WorldWideScience

Sample records for sulfolobus solfataricus p1

  1. "Hot standards" for the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaparty, M.; Esser, D.; Gertig, S.; Haferkamp, P.; Kouril, T.; Sierocinski, P.; Pham, T.K.; Manica, A.; Reimann, J.; Schreiber, K.; Teichmann, D.; Wolferen, van M.E.; Jan, von M.; Wieloch, P.; Albers, S.V.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Klenk, H.P.; Schleper, C.; Schomburg, D.; Oost, van der J.; Wright, P.C.; Siebers, B.

    2010-01-01

    Within the archaea, the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus has become an important model organism for physiology and biochemistry, comparative and functional genomics, as well as, more recently also for systems biology approaches. Within the Sulfolobus Systems Biology

  2. "Hot standards" for the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaparty, Melanie; Esser, Dominik; Gertig, Susanne; Haferkamp, Patrick; Kouril, Theresa; Manica, Andrea; Pham, Trong K.; Reimann, Julia; Schreiber, Kerstin; Sierocinski, Pawel; Teichmann, Daniela; van Wolferen, Marleen; von Jan, Mathias; Wieloch, Patricia; Albers, Sonja V.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Schleper, Christa; Schomburg, Dietmar; van der Oost, John; Wright, Phillip C.; Siebers, Bettina

    Within the archaea, the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus has become an important model organism for physiology and biochemistry, comparative and functional genomics, as well as, more recently also for systems biology approaches. Within the Sulfolobus Systems Biology

  3. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Sulfolobus solfataricus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sulfolobus solfataricus 名詞 一般 * * * * Sulfolobus solfataricus ... MeSH D048229 200906045592943760 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Sulfolobus solfataricus

  4. Sugar transport in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2001-01-01

    Summary and concluding remarks Introduction The archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is a thermoacidophile preferring growth at around 80oC and a pH of 2.5 to 3.5. As a thermoacidophile S. solfataricus faces two major problems: firstly, the proton permeability of membranes increases with temperature

  5. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.K.; Sierocinski, P.; Oost, van der J.; Wright, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative proteomic analysis of the membrane of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 using iTRAQ was successfully demonstrated in this technical note. The estimated number of membrane proteins of this organism is 883 (predicted based on Gravy score), corresponding to 30 % of the total

  6. Structure of the heterotrimeric PCNA from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Johnson, Kenneth; Rudolf, Jana; McMahon, Stephen A.; Carter, Lester; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F.; Naismith, James H.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the heterotrimeric PCNA complex from S. sulfataricus is reported to 2.3 Å. PCNA is a ring-shaped protein that encircles DNA, providing a platform for the association of a wide variety of DNA-processing enzymes that utilize the PCNA sliding clamp to maintain proximity to their DNA substrates. PCNA is a homotrimer in eukaryotes, but a heterotrimer in crenarchaea such as Sulfolobus solfataricus. The three proteins are SsoPCNA1 (249 residues), SsoPCNA2 (245 residues) and SsoPCNA3 (259 residues). The heterotrimeric protein crystallizes in space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 44.8, b = 78.8, c = 125.6 Å, β = 100.5°. The crystal structure of this heterotrimeric PCNA molecule has been solved using molecular replacement. The resulting structure to 2.3 Å sheds light on the differential stabilities of the interactions observed between the three subunits and the specificity of individual subunits for partner proteins.

  7. Conditions for gene disruption by homologous recombination of exogenous DNA into the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja-Verena Albers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of directed gene deletion mutants is an essential tool in molecular biology that allows functional studies on the role of genes in their natural environment. For hyperthermophilic archaea, it has been difficult to obtain a reliable system to construct such mutants. However, during the past years, systems have been developed for Thermococcus kodakarensis and two Sulfolobus species, S. acidocaldarius and derivatives of S. solfataricus 98/2. Here we describe an optimization of the method for integration of exogenous DNA into S. solfataricus PBL 2025, an S. solfataricus 98/2 derivative, based on lactose auxotrophy that now allows for routine gene inactivation.

  8. Conditions for gene disruption by homologous recombination of exogenous DNA into the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Sonja-Verena; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2008-12-01

    The construction of directed gene deletion mutants is an essential tool in molecular biology that allows functional studies on the role of genes in their natural environment. For hyperthermophilic archaea, it has been difficult to obtain a reliable system to construct such mutants. However, during the past years, systems have been developed for Thermococcus kodakarensis and two Sulfolobus species, S. acidocaldarius and derivatives of S. solfataricus 98/2. Here we describe an optimization of the method for integration of exogenous DNA into S. solfataricus PBL 2025, an S. solfataricus 98/2 derivative, based on lactose auxotrophy that now allows for routine gene inactivation.

  9. Characterization of different crystal forms of the alpha-glucosidase MalA from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Heidi Asschenfeldt; Willemoës, Martin; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2005-01-01

    MalA is an alpha-glucosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. It belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 31, which includes several medically interesting alpha-glucosidases. MalA and its selenomethionine derivative have been overproduced in Escherichia coli...

  10. Structure of dimeric, recombinant Sulfolobus solfataricus phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune W.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme 5-phosphoribosyl-1-α-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase (EC 2.7.6.1) catalyses the Mg2+-dependent transfer of a diphosphoryl group from ATP to the C1 hydroxyl group of ribose 5-phosphate resulting in the production of PRPP and AMP. A nucleotide sequence specifying Sulfolobus solfataricus PRPP...

  11. SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology): towards a silicon cell model for the central carbohydrate metabolism of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus under temperature variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, S.V.; Birkeland, N.K.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Gertig, S.; Haferkamp, P.; Klenk, H.P.; Kouril, T.; Manica, A.; Pham, T.K.; Ruoff, P.; Schleper, C.; Schomburg, D.; Sharkey, K.; Siebers, B.; Sierocinski, P.; Steur, R.; Oost, van der J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wieloch, P.; Wright, P.C.; Zaparty, M.

    2009-01-01

    SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology) focuses on the study of the CCM (central carbohydrate metabolism) of Sulfolobus solfataricus and its regulation under temperature variation at the systems level. In Archaea, carbohydrates are metabolized by modifications of the classical pathways known from

  12. Sulfosys (Sulfolobus Systems Biology): towards a silicon cell model for the central carbohydrate metabolism of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus under temperature variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, S.V.; Birkeland, N.K.; Driessen, A.J.; Gertig, S.; Haferkamp, P.; Klenk, H.P.; Kouril, T.; Manica, A.; Pham, T.K.; Ruoff, P.; Schleper, C.; Schomburg, D.; Sharkey, K.J.; Siebers, B.; Sierocinski, P.; Steuer, R.; van der Oost, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Wieloch, P.; Wright, P.C.; Zaparty, M.

    2009-01-01

    SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology) focuses on the study of the CCM (central carbohydrate metabolism) of Sulfolobus solfataricus and its regulation under temperature variation at the systems level. In Archaea, carbohydrates are metabolized by modifications of the classical pathways known from

  13. SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology) : towards a silicon cell model for the central carbohydrate metabolism of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus under temperature variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Sonja-Verena; Birkeland, Nils-Kare; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Gertig, Susanne; Haferkamp, Patrick; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kouril, Theresa; Manica, Andrea; Pham, Trong K.; Ruoff, Peter; Schleper, Christa; Schomburg, Dietmar; Sharkey, Kieran J.; Siebers, Bettina; Sierocinski, Pawel; Steuer, Ralf; van der Oost, John; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Wieloch, Patricia; Wright, Phillip C.; Zaparty, Melanie; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology) focuses on the study of the CCM (central carbohydrate metabolism) of Sulfolobus solfataricus and its regulation under temperature variation at the systems level. in Archaea, carbohydrates are metabolized by modifications of the classical pathways known from

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PAT, an acetyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ching-Chang; Luo, Ching-Wei; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2008-01-01

    PAT, an acetyltransferase from the archaeon S. solfataricus that specifically acetylates the chromatin protein Alba, was expressed, purified and crystallized. PAT is an acetyltransferase from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus that specifically acetylates the chromatin protein Alba. The enzyme was expressed, purified and subsequently crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique. Native diffraction data were collected to 1.70 Å resolution on the BL13C1 beamline of NSRRC from a flash-frozen crystal at 100 K. The crystals belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 44.30, b = 46.59, c = 68.39 Å

  15. Saccharolobus caldissimus gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic iron-reducing hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from an acidic terrestrial hot spring, and reclassification of Sulfolobus solfataricus as Saccharolobus solfataricus comb. nov. and Sulfolobus shibatae as Saccharolobus shibatae comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroyuki D; Kurosawa, Norio

    2018-04-01

    A novel hyperthermophilic archaeon of strain HS-3 T , belonging to the family Sulfolobaceae, was isolated from an acidic terrestrial hot spring in Hakone Ohwaku-dani, Japan. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic relatives of strain HS-3 T were, first, Sulfolobus solfataricus (96.4 %) and, second, Sulfolobus shibatae (96.2 %), indicating that the strain belongs to the genus Sulfolobus. However, the sequence similarity to the type species of the genus Sulfolobus (Sulfolobus acidocaldarius) was remarkably low (91.8 %). In order to determine whether strain HS-3 T belongs to the genus Sulfolobus, its morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics were examined in parallel with those of S. solfataricus and S. shibatae. Although there were some differences in chemolithotrophic growth between strain HS-3 T , S. solfataricus and S. shibatae, their temperature, pH and facultatively anaerobic characteristics of growth, and their utilization of various sugars were almost identical. In contrast, the utilization of various sugars by S. acidocaldarius was quite different from that of HS-3 T , S. solfataricus and S. shibatae. Phylogenetic evidence based on the 16S and the 23S rRNA gene sequences also clearly distinguished the monophyletic clade composed of strain HS-3 T , S. solfataricus, and S. shibatae from S. acidocaldarius. Based on these results, we propose a new genus and species, Saccharolobus caldissimus gen. nov., sp. nov., for strain HS-3 T , as well as two reclassifications, Saccharolobus solfataricus comb. nov. and Saccharolobus shibatae comb. nov. The type strain of Saccharolobus caldissimus is HS-3 T (=JCM 32116 T and InaCC Ar80 T ). The type species of the genus is Saccharolobus solfataricus.

  16. Identification and characterisation of a novel acylpeptide hydrolase from Sulfolobus solfataricus: structural and functional insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gogliettino

    Full Text Available A novel acylpeptide hydrolase, named APEH-3(Ss, was isolated from the hypertermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. APEH is a member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family which catalyzes the removal of acetylated amino acid residues from the N terminus of oligopeptides. The purified enzyme shows a homotrimeric structure, unique among the associate partners of the APEH cluster and, in contrast to the archaeal APEHs which show both exo/endo peptidase activities, it appears to be a "true" aminopeptidase as exemplified by its mammalian counterparts, with which it shares a similar substrate specificity. Furthermore, a comparative study on the regulation of apeh gene expression, revealed a significant but divergent alteration in the expression pattern of apeh-3(Ss and apeh(Ss (the gene encoding the previously identified APEH(Ss from S. solfataricus, which is induced in response to various stressful growth conditions. Hence, both APEH enzymes can be defined as stress-regulated proteins which play a complementary role in enabling the survival of S. solfataricus cells under different conditions. These results provide new structural and functional insights into S. solfataricus APEH, offering a possible explanation for the multiplicity of this enzyme in Archaea.

  17. Structure of the dimeric form of CTP synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Iben; Willemoës, Martin; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2011-01-01

    CTP synthase catalyzes the last committed step in de novo pyrimidine-nucleotide biosynthesis. Active CTP synthase is a tetrameric enzyme composed of a dimer of dimers. The tetramer is favoured in the presence of the substrate nucleotides ATP and UTP; when saturated with nucleotide, the tetramer...... completely dominates the oligomeric state of the enzyme. Furthermore, phosphorylation has been shown to regulate the oligomeric states of the enzymes from yeast and human. The crystal structure of a dimeric form of CTP synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus has been determined at 2.5 Å resolution...

  18. The Dichotomy of the Poly(ADP-Ribose Polymerase-Like Thermozyme from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Faraone Mennella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first evidence of an ADP-ribosylating activity in Archaea was obtained in Sulfolobus solfataricus(strain MT-4 where a poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-like thermoprotein, defined with the acronymous PARPSso, was found. Similarly to the eukaryotic counterparts PARPSso cleaves beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to synthesize oligomers of ADP-ribose; cross-reacts with polyclonal anti-PARP-1 catalytic site antibodies; binds DNA. The main differences rely on the molecular mass (46.5 kDa and the thermophily of PARPSso which works at 80 °C. Despite the biochemical properties that allow correlating it to PARP enzymes, the N-terminal and partial amino acid sequences available suggest that PARPSso belongs to a different group of enzymes, the DING proteins, an item discussed in detail in this review.This finding makes PARPSso the first example of a DING protein in Archaea and extends the existence of DING proteins into all the biological kingdoms. PARPSsohas a cell peripheral localization, along with the edge of the cell membrane. The ADP-ribosylation reaction is reverted by a poly(ADP-ribose glycohydrolase-like activity, able to use the eukaryotic poly(ADP-ribose as a substrate too. Here we overview the research of (ADP-ribosylation in Sulfolobus solfataricus in the past thirty years and discuss the features of PARPSso common with the canonical poly(ADP-ribose polymerases, and the structure fitting with that of DING proteins.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of GTP-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu Hao,; Sun, L.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Fu, S.; Akerboom, A.P.; Li, X.; Oost, van der J.

    2007-01-01

    A predicted GTP-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, termed SsGBP, has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in the presence of 0.05 M cadmium sulfate and 0.8

  20. Determination of hydride transfer stereospecificity of NADH-dependent alcohol-aldehyde/ketone oxidoreductase from Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, A; Lama, L; Rella, R; D'Auria, S; Raia, C A; Nicolaus, B

    1990-10-18

    This paper describes the determination of stereospecificity of hydride transfer reaction of an alcohol dehydrogenase isolated from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus. The 1H-NMR and EI-MS data indicate that the enzyme transfers the pro-R hydrogen from coenzyme to substrate and is therefore an A-specific dehydrogenase.

  1. Structure of the Sulfolobus solfataricus alpha-glucosidase: Implications for domain conservation and substrate recognition in GH31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Heidi Asschenfeldt; Lo Leggio, Leila; Willemoes, M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of a-glucosidase MalA from Sulfolobus solfataricus has been determined at 2.5 Å resolution. It provides a structural model for enzymes representing the major specificity in glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31), including a-glucosidases from higher organisms, involved...

  2. Two DNA polymerase sliding clamps from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, M; Sensen, C W; Charlebois, R L; Rossi, M; Pisani, F M

    1999-08-06

    Herein, we report the identification and characterization of two DNA polymerase processivity factors from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. They, referred to as 039p (244 amino acid residues, 27 kDa) and 048p (249 amino acid residues, 27 kDa), present significant primary structure similarity to eukaryotic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We demonstrate that both 039p and 048p form oligomers in solution and are able to substantially activate the synthetic activity of the single-subunit family B DNA polymerase from S. solfataricus (Sso DNA pol B1) on poly(dA)-oligo(dT) as a primer-template. This stimulatory effect is the result of enhanced DNA polymerase processivity, as indicated by the analysis of the elongation products on polyacrylamide gels. Activation of Sso DNA pol B1 synthetic activity was also observed on linear primed single-stranded M13 mp18 DNA as a template. By immunoblot analysis using specific rabbit antisera, 039p and 048p were both detected in the logarithmic and stationary phases of S. solfataricus growth curve. This is the first report of the identification and biochemical characterization of two distinct DNA polymerase processivity factors from the same organism. The significance of these findings for the understanding of the DNA replication process in Archaea is discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Mutations and Rearrangements in the Genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redder, P.; Garrett, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 carries a larger number of transposable elements than any other sequenced genome from an archaeon or bacterium and, as a consequence, may be particularly susceptible to rearrangement and change. In order to gain more insight into the natures and frequencies...... of different types of mutation and possible rearrangements that can occur in the genome, the pyrEF locus was examined for mutations that were isolated after selection with 5-fluoroorotic acid. About two-thirds of the 130 mutations resulted from insertions of mobile elements, including insertion sequence (IS...... deletions, insertions, and a duplication, were observed, and about one-fifth of the mutations occurred elsewhere in the genome, possibly in an orotate transporter gene. One mutant exhibited a 5-kb genomic rearrangement at the pyrEF locus involving a two-step IS element-dependent reaction, and its boundaries...

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a PaaX-like protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yi; Lou, Zhiyong; Sun, Yuna; Xue, Fei; Feng, Changzeng; Gong, Xiaocui; Yang, Dongmei; Bartlam, Mark; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Keqin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the PaaX-like protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. PaaX is a global regulator of the phenylacetyl-coenzyme A catabolon that adjusts the expression of different operons to that of the paa-encoded central pathway. In this study, the PaaX-like protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. Diffraction data were obtained to a resolution of 3.0 Å using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory. The crystal belonged to space group P321, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.4, b = 86.4, c = 105.5 Å

  5. Role of tryptophan 95 in substrate specificity and structural stability of Sulfolobus solfataricus alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Angela; Esposito, Luciana; Zagari, Adriana; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2009-09-01

    A mutant of the thermostable NAD(+)-dependent (S)-stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsADH) which has a single substitution, Trp95Leu, located at the substrate binding pocket, was fully characterized to ascertain the role of Trp95 in discriminating between chiral secondary alcohols suggested by the wild-type SsADH crystallographic structure. The Trp95Leu mutant displays no apparent activity with short-chain primary and secondary alcohols and poor activity with aromatic substrates and coenzyme. Moreover, the Trp --> Leu substitution affects the structural stability of the archaeal ADH, decreasing its thermal stability without relevant changes in secondary structure. The double mutant Trp95Leu/Asn249Tyr was also purified to assist in crystallographic analysis. This mutant exhibits higher activity but decreased affinity toward aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes as well as NAD(+) and NADH compared to the wild-type enzyme. The crystal structure of the Trp95Leu/Asn249Tyr mutant apo form, determined at 2.0 A resolution, reveals a large local rearrangement of the substrate site with dramatic consequences. The Leu95 side-chain conformation points away from the catalytic metal center and the widening of the substrate site is partially counteracted by a concomitant change of Trp117 side chain conformation. Structural changes at the active site are consistent with the reduced activity on substrates and decreased coenzyme binding.

  6. The Sso7d protein of Sulfolobus solfataricus: in vitro relationship among different activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Guagliardi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological role of the nonspecific DNA-binding protein Sso7d from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is unknown. In vitro studies have shown that Sso7d promotes annealing of complementary DNA strands (Guagliardi et al. 1997, induces negative supercoiling (Lopez-Garcia et al. 1998, and chaperones the disassembly and renaturation of protein aggregates in an ATP hydrolysis-dependent manner (Guagliardi et al. 2000. In this study, we examined the relationships among the binding of Sso7d to double-stranded DNA, its interaction with protein aggregates, and its ATPase activity. Experiments with 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid as probe demonstrated that exposed hydrophobic surfaces in Sso7d are responsible for interactions with protein aggregates and double-stranded DNA, whereas the site of ATPase activity has a non-hydrophobic character. The interactions of Sso7d with double-stranded DNA and with protein aggregates are mutually exclusive events, suggesting that the disassembly activity and the DNA-related activities of Sso7d may be competitive in vivo. In contrast, the hydrolysis of ATP by Sso7d is independent of the binding of Sso7d to double-stranded DNA or protein aggregates.

  7. Identification of novel non-coding RNAs as potential antisense regulators in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tang, T. H.; Polacek, N.; Zywicki, M.

    2005-01-01

    By generating a specialized cDNA library from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, we have identified 57 novel small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) candidates and confirmed their expression by Northern blot analysis. The majority was found to belong to one of two classes, either antisense or antisense...... elements by inhibiting expression of the transposase mRNA. Surprisingly, the class of antisense RNAs also contained RNAs complementary to tRNAs or sRNAs (small-nucleolar-like RNAs). For the antisense-box ncRNAs, the majority could be assigned to the class of C/D sRNAs, which specify 2'-O-methylation sites...... on rRNAs or tRNAs. Five C/D sRNAs of this group are predicted to target methylation at six sites in 13 different tRNAs, thus pointing to the widespread role of these sRNA species in tRNA modification in Archaea. Another group of antisense-box RNAs, lacking typical C/D sRNA motifs, was predicted...

  8. Mutational analysis of divalent metal ion binding in the active site of class II α-mannosidase from sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dennis K.; Webb, Helen; Nielsen, Jonas Willum

    2015-01-01

    Mutational analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus class II α-mannosidase was focused on side chains that interact with the hydroxyls of the-1 mannosyl of the substrate (Asp-534) or form ligands to the active site divalent metal ion (His-228 and His-533) judged from crystal structures of homologous e......, although less dramatically with some activating metal ions. No major differences in the pH dependence between wild-type and mutant enzymes were found in the presence of different metal ions. The pH optimum was 5, but enzyme instability was observed at pH...

  9. Redox stress proteins are involved in adaptation response of the hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus to nickel challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaloni Andrea

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to nickel (Ni and its chemical derivatives has been associated with severe health effects in human. On the contrary, poor knowledge has been acquired on target physiological processes or molecular mechanisms of this metal in model organisms, including Bacteria and Archaea. In this study, we describe an analysis focused at identifying proteins involved in the recovery of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus strain MT4 from Ni-induced stress. Results To this purpose, Sulfolobus solfataricus was grown in the presence of the highest nickel sulphate concentration still allowing cells to survive; crude extracts from treated and untreated cells were compared at the proteome level by using a bi-dimensional chromatography approach. We identified several proteins specifically repressed or induced as result of Ni treatment. Observed up-regulated proteins were largely endowed with the ability to trigger recovery from oxidative and osmotic stress in other biological systems. It is noteworthy that most of the proteins induced following Ni treatment perform similar functions and a few have eukaryal homologue counterparts. Conclusion These findings suggest a series of preferential gene expression pathways activated in adaptation response to metal challenge.

  10. Gene content and organization of a 281-kbp contig from the genome of the extremely thermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlebois, R.; Confalonieri, F.; Curtis, B.; Doolittle, W.F.; Duguet, M.; Erauso, G.; Faguy, D.; Gaasterland, T.; Garrett, R.A.; Gordon, P.; Kozera, C.; Medina, N.; Oost, van der J.; Peng, X.; Ragan, M.; She, Q.; Singh, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The sequence of a 281-kbp contig from the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was determined and analysed. Notable features in this region include 29 ribosomal protein genes, 12 tRNA genes (four of which contain archaeal-type introns), operons encoding enzymes of histidine biosynthesis,

  11. Biochemical, transcriptional and translational evidences of the phenol-meta-degradation pathway by the hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus solfataricus 98/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Comte

    Full Text Available Phenol is a widespread pollutant and a model molecule to study the biodegradation of monoaromatic compounds. After a first oxidation step leading to catechol in mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms, two main routes have been identified depending on the cleavage of the aromatic ring: ortho involving a catechol 1,2 dioxygenase (C12D and meta involving a catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23D. Our work aimed at elucidating the phenol-degradation pathway in the hyperthermophilic archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus 98/2. For this purpose, the strain was cultivated in a fermentor under different substrate and oxygenation conditions. Indeed, reducing dissolved-oxygen concentration allowed slowing down phenol catabolism (specific growth and phenol-consumption rates dropped 55% and 39%, respectively and thus, evidencing intermediate accumulations in the broth. HPLC/Diode Array Detector and LC-MS analyses on culture samples at low dissolved-oxygen concentration (DOC  =  0.06 mg x L(-1 suggested, apart for catechol, the presence of 2-hydroxymuconic acid, 4-oxalocrotonate and 4-hydroxy-2-oxovalerate, three intermediates of the meta route. RT-PCR analysis on oxygenase-coding genes of S. solfataricus 98/2 showed that the gene coding for the C23D was expressed only on phenol. In 2D-DIGE/MALDI-TOF analysis, the C23D was found and identified only on phenol. This set of results allowed us concluding that S. solfataricus 98/2 degrade phenol through the meta route.

  12. Identification and sequence analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus purE and purK genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Iben Schildt; Dandanell, Gert

    1997-01-01

    From a genomic library of Sulfolobus solfataricus DSM1617 we have isolated and identified the purEK locus. Two open reading frames are identified as homologs of the purE and purK purine biosynthetic genes in Escherichia coli. The C-terminus of purE overlaps with the N-terminus of purK. When either...... of the genes is expressed from an E. coli promoter they can complement the corresponding purE and purK mutations in E. coli. PurE seems to be more closely related to eubacteria than to other archaea and to eukaryotes. Also the purK gene, which has not yet been found in other archaea, is more closely related...

  13. Allosteric regulation of the GTP activated and CTP inhibited uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Arent, Susan; Larsen, Sine

    2005-01-01

    The upp gene, encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity. It behaved as a tetramer in solution and showed optimal activity at pH 5.5 when...... assayed at 60 °C. Enzyme activity was strongly stimulated by GTP and inhibited by CTP. GTP caused an approximately 20-fold increase in the turnover number kcat and raised the Km values for 5-phosphoribosyl-1-diphosphate (PRPP) and uracil by two- and >10-fold, respectively. The inhibition by CTP...... was complex as it depended on the presence of the reaction product UMP. Neither CTP nor UMP were strong inhibitors of the enzyme, but when present in combination their inhibition was extremely powerful. Ligand binding analyses showed that GTP and PRPP bind cooperatively to the enzyme and that the inhibitors...

  14. A New Pepstatin-Insensitive Thermopsin-Like Protease Overproduced in Peptide-Rich Cultures of Sulfolobus solfataricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gogliettino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we gain insight into the extracellular proteolytic system of Sulfolobus solfataricus grown on proteinaceous substrates, providing further evidence that acidic proteases were specifically produced in response to peptide-rich media. The main proteolytic component was the previously isolated SsMTP (Sulfolobus solfataricus multi-domain thermopsin-like protease, while the less abundant (named SsMTP-1 one was purified, characterized and identified as the sso1175 gene-product. The protein revealed a multi-domain organization shared with the cognate SsMTP with a catalytic domain followed by several tandemly-repeated motifs. Moreover, both enzymes were found spread across the Crenarchaeota phylum and belonging to the thermopsin family, although segregated into diverse phylogenetic clusters. SsMTP-1 showed a 75-kDa molecular mass and was stable in the temperature range 50–90 °C, with optimal activity at 70 °C and pH 2.0. Serine, metallo and aspartic protease inhibitors did not affect the enzyme activity, designating SsMTP-1 as a new member of the pepstatin-insensitive aspartic protease family. The peptide-bond-specificity of SsMTP-1 in the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B chain was uncommon amongst thermopsins, suggesting that it could play a distinct, but cooperative role in the protein degradation machinery. Interestingly, predictions of the transmembrane protein topology of SsMTP and SsMTP-1 strongly suggest a possible contribution in signal-transduction pathways.

  15. Conditions for gene disruption by homologous recombination of exogenous DNA into the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Sonja-Verena; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The construction of directed gene deletion mutants is an essential tool in molecular biology that allows functional studies on the role of genes in their natural environment. For hyperthermophilic archaea, it has been difficult to obtain a reliable system to construct such mutants. However, during the past years, systems have been developed for Thermococcus kodakarensis and two Sulfolobus species, S. ac...

  16. Dynamic fluorescence studies of beta-glycosidase mutants from Sulfolobus solfataricus: effects of single mutations on protein thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuto, Ettore; Febbraio, Ferdinando; Limongelli, Simona; Briante, Raffaella; Nucci, Roberto

    2003-04-01

    Multiple sequence alignment on 73 proteins belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 1 reveals the occurrence of a segment (83-124) in the enzyme sequences from hyperthermophilic archaea bacteria, which is absent in all the mesophilic members of the family. The alignment of the known three-dimensional structures of hyperthermophilic glycosidases with the known ones from mesophilic organisms shows a similar spatial organizations of beta-glycosidases except for this sequence segment whose structure is located on the external surface of each of four identical subunits, where it overlaps two alpha-helices. Site-directed mutagenesis substituting N97 or S101 with a cysteine residue in the sequence of beta-glycosidase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus caused some changes in the structural and dynamic properties as observed by circular dichroism in far- and near-UV light, as well as by frequency domain fluorometry, with a simultaneous loss of thermostability. The results led us to hypothesize an important role of the sequence segment present only in hyperthermophilic beta-glycosidases, in the thermal adaptation of archaea beta-glycosidases. The thermostabilization mechanism could occur as a consequence of numerous favorable ionic interactions of the 83-124 sequence with the other part of protein matrix that becomes more rigid and less accessible to the insult of thermal-activated solvent molecules. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Replication termination and chromosome dimer resolution in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggin, Iain G; Dubarry, Nelly; Bell, Stephen D

    2011-01-05

    Archaea of the genus Sulfolobus have a single-circular chromosome with three replication origins. All three origins fire in every cell in every cell cycle. Thus, three pairs of replication forks converge and terminate in each replication cycle. Here, we report 2D gel analyses of the replication fork fusion zones located between origins. These indicate that replication termination involves stochastic fork collision. In bacteria, replication termination is linked to chromosome dimer resolution, a process that requires the XerC and D recombinases, FtsK and the chromosomal dif site. Sulfolobus encodes a single-Xer homologue and its deletion gave rise to cells with aberrant DNA contents and increased volumes. Identification of the chromosomal dif site that binds Xer in vivo, and biochemical characterization of Xer/dif recombination revealed that, in contrast to bacteria, dif is located outside the fork fusion zones. Therefore, it appears that replication termination and dimer resolution are temporally and spatially distinct processes in Sulfolobus.

  18. Allosteric regulation and communication between subunits in uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arent, Susan; Harris, Pernille; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2005-01-01

    organisms. To understand the allosteric regulation, crystal structures were determined for S. solfataricus UPRTase in complex with UMP and with UMP and the allosteric inhibitor CTP. Also, a structure with UMP bound in half of the active sites was determined. All three complexes form tetramers but reveal...... to rearrangements in the quaternary structure imply that this residue plays a major role in regulation of the enzyme and in communication between subunits. The ribose ring of UMP adopts alternative conformations in the cis and trans subunits of the UPRTase-UMP tetramer with associated differences...

  19. Specificities and pH profiles of adenine and hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferases (nucleotide synthases) of the thermoacidophile archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Jensen, Kristine Steen; Rasmussen, Mads Skytte

    2014-01-01

    Two open reading frames in the genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus (SSO2341 and SSO2424) were cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein products were purified and their enzymatic activity characterized. Although SSO2341 was annotated as a gene (gpT-1) encoding a 6-oxopurine...... phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase), the protein product turned out to be a PRTase highly specific for adenine and we suggest that the reading frame should be renamed apT. The other reading frame SSO2424 (gpT-2) proved to be a true 6-oxopurine PRTase active with hypoxanthine, xanthine and guanine as substrates, and we.......5, while maximal activity with xanthine was observed at pH 7.5. We discuss likely reasons why SSO2341 in S. solfataricus and similar open reading frames in other Crenarchaeota could not be identified as genes encoding APRTase....

  20. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus is an enzyme with unusual kinetic properties and a crystal structure that suggests it evolved from a 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Hansen, Michael Riis; Jensen, Kristine Steen

    2015-01-01

    The adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRTase) encoded by the open reading frame SSO2342 of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2, was subjected to crystallographic, kinetic and ligand binding analyses. The enzyme forms dimers in solution and in the crystals, and binds one molecule of the reactants 5...

  1. Development of in vitro transposon assisted signal sequence trapping and its use in screening Bacillus halodurans C125 and Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 gene libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, F.; Schnorr, K.; Wilting, R.

    2004-01-01

    To identify genes encoding extracytosolic proteins, a minitransposon, TnSig, containing a signal-less beta-lactamase ('bla) as reporter gene, was constructed and used for in vitro transposition of genomic libraries made in Escherichia coli. The 'bla gene was cloned into a bacteriophage MU...... minitransposon enabling translational fusions between 'bla and target genes. Fusion of TnSig in the correct reading frame to a protein carrying transmembrane domains or signal peptides resulted in ampicillin resistance of the corresponding clone. Prokaryotic gene libraries from the alkaliphilic bacterium...... Bacillus halodurans C125 and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 were tagged with TnSig. The genomic sequences, which are publicly available (EMBL BA000004 and EMBL AE006641), were used for rapid open reading frame (ORF) identification and prediction of protein localisation...

