L oxalate was added. The supernatant was measured for oxalate immediately and 1 hour after incubation. The plasma and urinary oxalate were analyzed in parallel. The mean cellular oxalate concentrations were significantly greater in the normal controls (5.25 +/- 0.47 micromol/L) than in those with COM stone formation (2.36 +/- 0.28 micromol/L; P stone formation (0.31 +/- 0.02 mmol/L) than in the controls (0.24 +/- 0.02 mmol/L; P r = 0.49-0.63; P r = -0.29-0.41; P r = -0.30; P r = 0.25; P stone formation. Our data implicate the presence of a cellular oxalate buffer to stabilize plasma and urinary oxalate concentrations in normal controls.

  17. The effects of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals on chondrocyte viability and function: implications for development of cartilage damage in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhana, Ashika; Callon, Karen E; Pool, Bregina; Naot, Dorit; Gamble, Gregory D; Dray, Michael; Pitto, Rocco; Bentley, Jarome; McQueen, Fiona M; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Cartilage damage is frequently observed in advanced destructive gout. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on chondrocyte viability and function. The alamarBlue assay and flow cytometry were used to assess the viability of primary human chondrocytes and cartilage explants following culture with MSU crystals. The number of dead chondrocytes in cartilage explants cultured with MSU crystals was quantified. Real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the relative mRNA expression levels of chondrocytic genes. The histological appearance of cartilage in joints affected by gout was also examined. MSU crystals rapidly reduced primary human chondrocyte and cartilage explant viability in a dose-dependent manner (p gout, normal cartilage architecture was lost, with empty chondrocyte lacunae observed. MSU crystals have profound inhibitory effects on chondrocyte viability and function. Interactions between MSU crystals and chondrocytes may contribute to cartilage damage in gout through reduction of chondrocyte viability and promotion of a catabolic state.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of High Purity Anhydrous β-Lactose from α-Lactose Monohydrate at Mild Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. López-Pablos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactose is a disaccharide of importance in humans dietary, food products, and the pharmaceutical industry. From the existing isomeric forms, β-lactose is rarely found in nature. Thus, in this work, a simple methodology to obtain anhydrous β-lactose (βL from α-lactose monohydrate (αL·H2O is presented. The αL·H2O powder was dispersed into a basic alcoholic solution (72 hours, at controlled conditions of temperature (27, 29, 31, and 32°C, without stirring. The slurry was dried at room temperature and characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the formation of βL for the samples prepared at 29 and 32°C. Raman spectroscopy confirmed this result and suggested the occurrence of crystalline βL. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns was employed to identify and quantify the composition of the isomers. The samples prepared at 29 and 31°C showed the formation of pure βL, while those at 27 and 32°C showed the presence of αL·H2O and a mixture of the two isomers, respectively. The morphology of the powders was studied by scanning electron microscopy, observing the formation of irregular shape αL·H2O particles and axe-like βL particles. Clearly, with this methodology, it was possible to obtain pure, crystalline, and anhydrous βL at mild temperature.

  19. Crystal structure of (1S,2R-2-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethan-1-aminium (S-2-azaniumylbutanedioate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Fujii

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The title diastereomeric salt, formed between 2-amino-1,2-diphenylethanol (ADE and aspartic acid (ASP, C14H16NO+·C4H6NO4−·H2O, crystallizes as a monohydrate. The 1,2-diphenylethyl group in the cation has a cis conformation, and the aspartic acid anion is in the zwitterionic form. In the crystal, the ASP anions are linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a 21 helix along the b-axis direction. The helices are linked by the ADE cations via O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. There are channels in the layers that are occupied by water molecules, which link to both the anions and cations via Owater—H...O and N—H...Owater hydrogen bonds. There are also C—H...O and C—H...π interactions present within the layers.

  20. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

    2005-02-01

    A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

  1. Dose Optimization of Calcusol™ and Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM on Primary Renal Epithelial Cells Cultures of Mice ( Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kidney stones are one of the urologic diseases that have plagued mankind for centuries. The main constituents of stones in the kidney are calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals. Nowadays, there are varieties of drugs and treatments that can be made to minimize the grievances due to kidney stone disease. The treatment can be done either by using chemicals or traditional medicine. Calcusol™ is one of the popular herbal products that have been used by Indonesian people in curing the kidney stone disease. The main constituent that was contained in Calcusol™ is an extract of the tempuyung leaves (Sonchus arvensis L., which is expected could cure the kidney stone disease. This study used primary cultured renal epithelial cells of mice to determine the optimal dose of Calcusol™ and the optimal dose of COM. The primary Kidney epithelial cell were treated with Calcusol™ and COM at various doses. The analysis of the cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis pathways was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. The results that were obtained is the percentage of cell death that is then analyzed by using a complete randomized design (CRD One Way Anova. Based on the results that were obtained, it is known that the optimal dose of Calcusol™ in vitro were ranging from 75 ppm to 100 ppm, whereas the optimal dose of COM suggested for 500 ppm.

  2. Determinants of magnesium sulphate use in women hospitalized at <29 weeks with severe or non-severe pre-eclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane A De Silva

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulphate is recommended by international guidelines to prevent eclampsia among women with pre-eclampsia, especially when it is severe, but fewer than 70% of such women receive magnesium sulphate. We aimed to identify variables that prompt Canadian physicians to administer magnesium sulphate to women with pre-eclampsia.Data were used from the Canadian Perinatal Network (2005-11 of women hospitalized at <29 weeks' who were thought to be at high risk of delivery due to pre-eclampsia (using broad Canadian definition. Unadjusted analyses of relative risks were estimated directly and population attributable risk percent (PAR% calculated to identify variables associated with magnesium sulphate use. A multivariable model was created and a generalized estimating equation was used to estimate the adjusted RR that explained magnesium sulphate use in pre-eclampsia. The adjusted PAR% was estimated by bootstrapping.Of 631 women with pre-eclampsia, 174 (30.1% had severe pre-eclampsia, of whom 131 (75.3% received magnesium sulphate. 457 (69.9% women had non-severe pre-eclamspia, of whom 291 (63.7% received magnesium sulphate. Use of magnesium sulphate among women with pre-eclampsia could be attributed to the following clinical factors (PAR%: delivery for 'adverse conditions' (48.7%, severe hypertension (21.9%, receipt of antenatal corticosteroids (20.0%, maternal transport prior to delivery (9.9%, heavy proteinuria (7.8%, and interventionist care (3.4%.Clinicians are more likely to administer magnesium sulphate for eclampsia prophylaxis in the presence of more severe maternal clinical features, in addition to concomitant antenatal corticosteroid administration, and shorter admission to delivery periods related to transport from another institution or plans for interventionist care.

  3. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Henderson-Smart, David J; Chou, Doris

    2010-11-10

    Eclampsia, the occurrence of a seizure (fit) in association with pre-eclampsia, is rare but potentially life-threatening. Magnesium sulphate is the drug of choice for treating eclampsia. This review assesses its use for preventing eclampsia. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate, and other anticonvulsants, for prevention of eclampsia. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (4 June 2010), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3). Randomised trials comparing anticonvulsants with placebo or no anticonvulsant, or comparisons of different drugs, for pre-eclampsia. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We included 15 trials. Six (11,444 women) compared magnesium sulphate with placebo or no anticonvulsant: magnesium sulphate more than a halved the risk of eclampsia (risk ratio (RR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.58; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 100, 95% CI 50 to 100), with a non-significant reduction in maternal death (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.10) but no clear difference in serious maternal morbidity (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.32). It reduced the risk of placental abruption (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.83; NNTB 100, 95% CI 50 to 1000), and increased caesarean section (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10). There was no clear difference in stillbirth or neonatal death (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.15). Side effects, primarily flushing, were more common with magnesium sulphate (24% versus 5%; RR 5.26, 95% CI 4.59 to 6.03; number need to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 6, 95% CI 5 to 6).Follow-up was reported by one trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo: for 3375 women there was no clear difference in death (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.53) or morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.26) (median follow-up 26 months); for 3283 children exposed in utero

  4. Abiotic nitrate and sulphate reduction by hydrogen: a comparative experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truche, L.; Berger, G.; Albrecht, A.; Giffaut, E.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The bituminous waste which is part of the intermediate level, long-lived waste (MAVL) is characterised, amongst others, by the coexistence of nitrates, sulphates, organic matter, native metals and hydrogen gas in the waste mixture and package. It can be considered as the most complex example that will be used to discuss redox reactions occurring in such waste mixtures. The evaluation of the redox conditions requires quantification of the amount of electron acceptors and donors and definition of the kinetics of redox reaction. The objectives of an experimental study to unravel some of these reaction complexities are: - to investigate nature and rate of sulphate and nitrate reduction by hydrogen in the presence of different catalysts (stainless steel, hastelloy, magnetite and argillite); - to compare sulphate and nitrate as electron acceptors; - to provide a mechanistic model of these reactions. It is well known that reduction of sulphate and nitrate requires high activation energies, usually supplied either by thermal processes or via bacterial and surface catalysis, of which the latter has been investigated in this study. Preliminary experiments performed at 150 deg. C and under H 2 pressure show that sulphate reduction is enhanced in the presence of magnetite, but essentially under the restricted condition of low sulphate concentration and at a pH below the Point of Zero Charge of magnetite. This suggests that sorption of sulphate contributes to the catalysed reaction (at low pH) but provided that the magnetite surface sites are not saturated with respect to aqueous sulphate (low concentration). On the contrary, nitrate reduction is observed whatever the pH and the nitrate concentration in the presence of both magnetite and hastelloy C276 (Ni, Cr, Mo, W, Fe alloy). The effect of temperature on the rate of nitrate reduction (500 ppm KNO 3 solution) is shown by comparing three different experiments conducted in

  5. High temperature corrosion of nickel-base alloys in environments containing alkali sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Rachel; Flyg, Jesper; Caddeo, Sophie [Corrosion and Metals Research Institute, KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Fredrik [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspong (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    This work is directed towards producing data to assist in lifetime assessment of components in gas turbines run in severely polluted industrial environments where the main corrosive species is SO{sub 2}, which can condense to form alkali sulphates. Corrosion rates have been measured for the base materials, in order to assess the worst-case scenario, in which cracks or other damage has occurred to the protective coating. The information is expected to be of value to manufacturers, owners and inspectors of gas turbines. Six nickel-base superalloys were subject to thermal cycles of 160 hours duration, and 0.8mg/cm{sup 2} of 20 mol % Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 80mol% K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was applied before each cycle. The test temperatures were 850 deg C and 900 deg C, with maximum test durations of 24 cycles and 12 cycles respectively. The metal loss was assessed by metallography of cross sections and the sulphidation attack was found to be very uneven. Mass change data indicated that the corrosion process was largely linear in character, and probability plots and estimations of the propagation rate of corrosion based on the linear growth assumption were produced. The performance of the alloys increased with increasing chromium content. The single crystal materials CMSX4 and MD2 showed such high corrosion rates that their use in severely contaminated industrial environments is considered inadvisable. The best performance was shown by Inconel 939 and Inconel 6203, so that even if cracks occur in the protective coating, a reasonable remaining lifetime can be expected for these materials. Sulphide formation occurred at the reaction front in all cases and mixed sulphides such as Ta-Ni or Ti-Nb sulphides were often present. The work has news value since very little long-term data is currently available for materials performance in severely sulphidising environments. The project goals in terms of exposures and metrology have been fully realised. Contributions have been made to the

  6. Alternative method of portable irradiation of manganese sulphate solution by an plutonium-beryllium source for manganese sulphate bath efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Martins, Marcelo Marques; Pereira, Walsan Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to create an alternative irradiation system from a Plutonium-Beryllium source for manganese sulphate solution using the Monte Carlo code. Thus seeking to eliminate the issue of institutes that do not have reactors or particle accelerators in its infrastructure, in order to optimize and provide independence for them to carry out efficiency measurements of MnSO_4 solution in their own locality. The Monte Carlo simulations defined the technical features of this new system so that the solution reaches the maximum neutron capture by manganese in solution. (author)

  7. INVESTIGATION OF DISSOLVED SULPHATE IN VARIOUS GEOTHERMAL FIELDS OF SUMATRA USING OXYGEN AND SULPHUR ISOTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ristin Pujiindiyati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 30 high temperature systems; eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano controlled by Sumatra Fault Zone over a length of 1700 km. To understand this geothermal field system, some information about geochemistry including isotope composition in its fluid is needed. Sulphur-34 and oxygen-18 isotopes in dissolved sulphate pair have been used to determine the origin of acidic fluid of sulphate and to evaluate the process involved. The fluids from eight hot springs, two fumaroles, four deep wells and crater have been collected in along Sumatra geothermal fields. Sulphur-34 (d 34S (SO4, 0/00 CDT and oxygen-18 (d 18O (SO4, 0/00 SMOW in sulphate is analyzed according to Robinson-Kusakabe and Rafter method, respectively. The d 34S (SO4 values from Sibayak wells are more enriched of 16.8 0/00 to 18.2 0/0 that may indicate the dissolution of anhydrite minerals or isotope partitioning in hydration of SO2. The d 34S (SO4 values from two fumaroles (Pusuk Bukit - North Sumatra and Rantau Dadap - South Sumatra are at depleted value of -0.150/00 and 1.80/00, those are close to d 34S from magmatic sulphur.  In general, the d 34S (SO4 of springs spread in a wide range of 5.250/00 to14.20/00 and show a mixing process between atmospheric sulphate and sulphate from deep wells. The d 18O (SO4 from wells exhibits depleted value around -3.60/00 suggesting that 87.5% of sulphate oxygen is derived from groundwater oxygen and 12.5% is derived from atmospheric molecular oxygen in sulphide oxidation reaction. In the other hand, hot springs (except Semurup, crater and fumaroles have enriched value of d 18O (SO4. These enriched values suggest that a higher percentage of atmospherically derived oxygen compared to those from the depth.   Keywords: isotope, geothermal, Sumatra

  8. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields......Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...... for growth (T(opt)) were 7 degrees C (PSv29), 10 degrees C (ASv26, LSv54) and 18 degrees C (LSv21, LSv514), Although T(opt) was considerably above the in situ temperatures of their habitats (-1.7 degrees C and 2.6 degrees C), relative growth rates were still high at 0 degrees C, accounting for 25...

  9. Extraction of nickel from Ramu laterite by sulphation roasting-water leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Du, Shangchao; Liu, Guo; Tang, Jianwen; Lu, Yeda; Lv, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Recovery of nickel from a PNG nickel laterite with high content of iron by a sulphation roasting-water leaching has been studied. The influences of sulfuric acid/ore ratio, temperature of roasting and water on recovery efficiency were investigated. The effective separation of nickel over the co-existed elements including iron was achieved by the process with mixing, curing, roasting and leaching stages. Near 100% of nickel was leached from the roasted laterite by water at 80°C in an atmospheric air, while co-leaching of about 2% of iron, under the optimal pre-treatment conditions with the ratio of acid: ore around 0.45:1 and the roasting temperature about 650°C. The advantages and disadvantages of sulphation atmospheric leaching are compared with pressure acid leaching with engineering consideration.

  10. Influence of Valsartan on the thermodynamics of micellization of anionic surfactant Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopková L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript was investigated behaviour of drug valsartan by micellar media of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate. As the method was used electrical conductivity for the determination of critical micelle concentration at different temperatures (T = 293.15 - 313.15 K, as well as calculated thermodynamic parameters like standard Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micellization. According to contribution of Gibbs free energy is the process of micellization primarily controlled by entropy. Solubilization of valsartan was studied in surfactant system at 298.15 K and physiological conditions pH 7.4 using UV-spectrophotometry at different concentration range (0.001 - 0.07 mol/l of sodium dodecyl sulphate. The solubilization of drug was observed with increasing concentration of surfactant in aqueous solution.

  11. Isolation and characterisation of barium sulphate and titanium oxides in monument crusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Perez-Rodriguez, Jose; Carmen Jimenez de Haro, Maria del; Maqueda, Celia

    2004-10-25

    Black crusts from historical ornamental materials contain Ba and Ti. These elements are in low proportion, making their determination difficult and especially the characterisation of the phases in which they are present. For this reason, works on the mineralogical composition of the two elements in black crusts is scarce. Thus the isolation, previous to their characterisation, is important for the study of the surface layer in altered monuments. An acid attack for the isolation of barium sulphate and titanium oxides in black crusts from polluted areas has been used. The acid employed is a mixture of HF, HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4}. The residue isolated by acid attack was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. It was characterised, and the percentages of barite (barium sulphate), anatase (titanium oxide), and rutile (titanium oxide) phases present in the surface layers were calculated.

  12. Sulphate analysis in uranium leach iron(III) chloride solutions by inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirdosh, I.; Lakhani, S.; Yunus, M.Z.M.

    1993-01-01

    Inductively coupled Argon Plasma Spectrometry is used for the indirect determination of sulphate in iron(III) chloride leach solution of Elliot Lake uranium ores via addition of a known amount of barium ions and analyzing for excess of barium. The ore contains ∼ 7 wt% pyrite, FeS 2 , as the major mineral which oxidizes to generate sulphate during leaching with Fe(III). The effects of pH, the concentrations of Fe(III) and chloride ions and for presence of ethanol in the test samples on the accuracy of analysis are studied. It is found that unlike the Rhodizonate method, removal of iron(III) from or addition of ethanol to the test sample prior to analysis are not required. Linear calibration curves are obtained. (author)

  13. Ammonium sulphate fertiliser increases larval populations of Anopheles arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes in rice fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutero, C M; Ng'ang'a, P N; Wekoyela, P

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in central Kenya, to study the effect of ammonium sulphate fertiliser ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) on mosquito larval populations in rice fields. The experiments used a complete randomised block design having four blocks with two experimental ponds per block, and the fertili......Field experiments were conducted in central Kenya, to study the effect of ammonium sulphate fertiliser ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) on mosquito larval populations in rice fields. The experiments used a complete randomised block design having four blocks with two experimental ponds per block...... populations of An. arabiensis (Pmosquitoes (P... in rice fields, thereby making them visually more attractive for egg-laying by An. arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes....