  2. SMV1 virus-induced CRISPR spacer acquisition from the conjugative plasmid pMGB1 in Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2013-01-01

    Organisms of the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales carry complex CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) adaptive immune systems. These systems are modular and show extensive structural and functional diversity, especially in their interference complexes. The primary...... targets are an exceptional range of diverse viruses, many of which propagate stably within cells and follow lytic life cycles without producing cell lysis. These properties are consistent with the difficulty of activating CRISPR spacer uptake in the laboratory, but appear to conflict with the high...... complexity and diversity of the CRISPR immune systems that are found among the Sulfolobales. In the present article, we re-examine the first successful induction of archaeal spacer acquisition in our laboratory that occurred exclusively for the conjugative plasmid pMGB1 in Sulfolobus solfataricus P2...

  3. A Bac Library and Paired-PCR Approach to Mapping and Completing the Genome Sequence of Sulfolobus Solfataricus P2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    She, Qunxin; Confalonieri, F.; Zivanovic, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The original strategy used in the Sulfolobus solfatnricus genome project was to sequence non overlapping, or minimally overlapping, cosmid or lambda inserts without constructing a physical map. However, after only about two thirds of the genome sequence was completed, this approach became counter......-productive because there was a high sequence bias in the cosmid and lambda libraries. Therefore, a new approach was devised for linking the sequenced regions which may be generally applicable. BAC libraries were constructed and terminal sequences of the clones were determined and used for both end mapping and PCR...

  4. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus is an enzyme with unusual kinetic properties and a crystal structure that suggests it evolved from a 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Hansen, Michael Riis; Jensen, Kristine Steen; Christoffersen, Stig; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Mølgaard, Anne; Kadziola, Anders

    2015-04-14

    The adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRTase) encoded by the open reading frame SSO2342 of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was subjected to crystallographic, kinetic, and ligand binding analyses. The enzyme forms dimers in solution and in the crystals, and binds one molecule of the reactants 5-phosphoribosyl-α-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and adenine or the product adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or the inhibitor adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in each active site. The individual subunit adopts an overall structure that resembles a 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase) more than known APRTases implying that APRT functionality in Crenarchaeotae has its evolutionary origin in this family of PRTases. Only the N-terminal two-thirds of the polypeptide chain folds as a traditional type I PRTase with a five-stranded β-sheet surrounded by helices. The C-terminal third adopts an unusual three-helix bundle structure that together with the nucleobase-binding loop undergoes a conformational change upon binding of adenine and phosphate resulting in a slight contraction of the active site. The inhibitor ADP binds like the product AMP with both the α- and β-phosphates occupying the 5'-phosphoribosyl binding site. The enzyme shows activity over a wide pH range, and the kinetic and ligand binding properties depend on both pH and the presence/absence of phosphate in the buffers. A slow hydrolysis of PRPP to ribose 5-phosphate and pyrophosphate, catalyzed by the enzyme, may be facilitated by elements in the C-terminal three-helix bundle part of the protein.

  5. Compound K Production from Red Ginseng Extract by β-Glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus Supplemented with α-L-Arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Chul Shin

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside compound K (C-K is attracting a lot of interest because of its biological and pharmaceutical activities, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-wrinkling, and anti-skin aging activities. C-K has been used as the principal ingredient in skin care products. For the effective application of ginseng extracts to the manufacture of cosmetics, the PPD-type ginsenosides in ginseng extracts should be converted to C-K by enzymatic conversion. For increased yield of C-K from the protopanaxadiol (PPD-type ginsenosides in red-ginseng extract (RGE, the α-L-arabinofuranoside-hydrolyzing α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CS-abf was used along with the β-D-glucopyranoside/α-L-arabinopyranoside-hydrolyzing β-glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SS-bgly because SS-bgly showed very low hydrolytic activity on the α-L-arabinofuranoside linkage in ginsenosides. The optimal reaction conditions for C-K production were as follows: pH 6.0, 80°C, 2 U/mL SS-bgly, 3 U/mL CS-abf, and 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in RGE. Under these optimized conditions, SS-bgly supplemented with CS-abf produced 4.2 g/L C-K from 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in 12 h without other ginsenosides, with a molar yield of 100% and a productivity of 348 mg/L/h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest concentration and productivity of C-K from ginseng extract ever published in literature.

  6. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus c92 protein responsible for the formation of pyramid-like cellular lysis structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Young, Mark J

    2011-07-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.

  7. Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus c92 Protein Responsible for the Formation of Pyramid-Like Cellular Lysis Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system desc...... disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.......Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system...... described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene...

  8. Dynamic properties of the Sulfolobus CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems when challenged with vector-borne viral and plasmid genes and protospacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Deng, Ling; Chen, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    The adaptive immune CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus were challenged by a variety of viral and plasmid genes, and protospacers preceded by different dinucleotide motifs. The genes and protospacers were constructed to carry sequences matching...... individual spacers of CRISPR loci, and a range of mismatches were introduced. Constructs were cloned into vectors carrying pyrE/pyrF genes and transformed into uracil auxotrophic hosts derived from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 or Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Most constructs, including those carrying different...... protospacer mismatches, yielded few viable transformants. These were shown to carry either partial deletions of CRISPR loci, covering a broad spectrum of sizes and including the matching spacer, or deletions of whole CRISPR/Cas modules. The deletions occurred independently of whether genes or protospacers...

  9. Conditions for gene disruption by homologous recombination of exogenous DNA into the Sulfolobus solfataricus genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Sonja-Verena; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The construction of directed gene deletion mutants is an essential tool in molecular biology that allows functional studies on the role of genes in their natural environment. For hyperthermophilic archaea, it has been difficult to obtain a reliable system to construct such mutants. However, during

  10. Production of Recombinant and Tagged Proteins in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, S.-V.; Jonuscheit, M.; Dinkelaker, S.; Urich, T.; Kletzin, A.; Tampé, R.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Schleper, C.

    Many systems are available for the production of recombinant proteins in bacterial and eukaryotic model organisms, which allow us to study proteins in their native hosts and to identify protein-protein interaction partners. In contrast, only a few transformation systems have been developed for

  11. The architects of crenarchaeal chromatin : A biophysical characterization of chromatin proteins from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Rosalie Paula Catharina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of chromatin organization and compaction in Archaea is currently limited. The genome of several megabasepairs long is folded by a set of small chromatin proteins to fit into the micron-sized cell. A first step in understanding archaeal chromatin organization is to study the action of

  12. A novel Sulfolobus non-conjugative extrachromosomal genetic element capable of integration into the host genome and spreading in the presence of a fusellovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ying; Duan, Zhenhong; Zhu, Haojun

    2007-01-01

    An integrative non-conjugative extrachromosomal genetic element, denoted as pSSVi, has been isolated from a Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 strain and was characterized. This genetic element is a double-stranded DNA of 5740 bp in size and contains eight open reading frames (ORFs). It resembles members....... Interestingly, pSSVi encodes an SSV-type integrase which probably catalyzes the integration of its genome into a specific site (a tRNA(Arg) gene) in the S. solfataricus P2 genome. Like pSSVx, pSSVi can be packaged into a spindle-like viral particle and spread with the help of SSV1 or SSV2. In addition, both SSV......1 and SSV2 appeared to replicate more efficiently in the presence of pSSVi. Given the versatile genetic abilities, pSSVi appears to be well suited for a role in horizontal gene transfer....

  13. Alterations of the transcriptome of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by exoribonuclease aCPSF2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Märtens

    Full Text Available Recent studies identified a 5´ to 3´ exoribonuclease termed Sso-RNase J in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso, which has been reclassified to the aCPSF2 (archaeal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 2 group of β-CASP proteins. In this study, the Sso-aCPSF2 orthologue of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Saci-aCPSF2 was functionally characterized. Like Sso-aCPSF2, Saci-aCPSF2 degrades RNA with 5´ to 3´ directionality in vitro. To address the biological significance of Saci-aCPSF2, a deletion mutant was constructed, and the influence of Saci-aCPSF2 on the transcriptome profile was assessed employing high throughput RNA sequencing. This analysis revealed 560 genes with differential transcript abundance, suggesting a considerable role of this enzyme in RNA metabolism. In addition, bioinformatic analyses revealed several transcripts that are preferentially degraded at the 5´ end. This was exemplarily verified for two transcripts by Northern-blot analyses, showing for the first time that aCPSF2 proteins play a role in 5' to 3' directional mRNA decay in the crenarchaeal clade of Archaea.

  14. Augmenting the Genetic Toolbox for Sulfolobus islandicus with a Stringent Positive Selectable Marker for Agmatine Prototrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Tara E.; Krause, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfolobus species have become the model organisms for studying the unique biology of the crenarchaeal division of the archaeal domain. In particular, Sulfolobus islandicus provides a powerful opportunity to explore natural variation via experimental functional genomics. To support these efforts, we further expanded genetic tools for S. islandicus by developing a stringent positive selection for agmatine prototrophs in strains in which the argD gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, has been deleted. Strains with deletions in argD were shown to be auxotrophic for agmatine even in nutrient-rich medium, but growth could be restored by either supplementation of exogenous agmatine or reintroduction of a functional copy of the argD gene from S. solfataricus P2 into the ΔargD host. Using this stringent selection, a robust targeted gene knockout system was established via an improved next generation of the MID (marker insertion and unmarked target gene deletion) method. Application of this novel system was validated by targeted knockout of the upsEF genes involved in UV-inducible cell aggregation formation. PMID:23835176

  15. Genus-specific protein binding to the large clusters of DNA repeats (short regularly spaced repeats) present in Sulfolobus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Shen, Biao

    2003-01-01

    terminally modified and corresponds to SSO454, an open reading frame of previously unassigned function. It binds specifically to DNA fragments carrying double and single repeat sequences, binding on one side of the repeat structure, and producing an opening of the opposite side of the DNA structure. It also...... recognizes both main families of repeat sequences in S. solfataricus. The recombinant protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, showed the same binding properties to the SRSR repeat as the native one. The SSO454 protein exhibits a tripartite internal repeat structure which yields a good sequence match...... with a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. Although this putative motif is shared by other archaeal proteins, orthologs of SSO454 were only detected in species within the Sulfolobus genus and in the closely related Acidianus genus. We infer that the genus-specific protein induces an opening of the structure...

  16. The chaperonin of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is an RNA-binding protein that participates in ribosomal RNA processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggero, D; Ciammaruconi, A; Londei, P

    1998-01-01

    The 60 kDa molecular chaperones (chaperonins) are high molecular weight protein complexes having a characteristic double-ring toroidal shape; they are thought to aid the folding of denatured or newly synthesized polypeptides. These proteins exist as two functionally similar, but distantly related families, one comprising the bacterial and organellar chaperonins and another (the so-called CCT-TRiC family) including the chaperonins of the archaea and the eukaryotes. Although some evidence exist...

  17. Two novel conjugative plasmids from a single strain of Sulfolobus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erauso, G.; Stedman, K.M.; Werken, van de H.J.G.; Zillig, W.; Oost, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    Two conjugative plasmids (CPs) were isolated and characterized from the same 'Sulfolobus islandicus' strain, SOG2/4, The plasmids were separated from each other and transferred into Sulfolobus soltataricus. One has a high copy number and is not stable (pSOG1) whereas the other has a low copy number

  18. The Effects of Temperature and Growth Phase on the Lipidomes of Sulfolobus islandicus and Sulfolobus tokodaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sara Munk; Neesgaard, Vinnie Lund; Skjoldbjerg, Sandra Landbo Nedergaard

    2015-01-01

    at three different temperatures, with samples withdrawn during lag, exponential, and stationary phases. Three abundant tetraether lipid classes and one diether lipid class were monitored. Beside the expected increase in the number of cyclopentane moieties with higher temperature in both archaea, we......The functionality of the plasma membrane is essential for all organisms. Adaption to high growth temperatures imposes challenges and Bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea have developed several mechanisms to cope with these. Hyperthermophilic archaea have earlier been shown to synthesize tetraether...... membrane lipids with an increased number of cyclopentane moieties at higher growth temperatures. Here we used shotgun lipidomics to study this effect as well as the influence of growth phase on the lipidomes of Sulfolobus islandicus and Sulfolobus tokodaii for the first time. Both species were cultivated...

  19. Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    OpenAIRE

    Skórko, R; Osipiuk, J; Stetter, K O

    1989-01-01

    Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase has been isolated from a crude extract of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl. Divalent cations (Mn2+ greater than Mg2+) stimulated the reaction. The enzyme does not require the presence of histones for its activity; it is inhibited strongly by phosphate and slightly by fluoride. The protein from the glycogen complex migrated in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a 57-kilodalton protein band; after isoelectric focusing ...

  20. Transcriptome analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus infected with two related fuselloviruses reveals novel insights into the regulation of CRISPR-Cas system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusco, Salvatore; Liguori, Rossana; Limauro, Danila

    2015-01-01

    in a double-infected strain to explore both virus-host and virus-virus interactions. Whereas SSV1 did not induce major changes of the host gene expression, SSV2 elicited a strong host response, which includes the transcriptional activation of CRISPR loci and cas genes. As a consequence, a significant decrease...... of the SSV2 copy number has been observed, which in turn led to provirus-capture into the host chromosome. Results of this study have revealed novel aspects of the host-viral interaction in the frame of the CRISPR-response....

  1. Structural and kinetic studies of the allosteric transition in Sulfolobus solfataricus uracil phosphoribosyltransferase: Permanent activation by engineering of the C-terminus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Stig; Kadziola, Anders; Johansson, Eva

    2009-01-01

    and PPi, in the other sites. Combined with three existing structures of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase in complex with UMP and the allosteric inhibitor cytidine triphosphate (CTP), these structures provide valuable insight into the mechanism of allosteric transition from inhibited to active enzyme...

  2. Structure-Based Mutagenesis of Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus B204 Reveals Essential Residues in the Virion-Associated DNA-Packaging ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellas, Nikki; Snyder, Jamie C; Dills, Michael; Nicolay, Sheena J; Kerchner, Keshia M; Brumfield, Susan K; Lawrence, C Martin; Young, Mark J

    2015-12-23

    Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), an archaeal virus that infects the hyperthermoacidophile Sulfolobus solfataricus, is one of the most well-studied viruses of the domain Archaea. STIV shares structural, morphological, and sequence similarities with viruses from other domains of life, all of which are thought to belong to the same viral lineage. Several of these common features include a conserved coat protein fold, an internal lipid membrane, and a DNA-packaging ATPase. B204 is the ATPase encoded by STIV and is thought to drive packaging of viral DNA during the replication process. Here, we report the crystal structure of B204 along with the biochemical analysis of B204 mutants chosen based on structural information and sequence conservation patterns observed among members of the same viral lineage and the larger FtsK/HerA superfamily to which B204 belongs. Both in vitro ATPase activity assays and transfection assays with mutant forms of B204 confirmed the essentiality of conserved and nonconserved positions. We also have identified two distinct particle morphologies during an STIV infection that differ in the presence or absence of the B204 protein. The biochemical and structural data presented here are not only informative for the STIV replication process but also can be useful in deciphering DNA-packaging mechanisms for other viruses belonging to this lineage. STIV is a virus that infects a host from the domain Archaea that replicates in high-temperature, acidic environments. While STIV has many unique features, there exist several striking similarities between this virus and others that replicate in different environments and infect a broad range of hosts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Aside from structural features shared by viruses from this lineage, there exists a significant level of sequence similarity between the ATPase genes carried by these different viruses; this gene encodes an enzyme thought to provide energy that drives DNA packaging into

  3. Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórko, R; Osipiuk, J; Stetter, K O

    1989-09-01

    Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase has been isolated from a crude extract of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl. Divalent cations (Mn2+ greater than Mg2+) stimulated the reaction. The enzyme does not require the presence of histones for its activity; it is inhibited strongly by phosphate and slightly by fluoride. The protein from the glycogen complex migrated in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a 57-kilodalton protein band; after isoelectric focusing it separated into several spots in the pH range of 5.6 to 6.7.

  4. Factor requirements for transcription in the Archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S A; Bell, S D; Jackson, S P

    1997-05-15

    Archaea (archaebacteria) constitute a domain of life that is distinct from Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes). Although archaeal cells share many morphological features with eubacteria, their transcriptional apparatus is more akin to eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II and III than it is to eubacterial transcription systems. Thus, in addition to possessing a 10 subunit RNA polymerase and a homologue of the TATA-binding protein (TBP), Archaea possess a polypeptide termed TFB that is homologous to eukaryotic TFIIB. Here, we investigate the factor requirements for transcription of several promoters of the archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae and its associated virus SSV. Through in vitro transcription and immunodepletion, we demonstrate that S. shibatae TBP, TFB and RNA polymerase are not complexed tightly with one another and that each is required for efficient transcription of all promoters tested. Furthermore, full transcription is restored by supplementing respective depleted extracts with recombinant TBP or TFB, indicating that TBP-associated factors or TFB-associated factors are not required. Indeed, gel-filtration suggests that Sulfolobus TBP and TFB are not associated stably with other proteins. Finally, all promoters analysed are transcribed accurately and efficiently in an in vitro system comprising recombinant TBP and TFB, together with essentially homogeneous preparation of RNA polymerase. Transcription in Archaea is therefore fundamentally homologous to that in eukaryotes, although factor requirements appear to be much less complex.

  5. Characterization of the Sulfolobus host-SSV2 virus interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, P.; Jensen, S.; Aucelli, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Sulfolobus spindle virus, SSV2, encodes a tyrosine integrase which furthers provirus formation in host chromosomes. Consistently with the prediction made during sequence analysis, integration was found to occur in the downstream half of the tRNAGly (CCC) gene. In this paper we report the find......The Sulfolobus spindle virus, SSV2, encodes a tyrosine integrase which furthers provirus formation in host chromosomes. Consistently with the prediction made during sequence analysis, integration was found to occur in the downstream half of the tRNAGly (CCC) gene. In this paper we report...... during the growth of the natural host REY15/4, the cellular content of SSV2 DNA remains fairly low throughout the incubation of the foreign host. The accumulation of episomal DNA in the former case cannot be traced to decreased packaging activity because of a simultaneous increase in the virus titre...... in the medium. In addition, the interaction between SSV2 and its natural host is characterized by the concurrence of host growth inhibition and the induction of viral DNA replication. When this virus-host interaction was investigated using S. islandicus REY15A, a strain which is closely related to the natural...

  6. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  7. CRISPR associated diversity within a population of Sulfolobus islandicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Held

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Predator-prey models for virus-host interactions predict that viruses will cause oscillations of microbial host densities due to an arms race between resistance and virulence. A new form of microbial resistance, CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats are a rapidly evolving, sequence-specific immunity mechanism in which a short piece of invading viral DNA is inserted into the host's chromosome, thereby rendering the host resistant to further infection. Few studies have linked this form of resistance to population dynamics in natural microbial populations.We examined sequence diversity in 39 strains of the archeaon Sulfolobus islandicus from a single, isolated hot spring from Kamchatka, Russia to determine the effects of CRISPR immunity on microbial population dynamics. First, multiple housekeeping genetic markers identify a large clonal group of identical genotypes coexisting with a diverse set of rare genotypes. Second, the sequence-specific CRISPR spacer arrays split the large group of isolates into two very different groups and reveal extensive diversity and no evidence for dominance of a single clone within the population.The evenness of resistance genotypes found within this population of S. islandicus is indicative of a lack of strain dominance, in contrast to the prediction for a resistant strain in a simple predator-prey interaction. Based on evidence for the independent acquisition of resistant sequences, we hypothesize that CRISPR mediated clonal interference between resistant strains promotes and maintains diversity in this natural population.

  8. Sulfolobus Replication Factor C stimulates the activity of DNA Polymerase B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Likui; Guo, Li

    2014-01-01

    the hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus Sulfolobus physically interacts with DNA polymerase B1 (PolB1) and enhances both the polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities of PolB1 in an ATP-independent manner. Stimulation of the PolB1 activity by RFC is independent of the ability of RFC to bind DNA but is consistent...... with the ability of RFC to facilitate DNA binding by PolB1 through protein-protein interaction. These results suggest that Sulfolobus RFC may play a role in recruiting DNA polymerase for efficient primer extension, in addition to clamp loading, during DNA replication....

  9. CRISPR families of the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus: bidirectional transcription and dynamic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillestøl, Reidun K; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Brügger, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Summary CRISPRs of Sulfolobus fall into three main families based on their repeats, leader regions, associated cas genes, and putative recognition sequences on viruses and plasmids. Spacer sequence matches to different viruses and plasmids of the Sulfolobales revealed some bias particularly...... for family III CRISPRs. Transcription occurs on both strands of the five repeat-clusters of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and a repeat-cluster of the conjugative plasmid pKEF9. Leader strand transcripts cover whole repeat-clusters and are processed mainly from the 3'-end, within repeats, yielding heterogeneous...

  10. Extreme Mutation Tolerance: Nearly Half of the Archaeal Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Genes Are Not Required for Virus Function, Including the Minor Capsid Protein Gene vp3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Eric A; Goodman, David A; Gorchels, Madeline E; Stedman, Kenneth M

    2017-05-15

    Viruses infecting the Archaea harbor a tremendous amount of genetic diversity. This is especially true for the spindle-shaped viruses of the family Fuselloviridae , where >90% of the viral genes do not have detectable homologs in public databases. This significantly limits our ability to elucidate the role of viral proteins in the infection cycle. To address this, we have developed genetic techniques to study the well-characterized fusellovirus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), which infects Sulfolobus solfataricus in volcanic hot springs at 80°C and pH 3. Here, we present a new comparative genome analysis and a thorough genetic analysis of SSV1 using both specific and random mutagenesis and thereby generate mutations in all open reading frames. We demonstrate that almost half of the SSV1 genes are not essential for infectivity, and the requirement for a particular gene correlates well with its degree of conservation within the Fuselloviridae The major capsid gene vp1 is essential for SSV1 infectivity. However, the universally conserved minor capsid gene vp3 could be deleted without a loss in infectivity and results in virions with abnormal morphology. IMPORTANCE Most of the putative genes in the spindle-shaped archaeal hyperthermophile fuselloviruses have no sequences that are clearly similar to characterized genes. In order to determine which of these SSV genes are important for function, we disrupted all of the putative genes in the prototypical fusellovirus, SSV1. Surprisingly, about half of the genes could be disrupted without destroying virus function. Even deletions of one of the known structural protein genes that is present in all known fuselloviruses, vp3 , allows the production of infectious viruses. However, viruses lacking vp3 have abnormal shapes, indicating that the vp3 gene is important for virus structure. Identification of essential genes will allow focused research on minimal SSV genomes and further understanding of the structure of

  11. Genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus and functional analysis of DNA repair genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Changyi; Tian, Bin; Li, Suming

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a novel gene-deletion method was developed for the crenarchaeal model Sulfolobus islandicus, which is a suitable tool for addressing gene essentiality in depth. Using this technique, we have investigated functions of putative DNA repair genes by constructing deletion mutants and studying...

  12. Genetic technologies for extremely thermophilic microorganisms of Sulfolobus, the only genetically tractable genus of crenarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Nan; Han, Wenyuan; Li, Yingjun; Liang, Yunxiang; She, Qunxin

    2017-04-01

    Archaea represents the third domain of life, with the information-processing machineries more closely resembling those of eukaryotes than the machineries of the bacterial counterparts but sharing metabolic pathways with organisms of Bacteria, the sister prokaryotic phylum. Archaeal organisms also possess unique features as revealed by genomics and genome comparisons and by biochemical characterization of prominent enzymes. Nevertheless, diverse genetic tools are required for in vivo experiments to verify these interesting discoveries. Considerable efforts have been devoted to the development of genetic tools for archaea ever since their discovery, and great progress has been made in the creation of archaeal genetic tools in the past decade. Versatile genetic toolboxes are now available for several archaeal models, among which Sulfolobus microorganisms are the only genus representing Crenarchaeota because all the remaining genera are from Euryarchaeota. Nevertheless, genetic tools developed for Sulfolobus are probably the most versatile among all archaeal models, and these include viral and plasmid shuttle vectors, conventional and novel genetic manipulation methods, CRISPR-based gene deletion and mutagenesis, and gene silencing, among which CRISPR tools have been reported only for Sulfolobus thus far. In this review, we summarize recent developments in all these useful genetic tools and discuss their possible application to research into archaeal biology by means of Sulfolobus models.

  13. Molecular analysis of the UV-inducible pili operon from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolferen, Marleen van; Ajon, Małgorzata; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2013-01-01

    Upon ultraviolet (UV) stress, hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus species show a highly induced transcription of a gene cluster responsible for pili biogenesis: the UV-inducible pili operon (ups operon). This operon is involved in UV-induced pili assembly, cellular aggregation, and subsequent DNA exchange

  14. Extraction, isolation and NMR data of the tetraether lipid calditoglycerocaldarchaeol (GDNT) from Sulfolobus metallicus harvested from a bioleaching reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bode, ML

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful extraction and isolation of the hydrolysed tetraether lipid calditoglycerocaldarchaeol (GDNT) from Sulfolobus etallicus, a key thermophilic bioleaching archaeon, is described. The archaeal biomasswas recovered directly from a...

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_002754 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otydyl ... transferase [imported] - Sulfolobus solfataricus ... Length = 393 ... Query: 2 ... KAVVLAAGKGERLEPITHTRPKPFVPV...LETPLILRHXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXDYFK 61 ... KAVVLAAGKGERLEPITHTRPKPFVPVLETPLILRH ... ... ... DYFK Sbjct: 1 ... KAVVLAAGKGERLEPITHTRPKPFVPVLETPLILRHIRILKKYINKI

  16. The Identification of Sulfolobus Species from a Biocorrosion of Wastewater Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakila Motamedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the species which has a prominent role in the biocorrosion of wastewater pipes is Sulfolobus bacterium. This bacterium is among the iron oxidizing bacteria. Sulfolobus is from the archae bacteria genus, which provides its needed energy by oxidation of sulfur in warm and acidic environments. In this research, the water sample exist in the water supply pipelines at Sarcheshmeh copper mine was studied, sulfur corrosive bacteria were separated and identified and their biochemical activity was researched and studied and it was found that the target species are in fact Sulfolobus archae bacteria which have different enzymatic activities. Due to these enzymatic activities, a considerable amount of sulfur is accumulated on the cell surface. Based on various incubation environments, as a result of sulfur accumulation, Sulfolubos archae bacteria were identified, and after doing isolation and purification methods, number of colonies have been decrease from 10-1 dilution to 10-10 dilution and in sample with 10-1 dilution sample 200 colonies has been reported and in plate with 10-10 dilution no colonies has been observed.

  17. Novel RepA-MCM proteins encoded in plasmids pTAU4, pORA1 and pTIK4 from Sulfolobus neozealandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, B.; Jensen, S.; Phan, H.

    2005-01-01

    Three plasmids isolated from the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus neozealandicus were characterized. Plasmids pTAU4 (7,192 bp), pORA1 (9,689 bp) and pTIK4 (13,638 bp) show unusual properties that distinguish them from previously characterized cryptic plasmids of the genus Sulfolobus. Plas...

  18. CrRNA-Protospacer Recognition during CRISPR- Directed DNA Interference Sulfolobus islandicus REY 15A and Structural Studies of CRISPR Binding Proteins (CBP) of Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousaei, Marzieh

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated proteins) is one of the important known immune mechanisms in archaea and bacteria. This adaptive immune system degrades invading genetic elements and protects the cell. Amongst 3 main types I, II and III...... of CRISPR system, two types (I and III) are found in archaea. However, in Sulfolobus species, subtypes IA, I-D, and III-B, III-D and rarely III-A are found. The model organism used for interference and structural studies is S. islandicus REY15A which carries subtypes I-A and III-B (α and β). Besides CRISPR...... ribonucleoprotein complex which is involved directly in defense, there are some less- known parts of the system including CPBs (CRISPR repeat-binding proteins) which are suggested to play a role in transcription. In the first part of my thesis, I provide a brief introduction to archaea and viruses that infect...

  19. Acquired thermotolerance and heat shock in the extremely thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus sp. strain B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Trent, J D; Osipiuk, J; Pinkau, T

    1990-01-01

    The extreme thermophile Sulfolobus sp. strain B12 exhibits an acquired thermotolerance response. Thus, survival of cells from a 70 degrees C culture at the lethal temperature of 92 degrees C was enhanced by as much as 6 orders of magnitude over a 2-h period if the culture was preheated to 88 degrees C for 60 min or longer before being exposed to the lethal temperature. In eubacteria and eucaryotes, acquired thermotolerance correlates with the induced synthesis of a dozen or so proteins known ...

  20. A novel interference mechanism by a type IIIB CRISPR-Cmr module in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Garrett, Roger Antony; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on CRISPR-based adaptive immune systems have revealed extensive structural and functional diversity of the interference complexes which often coexist intracellularly. The archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A encodes three interference modules, one of type IA and two of type IIIB...... targeting. A rationale is provided for the intracellular coexistence of the different interference systems in S.¿islandicus REY15A which cooperate functionally by sharing a single Cas6 protein for crRNA processing and utilize crRNA products from identical CRISPR spacers....

  1. Genome Analyses of Icelandic Strains of Sulfolobus islandicus, Model Organisms for Genetic and Virus-Host Interaction Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Li; Brügger, Kim; Liu, Chao

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of two Sulfolobus islandicus strains obtained from Icelandic solfataras were sequenced and analyzed. Strain REY15A is a host for a versatile genetic toolbox. It exhibits a genome of minimal size, is stable genetically, and is easy to grow and manipulate. Strain HVE10/4 shows a broad h...

  2. Acquired thermotolerance and heat shock in the extremely thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus sp. strain B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J D; Osipiuk, J; Pinkau, T

    1990-03-01

    The extreme thermophile Sulfolobus sp. strain B12 exhibits an acquired thermotolerance response. Thus, survival of cells from a 70 degrees C culture at the lethal temperature of 92 degrees C was enhanced by as much as 6 orders of magnitude over a 2-h period if the culture was preheated to 88 degrees C for 60 min or longer before being exposed to the lethal temperature. In eubacteria and eucaryotes, acquired thermotolerance correlates with the induced synthesis of a dozen or so proteins known as heat shock proteins. In this Sulfolobus species, it correlates with the preferential synthesis of primarily one major protein (55 kilodaltons) and, to a much lesser extent, two minor proteins (28 and 35 kilodaltons). Since the synthesis of all other proteins was radically reduced and these proteins were apparently not degraded or exported, their relative abundance within the cell increased during the time the cells were becoming thermotolerant. They could not yet be related to known heat shock proteins. In immunoassays, they were not cross-reactive with antibodies against heat shock proteins from Escherichia coli (DnaK and GroE), which are highly conserved between eubacteria and eucaryotes. However, it appears that if acquired thermotolerance depends on the synthesis of protective proteins, then in this extremely thermophilic archaebacterium it depends primarily on one protein.

  3. User's manual for THYDE-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Yoshiro

    1982-04-01

    THYDE-P1 is a computer code applicable to LWR (light water reactor) plant dynamics in response to various disturbances. This work is the user's mannual of THYDE-P1 (version SV02L03). The input requirements, steady state adjustment, execution of runs and output specifications are described. (author)

  4. Transcription termination in the plasmid/virus hybrid pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, Patrizia; Cannio, Raffaele; She, Qunxin

    2010-01-01

    The pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus, strain REY15/4, is a hybrid between a plasmid and a fusellovirus. A systematic study previously performed revealed the presence of nine major transcripts, the expression of which was differentially and temporally regulated over the growth cycle of S. islandicus....... In this study, two new transcripts were identified. Then, 3' termini of all the RNAs were mapped using adaptor RT-PCR and RNase protection assays, and termination/arrest positions were identified for each transcript. The majority of the identified ending positions were located in the close vicinity of a T...... and counter-transcripts might be responsible for the transcription termination at these T-track-minus loci in the closely spaced pSSVx genes....

  5. Transcriptome changes in STSV2-infected Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A undergoing continuous CRISPR spacer acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León-Sobrino, Carlos; Kot, Witold P; Garrett, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    A transcriptome study was performed on Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A actively undergoing CRISPR spacer acquisition from the crenarchaeal monocaudavirus STSV2 in rich and basal media over a 6 day period. Spacer acquisition preceded strong host growth retardation, altered transcriptional activity...... of four different CRISPR-Cas modules and changes in viral copy numbers, and with significant differences in the two media. Transcript levels of proteins involved in the cell cycle were reduced, while those of DNA replication, DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and some antitoxin-toxin pairs...... and transposases were unchanged or enhanced. Antisense RNAs were implicated in the transcriptional regulation of adaptation and interference modules of the type I-A CRISPR-Cas system and evidence was found for the occurrence of functional coordination between the single CRISPR-Cas adaptation module...