  14. The role of cysteine residues in the sulphate transporter, SHST1: construction of a functional cysteine-less transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Susan M

    2005-05-20

    We investigated the role of cysteine residues in the sulphate transporter, SHST1, with the aim of generating a functional cysteine-less variant. SHST1 contains five cysteine residues and none was essential for function. However, replacement of C421 resulted in a reduction in transport activity. Sulphate transport by C205 mutants was dependent on the size of the residue at this position. Alanine at position 205 resulted in a complete loss of function whereas leucine resulted in a 3-fold increase in sulphate transport relative to wild type SHST1. C205 is located in a putative intracellular loop and our results suggest that this loop may be important for sulphate transport. By replacing C205 with leucine and the other four cysteine residues with alanine, we constructed a cysteine-less variant of SHST1 that has transport characteristics indistinguishable from wild type. This construct will be useful for further structure and function studies of SHST1.

  15. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: Biological sulphate removal technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Godfrey_2007.Stockholm.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3297 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Godfrey_2007.Stockholm.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Biological.... This treatment process relies on many species of degrading bacteria including the sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Fermentation microorganisms using cattle rumen fluid The rumen is a highly cellulytic ecosystem with a complex microbial population...

  16. Reuse of Partially Sulphated CFBC Ash as an SO2 Sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yinghai; Jia, Lufei; Anthony, E.J. [CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A1M1 (Canada); Nobili, M.; Telesca, A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Physics, University of Basilicata, Viale dell' Ateneo, Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Montagnaro, F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Ashes produced from fluidized bed combustors (FBC) burning high-sulphur fuels often contain 20-30 % unreacted CaO because of the limestone added to remove SO2 in situ. This paper presents the results from experiments into reactivating partially sulphated FBC ash (both bed ash and fly ash) with liquid water, steam and sodium carbonate. The water- or steam-hydrated ashes were subsequently re-sulphated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) with simulated flue gas. The TGA results show that, while liquid water and steam successfully hydrate and reactivate the unreacted CaO in the bed ash, the treated ashes sulphated to widely different extents. Attempts to reactivate fly ash with hydration failed, although fly ash by itself is extremely reactive. A pilot-scale mini-circulating FBC (CFBC) was also used to evaluate the results of reactivation on the bed ash by hydrating with liquid water and admixtures of inorganic salt (Na2CO3) in the form of either powder or solution. When the treated ash was re-injected into the combustor with the fuel, the effect on SO2 removal efficiency was negligible if Na2CO3 was added as powder. Doping with aqueous solution resulted in enhanced SO2 removal; however, the extent was lower than the level achieved if only water hydration was employed. Increasing the amount of water (from 10% to 30%) to reactivate the ash did not improve the sulphur capture capacity in the mini-CFBC. Overall, this study suggests that the most practical way for re-use of the partially sulphated bed ash as a sulphur sorbent is reactivation by water. A proposal for utilization of the fly ash in an economically reasonable way is also discussed.

  17. Response of sulphur dynamics in European catchments to decreasing sulphate deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prechtel, A.; Alewell, C.; Armbruster, M.; Bittersohl, J.; Cullen, J.; Evans, C. D.; Helliwell, R.; Kopáček, Jiří; Marchetto, A.; Matzner, E.; Meesenburg, H.; Moldan, F.; Moritz, K.; Veselý, J.; Wright, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2001), s. 311-325 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0063 Grant - others:CEC RECOVER(XE) 2010-EVK1-CT-1999-00018; GMER(DE) PT BEO51-0339476; CEC(XE) EMERGE-EVK1-CT-1999-00032 Keywords : acidification reversal * sulphur * sulphate release Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2001

  18. Effects of preoperative magnesium sulphate on post-cesarean pain, a placebo controlled double blind study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohamad Mireskandari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the role of preoperative intravenous magnesium sulphate in decreasing post-cesarean pain and opioid requirement during first 24hrs.In a double blind randomized clinical trial, prior to induction of general anesthesia, fifty elective cesarean candidates were randomly assigned to one of the two groups of placebo or magnesium sulfate. After surgery visual analogue scale (VAS and infused morphine by PCA during 24 hrs were recorded. The data were analyzed by mann-Whitney -test, analysis of variance, and student t- test.VAS was significantly lower among patients in the magnesium sulphate group at intervals of 1(st, 6(th & 12(th hours after cesarean section (C/S with the mean scales of (48.9 ± 19.6 VS 74.7 ± 18.4, (42.1 ± 0.9 VS 58.3 ± 16.5 and (25.2 ± 6.1VS 30 ± 8.1 respectively and p-value of <0.001, 0.002 and 0.05 respectively. However at 24 hrs there was no significant difference in VAS with mean VAS scales of 22.6 ± 4.5 VS 23.6 ± 4.9 and p-value of 0.49. The dose of infused Morphine during 24 hrs was significantly less in the magnesium sulphate group than the placebo group with the means of 4.36 ± 1.4 VS 7.02 ± 1.9 mg respectively (p < 0.001.Administration of bolus 50 mg/kg magnesium sulphate prior to induction of general anesthesia may significantly decreased the morphine requirement during immediate post operative period and can be recommended as one of the modalities of post-operative pain control in the pregnant patients.

  19. Nature of the activates places of the acid solid catalysts of the sulphated metallic oxides type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Miguel A; Fontalvo Javier

    1998-01-01

    In this revision the state of the knowledge is presented with respect to the understanding of the nature of the active places for the strongly acid solid catalysts of the type sulphated metallic oxides. The results presented by means of models are based on the characterization of the properties physicochemical carried out by means of technical as XPS, to GO, NMR etc., and the evaluation of the catalytic activity in different applications

  20. Aluminum sulphate production and zeolite from residual muds of the company Extralum S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, C.; Montero, M.

    2002-01-01

    As part of our research on alternative raw materials for the chemical industry we studied sludge from an anodizing process at Extralum S.A. The sludge contains mainly bayerite, Al(OH) 3 and bohemite A1O (OH). Starting from these we developed a hydrothermal synthesis of Aluminium sulphate and Zeolite A. The Zeolite A was identified by Powder X-ray crystallography. The scanning electron microscope image of the Zeolite A shows a very high degree of crystallinity. (Author) [es

  1. The Application of Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria for the Heavy Metals Elimination from Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Luptáková

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems affecting mining companies around the world is the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD. AMD is characterised by its high acidity, high concentration of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd,… and high concentration of dissolved sulphates. The techniques traditionally used for the treatment of AMD have been based on chemical methods of neutralization and precipitation. A possible alternative to the chemical treatment of AMD is bioremediation using anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. The treatment of AMD by SRB is based on the ability of SRB to reduce sulphates to hydrogen sulphide, which binds readily with metals to form sparingly soluble precipitates. In this study we have attempted to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic biotreatment of the copper contaminated model solution and a real effluent AMD from the shaft Pech (the locality Smolnik using SRB. This method involves three stages: The H2S production by sulphate-reducing bacteria, the metals precipitation by the biologically produced H2S and the metal sulphides filtration. The studies confirm that copper was effectively recovered from the solution using bacterial produced H2S. An initial copper concentration 10 mg.l-1 was decreased to less than 0.05 mg.l-1 after 3 hours. The most adequate pH value for cooper precipitation was 2.5. Results of the copper precipitation from the areal effluent indicates that the optimal pH value for the copper precipitation is 3.5, but the created precipitates contain a mixture of copper and iron sulphides.

  2. Variations in the Peritrophic Matrix Composition of Heparan Sulphate from the Tsetse Fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rogerson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the principal insect vectors of African trypanosomes—sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle. One of the tsetse fly species, Glossina morsitans morsitans, is host to the parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, a major cause of African trypanosomiasis. Precise details of the life cycle have yet to be established, but the parasite life cycle involves crossing the insect peritrophic matrix (PM. The PM consists of the polysaccharide chitin, several hundred proteins, and both glycosamino- and galactosaminoglycan (GAG polysaccharides. Owing to the technical challenges of detecting small amounts of GAG polysaccharides, their conclusive identification and composition have not been possible until now. Following removal of PMs from the insects and the application of heparinases (bacterial lyase enzymes that are specific for heparan sulphate (HS GAG polysaccharides, dot blots with a HS-specific antibody showed heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs to be present, consistent with Glossina morsitans morsitans genome analysis, as well as the likely expression of the HSPGs syndecan and perlecan. Exhaustive HS digestion with heparinases, fluorescent labeling of the resulting disaccharides with BODIPY fluorophore, and separation by strong anion exchange chromatography then demonstrated the presence of HS for the first time and provided the disaccharide composition. There were no significant differences in the type of disaccharide species present between genders or between ages (24 vs. 48 h post emergence, although the HS from female flies was more heavily sulphated overall. Significant differences, which may relate to differences in infection between genders or ages, were evident, however, in overall levels of 2-O-sulphation between sexes and, for females, between 24 and 48 h post-emergence, implying a change in expression or activity for the 2-O-sulphotransferase enzyme. The presence of significant quantities of disaccharides containing the

  3. Biosedimentary and geochemical constraints on the precipitation of mineral crusts in shallow sulphate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabestrero, Óscar; del Buey, Pablo; Sanz-Montero, M. Esther

    2018-04-01

    Seasonal desiccation of Mg2+-(Na+)-(Ca2+)-SO42--(Cl-) saline lakes in La Mancha (Central Spain) that host microbial mats led to the precipitation of hydrated Na-Mg sulphates and gypsum. Sulphates precipitated in the submerged conditions form extensive biolaminites, whilst in marginal areas they produce thin crusts. Sedimentological, mineralogical, petrographic and high resolution textural studies reveal that the crusts were formed within the benthic microbial mats that thrive at salinities ranging from 160 to 340 g·L-1. The minerals of the crusts are primary bloedite (Na2Mg(SO4)2·4H2O), epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O), as well as secondary hexahydrite (MgSO4·6H2O) and thenardite (Na2SO4). Primary bloedite crystals, which form the framework of surficial and submerged crusts are seen to nucleate subaqueously and grow incorporatively within the matgrounds. Displacive and incorporative epsomite grows on previous bloedite crystals and also on the ground. Mirabilite is precipitated rapidly at the brine-air interface over bloedite and epsomite. Hexahydrite and thenardite are formed due to dehydration of epsomite and mirabilite, respectively. Hydrochemical modeling with PHREEQC indicated that evaporitic biolaminites are forming from brines undersaturated with respect to bloedite, epsomite and mirabilite, which suggests that the microorganisms contribute to the heterogeneous nucleation of the sulphates in the microbial mats. Unlike carbonates, the influence of microbes on the growth and morphology of complicated double salts such as bloedite has not been documented previously and provides a new perspective on the formation of hydrated sulphate minerals that are common on Earth as well as other planets.

  4. [Severe toxic liver failure after acute poisoning with paracetamol, ferrous sulphate and naproxen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Robert; Wilczek, Lech; Krupiński, Bogusław

    2004-01-01

    We present the case of 20-year-old woman intoxicated with mixed drugs, composed of paracetamol (acetaminophen), ferrous sulphate, naproxen and benzodiazepines. Acute toxic liver damage with clinical symptoms of coma resolved at the patient. Lack of the past history doesn't let to specific therapy and systemic complications. In this data we confirm, that past history, clinical symptoms and laboratory results are needed in designing a treatment strategy.

  5. A sulphated flavone glycoside from Livistona australis and its antioxidant and cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona E S; Shoela, Soha; Marzouk, Mona M; Sleem, Amany A

    2012-01-01

    A new flavone glycoside tricin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside-2″-sulphate sodium salt along with 14 known flavonoid compounds were isolated and identified from the aqueous methanol extract of Livistona australis leaves. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR (¹H, ¹³C, HSQC and H-H COSY) and ESIMS data. Antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties of the methanol extract of the leaves as well as the new compound were investigated.

  6. Oral zinc sulphate in treatment of patients with thallium poisoning: A clinical therapeutic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Mohammadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thallium poisoning is usually associated with typical dermatological features simulating that of zinc deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of patients with thallium poisoning.Materials and methods: This clinical therapeutic trial study was conducted in Departments of Dermatology of Baghdad and Basrah Teaching Hospitals from February 2008 - February 2010, where a total of 37 patients with thallium poisoning were enrolled.A detailed history was taken from all patients and complete clinical examination was performed. All patients received zinc sulphate in a dose of 5 mg/kg three times a day few days before confirming the diagnosis of thallium poisoning. Thallium in urine had been measured using the colorimetric method and was positive in all patients. After confirming the diagnosis of thallium poisoning, thallium antidotes Prussian blue was given to 32 patients.Results: Age range of 37 patients was 5-33 (24±5.3 years. The dermatological findings were mainly: anagen hair loss affected the scalp and limbs. Also, dusky ecchymotic red dermatitis like rash was observed on the face and dorsum of hands and legs, while neurological manifestations were mainly of peripheral neuropathy, were reported in 21 (55% patients. All patients but two responded promptly to a trial of zinc sulphate within few days.Conclusion: Oral Zinc sulphate appears to be an effective and safe treatment for thallium poisoning particularly for skin and hair features and in reducing its lethal progression and complications. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:133-7

  7. Kinetics of barium sulphate reaction crystallization in crystallizers with internal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Koralewska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic calculation results describing the observed nucleation and growth rates of barium sulphate crystals precipitated in an integrated reaction-crystallization process in a barium sulphate-ammonium chloride-water system are presented and analyzed. The scope of experiments included two continuous model DTM-type crystallizers (Draft Tube Magma with internal circulation of the suspension forced by a liquid jet-pump device responsible for stable and intensive enough ascending/descending flow of BaSO4 crystal magma in a mixing chamber. For comparison purposes the experimental data corresponding to a continuous DT (Draft Tube crystallizer with propeller agitator are presented and discussed. The various types of laboratory crystallizers used were fed with concentrated water solution of barium chloride (of 10 or 24 mass % and - in a stoichiometric proportion - crystalline ammonium sulphate, assuming isothermal (348 K and hydrodynamic (average residence time of suspension in a crystallizer: 900 s process conditions. The observed nucleation and growth rates of barium sulphate crystals were estimated on the basis of crystal size distributions (CSDs using convenient calculation scheme derived for an MSMPR (Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal model approach. Considering the experimental population density distribution courses, a size-dependent growth (SDG phenomenon was taken into account in the kinetic calculations. Five SDG kinetic models recommended in the accessible literature were used for kinetic parameter values estimation. It was proved statistically, that Rojkowski’s two SDG models (hyperbolic and exponential best suit for our own experimental data description. The experimental data presented can be practically applied for improving the constructions of liquid jet-pump DTM crystallizers recommended for reaction crystallization of sparingly soluble inorganic salts (especially for high concentrations of reaction substrates in the modern

  8. EFFECTS INDUCED BY DIETHYL SULPHATE ON SOME CYTOGENETICAL PARAMETERS AND LENGTH GROWTH OF HEMP PLANTLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The hemp seeds were treated with diethyl sulphate, in four concentrations (0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% and in two variants of alkylant exposure (3 and 6 hours. The length growth of plantlets, mitotic index and frequency of chromosomal aberrations were the analyzed parameters. Significant modifications were obtained at the level of parameters in variants treated with DES, comparatively with control.

  9. The determination, by flow-injection analysis, of iron, sulphate, silver and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the spectrophotometric determination by flow-injection analysis including, where necessary, liquid-liquid extraction of iron with 1,10-phenanthroline; of sulphate by its catalytic effect on the methylthymol blue-zirconium reaction; of silver with bromopyrogallol red and 1,10-phenanthroline; and of cadmium with dithizone. Optimum conditions for each system are established, and sensitivities and ranges of determination are given

  10. Accelerating the transit time of barium sulphate suspensions in small bowel examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, David S.; Roger, Mark D.; Allan, Paul L.; Murchison, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hyperosmolar and effervescent agents proven individually to accelerate transit time in the barium small bowel examination have an additive effect when combined, surpassing that of either agent alone. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-nine patients were randomised to four groups. Three hundred milliliters of barium sulphate alone was given to the first group. Fifteen milliliters of iodinated hyperosmolar contrast agent (Gastrografin, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, Schering) was given in addition to barium sulphate to the second group while six packets of effervescent granules (Carbex, Ferring) were added for the third group. The final group was given a combination of both additives and barium sulphate. The time taken following ingestion for the contrast column to reach the caecum, as assessed by frequent interval fluoroscopy, was recorded. A subgroup of 32 patients were selected randomly from the four groups, 8 from each and assessed for quality of examination. Statistical assessments were made using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were analysed after exclusions. The addition of accelerant to barium sulphate, both individually and in combination significantly reduced the small bowel transit time (p < 0.001). No significant difference existed between the additives when used with barium alone. The combined group had significantly faster transit times compared to the hyperosmolar group (p = 0.02). Differences between combined and effervescent groups tended towards significance (p = 0.09). No significant difference existed between groups when examination quality was assessed. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of combined effervescent and hyperosmolar agents to the barium suspension may significantly shorten the small bowel transit time without adversely affecting examination quality. This has implications for patient acceptability of the examination as well as

  11. Distribution of radioactivity in the mouse organism after administration of 35S-chondroitin sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konador, A.; Kawiak, J.

    1976-01-01

    The follow-up of chondroitin sulphate (ChS) distribution in the organism after its administration by various routes is interesting in view of the possibility of clinical applications. Mice received intraperitoneally and intragastrically 35 S-ChS and the distribution of radioactivity was followed in 10 chosen organs. The dynamics of changes in radioactivity were found to differ in dependence on the type of organ and route of administration. (author)

  12. Accidental intravenous infusion of a large dose of magnesium sulphate during labor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During labor and child delivery, a wide range of drugs are administered. Most of these medications are high-alert medications, which can cause significant harm to the patient due to its inadvertent use. Errors could be caused due to unfamiliarity with safe dosage ranges, confusion between similar looking drugs, mislabeling of drugs, equipment misuse, or malfunction and communication errors. We report a case of inadvertent infusion of a large dose of magnesium sulphate in a pregnant woman.

  13. Validation of high performance liquid chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of the antiparkinson agent pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate in pharmaceutical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Sevim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract The antiparkinson agent pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate was quantified in pharmaceutical products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and derivative spectrophotometry. The first method was based on HPLC using tamsulosin HCl as an internal standard. In this method, chromatographic separation was achieved using a LiChrospher 60 RP column at 25°C, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 263 nm. The eluent comprised 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 4.4 and acetonitrile (35:65 by volume. The linearity range was found to be 10.0-30.0 µg/mL with a mean recovery of 100.5 ± 1.10. The limit of detection (8 ng/mL and limit of quantification (50 ng/mL were calculated. In the second method, the first derivative spectrophotometric technique for the determination of pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate was performed by measuring the amplitude at 249 and 280 nm. In the first derivative technique, the absorbance and concentration plot was rectilinear over the 5.0-35.0 µg/mL range with a lower detection limit of 1.5 ng/mL and quantification limit of 4.5 ng/mL. The typical excipients included in the pharmaceutical product do not interfere with the selectivity of either method. The developed methods were validated for robustness, selectivity, specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy as per the ICH and FDA guidelines (ICH Q2B, 1996; FDA,2000. In conclusion, the developed methods were successful in determining the quantity of the antiparkinson agent pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate in pharmaceutical products. The RSD values for the pharmaceutical product used in this study were found to be 0.97% for the HPLC method and 0.00% for the first derivative spectrophotometric method.