  6. Modulation of CRISPR locus transcription by the repeat-binding protein Cbp1 in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Peng, Xu

    2012-01-01

    CRISPR loci are essential components of the adaptive immune system of archaea and bacteria. They consist of long arrays of repeats separated by DNA spacers encoding guide RNAs (crRNA), which target foreign genetic elements. Cbp1 (CRISPR DNA repeat binding protein) binds specifically to the multiple...... direct repeats of CRISPR loci of members of the acidothermophilic, crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales. cbp1 gene deletion from Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A produced a strong reduction in pre-crRNA yields from CRISPR loci but did not inhibit the foreign DNA targeting capacity of the CRISPR/Cas system....... Conversely, overexpression of Cbp1 in S. islandicus generated an increase in pre-crRNA yields while the level of reverse strand transcripts from CRISPR loci remained unchanged. It is proposed that Cbp1 modulates production of longer pre-crRNA transcripts from CRISPR loci. A possible mechanism...

  7. Genetic Studies on CRISPR-Cas Functions in Invader Defense in Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang

    Archaea and bacteria contain CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-CRISPR-associated) systems that protect themselves against invasion by viruses and plasmids. There are three major types of CRISPR-Cas systems, type I, II and III, that are further divided...... into at least 11 subtypes. I employed Sulfolobus islandicus Rey15A as the model to study CRISPR mechanisms. The model archaeon encodes one subtype I-A (Cascade) and two subtype III-B (Cmr-α and Cmr-β) interference systems with no apparent redundancy in cas genes or in CRISPR systems, which is ideal for genetic...... analysis of cas gene function. Furthermore, a range of genetic tools have been developed for S. islandicus Rey15A in our laboratory and a plasmid interference assay has been successfully developed for testing CRISPR-directed DNA targeting activity, which have provided a solid basis for studying...

  8. Arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay sets of points in P^1 x P^1

    CERN Document Server

    Guardo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a solution to the interpolation problem for arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay (ACM) sets of points in the multiprojective space P^1 x P^1.  It collects the various current threads in the literature on this topic with the aim of providing a self-contained, unified introduction while also advancing some new ideas.  The relevant constructions related to multiprojective spaces are reviewed first, followed by the basic properties of points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function, and ACM sets of points.  The authors then show how, using a combinatorial description of ACM points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function can be computed and, as a result, solve the interpolation problem.  In subsequent chapters, they consider fat points and double points in P^1 x P^1 and demonstrate how to use their results to answer questions and problems of interest in commutative algebra.  Throughout the book, chapters end with a brief historical overview, citations of related results, and, where relevan...

  9. Co-Higgs bundles on P^1

    OpenAIRE

    Rayan, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Co-Higgs bundles are Higgs bundles in the sense of Simpson, but with Higgs fields that take values in the tangent bundle instead of the cotangent bundle. Given a vector bundle on P^1, we find necessary and sufficient conditions on its Grothendieck splitting for it to admit a stable Higgs field. We characterize the rank-2, odd-degree moduli space as a universal elliptic curve with a globally-defined equation. For ranks r=2,3,4, we explicitly verify the conjectural Betti numbers emerging from t...

  10. Molecular Characterization of Copper and Cadmium Resistance Determinants in the Biomining Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Orell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfolobus metallicus is a thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon used in high-temperature bioleaching processes that is able to grow under stressing conditions such as high concentrations of heavy metals. Nevertheless, the genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for heavy metal resistance in S. metallicus remain uncharacterized. Proteomic analysis of S. metallicus cells exposed to 100 mM Cu revealed that 18 out of 30 upregulated proteins are related to the production and conversion of energy, amino acids biosynthesis, and stress responses. Ten of these last proteins were also up-regulated in S. metallicus treated in the presence of 1 mM Cd suggesting that at least in part, a common general response to these two heavy metals. The S. metallicus genome contained two complete cop gene clusters, each encoding a metallochaperone (CopM, a Cu-exporting ATPase (CopA, and a transcriptional regulator (CopT. Transcriptional expression analysis revealed that copM and copA from each cop gene cluster were cotranscribed and their transcript levels increased when S. metallicus was grown either in the presence of Cu or using chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 as oxidizable substrate. This study shows for the first time the presence of a duplicated version of the cop gene cluster in Archaea and characterizes some of the Cu and Cd resistance determinants in a thermophilic archaeon employed for industrial biomining.

  11. Crystal Structures of Two Isozymes of Citrate Synthase from Sulfolobus tokodaii Strain 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Murakami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 has two citrate synthase genes (ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS in the genome with 45% sequence identity. Because they exhibit similar optimal temperatures of catalytic activity and thermal inactivation profiles, we performed structural comparisons between these isozymes to elucidate adaptation mechanisms to high temperatures in thermophilic CSs. The crystal structures of ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS were determined at 2.0 Å and 2.7 Å resolutions, respectively. Structural comparison reveals that both of them are dimeric enzymes composed of two identical subunits, and these dimeric structures are quite similar to those of citrate synthases from archaea and eubacteria. ST0587-CS has, however, 55 ion pairs within whole dimer structure, while having only 36 in ST1805-CS. Although the number and distributions of ion pairs are distinct from each other, intersubunit ion pairs between two domains of each isozyme are identical especially in interterminal region. Because the location and number of ion pairs are in a trend with other CSs from thermophilic microorganisms, the factors responsible for thermal adaptation of ST-CS isozymes are characterized by ion pairs in interterminal region.

  12. Major and minor crRNA annealing sites facilitate low stringency DNA protospacer binding prior to Type I-A CRISPR-Cas interference in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousaei, Marzieh; Deng, Ling; She, Qunxin

    2016-01-01

    The stringency of crRNA-protospacer DNA base pair matching required for effective CRISPR-Cas interference is relatively low in crenarchaeal Sulfolobus species in contrast to that required in some bacteria. To understand its biological significance we studied crRNA-protospacer interactions...... in Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A which carries multiple, and functionally diverse, interference complexes. A range of mismatches were introduced into a vector-borne protospacer that was identical to spacer 1 of CRISPR locus 2, with a cognate CCN PAM sequence. Two important crRNA annealing regions were identified...

  13. C68 from the Sulfolobus islandicus plasmid-virus pSSVx is a novel member of the AbrB-like transcription factor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contursi, Patrizia; D'Ambrosio, Katia; Pirone, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    The genetic element pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus, strain REY15/4, is a hybrid between a plasmid and a fusellovirus. This plasmid-virus hybrid infects several species of the hyperthermophilic acidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus. The open reading frame orfc68 of pSSVx encodes a 7.7 kDa protein...... factors, such as AbrB from Bacillus subtilis. Nevertheless, C68 constitutes a novel representative of this family because it shows several peculiar structural and functional features....

  14. Isolation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Biofilms of the Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachlewski, Silke; Jachlewski, Witold D; Linne, Uwe; Bräsen, Christopher; Wingender, Jost; Siebers, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are the major structural and functional components of microbial biofilms. The aim of this study was to establish a method for EPS isolation from biofilms of the thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as a basis for EPS analysis. Biofilms of S. acidocaldarius were cultivated on the surface of gellan gum-solidified Brock medium at 78°C for 4 days. Five EPS extraction methods were compared, including shaking of biofilm suspensions in phosphate buffer, cation-exchange resin (CER) extraction, and stirring with addition of EDTA, crown ether, or NaOH. With respect to EPS yield, impact on cell viability, and compatibility with subsequent biochemical analysis, the CER extraction method was found to be the best suited isolation procedure resulting in the detection of carbohydrates and proteins as the major constituents and DNA as a minor component of the EPS. Culturability of CER-treated cells was not impaired. Analysis of the extracellular proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis resulted in the detection of several hundreds of protein spots, mainly with molecular masses of 25-116 kDa and pI values of 5-8. Identification of proteins suggested a cytoplasmic origin for many of these proteins, possibly released via membrane vesicles or biofilm-inherent cell lysis during biofilm maturation. Functional analysis of EPS proteins, using fluorogenic substrates as well as zymography, demonstrated the activity of diverse enzyme classes, such as proteases, lipases, esterases, phosphatases, and glucosidases. In conclusion, the CER extraction method, as previously applied to bacterial biofilms, also represents a suitable method for isolation of water soluble EPS from the archaeal biofilms of S. acidocaldarius, allowing the investigation of composition and function of EPS components in these types of biofilms.

  15. Isolation of extracellular polymeric substances from biofilms of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eJachlewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS are the major structural and functional components of microbial biofilms. The aim of this study was to establish a method for EPS isolation from biofilms of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius as a basis for EPS analysis. Biofilms of S. acidocaldarius were cultivated on the surface of gellan gum-solidified Brock medium at 78 °C for 4 days. Five EPS extraction methods were compared, including shaking of biofilm suspensions in phosphate buffer, cation-exchange resin (CER extraction and stirring with addition of EDTA, crown ether or NaOH. With respect to EPS yield, impact on cell viability and compatibility with subsequent biochemical analysis, the CER extraction method was found to be the best suited isolation procedure resulting in the detection of carbohydrates and proteins as the major constituents and DNA as a minor component of the EPS. Culturability of CER-treated cells was not impaired. Analysis of the extracellular proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis resulted in the detection of several hundredshundred of protein spots, mainly with molecular masses of 25 kDa to 116 kDa and pI values of 5 to 8. Identification of proteins suggested a cytoplasmic origin for many of these proteins, possibly released via membrane vesicles or biofilm-inherent cell lysis during biofilm maturation. Functional analysis of EPS proteins, using fluorogenic substrates as well as zymography, demonstrated the activity of diverse groups of enzymes such as proteases, lipases, esterases, phosphatases and glucosidases. In conclusion, the CER extraction method, as previously applied to bacterial biofilms, also represents a suitable method for isolation of water soluble EPS from the archaeal biofilms of S. acidocaldarius, allowing the investigation of composition and function of EPS components in these types of biofilms.

  16. Influence of C-terminal tail deletion on structure and stability of hyperthermophile Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Chu, Wen-Ting; Xue, Qiao; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-06-01

    The C-terminus tail (G144-T149) of the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus tokodaii (Sto-RNase HI) plays an important role in this protein's hyperstabilization and may therefore be a good protein stability tag. Detailed understanding of the structural and dynamic effects of C-terminus tail deletion is required for gaining insights into the thermal stability mechanism of Sto-RNase HI. Focused on Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase HI (Sto-RNase HI) and its derivative lacking the C-terminal tail (ΔC6 Sto-RNase HI) (PDB codes: 2EHG and 3ALY), we applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at four different temperatures (300, 375, 475, and 500 K) to examine the effect of the C-terminal tail on the hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase HI and to investigate the unfolding process of Sto-RNase HI and ΔC6 Sto-RNase HI. The simulations suggest that the C-terminal tail has significant impact in hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase HI and the unfolding of these two proteins evolves along dissimilar pathways. Essential dynamics analysis indicates that the essential subspaces of the two proteins at different temperatures are non-overlapping within the trajectories and they exhibit different directions of motion. Our work can give important information to understand the three-state folding mechanism of Sto-RNase HI and to offer alternative strategies to improve the protein stability.

  17. The 60 kDa heat shock proteins in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, H K; Osipiuk, J; Maltsev, N; Overbeek, R; Quaite-Randall, E; Joachimiak, A; Trent, J D

    1995-11-10

    One of the most abundant proteins in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae is the 59 kDa heat shock protein (TF55) that is believed to form a homo-oligomeric double ring complex structurally similar to the bacterial chaperonins. We discovered a second protein subunit in the S. shibatae ring complex (referred to as alpha) that is stoichiometric with TF55 (renamed beta). The gene and flanking regions of alpha were cloned and sequenced and its inferred amino acid sequence has 54.4% identity and 74.4% similarity to beta. Transcription start sites for both alpha and beta were mapped and three potential transcription regulatory regions were identified. Northern analyses of cultures shifted from normal growth temperatures (70 to 75 degrees C) to heat shock temperatures (85 to 90 degrees C) indicated that the levels of alpha and beta mRNAs increased during heat shock, but at all temperatures their relative proportions remained constant. Monitoring protein synthesis by autoradiography of total proteins from cultures pulse labeled with L(-)[35S]methionine at normal and heat shock temperatures indicated significant increases in alpha and beta synthesis during heat shock. Under extreme heat shock conditions (> or = 90 degrees C) alpha and beta appeared to be the only two proteins synthesized. The purified alpha and beta subunits combined to form high molecular mass complexes with similar mobilities on native polyacrylamide gels to the complexes isolated directly from cells. Equal proportions of the two subunits gave the greatest yield of the complex, which we refer to as a "rosettasome". It is argued that the rosettasome consists of two homo-oligomeric rings; one of alpha and the other of beta. Polyclonal antibodies against alpha and beta from S. shibatae cross-reacted with proteins of similar molecular mass in 10 out of the 17 archaeal species tested, suggesting that the two rosettasome proteins are highly conserved among the archaea. The archaeal sequences were

  18. Hunt for the 11P1 bound state of charmonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.C.

    1982-02-01

    Using the Crystal Ball detector at SPEAR, we have looked for evidence of the isospin-violating decay psi' → π 01 P 1 , where 1 P 1 is the predicted spin-singlet p-wave bound state of charmonium. For a 1 P 1 state at the predicted mass (approx. 3520 MeV), we obtain the 95% confidence level limits: BR(psi' → π 01 P 1 ) 01 P 1 )BR( 1 P 1 → γn/sub c/ < 0.14%. These limits are compared with simple theoretical predictions

  19. Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase from the extreme thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus shibatae is an allosteric enzyme, activated by GTP and inhibited by CTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Lise; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1996-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, which catalyses the formation of UMP and pyrophosphate from uracil and 5-phosphoribosyl a-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), was partly purified from the extreme thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus shibatae. The enzyme required divalent metal ions for activity...... and it showed the highest activity at pH 6.4. The specific activity of the enzyme was 50-times higher at 95°C than at 37°C, but the functional half-life was short at 95°C. The activity of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase was strongly activated by GTP, which increased Vmax of the reaction by approximately 20......-fold without much effect on Km for the substrates. The concentration of GTP required for half-maximal activation was about 80 µM. CTP was a strong inhibitor and acted by raising the concentration of GTP needed for half-maximal activation of the enzyme. We conclude that uracil phosphoribosyltransferase...

  20. Life Cycle Characterization of Sulfolobus Monocaudavirus 1, an Extremophilic Spindle-Shaped Virus with Extracellular Tail Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldahl, Kristine B; Jensen, Signe B; Bhoobalan-Chitty, Yuvaraj; Martínez-Álvarez, Laura; Papathanasiou, Pavlos; Peng, Xu

    2016-06-15

    We provide here, for the first time, insights into the initial infection stages of a large spindle-shaped archaeal virus and explore the following life cycle events. Our observations suggest that Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 (SMV1) exhibits a high adsorption rate and that virions adsorb to the host cells via three distinct attachment modes: nosecone association, body association, and body/tail association. In the body/tail association mode, the entire virion, including the tail(s), aligns to the host cell surface and the main body is greatly flattened, suggesting a possible fusion entry mechanism. Upon infection, the intracellular replication cycle lasts about 8 h, at which point the virions are released as spindle-shaped tailless particles. Replication of the virus retarded host growth but did not cause lysis of the host cells. Once released from the host and at temperatures resembling that of its natural habitat, SMV1 starts developing one or two tails. This exceptional property of undergoing a major morphological development outside, and independently of, the host cell has been reported only once before for the related Acidianus two-tailed virus. Here, we show that SMV1 can develop tails of more than 900 nm in length, more than quadrupling the total virion length. Very little is known about the initial life cycle stages of viruses infecting hosts of the third domain of life, Archaea This work describes the first example of an archaeal virus employing three distinct association modes. The virus under study, Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1, is a representative of the large spindle-shaped viruses that are frequently found in acidic hot springs. The results described here will add valuable knowledge about Archaea, the least studied domain in the virology field. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Functional characterization of the origin of replication of pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke J Joshua

    Full Text Available Plasmid pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1 is believed to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism but its origin and mechanism of replication are not well understood. We sought to create minimal expression vectors based on pRN1 that would be useful for heterologous gene expression in S. acidocaldarius, and in the process improve our understanding of the mechanism of replication. We constructed and transformed shuttle vectors that harbored different contiguous stretches of DNA from pRN1 into S. acidocaldarius E4-39, a uracil auxotroph. A 232-bp region 3' of orf904 was found to be critical for pRN1 replication and is therefore proposed to be the putative origin of replication. This 232-bp region contains a 100-bp stem-loop structure believed to be the double-strand origin of replication. The loop of the 100-bp structure contains a GTG tri-nucleotide motif, a feature that was previously reported to be important for the primase activity of Orf904. This putative origin and the associated orf56 and orf904 were identified as the minimal replicon of pRN1 because transformants of plasmids lacking any of these three features were not recovered. Plasmids lacking orf904 and orf56 but harboring the putative origin were transformable when orf904 and orf56 were provided in-trans; a 75-bp region 5' of the orf904 start codon was found to be essential for this complementation. Detailed knowledge of the pRN1 origin of replication will broaden the application of the plasmid as a genetic tool for Sulfolobus species.

  2. Deletion of the topoisomerase III gene in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus results in slow growth and defects in cell cycle control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiyang; Guo, Li; Deng, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Topoisomerase III (topo III), a type IA topoisomerase, is widespread in hyperthermophilic archaea. In order to interrogate the in vivo role of archaeal topo III, we constructed and characterized a topo III gene deletion mutant of Sulfolobus islandicus. The mutant was viable but grew more slowly...... results suggest that the enzyme may serve roles in chromosomal segregation and control of the level of supercoiling in the cell....

  3. Biochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant allergen Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P

    1997-11-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.

  4. Immunological and biological properties of recombinant Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Lamontagne, P; Boulanger, J; Brunet, C; Hébert, J

    1997-03-01

    Current forms of allergy diagnosis and therapies are based on the use of natural allergenic extracts. Despite strong evidence that higher therapeutic efficacy may be achieved with purified allergens, the purification of multiple allergic components from extracts is a fastidious and sometimes an impossible task. However, the use of recombinant allergens may be an alternative to overcome this problem. In this study, we compared the immunological properties of recombinant (r) Lol p 1 with those of the natural protein. We cloned directly the gene encoding Lol p 1 from genomic DNA of ryegrass pollen. This gene was subcloned into the expression vector pMAL-c and expressed as fusion protein. Subsequently, rLol p 1 was cleaved from maltose-binding protein using factor Xa. Using binding inhibition and proliferative assays, we assessed the immunological properties of the recombinant allergens. The capacity of rLol p 1 to trigger basophil histamine release and to elicit a skin reaction was also assessed and compared to those of its natural counterpart. We found that the Lol p 1 gene has no introns since we amplified this gene directly from genomic DNA. We demonstrated that the binding sites of anti-Lol p 1 monoclonal antibody, specific human IgG and IgE antibody are well conserved on rLol p 1 as no difference in the binding inhibition profile was observed when using either natural or recombinant protein. At the T-cell level, rLol p 1 elicited a T-cell response in mice comparable to that observed with the natural protein. In addition, we demonstrated that the biological characteristics of rLol p 1 were comparable to those of the natural counterpart, in that rLol p 1 elicited a skin wheal reaction and induced basophil histamine release in grass-allergic patients only. The data indicate that natural Lol p 1 and rLol p 1 shared identical immunological and biological properties.

  5. Adjoint P1 equations solution for neutron slowing down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2002-01-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. The direct and adjoint neutron fluxes resulting from the solution of P 1 equations were used to three different weighting processes, to obtain the macrogroup macroscopic cross sections. It was found out noticeable differences among them. (author)

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_002754 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ture Of Glcv, The ... Abc-Atpase Of The Glucose Abc Transporter From ... ... ... Sulfolobus Solfataricus pdb|1OXV|B Chain B, Crystal ... Structure Of Glcv, The Abc-Atpase Of Th...folobus Solfataricus ... pdb|1OXU|C Chain C, Crystal Structure Of Glcv, The ... Abc-Atpase Of ...tructure Of Glcv, The Abc-Atpase Of The Glucose Abc ... Transporter From S...ulfolobus Solfataricus pdb|1OXU|A ... Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Glcv, The Abc-Atpase Of ...

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_006348 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ture Of Glcv, The ... Abc-Atpase Of The Glucose Abc Transporter From ... ... ... Sulfolobus Solfataricus pdb|1OXV|B Chain B, Crystal ... Structure Of Glcv, The Abc-Atpase Of Th...folobus Solfataricus ... pdb|1OXU|C Chain C, Crystal Structure Of Glcv, The ... Abc-Atpase Of ...tructure Of Glcv, The Abc-Atpase Of The Glucose Abc ... Transporter From S...ulfolobus Solfataricus pdb|1OXU|A ... Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Glcv, The Abc-Atpase Of ...

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_006350 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ture Of Glcv, The ... Abc-Atpase Of The Glucose Abc Transporter From ... ... ... Sulfolobus Solfataricus pdb|1OXV|B Chain B, Crystal ... Structure Of Glcv, The Abc-Atpase Of Th...folobus Solfataricus ... pdb|1OXU|C Chain C, Crystal Structure Of Glcv, The ... Abc-Atpase Of ...tructure Of Glcv, The Abc-Atpase Of The Glucose Abc ... Transporter From S...ulfolobus Solfataricus pdb|1OXU|A ... Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Glcv, The Abc-Atpase Of ...

  9. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant short-chain NAD(H)-dependent dehydrogenase/reductase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Angela; Giordano, Assunta; Pucci, Biagio; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2010-03-01

    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) superfamily was identified in the aerobic thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius strain DSM 639. The saadh gene was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein (SaADH) was purified to homogeneity and characterized. SaADH is a tetrameric enzyme consisting of identical 28,978-Da subunits, each composed of 264 amino acids. The enzyme has remarkable thermophilicity and thermal stability, displaying activity at temperatures up to 75 degrees C and a 30-min half-inactivation temperature of ~90 degrees C, and shows good tolerance to common organic solvents. SaADH has a strict requirement for NAD(H) as the coenzyme, and displays a preference for the reduction of alicyclic, bicyclic and aromatic ketones and alpha-keto esters, but is poorly active on aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic alcohols, and shows no activity on aldehydes. The enzyme catalyses the reduction of alpha-methyl and alpha-ethyl benzoylformate, and methyl o-chlorobenzoylformate with 100% conversion to methyl (S)-mandelate [17% enantiomeric excess (ee)], ethyl (R)-mandelate (50% ee), and methyl (R)-o-chloromandelate (72% ee), respectively, with an efficient in situ NADH-recycling system which involves glucose and a thermophilic glucose dehydrogenase. This study provides further evidence supporting the critical role of the D37 residue in discriminating NAD(H) from NAD(P)H in members of the SDR superfamily.

  10. Doubling Power Output of Starch Biobattery Treated by the Most Thermostable Isoamylase from an Archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun; Zhang, Fei; Sun, Fangfang; Chen, Hongge; Percival Zhang, Y-H

    2015-08-20

    Biobattery, a kind of enzymatic fuel cells, can convert organic compounds (e.g., glucose, starch) to electricity in a closed system without moving parts. Inspired by natural starch metabolism catalyzed by starch phosphorylase, isoamylase is essential to debranch alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds of starch, yielding linear amylodextrin - the best fuel for sugar-powered biobattery. However, there is no thermostable isoamylase stable enough for simultaneous starch gelatinization and enzymatic hydrolysis, different from the case of thermostable alpha-amylase. A putative isoamylase gene was mined from megagenomic database. The open reading frame ST0928 from a hyperthermophilic archaeron Sulfolobus tokodaii was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein was easily purified by heat precipitation at 80 (o)C for 30 min. This enzyme was characterized and required Mg(2+) as an activator. This enzyme was the most stable isoamylase reported with a half lifetime of 200 min at 90 (o)C in the presence of 0.5 mM MgCl2, suitable for simultaneous starch gelatinization and isoamylase hydrolysis. The cuvett-based air-breathing biobattery powered by isoamylase-treated starch exhibited nearly doubled power outputs than that powered by the same concentration starch solution, suggesting more glucose 1-phosphate generated.

  11. Development of the Multiple Gene Knockout System with One-Step PCR in Thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple gene knockout systems developed in the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are powerful genetic tools. However, plasmid construction typically requires several steps. Alternatively, PCR tailing for high-throughput gene disruption was also developed in S. acidocaldarius, but repeated gene knockout based on PCR tailing has been limited due to lack of a genetic marker system. In this study, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination frequency (2.8 × 104 ± 6.9 × 103 colonies/μg DNA by optimizing the transformation conditions. This optimized protocol allowed to develop reliable gene knockout via double crossover using short homologous arms and to establish the multiple gene knockout system with one-step PCR (MONSTER. In the MONSTER, a multiple gene knockout cassette was simply and rapidly constructed by one-step PCR without plasmid construction, and the PCR product can be immediately used for target gene deletion. As an example of the applications of this strategy, we successfully made a DNA photolyase- (phr- and arginine decarboxylase- (argD- deficient strain of S. acidocaldarius. In addition, an agmatine selection system consisting of an agmatine-auxotrophic strain and argD marker was also established. The MONSTER provides an alternative strategy that enables the very simple construction of multiple gene knockout cassettes for genetic studies in S. acidocaldarius.

  12. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos

    2000-01-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  13. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation; Sistema de equacoes P1 adjuntas para a moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  14. Conjugation of nitrated acetaminophen to Der p1 amplifies peripheral blood monocyte response to Der p1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Thomas

    Full Text Available An association of acetaminophen use and asthma was observed in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study. However there are no clear mechanisms to explain an association between acetaminophen use and immunologic pathology. In acidic conditions like those in the stomach and inflamed airway, tyrosine residues are nitrated by nitrous and peroxynitrous acids. The resulting nitrotyrosine is structurally similar to 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, known haptens that enhance immune responses by covalently binding proteins. Nitrated acetaminophen shares similar molecular structure.We hypothesized the acetaminophen phenol ring undergoes nitration under acidic conditions, producing 3-nitro-acetaminophen which augments allergic responses by acting as a hapten for environmental allergens.3-nitro-acetaminophen was formed from acetaminophen in the presence of acidified nitrite, purified by high performance liquid chromatography, and assayed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Purified 3-nitro-acetaminophen was reacted with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1 and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify the modification site. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation response was measured in response to 3-nitro-acetaminophen and to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1.Acetaminophen was modified by nitrous acid forming 3-nitro-acetaminophen over a range of different acidic conditions consistent with airway inflammation and stomach acidity. The Der p1 protein-hapten adduct creation was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry proteomics modifying cysteine 132. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1 had increased proliferation and cytokine production compared to acetaminophen and Der p1 alone (n = 7; p < 0.05.These data suggests 3-nitro-acetaminophen formation and reaction with Der p1 provides a mechanism by which stomach acid or infection

  15. Adjoint P1 equations solution for neutron slowing down; Solucao das equacoes P1 adjuntas para moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. The direct and adjoint neutron fluxes resulting from the solution of P{sub 1} equations were used to three different weighting processes, to obtain the macrogroup macroscopic cross sections. It was found out noticeable differences among them. (author)

  16. Observation of the 1P1 state of charmonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.A.; Bettoni, D.; Bharadwaj, V.; Biino, C.; Borreani, G.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Ceccucci, A.; Cester, R.; Church, M.; Dalpiaz, P.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Dibenedetto, R.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Fabbri, M.G.; Fast, J.; Gianoli, A.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Gollwitzer, K.; Hahn, A.; Hasan, M.; Hsueh, S.; Lewis, R.; Luppi, E.; Macri, M.; Majewska, A.M.; Mandelkern, M.; Marchetto, F.; Marinelli, M.; Marques, J.; Marsh, W.; Martini, M.; Masuzawa, M.; Menichetti, E.; Migliori, A.; Mussa, R.; Palestini, S.; Pallavicini, M.; Pastrone, N.; Patrignani, C.; Peoples, J. Jr.; Pesando, L.; Petrucci, F.; Pia, M.G.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.; Ray, R.; Reid, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Roccuzzo, B.; Rosen, J.; Santroni, A.; Sarmiento, M.; Savrie, M.; Scalisi, A.; Schultz, J.; Seth, K.K.; Smith, A.; Smith, G.A.; Sozzi, M.; Trokenheim, S.; Weber, M.F.; Werkema, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zioulas, G.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed a search for the 1 P 1 state of charmonium resonantly formed in bar pp annihilations, close to the center of gravity of the 3 P J states. We report results from the study of the J/ψ+π 0 and J/ψ+2π final states. We have observed a statistically significant enhancement in the bar p+p→J/ψ+π 0 cross section at √s congruent 3526.2 MeV. This enhancement has the characteristics of a narrow resonance of mass, total width, and production cross section consistent with what is expected for the 1 P 1 state. In our search we have found no candidates for the reactions bar p+p→J/ψ+π 0 +π 0 and bar p+p→J/ψ+π + +π -

  17. The P1approximation in the transport of beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Idoeta, R.; Herranz, M.

    1994-01-01

    A validation test for the p1 approximation to the linear transport of electrons in planar geometry has been performed. The p1 approximation is shown to be a good option for the description of the transport of beta rays with endpoint energies between 400kev and 3.5Mev through aluminium foils . This approximation together with the use of only elastic interactions of electrons with atoms has found good agreement with experimental results . A calculation has been made of the fraction of transmitted electrons through foils, solving the transport equation for planar geometry in the p1 approximation and assuming that only elastic scattering processes take place. The boundary condition at the entrance of the foil was a collimated beta source, while at the end of the foil has been adopted a vaccum boundary condition.Sources considered are those for which experimental and calculated spectrum shapes are known to agree. The calculated fractional transmission through different absorber thicknesses is found to have an exponential shape . Besides this fact the attenuation coefficients found ,when compared with those empirically obtained, agree to within 5%. 1 fig.; 4 refs. (author)

  18. Plasmid P1 replication: negative control by repeated DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattoraj, D; Cordes, K; Abeles, A

    1984-01-01

    The incompatibility locus, incA, of the unit-copy plasmid P1 is contained within a fragment that is essentially a set of nine 19-base-pair repeats. One or more copies of the fragment destabilizes the plasmid when present in trans. Here we show that extra copies of incA interfere with plasmid DNA replication and that a deletion of most of incA increases plasmid copy number. Thus, incA is not essential for replication but is required for its control. When cloned in a high-copy-number vector, pi...

  19. Study of TiO2(1 1 0)-p(1x1), p(1x2) and p(1x3) surface structures by impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, E.; Souda, R.

    2000-01-01

    The surface structure of TiO 2 (1 1 0)-p(1x1), p(1x2) and p(1x3) were studied using impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS). We found that (i) the height of bridging oxygen for the p(1x1) is comparative to that of bulk structure, (ii) the p(1x2) surface has the added Ti 2 O 3 unit rows proposed by Onishi et al. and also the oxygen atoms rows between Ti 2 O 3 unit rows and (iii) the p(1x3) surface is constructed with the same added Ti 2 O 3 unit rows as that in the p(1x2) surface, but the bridging oxygen rows exist between the Ti 2 O 3 unit rows

  20. S-Nitrosation destabilizes glutathione transferase P1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchin, David; Stoychev, Stoyan H; Dirr, Heini W

    2013-12-23

    Protein S-nitrosation is a post-translational modification that regulates the function of more than 500 human proteins. Despite its apparent physiological significance, S-nitrosation is poorly understood at a molecular level. Here, we investigated the effect of S-nitrosation on the activity, structure, stability, and dynamics of human glutathione transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1), an important detoxification enzyme ubiquitous in aerobes. S-Nitrosation at Cys47 and Cys101 reduces the activity of the enzyme by 94%. Circular dichroism spectroscopy, acrylamide quenching, and amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry experiments indicate that the loss of activity is caused by the introduction of local disorder at the active site of GSTP1-1. Furthermore, the modification destabilizes domain 1 of GSTP1-1 against denaturation, smoothing the unfolding energy landscape of the protein and introducing a refolding defect. In contrast, S-nitrosation at Cys101 alone introduces a refolding defect in domain 1 but compensates by stabilizing the domain kinetically. These data elucidate the physical basis for the regulation of GSTP1-1 by S-nitrosation and provide general insight into the consequences of S-nitrosation on protein stability and dynamics.