  14. Effect of chondroitin sulphate on synovitis of knee osteoarthritic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tío, Laura; Orellana, Cristobal; Pérez-García, Selene; Piqueras, Laura; Escudero, Paula; Juarranz, Yasmina; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Montañés, Francisco; Farran, Aina; Benito, Pere; Gomariz, Rosa P; Sanz, María-Jesús; Monfort, Jordi

    2017-07-07

    To evaluate by ultrasonography the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on synovitis in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). To collaborate in the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms involved in the synovial inflammation process. Randomized, single-blind, controlled trial involving 70 patients with primary KOA treated for 6 months with CS or acetaminophen (ACT). Evaluation of KOA status at baseline, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months included: ultrasonography to assess synovitis (following the OMERACT expertise group definition), visual analogue scale and Lequesne index to measure pain and function, and ELISA to quantify inflammatory mediators in serum and synovial fluid. Synovitis presence was reduced by 50% in the CS group while a 123% increase was observed in ACT group. Conversely, patients without initial synovitis and treated with ACT reached 85.71% synovitis onset, but only 25% in CS group. Both therapies improved articular function, but only CS resulted in significant pain improvement at the end of the treatment. Changes in RANTES and UCN synovial fluid concentration were associated with CS treatment. Treatment with CS had a sustained beneficial effect, preventing synovitis onset or reducing its presence as well as reducing KOA symptoms. ACT ameliorated clinical symptoms but had no effect on inflammation. The CS anti-inflammatory effect could be related to the observed changes in RANTES and UCN concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Refined energetic ordering for sulphate-water (n = 3-6) clusters using high-level electronic structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Daniel S.; McCaslin, Laura; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-01

    This work reports refinements of the energetic ordering of the known low-energy structures of sulphate-water clusters ? (n = 3-6) using high-level electronic structure methods. Coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) is used in combination with an estimate of basis set effects up to the complete basis set limit using second-order Møller-Plesset theory. Harmonic zero-point energy (ZPE), included at the B3LYP/6-311 + + G(3df,3pd) level, was found to have a significant effect on the energetic ordering. In fact, we show that the energetic ordering is a result of a delicate balance between the electronic and vibrational energies. Limitations of the ZPE calculations, both due to electronic structure errors, and use of the harmonic approximation, probably constitute the largest remaining errors. Due to the often small energy differences between cluster isomers, and the significant role of ZPE, deuteration can alter the relative energies of low-lying structures, and, when it is applied in conjunction with calculated harmonic ZPEs, even alters the global minimum for n = 5. Experiments on deuterated clusters, as well as more sophisticated vibrational calculations, may therefore be quite interesting.

  16. Bis(2,6-diaminopyridinium) bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylato)zincate(II) monohydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tabatabaee, M.; Thahriri, M.; Thahriri, Mo.; Dušek, Michal; Fejfarová, Karla

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 67, Part 6 (2011), m769-u1197 ISSN 1600-5368 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0701 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : single-crystal x-ray study * T = 120 K * zinc complexes Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.347, year: 2011

  17. Topical therapy of acne vulgaris using 2% tea lotion in comparison with5% Zinc sulphate lotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharquie, Khalifa E.; Noaimi, Adil A.; Al-Salih, Mazin M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate effectiveness of 2% tea lotion in comparisonwith 5% zinc sulphate solution in the treatment of acne vulgaris. This is asingle-blind randomly comparative therapeutic clinical trial carried out inthe Department of Dermatology, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Iraq from June 2006to December 2007. Full history and clinical examination were studied for eachpatient regarding all relevant points of the disease, to evaluate theseverity of acne. Forty-seven patients with acne vulgaris were dividedrandomly into 2 groups and were instructed to use the following solutionstwice daily for 2 months; group A used 2% tea lotion, group B used 5% zincsulphate lotion. Patients with papulopustular lesions were included in thestudy, while patients with severe acne were excluded. The clinicalimprovement was scored by counting the number of inflammatory lesions beforeand after treatment. Forty patients completed the study, their ages rangedfrom 13-27 years with a mean+-standard deviation of 19.5+-3.5 years with 20patients in each group. Two percent tea lotion was statistically significantin decreasing the number of the inflammatory lesions in acne vulgaris, while5% zinc sulphate solution was beneficial, but did not reach statisticallysignificant level as tea lotion. Two percent of tea lotion was a goodalternative remedy to be used in the treatment of acne vulgaris and was muchsuperior than topical 5% zinc sulphate solution. (author)

  18. Effect of fly ash content towards Sulphate resistance of oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, K.; Fadzil, M. Y.; Nazrin Akmal, A. Z. Muhammad; Ahmad, S. Wan; Nur Azzimah, Z.; Hanafi, H. Mohd; Mohamad Hafizuddin, R.

    2018-04-01

    Both oil palm shell (OPS) and fly ash are by-product generated from the industries. Disposal of these by-product as wastes cause negative impact to the environment. The use of both oil palm shell and fly ash in concrete is seen as an economical solution for making green and denser concrete. The primary aim of this research is to determine the effects of FA utilization as sand replacement in oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete (OPS LWAC) towards sulphate resistance. Five concrete mixes containing fly ash as sand replacement namely 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% were prepared in these experimental work. All mixes were cast in form of cubes before subjected to sulphate solution for the period of 5 months. It was found that addition of 10% fly ash as sand replacement content resulted in better sulphate resistance of OPS LWAC. The occurrence of pozzolanic reaction due to the presence of FA in concrete has consumed the vulnerable Calcium hydroxide to be secondary C-S-H gel making the concrete denser and more durable.

  19. Synthesis of specifically deuterated pregnanolone and pregnanediol sulphates for metabolic studies in pregant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, T.A.; Herz, J.E.; Anderson, R.A.; Sjovall, J.

    1975-01-01

    A series of specifically deuterated isomers of pregnanolone sulphate and pregnanediol mono- and disulphate have been synthesized for use in a study of the formation and metabolism of C 21 -steroid sulphates in the plasma of pregnant women. Hecogenin, the starting material for the synthesis, was equilibrated with NaO 2 H- 2 H 2 O and the resulting 11,11- 2 H 2 derivative converted directly to its tosylhydrazone. Reduction with sodium borohydride and degradation of the sapogenin side-chain gave 3β-hydroxy-5α-[11,11- 2 H 2 ] pregn-16-en-20-one (isotopic purity 91.6%). Further deuterium atoms were introduced in the 3α and 3α,20β positions by reductions with sodium borodeuteride and lithium aluminum deuteride, respectively. These reactions led to 3β-hydroxy-5α-[3α,11,11- 2 H 3 ] pregnan-20-one (isotopic purity 87.2%) and 5α-[3α,11,11,20β- 2 H 4 ] pregnane-3β,20α-diol (isotopic purity 83.9%). Steroids possessing the less readily accessible 3α-hydroxy-5α-[3β- 2 H] configuration were obtained, without loss of label, by epimerization of the 3β isomers. Pregnanolone sulphates and pregnanediol disulphates were prepared directly from the free alcohols, while the pregnanediol 3-monosulphates were synthesized from the appropriate pregnanediol 20-monoacetate derivatives

  20. New Sulphated Flavonoids from Tamarix africana and Biological Activities of Its Polar Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karker, Manel; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Ksouri, Riadh; Braca, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Tamarix africana Poir. (Tamaricaceae) shoot polar extract afforded three new sulphated flavonoids, (2 S ,4 R )-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavan-4-ol 5,7-disulphate ( 1 ), (2 S )-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavan 7- O -sulphate ( 2 ), and (2 S )-naringenin 4'- O -sulphate ( 3 ), together with ten known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR analysis and HRMS. Biological activities of the polar extract of T. africana shoots related to its phenolic content were also investigated. A high total phenolic content (151.1 mg GAE/g) was found in the methanol shoot extract, which exhibits strong antioxidant activities using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method and a skin cell-based assay. Moreover, the shoot extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity, reducing nitric oxide release by 53.5 % at 160 µg/mL in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Finally, T. africana shoot extract inhibited the growth of A-549 lung carcinoma cells, with an IC 50 value of 34 µg/mL. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF FERROUS SULPHATE AND CARBONYL IRON IN ANEMIA OF ANTENATAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is the most common and important public health problem all over the world in the risk group of antenatal women. Research is going on to improve the iron status of the pregnant women with different forms of iron available. In this regard, Carbonyl Iron is showing promising results in improving the red cell mass with better compliance. 120 antenatal women were recruited in this study. The study comprised of 6weeks for each patient. They were given Carbonyl Iron 100 mg/day and FeS04 100gm/day . Before and after treatment all the baseline and specific investigations were one. Results were tabulated, comparison and significance were tested by unpaired student ’s’ test and their 'p' value was calculated. Results were shown graphically also. Carbonyl Iron showed improvement in hemoglobin, PCV and better than ferrous Sulphate (P <0.001. Incidence of side effects were less with Carbonyl Iron than Ferrous Sulphate, better compliance was seen with Carbonyl Iron. In conclusion, the present study s howed that Carbonyl Iron had better efficacy and safety in the management of Iron deficiency anemia in antenatal women than ferrous Sulphate

  2. Physiochemical properties and reproducibility of air-based sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam using the Tessari method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Mike R; Oliver, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    Objectives The objectives were to examine the density, bubble size distribution and durability of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam and the consistency of production of foam by a number of different operators using the Tessari method. Methods 1% and 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate sclerosant foam was produced by an experienced operator and a group of inexperienced operators using either a 1:3 or 1:4 liquid:air ratio and the Tessari method. The foam density, bubble size distribution and foam durability were measured on freshly prepared foam from each operator. Results The foam density measurements were similar for each of the 1:3 preparations and for each of the 1:4 preparations but not affected by the sclerosant concentration. The bubble size for all preparations were very small immediately after preparation but progressively coalesced to become a micro-foam (foams developed liquid more rapidly when made in a 1:3 ratio (37 s) than in a 1:4 ratio (45 s) but all combinations took similar times to reach 0.4 ml liquid formation. For all the experiments, there was no statistical significant difference between operators. Conclusions The Tessari method of foam production for sodium tetradecyl sulphate sclerosant is consistent and reproducible even when made by inexperienced operators. The best quality foam with micro bubbles should be used within the first minute after production.

  3. Active Microbial Communities Inhabit Sulphate-Methane Interphase in Deep Bedrock Fracture Fluids in Olkiluoto, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Bomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active microbial communities of deep crystalline bedrock fracture water were investigated from seven different boreholes in Olkiluoto (Western Finland using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, dsrB, and mcrA gene transcript targeted 454 pyrosequencing. Over a depth range of 296–798 m below ground surface the microbial communities changed according to depth, salinity gradient, and sulphate and methane concentrations. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in the sulphate-methane mixing zone (SMMZ at 250–350 m depth, whereas archaeal diversity was highest in the lowest boundaries of the SMMZ. Sulphide-oxidizing ε-proteobacteria (Sulfurimonas sp. dominated in the SMMZ and γ-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas spp. below the SMMZ. The active archaeal communities consisted mostly of ANME-2D and Thermoplasmatales groups, although Methermicoccaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Thermoplasmatales (SAGMEG, TMG were more common at 415–559 m depth. Typical indicator microorganisms for sulphate-methane transition zones in marine sediments, such as ANME-1 archaea, α-, β- and δ-proteobacteria, JS1, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and MBGB Crenarchaeota were detected at specific depths. DsrB genes were most numerous and most actively transcribed in the SMMZ while the mcrA gene concentration was highest in the deep methane rich groundwater. Our results demonstrate that active and highly diverse but sparse and stratified microbial communities inhabit the Fennoscandian deep bedrock ecosystems.

  4. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara F. M. Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K and magnesium (Mg sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1: two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis, applied based on its nitrogen (N content and the N requirement for the crop and an additional treatment with NPK. The castor bean grain yield fertilized with sewage sludge did not differ from conventional fertilization, with the maximum value achieved at a dose of 7.5 t ha-1 of sewage sludge. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased zinc and copper levels in the soil to values close to or higher than those in conventional fertilization, without any influence on the concentrations in the leaf. Fertilization with K and Mg sulphate increased the levels of these cations in the soil without affecting the concentrations in the leaves. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased the contents of organic matter, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and boron in the soil, and manganese and boron in castor bean leaves.

  5. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Weerdt, K., E-mail: klaartje.d.weerdt@ntnu.no [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Trondheim (Norway); Orsáková, D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Brno, Brno (Czech Republic); Geiker, M.R. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.

  6. Production of granules of urea, urea-ammonium sulphate and urea-potassium chloride enriched with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendassolli, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Using a pearling tower it was possible to produce granulated urea, and granulated mixtures of ammonium sulphate and urea, potassium chloride and urea, Labelled in 15 N. Granulated urea with 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm of diameter was obtained using a system with a heating controller. A low concentration of biuret was observed in the granules produced ( 15 N-Labelled ( 15 NH 4' 15 NH 2 ) with variable proportion of ammonium sulphate and urea. (author)

  7. Toxicology studies of primycin-sulphate using a three-dimensional (3D) in vitro human liver aggregate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Ágota; Mahmud Abdelwahab, Elhusseiny Mohamed; Rapp, Judit; Péteri, Zsanett A; Bovári-Biri, Judit; Fekete, Csaba; Miskei, György; Kvell, Krisztián; Pongrácz, Judit E

    2017-11-05

    Primycin-sulphate is a highly effective compound against Gram (G) positive bacteria. It has a potentially synergistic effect with vancomycin and statins which makes primycin-sulphate a potentially very effective preparation. Primycin-sulphate is currently used exclusively in topical preparations. In vitro animal hepatocyte and neuromuscular junction studies (in mice, rats, snakes, frogs) as well as in in vitro human red blood cell experiments were used to test toxicity. During these studies, the use of primycin-sulphate resulted in reduced cellular membrane integrity and modified ion channel activity. Additionally, parenteral administration of primycin-sulphate to mice, dogs, cats, rabbits and guinea pigs indicated high level of acute toxicity. The objective of this study was to reveal the cytotoxic and gene expression modifying effects of primycin-sulphate in a human system using an in vitro, three dimensional (3D) human hepatic model system. Within the 3D model, primycin-sulphate presented no acute cytotoxicity at concentrations 1μg/ml and below. However, even at low concentrations, primycin-sulphate affected gene expressions by up-regulating inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL6), chemokines (e.g., CXCL5) and by down-regulating molecules of the lipid metabolism (e.g., peroxisome proliferator receptor (PPAR) alpha, gamma, etc). Down-regulation of PPAR alpha cannot just disrupt lipid production but can also affect cytochrome P450 metabolic enzyme (CYP) 3A4 expression, highlighting the need for extensive drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies before human oral or parenteral preparations can be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth of single crystals from solutions using semi-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, A. J.; Okeke, C. E.

    1983-05-01

    A technique suitable for growth of single crystals from solutions using semi-preamble membranes is described. Using this technique single crystals of copper sulphate, potassium bromide and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate have been successfully grown. Advantages of this technique over other methods are discussed.

  9. The antitumour drug 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin monohydrate and its solid-state hydrolysis mechanism on heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Ashraf; Noguchi, Shuji; Watanabe, Miteki; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-10-01

    7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin [systematic name: (4S)-4,11-diethyl-4,9-dihydroxy-1H-pyrano[3',4':6,7]indolizino[1,2-b]quinoline-3,14(4H,12H)-dione, SN-38] is an antitumour drug which exerts activity through the inhibition of topoisomerase I. The crystal structure of SN-38 as the monohydrate, C 22 H 20 N 2 O 5 ·H 2 O, reveals that it is a monoclinic crystal, with one SN-38 molecule and one water molecule in the asymmetric unit. When the crystal is heated to 473 K, approximately 30% of SN-38 is hydrolyzed at its lactone ring, resulting in the formation of the inactive carboxylate form. The molecular arrangement around the water molecule and the lactone ring of SN-38 in the crystal structure suggests that SN-38 is hydrolyzed by the water molecule at (x, y, z) nucleophilically attacking the carbonyl C atom of the lactone ring at (x - 1, y, z - 1). Hydrogen bonding around the water molecules and the lactone ring appears to promote this hydrolysis reaction: two carbonyl O atoms, which are hydrogen bonded as hydrogen-bond acceptors to the water molecule at (x, y, z), might enhance the nucleophilicity of this water molecule, while the water molecule at (-x, y + 1/2, -z), which is hydrogen bonded as a hydrogen-bond donor to the carbonyl O atom at (x - 1, y, z - 1), might enhance the electrophilicity of the carbonyl C atom.

  10. Renal Epithelial Cell Injury Induced by Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Depends on their Structural Features: Size, Surface, and Crystalline Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Liu, Ai-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Urinary crystals in normal and kidney stone patients often differ in crystal sizes and surface structures, but the effects of different crystal properties on renal tubular epithelial cells remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of micron/nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with sizes of 50 nm, 200 nm, 1 μm, 3 μm, and 10 μm to African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells, to reveal the effect of crystal size and surface structure on cell injury, and to investigate the pathological mechanism of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Cell viability, cellular biochemical parameters, and internalized crystal amount in Vero cells were closely associated with the size of COM crystals. At the same concentration (200 μg/mL), COM-1 μm induced the most serious injury to Vero cells and caused the most significant change to cellular biochemical parameters, which were related to the specific porous structure and highest internalized amount in Vero cells. By contrast, COM-50 nm and COM-200 nm crystals lost their small size effect because of serious aggregation and weakened their toxicity to cells. COM-3 μm and COM-10 μm crystals were too large for cells to completely internalize; these crystals also exhibited a low specific surface area and thus weakened their toxicity. The excessive expression of intracellular ROS and reduction of the free-radical scavenger SOD were the main reasons for cell injury and eventually caused necrotic cell death. Crystal size, surface structure, aggregation, and internalization amount were closely related to the cytotoxicity of COM crystals.