  1. pTC Plasmids from Sulfolobus Species in the Geothermal Area of Tengchong, China: Genomic Conservation and Naturally-Occurring Variations as a Result of Transposition by Mobile Genetic Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Xiaoxing; Wang, Haina; Huang, Li

    2015-02-12

    Plasmids occur frequently in Archaea. A novel plasmid (denoted pTC1) containing typical conjugation functions has been isolated from Sulfolobus tengchongensis RT8-4, a strain obtained from a hot spring in Tengchong, China, and characterized. The plasmid is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 20,417 bp. Among a total of 26 predicted pTC1 ORFs, 23 have homologues in other known Sulfolobus conjugative plasmids (CPs). pTC1 resembles other Sulfolobus CPs in genome architecture, and is most highly conserved in the genomic region encoding conjugation functions. However, attempts to demonstrate experimentally the capacity of the plasmid for conjugational transfer were unsuccessful. A survey revealed that pTC1 and its closely related plasmid variants were widespread in the geothermal area of Tengchong. Variations of the plasmids at the target sites for transposition by an insertion sequence (IS) and a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) were readily detected. The IS was efficiently inserted into the pTC1 genome, and the inserted sequence was inactivated and degraded more frequently in an imprecise manner than in a precise manner. These results suggest that the host organism has evolved a strategy to maintain a balance between the insertion and elimination of mobile genetic elements to permit genomic plasticity while inhibiting their fast spreading.

  2. pTC Plasmids from Sulfolobus Species in the Geothermal Area of Tengchong, China: Genomic Conservation and Naturally-Occurring Variations as a Result of Transposition by Mobile Genetic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids occur frequently in Archaea. A novel plasmid (denoted pTC1 containing typical conjugation functions has been isolated from Sulfolobus tengchongensis RT8-4, a strain obtained from a hot spring in Tengchong, China, and characterized. The plasmid is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 20,417 bp. Among a total of 26 predicted pTC1 ORFs, 23 have homologues in other known Sulfolobus conjugative plasmids (CPs. pTC1 resembles other Sulfolobus CPs in genome architecture, and is most highly conserved in the genomic region encoding conjugation functions. However, attempts to demonstrate experimentally the capacity of the plasmid for conjugational transfer were unsuccessful. A survey revealed that pTC1 and its closely related plasmid variants were widespread in the geothermal area of Tengchong. Variations of the plasmids at the target sites for transposition by an insertion sequence (IS and a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE were readily detected. The IS was efficiently inserted into the pTC1 genome, and the inserted sequence was inactivated and degraded more frequently in an imprecise manner than in a precise manner. These results suggest that the host organism has evolved a strategy to maintain a balance between the insertion and elimination of mobile genetic elements to permit genomic plasticity while inhibiting their fast spreading.

  3. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P1 receptor by a novel competitive S1P1-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of a newly developed S1P 1 -selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. ► S1P 1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. ► S1P 1 -selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► S1P 1 -selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► The efficacy of S1P 1 -selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P 1 ) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P 1 and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P 1 -selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P 1 antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P 1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  4. General misincorporation frequency: Re-evaluation of the fidelity of DNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Bianbian; Liu, Xiaoying; Tang, Hong; Zhuang, Xiyao; Yang, Mingqi; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Huidong; Yang, Chun

    2018-02-19

    DNA replication in cells is performed in the presence of four dNTPs and four rNTPs. In this study, we re-evaluated the fidelity of DNA polymerases using the general misincorporation frequency consisting of three incorrect dNTPs and four rNTPs but not using the traditional special misincorporation frequency with only the three incorrect dNTPs. We analyzed both the general and special misincorporation frequencies of nucleotide incorporation opposite dG, rG, or 8-oxoG by Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage 1 (PaP1) DNA polymerase Gp90 or Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4. Both misincorporation frequencies of other DNA polymerases published were also summarized and analyzed. The general misincorporation frequency is obviously higher than the special misincorporation frequency for many DNA polymerases, indicating the real fidelity of a DNA polymerase should be evaluated using the general misincorporation frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The S-Layer Glycoprotein of the Crenarchaeote Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Is Glycosylated at Multiple Sites with Chitobiose-Linked N-Glycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Peyfoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of the S-layer of the crenarchaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius has been investigated using glycoproteomic methodologies. The mature protein is predicted to contain 31 N-glycosylation consensus sites with approximately one third being found in the C-terminal domain spanning residues L1004-Q1395. Since this domain is rich in Lys and Arg and therefore relatively tractable to glycoproteomic analysis, this study has focused on mapping its N-glycosylation. Our analysis identified nine of the 11 consensus sequence sites, and all were found to be glycosylated. This constitutes a remarkably high glycosylation density in the C-terminal domain averaging one site for each stretch of 30–40 residues. Each of the glycosylation sites observed was shown to be modified with a heterogeneous family of glycans, with the largest having a composition Glc1Man2GlcNAc2 plus 6-sulfoquinovose (QuiS, consistent with the tribranched hexasaccharide previously reported in the cytochrome b558/566 of S. acidocaldarius. S. acidocaldarius is the only archaeal species whose N-glycans are known to be linked via the chitobiose core disaccharide that characterises the N-linked glycans of Eukarya.

  6. Computer program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-0 and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, G.; Gibson, G.

    1968-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-O and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas. The equations used are based on the conditions that there is isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass coordinate system, the scattering cross section is constant, and the target nuclear velocities satisfy a Maxwellian distribution.

  7. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States); Smith, Adam N. [University of Florida, Department of Chemistry, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (United States); Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine, E-mail: jbrady@dental.ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry (United States); Long, Joanna R., E-mail: jrlong@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  8. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N.; Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Long, Joanna R.

    2016-01-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin

  9. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N; Crowley, Paula J; Brady, L Jeannine; Long, Joanna R

    2016-02-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ~57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  10. The calculation of oscillator strengths for the 5s21S0→5s5p1,3P1 transitions in Cd-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangyuan

    1998-01-01

    The screened hydrogenic model is employed to calculate the oscillator strength of the 5s 2 1 S 0 -5s5p 1 P 1 resonance transition in Cd-like ions (Z = 48 -74). The expression for the oscillator strength of the 5s 2 1 S 0 -5s5p 3 P1 is given, with the introduction of the correctional coefficient K and the mixing angle in jj-coupling. The results are compared with that of other authors, and some discussions are also given

  11. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuejiao; Wen, Libin; Sheng, Shaoyang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Qi; Qu, Meng; Hu, Yiyi; Liu, Chuanmin; He, Kongwang

    2018-01-01

    Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro . Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro , elucidated the mechanism of P1's inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  12. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro. Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro, elucidated the mechanism of P1’s inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  13. Identification of the missing links in prokaryotic pentose oxidation pathways: evidence for enzyme recruitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, S.J.J.; Walther, J.; Snijders, A.P.; Werken, van de H.J.G.; Willemen, H.L.D.M.; Worm, P.; Vos, de M.G.; Andersson, A.; Lundgren, M.; Mazon, H.F.; Heuvel, van den R.H.H.; Nilsson, P.; Salmon, L.; Vos, de W.M.; Wright, P.C.; Bernander, R.; Oost, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    The pentose metabolism of Archaea is largely unknown. Here, we have employed an integrated genomics approach including DNA microarray and proteomics analyses to elucidate the catabolic pathway for D-arabinose in Sulfolobus solfataricus. During growth on this sugar, a small set of genes appeared to

  14. Differential antibiotic sensitivity determined by the large ribosomal subunit in thermophilic archaea.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggero, D; Londei, P

    1996-01-01

    Hybrid ribosomes obtained by mixing the ribosomal subunits of the extremely thermophilic archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus and Desulfurococcus mobilis were tested for their sensitivity to selected antibiotics. It is shown that structural differences in the large ribosomal subunits determine qualitatively and quantitatively the patterns of response to alpha-sarcin and paromomycin in these species.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an archaeal ABC-ATPase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdon, Grégory; Albers, Sonja-V.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus glucose uptake is mediated by an ABC transport system. The ABC-ATPase of this transporter (GlcV) has been overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of GlcV suitable for data collection were obtained in the absence of nucleotide by microseeding

  16. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640?bp and five plasmids of 64,864?bp, 59,879?bp, 42,569?bp, 41,417?bp, and 29,506?bp.

  18. Interaction between the P1 protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and receptors on HEp-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Mette; Christiansen, Gunna; Drasbek, Kim Ryun

    2007-01-01

    The human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause atypical pneumonia through adherence to epithelial cells in the respiratory tract. The major immunogenic protein, P1, participates in the attachment of the bacteria to the host cells. To investigate the adhesion properties of P1, a recombinant...... protein (rP1-II) covering amino acids 1107-1518 of the P1 protein was produced. This protein inhibited the adhesion of M. pneumoniae to human HEp-2 cells, as visualized in a competitive-binding assay using immunofluorescence microscopy. Previous studies have shown that mAbs that recognize two epitopes...... overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole of rP1-II were evaluated in the competitive-binding assay using immunofluorescence microscopy. A reduction in the number of M. pneumoniae microcolonies was seen, which was confirmed for five peptides using a POLARstar OPTIMA reader to measure fluorescence...

  19. Pathophysiological Consequences of a Break in S1P1-Dependent Homeostasis of Vascular Permeability Revealed by S1P1 Competitive Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigaud, Marc; Dincer, Zuhal; Bollbuck, Birgit; Dawson, Janet; Beckmann, Nicolau; Beerli, Christian; Fishli-Cavelti, Gina; Nahler, Michaela; Angst, Daniela; Janser, Philipp; Otto, Heike; Rosner, Elisabeth; Hersperger, Rene; Bruns, Christian; Quancard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing. However, it induced dose-dependent acute vascular pulmonary leakage and pleural effusion that fully resolved within 3-4 days, as evidenced by MRI monitoring. At the supra-maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg QD, NIBR-0213 impaired lung function (with increased breathing rate and reduced tidal volume) within the first 24 hrs. Two weeks of NIBR-0213 oral dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg QD induced moderate pulmonary changes, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, macrophage accumulation, fibrosis, micro-hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. In addition to this picture of chronic inflammation, perivascular edema and myofiber degeneration observed in the heart were also indicative of vascular leakage and its consequences. Overall, these observations suggest that, in the rat, the lung is the main target organ for the S1P1 competitive antagonism-induced acute vascular leakage, which appears first as transient and asymptomatic but could lead, upon chronic dosing, to lung remodeling with functional impairments. Hence, this not only raises the question of organ specificity in the homeostasis of vascular barriers, but also provides insight into the pre-clinical evaluation of a potential safety window for S1P1 competitive antagonists as drug candidates.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  1. Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0 - 4p1P1 x-ray laser line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Nilsen, J.; Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Ryabtsev, A.; Churilov, S.

    1998-01-01

    We measure the wavelengths of the Ni-like 3d 9 4d 1 S 0 - 3d 9 4p 1 P 1 x-ray laser line in several low-Z Ni-like ions ranging from Y (Z=39) to Cd (Z=48). These wavelengths are compared with optimized level calculations using a multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock code. With the help of these results, we identify this line to very high accuracy in nonlasing plasmas from As (Z=33) to Mo (Z=42). Accurate values of these wavelengths are essential for performing plasma imaging and interferometry experiments with multilayer optics that use the x-ray laser to backlight other plasmas. These results also provide important atomic data that are currently missing about the energy of the 4d 1 S 0 level in the NiI sequence. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  2. Alignment creation in atomic ensembles by elastic electron scattering; the case of 138Ba(...6s6p 1P1) atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.; LeClair, L.R.; Khakoo, M.A.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D.; Csanak, G.

    1998-01-01

    We describe some of our results from a joint experimental and theoretical program concerning elastic electron scattering by 138 Ba(...6s6p 1 P 1 ) atoms. From the experimental results, we derived various scattering parameters and magnetic sublevel specific differential elastic scattering cross sections at impact energy (E 0 ) of 20.0 eV and at scattering angles (θ) of 10deg, 15deg, and 20deg. The same parameters and cross sections were calculated by the convergent close coupling (CCC) approximation and compared to the experimental results. An excellent agreement, found for the two sets of data, gave us confidence in the CCC method and allowed us to extend the angular and energy ranges for the purpose of generating integral elastic scattering cross sections needed for the deduction of the alignment creation cross sections. (J.P.N.)

  3. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos

    2000-01-01

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  4. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of the bacteriophage P1 single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Nilsson, A.S.; Lehnherr, H.

    2002-01-01

    and does not represent a recent acquirement of the phage. The P1 and E. coli SSB proteins are fully functionally interchangeable. SSB-P1 is nonessential for phage growth in an exponentially growing E. coli host, and it is sufficient to promote bacterial growth in the absence of the E. coli SSB protein....... Expression studies showed that the P1 ssb gene is transcribed only, in an rpoS-independent fashion, during stationary-phase growth in E. coli. Mixed infection experiments demonstrated that a wild-type phage has a selective advantage over an ssb-null mutant when exposed to a bacterial host in the stationary...

  5. Continuous wave protocol for simultaneous polarization and optical detection of P1-center electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.

  6. Suppression of Zeeman relaxation in cold collisions of 2P1/2 atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherbul, T. V.; Dalgarno, A.; Buchachenko, A. A.; Lu, M.-J.; Weinstein, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of angular momentum depolarization in cold collisions of 2 P atoms in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that collision-induced Zeeman relaxation of Ga( 2 P 1/2 ) and In( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms in cold 4 He gas is dramatically suppressed compared to atoms in 2 P 3/2 states. Using rigorous quantum-scattering calculations based on ab initio interaction potentials, we demonstrate that Zeeman transitions in collisions of atoms in 2 P 1/2 electronic states occur via couplings to the 2 P 3/2 state induced by the anisotropy of the interaction potential. Our results suggest the feasibility of sympathetic cooling and magnetic trapping of 2 P 1/2 -state atoms, such as halogens, thereby opening up exciting areas of research in precision spectroscopy and cold-controlled chemistry.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-06-16

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. Copyright © 2016 Morohoshi and Ikeda.

  8. Truncation of a P1 leader proteinase facilitates potyvirus replication in a non-permissive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongying; Pasin, Fabio; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; García, Juan Antonio; Rodamilans, Bernardo

    2017-11-08

    The Potyviridae family is a major group of plant viruses that includes c. 200 species, most of which have narrow host ranges. The potyvirid P1 leader proteinase self-cleaves from the remainder of the viral polyprotein and shows large sequence variability linked to host adaptation. P1 proteins can be classified as Type A or Type B on the basis, amongst other things, of their dependence or not on a host factor to develop their protease activity. In this work, we studied Type A proteases from the Potyviridae family, characterizing their host factor requirements. Our in vitro cleavage analyses of potyvirid P1 proteases showed that the N-terminal domain is relevant for host factor interaction and suggested that the C-terminal domain is also involved. In the absence of plant factors, the N-terminal end of Plum pox virus P1 antagonizes protease self-processing. We performed extended deletion mutagenesis analysis to define the N-terminal antagonistic domain of P1. In viral infections, removal of the P1 protease antagonistic domain led to a gain-of-function phenotype, strongly increasing local infection in a non-permissive host. Altogether, our results shed new insights into the adaptation and evolution of potyvirids. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. Potential relationships between morphological differentiation and mutants with high nuclease P1 production of Penicillium citrinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinle, Liang; Qian, Shou; Hong, Zhang; Min, Chen [Department of Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Xuan, Liu [Beihai Institute of Environmental Science, Beihai, Guangxi (China)

    2009-08-15

    Diversification of colony characteristics of mutants derived from Penicillium citrinum CICC 4011 treated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiation and protoplast fusion were analyzed. There were distinct differences among mutants with different nuclease P1 activity, especially in pigment productivity. Color of colony was changed from the original green to white, grey-green, or yellow-green etc., while the nuclease P1 activity would be fluctuated with the color change. The hypothesis was suggested that there would be a relationship between pigments and nuclease P1 production. Mutants with grey-green colony would give out high nuclease P1 outputs in a high probability such as mutant J1Y6 (nuclease P1 activity, 167.3U/ml) and fusant F-13 (nuclease P1 activity, 568.7U/ml), while others with deep-green colony observed low nuclease outputs. Four variation strains didn't show any significant difference in growth rate. Broom branches of conidiophore stem in J1Y6 and F-13 were obviously reduced, conidiophores productivity reduced, but hyphae growth haled. These suggested that nuclease P1 production was associated with growth phase, but pigment synthesis course wasn't. RAPD from 6 randomly selected primers was used to analyze the polymorphic rich of the four strains, the results showed that there were 70 percent polymorphism detection rate among those. UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic map constructed by NTSYS-PC software, which showed that J1Y6 and F-14 were clustered as one group at similar coefficient 0.9, where there was an appear distance from the group of 4011 and F-R-33 strains (similar coefficient 0.8). (authors)

  10. Potential relationships between morphological differentiation and mutants with high nuclease P1 production of Penicillium citrinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xinle; Shou Qian; Zhang Hong; Chen Min; Liu Xuan

    2009-01-01

    Diversification of colony characteristics of mutants derived from Penicillium citrinum CICC 4011 treated with 60 Co γ-irradiation and protoplast fusion were analyzed. There were distinct differences among mutants with different nuclease P1 activity, especially in pigment productivity. Color of colony was changed from the original green to white, grey-green, or yellow-green etc., while the nuclease P1 activity would be fluctuated with the color change. The hypothesis was suggested that there would be a relationship between pigments and nuclease P1 production. Mutants with grey-green colony would give out high nuclease P1 outputs in a high probability such as mutant J1Y6( nuclease P1 activity, 167.3U/ml) and fusant F-13 (nuclease P1 activity, 568.7U/ml), while others with deep-green colony observed low nuclease outputs. Four variation strains didn't show any significant difference in growth rate. Broom branches of conidiophore stem in J1Y6 and F-13 were obviously reduced, conidiophores productivity reduced, but hyphae growth haled. These suggested that nuclease P1 production was associated with growth phase, but pigment synthesis course wasn't. RAPD from 6 randomly selected primers was used to analyze the polymorphic rich of the four strains, the results showed that there were 70 percent polymorphism detection rate among those. UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic map constructed by NTSYS-PC software, which showed that J1Y6 and F-14 were clustered as one group at similar coefficient 0.9, where there was an appear distance from the group of 4011 and F-R-33 strains (similar coefficient 0.8). (authors)

  11. Only Acyl Carrier Protein 1 (AcpP1 Functions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Cheng Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains three open reading frames, PA2966, PA1869, and PA3334, which encode putative acyl carrier proteins, AcpP1, AcpP2, and AcpP3, respectively. In this study, we found that, although these apo-ACPs were successfully phosphopantetheinylated by P. aeruginosa phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PcpS and all holo-forms of these proteins could be acylated by Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS, only AcpP1 could be used as a substrate for the synthesis of fatty acids, catalyzed by P. aeruginosa cell free extracts in vitro, and only acpP1 gene could restore growth in the Escherichia coliacpP mutant strain CY1877. And P. aeruginosaacpP1 could not be deleted, while disruption of acpP2 or acpP3 in the P. aeruginosa genome allowed mutant strains to grow as well as the wild type strain. These findings confirmed that only P. aeruginosa AcpP1 functions in fatty acid biosynthesis, and that acpP2 and acpP3 do not play roles in the fatty acid synthetic pathway. Moreover, disruption of acpP2 and acpP3 did not affect the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL, but replacement of P. aeruginosaacpP1 with E. coliacpP caused P. aeruginosa to reduce the production of AHL molecules, which indicated that neither P. aeruginosa AcpP2 nor AcpP3 can act as a substrate for synthesis of AHL molecules in vivo. Furthermore, replacement of acpP1 with E. coliacpP reduced the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce some exo-products and abolished swarming motility in P. aeruginosa.

  12. P1 interneurons promote a persistent internal state that enhances inter-male aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopfer, Eric D; Jung, Yonil; Inagaki, Hidehiko K; Rubin, Gerald M; Anderson, David J

    2015-01-01

    How brains are hardwired to produce aggressive behavior, and how aggression circuits are related to those that mediate courtship, is not well understood. A large-scale screen for aggression-promoting neurons in Drosophila identified several independent hits that enhanced both inter-male aggression and courtship. Genetic intersections revealed that 8-10 P1 interneurons, previously thought to exclusively control male courtship, were sufficient to promote fighting. Optogenetic experiments indicated that P1 activation could promote aggression at a threshold below that required for wing extension. P1 activation in the absence of wing extension triggered persistent aggression via an internal state that could endure for minutes. High-frequency P1 activation promoted wing extension and suppressed aggression during photostimulation, whereas aggression resumed and wing extension was inhibited following photostimulation offset. Thus, P1 neuron activation promotes a latent, internal state that facilitates aggression and courtship, and controls the overt expression of these social behaviors in a threshold-dependent, inverse manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11346.001 PMID:26714106

  13. House dust mite allergen Der p 1 effects on sinonasal epithelial tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A; Den Beste, Kyle; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, which are cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen vs control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of TJPs was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1-exposed cultured sinonasal cells vs controls. Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  14. House Dust Mite Der p 1 Effects on Sinonasal Epithelial Tight Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A.; Beste, Kyle Den; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Methods Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen versus control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of tight junction proteins was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Results Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1 exposed cultured sinonasal cells versus controls. Conclusion Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. PMID:23592402

  15. P1 and N170 components distinguish human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuwei; Luo, Wenbo; He, Weiqi; Chen, Xu; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-06-19

    This study used event-related potentials to investigate the sensitivity of P1 and N170 components to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli, which were derived from pictures of Peking opera characters. As predicted, human-like makeup stimuli elicited larger P1 and N170 amplitudes than did animal-like makeup stimuli. Interestingly, a right hemisphere advantage was observed for human-like but not for animal-like makeup stimuli. Dipole source analyses of 130-200-ms window showed that the bilateral fusiform face area may contribute to the differential sensitivity of the N170 component in response to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli. The present study suggests that the amplitudes of both the P1 and the N170 are sensitive for the mouth component of face-like stimuli.

  16. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos

    2000-01-01

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  17. Nature of the fundamental band gap in GaNxP1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K. M.; Wu, J.; Ager, J. W. III; Haller, E. E.; Xin, H. P.; Tu, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    The optical properties of GaN x P 1-x alloys (0.007≤x≤0.031) grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy have been studied. An absorption edge appears in GaN x P 1-x at energy below the indirect Γ V -X C transition in GaP, and the absorption edge shifts to lower energy with increasing N concentration. Strong photomodulation signals associated with the absorption edges in GaN x P 1-x indicate that a direct fundamental optical transition is taking place, revealing that the fundamental band gap has changed from indirect to direct. This N-induced transformation from indirect to direct band gap is explained in terms of an interaction between the highly localized nitrogen states and the extended states at the Γ conduction-band minimum. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE RECYCLER RING TO P1 LINE AT FERMILAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, M. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Adams, P. [Fermilab; Morris, D. [Fermilab; Yang, M. J. [Fermilab; Hazewood, K. [Fermilab

    2016-10-03

    The transfer line for beam extraction from the Recycler ring to P1 line provides a way to deliver 8 GeV kinetic energy protons from the Booster to the Delivery ring, via the Recycler, using existing beam transport lines, and without the need for new civil construction. It was designed in 2012. The kicker magnets at RR520 and the lambertson magnet at RR522 in the RR were installed in 2014 Summer Shutdown, the elements of RR to P1 Stub (permanent quads, trim quads, correctors, BPMs, the toroid at 703 and vertical bending dipole at V703 (ADCW) were installed in 2015 Summer Shutdown. On Tuesday, June 21, 2016, beam line from the Recycler Ring to P1 line was commissioned. The detailed results will be presented in this report.

  19. Fourier analysis of a new P1 synthetic acceleration for Sn transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcksin, B.; Ragusa, J. C.

    2010-10-01

    In this work, is derived a new P1 synthetic acceleration scheme (P1SA) for the S N transport equation and analyze its convergence properties through the means of a Fourier analysis. The Fourier analysis is carried out for both continuous (i.e., not spatially discretized) S N equations and linear discontinuous Fem discretization. We show, thanks to the continuous analysis, that the scheme is unstable when the anisotropy is important (μ - >0.5). However, the discrete analysis shows that when cells are large in comparison to the mean free path, the spectral radius decreases and the acceleration scheme becomes effective, even for highly anisotropic scattering. In charged particles transport, scattering is highly anisotropic and mean free paths are very small and, thus, this scheme could be of interest. To use the P1SA when cells are small and anisotropy is important, the scheme is modified by altering the update of the accelerated flux or by using either K transport sweeps before the application of P1SA. The update scheme performs well as long as μ - - ≥0.9, the modified update scheme is unstable. The multiple transport sweeps scheme is convergent with an arbitrary μ - but the spectral radius increases when scattering is isotropic. When anisotropic increases, the frequency of use of the acceleration scheme needs to be decreased. Even if the P1SA is used less often, the spectral radius is significantly smaller when compared with a method that does not use it for high anisotropy (μ - ≥0.5). It is interesting to notice that using P1SA every two iterations gives the same spectral radius than the update method when μ - ≥0.5 but it is much less efficient when μ - <0.5. (Author)

  20. Oceanographic Observations North Pacific Ocean Station VICTOR Standard Section P1 Terminal Report 1964-1972,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    temperature (*C) for occupation of P1-15, USCG4C MINNETONKA, 27-30 March 1971. 31 34. 8 STATION 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 * ~󈧦 7: 400 3: 27001 3a...Profile of sigma-t (g cm-2 ) for occupation of P1-16, USCGC TANEY, 16-21 April 1971. 36 142*W 144’ 146* 1480 ISO * 152’ 154* 1560 158’ 1600 162’ 164

  1. Tracking the potyviral P1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Glasa, M; Šubr, Z W

    The P1 protein is derived from the N terminus of potyvirus-coded polyprotein. In addition to the proteolytic activity essential for its maturation, it probably participates in suppression of host defense and/or in virus replication. Clear validation of the P1 in vivo function(s), however, is not yet available. We applied an infectious cDNA clone of plum pox virus (PPV), where the P1 was N-fused with a hexahistidine tag, to trace this protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during the PPV infection. Immunoblot analysis with the anti-his antibody showed a diffuse band corresponding to the molecular weight about 70-80 kDa (about twice larger than expected) in the root samples from early stage of infection. This signal culminated on the sixth day post inoculation, later it rapidly disappeared. Sample denaturation by boiling in SDS before centrifugal clarification was essential, indicating strong affinity of P1-his to some plant compound sedimenting with the tissue and cell debris.

  2. Genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates reveals eight P1 subtypes within two genomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; Dankert, J.; Zaat, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Three methods for genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates were applied to 2 reference strains and 21 clinical isolates. By a modified restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR products of the M. pneumoniae cytadhesin P1 gene, 5 subtypes were discriminated among 13

  3. Hilbert scheme of points on cyclic quotient singularities of type (p,1)

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    In this note we investigate the generating series of the Euler characteristics of Hilbert scheme of points on cyclic quotient singularities of type (p,1). We link the appearing combinatorics to p-fountains, a generalization of the notion of fountain of coins. We obtain a representation of the generating series as coefficient of a two variable generating series.

  4. Hydrothermal conversion of South African coal fly ash into pure phase Zeolite Na-P1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gitari, MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South African coal combustion power utilities generate huge amounts of coal fly ash that can be beneficiated into zeolitic products. This chapter reports on the optimization of the presynthesis and synthesis conditions for a pure-phase zeolite Na-P1...

  5. Choline Modulation of the Aβ P1-40 Channel Reconstituted into a Model Lipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meleleo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs, implicated in memory and learning, in subjects affected by Alzheimer's disease result altered. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs inhibits amyloid plaques and increases ACh release. β-amyloid peptide (AβP forms ion channels in the cell and model phospholipid membranes that are retained responsible in Alzheimer disease. We tested if choline, precursor of ACh, could affect the AβP1-40 channels in oxidized cholesterol (OxCh and in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC:Ch lipid bilayers. Choline concentrations of 5 × 10−11 M–1.5 × 10−8 M added to the cis- or trans-side of membrane quickly increased AβP1-40 ion channel frequency (events/min and ion conductance in OxCh membranes, but not in POPC:Ch membranes. Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows that after 24 and 48 hours of incubation with AβP1-40, choline stabilizes the random coil conformation of the peptide, making it less prone to fibrillate. These actions seem to be specific in that ACh is ineffective either in solution or on AβP1-40 channel incorporated into PLMs.

  6. Radiative E1-decay of charmonium 1P1 level within sum rules of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of radiative decay of 1 P 1 → 1 S 0 + γ charmonium within sum rules of quantum chromodynamics was conducted. The sum rule, taking account of gluon exponential correction, was obtained, and width of Χ → η c + γ decay was calculated

  7. Airborne study of grass allergen (Lol p 1) in different-sized particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Linares, C; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Nieto Lugilde, D; Alba, F

    2010-01-01

    The Poaceae family is considered one of the main causes of pollen allergy in industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to establish the dynamics of the Poaceae allergens and determine their distribution in the different-sized particles in the atmosphere. The air of Granada (southern Spain) was sampled during the pollination period of Poaceae using a cascade impactor and a Hirst-type volumetric collector simultaneously. The sampled airborne allergens were analyzed by indirect ELISA and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Airborne pollen was evaluated with the Spanish Aerobiological Network methodology. Poaceae pollen and allergenic activity have parallel dynamics during the period of maximum pollination, which is reflected in the positive correlations between the 2 variables. In addition, the highest Lol p 1 concentrations were recorded in particle sizes lower than 3.3 mum (stage 4-F). The Spearman correlation test showed that airborne allergens are not dependent on meteorological factors, such as humidity, wind direction or sunshine, however, Lol p 1 allergen correlated positively with Poaceae pollen. The results of the present study confirm that the Lol p 1 allergen is detected more frequently with pollutants than with coarse particles with similar dynamics and a positive correlation between airborne pollen and aeroallergens. Moreover, Lol p 1 is released in stable weather conditions without large changes in humidity or temperature. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. LMFBR transducer performance in SLSF tests P1 and P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, J.J.; Anderson, T.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wilson, R.E.; Pedersen, D.R.; Kaiser, W.C.; Klingler, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability and problem areas of sodium-immersed thermocouples, pressure transducers and flowmeters are presented for experiments P1 and P2 of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF). The SLSF is a doubly-contained sodium loop situated in a core position of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  9. Heterogeneity of Human Neutrophil CD177 Expression Results from CD177P1 Pseudogene Conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuopeng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most humans harbor both CD177neg and CD177pos neutrophils but 1-10% of people are CD177null, placing them at risk for formation of anti-neutrophil antibodies that can cause transfusion-related acute lung injury and neonatal alloimmune neutropenia. By deep sequencing the CD177 locus, we catalogued CD177 single nucleotide variants and identified a novel stop codon in CD177null individuals arising from a single base substitution in exon 7. This is not a mutation in CD177 itself, rather the CD177null phenotype arises when exon 7 of CD177 is supplied entirely by the CD177 pseudogene (CD177P1, which appears to have resulted from allelic gene conversion. In CD177 expressing individuals the CD177 locus contains both CD177P1 and CD177 sequences. The proportion of CD177hi neutrophils in the blood is a heritable trait. Abundance of CD177hi neutrophils correlates with homozygosity for CD177 reference allele, while heterozygosity for ectopic CD177P1 gene conversion correlates with increased CD177neg neutrophils, in which both CD177P1 partially incorporated allele and paired intact CD177 allele are transcribed. Human neutrophil heterogeneity for CD177 expression arises by ectopic allelic conversion. Resolution of the genetic basis of CD177null phenotype identifies a method for screening for individuals at risk of CD177 isoimmunisation.

  10. 1P1 heavy quarkonia production in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanakyan, R.A.; Dul'yan, L.S.; Grigoryan, S.G.; Matinyan, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The production of 1 P 1 -quarkonia (charmonium, bottomonium and toponium) with large transverse momenta is studied in collisions of ultrahigh-energy pp and pp-bar beams. The analysis was carried out in the framework of gluon-gluon fusion mechanism and nonrelativistic quarkonium model

  11. Analysis of glutathione S-transferase (M1, T1 and P1) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione S-transferase enzymes are active in detoxifying a wide number of endogenous and exogenous chemical carcinogens and subsequently, are crucial in protecting the DNA. Several studies show some differences in association of glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk of ...