  11. Monosodium urate monohydrate crystals inhibit osteoblast viability and function: implications for development of bone erosion in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhana, Ashika; Callon, Karen E; Pool, Bregina; Naot, Dorit; Watson, Maureen; Gamble, Greg D; McQueen, Fiona M; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2011-09-01

    Bone erosion is a common manifestation of chronic tophaceous gout. To investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on osteoblast viability and function. The MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to assess osteoblast cell viability in the MC3T3-E1 and ST2 osteoblast-like cell lines, and primary rat and primary human osteoblasts cultured with MSU crystals. Quantitative real-time PCR and von Kossa stained mineralised bone formation assays were used to assess the effects of MSU crystals on osteoblast differentiation using MC3T3-E1 cells. The numbers of osteoblasts and bone lining cells were quantified in bone samples from patients with gout. MSU crystals rapidly reduced viability in all cell types in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect on cell viability was independent of crystal phagocytosis and was not influenced by differing crystal length or addition of serum. Long-term culture of MC3T3-E1 cells with MSU crystals showed a reduction in mineralisation and decreased mRNA expression of genes related to osteoblast differentiation such as Runx2, Sp7 (osterix), Ibsp (bone sialoprotein), and Bglap (osteocalcin). Fewer osteoblast and lining cells were present on bone directly adjacent to gouty tophus than bone unaffected by tophus in patients with gout. MSU crystals have profound inhibitory effects on osteoblast viability and differentiation. These data suggest that bone erosion in gout occurs at the tophus-bone interface through alteration of physiological bone turnover, with both excessive osteoclast formation, and reduced osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells.

  12. Effects of Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation on Brain Metabolic and Network Outcome Measures in Women With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E; Hwang, Jaeuk; Kim, Tae-Suk; Kang, Hee Jin; Namgung, Eun; Ban, Soonhyun; Oh, Subin; Yang, Jeongwon; Renshaw, Perry F; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2016-09-15

    Creatine monohydrate (creatine) augmentation has the potential to accelerate the clinical responses to and enhance the overall efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment in women with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although it has been suggested that creatine augmentation may involve the restoration of brain energy metabolism, the mechanisms underlying its antidepressant efficacy are unknown. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 52 women with MDD were assigned to receive either creatine augmentation or placebo augmentation of escitalopram; 34 subjects participated in multimodal neuroimaging assessments at baseline and week 8. Age-matched healthy women (n = 39) were also assessed twice at the same intervals. Metabolic and network outcomes were measured for changes in prefrontal N-acetylaspartate and changes in rich club hub connections of the structural brain network using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. We found MDD-related metabolic and network dysfunction at baseline. Improvement in depressive symptoms was greater in patients receiving creatine augmentation relative to placebo augmentation. After 8 weeks of treatment, prefrontal N-acetylaspartate levels increased significantly in the creatine augmentation group compared with the placebo augmentation group. Increment in rich club hub connections was also greater in the creatine augmentation group than in the placebo augmentation group. N-acetylaspartate levels and rich club connections increased after creatine augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Effects of creatine administration on brain energy metabolism and network organization may partly underlie its efficacy in treating women with MDD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A kinetic approach of sulphur behaviour in borosilicate glasses and melts: implications for sulphate incorporation in nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, Marion [Service de Confinement des Dechets et Vitrification - Laboratoire d' Etudes de Base sur les Verres, CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Physique des Mineraux et des Magmas, UMR 7047 - CNRS, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Grandjean, Agnes [Service de Confinement des Dechets et Vitrification - Laboratoire d' Etudes de Base sur les Verres, CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Neuville, Daniel R. [Physique des Mineraux et des Magmas, UMR 7047 - CNRS, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 7 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of sulphate decomposition in a borosilicate melt were studied using in situ Raman spectroscopy. This technique permits the quantification of the amount of sulphate dissolved in a borosilicate glass as a function of heating time by comparison with measurements obtained by microprobe WDS (Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry). In order to quantify the content of sulphate obtained by Raman spectroscopy, the integrated intensity of the sulphate band at 985 cm{sup -1} was scaled to the sum of the integrated bands between 800 and 1200 cm{sup -1}, bands that are assigned to Q{sup n} silica units on the basis of previous literature. Viscosities of some borosilicate glasses are also presented here in order to study the kinetics of sulphate decomposition as a function of the viscosity of the melt. This underlines the importance of variations in viscosity depending on the composition of the melt and thus shows that viscosity is an important parameter governing the kinetics of decomposition of sulphate in borosilicate glasses. (authors)

  14. The Influence of Sempervivum Tectorum and Melatonin Administration on Erythrocyte Catalase in Rats Exposed to Aluminium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Gabriela Stana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to highlight the effect of Sempervivum tectorum and melatonin administration in rats exposed to aluminium sulphate through drinking water on the erythrocyte catalase activity The researches were carried out on Wistar albinos rats, grouped in 8 lots: a control lot (C and 7 experimental lots (E1: 10% Sempervivum tectorum aqueous extract, 3 month; E2: melatonin, 10 mg/100 ml water, 3 month; E3: aluminium sulphate, 3 months; E4: aluminium sulphate with 10% Sempervivum tectorum aqueous extract, 3 months; E5: aluminium sulphate with melatonin 3 months; E6: aluminium sulphate 3 months followed by 10% Sempervivum tectorum aqueous extract for a month; E7: aluminium sulphate 3 months, followed by melatonin for a month. Al(3+ level in drinking water was 1000 ppb. It was registered decrease of catalase activity compared to C group in E3, E4 (p0.05 and an insignificant increase in E1, E2, E6, E7 groups. Sempervivum tectorum and melatonin administration led to the increase of catalase activity comparing to the group exposed only to aluminium. The catalase activity increase was significantly higher in case of consecutive administration to aluminium intake. Melatonin effect was more wellmarked as the one induced by Sempervivum tectorum (p>0.05.

  15. Study on the influence of Sempervivum tectorum and Melatonin on Glutathion protective effects in rats blood exposed to Aluminum sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Gravila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of Sempervivum tectorum aqueous extract and melatonin on reduced glutathione (GSH protective effect in Wistar albino rat blood exposed to aluminium sulphate- Al2(SO43. The rats were divided in one control group (C and 7 experimental groups (E. The control group received tap water. The experimental rats were feed the following way: E1 group – aluminum sulphate, daily, for 3 months; : E2 group – Sempervivum tectorum, daily, for 3 months; : E3 group – melatonin, daily, for 3 months; : E4 group – aluminum sulphate with Sempervivum tectorum, daily, for 3 months; : E5 group – aluminum sulphate with melatonin, daily, for 3 months; E6 group – aluminum sulphate, daily, for 3 months, and thereafter with Sempervivum tectorum for 1 month; E7 group – aluminum sulphate, daily, for 3 month, and thereafter with melatonin for 1 month. This study showed that Aluminum toxicity induced lower GSH. The oxidative stress caused by aluminum, given individual, is more pronounced than in the case in which aluminum is administered simultaneously with Sempervivum tectorum or melatonin. Decreasing GSH value is very small if Sempervivum tectorum or melatonin is given for one month, three months after the administration of aluminum. Effect induced by melatonin is more favorable than that of Sempervivum tectorum.

  16. Sulphate reduction and nitrogen fixation rates associated with roots, rhizomes and sediments from Zostera noltii and Spartina maritima meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L B; Finster, K; Welsh, D T; Donelly, A; Herbert, R A; de Wit, R; Lomstein, B A

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate reduction rates (SRR) and nitrogen fixation rates (NFR) associated with isolated roots, rhizomes and sediment from the rhizosphere of the marine macrophytes Zostera noltii and Spartina maritima, and the presence and distribution of Bacteria on the roots and rhizomes, were investigated. Between 1% and 3% of the surface area of the roots and rhizomes of both macrophytes were colonized by Bacteria. Bacteria on the surfaces of S. maritima roots and rhizomes were evenly distributed, while the distribution of Bacteria on Z. noltii roots and rhizomes was patchy. Root- and rhizome-associated SRR and NFR were always higher than rates in the bulk sediment. In particular, nitrogen fixation associated with the roots and rhizomes was 41-650-fold higher than in the bulk sediment. Despite the fact that sulphate reduction was elevated on roots and rhizomes compared with bulk sediment, the contribution of plant-associated sulphate reduction to overall sulphate reduction was small (< or =11%). In contrast, nitrogen fixation associated with the roots and rhizomes accounted for 31% and 91% of the nitrogen fixed in the rhizosphere of Z. noltii and S. maritima respectively. In addition, plant-associated nitrogen fixation could supply 37-1,613% of the nitrogen needed by the sulphate-reducing community. Sucrose stimulated nitrogen fixation and sulphate reduction significantly in the root and rhizome compartments of both macrophytes, but not in the bulk sediment.

  17. Characterization of the Bacterial and Sulphate Reducing Community in the Alkaline and Constantly Cold Water of the Closed Kotalahti Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Bomberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drainage from metal-sulphide rich rocks may cause considerable environmental stress in the form of elevated sulphate and heavy metal contamination of the environment. Mine draining effects from closed mines may be abated using indigenous and introduced microbial communities for sulphate reduction and metal precipitation at the mining site. Here we characterized the general and sulphate reducing bacterial (SRB community of Kotalahti Mine (Finland. The mine was flooded after closure and sulphate reduction and metal precipitation was induced by addition of pig manure sludge into the Vehkankuilu shaft. Water was sampled from Vehkankuilu and Ollinkuilu shafts from depths −10, −30, −70 and −100 m 15 years after the treatment. The water in the shafts differed from each other biologically and geochemically. The shafts are not directly connected except by some fracture zones, and the Ollinkuilu shaft is used as a reference for environmental monitoring. The detected bacterial communities from both shafts contained methylotrophic γ-Proteobacteria, hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic β-Proteobacteria and fermenting bacterial clades. The concentration of SRB was low, at most 4.0 × 103 dsrB genes·mL−1, and the SRB affiliated with Desulfobulbus and Thermoanaerobacteriales clades. Despite the obvious success of the mine as an in situ bioreactor for increasing water pH and removing sulphate and heavy metals by induced sulphate reduction under suboptimal temperature, only a small portion, less than 0.5%, of the bacterial population in the mine water was SRB.

  18. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines; Extraction des sulfates par les amines a longues chaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boirie, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-05-15

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [French] L'extraction de l'acide sulfurique par des amines a longues chaines en solution organique a ete etudiee en vue de la determination de la valeur des constantes de stabilite des sulfates et bisulfates d'amines formes. Parmi les sulfates, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses au sulfate d'uranium et au sulfate de thorium. Nous avons determine les formules des complexes extractibles avec les amines, ainsi que les constantes de dissociation correspondantes. Nous avons remarque que pour le sulfate d'uranium, la formule du complexe ne depend que de la nature de l'amine, alors que pour le thorium cette formule varie avec la structure de l'amine. Les formules determinees et la valeur des constantes calculees, nous ont permis de decrire les meilleures conditions d'extraction de l'uranium et du thorium ainsi que celles d'une separation de ces deux elements. Nous proposons enfin une application de cette etude au dosage de l'uranium dans les minerais, ou la separation de l'uranium par cette methode est

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR BENZYLPENICILIN POTASSIUM AND STREPTOMYCIN SULPHATE POTENCY DETERMINATION OF ASCOMICIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ciuca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascomicin is an antibacterial unguent for treatment of local infections of skin, eyes, outer ear, in cattle, sheep, pig, dog and cat. The product contains two active substances: benzylpenicillin potassium (Penicillin G potassium and streptomycin sulphate. The main characteristic of commercial product is benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate potency. The potency is estimated by comparing the inhibition of growth of sensitive micro-organisms produced by known concentrations of the antibiotic to be examined and a reference substance. The validation study aims to demonstrate the determination of the potency of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate, it is an appropriate analytical method, reproducible and meets the quality requirements of Ascomicin product. The paper establishes the performance characteristics of the method considered and identify the factors that influence these characteristics. The diameters of inhibition zones, directly proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of the antibiotic used for the assay, measured and calculated using statistical methods (Combistats Soft. The assay is designed in such a way that the mathematical model on which the potency equation is based can be proved to be valid. A parallel-line model is chosen. The two log dose response lines of the preparation under examination and the standard preparation are parallel; they are rectilinear over the range of doses used in the calculation. These conditions are verified by validity tests for a given probability (P = 0.05. The test is not valid unless the confidence limits (P = 0.95 are not less than 50 per cent and not more than 200 per cent of the estimated potency. The estimated potency is not less than 95 per cent and not more than 105 per cent of the stated potency. The stated potency is not less than 19400 international units/g benzylpenicillin potassium and 13960 international units/g streptomycin sulphate. The validation

  20. Structures, Energetics, and IR Spectra of Monohydrated Inorganic Acids: Ab initio and DFT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaski, Maciej; Zakharenko, Aleksey A; Karthikeyan, S; Kim, Kwang S

    2011-10-11

    We carried out extensive calculations of diverse inorganic acids interacting with a single water molecule, through a detailed analysis of many possible conformations. The optimized structures were obtained by using density functional theory (DFT) and the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). For the most stable conformers, we calculated the interaction energies at the complete basis set (CBS) limit using coupled cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The -OH stretching harmonic and anharmonic frequencies are provided as fingerprints of characteristic conformers. The zero-point energy (ZPE) uncorrected/corrected (ΔEe/ΔE0) interaction energies and the enthalpies/free energies (ΔHr/ΔGr at room temperature and 1 bar) are reported. Various comparisons are made between many diverse inorganic acids (HmXOn where X = B/N/P/Cl/Br/I, m = 1-3, and n = 0-4) as well as other simple inorganic acids. In many cases, we find that the dispersion-driven van der Waals interactions between X in inorganic acid molecules and O in water molecules as well as the X(+)···O(-) electrostatic interactions are important.

  1. Stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in patients with solitary pure calcium oxalate stones smaller than 1.0 cm in the proximal ureter, with special reference to monohydrate and dihydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyanagi, Osamu; Nagaoka, Akira; Izumi, Takuji; Kawamura, Yuko; Tsukigi, Masaaki; Ishii, Tatsuya; Ohji, Hiroshi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess stone-free rates following extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of pure calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones in the proximal ureter. The investigators retrospectively examined 53 patients with 5-10 mm pure CaOx stones in the proximal ureter from the medical archives of 593 consecutive patients treated with ESWL. The compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) in a given stone were determined by infrared spectrometry. Stone size, attenuation number and stone-to-skin distance (SSD) were measured using plain radiography and computed tomography (CT). ESWL success was evaluated by stone-free status after the first single session. On average, calculi were 8.0 × 5.3 mm in size, with an SSD of 11.0 cm. The mean CT attenuation value was 740.1 HU. Attenuation numbers correlated significantly with stone diameter (r = 0.49), but had no correlation with the stone content of COM or COD. A negative correlation was observed between COM and COD content (r = -0.925). With regard to patients' physical characteristics and COM and COD content, no differences were found between study subgroups with stone-free and residual status (n = 38 and 15, respectively). There were also no differences in clinical features between patient subgroups with COM- or COD-predominant stones (n = 22 and 31, respectively). The findings indicated that the differences in COM and COD content of CaOx stones had no impact on stone clearance after ESWL and that a favorable stone-free rate of the stones treated with ESWL may be achieved independently of CaOx hydration.

  2. Spore-forming, Desulfosporosinus-like sulphate-reducing bacteria from a shallow aquifer contaminated with gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W J; Franzmann, P D; Mee, B J

    2000-02-01

    Previous studies on the geochemistry of a shallow unconfined aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons suggested that the degradation of some hydrocarbons was linked to bacterial sulphate reduction. There was attenuation of naphthalene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), toluene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene in the groundwater with concomitant loss of sulphate. Here, the recovery of eight strains of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the contaminated site is reported. All were straight or curved rod-shaped cells which formed endospores. Amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA indicated that the strains were all sulphate reducers of the Gram-positive line of descent, and were most closely related to Desulfosporosinus (previously Desulfotomaculum) orientis DSM 8344 (97-98.9% sequence similarity). The strains clustered in three phylogenetic groups based on 16S rRNA sequences. Whole cell fatty acid compositions were similar to those of D. orientis DSM 8344, and were consistent with previous studies of fatty acids in soil and groundwater from the site. Microcosms containing groundwater from this aquifer indicated a role for sulphate reduction in the degradation of [ring-UL-14C]toluene, but not for the degradation of [UL-14C]benzene which could also be degraded by the microcosms. Adding one of the strains that was isolated from the groundwater (strain T2) to sulphate-enriched microcosms increased the rate of toluene degradation four- to 10-fold but had no effect on the rate of benzene degradation. The addition of molybdate, an inhibitor of sulphate reduction, to the groundwater samples decreased the rate of toluene mineralization. There was no evidence to support the mineralization of [UL-14C]benzene, [ring-UL-14C]toluene or unlabelled m-xylene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene, TMB or naphthalene by any of the strains in pure culture. Growth of all the strains was completely inhibited by 100 micromol l-1 TMB.

  3. Topotactic decomposition and crystal structure of white molybdenum trioxide--monohydrate: prediction of structure by topotaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, H.R.; Guenter, J.R.; Dubler, E.

    1975-01-01

    Single crystals of the white MoO 3 . H 2 O modification (''α-molybdic acid'') were transformed by heating to 160 0 C into perfect pseudomorphs built up from oriented MoO 3 crystallites of known structure. From the mutual orientation relationship of the unit cells of both phases involved in this topotactic reaction, as determined by X-ray photographs, a model for the so far unknown crystal structure of white MoO 3 . H 2 O could be deduced. Independently, this structure was determined by X-ray diffractometer data then: space group P anti 1, a = 7.388, b = 3.700, c = 6.673 A, α = 107.8, β = 113.6, γ = 91.2 0 , Z = 2. The structure was solved from the Patterson function and refined until R = 0.088. It is built up from isolated double chains of strongly distorted [MoO 5 (H 2 O)]-octahedra sharing two common edges with each other. This result agrees well with the model derived from topotaxy, and it becomes evident how the MoO 3 lattice is formed through corner linking of the isolated double chains after the water molecules are removed. The study of topotactic phenomena seems rather generally applicable to deduce the main features of structures involved and for better understanding of structural relationships. (U.S.)