  12. Mechanical response of FFTF reference and P1 cladding tubes under transient heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngahl, C.A.; Ariman, T.; Lepacek, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Burst tests of Type 316 stainless steel cladding tube samples subjected to increasing temperature and relatively constant internal pressure were conducted to assist in the pretest analysis of the P1 experiment performed in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility. This paper reports and analyzes the burst test results and those of subsequent transient heating work. The use of a modified extensometer in obtaining mechanical response data for stainless steel in the high temperature range is illustrated, some of such data is provided, and the potential of further experiments and analysis is indicated. Tubing of the same design as Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) cladding (20% cold worked, 0.230 in. OD, 15 mil wall) was tested as-received and after annealing or electrolytic thinning. P1 tubing (38% cold worked, 0.230 in. OD, 10 mil wall) was tested before and after aging under conditions anticipated in the P1 reactor experiment. The P1 cladding was designed to simulate FFTF tubing that had experienced irradiation embrittlement and attack by cesium oxide and sodium impurities

  13. Product Plan of New Generation System Camera "OLYMPUS PEN E-P1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruo

    "OLYMPUS PEN E-P1", which is new generation system camera, is the first product of Olympus which is new standard "Micro Four-thirds System" for high-resolution mirror-less cameras. It continues good sales by the concept of "small and stylish design, easy operation and SLR image quality" since release on July 3, 2009. On the other hand, the half-size film camera "OLYMPUS PEN" was popular by the concept "small and stylish design and original mechanism" since the first product in 1959 and recorded sale number more than 17 million with 17 models. By the 50th anniversary topic and emotional value of the Olympus pen, Olympus pen E-P1 became big sales. I would like to explain the way of thinking of the product plan that included not only the simple functional value but also emotional value on planning the first product of "Micro Four-thirds System".

  14. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  15. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  16. Complexity and diversity of the NKR-P1:Clr (Klrb1:Clec2 recognition systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Kirkham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The NKR-P1 receptors were identified as prototypical natural killer (NK cell surface antigens and later shown to be conserved from rodents to humans on NK cells and subsets of T cells. C-type lectin-like in nature, they were originally shown to be capable of activating NK cell function and to recognize ligands on tumour cells. However, certain family members have subsequently been shown to be capable of inhibiting NK cell activity, and to recognize proteins encoded by a family of genetically linked C-type lectin-related (Clr ligands. Some of these ligands are expressed by normal, healthy cells, and modulated during transformation, infection, and cellular stress, while other ligands are upregulated during the immune response and during pathological circumstances. Here, we discuss historical and recent developments in NKR-P1 biology that demonstrate this NK receptor-ligand system to be far more complex and diverse than originally anticipated.

  17. Structure of the conserved hypothetical protein MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Margaret A.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Mehlin, Christopher; Boni, Erica; Earnest, Thomas N.; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Lauricella, Angela; Anderson, Lori; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Zucker, Frank; Schoenfeld, Lori W.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, MAL13P1.257 from P. falciparum, has been determined at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure represents a new protein fold and is the first structural representative for Pfam sequence family PF05907. The structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, PlasmoDB sequence MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum, Pfam sequence family PF05907, has been determined as part of the structural genomics effort of the Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa consortium. The structure was determined by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure is almost entirely β-sheet; it consists of 15 β-strands and one short 3 10 -helix and represents a new protein fold. The packing of the two monomers in the asymmetric unit indicates that the biological unit may be a dimer.

  18. TRIMARAN: a three dimensional multigroup P1 Monte Carlo code for criticality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermumcu, G.; Gonnord, J.; Nimal, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    TRIMARAN is developed for safety analysis of nuclear components containing fissionable materials: shipping casks, storage and cooling pools, manufacture and reprocessing plants. It solves the transport equation by Monte Carlo method, in general three dimensional geometry with multigroup P1 approximation. A special representation of cross sections and numbers has been developed in order to reduce considerably the computing cost and allow this three dimensional code to compete with standard numerical program used in parametric studies

  19. TRIMARAN: a three dimensional multigroup P1 Monte Carlo code for criticallity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermuncu, G.; Gonnord, J.; Nimal, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    TRIMARAN is developed for safety analysis of nuclar components containing fissionnable materials: shipping casks, storage and cooling pools, manufacture and reprocessing plants. It solves the transport equation by Monte Carlo method in general three dimensional geometry with multigroup P1 approximation. A special representation of cross sections and numbers has been developed in order to reduce considerably the computing cost and allow this three dimensional code to compete with standard numerical program used in parametric studies

  20. Calculations of Edwards' pipe blowdown tests using the code TRAC P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, R.

    1979-05-01

    The paper describes the results obtained using the non-thermal equilibrium LOCA code TRAC-P1 for two of a series of Pipe Blowdown Tests. Comparisons are made with the experimental values and RELAP-UK Mark IV predictions. Some discrepancies between prediction and experiment are observed, and certain aspects of the model are considered to warrant possible further attention. (U.K.)

  1. Characterization of P1 promoter activity of the β-galactoside α2,6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... The level of β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase I (ST6Gal I) mRNA, encoded by the gene siat1, is increased in malignant tissues. Expression is regulated by different promoters – P1, P2 and P3 – generating three mRNA isoforms. H, X and YZ. In cervical cancer tissue the mRNA isoform H, which results ...

  2. Electron-impact coherence parameters for 41 P 1 excitation of zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwiński, Mariusz; Kłosowski, Łukasz; Chwirot, Stanisław; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Das, Tapasi; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    We present electron-impact coherence parameters (EICP) for electron-impact excitation of 41 P 1 state of zinc atoms for collision energies 40 eV and 60 eV. The experimental results are presented together with convergent close-coupling and relativistic distorted-wave approximation theoretical predictions. The results are compared and discussed with EICP data for collision energies 80 eV and 100 eV.

  3. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.W.; Carette, J.E.; Reinhoud, P.J.; Haegi, A.; Bol, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and

  4. Lateral supraorbital approach to ipsilateral PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Elsharkawy, Ahmed; Lehto, Hanna; Shekhtman, Oleg; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Munoz, Francisco; Hijazy, Ferzat; Makhkamov, Makhkam; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare and often associated with anterior circulation aneurysms. The lateral supraorbital approach allows for a very fast and safe approach to the ipsilateral lesions Circle of Willis. A technical note on the successful clip occlusion of two aneurysms in the anterior and posterior Circle of Willis via this less invasive approach has not been published before. The objective of this technical note is to describe the simultaneous microsurgical clip occlusion of an ipsilateral PCA-P1 and an internal carotid artery - posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysm via the lateral supraorbital approach. The authors present a technical report of successful clip occlusions of ipsilateral located PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms. A 59-year-old female patient was diagnosed with a PCA-P1 and an ipsilateral ICA-PCoA aneurysm by computed tomography angiography (CTA) after an ischemic stroke secondary to a contralateral ICA dissection. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping after a lateral supraorbital craniotomy. The intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography and the postoperative CTA showed a complete occlusion of both aneurysms; the parent vessels (ICA and PCA) were patent. The patient presents postoperative no new neurologic deficit. The lateral supraorbital approach is suitable for the simultaneous microsurgical treatment of proximal anterior circulation and ipsilateral proximal PCA aneurysms. Compared to endovascular treatment, direct visual control of brainstem perforators is possible.

  5. Sim@P1: Using Cloudscheduler for offline processing on the ATLAS HLT farm

    CERN Document Server

    Berghaus, Frank; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) project was built in 2013 to take advantage of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition High Level Trigger (HLT) farm. The HLT farm provides more than 2,000 compute nodes, which are critical to ATLAS during data taking. When ATLAS is not recording data, this large compute resource is used to generate and process simulation data for the experiment. The Sim@P1 system uses virtual machines, deployed by OpenStack, in order to isolate the resources from the ATLAS technical and control network. During the upcoming long shutdown in 2019 (LS2), the HLT farm including the Sim@P1 infrastructure will be upgraded. A previous paper on the project emphasized the need for “simple, reliable, and efficient tools” to quickly switch between data acquisition operation and offline processing.In this contribution we assess various options for updating and simplifying the provisional tools. Cloudscheduler is a tool for provisioning cloud resources for batch computing that has been managing cloud ...

  6. Acoustic detection of boiling in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility in-reactor experiment P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, W.M.; Anderson, T.T.; Bobis, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    Acoustic data were obtained from two high-temperature lithium niobate microphones on the loop background noise and transient pressure pulses during the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) P1 in-reactor experiment. This experiment simulated an LMFBR loss-of-piping-integrity (LOPI) transient on a nineteen element, end-of-life, enriched-UO 2 fuel assembly. The microphones were exposed to liquid sodium at a distance 4.85 meters above the reactor core at temperatures between 315 0 and 590 0 C. The distance and location of the microphones in the P1 Test Train provided an attenuative transmission path which was undesirable for optimum acoustic detection of sodium boiling and fuel failure. The data gathered on the loop background noise was observed to be dominated by pump and electrical noise at frequencies below 1.5 KHz and appeared to be dominated by flow induced local turbulence noise at higher frequencies. During the period of time that the sodium in the fuel assembly was at its saturation temperature 943 0 C (1730 0 F), as indicated by the wire wrap thermocouples, several discrete pulses were observed with peak-to-peak pressure between 3.3 kPa and 7.9 kPa and center frequencies between 360 and 550 Hz. The pulses occurred at two separate gradually increasing repetition rates. These observations appear to be consistent with the result of an impulsive forcing function interacting with a band passed Helmholtz resonator. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that sodium boiling occurred in the P1 fuel assembly, resulting in the formation of individual voids that collapsed upon reaching the subcooled sodium. These data provide pertinent information regarding the feasibility of sodium boiling detection and may provide additional insight into the dynamics of the void behavior

  7. P1 plasmid replication: initiator sequestration is inadequate to explain control by initiator-binding sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, S K; Chattoraj, D K

    1988-01-01

    The unit-copy plasmid replicon mini-P1 consists of an origin, a gene for an initiator protein, RepA, and a control locus, incA. Both the origin and the incA locus contain repeat sequences that bind RepA. It has been proposed that the incA repeats control replication by sequestering the rate-limiting RepA initiator protein. Here we show that when the concentration of RepA was increased about fourfold beyond its normal physiological level from an inducible source in trans, the copy number of a ...

  8. Doc of prophage P1 is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd through fold complementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Wyns, Lode

    2008-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in major physiological events set in motion under stress conditions. The toxin Doc (death on curing) from the phd/doc module on phage P1 hosts the C-terminal domain of its antitoxin partner Phd (prevents host death) through fold complementation....... This Phd domain is intrinsically disordered in solution and folds into an alpha-helix upon binding to Doc. The details of the interactions reveal the molecular basis for the inhibitory action of the antitoxin. The complex resembles the Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) proteins and suggests a possible......-antitoxin locus for its action in vivo....

  9. Electronic Structures of Strained InAs x P1-x by Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Mi; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Young Heon

    2018-09-01

    We investigated the effects of strain on the electronic structures of InAsxP1-x using quantum mechanical density functional theory calculations. The electronic band gap and electron effective mass decreased with the increase of the uniaxial tensile strain along the [0001] direction of wurtzite InAs0.75P0.25. Therefore, faster electron movements are expected. These theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements of InAs0.75P0.25 nanowire.

  10. U P1, an example for advanced techniques applied to high level activity dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel-Noel, M.; Calixte, O.; Blanchard, S.; Bani, J.; Girones, P.; Moitrier, C.; Terry, G.; Bourdy, R.

    2014-01-01

    The U P1 plant on the CEA Marcoule site was dedicated to the processing of spend fuels from the G1, G2 and G3 plutonium-producing reactors. This plant represents 20.000 m 2 of workshops housing about 1000 hot cells. In 1998, a huge program for the dismantling and cleaning-up of the UP1 plant was launched. CEA has developed new techniques to face the complexity of the dismantling operations. These techniques include immersive virtual reality, laser cutting, a specific manipulator arm called MAESTRO and remote handling. (A.C.)

  11. FURTHER CONSTRAINTS ON THE OPTICAL TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF HAT-P-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalto, M.; Santos, N. C.; Martins, J. H. C.; Figueira, P.; Alonso, R.; Iro, N.; Desidera, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on novel observations of HAT-P-1 aimed at constraining the optical transmission spectrum of the atmosphere of its transiting hot-Jupiter exoplanet. Ground-based differential spectrophotometry was performed over two transit windows using the DOLORES spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Our measurements imply an average planet to star radius ratio equal to R p /R * = (0.1159 ± 0.0005). This result is consistent with the value obtained from recent near-infrared measurements of this object, but differs from previously reported optical measurements, being lower by around 4.4 exoplanet scale heights. Analyzing the data over five different spectral bins of ∼600 Å wide, we observed a single peaked spectrum (3.7 σ level) with a blue cutoff corresponding to the blue edge of the broad absorption wing of sodium and an increased absorption in the region in-between 6180 and 7400 Å. We also infer that the width of the broad absorption wings due to alkali metals is likely narrower than the one implied by solar abundance clear atmospheric models. We interpret the result as evidence that HAT-P-1b has a partially clear atmosphere at optical wavelengths with a more modest contribution from an optical absorber than previously reported

  12. FURTHER CONSTRAINTS ON THE OPTICAL TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF HAT-P-1b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalto, M.; Santos, N. C.; Martins, J. H. C.; Figueira, P.; Alonso, R. [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Iro, N. [Theoretical Meteorology Group Klimacampus, University of Hamburg Grindelberg 5, D-20144, Hamburg (Germany); Desidera, S., E-mail: Marco.Montalto@astro.up.pt [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, Padova, I-35122 (Italy)

    2015-09-20

    We report on novel observations of HAT-P-1 aimed at constraining the optical transmission spectrum of the atmosphere of its transiting hot-Jupiter exoplanet. Ground-based differential spectrophotometry was performed over two transit windows using the DOLORES spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Our measurements imply an average planet to star radius ratio equal to R{sub p}/R{sub *} = (0.1159 ± 0.0005). This result is consistent with the value obtained from recent near-infrared measurements of this object, but differs from previously reported optical measurements, being lower by around 4.4 exoplanet scale heights. Analyzing the data over five different spectral bins of ∼600 Å wide, we observed a single peaked spectrum (3.7 σ level) with a blue cutoff corresponding to the blue edge of the broad absorption wing of sodium and an increased absorption in the region in-between 6180 and 7400 Å. We also infer that the width of the broad absorption wings due to alkali metals is likely narrower than the one implied by solar abundance clear atmospheric models. We interpret the result as evidence that HAT-P-1b has a partially clear atmosphere at optical wavelengths with a more modest contribution from an optical absorber than previously reported.

  13. Optimization of nonribosomal peptides production by a psychrotrophic fungus: Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Singh, Varun P; Singh, Deepika; Yusuf, Farnaz; Kumar, Anil; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Chaubey, Asha

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma is an anamorphic filamentous fungal genus with immense potential for production of small valuable secondary metabolites with indispensable biological activities. Microbial dynamics of a psychrotrophic strain Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1, isolated from unexplored niches of the Shiwalik region, bestowed with rich biodiversity of microflora, was investigated for production of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) by metabolite profiling by intact-cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Being the first report on NRPs production by T. velutinum, studies on optimization of growth conditions by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for production of NRPs by ACR-P1 was carried out strategically. Multifold enhancement in the yield of NRPs belonging to subfamily SF4 with medium chain of amino acid residues having m/z 1437.9, 1453.9, and 1452.0 at pH 5.9 at 20 °C and of subfamily SF1 with long-chain amino acid residues having m/z 1770.2, 1784.2, 1800.1, 1802.1, and 1815.1 was achieved at pH 7.0 at 25 °C. Complexities of natural mixtures were thus considerably reduced under respective optimized culture conditions accelerating the production of novel microbial natural products by saving time and resources.

  14. Quenching of I(2P1/2) by O3 and O(3P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azyazov, Valeriy N; Antonov, Ivan O; Heaven, Michael C

    2007-04-26

    Oxygen-iodine lasers that utilize electrical or microwave discharges to produce singlet oxygen are currently being developed. The discharge generators differ from conventional chemical singlet oxygen generators in that they produce significant amounts of atomic oxygen. Post-discharge chemistry includes channels that lead to the formation of ozone. Consequently, removal of I(2P1/2) by O atoms and O3 may impact the efficiency of discharge driven iodine lasers. In the present study, we have measured the rate constants for quenching of I(2P1/2) by O(3P) atoms and O3 using pulsed laser photolysis techniques. The rate constant for quenching by O3, (1.8 +/- 0.4) x 10(-12) cm3 s-1, was found to be a factor of 5 smaller than the literature value. The rate constant for quenching by O(3P) was (1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(-11) cm3 s-1.

  15. The Split Nucleus of Comet Wilson (C/1986 P1 = 1987 VII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen J.; Knopp, Graham P.; Farnham, Tony L.; Green, Daniel

    1995-07-01

    We present CCD observations of Comet Wilson (C/1986 P1 = 1987 VII) from 26 nights during the time period 1986 October to 1991 February, which brackets perihelion, During the observing run of 1988 February, the comet was observed to have split into two fragments. Our broadband CCD photometry, along with photometry from the International Cometary Quarterly, shows a steady decline in brightness of Comet Wilson post-perihelion, with an outburst between heliocentric distances r = 2.8 and 3.3 AU during 1987 October and November. By r ≈ 7 AU, the fragment had faded with respect to the parent and was no longer centrally condensed. A brightness limit of mR ≈ 25, when the comet was at r = 12.65 AU, constrains the primary nucleus to have a maximum radius between 5 and 7 km, assuming an albedo of 0.04. The accuracy of direct orbital solutions for the parent body and fragment to determine the time of splitting was limited by the presence of significant nongravitational forces and the limited fragment orbital coverage. We used the relative position of the fragment with respect to the parent to calculate a time of splitting which was consistent with the time of the observed outburst. We discuss the possible causes of the splitting. The coma of Comet Wilson was observed to have a surface-brightness profile which fell off as p-1 (characteristic of a canonical steady-state coma under the influence of radiation pressure) for all of the data with the exception of the data taken during 1987 November when the gradient was p-1.3 . This steeper slope was probably caused by the injection of new material into the coma during the outburst. During 1986 October, there was a break in the surface-brightness profile slope which may be interpreted as the distance at which grains are swept into the tail. The profiles suggested grain velocities of a few x 10 2 to 10 m sec -1 for grains between 1 and a few hundred micrometers. Finson-Probstein dust modeling showed that ejection of grains began

  16. Second order time evolution of the multigroup diffusion and P1 equations for radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An existing multigroup transport algorithm is extended to be second-order in time. → A new algorithm is presented that does not require a grey acceleration solution. → The two algorithms are tested with 2D, multi-material problems. → The two algorithms have comparable computational requirements. - Abstract: An existing solution method for solving the multigroup radiation equations, linear multifrequency-grey acceleration, is here extended to be second order in time. This method works for simple diffusion and for flux-limited diffusion, with or without material conduction. A new method is developed that does not require the solution of an averaged grey transport equation. It is effective solving both the diffusion and P 1 forms of the transport equation. Two dimensional, multi-material test problems are used to compare the solution methods.

  17. The P1-approximation for the Distribution of Neutrons from a Pulsed Source in Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, A.

    1963-12-01

    The asymptotic distribution of neutrons from a pulsed, high energy source in an infinite moderator has been obtained earlier in a 'diffusion' approximation. In that paper the cross section was assumed to be constant over the whole energy region and the time derivative of the first moment was disregarded. Here, first, an analytic expression is obtained for the density in a P 1 -approximation. However, the result is very complicated, and it is shown that an asymptotic solution can be found in a simpler way. By taking into account the low hydrogen scattering cross section at the source energy it follows that the space dependence of the distribution is less than that obtained earlier. The importance of keeping the time derivative of the first moment is further shown in a perturbation approximation

  18. Neutron wave reflexions in interface media with transport equation P1 approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Vellozo, S. de.

    1977-01-01

    The propagation of neutron waves in non multiplying media is investigated employing the Telegrapher's equation obtained from the P 1 approximation of the time, space and energy dependent Boltzmann equation. Solution of the problem of propagation of sinusoidally modulated source incident on one face of the medium is obtained by analysing the Fourier component of a pulsed source introduced, for the corresponding frequency. The amplitude and the phase of the flux are computed as a function of frequency in media consisting of one, two and three regions in order to study the effects of reflection at the interfaces. The results are compared with those from the Diffusion approximation obtained by neglecting the term involving the second order time derivative. (author)

  19. Comment on the search for the charmonium 1P1 and its theoretical interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. C.

    1984-10-01

    We comment on a recent paper which discusses the theoretical implications of the Crystal Ball search for the 1P1 state of charmonium. On behalf of the Crystal Ball collaboration: California Institute of Technology - C. Edwards, R. Partridge, C. Peck, F. Porter; Harvard University - D. Antreasyan, Y.F. Gu, K. Strauch, K. Wacker, A. Weinstein; Princeton University - D. Aschman, M. Cavalli-Sforza, D. Coyne, C. Newman-Holmes, H. Sadrozinski; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center - E. Bloom, F. Bulos, G. Godfrey, C. Kiesling, W. Lockman, M. Oreglia; Stanford University - D. Gelphman, R. Hofstadter, R. Horisberger, I. Kirkbride, H. Kolanoski, K. Königsmann, R. Lee, A. Osterheld, B. Pollock and J. Tompkins.

  20. SPITZER IRAC SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANET HAT-P-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, Kamen; Deming, Drake; Harrington, Jospeph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bowman, William C.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Bakos, Gaspar A.

    2010-01-01

    We report Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the transiting giant exoplanet HAT-P-1b during its secondary eclipse. This planet lies near the postulated boundary between the pM and pL-class of hot Jupiters, and is important as a test of models for temperature inversions in hot Jupiter atmospheres. We derive eclipse depths for HAT-P-1b, in units of the stellar flux, that are: 0.080% ± 0.008% [3.6 μm], 0.135% ± 0.022% [4.5 μm], 0.203% ± 0.031% [5.8 μm], and 0.238% ± 0.040% [8.0 μm]. These values are best fit using an atmosphere with a modest temperature inversion, intermediate between the archetype inverted atmosphere (HD 209458b) and a model without an inversion. The observations also suggest that this planet is radiating a large fraction of the available stellar irradiance on its dayside, with little available for redistribution by circulation. This planet has sometimes been speculated to be inflated by tidal dissipation, based on its large radius in discovery observations, and on a non-zero orbital eccentricity allowed by the radial velocity data. The timing of the secondary eclipse is very sensitive to orbital eccentricity, and we find that the central phase of the eclipse is 0.4999 ± 0.0005. The difference between the expected and observed phase indicates that the orbit is close to circular, with a 3σ limit of |e cos ω| < 0.002.

  1. Increasing synthetic serum substitute (SSS) concentrations in P1 glucose/phosphate-free medium improves implantation rate: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, D; Yovel, I; Schwartz, T; Azem, F; Lessing, J B; Amit, A

    2001-11-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to IVF medium (Group 1, cycles n = 172) or P1 supplemented with 10% SSS (Group 2, cycles n = 229) according to the medium scheduled for use on the day of oocyte retrieval. Another 555 IVF consequent cycles (Group 3) were performed using increased SSS concentrations (20%) in P1 medium. In this large series of IVF cycles, we herein demonstrate that significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates were found when embryos were cultured in glucose/phosphate-free medium P1 supplemented with 20% SSS compared to supplementation with the lower SSS concentration and with IVF medium.

  2. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled; Solucoes do sistema de equacoes P1 sem o uso de equacoes diferenciais auxiliares acopladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  3. Space dependent neutron slowing and thermalization in monatomic hydrogen gas in the P-1 approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musazay, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    A solution to the space and energy dependent neutron transport equation in the framework of the consistent P-1 approximation is sought. The transport equation for thermal neutrons in a moderator of 1/v absorption and constant scattering cross section is changed into a set of coupled partial differential equations. The space dependent part is removed by assuming a cosine shaped flux due to a cosine shaped source at a very high energy. The resulting set of strongly coupled ordinary differential equations is decoupled by assuming expansion of collision density in the powers of a leakage parameter whose coefficients are energy and absorption dependent. These energy dependent coefficients are solutions of a set of weakly coupled differential equations. Series solutions to these differential equations in powers of epsilon and 1/epsilon, where epsilon = E/kT, E being the neutron energy and kT the moderator temperature in units of energy, are found. The properties of these solutions are studied extensively. Absorption appears as a parameter in the coefficients of the series. The difficulties arising in choosing the correct form of the asymptotic solutions are resolved by comparing slowing and thermalization. The limitations on the size of the slab and on the range of absorption are included in the analysis

  4. Variational P1 approximations of general-geometry multigroup transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rulko, R.P.; Tomasevic, D.; Larsen, E.W.

    1995-01-01

    A variational approximation is developed for general-geometry multigroup transport problems with arbitrary anisotropic scattering. The variational principle is based on a functional that approximates a reaction rate in a subdomain of the system. In principle, approximations that result from this functional ''optimally'' determine such reaction rates. The functional contains an arbitrary parameter α and requires the approximate solutions of a forward and an adjoint transport problem. If the basis functions for the forward and adjoint solutions are chosen to be linear functions of the angular variable Ω, the functional yields the familiar multigroup P 1 equations for all values of α. However, the boundary conditions that result from the functional depend on α. In particular, for problems with vacuum boundaries, one obtains the conventional mixed boundary condition, but with an extrapolation distance that depends continuously on α. The choice α = 0 yields a generalization of boundary conditions derived earlier by Federighi and Pomraning for a more limited class of problems. The choice α = 1 yields a generalization of boundary conditions derived previously by Davis for monoenergetic problems. Other boundary conditions are obtained by choosing different values of α. The authors discuss this indeterminancy of α in conjunction with numerical experiments

  5. The Properties of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Chin Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the properties of the sintered as-dried calcium phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50, the characteristics of sintered pellets have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectra, Vickers hardness indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. When the pellet samples were sintered between 700 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2, HA still maintained the major phase, accompanied with the rhenanite (NaCaPO4 as the secondary phase and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO42, β-TCP as the minor phases. In addition, the HA partially transformed to α-tricalcium phosphate (α-Ca3(PO42, α-TCP and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4(PO42O, TTCP, when the pellet samples were sintered at 1300 °C and 1400 °C, respectively, for 4 h. The maximum density and Vickers Hardness (HV of sintered pellet samples were 2.85 g/cm3 (90.18% theoretical density (T.D. and 407, which appeared at 1200 °C and 900 °C, respectively.

  6. Pressure effects on the magnetocaloric properties of MnFeP1-x As x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, E.; Kamarad, J.; Sechovsky, V.; Arnold, Z.; Tegus, O.; Boer, F.R. de

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the potential magnetic-refrigerant materials MnFeP 1- x As x with x=0.35 and 0.55. While applied pressure reduces both the Curie temperature and magnetic moment of the former compound, the Curie temperature of the latter is increased whereas the moment is hardly affected by pressure. The same trends are seen in the magnetocaloric properties. These results indicate a different character of the magnetism in these two materials. While the compound with x=0.35 exhibits a volume instability like a weak itinerant ferromagnet, whereas the one with x=0.55 behaves as a strong itinerant ferromagnet. An alternative scenario may be formulated within the localized-moment picture. One may interpret the effect of pressure on the compound with x=0.35 as an indication of pressure-induced enhancement of antiferromagnetic interactions. This latter interpretation is offered by a pronounced enhancement of the high-field susceptibility under pressure

  7. Understanding the Biocompatibility of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with Ratio of [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatibility of sintered calcium phosphate pellets with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50 was determined in this study. Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP phase formed on the sintered pellets immersed in a normal saline solution for 14 d at 37∘C. The intensities of hydroxyapatite (HA reflections in the X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of the pellets were retrieved to as-sintered state. The pellet surface morphology shows that CPP crystallites were clearly present and make an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP to discriminate against become to the area of slice join together. In addition, the intensities of the CPP reflections in the XRD patterns were the highest when the pellets were immersed for 28 d. When the CPP powders were extracted from the pellets after immersion in the solution for 14 d, the viability of 3T3 cells remained above 90% for culture times from 1 to 4 d. The pellet surface morphology observed using optical microscopy showed that the cells did not adhere to the bottom of the sintered pellets when cultured for 4 d; however, some CPP phase precipitates were formed, as confirmed by XRD. In consequence, the results suggest that the sintered HA powders are good materials for use in biomedical applications because of their good biocompatibility.

  8. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Brossard, Patrick; D'Ambrosio, Daniele; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2014-06-01

    Ponesimod (ACT-128800), a reversible, orally active, selective S1P1 receptor modulator, prevents the egress of lymphocytes from the lymph node into the systemic circulation. It is currently in clinical development for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Modulation of circulating lymphocytes serves as biomarker of efficacy and safety, such that the quantitative characterization of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship guides the clinical development of the compound. The availability of a variety of doses, dosing regimens, and treatment durations permitted estimation of the pharmacokinetics characterized by an absorption lag time followed by a sequential zero/first-order absorption and two compartments with first-order elimination. The PD are modeled as an indirect-effect model with rates of appearance and disappearance of lymphocytes in blood with a circadian rhythm and a drug effect on the rate of appearance. The model suggests a circadian variation of 9% and a maximum inhibition of 86% of total lymphocyte count with high doses at steady state. It was instrumental for the selection of doses for subsequent studies that confirmed the effect plateau in total lymphocyte count at approximately 0.5 × 10(9) counts/L.

  9. 64Cu-Labeled LyP-1-Dendrimer for PET-CT Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify macrophage accumulation can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information for atherosclerotic plaque. We have previously shown that LyP-1, a cyclic 9-amino acid peptide, binds to p32 proteins on activated macrophages, facilitating the visualization of atherosclerotic plaque with PET. Yet, the in vivo plaque accumulation of monomeric [18F]FBA-LyP-1 was low (0.31 ± 0.05%ID/g). To increase the avidity of LyP-1 constructs to p32, we synthesized a dendritic form of LyP-1 on solid phase using lysine as the core structural element. Imaging probes (FAM or 6-BAT) were conjugated to a lysine or cysteine on the dendrimer for optical and PET studies. The N-terminus of the dendrimer was further modified with an aminooxy group in order to conjugate LyP-1 and ARAL peptides bearing a ketone. Oxime ligation of peptides to both dendrimers resulted in (LyP-1)4- and (ARAL)4-dendrimers with optical (FAM) and PET probes (6-BAT). For PET-CT studies, (LyP-1)4- and (ARAL)4-dendrimer-6-BAT were labeled with 64Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 h) and intravenously injected into the atherosclerotic (ApoE–/–) mice. After two hours of circulation, PET-CT coregistered images demonstrated greater uptake of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-64Cu than the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-64Cu in the aortic root and descending aorta. Ex vivo images and the biodistribution acquired at three hours after injection also demonstrated a significantly higher uptake of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-64Cu (1.1 ± 0.26%ID/g) than the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-64Cu (0.22 ± 0.05%ID/g) in the aorta. Similarly, subcutaneous injection of the LyP-1-dendrimeric carriers resulted in preferential accumulation in plaque-containing regions over 24 h. In the same model system, ex vivo fluorescence images within aortic plaque depict an increased accumulation and penetration of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-FAM as compared to the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-FAM. Taken together, the results suggest that the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer can be applied for in

  10. Bactericide, Immunomodulating, and Wound Healing Properties of Transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lebedeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedure of manufacturing K. pinnata water extracts containing cecropin P1 (CecP1 from the formerly described transgenic plants is established. It included incubation of leaves at +4°C for 7 days, mechanical homogenization of leaves using water as extraction solvent, and heating at +70°C for inactivating plant enzymes. Yield of CecP1 (after heating and sterilizing filtration was 0.3% of total protein in the extract. The water extract of K. pinnata + CecP1 exhibits favorable effect on healing of wounds infected with S. aureus (equal to Cefazolin and with a combination of S. aureus with P. aeruginosa (better than Cefazolin. Wild-type K. pinnata extract exhibited evident microbicide activity against S. aureus with P. aeruginosa but it was substantially strengthened in K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. K. pinnata extracts (both wild-type and transgenic did not exhibit general toxicity and accelerated wound recovery. Due to immunomodulating activity, wild-type K. pinnata extract accelerated granulation of the wound bed and marginal epithelialization even better than K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. Immunomodulating and microbicide activity of K. pinnata synergizes with microbicide activity of CecP1 accelerating elimination of bacteria.

  11. The amino terminal end determines the stability and assembling capacity of eukaryotic ribosomal stalk proteins P1 and P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Hendricka; Nusspaumer, Gretel; Abia, David; Briceño, Verónica; Remacha, Miguel; Ballesta, Juan P G

    2011-05-01

    The eukaryotic ribosomal proteins P1 and P2 bind to protein P0 through their N-terminal domain to form the essential ribosomal stalk. A mutational analysis points to amino acids at positions 2 and 3 as determinants for the drastic difference of Saccharomyces cerevisiae P1 and P2 half-life, and suggest different degradation mechanisms for each protein type. Moreover, the capacity to form P1/P2 heterodimers is drastically affected by mutations in the P2β four initial amino acids, while these mutations have no effect on P1β. Binding of P2β and, to a lesser extent, P1β to the ribosome is also seriously affected showing the high relevance of the amino acids in the first turn of the NTD α-helix 1 for the stalk assembly. The negative effect of some mutations on ribosome binding can be reversed by the presence of the second P1/P2 couple in the ribosome, indicating a stabilizing structural influence between the two heterodimers. Unexpectedly, some mutations totally abolish heterodimer formation but allow significant ribosome binding and, therefore, a previous P1 and P2 association seems not to be an absolute requirement for stalk assembly. Homology modeling of the protein complexes suggests that the mutated residues can affect the overall protein conformation. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Immunomodulating and Revascularizing Activity of Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Fungicide Activity of Biogenic Peptide Cecropin P1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Zakharchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata plants producing an antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (CecP1 have been reported. Now we report biological testing K. pinnata extracts containing CecP1 as a candidate drug for treatment of wounds infected with Candida albicans. The drug constitutes the whole juice from K. pinnata leaves (not ethanol extract sterilized with nanofiltration. A microbicide activity of CecP1 against an animal fungal pathogen in vivo was demonstrated for the first time. However, a favorable therapeutic effect of the transgenic K. pinnata extract was attributed to a synergism between the fungicide activity of CecP1 and wound healing (antiscar, revascularizing, and immunomodulating effect of natural biologically active components of K. pinnata. A commercial fungicide preparation clotrimazole eliminated C. albicans cells within infected wounds in rats with efficiency comparable to CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extract. But in contrast to K. pinnata extract, clotrimazole did not exhibit neither wound healing activity nor remodeling of the scar matrix. Taken together, our results allow assumption that CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extracts should be considered as a candidate drug for treatment of dermatomycoses, wounds infected with fungi, and bedsores.

  13. Bactericide, Immunomodulating, and Wound Healing Properties of Transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, A A; Zakharchenko, N S; Trubnikova, E V; Medvedeva, O A; Kuznetsova, T V; Masgutova, G A; Zylkova, M V; Buryanov, Y I; Belous, A S

    2017-01-01

    Procedure of manufacturing K. pinnata water extracts containing cecropin P1 (CecP1) from the formerly described transgenic plants is established. It included incubation of leaves at +4°C for 7 days, mechanical homogenization of leaves using water as extraction solvent, and heating at +70°C for inactivating plant enzymes. Yield of CecP1 (after heating and sterilizing filtration) was 0.3% of total protein in the extract. The water extract of K. pinnata + CecP1 exhibits favorable effect on healing of wounds infected with S. aureus (equal to Cefazolin) and with a combination of S. aureus with P. aeruginosa (better than Cefazolin). Wild-type K. pinnata extract exhibited evident microbicide activity against S. aureus with P. aeruginosa but it was substantially strengthened in K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. K. pinnata extracts (both wild-type and transgenic) did not exhibit general toxicity and accelerated wound recovery. Due to immunomodulating activity, wild-type K. pinnata extract accelerated granulation of the wound bed and marginal epithelialization even better than K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. Immunomodulating and microbicide activity of K. pinnata synergizes with microbicide activity of CecP1 accelerating elimination of bacteria.

  14. Immunomodulating and Revascularizing Activity of Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Fungicide Activity of Biogenic Peptide Cecropin P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, N S; Belous, A S; Biryukova, Y K; Medvedeva, O A; Belyakova, A V; Masgutova, G A; Trubnikova, E V; Buryanov, Y I; Lebedeva, A A

    2017-01-01

    Previously transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata plants producing an antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (CecP1) have been reported. Now we report biological testing K. pinnata extracts containing CecP1 as a candidate drug for treatment of wounds infected with Candida albicans. The drug constitutes the whole juice from K. pinnata leaves (not ethanol extract) sterilized with nanofiltration. A microbicide activity of CecP1 against an animal fungal pathogen in vivo was demonstrated for the first time. However, a favorable therapeutic effect of the transgenic K. pinnata extract was attributed to a synergism between the fungicide activity of CecP1 and wound healing (antiscar), revascularizing, and immunomodulating effect of natural biologically active components of K. pinnata . A commercial fungicide preparation clotrimazole eliminated C. albicans cells within infected wounds in rats with efficiency comparable to CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extract. But in contrast to K. pinnata extract, clotrimazole did not exhibit neither wound healing activity nor remodeling of the scar matrix. Taken together, our results allow assumption that CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extracts should be considered as a candidate drug for treatment of dermatomycoses, wounds infected with fungi, and bedsores.

  15. Expression of flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase is controlled by P1, the regulator of 3-deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The maize (Zea mays) red aleurone1 (pr1) encodes a CYP450-dependent flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase (ZmF3’H1) required for the biosynthesis of purple and red anthocyanin pigments. We previously showed that Zmf3’h1 is regulated by C1 (Colorless1) and R1 (Red1) transcription factors. The current study demonstrates that, in addition to its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, the Zmf3’h1 gene also participates in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids and phlobaphenes that accumulate in maize pericarps, cob glumes, and silks. Biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids is regulated by P1 (Pericarp color1) and is independent from the action of C1 and R1 transcription factors. Results In maize, apiforol and luteoforol are the precursors of condensed phlobaphenes. Maize lines with functional alleles of pr1 and p1 (Pr1;P1) accumulate luteoforol, while null pr1 lines with a functional or non-functional p1 allele (pr1;P1 or pr1;p1) accumulate apiforol. Apiforol lacks a hydroxyl group at the 3’-position of the flavylium B-ring, while luteoforol has this hydroxyl group. Our biochemical analysis of accumulated compounds in different pr1 genotypes showed that the pr1 encoded ZmF3’H1 has a role in the conversion of mono-hydroxylated to bi-hydroxylated compounds in the B-ring. Steady state RNA analyses demonstrated that Zmf3’h1 mRNA accumulation requires a functional p1 allele. Using a combination of EMSA and ChIP experiments, we established that the Zmf3’h1 gene is a direct target of P1. Highlighting the significance of the Zmf3’h1 gene for resistance against biotic stress, we also show here that the p1 controlled 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and C-glycosyl flavone (maysin) defence compounds accumulate at significantly higher levels in Pr1 silks as compared to pr1 silks. By virtue of increased maysin synthesis in Pr1 plants, corn ear worm larvae fed on Pr1; P1 silks showed slower growth as compared to pr1; P1 silks. Conclusions Our results show that the Zmf3’h1 gene

  16. Expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase is controlled by P1, the regulator of 3-deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mandeep; Chai, Chenglin; Morohashi, Kengo; Grotewold, Erich; Snook, Maurice E; Chopra, Surinder

    2012-11-01

    The maize (Zea mays) red aleurone1 (pr1) encodes a CYP450-dependent flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (ZmF3'H1) required for the biosynthesis of purple and red anthocyanin pigments. We previously showed that Zmf3'h1 is regulated by C1 (Colorless1) and R1 (Red1) transcription factors. The current study demonstrates that, in addition to its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, the Zmf3'h1 gene also participates in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids and phlobaphenes that accumulate in maize pericarps, cob glumes, and silks. Biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids is regulated by P1 (Pericarp color1) and is independent from the action of C1 and R1 transcription factors. In maize, apiforol and luteoforol are the precursors of condensed phlobaphenes. Maize lines with functional alleles of pr1 and p1 (Pr1;P1) accumulate luteoforol, while null pr1 lines with a functional or non-functional p1 allele (pr1;P1 or pr1;p1) accumulate apiforol. Apiforol lacks a hydroxyl group at the 3'-position of the flavylium B-ring, while luteoforol has this hydroxyl group. Our biochemical analysis of accumulated compounds in different pr1 genotypes showed that the pr1 encoded ZmF3'H1 has a role in the conversion of mono-hydroxylated to bi-hydroxylated compounds in the B-ring. Steady state RNA analyses demonstrated that Zmf3'h1 mRNA accumulation requires a functional p1 allele. Using a combination of EMSA and ChIP experiments, we established that the Zmf3'h1 gene is a direct target of P1. Highlighting the significance of the Zmf3'h1 gene for resistance against biotic stress, we also show here that the p1 controlled 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and C-glycosyl flavone (maysin) defence compounds accumulate at significantly higher levels in Pr1 silks as compared to pr1 silks. By virtue of increased maysin synthesis in Pr1 plants, corn ear worm larvae fed on Pr1; P1 silks showed slower growth as compared to pr1; P1 silks. Our results show that the Zmf3'h1 gene participates in the biosynthesis of phlobaphenes and

  17. Expression of flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase is controlled by P1, the regulator of 3-deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mandeep

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize (Zea mays red aleurone1 (pr1 encodes a CYP450-dependent flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase (ZmF3’H1 required for the biosynthesis of purple and red anthocyanin pigments. We previously showed that Zmf3’h1 is regulated by C1 (Colorless1 and R1 (Red1 transcription factors. The current study demonstrates that, in addition to its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, the Zmf3’h1 gene also participates in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids and phlobaphenes that accumulate in maize pericarps, cob glumes, and silks. Biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids is regulated by P1 (Pericarp color1 and is independent from the action of C1 and R1 transcription factors. Results In maize, apiforol and luteoforol are the precursors of condensed phlobaphenes. Maize lines with functional alleles of pr1 and p1 (Pr1;P1 accumulate luteoforol, while null pr1 lines with a functional or non-functional p1 allele (pr1;P1 or pr1;p1 accumulate apiforol. Apiforol lacks a hydroxyl group at the 3’-position of the flavylium B-ring, while luteoforol has this hydroxyl group. Our biochemical analysis of accumulated compounds in different pr1 genotypes showed that the pr1 encoded ZmF3’H1 has a role in the conversion of mono-hydroxylated to bi-hydroxylated compounds in the B-ring. Steady state RNA analyses demonstrated that Zmf3’h1 mRNA accumulation requires a functional p1 allele. Using a combination of EMSA and ChIP experiments, we established that the Zmf3’h1 gene is a direct target of P1. Highlighting the significance of the Zmf3’h1 gene for resistance against biotic stress, we also show here that the p1 controlled 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and C-glycosyl flavone (maysin defence compounds accumulate at significantly higher levels in Pr1 silks as compared to pr1 silks. By virtue of increased maysin synthesis in Pr1 plants, corn ear worm larvae fed on Pr1; P1 silks showed slower growth as compared to pr1; P1 silks. Conclusions Our results show that the Zmf3

  18. Secreted Klotho Attenuates Inflammation-Associated Aortic Valve Fibrosis in Senescence-Accelerated Mice P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianglei; Fan, Jun; Wang, Shirley; Sun, Zhongjie

    2018-05-01

    Senescence-accelerated mice P1 (SAMP1) is an aging model characterized by shortened lifespan and early signs of senescence. Klotho is an aging-suppressor gene. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether in vivo expression of secreted klotho ( Skl ) gene attenuates aortic valve fibrosis in SAMP1 mice. SAMP1 mice and age-matched (AKR/J) control mice were used. SAMP1 mice developed obvious fibrosis in aortic valves, namely fibrotic aortic valve disease. Serum level of Skl was decreased drastically in SAMP1 mice. Expression of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), F4/80, and CD68 was increased in aortic valves of SAMP1 mice, indicating inflammation. An increase in expression of α-smooth muscle actin (myofibroblast marker), transforming growth factorβ-1, and scleraxis (a transcription factor of collagen synthesis) was also found in aortic valves of SAMP1 mice, suggesting that accelerated aging is associated with myofibroblast transition and collagen gene activation. We constructed adeno-associated virus 2 carrying mouse Skl cDNA for in vivo expression of Skl. Skl gene delivery effectively increased serum Skl of SAMP1 mice to the control level. Skl gene delivery inhibited inflammation and myofibroblastic transition in aortic valves and attenuated fibrotic aortic valve disease in SAMP1 mice. It is concluded that senescence-related fibrotic aortic valve disease in SAMP1 mice is associated with a decrease in serum klotho leading to inflammation, including macrophage infiltration and transforming growth factorβ-1/scleraxis-driven myofibroblast differentiation in aortic valves. Restoration of serum Skl levels by adeno-associated virus 2 carrying mouse Skl cDNA effectively suppresses inflammation and myofibroblastic transition and attenuates aortic valve fibrosis. Skl may be a potential therapeutic target for fibrotic aortic valve disease. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. The effect of chemical carcinogenesis on rat glutathione S-transferase P1 gene transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Liao, M; Zuo, J; Henner, W D; Fan, F

    2001-03-01

    To investigate mechanisms of rat glutathione S-transferase P1 gene (rGSTP1) expression regulation during chemical carcinogenesis. we studied enhancer elements located in the region between -2.5 kb to -2.2 kb. The region was upstream from the start site of transcription and was divided into two major fragments, GPEI and GPEII. The GPEII fragment was further divided into two smaller fragments, GPEII- I and GPEII-2. Using a luciferase reporter system, we identified a strong enhancer of GPEI and a weak enhancer of GPEII in HeLa and a rat hepatoma cell line CBRH79 19 cell. The enhancer of GPEII was located within the GPEII-I region. Chemical stimulation by glycidyl methatylate (GMA) and phorbol 12-o-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA) analysis revealed that induction of rGSTP1 expression was mainly through GPEI. Although H2O2 could enhance GPEII enhancer activity, the enhancement is not mediated by the NF-kappaB factor that bound the NF-kappaB site in GPEII. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and the UV cross-linking assays, we found that HeLa and CBRH7919 cells had proteins that specifically bound GPEI core sequence and a 64 kDa protein that interacted with GPEII-1. The cells from normal rat liver did not express the binding proteins. Therefore, the trans-acting factors seem to be closely related to GPEI, GPEII enhancer activities and may play an important role in high expression of rGSTPI gene.

  20. Broad-Host-Range IncP-1 plasmids and their resistance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena ePopowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids of the incompatibility group IncP-1, also called IncP, as extrachromosomal genetic elements can transfer and replicate virtually in all Gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of backbone genes that encode a variety of essential functions and accessory genes that have implications for human health and environmental bioremediation. Broad-host-range IncP plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. The backbone of these plasmids carries modules that enable them to effectively replicate, move to a new host via conjugative transfer and to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The adaptive, resistance and virulence genes are mainly located on mobile genetic elements integrated between the functional plasmid backbone modules. Environmental studies have demonstrated the wide distribution of IncP-like replicons in manure, soils and wastewater treatment plants. They also are present in strains of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria, which can be a cause for concern, because they may encode multiresistance. Their broad distribution suggests that IncP plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation by utilizing horizontal gene transfer. This review summarizes the variety of genetic information and physiological functions carried by IncP plasmids, which can contribute to the spread of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance while also mediating the process of bioremediation of pollutants. Due to the location of the resistance genes on plasmids with a broad host range and the presence of transposons carrying these genes it seems that the spread of these genes would be possible and quite hazardous in infection control. Future studies are required to determine the level of risk of the spread of resistance genes located on these plasmids.

  1. Backbone assignment of the little finger domain of a Y-family DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dejian; Fowler, Jason D; Suo, Zucai

    2011-10-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), a prototype Y-family DNA polymerase, contains a unique little finger domain besides a catalytic core. Here, we report the chemical shift assignments for the backbone nitrogens, α and β carbons, and amide protons of the little finger domain of Dpo4. This work and our published backbone assignment for the catalytic core provide the basis for investigating the conformational dynamics of Dpo4 during catalysis using solution NMR spectroscopy.

  2. A computationally efficient P_1 radiation model for modern combustion systems utilizing pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Gautham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The P_1 radiation model was interfaced with high performance linear solvers. • Pre-conditioned conjugate gradient (PC CG) method improved convergence by 50% • PC CG was more than 30 times faster than classical iterative methods. • The time to solution scaled linearly with increase in problem size employing PC CG. • Employing WSGGM with P_1 model compared reasonably well against benchmark data. - Abstract: The iterative convergence of the P_1 radiation model can be slow in optically thin scenarios when employing classical iterative methods. In order to remedy this shortcoming, an in-house P_1 radiation model was interfaced with high performance, scalable, linear solver libraries. Next, the accuracies of P_1 radiation model calculations was assessed by comparing its predictions against discrete ordinates (DO) model calculations for prototypical problems representative of modern combustion systems. Corresponding benchmark results were also included for comparison. Utilizing Pre-Conditioners (PC) to the Conjugate Gradients (CG) method, the convergence time of the P_1 radiation model reduced by a factor of 30 for modest problem sizes and a factor of 70 for larger sized problems when compared against classical Gauss Seidel sweeps. Further, PC provided 50% computational savings compared to employing CG in a standalone mode. The P_1 model calculation times were about 25–30% of the DO model calculation time. The time to solution also scaled linearly with an increase in problem size. The weighted sum of gray gases model employed in this study in conjunction with the P_1 model provided good agreement against benchmark data with L_2 error norms (defined relative to corresponding DO calculations) improving when isotropic intensities were prevalent.

  3. Closed expressions for $\\int_{0}^{1} t^{-1} log^{n-1}t log^{p}(1 - t) dt$

    CERN Document Server

    Kölbig, Kurt Siegfried

    1982-01-01

    Closed expressions for the integral integral /sub 0//sup 1/ t/sup -1/ log/sup n-1/t log/sup p/(1-t)dt, whose general form is given elsewhere, are listed for n=1(1)9, p=1(1)9. A formula is derived which allows an easy evaluation of these expressions by formula manipulation on a computer. The majority of the above expressions are given in a microfiche supplement to the paper.

  4. Stability of period-one (P1) oscillations generated by semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection or optical feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lyu-Chih; Liu, Ssu-Hsin; Lin, Fan-Yi

    2017-10-16

    We study the stability of period-one (P1) oscillations experimentally generated by semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection (OI) and by those subject to optical feedback (OF). With unique advantages of broad frequency tuning range and large sideband rejection ratio, P1 oscillations can be useful in applications such as photonic microwave generation, radio-over-fiber communication, and laser Doppler velocimeter. The stability of the P1 oscillations is critical for these applications, which can be affected by spontaneous emission and fluctuations in both temperature and injection current. Although linewidths of P1 oscillations generated by various schemes have been reported, the mechanisms and roles which each of the OI and the OF play have however not been investigated in detail. To characterize the stability of the P1 oscillations generated by the OI and the OF schemes, we measure the linewidths and linewidth reduction ratios (LRRs) of the P1 oscillations. The OF scheme has a narrowest linewidth of 0.21 ± 0.03 MHz compared to 4.7 ± 0.6 MHz in the OI scheme. In the OF scheme, a much larger region of LRRs higher than 90% is also found. The superior stability of the OF scheme is benefited by the fact that the P1 oscillations in the OF scheme are originated from the undamped relaxation oscillation of a single laser and can be phase-locked to one of its external cavity modes, whereas those in the OI scheme come from two independent lasers which bear no phase relation. Moreover, excess P1 linewidth broadening in the OI scheme caused by fluctuation in injection parameters associated with frequency jitter and relative intensity noise (RIN) is also minimized in the OF scheme.

  5. Direct regulatory immune activity of lactic acid bacteria on Der p 1-pulsed dendritic cells from allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochard, Pierre; Hammad, Hamida; Ratajczak, Céline; Charbonnier-Hatzfeld, Anne-Sophie; Just, Nicolas; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2005-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suggested to play a regulatory role in the development of allergic reactions. However, their potential effects on dendritic cells (DCs) directing the immune polarization remain unclear. The immunologic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 (LAB1) on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) from patients allergic to house dust mite was evaluated. MD-DCs were stimulated for 24 hours with the related allergen Der p 1 in the presence or absence of LAB1. Cell-surface markers were assessed by means of FACS analysis, and the key polarizing cytokines IL-12 and IL-10 were quantified. The subsequent regulatory effect of pulsed MD-DCs on naive or memory T cells was evaluated by determining the T-cell cytokine profile. LAB1 induced the maturation of MD-DCs, even if pulsed with Der p 1. Interestingly, after incubation with LAB1 and Der p 1, MD-DCs produced higher amounts of IL-12 than Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Indeed, the T H 2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) production observed when naive or memory autologous T cells were cocultured with Der p 1-pulsed MD-DCs was highly reduced in the presence of LAB1. Finally, in contrast to naive or memory T cells exposed once to Der p 1-pulsed DCs, T cells stimulated by MD-DCs pulsed with Der p 1 and LAB1 failed to produce T H 2 cytokines in response to a new stimulation with Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Thus in the presence of LAB1, MD-DCs from allergic patients tend to reorientate the T-cell response toward a beneficial T H 1 profile.

  6. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Hutchens, Heather M.; Howard Berg, R.; Sue Loesch-Fries, L.

    2012-01-01

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  7. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Amr [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Present address: Genomics Facility, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Hutchens, Heather M. [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Howard Berg, R. [Integrated Microscopy Facility, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132 (United States); Sue Loesch-Fries, L., E-mail: loeschfr@purdue.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  8. P1 epigenetic regulation in leaves of high altitude maize landraces: effect of UV-B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pablo Rius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available P1 is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the accumulation of a specific group of flavonoids in maize floral tissues, such as flavones and phlobaphenes. P1 is also highly expressed in leaves of maize landraces adapted to high altitudes and higher levels of UV-B radiation. In this work, we analyzed the epigenetic regulation of the P1 gene by UV-B in leaves of different maize landraces. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation in the P1 proximal promoter, intron1 and intron2 is decreased by UV-B in all lines analyzed; however, the basal DNA methylation levels are lower in the landraces than in B73, a low altitude inbred line. DNA demethylation by UV-B is accompanied by a decrease in H3 methylation at Lys 9 and 27, and by an increase in H3 acetylation. smRNAs complementary to specific regions of the proximal promoter and of intron 2 3' end are also decreased by UV-B; interestingly, P1 smRNA levels are lower in the landraces than in B73 both under control conditions and after UV-B exposure, suggesting that smRNAs regulate P1 expression by UV-B in maize leaves. Finally, we investigated if different P1 targets in flower tissues are also regulated by this transcription factor in response to UV-B. Some targets analyzed show an induction in maize landraces in response to UV-B, with higher basal expression levels in the landraces than in B73; however, not all the transcripts analyzed were found to be regulated by UV-B in leaves.

  9. Identification of a Supramolecular Functional Architecture of Streptococcus mutans Adhesin P1 on the Bacterial Cell Surface*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kyle P.; Sullan, Ruby May A.; Crowley, Paula J.; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Tang, Wenxing; Besingi, Richard; Dufrene, Yves F.; Brady, L. Jeannine

    2015-01-01

    P1 (antigen I/II) is a sucrose-independent adhesin of Streptococcus mutans whose functional architecture on the cell surface is not fully understood. S. mutans cells subjected to mechanical extraction were significantly diminished in adherence to immobilized salivary agglutinin but remained immunoreactive and were readily aggregated by fluid-phase salivary agglutinin. Bacterial adherence was restored by incubation of postextracted cells with P1 fragments that contain each of the two known adhesive domains. In contrast to untreated cells, glutaraldehyde-treated bacteria gained reactivity with anti-C-terminal monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), whereas epitopes recognized by mAbs against other portions of the molecule were masked. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated the ability of apical and C-terminal fragments of P1 to interact. Binding of several different anti-P1 mAbs to unfixed cells triggered release of a C-terminal fragment from the bacterial surface, suggesting a novel mechanism of action of certain adherence-inhibiting antibodies. We also used atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy with tips bearing various mAbs to elucidate the spatial organization and orientation of P1 on living bacteria. The similar rupture lengths detected using mAbs against the head and C-terminal regions, which are widely separated in the tertiary structure, suggest a higher order architecture in which these domains are in close proximity on the cell surface. Taken together, our results suggest a supramolecular organization in which additional P1 polypeptides, including the C-terminal segment originally identified as antigen II, associate with covalently attached P1 to form the functional adhesive layer. PMID:25666624

  10. Identification of a supramolecular functional architecture of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 on the bacterial cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kyle P; Sullan, Ruby May A; Crowley, Paula J; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Tang, Wenxing; Besingi, Richard; Dufrene, Yves F; Brady, L Jeannine

    2015-04-03

    P1 (antigen I/II) is a sucrose-independent adhesin of Streptococcus mutans whose functional architecture on the cell surface is not fully understood. S. mutans cells subjected to mechanical extraction were significantly diminished in adherence to immobilized salivary agglutinin but remained immunoreactive and were readily aggregated by fluid-phase salivary agglutinin. Bacterial adherence was restored by incubation of postextracted cells with P1 fragments that contain each of the two known adhesive domains. In contrast to untreated cells, glutaraldehyde-treated bacteria gained reactivity with anti-C-terminal monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), whereas epitopes recognized by mAbs against other portions of the molecule were masked. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated the ability of apical and C-terminal fragments of P1 to interact. Binding of several different anti-P1 mAbs to unfixed cells triggered release of a C-terminal fragment from the bacterial surface, suggesting a novel mechanism of action of certain adherence-inhibiting antibodies. We also used atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy with tips bearing various mAbs to elucidate the spatial organization and orientation of P1 on living bacteria. The similar rupture lengths detected using mAbs against the head and C-terminal regions, which are widely separated in the tertiary structure, suggest a higher order architecture in which these domains are in close proximity on the cell surface. Taken together, our results suggest a supramolecular organization in which additional P1 polypeptides, including the C-terminal segment originally identified as antigen II, associate with covalently attached P1 to form the functional adhesive layer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation; Analise comparativa entre os metodos de obtencao e das solucoes das equacoes P1 e B1 para moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  12. The deexcitation of the Ar (3P2, 3p1 and 1P1) states as measured by absorption both in pure argon and in the presence of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutuit, Odile

    1974-01-01

    The de-excitation of the 3 P 2 , 3 p 1 and 1 P 1 states of argon was studied in pure argon between 10 and 200 torr and in Ar + CO and Ar + H 2 mixtures. These states are populated after excitation of the gas by a short (20 ns) pulse of 500 keV electrons (FEBETRON). Under our experimental conditions, the relation between the measured optical density of the lines studied and the concentration of absorbing species was found to be: DO = log I 0 /I ∝ (lC) n with n = 0,4. The three body rate constants k 2 were measured for the two resonant states 3 p 1 (k 2 = (1,65 ± 0,3) x 10 -32 cm 6 s -1 ) and 1 P 1 (k 2 = (1,0 ± 0,2) x 10 -32 cm 6 s -1 ); they had not been considered in previous low pressure studies. For the metastable state 3 P 2 , the measured value of k 2 ((1,6 ± 0,3) x 10 -32 cm 6 s -1 ) is in good agreement with those found in the literature. However, our two body rate constant k 1 is about ten times higher than that found in measurements at low pressure. This difference could be due to a collision-induced emission process at high pressure. The rate constants for the quenching by CO and H 2 were measured for the metastable state 3 P 2 (1,85 and 10,5 x 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ) and for the resonant states 3 P 1 (4,5 and 20 x 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ) and 1 P 1 (8,5 and 33 X 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ). Comparison of the de-excitation cross sections of resonant and metastable states should lead to a better understanding of energy transfer processes from these latter. (author) [fr

  13. Energy-Transfer Kinetics for Xe (6p[1/2]0) Atoms in Kr, Ar, Ne, and He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Liu, Dong; Li, Xueyang; Chu, Junzhi; Guo, Jingwei; Liu, Jinbo; Hu, Shu; Sang, Fengting; Jin, Yuqi

    2018-06-11

    The kinetic processes for the Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms in Kr, Ar, Ne, and He buffer gases were studied. We found that Kr, Ar, and Ne atoms can be used to switch the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) channel from 3408 nm (6p[1/2] 0 -6s'[1/2] 1 ) to 3680 nm (5d[1/2] 1 -6p[1/2] 1 ), while Xe and He atoms do not show such a phenomenon. This ASE channel switch is mainly ascribed to the fast transfer of 6p[1/2] 0 → 5d[1/2] 1 . On the basis of the rate equations for two-state coupling (energy-transfer processes between the two states are very rapid), the reason why the ASE channel switch effect normally coincides with a double exponential decay of the spontaneous emission at 828 nm (6p[1/2] 0 -6s[3/2] 1 ) is explained. The actual situations in Xe, Ar, Ne, and He follow this rule. However, the strictly single exponential decay of the spontaneous emission at 828 nm and strong ASE channel switch effect simultaneously emerge in Kr. This indicates that the transfer of 6p[1/2] 0 → 5d[1/2] 1 in Kr does not occur via two-state coupling, but via two steps of near-resonance collision through the 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state as the intermediate state (6p[1/2] 0 → 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) → 5d[1/2] 1 ). In addition, we found Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms strongly tend to reach the 6p[3/2] 2 , 6p[3/2] 1 , and 6p[5/2] 2 states through the 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state as the intermediate state in Kr. The 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state plays a very important role in the energy-transfer kinetics for the Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms. Kr is probably an excellent buffer gas for laser systems based on Xe.

  14. Behavior of the P1.HTR mastocytoma cell line implanted in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Avram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The P1.HTR cell line includes highly transfectable cells derived from P815 mastocytoma cells originating from mouse breast tissue. Despite its widespread use in immunogenic studies, no data are available about the behavior of P1.HTR cells in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of P1.HTR cells implanted on the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos. We inoculated P1.HTR cells into the previously prepared chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and observed the early and late effects of these cells by stereomicroscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. A highly angiotropic and angiogenic effect occurred early after inoculation and a tumorigenic potential with the development of mastocytoma keeping well mast cells immunophenotype was detected later during the development. The P1.HTR mastocytoma cell line is a good tool for the development of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane mastocytoma model and also for other studies concerning the involvement of blood vessels. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model of mastocytoma retains the mast cell immunophenotype under experimental conditions and could be used as an experimental tool for in vivo preliminary testing of antitumor and antivascular drugs.

  15. The inhibitory NKR-P1B:Clr-b recognition axis facilitates detection of oncogenic transformation and cancer immunosurveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, M; Fine, Jason; Kirkham, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells express receptors specific for MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules involved in "missing-self" recognition of cancer and virus-infected cells. Here we elucidate the role of MHC-I-independent NKR-P1B:Clr-b interactions in the detection of oncogenic transformation by NK cells. Ras......-b protein, in turn promoting missing-self recognition via the NKR-P1B inhibitory receptor. Both Ras- and c-Myc-mediated Clr-b loss selectively augmented cytotoxicity of oncogene-transformed leukemia cells by NKR-P1B+ NK cells in vitro and enhanced rejection by WT mice in vivo. Interestingly, genetic...

  16. First reported cases of human adenovirus serotype 14p1 infection, Ireland, October 2009 to July 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Flanagan, D

    2011-02-01

    We report the first nine confirmed cases of human adenovirus 14p1 infection (HAdV-14p1), identified at different locations in Ireland between October 2009 and July 2010. These were the first notifications in Ireland and all were sporadic cases. Following these notifications, the Health Protection Surveillance Centre set up an enhanced surveillance system for HAdV-14p1 infection. Seven cases were male and five were aged less than one year. Three patients died, giving a case fatality rate of 33%. It should be noted that cases presented here were diagnosed on presentation to hospital and may represent the severe end of the spectrum of HAdV 14 disease in Ireland.