  4. Engagement of fatty acids with Toll-like receptor 2 drives interleukin-1beta production via the ASC/caspase 1 pathway in monosodium urate monohydrate crystal-induced gouty arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.; Mylona, E.; Koenders, M.I.; Malireddi, R.K.; Oosting, M.; Stienstra, R.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J.; Kanneganti, T.D.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The concept that intraarticular crystals of uric acid by themselves trigger episodes of painful gouty arthritis is inconsistent with the clinical reality. Patients with large deposits of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals (tophi) do not necessarily experience gouty attacks. In

  5. Profiles of bile acids and their glucuronide and sulphate conjugates in the serum, urine and bile from patients undergoing bile drainage.

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, H; Beppu, T; Seyama, Y

    1985-01-01

    Bile acid profiles in serum, urine, and bile from patients undergoing bile drainage and the changes of serum bile acids after bile drainage were studied. Bile acids were separated into non-glucuronidate-non-sulphate, glucuronidated, and sulphated fractions and were measured by mass fragmentography using conjugates of deuterium labelled bile acids as internal standards. Glucuronidated and sulphated bile acids contribute 14-32% and 16-44% of serum bile acids, 4-11% and 61-82% of urine bile acid...

  6. Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate, a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbertz S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Herbertz,1 J Scott Sawyer,2 Anja J Stauber,2 Ivelina Gueorguieva,3 Kyla E Driscoll,4 Shawn T Estrem,2 Ann L Cleverly,3 Durisala Desaiah,2 Susan C Guba,2 Karim A Benhadji,2 Christopher A Slapak,2 Michael M Lahn21Lilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany; 2Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to block TGF-β signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antisense oligonucleotides, and small molecule inhibitors. Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway. Furthermore, galunisertib has antitumor activity in tumor-bearing animal models such as breast, colon, lung cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Continuous long-term exposure to galunisertib caused cardiac toxicities in animals requiring adoption of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy to allow further development. The use of such a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model defined a therapeutic window with an appropriate safety profile that enabled the clinical investigation of galunisertib. These efforts resulted in an intermittent dosing regimen (14 days on/14 days off, on a 28-day cycle of galunisertib for all ongoing trials. Galunisertib is being investigated either as monotherapy or in combination with standard antitumor regimens (including nivolumab

  7. Sulphate issues and learning for secondary loop system at Dayabay Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changchun; Fang Jun; Yao Xuehong; He Yanhong; Chen Bin

    2014-01-01

    Dayabay NPP started up from 1994. There is no condensate polishing system (CPP) with initial design. Unfortunately there happened few times serious issues with sea water leakage into condensate. It was reconstructed and be added CPP from 1997. But we found sulphate concentration in SG will increased after ATE was put into operating, when CPP was out of service, then sulphate concentration decreased. Through the study and research for a few years, we found the root cause and we took these following improvements at site step by step, steam generation blow down water quality was significantly improved: Optimize feed water distribution condition in resin bed. Since the shortcomings of resin bed design, resin is moving up and down during operating. To prevent resin re-separation and broken issue, we improved the structure of feed distribution and better the resin condition in resin bed; Optimize regeneration process. Optimize mixed bed resin transferring, separation, regeneration process, re-separation and re-mixing process during regeneration; Optimize operating process. Regular clean resin beads under the water chamber and resin trap to prevent resin leak into SG system; Other actions. Check nozzles one by one in resin bed and change these nozzles with shortcomings to prevent resin leakage into resin chamber. Upgrade cation resin type from 12% DVB to 16% DVB. According to Dayabay nuclear power plant steam generator sulphate issue experience, now in China we have improved a lot for the secondary loop condensate polishing system design, equipment manufacturing, operation process, etc. We have achieved good results in our new projects such as LingAo Phase II nuclear power plant. (author)

  8. Sulphate respiration from hydrogen in Desulfovibrio bacteria: a structural biology overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Pedro M; Pereira, Inês A C; Soares, Cláudio M; Carrondo, Maria Arménia

    2005-11-01

    Sulphate-reducing organisms are widespread in anaerobic enviroments, including the gastrointestinal tract of man and other animals. The study of these bacteria has attracted much attention over the years, due also to the fact that they can have important implications in industry (in biocorrosion and souring of oil and gas deposits), health (in inflamatory bowel diseases) and the environment (bioremediation). The characterization of the various components of the electron transport chain associated with the hydrogen metabolism in Desulfovibrio has generated a large and comprehensive list of studies. This review summarizes the more relevant aspects of the current information available on the structural data of various molecules associated with hydrogen metabolism, namely hydrogenases and cytochromes. The transmembrane redox complexes known to date are also described and discussed. Redox-Bohr and cooperativity effects, observed in a few cytochromes, and believed to be important for their functional role, are discussed. Kinetic studies performed with these redox proteins, showing clues to their functional inter-relationship, are also addressed. These provide the groundwork for the application of a variety of molecular modelling approaches to understanding electron transfer and protein interactions among redox partners, leading to the characterization of several transient periplasmic complexes. In contrast to the detailed understanding of the periplasmic hydrogen oxidation process, very little is known about the cytoplasmic side of the respiratory electron transfer chain, in terms of molecular components (with exception of the terminal reductases), their structure and the protein-protein interactions involved in sulphate reduction. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the sulphate respiratory chain in Desulfovibrio remains a challenging task.

  9. In vitro propagation of Calla lily: adenine sulphate and 6-benzilaminopurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia De Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Calla lily [Zantedeschia aethiopica (L. Spreng.] belonging to the Araceae family is appreciated as cut flower and in com­position of gardens. However, the conventional propagation of this plants shows a poor productive. Thus, tissue culture besides allowing fast clonal propagation also provides healthy and uniforms plants. The aim was study the influence of the differents concentrations of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP and adenine sulphate (AS on in vitro multiplication of Calla lily. The explants were maintained in MS medium added with BAP (0.0, 8.9, 17.8 and 26.7 μM and adenine sulphate (0, 54, 108 and 162 μM. The plants were transferred to growth room and maintained at 25±1ºC and photoperiod of 16 hours for 60 days, under luminous intensity of 35 μmol m-2 s-1, for a period of 60 days. The experimental design was entirely randomized with four repetitions of three seedlings each, resulting in twelve plants per treatment, each tube with one plant. The statistics analysis showed interactive effects for quantify of BAP and AS for leaves number and fresh mass of the aerial parts. The highest number of leaves (4.8 and fresh mass of aerial parts (0.73 g was obtained with 26.7 μM of BAP combined with 108 μM of AS, highest number of shoots (2.6 was obtained with 22,19 μM of BAP and highest lengh of sprouts (5.0 cm was observed in the absence of BAP. The addition of BAP increased the number of shoots per explant. The use of adenine sulphate in combination with BAP had a positive effect for the accumulation of fresh weight and number of leaves in vitro culture.

  10. Role of rare-earth impurities in the thermoluminescence of calcium sulphate phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1974-01-01

    Rare-earth (RE) doped calcium sulphate phosphors like CaSO 4 (Dy) and CaSO 4 (Tm) are being extensively employed for radiation dosimetric measurements because of their good sensitivity, negligible fading and the case with which these could be economically produced in the laboratory. However the role played by the RE dopants in these phosphors has not been clearly brought out by any systematic studies. This paper presents the results obtained in an attempt to investigate the part played by RE impurities in the thermoluminescence (TL) of calcium sulphate phosphors prepared in the laboratory with known concentrations of the RE dopant. The phenomenon of concentration quenching has been observed withi increasing concentrations of the dopant and the experimental results could be fitted into the theoretical expression derived by Ewles and Lee. The effect of the individual RE dopant (at a concentration of 0.1% by weight in CaSO 4 ), on the TL glow curve patterns as well as the TL emission spectra was investigated after gamma irradiation at room temperature. While the TL glow curve patterns were strikingly similar, the TL emission spectra were characteristically different for the various dopants. The discrete line emissions recorded for the individual RE dopants could be easily identified to be the 4f fluorescence emissions of RE 3+ ions. Investigations on undoped calcium sulphate samples of different origins have revealed that their TL glow curve patterns are similar, while the differences observed in TL emission spectra could be ascribed to the different RE impurities in the samples. The study brings out clearly the role played by RE impurities as emission centres in CaSO 4 and implies that presence of any RE impurity in CaSO 4 cannot be ignored while explaining its thermoluminescence. (author)

  11. Antioxidative sulphated polygalactans from marine macroalgae as angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Fasina; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2017-08-17

    Antioxidant and antihypertensive potential of the sulphated polygalactans isolated from the marine macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria opuntia were assessed by utilising different in vitro systems. The galactans isolated from K. alvarezii possessed significantly greater antioxidative properties as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH IC 90 0.97 mg/mL) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS .+ IC 90 0.72 mg/mL) scavenging activities than those isolated from G. opuntia (DPPH IC 90 1.2 mg/mL and ABTS 0.86 mg/mL). The sulphated polygalactan →4)-4-O-sulphonato-(2-O-methyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-methyl)-α-D-galactopyranan from K. alvarezii showed greater angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (IC 50 0.02 μg/mL) than →3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-xylosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranan motif extracted from G. opuntia (IC 50 0.70 μg/mL). Structure activity correlation studies displayed that the ACE inhibitory properties of titled polygalactans were directly proportional to their electronic properties and inversely with the steric and hydrophobic characteristics. Putative ACE inhibitory mechanism of action of sulphated galactans from marine macroalgae corroborated the structure bioactivity correlation analysis.

  12. Immunomodulating activities of acidic sulphated polysaccharides obtained from the seaweed Ulva rigida C. Agardh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro, José M; Castro, Rosario; Arranz, Jon A; Lamas, Jesús

    2007-07-01

    Water-soluble acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of Ulva rigida are mainly composed of disaccharides that contain glucuronic acid and sulphated rhamnose. The structure of disaccharides resembles that of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as they both contain glucuronic acid and sulphated sugars. Glycosaminoglycans occur in the extracellular matrix of animal connective tissues but can also be produced by leucocytes at inflammatory sites. Certain types of GAGs can even activate macrophages and therefore the acidic polysaccharides from U. rigida probably modulate macrophage activity. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of U. rigida polysaccharides on several RAW264.7 murine macrophage activities, including expression of inflammatory cytokines and receptors, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production, and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression. U. rigida acidic polysaccharides induced a more than two-fold increase in the expression of several chemokines (chemokine (C motif) ligand 1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (Cxcl14)) and in the expression of IL6 signal transducer and IL12 receptor beta 1. Incubation of macrophages with U. rigida polysaccharides also induced an increase in nitrite production, although this effect decreased considerably after desulphation of polysaccharides, suggesting that the sulphate group is important for the stimulatory capacity of these molecules. U. rigida polysaccharides also stimulated macrophage secretion of PGE(2) and induced an increase in COX-2 and NOS-2 expression. The results indicate that U. rigida acid polysaccharide can be used as an experimental immunostimulant for analysing inflammatory responses related to macrophage functions. In addition, these polysaccharides may also be of clinical interest for modifying certain macrophage activities in diseases where macrophage function is impaired or needs

  13. EFFECT OF PRETREATMENT WITH MAGNESIUM SULPHATE ON SUCCINYLCHOLINEINDUCED FASCICULATIONS AND MYALGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Raman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Succinylcholine, a depolarising muscle relaxant possesses a unique property of rapid onset and short duration of action, but is accompanied by side effects such as fasciculations and myalgia. A prospective randomised-controlled trial was designed to assess the effect of a combination of magnesium sulphate with propofol for induction of anaesthesia on succinylcholine-induced fasciculations and myalgia. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 adult patients of ASA status I and II of both sexes for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into two equal groups, group MG and group NS. The patients of MG group were pretreated with magnesium sulphate 40 mg/kg body weight in 10 mL volume, while patients of NS group were given isotonic saline 0.9% in the same volume (10 mL intravenously slowly over a period of 10 mins. Anaesthesia was administered with pentazocine 0.6 mg/kg and propofol 2 mg/kg, followed by administration of succinylcholine 2 mg/kg intravenously. Muscle fasciculations were observed and graded as nil, mild, moderate or severe. Postoperative myalgia was assessed after 24 hrs. of surgery and graded as nil, mild, moderate or severe. Observations were made in double blind manner where the observer and the patient were blinded. RESULTS Demographic data and baseline parameters of both groups were comparable (P>0.05. Muscle fasciculations occurred in 66.7% patients of MG group versus 100% patients of NS group with a significant difference (P<0.001. After 24 hrs. of surgery, 12 patients of MG group and 28 patients of NS group had myalgia with a significant difference (P<0.001. Statistically significant difference was found in MAP and heart rate at various intervals between the two groups (P<0.001. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulphate 40 mg/kg intravenously maybe used with propofol for induction of anaesthesia to control succinylcholineinduced fasciculations and myalgia.

  14. Investigating the Changes of Sulphate in Potabale Water of Yasuj City and preparing it's Qualitative Plan by Means of GIS Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasereh, F.; Hasani, A.; Hoseini, N.; Javid, A.

    2016-01-01

    Water has always some soluble salts, such as sulphate. Sulphate enters the water through different resources such as, dissolved gypsum, waste water of industrial factories and automobiles smoke, dissolved in rain. Presence of sulphate in potable water has an enormous role in creating constant hardness.On the other hand Presence of sulphate with high density in drinking water, causes changes in taste and it's combination with Calcium and Magnesium anions has laxative effect. The goal of this study is to assess the amount of existing sulphate in Yasuj city potable ground water, and determining the procedure of changes in chemical parameters of sulphate and recognizing effective factors on these parameters and preparing qualitative plan for water resources for sulphate parameter by means of GIS tools. Method: In the study described above, 42 specimens in the 7 early months of the year 1387 were acquired and tested. Sulphate tests were done based on the measuring method of the instrument of Filter photometer (Model: 7000). For analysing the results, Excel software and for preparing qualitative plan, GIS software was used. Findings: This study showed that sulfate levels in water resources by reducing water level in summer and autumn and with a water level of under ground water resources increases. Discussion and Conclusion: Decrease of ground water resources of Yasuj city, causes the sulphate density to increase.

  15. Effect of adding magnesium sulphate to bupivacaine on the clinical profile of ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elsayed Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Adding magnesium sulphate to bupivacaine in ultrasound-guided paravertebral block resulted in more efficient analgesia and opioid-sparing in female patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy.

  16. Sulphate partitioning into calcite: Experimental verification of pH control and application to seasonality in speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Peter M.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Borsato, Andrea; Spötl, Christoph; Hartland, Adam; Baker, Andy; Frisia, Silvia; Baldini, James U. L.

    2018-04-01

    Carbonate-associated sulphate (CAS) is a useful carrier of palaeoenvironmental information throughout the geologic record, particularly through its stable isotope composition. However, a paucity of experimental data restricts quantitative understanding of sulphate incorporation into carbonates, and consequently CAS concentrations and their diagenetic modifications are rarely interpreted. However, in the case of calcite speleothems, the remarkably high-resolution CAS records which are obtainable via modern microanalytical techniques represent a potentially invaluable source of palaeoenvironmental information. Here, we describe the results of controlled experiments of sulphate co-precipitation with calcite in freshwater solutions where pH, saturation state, and sulphate concentration were varied independently of each other. Solution pH is confirmed as the principal control on sulphate incorporation into calcite. The relative efficiency of incorporation was calculated as a partition coefficient DSO4 = (mSO4/mCO3)solid/(mSO4/mCO3)solution. High crystal growth rates (driven by either pH or saturation state) encouraged higher values of DSO4 because of an increasing concentration of defect sites on crystal surfaces. At low growth rates, DSO4 was reduced due to an inferred competition between sulphate and bicarbonate at the calcite surface. These experimental results are applied to understand the incorporation of sulphate into speleothem calcite. The experimentally determined pH-dependence suggests that strong seasonal variations in cave air PCO2 could account for annual cycles in sulphate concentration observed in stalagmites. Our new experimentally determined values of DSO4 were compared with DSO4 values calculated from speleothem-drip water monitoring from two caves within the Austrian and Italian Alps. At Obir cave, Austria, DSO4 (×105) varies between 11.1 (winter) and 9.0 (summer) and the corresponding figures for Ernesto cave, Italy, are 15.4 (winter) and 14

  17. New method for recognition of sterol signalling molecules: Methinium salts as receptors for sulphated steroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejík, Z.; Bříza, T.; Králová, Jarmila; Mikula, I.; Poučková, P.; Martásek, P.; Král, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 94, February 2015 (2015), s. 15-20 ISSN 1878-5867 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1291; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14008; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.300/30.0060; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Polymethinium salts * Sulphated sterols * Molecular recognition * Synthetic receptors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Chemical aspects of rubidium uranium sulphate for its use as a chemical standard for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Mudher, K.D.; Khandekar, R.R.; Krishnan, K.; Jayadevan, N.C.; Sood, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Rb 2 U(SO 4 ) 3 , a double sulphate of rubidium and uranium(IV) has been prepared and investigated for its use as a chemical standard for uranium. The compound can be easily prepared and crystallised in a pure form. The results of physico-chemical characterisation on preparation of 5-10 g. lots are described in this report. These studies suggest that the compound is anhydrous, stoichiometric, stable to atmospheric effects and easily soluble in acids and thus satisfies most of the criteria for a primary standard. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  19. In vitro tests of barium sulphate suspensions for double contrast examinations of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treugut, H.; Huebener, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    Four barium sulphate suspensions were investigated with respect to their adhesion and contrast following standard means of spreading the contrast over a model stomach, which corresponds in its detailed structure with the surface of the gastric mucosa. By this means various factors, which make a true comparison in vivo impossible, could be eliminated and a comparison of the suspensions became possible. Using similar mechanical and chemical situations, the radiographs of the artificial mucosa showed very different results from the use of the different preparations. These corresponded well with the findings in vivo. (orig.) [de

  20. Anodic behaviour of the stainless steel AISI 430 in aqueous solutions of chloride and sulphate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebrao, M.Z.

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of the dissolution of stainless steel AISI 430 in the presence of chloride and sulphate ions has been studied in terms of the ion concentration, the pH variation, and the velocity of the working electrode. The experimental method utilized was the potentiostatic anodic polarization, and the reactants used were NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 at room temperature. Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry and Auger Electrons spectroscopy (AES) analyses were made in order to support the interpretation of results obtained by means of the potentiostatic polarization method. (author)

  1. Synthesis and localization of two sulphated glycoproteins associated with basement membranes and the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, B L; Taylor, A; Kurkinen, M

    1982-01-01

    's membrane by mouse embryo parietal endoderm cells (Hogan, B. L.M., A. Taylor, and A.R. Cooper, 1982, Dev. Biol., 90:210-214). Both the Mr 180,000 and 150,000 sgps are deposited in the detergent-insoluble matrix of cultured cells, but they do not apparently undergo any disulphide-dependent intermolecular...... interactions and are not precursors or products of each other. They contain asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, but these are not the exclusive sites of sulphate labeling. Antiserum raised against the Mr 150,000 sgp C of Reichert's membranes has been used in an immunohistochemical analysis of rat skin...

  2. sulphate transporter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2.8. Female. Moderate bilateral hip dysplasia. $Dog 3 and 5 are offspring of the same male (see figure 1 of electronic supplement). ∗. Dog 6 and 7 are full siblings (see figure 1 of electronic supplement). Figure 1. Pedigree of the two German Shepherd dog families screened in this study. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 86, No.

  3. Synthesis, structural, photoluminescence, vibrational and DFT investigation of the bis (4-aminopyridinium) tetrachloridocuprate(II) monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessentini, A.; Belhouchet, M.; Suñol, J.J.; Abid, Y.; Mhiri, T.

    2014-01-01

    The crystals of the family of alkylammonuim tetrachloridocuprate (II), (C 5 H 7 N 2 ) 2 CuCl 4 H 2 O, have been grown, structurally characterized and their vibrational as well as optical properties been studied. A preliminary single crystal X-ray diffraction structural analysis has revealed that the title compound belongs to the monoclinic system with space group C2/c. Its unit cell dimensions are: a=8.454 (2) Å, b=14.279 (2) Å, c=14.363 (3) Å, β=95.813 (4)°, with Z=4 and its crystal structure was determined and refined down to R 1 =0.029 and wR 2 =0.080. The crystal lattice is composed of discrete [CuCl 4 ] 2− tetrahedra surrounded by 4-aminopyridinium cations and water molecules which are interconnected by means of hydrogen bonding contacts [N–H…Cl, O–H…Cl and N–H…O]. Furthermore, the room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed. The optimized molecular structure and the vibrational spectra were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method using the B3LYP function. The organic–inorganic hybrid crystal thin film can be easily prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the (C 5 H 7 N 2 ) 2 CuCl 4 H 2 O perovskite and it showed characteristic absorptions of CuCl-based layered perovskite centered at 288 and 400 nm, as well as the photoluminescence peak at around 443 nm. The unaided-eye-detectable blue luminescence emission comes from the excitonic transition in the CuCl 4 anions. - Highlights: • A new hybrid compound (C 5 H 7 N 2 ) 2 CuCl 4 H 2 O was synthesized. • Vibrational properties were studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy and examined theoretically using the DFT/B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. • The UV–vis spectrum shows two absorption peaks at 288 and at 400 nm. • This compound show a strong blue emission at 443 nm

  4. Synthesis, structural, photoluminescence, vibrational and DFT investigation of the bis (4-aminopyridinium) tetrachloridocuprate(II) monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessentini, A., E-mail: kessentiniabir@gmail.com [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie de l’Etat Solide, Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B. P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Belhouchet, M. [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie de l’Etat Solide, Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B. P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Suñol, J.J. [Departamento De Fisica, Universita de Girona, Compus Montilivi, Girona 17071 (Spain); Abid, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B. P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Mhiri, T. [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie de l’Etat Solide, Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B. P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2014-05-01

    The crystals of the family of alkylammonuim tetrachloridocuprate (II), (C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}H{sub 2}O, have been grown, structurally characterized and their vibrational as well as optical properties been studied. A preliminary single crystal X-ray diffraction structural analysis has revealed that the title compound belongs to the monoclinic system with space group C2/c. Its unit cell dimensions are: a=8.454 (2) Å, b=14.279 (2) Å, c=14.363 (3) Å, β=95.813 (4)°, with Z=4 and its crystal structure was determined and refined down to R{sub 1}=0.029 and wR{sub 2}=0.080. The crystal lattice is composed of discrete [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} tetrahedra surrounded by 4-aminopyridinium cations and water molecules which are interconnected by means of hydrogen bonding contacts [N–H…Cl, O–H…Cl and N–H…O]. Furthermore, the room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed. The optimized molecular structure and the vibrational spectra were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method using the B3LYP function. The organic–inorganic hybrid crystal thin film can be easily prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the (C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}H{sub 2}O perovskite and it showed characteristic absorptions of CuCl-based layered perovskite centered at 288 and 400 nm, as well as the photoluminescence peak at around 443 nm. The unaided-eye-detectable blue luminescence emission comes from the excitonic transition in the CuCl{sub 4} anions. - Highlights: • A new hybrid compound (C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}H{sub 2}O was synthesized. • Vibrational properties were studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy and examined theoretically using the DFT/B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. • The UV–vis spectrum shows two absorption peaks at 288 and at 400 nm. • This compound show a strong blue emission at 443 nm.

  5. [Need for resuscitation in preterm neonates less than 32 weeks treated with antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloreda-Garcia, Jose María; Lorente-Nicolás, Ana; Bermejo-Costa, Francisca; Martínez-Uriarte, Juan; López-Pérez, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium sulphate administration is recommended for foetal neuroprotection in pregnant women at imminent risk of early preterm birth. To evaluate the relationship between intrapartum magnesium sulphate for foetal neuroprotection and delivery room resuscitation of preterm infants less 32 weeks. A prospective observational study was conducted on preterm infants less 32 weeks exposed to magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection, and a comparison made with another historic group immediately before starting this treatment. Cases in both groups that had not reached lung maturity with corticosteroids were rejected. The rates of resuscitation, morbidity and mortality for each of the groups were analysed and compared. There was a total of 107 preterm, with 56 exposed to magnesium sulphate. Rate of advanced resuscitation were similar between the two groups. There were no other differences in mortality, invasive mechanical ventilation, time to first stool, and other comorbidities. Intrapartum magnesium sulphate for foetal neuroprotection was not associated with an increased need for intensive delivery room resuscitation and other morbidities in these cohorts of less than 32 weeks preterm infants. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of Paramagnetic Monohydrates MeSO4.1H2O (Me = Mn2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Cu2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelšovská Kamila

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR of protons of crystrallization water in isomorphous paramagnetic monohydrates MeSO4.1H2O with Me = Mn2+ , Co2+ , Fe2+ , Ni2+ , Cu2+ is studied in the present paper. Several physically important parameters characterizing the studied substances were derived from the NMR spectra. In this paper we analysed the dependences of the NMR second moment M2 on the magnitude of the external magnetic field induction Br and the temperature. The proton NMR spectra in paramagnetic hydrates have an asymmetric form caused by the anisotropy of the local magnetic field acting on resonating nuclei and their second moments, M2, depend linearly on the square of the external magnetic field Br. The parameters M20 (the part of the second moment M2 which corresponds to the nuclear dipole-dipole interactions and á which characterize nuclear dipole-dipole interactions of protons and paramagnetic ions, respectively, are derived from experimentally obtained dependences of M2 vs Br2. The measurements were performed at the room temperature. Calculations were realized using the approximation where two nearest neighbour ions Me2+ to each water molecule are considered. The temperature dependence of the second moment, which was realised in the temperature range 123-313 K, was more informative than the field one. Besides the individual dependences M2(T measured at fr1 and fr2 we analysed the temperature dependence of the difference ∆M2(T. Beside the second moment M20 the Curie-Weiss constant è and the magnetic moment µi of paramagnetic ions were determined from the temperature dependences. The parameters è and M20 were determined directly from the experimental data. Some knowledge on the crystalline structure for the studied substance was required for the calculation of the magnetic moment µi. By means of the classification of substances according to the Curie-Weiss parameter, the negative value of the temperature parameter è for all studied

  7. Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullerton, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Avnstorp, C

    1993-01-01

    The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulphate were used....... The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48 h or applied repeatedly every 24 h for 96 h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulphate...... and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e., pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulphate (20%) on the skin surface for 96 h...

  8. Diagnosis of Hunter's syndrome carriers; radioactive sulphate incorporation into fibroblasts in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennesen, T.; Lykkelund, C.; Guettler, F.

    1982-01-01

    Mutual correction of co-cultivated fibroblasts from patients with Hunter's and Hurler's syndrome could be inhibited by either fructose 1-phosphate or mannose 6-phosphate. In the presence of fructose 1-phosphate a 50% mixture of fibroblasts from a patient with Hunter's syndrome and a normal homozygous individual showed an increased 35 S-sulphate incorporation into acid mucopolysaccharides. When fibroblast cultures from one obligate and two possible carriers of Hunter's syndrome were tested for 35 S-sulphate incorporation, the cultures showed either twice the normal 35 S-sulphate incorporation into acid mucopolysaccharides in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate or an abnormally high incorporation in the presence as well as in the absence of the sugar phosphate. (orig.)

  9. The influence of brown coal exploitation in Poland on the groundwater pollution as determined by isotopic analyses of sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halas, S.; Trembaczowski, A.; Soltyk, W.

    1998-01-01

    This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulphur in sulphates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO 4 2- samples from numerous wells and piezometres in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO 4 2- concentration and sulphur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed us to recognize three groups of sulphates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome, (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulphates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulphides in water-bearing rocks. (author)

  10. Exacerbation of alopecia areata: A possible complication of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy treatment for varicose veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Whiteley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman with a history of alopecia areata related to stress or hormonal changes was treated for bilateral primary symptomatic varicose veins (CEAP clinical score C2S of pelvic origin, using a staged procedure. Her first procedure entailed pelvic vein embolisation of three pelvic veins using 14 coils and including foam sclerotherapy of the tributaries, using 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Following this procedure, she had an exacerbation of alopecia areata with some moderate shedding of hair. Subsequently, she underwent endovenous laser ablation under local anaesthetic without incident. Seven months after the pelvic vein embolisation, she underwent foam sclerotherapy of leg and labial varicose veins using sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Two days following this procedure, she had a severe exacerbation of alopecia areata with gross shedding of hair. These two episodes of exacerbation of alopecia areata appear to be associated with sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy of veins.

  11. Exacerbation of alopecia areata: A possible complication of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy treatment for varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Mark S; Smith, Victoria C

    2017-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman with a history of alopecia areata related to stress or hormonal changes was treated for bilateral primary symptomatic varicose veins (CEAP clinical score C2S) of pelvic origin, using a staged procedure. Her first procedure entailed pelvic vein embolisation of three pelvic veins using 14 coils and including foam sclerotherapy of the tributaries, using 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Following this procedure, she had an exacerbation of alopecia areata with some moderate shedding of hair. Subsequently, she underwent endovenous laser ablation under local anaesthetic without incident. Seven months after the pelvic vein embolisation, she underwent foam sclerotherapy of leg and labial varicose veins using sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Two days following this procedure, she had a severe exacerbation of alopecia areata with gross shedding of hair. These two episodes of exacerbation of alopecia areata appear to be associated with sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy of veins.

  12. Sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing communities in Brazilian mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varon-Lopez, Maryeimy; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipolla; Durrer, Ademir; Melo, Itamar Soares; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2014-03-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of sulphur-oxidizing (SOB) and sulphate-reducing (SRB) bacteria in sediments from three Brazilian mangrove communities: two contaminated, one with oil (OilMgv) and one with urban waste and sludge (AntMgv), and one pristine (PrsMgv). The community structures were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and clone libraries, using genes for the enzymes adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate reductase (aprA) and sulphite reductase (Dsr) (dsrB). The abundance for qPCR showed the ratio dsrB/aprA to be variable among mangroves and higher according to the gradient observed for oil contamination in the OilMgv. The PCR-DGGE patterns analysed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling revealed differences among the structures of the three mangrove communities. The clone libraries showed that Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant groups associated with sulphur cycling in mangrove sediments. We conclude that the microbial SOB and SRB communities in mangrove soils are different in each mangrove forest and that such microbial communities could possibly be used as a proxy for contamination in mangrove forests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Spectrographic determination of dysprosium dopant in calcium sulphate used as dosimetric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoletto, T.

    1982-01-01

    A spectrographic method is described for the quantitative determination of dysprosium in doped crystals of calcium sulphate. The consequences of the changes in some parameters of the excitation conditions, such as arc current, electrode type and total or partial burning of sample, in the analytical results are discussed. Matrix effects are investigated by comparison among analytical curves obtained from three different methods of standard preparations. Variations in the intensity of the spectral lines are verificated by recording the spectrum in distinct photographic plates (SA-1). The role of internal standard in analytical reproducibility and in counterbalance of the variations in the arc current and in the weight of sample are studied. The great similarity in excitation behavior of many of the rare earths is used to provide a high degree of internal standardization. Precision studies show a standard deviation of about + - 2,4 percent by use of lanthanum as an internal standard. Accuracy is estimate by comparative analysis of two calcium sulphate samples by X-Rays Fluorescence, Neutron Activation and Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) Emission Spectroscopy. (Author) [pt

  14. Microstructural characterization and electrochemical corrosion behavior of Incoloy 800 in sulphate and chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, Fabio Abud; Schvartzman, Monica Maria de Abreu Mendonca; Campos, Wagner Reis da Costa; Aguiar, Antonio Eugenio de; Chaim, Marcos Souza

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion has been the major cause of tube failures in steam generators (SG) tubes in nuclear power plants. Problems have resulted from impurities in the secondary water systems which are originated from leaks of cooling water. It is important to understand the compatibility of steam generator tube materials with the environment. This study presents the microstructural characterization and electrochemical behavior of the Incoloy 800 in sodium chloride and sodium sulphate aqueous solutions at 80 degree C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization, cyclic polarization and open circuit potential (OCP) measurements were the electrochemical techniques applied in this work. The pitting resistance of Incoloy 800 in chloride plus sulphate mixtures were also examined. Experiments performed in solutions with different concentrations of Cl- and SO 4 2- ions in solution (200 ppb, 500 ppb, 1ppm, 5 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm) showed that this concentrations range had no substantial effect on the anodic behavior of the alloy. After polarization no localized corrosion was found on the samples. (author)

  15. Cysteic acid and taurine synthesis from sulphate in the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.

    1960-01-01

    The formation of taurine from sulphate was studied in the chick embryo using the radioisotopes of: sulphur, carbon and hydrogen. The following reactions occur: 1) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; 2) fixation of the sulphite on a carbon chain with an amino group, resulting from desulphydration of L-cysteine, which leads to the formation of L-cysteic acid; 3) decarboxylation of L-cysteic acid. Reaction (1) takes place only in the endo-dermal cells of the yolk sac; reaction (2) in these same cells and in the yolk; reaction (3) is general, localized in the yolk sac, in the yolk as well as in the tissues of the embryo itself. The enzyme which catalyses reaction (2) has been purified; the coenzyme is pyridoxal phosphate. The desulphydration of cysteine by this enzyme is a reversible reaction. In non-physiological conditions of concentration and temperature, pyridoxal phosphate catalyses in the presence of metallic ions, the desulphydration of cysteine and the formation of cysteic acid from sulphite. (author) [fr

  16. Effects of carbonate and sulphate ions in synthetic groundwater on high-level waste glass leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, H.

    1990-01-01

    This laboratory experiment aims to examine the effects of rare earth carbonate and sulphate ions, that are naturally present in underground water, have on glass used to store high-level radioactive waste for disposal underground. Borosilicate glass (or HLW glass) is stored under observation on the land surface for several decades before being buried deep below ground in geological disposal sites. Two types of precipitation occur during leaching from the glass, immediate formation of a hydrated surface layer and slow precipitation from concentration in the leachates. This slow process of some elements precipitating onto the glass surface or into the leachates is examined in this experiment using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Carbonates from rare-earth elements are found in the synthetic groundwater used. It is shown that carbonate and sulphate ions will affect leaching and will occur in geological disposal sites. Other particles were also observed to precipitate using SEM-EDX. (author)

  17. Synthesis of specifically deuterium-labelled pregnanolone and pregnanediol sulphates for metabolic studies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, T A; Sjövall, J; Herz, J E

    1975-10-01

    A synthesis is reported of 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one sulphate and the disulphate and 3-monosulphate of 5alpha-pregnane-3beta,20alpha-diol, labelled specifically with deuterium in high isotopic purity for metabolic studies in humans. Base-catalyzed equilibration of 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-25R-spirostan-12-one (hemcogenin, II) with deuterium oxide, followed by removal of the 12-keto group and degradation of the sapogenin side-chain afforded 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-[11,11-2H2]pregn-16-en-20-one (VII). Further deuterium atoms were introduced at the 3alpha and 20beta positions by reductions with sodium borodeuteride and lithium aluminum deuteride, respectively. These reactions led to 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-[3alpha,11,11-2H3]pregnan-20-one (X; isotopic purity 87.2%) and 5alpha-[3alpha,11,11,20beta-2H4]pregnane-3beta,20alpha-diol (XIV; isotopic purity 83.9%). The 3-sulphate of the pregnanolone and the 3,20-disulphate of the pregnanediol were prepared directly form the free alcohols, while the 3-monosulphate of the pregnanediol was obtained via 5alpha-[3alpha,11,11,20beta-2H4]pregnane-3beta,20alpha-diol 20-acetate (XVII).

  18. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-03-07

    To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.