  17. Major grass pollen allergen Lol p 1 binds to diesel exhaust particles: implications for asthma and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R B; Suphioglu, C; Taylor, P; Desai, R; Watson, H C; Peng, J L; Bursill, L A

    1997-03-01

    Grass pollen allergens are known to be present in the atmosphere in a range of particle sizes from whole pollen grains (approx. 20 to 55 microns in diameter) to smaller size fractions Lol p 1, immunogold labelling with specific monoclonal antibodies and a high voltage transmission electron-microscopic imaging technique. DECP are visualized as small carbon spheres, each 30-60 nm in diameter, forming fractal aggregates about 1-2 microns in diameter. Here we test our hypothesis and show by in vitro experiments that the major grass pollen allergen, Lol p 1, binds to one defined class of fine particles, DECP. DECP are in the respirable size range, can bind to the major grass pollen allergen Lol p 1 under in vitro conditions and represent a possible mechanism by which allergens can become concentrated in polluted air and thus trigger attacks of asthma.

  18. Biotransformation of Pueraria lobata Extract with Lactobacillus rhamnosus vitaP1 Enhances Anti-Melanogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Eun; Lee, Jin Woo; Park, Yuna; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Choung, Eui Su; Jang, Seon-A; Kim, Inhye; Lee, Da Eun; Koo, Hyun Jung; Bak, Jong Phil; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kang, Se Chan

    2018-01-28

    Isoflavone itself is less available in the body without the aid of intestinal bacteria. In this study, we searched for isoflavone-transforming bacteria from human fecal specimens ( n = 14) using differential selection media. Isoflavone-transforming activity as the production of dihydrogenistein and dihydrodaidzein was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography and we found Lactobacillus rhamnosus , named L. rhamnosus vitaP1, through 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Extract from Pueraria lobata (EPL) and soy hypocotyl extract were fermented with L. rhamnosus vitaP1 for 24 and 48 h at 37°C. Fermented EPL (FEPL) showed enhanced anti-tyrosinase activity and antioxidant capacities, important suppressors of the pigmentation process, compared with that of EPL ( p Lactobacillus rhamnosus vitaP1 was found to be able to biotransform isoflavones in EPL. FEPL showed augmented anti-melanogenic potential.

  19. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects in Mn1.2Fe0.8P1-xGex compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Z Q; Wang, G F; Lin Song; Tegus, O; Brueck, E; Buschow, K H J

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects in the Mn 1.2 Fe 0.8 P 1-x Ge x compounds with x = 0.2, 0.22, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the Mn 1.2 Fe 0.8 P 1-x Ge x compounds crystallize in the hexagonal Fe 2 P-type crystal structure. The magnetic moments of the Mn 1.2 Fe 0.8 P 1-x Ge x compounds measured at 5 K and 5 T increase with increasing Ge content. The Curie temperature increases strongly and the magnetic entropy change has a maximum around 233 K for the compound with x = 0.22, which is about 19 and 31 J kg -1 K -1 for a field change of 2 and 5 T, respectively

  20. The Cucumber vein yellowing virus silencing suppressor P1b can functionally replace HCPro in Plum pox virus infection in a host-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Alberto; Dujovny, Gabriela; García, Juan Antonio; Valli, Adrian

    2012-02-01

    Plant viruses of the genera Potyvirus and Ipomovirus (Potyviridae family) use unrelated RNA silencing suppressors (RSS) to counteract antiviral RNA silencing responses. HCPro is the RSS of Potyvirus spp., and its activity is enhanced by the upstream P1 protein. Distinctively, the ipomovirus Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) lacks HCPro but contains two P1 copies in tandem (P1aP1b), the second of which functions as RSS. Using chimeras based on the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV), we found that P1b can functionally replace HCPro in potyviral infections of Nicotiana plants. Interestingly, P1a, the CVYV protein homologous to potyviral P1, disrupted the silencing suppression activity of P1b and reduced the infection efficiency of PPV in Nicotiana benthamiana. Testing the influence of RSS in host specificity, we found that a P1b-expressing chimera poorly infected PPV's natural host, Prunus persica. Conversely, P1b conferred on PPV chimeras the ability to replicate locally in cucumber, CVYV's natural host. The deleterious effect of P1a on PPV infection is host dependent, because the P1aP1b-expressing PPV chimera accumulated in cucumber to higher levels than PPV expressing P1b alone. These results demonstrate that a potyvirus can use different RSS, and that particular RSS and upstream P1-like proteins contribute to defining the virus host range.

  1. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  2. Comparison of two automated assays of BTM (CTX and P1NP) and reference intervals in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R; Møllehave, L T; Hansen, Y B L

    2017-01-01

    the agreement on the two platforms. METHODS: Fasting sera from 2308 individuals (1250 males and 1058 females, age range 24-76 years) participating in the Health2006 study were analyzed for CTX and P1NP using the automated IDS-iSYS analyzer and the automated Cobas e411 analyzer. Participants in anti......-osteoporotic treatment were excluded, while subjects on hormonal contraceptives were included. RESULTS: There was significant disagreement between both the two P1NP assays with a mean difference of -3 μg/L (LoA -19 to 14) (p

  3. Boro-norleucine as a P1 residue for the design of selective and potent DPP7 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreder, Kevin R; Wong, Melissa S; Corral, Sergio; Yu, Zhizhou; Winn, David T; Wu, Min; Hu, Yi; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Alemayehu, Senaiet; Fuller, Stacy R; Rosenblum, Jonathan S; Kozarich, John W

    2005-10-01

    Dipeptide-based inhibitors with C-substituted (alkyl or aminoalkyl) alpha-amino acids in the P2 position and boro-norleucine (boro-Nle) in the P1 position were synthesized. Relative to boro-proline, boro-Nle as a P1 residue was shown able to significantly dial out DPP4, FAP, DPP8, and DPP9 activity. Dab-boro-Nle (4g) proved to be the most selective and potent DPP7 inhibitor with a DPP7 IC50 value of 480 pM.

  4. [The obtainment and characteristics of Kalanchoe pinnata L. plants expressing the artificial gene of the cecropin P1 antimicrobial peptide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, N S; Rukavtsova, E B; Shevchuk, T V; Furs, O V; Pigoleva, S V; Lebedeva, A A; Chulina, I A; Baidakova, L K; Bur'yanov, Ya I

    2016-01-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata L. plants bearing an artificial CP1 gene encoding the cecropin P1 antimicrobial peptide have been obtained. The presence of the CP1 gene in the plant genome has been confirmed by PCR. Cecropin P1 synthesis in transgenic plants has been shown by MALDI mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The obtained plants have been highly resistant to bacterial and fungal phytopathogens, and their extracts have demonstrated antimicrobial activity towards human and animal pathogens. It has been shown that transgenic plants bearing the CP1 gene can be colonized by the beneficial associative microorganisms Methylovorus mays.

  5. Lost P1 allele in sh2 sweet corn: quantitative effects of p1 and a1 genes on concentrations of maysin, apimaysin, methoxymaysin, and chlorogenic acid in maize silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B Z; Zhang, Z J; Butrón, A; Widstrom, N W; Snook, M E; Lynch, R E; Plaisted, D

    2004-12-01

    In the United States, insecticide is used extensively in the production of sweet corn due to consumer demand for zero damage to ears and to a sweet corn genetic base with little or no resistance to ear-feeding insects. Growers in the southern United States depend on scheduled pesticide applications to control ear-feeding insects. In a study of quantitative genetic control over silk maysin, AM-maysin (apimaysin and methoxymaysin), and chlorogenic acid contents in an F2 population derived from GE37 (dent corn, P1A1) and 565 (sh2 sweet corn, p1a1), we demonstrate that the P1 allele from field corn, which was selected against in the development of sweet corn, has a strong epistatic interaction with the a1 allele in sh2 sweet corn. We detected that the p1 gene has significant effects (P silk maysin concentrations but also on AM-maysin, and chlorogenic acid concentrations. The a1 gene also has significant (P silk antibiotic chemicals. Successful selection from the fourth and fifth selfed backcrosses for high-maysin individuals of sweet corn homozygous for the recessive a1 allele (tightly linked to sh2) and the dominant P1 allele has been demonstrated. These selected lines have much higher (2 to 3 times) concentrations of silk maysin and other chemicals (AM-maysin and chlorogenic acid) than the donor parent GE37 and could enhance sweet corn resistance to corn earworm and reduce the number of applications of insecticide required to produce sweet corn.

  6. Transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from biogas plant digestates often belong to the IncP-1 epsilon subgroup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolters, B.; Kyselková, Martina; Krögerrecklenfort, E.; Kreuzig, R.; Smalla, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, January (2015), Article 765 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : IncP-1 epsilon plasmid * class 1 integrons * biogas plant digestate * antibiotic resistance * exogenous plasmid isolation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  7. The crystal structure of recombinant proDer p 1, a major house dust mite proteolytic allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meno, Kåre; Thorsted, Peter B; Ipsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Allergy to house dust mite is among the most prevalent allergic diseases worldwide. Most house dust mite allergic patients react to Der p 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which is a cysteine protease. To avoid heterogeneity in the sample used for crystallization, a modified recombinant...

  8. Immune response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 and P116 in patients with atypical pneumonia analyzed by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkelund Svend

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serology is often used for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is important to identify specific antigens that can distinguish between the presence or absence of antibodies against M. pneumoniae. The two proteins, P116 and P1, are found to be immunogenic. By using these in ELISA it is possible to identify an immune response against M. pneumoniae in serum samples. Results A recombinant protein derived from the P116 protein and one from the P1 protein were used in two ELISA tests, rP116-ELISA and rP1-ELISA. Human serum samples from patients with atypical pneumonia were tested and compared to the results of the complement fixation test. There was a good agreement between the two tests but the rP1-ELISA showed the best discrimination between positive and negative samples. Conclusion Two ELISA tests based on recombinant proteins have been analysed and compared to the complement fixation test results. The two ELISA tests were found suitable for use in serodiagnostics of M. pneumoniae infections. The use of specific antigens eliminates the risk of cross reaction to an immune response against other bacteria.

  9. The subcellular distribution of the human ribosomal "stalk" components: P1, P2 and P0 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, Marek; Krokowski, Dawid; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    The ribosomal "stalk" structure is a distinct lateral protuberance located on the large ribosomal subunit in prokaryotic, as well as in eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, this ribosomal structure is composed of the acidic ribosomal P proteins, forming two hetero-dimers (P1/P2) attached...

  10. Wavelength tunable InAs/InP(1 0 0) quantum dots in 1.55-µm telecom devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anantathanasarn, S.; Barbarin, Y.; Cade, N.I.; Veldhoven, van P.J.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Oei, Y.S.; Kamada, H.; Smit, M.K.; Nötzel, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the growth, characterization and device applications of self-assembled InAs/InP(1 0 0) quantum dots (QDs) formed by MOVPE. The problematic As/P exchange reaction during QD growth is suppressed by the insertion of a GaAs interlayer together with optimum growth conditions. This

  11. Ba3(P1−xMnxO4)2 : Blue/green inorganic materials based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ‡Chemical Science and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology ... We describe a blue/green inorganic material, Ba3(P1−xMnxO4)2 (I) based on tetrahedral MnO3−. 4 .... the synthesis at 600–950.

  12. Characterization of a broad host-spectrum virulent Salmonella bacteriophage fmb-p1 and its application on duck meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbao; Chen, Qiming; Zhang, Chong; Yang, Jie; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lu, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to find a virulent bacteriophage for the biocontrol of Salmonella in duck meat. A broad host-spectrum virulent phage, fmb-p1, was isolated and purified from an duck farm, and its host range was determined to include S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Saintpaul, S. Agona, S. Miami, S. Anatum, S. Heidelberg and S. Paratyphi-C. Electron microscopy and genome sequencing showed that fmb-p1 belongs to the family Siphoviridae. The genome of fmb-p1 is composed of a 43,327-bp double-stranded DNA molecule with 60 open reading frames and a total G+C content of 46.09%. There are no deleterious sequences or genes encoding known harmful products in the phage fmb-p1 genome. Phage fmb-p1 was stable under different temperature (40-75°C), pH (4-10) and NaCl solutions (1-11%). The phage treatment (9.9×10 9 PFU/cm 2 ) caused a peak reduction in S. Typhimurium of 4.52 log CFU/cm 2 in ready-to-eat (RTE) duck meat, whereas potassium sorbate treatment (PS, 2mg/cm 2 ) resulted in a 0.05-0.12 log reduction. Compared to PS treatment, there was significant difference in the S. Typhimurium reduction (P˂0.05) by phage treatment at both 4°C and 25°C. The results suggested that phage could be applied to reduce Salmonella, on commercial poultry products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spectroscopic constants and the potential energy curve of the iodine weakly bound 0+g state correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) dissociation limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, M E; Baturo, V V; Lukashov, S S; Poretsky, S A; Pravilov, A M

    2013-01-01

    The stepwise three-step three-colour aser excitation scheme and rotational as well as rovibrational energy transfer processes in the 0 + g state induced by collisions with He and Ar atoms are used for determination of rovibronic level energies of the weakly bound 0 + g state correlating with the I( 2 P 1/2 ) + I( 2 P 1/2 ) dissociation limit. Dunham coefficients of the state, Y i0 (i = 0–3), Y i1 (i = 0–3) and Y 02 for the v 0 g + = 0–16 and J 0 g + ≈ 14–135 ranges as well as the dissociation energy of the state, D e , and equilibrium I–I distance of the state, R e , are determined. The potential energy curve of the state constructed using these constants is also reported. (paper)

  14. Photoluminescence of heterostructures with GaP1−xNx and GaP1−x−yNxAsy layers grown on GaP and Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarenko, A. A.; Nikitina, E. V.; Sobolev, M. S.; Pirogov, E. V.; Denisov, D. V.; Egorov, A. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of heterostructures containing GaP 1−x N x ternary and GaP 1−x−y N x As y quaternary alloy layers are discussed. The heterostructures are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaP and Si substrates. The structures are studied by the high-resolution X-ray diffraction technique and photoluminescence measurements in a wide temperature range from 10 to 300 K. In the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the alloys with a low nitrogen fraction (x < 0.007), two clearly resolved narrow lines attributed to the localized states of nitrogen pairs and the phonon replicas of these lines are observed

  15. Effect of orbital alignment on the forward and reverse electronic energy transfer Ca(4s5p 1P1)+Marrow-right-leftCa(4s5p 3P/sub J/)+M with rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussert, W.; Neuschaefer, D.; Leone, S.R.; Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440)

    1987-01-01

    Effects of orbital alignment on the relative cross sections for electronic energy transfer are determined for the near resonant transfer between Ca(4s5p 1 P 1 ) and Ca(4s5p 3 P/sub J/) states with rare gas collision partners. The experiments are carried out by pulsed laser excitation in a crossed beam. The results for the forward direction, 1 P to 3 P, formulated in terms of the ratio of the maximum to minimum transfer probability are: 3 He 1.61 +- 0.05; He 1.60 +- 0.03; Ne 1.55 +- 0.10; Ar 1.52 +- 0.21; for Kr, transfer occurs, but no preference is distinguishable within 1 +- 0.2; Xe 1.44 +- 0.06. The results for He, Ne, and Ar indicate a clear preference in the transfer for the initially prepared molecular Pi state. For Xe the molecular Σ state is dominant. The energy transfer is also carried out in the reverse direction, 3 P 1 to 1 P, for He and Xe, obtaining 1.65 +- 0.10 and 1.94 +- 0.22, respectively. Analysis of the state preparation suggests that the reverse direction favors the asymptotic molecular Σ state for He and the molecular Pi state for Xe. These alignment results provide a first experimental determination of the dominant electronic states involved in a collisional energy transfer process

  16. An interesting charmonium state formation and decay: p p-bar → 1 D2 → 1 P1γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Murgia, F.; Negrao, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Massless perturbative QCD forbids, at leading order, the exclusive annihilation of proton-antiproton into some charmonium states, which however, have been observed in the pp channel, indicating the significance of higher order and non perturbative effects in the few GeV energy region. The most well known cases are those of the 1 S 0 (η c ) and the 1 P 1 . The case of the 1 D 2 is considered here and a way of detecting such a state through its typical angular distribution in the radiative decay 1 D 2 -> 1 D 2 -> 1 P 1 γ is suggested. Estimates of the branching ratio BR( 1 D 2 ->pp), as given by a quark-diquark model of the nucleon, mass corrections and an instanton induced process are presented. (author). 15 refs

  17. The structure of the mite allergen Blo t 1 explains the limited antibody cross-reactivity to Der p 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meno, Kåre H; Kastrup, Jette S; Kuo, I-Chun

    2017-01-01

    , recombinant proBlo t 1 (rproBlo t 1), determined at 2.1 Å resolution. Overall, the fold of rproBlo t 1 is characteristic for the pro-form of cysteine proteases from the C1A class. Structural comparison of experimentally mapped Der f 1/Der p1 IgG epitopes to the same surface patch on Blo t 1, as well...... as of sequence identity of surface exposed residues, suggests limited cross-reactivity between these allergens and Blo t 1. This is in agreement with ELISA inhibition results showing that, although cross-reactive human IgE epitopes exist, there are unique IgE epitopes for both Blo t 1 and Der p 1. This article...

  18. The Level of Mite Dermatophagoides’ Allergens (Der-p 1 and Der-f 1 in Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fereidouni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: House dust mite allergens especially pyroglyphid species are among the most important indoor allergens and have an important role in development of asthma and allergies. Materials and Methods: In current study, the level of two main allergens from mites including Der-p1 and Der-f 1 in dust of 28 homes in Birjand city was measured by ELISA method. Results: All samples were negative for Der-p1. Low leverl of Der-f 1 was detected in one sample. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis was 2%, 28% and 15% respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that House dust mites could not grow in Birjand climate.

  19. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria

    2006-01-01

    the peptide loading rate. The effect was evident only for an allelic subset and strictly correlated with the presence of glycine at the dimorphic position beta86 of the HLA-DR molecule. The residue forms the floor of the conserved pocket P1, located in the peptide binding site of MHC molecule. Apparently......, transient occupation of this pocket by the organic compound stabilizes the peptide-receptive conformation permitting rapid antigen loading. This interaction appeared restricted to the larger Gly(beta86) pocket and allowed striking enhancements of T cell responses for antigens presented by these "adamantyl......-susceptible" MHC molecules. As catalysts of antigen loading, compounds targeting P1 may be useful molecular tools to amplify the immune response. The observation, however, that the ligand repertoire can be affected through polymorphic sites form the outside may also imply that environmental factors could induce...

  20. Material properties and modeling characteristics for MnFeP1-xAsx materials for application in magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2013-01-01

    and thermal hysteresis, and it is not well understood how the hysteresis will affect performance in a practical AMR device. The amount of hysteresis shown by a material can be controlled to an extent by tuning the processing conditions used during material synthesis; therefore, knowledge of the practical......Compounds of MnFeP1-xAsx have received attention recently for their use in active magnetic regenerators (AMR) because of their relatively high isothermal entropy change and adiabatic temperature change with magnetization. However, the materials also generally exhibit a significant magnetic...... impact of hysteresis is a key element to guide successful material development and synthesis. The properties of a magnetocaloric MnFeP1-xAsx compound are characterized as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, and the results are used to assess the effects of hysteresis on magnetocaloric...

  1. A lifetime measurement of the 1s2p 3P1 level in helium-like Mg and Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, I.A.; Silver, J.D.; Traebert, E.; Oxford Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The lifetimes of the 1s2p 3 P 1 levels of helium-like magnesium and aluminium have been measured by the beam-foil decay curve technique. The 1s 2 -1s2p transitions were observed with a curved-crystal x-ray spectrometer. Decay curves taken under systematically varied conditions have been evaluated using several techniques including a cascade model. The results are in agreement with most of the theoretical predictions. (author)

  2. Characterization of the human T cell response to rye grass pollen allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, M D; Papalia, L; Eusebius, N P; O'Hehir, R E; Rolland, J M

    2002-12-01

    Knowledge of dominant T cell epitopes of major allergens recognized by allergic individuals is required to improve efficacy and safety of allergen immunotherapy. Rye grass pollen (RGP) is the most important source of seasonal aeroallergens in temperate climates and Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 are the two major IgE-reactive allergens. This study aimed to characterize the T cell response to these allergens using a large panel of RGP-sensitive individuals. Short-term RGP-specific T cell lines (TCL) were generated from 38 RGP-sensitive subjects and stimulated with Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5 allergens and synthetic 20-mer peptides. Proliferative responses were determined by 3H-thymidine uptake and IL-5 and IFN-gamma in culture supernatants analysed by ELISA. Of 17 subjects tested for reactivity to both allergens 16 (94%) responded to Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5, establishing these as major T cell-reactive allergens. Sites of T cell reactivity were spread throughout the allergen molecules but regions of high reactivity were found. For Lol p 1 these spanned residues 19-38, 109-128, 154-173, 190-209, and for Lol p 5 37-56, 100-119, 145-164, 154-173, 190-209, 217-236 and 226-245. IL-5 and IFN-gamma were produced by T cells cultured with proliferation-inducing peptides. T cell responses to RGP major allergens have been extensively characterized, providing fundamental information for developing T cell-targeted immunotherapy for RGP allergy.

  3. Filled and empty states of Zn-TPP films deposited on Fe(001-p(1×1O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianlorenzo Bussetti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zn-tetraphenylporphyrin (Zn-TPP was deposited on a single layer of metal oxide, namely an Fe(001-p(1×1O surface. The filled and empty electronic states were measured by means of UV photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy on a single monolayer and a 20 monolayer thick film. The ionization energy and the electron affinity of the organic film were deduced and the interface dipole was determined and compared with data available in the literature.

  4. Different Interfacial Behaviors of N- and C-Terminus Cysteine-Modified Cecropin P1 Chemically Immobilized onto Polymer Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    Anderson, G. P.; Ligler, F. S.; Shaffer, K. M.; Taitt, C. R. Antimicrobial peptides: New recognition molecules for detecting botulinum toxins ...as a biosensor for rapid detection of pathogens and toxins . Lab. Invest. 2007, 88 (2), 196−206. (20) Jonkheijm, P.; Weinrich, D.; Schröder, H...optics; Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1984; Vol. 575, p 1. (43) Shen, Y. R. Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation

  5. Crystal structure of an Anti-meningococcal subtype P1.4 PorA antibody provides basis for peptide-vaccine design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Clasien J.; Hoogerhout, Peter; Kuipers, Betsy; Vidarsson, Gestur; van Alphen, Loek; Gros, Piet

    2005-01-01

    In various western countries, subtype P1.4 of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B causes the greatest incidence of meningococcal disease. To investigate the molecular recognition of this subtype, we crystallised a peptide (P1HVVVNNKVATH(P11)), corresponding to the subtype P1.4 epitope sequence of

  6. The 2s1/2 → 2p1/2 + one photon transition in hydrogen and hydrogenlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    The 2s 1 / 2 → 2p 1 / 2 + one photon transition rate is calculated and discussed for hydrogen and hydrogenlike ions. It is noted that the induced transition rather than the spontaneous transition is of primary importance since it is the basis of many of the precision Lamb-shift measurements. The lack of a calculation of the transition rate other than a heuristic nonrelativistic derivation which requires a nontrivial assumption motivates the calculation presented here based on the external field approximation to quantum electrodynamics. It is found that the heuristic answer is correct in lowest order. In this derivation we see that the 2s 1 / 2 → 2p 1 / 2 + one photon transition gives an apparent contradiction to the often-stated remark that for the electric dipole matrix element there exist three equivalent representations, the ''length,'' ''velocity,'' and ''acceleration'' forms. The difficulties of an experimental determination of this transition rate using induced transitions in hydrogenlike ions are briefly noted as well as the somewhat different case of heavy muonic atoms where the spontaneous 2s 1 / 2 → 2p 1 / 2 + one photon transition has been observed

  7. A through calculation of 1,100 MWe PWR large break LOCA by THYDE-P1 EM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Masayuki; Asahi, Yoshiro; Hirano, Masashi

    1984-07-01

    THYDE-P1 is a code to analyze both the blowdown and refill-reflood phases of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Up to now, THYDE-P1 has been applied to various experiment analyses, which show its high capability to analyze LOCAs as a best estimate (BE) calculation code. In this report, evaluation model (EM) calculation method, especialy in the blowdown and refill phases, is established equivalently to WREM/J2 which is regarded as appropriate for an EM calculation code, and the results of them are compared and discussed. The present calculation was the first executed by THYDE-P1-EM, and was performed as Sample Calculation Run 80 which was a part of a series of THYDE-P sample calculations. The calculation was carried out from the LOCA initiation till 400 seconds for a guillotine break at the cold leg of a commercial 1,100 MWe PWR plant. The calculated results agreed well to that of the WREM/J2 code. (author)

  8. Functional characterization of replication and stability factors of an incompatibility group P-1 plasmid from Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Stenger, Drake C

    2010-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain riv11 harbors a 25-kbp plasmid (pXF-RIV11) belonging to the IncP-1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXF-RIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to replicate in X. fastidiosa and Escherichia coli. Replication in X. fastidiosa required a 1.4-kbp region from pXF-RIV11 containing a replication initiation gene (trfA) and the adjacent origin of DNA replication (oriV). Constructs containing trfA and oriV from pVEIS01, a related IncP-1 plasmid of the earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae, also were competent for replication in X. fastidiosa. Constructs derived from pXF-RIV11 but not pVEIS01 replicated in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Xanthomonas campestris, and Pseudomonas syringae. Although plasmids bearing replication elements from pXF-RIV11 or pVEIS01 could be maintained in X. fastidiosa under antibiotic selection, removal of selection resulted in plasmid extinction after 3 weekly passages. Addition of a toxin-antitoxin addiction system (pemI/pemK) from pXF-RIV11 improved plasmid stability such that >80 to 90% of X. fastidiosa cells retained plasmid after 5 weekly passages in the absence of antibiotic selection. Expression of PemK in E. coli was toxic for cell growth, but toxicity was nullified by coexpression of PemI antitoxin. Deletion of N-terminal sequences of PemK containing the conserved motif RGD abolished toxicity. In vitro assays revealed a direct interaction of PemI with PemK, suggesting that antitoxin activity of PemI is mediated by toxin sequestration. IncP-1 plasmid replication and stability factors were added to an E. coli cloning vector to constitute a stable 6.0-kbp shuttle vector (pXF20-PEMIK) suitable for use in X. fastidiosa.

  9. Magnetocaloric effects in Mn1.35Fe0.65P1−xSix compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yao-Xiang; Tegus O; Bi Li-Ge

    2012-01-01

    The structural and magnetocaloric properties of Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 1−x Si x compounds are investigated. The Si-substituted compounds, Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 1−x Si x with x = 0.52, 0.54, 0.55, 0.56, and 0.57, are prepared by high-energy ball milling and the solid-state reaction. The X-ray diffraction shows that the compounds crystallize into the Fe 2 P-type hexagonal structure with space group P6-bar2m. The magnetic measurements show that the Curie temperature of the compound increases from 253 K for x = 0.52 to 296 K for x = 0.56. The isothermal magnetic-entropy change of the Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 1−x Si x compound decreases with the Si content increasing. The maximal value of the magnetic-entropy change is about 7.0 J/kg·K in the Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 0.48 Si 0.52 compound with a field change of 1.5 T. The compound quenched in water possesses a larger magnetic entropy change and a smaller thermal hysteresis than the non-quenched samples. The thermal hysteresis of the compound is less than 3.5 K. The maximum adiabatic temperature change is about 1.4 K in the Mn 1.35 Fe 0.65 P 0.45 Si 0.55 compound with a field change of 1.48 T. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SHADOK-3-6, Transport Equation with Anisotropic Diffusion in P1 Approximation for Spherical and Cylindrical Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligou, J.; Thomi, P.A.

    1973-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Integral transport equation, anisotropy of diffusion in P1 approximation. SHADOK3 - cylindrical geometry; direct solution of the linear system. SHADOK4 - cylindrical geometry; Thermalization iteration; solution of the linear system with inverse matrix calculation. SHADOK5 - like SHADOK3 for spherical geometry. SHADOK6 - like SHADOK4 for spherical geometry. 2 - Method of solution: Analysis in terms of annuli for each of which polynomial approximation is applied. Dynamic allocation (for formulas see report TM(10)). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Relative accuracy of the Bickley functions about 1.0E-13

  12. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on InP1−xBix grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X Y; Wang, K; Pan, W W; Wang, P; Li, Y Y; Song, Y X; Gu, Y; Yue, L; Xu, H; Zhang, Z P; Cui, J; Gong, Q; Wang, S M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of InP 1−x Bi x thin films was investigated. InPBi shows good thermal stability up to 500 °C and a modest improvement in photoluminescence (PL) intensity with an unchanged PL spectral feature. Bismuth outdiffusion from InPBi and strain relaxation are observed at about 600 °C. The InPBi sample annealed at 800 °C shows an unexpected PL spectrum with different energy transitions. (paper)

  13. J{sup P} = (1)/(2){sup +}, (3)/(2){sup +} masses in the statistical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Upadhyay, Alka [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Patiala (India)

    2016-11-15

    The mass formulae for the baryon octet and decuplet are calculated. These formulae are function of constituent quark masses and spin-spin interaction terms for the quarks inside the baryons. The coefficients in the mass formulae are estimated by the statistical model for J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +}, incorporating the contributions from the ''sea'' containing u anti u, d anti d, s anti s pairs and gluons. The measured masses are presented and found to be matching well with some of the experimental and theoretical data. (orig.)

  14. Response surface optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources for nuclease P1 production by Penicillium citrinum F-5-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xinle; Huang Yingying; Zhang Hong; Chen Min; Liu Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium citrinum F-5-5, a nuclease P1 high-producing strain with 978.6 U/ml in potato glucose medium, was derived from the original Penicillium citrinum CICC 4011 with 60 Co γ-rays irradiation mutation and then protoplasts fusion treatment. Culture components were optimized for the nuclease P1 production, and response surface methodology was applied for the critical medium components(carbon and nitrogen sources) which were preselected by Plackett-Burman design approach. Glucose, soluble starch and corn steep powder showed significant effects on production of nuclease. Central composite design was used for the optimization levels by software Minitab 15, and it showed that, the optimal values for the concentration of glucose, soluble starch and corn steep powder were 30.89, 42.46 and 11.60 g/L, respectively. With this medium,an enzyme activity of 1687.16 U/ml could be obtained theoretically. Using this optimized medium, an experimental enzyme activity of 1672.6 U/ml was reached. (authors)

  15. AtHMA3, a P1B-ATPase allowing Cd/Zn/Co/Pb vacuolar storage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Mélanie; Crouzet, Jérôme; Gravot, Antoine; Auroy, Pascaline; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Vavasseur, Alain; Richaud, Pierre

    2009-02-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Heavy Metal Associated3 (AtHMA3) protein belongs to the P1B-2 subgroup of the P-type ATPase family, which is involved in heavy metal transport. In a previous study, we have shown, using heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that in the presence of toxic metals, AtHMA3 was able to phenotypically complement the cadmium/lead (Cd/Pb)-hypersensitive strain ycf1 but not the zinc (Zn)-hypersensitive strain zrc1. In this study, we demonstrate that AtHMA3 in planta is located in the vacuolar membrane, with a high expression level in guard cells, hydathodes, vascular tissues, and the root apex. Confocal imaging in the presence of the Zn/Cd fluorescent probe BTC-5N revealed that AtHMA3 participates in the vacuolar storage of Cd. A T-DNA insertional mutant was found more sensitive to Zn and Cd. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of AtHMA3 improved plant tolerance to Cd, cobalt, Pb, and Zn; Cd accumulation increased by about 2- to 3-fold in plants overexpressing AtHMA3 compared with wild-type plants. Thus, AtHMA3 likely plays a role in the detoxification of biological (Zn) and nonbiological (Cd, cobalt, and Pb) heavy metals by participating in their vacuolar sequestration, an original function for a P1B-2 ATPase in a multicellular eukaryote.

  16. Univariate Lp and ɭ p Averaging, 0 < p < 1, in Polynomial Time by Utilization of Statistical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Lavery

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence that one can calculate generically combinatorially expensive Lp and lp averages, 0 < p < 1, in polynomial time by restricting the data to come from a wide class of statistical distributions. Our approach differs from the approaches in the previous literature, which are based on a priori sparsity requirements or on accepting a local minimum as a replacement for a global minimum. The functionals by which Lp averages are calculated are not convex but are radially monotonic and the functionals by which lp averages are calculated are nearly so, which are the keys to solvability in polynomial time. Analytical results for symmetric, radially monotonic univariate distributions are presented. An algorithm for univariate lp averaging is presented. Computational results for a Gaussian distribution, a class of symmetric heavy-tailed distributions and a class of asymmetric heavy-tailed distributions are presented. Many phenomena in human-based areas are increasingly known to be represented by data that have large numbers of outliers and belong to very heavy-tailed distributions. When tails of distributions are so heavy that even medians (L1 and l1 averages do not exist, one needs to consider using lp minimization principles with 0 < p < 1.