  19. Spectrophotometric Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate and Tetracycline Hydrochloride via ion pair Complex Formation Using Eosin Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. Dhamra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of binary complexes between these drugs and eosin Y in aqueous acetate buffered medium. Under the optimum conditions, the binary complexes showed absorption maxima at 545 nm. Beer's law was rectilinear over concentration range of 0.5-10 and 5-45 μg/mL, R2 were 0.9984 and 0.9988, RSD were ≤ 0.72 and ≤ 0.19 (n=5 with average recovery % 101.42 % and 100.08 % and the average recovery values of pharmaceutical formulations 101.48 and 98.01 for above drugs respectively. The limit of detection (LOD were 0.030 and 0.613 μg/mL and limit of quantitation (LOQ were 0.103 and 2.00 μg/mL with molar absorptivity values 3.169  103 and 6.347  103 l. mol-1. cm-1 and the relative standard deviation values ≤0.720 and ≤ 0.19 for both drugs respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients that are commonly present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of terbutaline sulphate tablet and tetracycline hydrochloride capsule in their dosage forms.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride via ion pair complex formation using eosin y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamra, M.Y.; Sabha, T.N.A.; Ghabsha, T.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of binary complexes between these drugs and eosin Y in aqueous acetate buffered medium. Under the optimum conditions, the binary complexes showed absorption maxima at 545 nm. Beer's law was rectilinear over concentration range of 0.5-10 and 5-45 micro g/mL, R/sub 2/ were 0.9984 and 0.9988, RSD were 0.72 and 0.19 (n=5) with average recovery 101.42 % and 100.08 % and the average recovery values of pharmaceutical formulations 101.48 and 98.01 for above drugs respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) were 0.030 and 0.613 micro g/mL and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.103 and 2.00 micro g/mL with molar absorptivity values 3.169 10/sup 3/ and 6.347 10/sup 3/l. mol/sup -1/. Cm/sup -1/ and the relative standard deviation values 0.720 and 0.19 for both drugs respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients that are commonly present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of terbutaline sulphate tablet and tetracycline hydrochloride capsule in their dosage forms. (author)

  1. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin Muhammad Hanis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film nanocomposite (TFN membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH incorporated into polyamide (PA selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC. The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  2. Extraction of Iron and Manganese from Pyrolusite Absorption Residue by Ammonium Sulphate Roasting–Leaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The residue from desulfurization and denitrification of exhaust gas treatment process with pyrolusite ore as absorbent is regarded as a potential source of iron and manganese. In this study, an extraction process is proposed for recovery of iron and manganese with ammonium sulphate roasting followed by sulphuric acid leaching. Firstly, the conversion mechanism was analyzed through mineral phase analysis of roasting products at different roasting temperature by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD technology. Then, the parameters of the roasting procedure such as roasting temperature and time, ammonium sulphate dosage, leaching temperature, leaching time, and sulphuric acid concentration are examined. The results implicate that the iron oxide and manganese dioxide in the residue are firstly converted into the water-soluble ( NH 4 3 Fe ( SO 4 3 and ( NH 4 2 Mn 2 ( SO 4 3 at 200–350 °C, and then the more stable NH 4 Fe ( SO 4 2 and MnSO 4 are formed, at temperature higher than 350 °C. Under optimum conditions, 95.2% Fe and 97.0% Mn can be extracted. Reactant diffusion through inert layer of silicon dioxide was considered as the rate-limiting step for iron extraction with an activation energy of 20.56 kJ/mol, while, the recovery process of Mn was controlled by both reactant diffusion and chemical reaction with an activation energy of 29.52 kJ/mol.

  3. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanis Tajuddin, Muhammad; Yusof, Norhaniza; Salleh, Wan Norharyati Wan; Fauzi Ismail, Ahmad; Hanis Hayati Hairom, Nur; Misdan, Nurasyikin

    2018-03-01

    Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) incorporated into polyamide (PA) selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC). The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakić, Milorad; Glišić, Slobodan; Nikolić, Goran; Nikolić, Goran M.; Cakić, Katarina; Cvetinov, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs - DS) were synthesized from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and dextran sulphate sodium salt (DS). The characterization of AgNPs - DS was performed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and antimicrobial activity. The formation of AgNPs - DS was monitored by colour changes of the reaction mixture from yellowish to brown and by measuring the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak in UV-VIS spectra at 420 nm. The SEM analysis was used for size and shape determination of AgNPs - DS. The presence of elemental silver and its crystalline structure in AgNPs - DS were confirmed by EDX and XRD analyses. The possible functional groups of DS responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs were determinated by FTIR spectroscopy. The AgNPs - DS showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Bacillus luteus in haus strain, Bacillus subtilis ATTC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Escherichia coli ATTC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 700603, Proteus vulgaris ATTC 8427, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATTC 2091.

  5. Formulation and Evaluation of Chitosan-Chondroitin Sulphate Based Nasal Inserts for Zolmitriptan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirandeep Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioadhesive nasal dosage forms are an attractive method for overcoming rapid mucociliary clearance transport in the nose and for delivering the drug directly to brain. The present study was designed to formulate chondroitin sulphate (CS and chitosan (CH nasal inserts employing zolmitriptan, an antimigraine drug. The interpolymer complexes (IPC formed between –COO− and – groups of CS and group of CH were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR, differential scanning analysis (DSC, and zeta potential studies. The unloaded and loaded nasal inserts were evaluated for water uptake studies, and bioadhesive strength studies, scanning electron microscopic studies (SEM. The in vitro drug release and in situ permeation studies were carried out on loaded nasal inserts. The DSC and IR studies confirmed the formation of a complex between the two polymers. The results indicated that the formulation F1 (CH : CS; 30 : 70 was demonstrating the highest bioadhesive strength and zeta potential. The presence of porous structure in the nasal inserts was confirmed by the SEM analysis. Further, in vitro and in situ release studies demonstrated that formulations F9 and F11 (drug : polymer; 1 : 10 were releasing 90% and 98% zolmitriptan over a period of 8 h. It can be concluded that nasal inserts formulated from chitosan-chondroitin sulphate (CH-CS interpolymer complex (IPC can be used for delivery of antimigraine drug to brain.

  6. Brain heparan sulphate proteoglycans are altered in developing foetus when exposed to in-utero hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, M S; Nandini, C D

    2017-08-01

    In-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition affects the growth and development of the organism. The brain is one of the first organs that start to develop during embryonic period and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are one of the key molecules involved in its development. But studies on the effect of hyperglycaemic conditions on brain GAGs/PGs are few and far between. We, therefore, looked into the changes in brain GAGs and PGs at various developmental stages of pre- and post-natal rats from non-diabetic and diabetic mothers as well as in adult rats induced with diabetes using a diabetogenic agent, Streptozotocin. Increased expression of GAGs especially that of heparan sulphate class in various developmental stages were observed in the brain as a result of in-utero hyperglycaemic condition but not in that of adult rats. Changes in disaccharides of heparan sulphate (HS) were observed in various developmental stages. Furthermore, various HSPGs namely, syndecans-1 and -3 and glypican-1 were overexpressed in offspring from diabetic mother. However, in adult diabetic rats, only glypican-1 was overexpressed. The offsprings from diabetic mothers became hyperphagic at the end of 8 weeks after birth which can have implications in the long run. Our results highlight the likely impact of the in-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition on brain GAGs/PGs compared to diabetic adult rats.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of magnesium sulphate vs. clonidine as adjunct to epidural bupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Ghatak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For treatment of intra and postoperative pain, no drug has yet been identified that specifically inhibits nociception without associated side effects. Magnesium has antinociceptive effects in animal and human models of pain. The current prospective randomised double-blind study was undertaken to establish the effect of addition of magnesium or clonidine, as adjuvant, to epidural bupivacaine in lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries. A total of 90 American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA grade I and II patients undergoing lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were enrolled to receive either magnesium sulphate (Group B or clonidine (Group C along with epidural bupivacaine for surgical anaesthesia. All patients received 19 ml of epidural bupivacaine 0.5% along with 50 mg magnesium in group B, 150 mcg clonidine in Group C, whereas in control group (Group A, patients received same volume of normal saline. Onset time, heart rate, blood pressure, duration of analgesia, pain assessment by visual analogue score (VAS and adverse effects were recorded. Onset of anaesthesia was rapid in magnesium group (Group B. In group C there was prolongation of duration of anaesthesia and sedation with lower VAS score, but the incidence of shivering was higher. The groups were similar with respect to haemodynamic variables, nausea and vomiting. The current study establishes magnesium sulphate as a predictable and safe adjunct to epidural bupivacaine for rapid onset of anaesthesia and clonidine for prolonged duration of anaesthesia with sedation.

  8. Prediction of the oversulphated chondroitin sulphate contamination of unfractionated heparin by ATR-IR spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwig, J; Beyer, T; Brinz, D; Holzgrabe, U; Diller, M; Manns, D

    2009-03-01

    The detection of a contamination of heparin with oversulphated chondroitin sulphate (OSCS) was first analysed in an unfractionated heparin batch supplied to the US API-market in April 2006. OSCS is a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural occuring glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulphate. Moreover some spectroscopic characteristics of the substance overlap with those of heparin, so that the infrared (IR) spectra are visually difficult to distinguish whereas (1)H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy or capillary electrophoresis (CE) provides identification by a simple visual inspection of either the spectrum or the electropherogram respectively. However, applying special tools of Multivariate Data Analysis (MVA) to the IR spectra an identification of the contaminated samples is possible. In detail a rapid Attenuation Total Reflectance-Infrared (ATR-IR) measurement was selected, which does not require any sample preparation. The result (contaminated or not contaminated) is predicted within a few minutes. A method transfer to mobile ATR-IR spectrometers seems to be possible. The analysis is based on the fact that the fingerprint of the OSCS IR spectrum (1st derivative) complies with a theoretically calculated principal component in the MVA.

  9. Analysis of chromium and sulphate origins in construction recycled materials based on leaching test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey, I; Ayuso, J; Galvín, A P; Jiménez, J R; López, M; García-Garrido, M L

    2015-12-01

    Twenty samples of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) with different compositions collected at six recycling plants in the Andalusia region (south of Spain) were characterised according to the Landfill Directive criteria. Chromium and sulphate were identified as the most critical compounds in the leachates. To detect the sources of these two pollutant constituents in recycled aggregate, environmental assessments were performed on eight construction materials (five unused ceramic materials, two old crushed concretes and one new mortar manufactured in the laboratory). The results confirmed that leached sulphate and Cr were mainly released by the ceramic materials (bricks and tiles). To predict the toxicological consequences, the oxidation states of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were measured in the leachates of recycled aggregates and ceramic materials classified as non-hazardous. The bricks and tiles mainly released total Cr as Cr (III). However, the recycled aggregates classified as non-hazardous according to the Landfill Directive criteria mainly released Cr (VI), which is highly leachable and extremely toxic. The obtained results highlight the need for legislation that distinguishes the oxidative state in which chromium is released into the environment. Leaching level regulations must not be based solely on total Cr, which can lead to inaccurate predictions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury methylation in high and low-sulphate impacted wetland ponds within the prairie pothole region of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggarth, Cameron G.J.; Hall, Britt D.; Mitchell, Carl P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Using enriched stable 201 Hg injections into intact sediment cores, we provide the first reported Hg methylation potential rate constants (k m ) in prairie wetland ponds (0.016–0.17 d −1 ). Our k m values were similar to other freshwater wetlands and did not differ in ponds categorized with high compared to low surface water concentrations of sulphate. Sites with high sulphate had higher proportions of methylmercury (MeHg) in sediment (2.9 ± 1.6% vs. 1.0 ± 0.3%) and higher surface water MeHg concentrations (1.96 ± 1.90 ng L −1 vs. 0.56 ± 0.55 ng L −1 ). Sediment-porewater partitioning coefficients were small, and likely due to high ionic activity. Our work suggests while k m measurements are useful for understanding mercury cycling processes, they are less important than surface water MeHg concentrations for assessing MeHg risks to biota. Significant differences in MeHg concentrations between sites with high and low sulphate concentrations may also inform management decisions concerning wetland remediation and creation. - Highlights: • Wetlands of the PPR provide many vital ecosystem services, but can have high MeHg concentrations. • Methylation potentials in prairie ponds are similar to other freshwater wetlands. • MeHg and %MeHg in surface water of high sulphate ponds was greater than low sulphate ponds. • Sediment-porewater partitioning coefficients were small compared to other systems. • Potential methylation rate constants did not correlate to surface water concentrations. - Prairie wetland ponds with higher sulphate concentrations have greater sediment and surface water methylmercury concentrations, but potential methylation rates do not differ

  11. Uptake and metabolism of sulphated steroids by the blood-brain barrier in the adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, M Zeeshan; Dolman, Diana E M; Begley, David J; Abbott, N Joan; Cazacu-Davidescu, Mihaela; Corol, Delia I; Fry, Jonathan P

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the origin of the neuroactive steroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) in the brain or of their subsequent metabolism. Using rat brain perfusion in situ, we have found 3 H-PregS to enter more rapidly than 3 H-DHEAS and both to undergo extensive (> 50%) desulphation within 0.5 min of uptake. Enzyme activity for the steroid sulphatase catalysing this deconjugation was enriched in the capillary fraction of the blood-brain barrier and its mRNA expressed in cultures of rat brain endothelial cells and astrocytes. Although permeability measurements suggested a net efflux, addition of the efflux inhibitors GF120918 and/or MK571 to the perfusate reduced rather than enhanced the uptake of 3 H-DHEAS and 3 H-PregS; a further reduction was seen upon the addition of unlabelled steroid sulphate, suggesting a saturable uptake transporter. Analysis of brain fractions after 0.5 min perfusion with the 3 H-steroid sulphates showed no further metabolism of PregS beyond the liberation of free steroid pregnenolone. By contrast, DHEAS underwent 17-hydroxylation to form androstenediol in both the steroid sulphate and the free steroid fractions, with some additional formation of androstenedione in the latter. Our results indicate a gain of free steroid from circulating steroid sulphates as hormone precursors at the blood-brain barrier, with implications for ageing, neurogenesis, neuronal survival, learning and memory. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Study of Factors Influencing Oxygen-18 Isotopic Contents of Dissolved Sulphate in the Shallow Groundwater In Karawang Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristin Pujiindiyati, E.; Bungkus Pratikno

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the factors influencing oxygen-18 isotopic contents of dissolved sulphate in shallow groundwater from Karawang area. The δ 18 O is a relative abundance of O-18 compared to O-16 in CO 2 gas. CO 2 gas was released from the equilibrium between water samples and CO 2 gas, and from the reduction of sulphate samples with graphite. From this investigation, the δ 18 O (H 2 O) values were in the range of -3.21 0 / 00 to 6.25 0 / 00 whereas the δ 18 O (SO 4 2- ) values were 9.64 0 / 00 to 20.72 0 / 00 . The wide variation of δ 18 O (SO 4 2- ) values might be result due to inhomogeneity of sulphate sources in groundwater where the groundwater sulphates were generally derived from the dissolution of marine evaporites rocks. The groundwaters and Citarum River near waters to Johar site showed lowering of δ 18 O (SO 4 2- ) values. It might be related to the present of the traditional market in this location. The lowering of these values might be due to the increase of the sulphate reduction process caused by anaerobic bacteria growth in organic garbage deposition. Plotting between δ 18 O (SO 4 2- ) and δ 18 O (H 2 O) exhibited that the oxygen contribution from H 2 O to form sulphate was less than 25%. This indicated that the shallow groundwater in Karawang is located in a non-saturated zone and had a biotic condition. (author)

  13. Integrating biomass, sulphate and sea-salt aerosol responses into a microphysical chemical parcel model: implications for climate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Smith, M H; Rap, A

    2007-11-15

    Aerosols are known to influence significantly the radiative budget of the Earth. Although the direct effect (whereby aerosols scatter and absorb solar and thermal infrared radiation) has a large perturbing influence on the radiation budget, the indirect effect (whereby aerosols modify the microphysical and hence the radiative properties and amounts of clouds) poses a greater challenge to climate modellers. This is because aerosols undergo chemical and physical changes while in the atmosphere, notably within clouds, and are removed largely by precipitation. The way in which aerosols are processed by clouds depends on the type, abundance and the mixing state of the aerosols concerned. A parametrization with sulphate and sea-salt aerosol has been successfully integrated within the Hadley Centre general circulation model (GCM). The results of this combined parametrization indicate a significantly reduced role, compared with previous estimates, for sulphate aerosol in cloud droplet nucleation and, consequently, in indirect radiative forcing. However, in this bicomponent system, the cloud droplet number concentration, N(d) (a crucial parameter that is used in GCMs for radiative transfer calculations), is a smoothly varying function of the sulphate aerosol loading. Apart from sea-salt and sulphate aerosol particles, biomass aerosol particles are also present widely in the troposphere. We find that biomass smoke can significantly perturb the activation and growth of both sulphate and sea-salt particles. For a fixed salt loading, N(d) increases linearly with modest increases in sulphate and smoke masses, but significant nonlinearities are observed at higher non-sea-salt mass loadings. This non-intuitive N(d) variation poses a fresh challenge to climate modellers.

  14. Muscle as an osteoinductive niche for local bone formation with the use of a biphasic calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite biomaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, D. B.; Gupta, A.; Petersen, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We have observed clinical cases where bone is formed in the overlaying muscle covering surgically created bone defects treated with a hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial. Our objective was to investigate the osteoinductive potential of the biomaterial and to determine if growth...... factors secreted from local bone cells induce osteoblastic differentiation of muscle cells. Materials and Methods: We seeded mouse skeletal muscle cells C2C12 on the hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biomaterial and the phenotype of the cells was analysed. To mimic surgical conditions with leakage of extra...

  15. Bacterial sulphate reduction and mixing processes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory indicated by groundwater δ34S isotope signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, Bill

    2011-04-01

    This report includes data mostly obtained from δ 34 S isotope measurements of groundwater at the Aespoe Island and one sampling from the Laxemar site, southeastern Sweden, during tunnel construction. Early sampling at Aespoe (up to 1992), before tunnel excavation, indicates a groundwater system with multiple sulphur sources. The isotope changes over time in the dissolved sulphate were studied during a sampling campaign in the monitoring phase from 1993 to 1995. A total of 88 samples were collected by SKB between 1992 and 1995 from core-drilled surface boreholes and from boreholes drilled in the tunnel (34 of these samples were collected from the tunnel boreholes). The results of the analyses have been the focus of discussion of the isotope changes with time in the dissolved sulphate (SO 4 2- ). The results indicate that the sulphur isotope signatures in the dissolved sulphate of the groundwater and those from fracture-filling sulphides at Aespoe originate from multiple sulphur sources in the groundwater at Aespoe and Laxemar. The data may be grouped as follows: a) typically homogeneous marine signatures of dissolved SO 4 2- are observed, with δ 34 S values of approximately +21 per mille CDT at intermediate depths of approximately 100-250 m; b) dissolved sulphate in the groundwater at greater depths (below 600 m) with average values of approximately +10 per mille CDT; and c) a dissolved SO 4 2- originating from a mixture of these sulphur sources (100-600m), although there is a difference between a mixture and modification by reduction. Reduced sulphur with low δ 34 S values is also recorded in fracture-filling sulphides, with δ 34 S values of approximately 0 to -10 per mille CDT. This may contribute to small changes in the isotope signature of the dissolved SO 4 2- , probably by sulphide oxidation in the past. The changes in the δ 34 S isotope data for dissolved SO 4 2- over the 1992-1996 period suggest a complex situation, indicating both sulphate reduction by

  16. Effects of Topical Corticosteroid and Tacrolimus on Ceramides and Irritancy to Sodium Lauryl Sulphate in Healthy Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    twice daily for one week with betamethasone, tacrolimus, emollient, or left untreated, respectively. After one week each area was challenged with a 24 h sodium lauryl sulphate patch test. The lipids were collected using the cyanoacrylate method and evaluated by high performance thin layer chromatography...... found between treatment regimes. Pretreatment with betamethasone (p = 0.01) or with tacrolimus (p = 0.001) causes a decreased inflammatory response to sodium lauryl sulphate compared with emollient. In conclusion, treatment with betamethasone and tacrolimus has a positive effect on the ceramide...

  17. Fundamental Studies on the Electrochemical Behaviour of Carbon Steel Exposed in Sulphide and Sulphate-Reducing Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies and for recommendati......The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies...

  18. Study on the influence of Sempervivum tectorum and Melatonin on Glutathion protective effects in rats blood exposed to Aluminum sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Gravila; Florin Muselin; Camelia Tulcan; Mirela Ahmadi – Khoie; Ariana- Bianca Velciov; Georgeta- Sofia Pintilie

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of Sempervivum tectorum aqueous extract and melatonin on reduced glutathione (GSH) protective effect in Wistar albino rat blood exposed to aluminium sulphate- Al2(SO4)3. The rats were divided in one control group (C) and 7 experimental groups (E). The control group received tap water. The experimental rats were feed the following way: E1 group – aluminum sulphate, daily, for 3 months; : E2 group – Sempervivum tectorum, daily, for ...

  19. Decline in Performance of Biochemical Reactors for Sulphate Removal from Mine-Influenced Water is Accompanied by Changes in Organic Matter Characteristics and Microbial Population Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Mirjafari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful long-term bioremediation of mining-influenced water using complex organic matter and naturally-occurring microorganisms in sub-surface flow constructed wetlands requires a balance between easily and more slowly degrading material. This can be achieved by combining different types of organic materials. To provide guidance on what mixture combinations to use, information is needed on how the ratio of labile to recalcitrant components affects the degradation rate and the types of microbial populations supported. To investigate this, different ratios of wood and hay were used in up-flow column bioreactors treating selenium- and sulphate-containing synthetic mine-influenced water. The degradation rates of crude fibre components appeared to be similar regardless of the relative amounts of wood and hay. However, the nature of the degradation products might have differed in that those produced in the hay-rich bioreactors were more biodegradable and supported high sulphate-reduction rates. Microorganisms in the sulphate-reducing and cellulose-degrading inocula persisted in the bioreactors indicating that bio-augmentation was effective. There was a shift in microbial community composition over time suggesting that different microbial groups were involved in decomposition of more recalcitrant material. When dissolved organic carbon (DOC was over-supplied, the relative abundance of sulphate-reducers was low even through high sulphate-reduction rates were achieved. As DOC diminished, sulphate-reducers become more prevalent and their relative abundance correlated with sulphate concentrations rather than sulphate-reduction rate.

  20. Influence of sulphate on effects of ADP, 3′,5′-cyclic amp and citrate on human platelet phosphofructokinase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Jan Willem N.; Gorter, G.; Sixma, J.J.; Staal, Gerard E.J.

    1974-01-01

    1. 1. Sulphate ions activate partially-purified human platelet phosphofructokinase. This is caused by suppression of the cooperativity of the enzyme with respect to fructose 6-phosphate. 2. 2. Sulphate therefore markedly affects the influences of allosteric modifiers such as ADP, 3′,5′-cyclic AMP

  1. Biotic conversion of sulphate to sulphide and abiotic conversion of sulphide to sulphur in a microbial fuel cell using cobalt oxide octahedrons as cathode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli; Kumar, Senthil

    2017-05-01

    Varying chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sulphate concentrations in substrate were used to determine reaction kinetics and mass balance of organic matter and sulphate transformation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). MFC with anodic chamber volume of 1 L, fed with wastewater having COD of 500 mg/L and sulphate of 200 mg/L, could harvest power of 54.4 mW/m 2 , at a Coulombic efficiency of 14%, with respective COD and sulphate removals of 90 and 95%. Sulphide concentration, even up to 1500 mg/L, did not inhibit anodic biochemical reactions, due to instantaneous abiotic oxidation to sulphur, at high inlet sulphate. Experiments on abiotic oxidation of sulphide to sulphur revealed maximum oxidation taking place at an anodic potential of -200 mV. More than 99% sulphate removal could be achieved in a MFC with inlet COD/sulphate of 0.75, giving around 1.33 kg/m 3  day COD removal. Bioelectrochemical conversion of sulphate facilitating sulphur recovery in a MFC makes it an interesting pollution abatement technique.

  2. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Cellulose degradation, volatile fatty acid formation and biological sulphate removal operating and anaerobic hybrid reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. cut grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised in the anaerobic degradation to produce...

  3. Ammonium sodium fluorotrioxophosphate monohydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fábry, Jan; Dušek, Michal; Krupková, Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2007), i92-i94 ISSN 1600-5368 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : x-ray structure determination * O-H_O, N-H_O hydrogen bonds * fluorotrioxophosphate Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.508, year: 2007

  4. Diimidazolium phthalate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua-Hua Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, 2C3H5N2+·C8H4O42−·H2O, the cations, anion and water molecule are connected by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  5. Iron deficiency up-regulates iron absorption from ferrous sulphate but not ferric pyrophosphate and consequently food fortification with ferrous sulphate has relatively greater efficacy in iron-deficient individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Biebinger, R.; Egli, I.; Zeder, C.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    Fe absorption from water-soluble forms of Fe is inversely proportional to Fe status in humans. Whether this is true for poorly soluble Fe compounds is uncertain. Our objectives were therefore (1) to compare the up-regulation of Fe absorption at low Fe status from ferrous sulphate (FS) and ferric

  6. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded SOA particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH42SO4 having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3. The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility – hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75% and above (RH 85% the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH42SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an

  7. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded SOA particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Duplissy, J.; Gysel, M.; Metzger, A.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Alfarra, M. R.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Fletcher, C.; Good, N.; McFiggans, G.; Jonsson, Â. M.; Hallquist, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2009-01-01

    The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3). The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility - hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer). VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF) factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75%) and above (RH 85%) the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH4)2SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an increasing volume fraction of SOA. To our knowledge this is the first time that SOA derived

  8. Bone mineral response to ammonium sulphate offered as a lick supplement in beef calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Motsei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen Bonsmara calves (4 males, 12 females between 10 and 18 months of age were blocked according to age and sex and randomly assigned to 2 groups. They were offered licks containing bone meal and salt (50:50 ratio (control and bone meal and ammonium sulphate (NH4SO4 at 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 18 % (treatment to evaluate the effects of dietary anions on bone phosphate (P concentration. Bone P concentration was significantly (P<0.05 higher in the NH4SO4 group compared with the control group, indicating that NH4SO4 was able to increase the P content of bone at each of the 6 concentrations used in the lick relative to the control animals, thereby improving the P status of the animals. Ammonium sulphate at 15% and 18% in the lick also significantly (P <0.05 increased bone P compared with the lower concentrations of NH4SO4. Bone calcium (Ca fluctuated as a result of the acidogenic lick. There was absorption of Ca when P was being resorbed and resorption of Ca when P was being absorbed into and out of bone. Bone Ca:P ratio ranged from 3.2 to 6.4 among the control group and 1.6 to 4.3 among the treatment group. Animals receiving the acidogenic lick had a higher percentage ash compared to the control group for most of the experimental period. Bone magnesium (Mg fluctuated in response to the acidogenic lick, and it was difficult to show a relationship between bone Mg and Ca or P. The overall mean cortical bone thickness was significantly (P < 0.05 greater in treatment (1.60 mm compared with control (1.43 mm calves and this was also true at sampling periods 2, 4, 5 and 6. Bone thickness followed bone P and not bone Ca. Results from this research indicate that the addition of ammonium sulphate to a lick had a beneficial effect in improving the P status by increasing bone P and improving the mineral status of bone by increasing the thickness of cortical bone and percentage ash.

  9. Study of the process of multistage leaching of alum shale's sulphate d ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maremae, E.; Ruendal, L.; Ahelik, V.

    1991-01-01

    The scheme of the process was worked out on the basis of small (the weight of starting ashes 1 kg) and big (76.2 kg) laboratory tests with the result of getting aluminium potassium sulphate (alum) as a commercial product, and a technological solution with increased content of metals (Ti, Mo, V, U, etc.). Ashes received by means of Toolse deposit (Estonia) alum-shale fluidized-bed ashing at 800 o C, were used as basic material. The ashes were sulphate d in combustion tubes provided with electric heater using sulphate roasting process: the ashes were mixed with 75% H 2 SO 4 with the ratio S : L = 4 : 3 to get a homogeneous paste which was calcinated in the tube at 250-300 o C for 30 min. The calcinated paste (clinker) was treated with boiling water. The leaching experiments were carried out with various S : L ratios; in small test - in 2-litre bulbs, equipped with a stirring-rod, reflux condenser and thermometer, in the pulp at boiling temperature (101 o C). The hot leaching pulp was filtered under pressure using forcing filters. The final solutions were cooled and treated in order to receive alum. Under the conditions of a discontinuous process, the yield of raw alum (content of Fe 2 O 3 ∼1%) made up 240-270 kg/t of the starting ashes, both at the expense of the ashes' own potassium and at the expense of the potassium added from outside. The standard alum with regard to the content of iron admixture was obtained after repeated recrystallization of the raw alum. After the separation of alum, the solutions with the specific weight of 1.4-1.5 t/m 3 , and with the following average metal and sulphuric acid content in the solutions of the small and big tests were obtained: Ti 4.8 and 8.3; Mo 0.4 and 0.8; V 1.0 and 1.9; U 0.2 and 0.5; Fe 66 and 90; Al 18 and 20; K 1.9 and 3.4; H 2 SO 4 117 and 123 g/l, respectively. The extraction of metals into the solution in small and big tests was as follows: ti 71 and 64, Mo 73 and 66, V94 and 86, U 91 and 77, Fe 69 and 60, Al 45

  10. TiO2 effect on break-down of low-grade tantalum-niobium concentrates in the process of sulphatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, N.V.; Popov, A.D.; Mulenko, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of TiO 2 additive or materials containing it on tantalum-niobate decomposition in the process of sulphatization is investigated. It is shown that favourable effect of titanium dioxide in the process of sulphatization is especially noticeable in reprocessing of hard-brokening down tantalum-niobium concentrates with low Nb:Ta ratio etc. Chemical composition and type of tantalum-niobium mineralization of enrichment products used in the given investigation is presented. It is stated that the degree of concentrate break-down under similar sulphatization conditions (t=230 deg C; tau=2 h) essentially depends on the quantity of the introduced titanium dioxide. It is shown that sulphatization in the presence of titanium dioxide additive or materials containing it permits to exercise practically complete break-down of lean tantalum-niobium raw material, to avoid application of complexers in leaching of sulphatization products

  11. In situ X-ray diffraction study of the electrochemical reaction on lead electrodes in sulphate electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerer, P.; Mann, R.; Gavrilovic, A.; Nauer, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    The anodic oxidation of pure lead in two acidic sulphate electrolytes with identical ionic strength (pH ∼ 0 and pH ∼ -0.1) was studied by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction method (GIXD). Crystalline products such as lead sulphate (anglesite, PbSO 4 , orthorhombic), α- and β-lead dioxide (α-PbO 2 , orthorhombic, and β-PbO 2 , tetragonal), and tribasic lead sulphate hydrate with the stoichiometric composition 3PbO.PbSO 4 .H 2 O (triclinic) were detected at defined potentials. A method for the semi-quantitative determination of the thickness of the deposited layer from diffraction data is described. After the in situ measurement, the washed and dried working electrodes were additionally characterized ex situ by GIXD measurements at different angles of incidence. The phase litharge (lead oxide, t-PbO, tetragonal) and lead sulphate were observed at the surface of the lead substrate. The quantitative evaluation of the diffraction intensity of this measurement series enables the modelling of a qualitative depth profile of the layer generated during the electrochemical treatment. The anglesite phase is located in the uppermost layer, while the litharge phase was detected closer to the lead substrate

  12. Vanadia on sulphated-ZrO2, a promising catalyst for NO abatement with ammonia in alkali containing flue gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustov, Arkadii; Kustova, Marina; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    in the total acidity is less pronounced in this case. The results of NO SCR with ammonia reveal a noticeable shift of the maximum catalytic activity towards higher temperatures in going from the conventional catalyst to vanadia supported on sulphated zirconia. The loading of the catalysts with potassium leads...

  13. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    -the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay...

  14. Al-Fe interactions and growth enhancement in Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis dominating acid sulphate soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2006-12-01

    Plants growing in acid sulphate soils are subject to high levels of Al availability, which may have effects on the growth and distribution of these species. Although Fe availability is also high in acid sulphate soils, little is known about the effect of Fe on the growth of native plants in these soils. Two species dominating this soil type in Asia, viz. Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis were grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution with different concentrations of Al and Fe. Melastoma malabathricum is found to be sensitive to Fe (40 and 100 microm). Application of 500 microm Al, however, completely ameliorates Fe toxicity and is associated with a decrease of Fe concentration in shoots and roots. The primary reason for the Al-induced growth enhancement of M. malabathricum is considered to be the Al-induced reduction of toxic Fe accumulation in roots and shoots. Therefore, Al is nearly essential for M. malabathricum when growing in acid sulphate soils. In contrast, application of both Fe and Al does not reduce the growth of M. sinensis, and Al application does not result in lower shoot concentrations of Fe, suggesting that this grass species has developed different mechanisms for adaptation to acid sulphate soils.

  15. The effect of seasonal drying on sulphate dynamics in streams across southeastern Canada and the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Kerr; M.C. Eimers; I.F. Creed; M.B. Adams; F. Beall; D. Burns; J.L. Campbell; S.F. Christopher; T.A. Clair; F. Courchesne; L. Duchesne; I. Fernandez; D. Houle; D.S. Jeffries; G.E. Likens; M.J. Mitchell; J. Shanley; H. Yao

    2012-01-01

    Within the southeast Canada and northeast USA region, a peak in sulphate (SO42-) concentration has been reported for some streams following periods of substantial catchment drying during the summer months (ON, Canada; VT, NH and NY, USA). However, it is currently unclear if a SO42-...

  16. Interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on the binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yun; Cui Lijian; Wang Jianming; Huo Kun; Chen Chen; Zhan Wenhong; Wang Yongli

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of aconitine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and effect of atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid on binding constant, binding sites, and conformation were studied in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.40) by ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study results show that aconitine quenched the endogenous fluorescence of BSA via a dynamic quenching procedure. Predominant intermolecular forces between aconitine and BSA were hydrophobic interactions, which stabilized the complex of aconitine–BSA. The distance between the donor and acceptor was 2.62 nm. The conformation of BSA was investigated by synchronous fluorescence techniques, indicating that the microenvironment around tryptophan (Trp) residues was changed. Furthermore, with the addition of atropine sulphate or glycyrrhizic acid, binding constant and the number of binding sites of aconitine to BSA were decreased, and the conformation had no change, which provide an important theoretical support for aconitine detoxification by atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid. - Highlights: ► Effect of atropine or glycyrrhizic acid on aconitine–BSA binding. ► UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques used. ► Aconitine quenched BSA fluorescence via dynamic quenching with r=2.62 nm. ► Atropine sulphate and glycyrrhizic acid decreased K A and n of aconitine–BSA. ► Support for aconitine detoxification by atropine and glycyrrhizic acid.

  17. Dose-dependent effect of homoeopathic drug Zinc sulphate on plant growth using Bacopa monnieri as model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is one of the essential micronutrients in plants required in very low quantity for plant growth and development. In higher concentration, it is known to to reduce the rate of photosynthesis, So homoeopathic preparations tested to see it role on plan growth. Objective: To analyse the effect of homoeopathic preparation of Zinc sulphate on plants through in-vitro assay using Bacopa monnieri as a model plant system. Materials and Methods: Six homoeopathic potencies (1X to 6X of Zinc sulphate were used on a decimal scale along with the control (MS basal agar medium. The samples were evaluated by adding fixed amount (100 μl in the media as well as by dipping the explants in the test sample overnight. At the completion of the incubation period (14 days the fresh and dry weight, number and length of the roots, number and length of the shoots and the number of leaves were analysed. Results: It was observed that Zinc sulphate showed growth inhibition at potencies from 1X to 5X, whereas at potency 6X, it exhibited growth promotion effect, when compared with the control. Conclusion: Homoeopathic drug (Zinc sulphate exhibited growth promotion at higher potency (6X and growth inhibition at lower potencies (1X to 5X on Bacopa monneiri.

  18. Performance of sulphate- and selenium-reducing biochemical reactors using different ratios of labile to recalcitrant organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjafari, Parissa; Baldwin, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Successful operation of sulphate-reducing bioreactors using complex organic materials depends on providing a balance between more easily degrading material that achieves reasonable kinetics and low hydraulic retention times, and more slowly decomposing material that sustains performance in the long term. In this study, two organic mixtures containing the same ingredients typical of bioreactors used at mine sites (woodchips, hay and cow manure) but with different ratios of wood (recalcitrant) to hay (labile) were tested in six continuous flow bioreactors treating synthetic mine-affected water containing 600 mg/L of sulphate and 15 μg/L of selenium. The reactors were operated for short (5-6 months) and long (435-450 days) periods of time at the same hydraulic retention time of 15 days. There were no differences in the performance of the bioreactors in terms of sulphate-reduction over the short term, but the wood-rich bioreactors experienced variable and sometimes unreliable sulphate-reduction over the long term. Presence of more hay in the organic mixture was able to better sustain reliable performance. Production of dissolved organic compounds due to biodegradation within the bioreactors was detected for the first 175-230 days, after which their depletion coincided with a crash phase observed in the wood-rich bioreactors only.

  19. Effect of copper sulphate supplementation on performance of broiler chickens, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of meat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivan, M.; Ševčíková, S.; Tůmová, E.; Skřivanová, V.; Marounek, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 7 (2002), s. 275-280 ISSN 1212-1819 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Grant - others:GA NATO(XX) MO2-99-04 Keywords : broiler * copper sulphate * quality of meat Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.187, year: 2002

  20. Analysis of aqueous humour in uveitis by high performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, P. I.; Hoekzema, R.; Luyendijk, L.; Kijlstra, A.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous humour from patients with Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis (FHC) and other types of uveitis was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Using HPLC, the number of peaks and their respective elution times