  17. Band gap calculations of the semiconductor BNxP1−x using modified Becke–Johnson approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkraouda, M.; Amrane, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The Modified Becke–Johnson scheme gives a very accurate band gap. ► We have shown the invalidity of Vegard’s linear rule for BN x P 1−x . ► The band gap changes with alloy concentration are important in band gap engineering. - Abstract: In this work, the electronic properties of BN, BP and BN x P 1−x compounds have been investigated by means of first-principles density-functional total-energy calculation using the all-electron full potential linear augmented plane-wave method (FP-LAPW). The (FP-LAPW) method was used within the density functional theory (DFT) along with the Engel–Vosko and Becke–Johnson exchange correlation potential. The energy bands along high symmetry directions, the density of states and bowing distributions are calculated. The results have been discussed in terms of previously existing experimental and theoretical data, and comparisons with similar compounds have been made. Analysis of band structure suggests direct and pseudo-direct band gaps for both compounds.

  18. Evidence of the 2s2p(1P) doubly excited state in the harmonic generation spectrum of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoko Djiokap, J. M.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    By solving the two-active-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation in an intense, ultrashort laser field, we investigate evidence of electron correlations in the high-order harmonic generation spectrum of helium. As the frequency of the driving laser pulse varies from 4.6 to 6.6 eV, the 13th, 11th, and 9th harmonics sequentially become resonant with the transition between the ground state and the isolated 2s2p( 1 P) autoionizing state of helium, which dramatically enhances these harmonics and changes their profiles. When each of the 9th and 13th harmonics are in resonance with this autoionizing state, there is also a low-order multiphoton resonance with a Rydberg state, resulting in a particularly large enhancement of these harmonics relative to neighboring harmonics. When the 11th harmonic is in resonance with the 2s2p( 1 P) autoionizing state, the 13th harmonic is simultaneously in resonance with numerous higher-energy autoionizing states, resulting in a competition between these two harmonics for intensity. These results demonstrate that even electron correlations occurring over a narrow energy interval can have a significant effect on strong-field processes such as harmonic generation.

  19. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-10-25

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstream contact suppresses open complex formation at galP1 at lower temperatures. In ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes, alpha appears to make direct contact with Activating Region 1 in CRP. DNAase I footprinting has been used to detect and quantify interactions between purified alpha and CRP bound at galP1.

  20. 35S Promoter Methylation in Kanamycin-Resistant Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe pinnata L.) Plants Expressing the Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 Transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, T V; Zakharchenko, N S; Tarlachkov, S V; Furs, O V; Dyachenko, O V; Buryanov, Y I

    2016-09-01

    Transgenic kalanchoe plants (Kalanchoe pinnata L.) expressing the antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 gene (cecP1) under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter and the selective neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene under the control of the nopaline synthase gene promoter were studied. The 35S promoter methylation and the cecropin P1 biosynthesis levels were compared in plants growing on media with and without kanamycin. The low level of active 35S promoter methylation further decreases upon cultivation on kanamycin-containing medium, while cecropin P1 synthesis increases.

  1. Synthesis of diadenosine 5', 5'''-P1, P4-tetraphosphate (AP4A) in sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Mizue; Shimada, Hiraku

    1984-01-01

    Sea urchin embryos were labeled with ( 3 H)adenosine at two developmental stages (morula and prism) and the labeled acid-soluble nucleotides were fractionated successively by column chromatography with DEAE-Sephadex and DEAE-cellulose, and by thin-layer chromatography on a PEI-cellulose plate. Significant radioactivity was detected on the PEI-cellulose plate at the region of diadenosine 5', 5'''-P 1 , P 4 -tetraphosphate (AP 4 A). After treatment of this fraction with phosphodiesterase, the radioactivity was all recovered in the AMP region, while alkaline phosphatase had no effect on the AP 4 A fraction. The present result suggests that AP 4 A is actively synthesized in the sea urchin embryos. (author)

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of reaction of p-(1,1', 3,3'-tetramethylbutyl)phenol with phosphoric pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didi, Mohamed Amine; Elias Abdelhamid

    1998-12-01

    Some aspects dealing with the mechanisms and the kinetics of the reaction between phosphorus pentoxide and p-(1,1',3,3'-tetramethylbutyl)phenol were investigated, by means of the 31P nmr technique . The kinetic model considered showed that only the time and, to a lesser extent, the temperature of the reaction seem to the yield. The reactant mode ratio does not exhibit any effect upon the MOPPA DOPPA ratio. A series of adequate experiments based on the 2 factorial 3 plane method allowed to confirm these results. The tripyroesters were identified as being the longest intermediates detected by nmr. In the reaction mixture no traces of phosphoric triester (t- TOPPA) were detected

  3. Doubly excited 2s2p 1,3Po resonance states of helium in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Sabyasachi; Ho, Y.K.

    2005-01-01

    We have made an investigation on the 2s2p 1,3 P o resonance states of helium embedded in dense plasma environments. A screened Coulomb potential obtained from the Debye model is used to represent the interaction between the charge particles. A correlated wave function consisting of a generalized exponential expansion has been used to represent the correlation effect. Resonance energies and widths for the doubly excited He embedded in plasmas with various Debye lengths are determined using the stabilization method by calculating the density of resonance states. The resonance energies and widths for various Debye parameters ranging from infinity to a small value for the lowest 1,3 P o resonance states are reported

  4. A model description of the first-order phase transition in MnFeP1-x As x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegus, O.; Lin, G.X.; Dagula, W.; Fuquan, B.; Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a description of the critical behavior at the first-order phase transition in MnFeP 1- x As x system in terms of the Bean-Rodbell model. Within the molecular-field approximation, the Gibbs free energy of the system is expressed in terms of the exchange interaction, the elastic energy, the entropy term, the pressure term and the Zeeman energy. A magnetic-state equation has been obtained by minimizing the Gibbs free energy with respect to the volume and the magnetization. The characteristic parameters for the phase transition observed in this system have been obtained by fitting our experimental data. The results show that the magnetoelastic coupling plays a very important role in the mechanism of the phase transition

  5. Form factors and transition charge densities for the quadrupole and hexadecupole electroexcitation of some 2p-1f shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, P.K.; Sharma, S.K.

    1986-12-01

    A microscopic description of the recent data on the inelastic electron scattering form factors for the O + → 2 + as well as O + → 4 + transitions in some doubly even Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn isotopes is attempted in terms of the projected Hartree-Fock-Bogolubov wave functions resulting from realistic effective interactions operating in the 2p-1f shell. It turns out that the available form factor data out to about 2.5fm -1 can be reproduced in most of the cases in a fairly satisfactory manner in terms of reasonable values of effective charges. It is seen that the empirical transition charge densities in Ni and Zn isotopes extracted from the form factor data via the Fourier-Bessel analysis play a decisive role vis-a-vis the choice of a model of core-polarization contributions. (author). 28 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  6. THE PLASMA ENVIRONMENT IN COMETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES: APPLICATION TO COMET C/2006 P1 (MCNAUGHT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M.; Gombosi, T.; Toth, G. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jia, Y.-D. [IGPP, and EPSS, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rubin, M. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-08-20

    On 2007 January 12, comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) passed its perihelion at 0.17 AU. Abundant remote observations offer plenty of information on the neutral composition and neutral velocities within 1 million kilometers of the comet nucleus. In early February, the Ulysses spacecraft made an in situ measurement of the ion composition, plasma velocity, and magnetic field when passing through the distant ion tail and the ambient solar wind. The measurement by Ulysses was made when the comet was at around 0.8 AU. With the constraints provided by remote and in situ observations, we simulated the plasma environment of Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) using a multi-species comet MHD model over a wide range of heliocentric distances from 0.17 to 1.75 AU. The solar wind interaction of the comet at various locations is characterized and typical subsolar standoff distances of the bow shock and contact surface are presented and compared to analytic solutions. We find the variation in the bow shock standoff distances at different heliocentric distances is smaller than the contact surface. In addition, we modified the multi-species model for the case when the comet was at 0.7 AU and achieved comparable water group ion abundances, proton densities, plasma velocities, and plasma temperatures to the Ulysses/SWICS and SWOOPS observations. We discuss the dominating chemical reactions throughout the comet-solar wind interaction region and demonstrate the link between the ion composition near the comet and in the distant tail as measured by Ulysses.

  7. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Modisa Sekhamo; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi Omoniyi

    2016-01-01

    Botswana is among the world's countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population. 348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive) samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status. The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1. The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic.

  8. Intermittent PTHrP(1–34) Exposure Augments Chondrogenesis and Reduces Hypertrophy of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jennifer; Aulmann, Antje; Dexheimer, Verena; Grossner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Phenotype instability and premature hypertrophy prevent the use of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cartilage regeneration. Aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent supplementation of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), as opposed to constant treatment, can beneficially influence MSC chondrogenesis and to explore molecular mechanisms below catabolic and anabolic responses. Human MSCs subjected to chondrogenic induction in high-density culture received PTHrP(1–34), forskolin, dbcAMP, or PTHrP(7–34) either constantly or via 6-h pulses (three times weekly), before proteoglycan, collagen type II, and X deposition; gene expression; and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were assessed. While constant application of PTHrP(1–34) suppressed chondrogenesis of MSCs, pulsed application significantly increased collagen type 2 (COL2A1) gene expression and the collagen type II, proteoglycan, and DNA content of pellets after 6 weeks. Collagen type 10 (COL10A1) gene expression was little affected but Indian hedgehog (IHH) expression and ALP activity were significantly downregulated by pulsed PTHrP. A faster response to PTHrP exposure was recorded for ALP activity over COL2A1 regulation, suggesting that signal duration is critical for catabolic versus anabolic reactions. Stimulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling by forskolin reproduced major effects of both treatment modes, whereas application of PTHrP(7–34) capable of protein kinase C (PKC) signaling was ineffective. Pulsed PTHrP exposure of MSCs stimulated chondrogenesis and reduced endochondral differentiation apparently uncoupling chondrogenic matrix deposition from hypertrophic marker expression. cAMP/PKA was the major signaling pathway triggering the opposing effects of both treatment modes. Intermittent application of PTHrP represents an important novel means to improve chondrogenesis of MSCs and may be considered as a supporting clinical

  9. From spin groups and modular P1CT symmetry to covariant representations and the spin-statistics theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, R.

    2007-03-01

    Starting from the assumption of modular P 1 CT symmetry in quantum field theory a representation of the universal covering of the Poincar'e group is constructed in terms of pairs of modular conjugations. The modular conjugations are associated with field algebras of unbounded operators localised in wedge regions. It turns out that an essential step consists in characterising the universal covering group of the Lorentz group by pairs of wedge regions, in conjunction with an analysis of its geometrical properties. In this thesis two approaches to this problem are developed in four spacetime dimensions. First a realisation of the universal covering as the quotient space over the set of pairs of wedge regions is presented. In spite of the intuitive definition, the necessary properties of a covering space are not straightforward to prove. But the geometrical properties are easy to handle. The second approach takes advantage of the well-known features of spin groups, given as subgroups of Clifford algebras. Characterising elements of spin groups by pairs of wedge regions is possible in an elegant manner. The geometrical analysis is performed by means of the results achieved in the first approach. These geometrical properties allow for constructing a representation of the universal cover of the Lorentz group in terms of pairs of modular conjugations. For this representation the derivation of the spin-statistics theorem is straightforward, and a PCT operator can be defined. Furthermore, it is possible to transfer the results to nets of field algebras in algebraic quantum field theory with ease. Many of the usual assumptions in quantum field theory like the spectrum condition or the existence of a covariant unitary representation, as well as the assumption on the quantum field to have only finitely many components, are not required. For the standard axioms, the crucial assumption of modular P 1 CT symmetry constitutes no loss of generality because it is a consequence of

  10. THE PLASMA ENVIRONMENT IN COMETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES: APPLICATION TO COMET C/2006 P1 (MCNAUGHT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M.; Gombosi, T.; Toth, G.; Jia, Y.-D.; Rubin, M.

    2015-01-01

    On 2007 January 12, comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) passed its perihelion at 0.17 AU. Abundant remote observations offer plenty of information on the neutral composition and neutral velocities within 1 million kilometers of the comet nucleus. In early February, the Ulysses spacecraft made an in situ measurement of the ion composition, plasma velocity, and magnetic field when passing through the distant ion tail and the ambient solar wind. The measurement by Ulysses was made when the comet was at around 0.8 AU. With the constraints provided by remote and in situ observations, we simulated the plasma environment of Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) using a multi-species comet MHD model over a wide range of heliocentric distances from 0.17 to 1.75 AU. The solar wind interaction of the comet at various locations is characterized and typical subsolar standoff distances of the bow shock and contact surface are presented and compared to analytic solutions. We find the variation in the bow shock standoff distances at different heliocentric distances is smaller than the contact surface. In addition, we modified the multi-species model for the case when the comet was at 0.7 AU and achieved comparable water group ion abundances, proton densities, plasma velocities, and plasma temperatures to the Ulysses/SWICS and SWOOPS observations. We discuss the dominating chemical reactions throughout the comet-solar wind interaction region and demonstrate the link between the ion composition near the comet and in the distant tail as measured by Ulysses

  11. Measurement of IgE antibodies against purified grass pollen allergens (Lol p 1, 2, 3 and 5) during immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ree, R; Van Leeuwen, W A; Dieges, P H; Van Wijk, R G; De Jong, N; Brewczyski, P Z; Kroon, A M; Schilte, P P; Tan, K Y; Simon-Licht, I F; Roberts, A M; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C

    1997-01-01

    IgE titres tend to rise early after the start of immunotherapy, followed by a decline to pre-immunotherapy levels or lower. We were interested to know whether the early increase in IgE antibodies includes new specificities of IgE, and whether these responses persist. Sera of 64 patients undergoing grass pollen immunotherapy were tested for IgE against four purified grass pollen allergens: Lol p 1, 2, 3, and 5. At least two serum samples were taken, one before the start of therapy and one between 5 and 18 months after the first immunization (mean: 10 months). The mean IgE responses to Lol p 1, 2 and 3 showed a moderate but not significant increase. In contrast, the mean IgE response to Lol p 5 showed a significant decrease of > 30%. IgE against total Lohum perenne pollen extract moderately increased (> 20%), showing that a RAST for total pollen is not always indicative for the development of IgE against its major allergens. For > 40% of the patients it was found that IgE against one or more of the four allergens increased, while IgE against the remaining allergen(s) decreased. For 10 sera the ratio of IgE titres against at least two allergens changed by at least a factor of 5. The changes in specific IgE also included conversions from negative (< 0.1 RU) to positive (0.6 to 5.0 RU) for five patients. For two patients, the induction of these 'new' IgE antibodies against major allergens was shown to result in a response that was persistent over several years. Although active induction of new IgE specificities by immunotherapy was not really proven, the observations in this study indicate that monitoring of IgE against purified (major) allergens is necessary to evaluate changes in specific IgE in a reliable way.

  12. Structure determination of Ga As (110) p (1 x 1) - Sb using scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascolani, H.; Asensio, M.C.; Fritzsche, W.

    1996-01-01

    Photoelectron diffraction (PD) in the scanned-energy mode has proven to be a powerfull tool for structural determination of the first few surface layers. The scanned-energy mode involves the measurement of the intensity of photoelectrons emitted from a core level as a function of the incident photon energy for different emission directions. The atom specificity of PD allows the investigation of the local structure of adsorbed atoms without interference of the substrate. In addition, if a measurable chemical shift exists, this technique is also able to discriminate between atoms of the same species adsorbed in inequivalent sites. The Ga As (110) p (1x1)-Sb (1 ML) surface represents a prototype system to study atom adsorption on III-V semiconductors. The epitaxial continued layer structure (ECLS) is generally accepted as the geometry corresponding to this surface, although some authors have claimed that the p 3 model forms a stable geometry equivalent to the ECLS, and that it provides an equally good description of their experimental results. So far, the conclusions about the atomic structure of this surface had been derived on the basis of indirect methods. This work exploits to the utmost the possibilities of analysis offered by the scanned-energy PD technique, namely, chemical shift analysis and direct inversion. The energy spectrum of Sb-4d photoelectrons emitted from the Ga As (110)-p (1x1) Sb surface has two chemically-shifted components. We have inverted the scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction data corresponding to these two components to obtain the positions of the Ga and As atoms which are nearest neighbors of two inequivalent Sb atoms. Our results contradict various models proposed for this surface and are consistent only with the ECLS. For a more detailed atomic structure determination, the best fit between experiment and multiple-scattering calculations was determined by a trial-and-error procedure. (author)

  13. Medium optimization for nuclease P1 production by Penicillium citrinum in solid-state fermentation using polyurethane foam as inert carrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.; Smits, J.P.; Bol, J.

    1996-01-01

    A solid-state fermentation system, using polyurethane foam as an inert carrier, was used for the production of nuclease P1 by Penicillium citrinum. Optimization of nuclease P1 production was carried out using a synthetic liquid medium. After a two-step medium optimization using a fractional

  14. Tobacco etch virus protein P1 traffics to the nucleolus and associates with the host 60S ribosomal subunits during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The genus Potyvirus comprises a large group of positive-strand RNA plant viruses whose genome encodes a large polyprotein processed by three viral proteinases. P1 protein, the most amino-terminal product of the polyprotein, is an accessory factor stimulating viral genome amplification whose role during infection is not well understood. We infected plants with Tobacco etch virus (TEV; genus Potyvirus) clones in which P1 was tagged with a fluorescent protein to track its expression and subcellular localization or with an affinity tag to identify host proteins involved in complexes in which P1 also takes part during infection. Our results showed that TEV P1 exclusively accumulates in infected cells at an early stage of infection and that the protein displays a dynamic subcellular localization, trafficking in and out of the nucleus and nucleolus during infection. Inside the nucleolus, P1 particularly targets the dense granular component. Consistently, we found functional nucleolar localization and nuclear export signals in TEV P1 sequence. Our results also indicated that TEV P1 physically interacts with the host 80S cytoplasmic ribosomes and specifically binds to the 60S ribosomal subunits during infection. In vitro translation assays of reporter proteins suggested that TEV P1 stimulates protein translation, particularly when driven from the TEV internal ribosome entry site. These in vitro assays also suggested that TEV helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) inhibits protein translation. Based on these findings, we propose that TEV P1 stimulates translation of viral proteins in infected cells. In this work, we researched the role during infection of tobacco etch virus P1 protease. P1 is the most mysterious protein of potyviruses, a relevant group of RNA viruses infecting plants. Our experiments showed that the viral P1 protein exclusively accumulates in infected cells at an early stage of infection and moves in and out of the nucleus of infected cells, particularly

  15. Error-prone bypass of O6-methylguanine by DNA polymerase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shiling; Xiong, Jingyuan; Shi, Ying; You, Jia; Zou, Zhenyu; Liu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Huidong

    2017-09-01

    O 6 -Methylguanine (O 6 -MeG) is highly mutagenic and is commonly found in DNA exposed to methylating agents, generally leads to G:C to A:T mutagenesis. To study DNA replication encountering O 6 -MeG by the DNA polymerase (gp90) of P. aeruginosa phage PaP1, we analyzed steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of nucleotide incorporation opposite O 6 -MeG by gp90 exo - . O 6 -MeG partially inhibited full-length extension by gp90 exo - . O 6 -MeG greatly reduces dNTP incorporation efficiency, resulting in 67-fold preferential error-prone incorporation of dTTP than dCTP. Gp90 exo - extends beyond T:O 6 -MeG 2-fold more efficiently than C:O 6 -MeG. Incorporation of dCTP opposite G and incorporation of dCTP or dTTP opposite O 6 -MeG show fast burst phases. The pre-steady-state incorporation efficiency (k pol /K d,dNTP ) is decreased in the order of dCTP:G>dTTP:O 6 -MeG>dCTP:O 6 -MeG. The presence of O 6 -MeG at template does not affect the binding affinity of polymerase to DNA but it weakened their binding in the presence of dCTP and Mg 2+ . Misincorporation of dTTP opposite O 6 -MeG further weakens the binding affinity of polymerase to DNA. The priority of dTTP incorporation opposite O 6 -MeG is originated from the fact that dTTP can induce a faster conformational change step and a faster chemical step than dCTP. This study reveals that gp90 bypasses O 6 -MeG in an error-prone manner and provides further understanding in DNA replication encountering mutagenic alkylation DNA damage for P. aeruginosa phage PaP1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural Analysis of Der p 1–Antibody Complexes and Comparison with Complexes of Proteins or Peptides with Monoclonal Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osinski, Tomasz; Pomés, Anna; Majorek, Karolina A.; Glesner, Jill; Offermann, Lesa R.; Vailes, Lisa D.; Chapman, Martin D.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian (INDOOR); (UV); (SC)

    2015-05-29

    Der p 1 is a major allergen from the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, that belongs to the papain-like cysteine protease family. To investigate the antigenic determinants of Der p 1, we determined two crystal structures of Der p 1 in complex with the Fab fragments of mAbs 5H8 or 10B9. Epitopes for these two Der p 1–specific Abs are located in different, nonoverlapping parts of the Der p 1 molecule. Nevertheless, surface area and identity of the amino acid residues involved in hydrogen bonds between allergen and Ab are similar. The epitope for mAb 10B9 only showed a partial overlap with the previously reported epitope for mAb 4C1, a cross-reactive mAb that binds Der p 1 and its homolog Der f 1 from Dermatophagoides farinae. Upon binding to Der p 1, the Fab fragment of mAb 10B9 was found to form a very rare α helix in its third CDR of the H chain. To provide an overview of the surface properties of the interfaces formed by the complexes of Der p 1–10B9 and Der p 1–5H8, along with the complexes of 4C1 with Der p 1 and Der f 1, a broad analysis of the surfaces and hydrogen bonds of all complexes of Fab–protein or Fab–peptide was performed. This work provides detailed insight into the cross-reactive and specific allergen–Ab interactions in group 1 mite allergens. The surface data of Fab–protein and Fab–peptide interfaces can be used in the design of conformational epitopes with reduced Ab binding for immunotherapy.

  17. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, Carolina V.; Santana-Van-Vliet, Eliane; Lemos, Julia P.; Moreira, Otacilio C.; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius; Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5). S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL) did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM) did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000–10000 nM) through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts. PMID:26824863

  18. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V Messias

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5. S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000-10000 nM through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts.

  19. Factor VIII S373L: mutation at P1' site confers thrombin cleavage resistance, causing mild haemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D J; Pemberton, S; Acquila, M; Mori, P G; Tuddenham, E G; O'Brien, D P

    1994-04-01

    A novel CRM+ mutation, factor VIII position 373 serine to leucine substitution (FVIII 373-Leu) was identified during a survey of Factor VIII (FVIII) mutations. We have purified the variant protein from the patient's plasma in order to allow further characterisation of the molecule. The CRM+ plasma contained 120% Factor VIII antigen (FVIII:Ag) and 6% Factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C). After purification the mutant FVIII was subjected to thrombin proteolysis, and was thereby activated 5.6-fold compared with 7-fold for wild type molecule. Subsequently, spontaneous inactivation of the mutant was much slower than noted for wild type FVIII. Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that thrombin cleavage of FVIII 373-Leu at positions 740 and 1689 were normal but that cleavage at position 372 was completely absent. Crystallographic coordinates of the active site of thrombin complexed to fibrinopeptide A were used to explore possible mechanistic reasons for the failure of thrombin to cleave the mutant FVIII at position 372. Steric hindrance between the mutant side chain and the side chain of the P1 residue was apparent. We conclude that the functional defect of FVIII 373-Leu results from the inability of thrombin to cleave the mutant at position 372-373, and propose that this is due to steric hindrance by the side chain of leucine 373, preventing correct formation of the enzyme substrate complex.

  20. Bragg gravity-gradiometer using the 1S0–3P1 intercombination transition of 88Sr

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, R. P.; Mazzoni, T.; Hu, L.; Salvi, L.; Tino, G. M.; Poli, N.

    2018-04-01

    We present a gradiometer based on matter-wave interference of alkaline-earth-metal atoms, namely 88Sr. The coherent manipulation of the atomic external degrees of freedom is obtained by large-momentum-transfer Bragg diffraction, driven by laser fields detuned away from the narrow 1S0–3P1 intercombination transition. We use a well-controlled artificial gradient, realized by changing the relative frequencies of the Bragg pulses during the interferometer sequence, in order to characterize the sensitivity of the gradiometer. The sensitivity reaches 1.5 × 10‑5 s‑2 for an interferometer time of 20 ms, limited only by geometrical constraints. We observed extremely low sensitivity of the gradiometric phase to magnetic field gradients, approaching a value 104 times lower than the sensitivity of alkali-atom based gradiometers, limited by the interferometer sensitivity. An efficient double-launch technique employing accelerated red vertical lattices from a single magneto-optical trap cloud is also demonstrated. These results highlight strontium as an ideal candidate for precision measurements of gravity gradients, with potential application in future precision tests of fundamental physics.

  1. Preliminary Data on the Effects of Inlet Pressure Distortions on the J57-P-1 Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Lubick, Robert J.; Einstein, Thomas H.

    1954-01-01

    An investigation to determine the steady-state and surge characteristics of the J57-P-1 two-spool turbojet engine with various inlet air-flow distortions was conducted in the altitude wind tunnel at the NACA Lewis laboratory. Along with a uniform inlet total-pressure distribution, one circumferential and three radial pressure distortions were investigated. Data were obtained over a complete range of compressor speeds both with and without intercompressor air bleed at a flight Mach number of 0.8 and at altitudes of 35,000 and 50,000 feet. Total-pressure distortions of the magnitudes investigated had very little effect on the steady-state operating line for either the outer or inner compressor. The small radial distortions investigated also had engine over that obtained with the uniform inlet pressure distribution. The circumferential distortion, however, raised the minimum speed at which the engine could operate without encountering surge when the intercompressor bleeds were closed. This increase in minimum speed resulted in a substantial reduction in the operable speed range accompanied by a reduction in the altitude operating limit.

  2. Modeling Tolerance Development for the Effect on Heart Rate of the Selective S1P1 Receptor Modulator Ponesimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Dominik; Lehr, Thorsten; Dingemanse, Jasper; Krause, Andreas

    2017-09-15

    Ponesimod is a selective sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 (S1P 1 ) receptor modulator currently under investigation for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. S1P receptor modulators reduce heart rate following treatment initiation. This effect disappears with repeated dosing, enabling development of innovative uptitration regimens to optimize patient safety. There are currently no published pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models describing the heart rate reduction of S1P receptor modulators in humans. The model developed here provides quantification of this effect for ponesimod. A direct-effect I max model with estimated maximum reduction of 45%, tolerance development, and circadian variation best described this effect. The pooled data from nine clinical studies enabled characterization of interindividual variability. The model was used to simulate different treatment regimens to compare the effect of high initial doses vs. gradual uptitration with respect to the occurrence of bradycardia. The results indicate a better safety profile when using gradual uptitration. The model allows studying dosing regimens not clinically tested in silico. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  3. Effective inhibition of lytic development of bacteriophages λ, P1 and T4 by starvation of their host, Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn Alicja

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophage infections of bacterial cultures cause serious problems in genetic engineering and biotechnology. They are dangerous not only because of direct effects on the currently infected cultures, i.e. their devastation, but also due to a high probability of spreading the phage progeny throughout a whole laboratory or plant, which causes a real danger for further cultivations. Therefore, a simple method for quick inhibition of phage development after detection of bacterial culture infection should be very useful. Results Here, we demonstrate that depletion of a carbon source from the culture medium, which provokes starvation of bacterial cells, results in rapid inhibition of lytic development of three Escherichia coli phages, λ, P1 and T4. Since the effect was similar for three different phages, it seems that it may be a general phenomenon. Moreover, similar effects were observed in flask cultures and in chemostats. Conclusion Bacteriophage lytic development can be inhibited efficiently by carbon source limitation in bacterial cultures. Thus, if bacteriophage contamination is detected, starvation procedures may be recommended to alleviate deleterious effects of phage infection on the culture. We believe that this strategy, in combination with the use of automated and sensitive bacteriophage biosensors, may be employed in the fermentation laboratory practice to control phage outbreaks in bioprocesses more effectively.

  4. P1 promoter-driven HNF4α isoforms are specifically repressed by β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeu, Jean-Philippe; Jones, Christine; Geha, Sameh; Carrier, Julie C; Boudreau, François

    2018-06-13

    HNF4α is a key nuclear receptor for regulating gene expression in the gut. While both P1 and P2 isoform classes of HNF4α are expressed in colonic epithelium, specific inhibition of P1 isoforms is commonly found in colorectal cancer. Previous studies have suggested that P1 and P2 isoforms may regulate different cellular functions. Despite these advances, it remains unclear whether these isoform classes are functionally divergent in the context of human biology. Here, the consequences of specific inhibition of P1 or P2 isoform expression was measured in a human colorectal cancer cell transcriptome. Results indicate that P1 isoforms were specifically associated with the control of cell metabolism while P2 isoforms globally supported aberrant oncogenic signalization, promoting cancer cell survival and progression. P1 promoter-driven isoform expression was found to be repressed by β-catenin, one of the earliest oncogenic pathways to be activated during colon tumorigenesis. These findings identify a novel cascade by which the expression of P1 isoforms are rapidly shut down in the early stages of colon tumorigenesis, allowing a change in HNF4α-dependent transcriptome thereby promoting colorectal cancer progression. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Activation of mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors by the house dust mite cysteine protease Der p1 provides a new mechanism linking allergy and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vemuri B; Lerner, Ethan A

    2017-10-20

    Cysteine and serine proteases function via protease-activated and mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs) to contribute to allergy and inflammation. Der p1 is a cysteine protease and major allergen from the house dust mite and is associated with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Der p1 activates protease-activated receptor 2 and induces the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from cells. However, the possibility that Der p1 acts on Mrgprs has not been considered. We report here that ratiometric calcium imaging reveals that Der p1 activates the human receptor MRGPRX1 and the mouse homolog MrgprC11, implicated previously in itch. Der p1 cleavage of N-terminal receptor peptides followed by site-directed mutagenesis of the cleavage sites links receptor activation to specific amino acid residues. Der p1 also induced the release of IL-6 from heterologous cells expressing MRGPRX1. In summary, activation of Mrgprs by the allergen Der p1 may contribute to inflammation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) in radiation-induced mouse hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teishima, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    2002-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein-1 (IGFBP-rP1) is a member of the IGFBP family, which was called IGFBP-7 or mac25 previously. Decreased expression of IGFBP-rP1 has been shown in breast cancer and prostatic cancer, and tumor suppressive effects of IGFBP-rP1 have been reported in prostatic cancer and osteosarcoma cell lines. In the present study, we investigated whether expression levels of IGFBP-rP1 were related to the development and the growth of radiation-induced hepatomas of B6C3F1 mice. In northern blot analysis, decreased expressions of IGFBP-rP1 gene were shown in radiation-induced mouse hepatomas compared to normal livers. In hepatoma cell lines established from these hepatomas, decreased expressions of IGFBP-rP1 were strongly related to the grade of anchorage-independent growth. In cell lines which were transfected with IGFBP-rP1cDNA, the doubling time of cell growth was increased, and the number and the size of colony formation in soft agar culture were decreased. In tumor formation assay by injecting these cells to B6C3F1 mice subcutaneously, the volume of tumors were decreased. Furthermore, the decreased expression of IGFBP-rP1 gene was observed in human hepatomas by northern blot analysis. These results may suggest that the suppression of IGFBP-rP1 is related to development and progression of mouse and human hepatomas. (author)

  7. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) displays sustained S1P1 receptor agonism and signaling through S1P lyase-dependent receptor recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatfield, John; Monnier, Lucile; Studer, Rolf; Bolli, Martin H; Steiner, Beat; Nayler, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) type 1 receptor (S1P1R) is a novel therapeutic target in lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune diseases. S1P1 receptor desensitization caused by synthetic S1P1 receptor agonists prevents T-lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs into the circulation. The selective S1P1 receptor agonist ponesimod, which is in development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, efficiently reduces peripheral lymphocyte counts and displays efficacy in animal models of autoimmune disease. Using ponesimod and the natural ligand S1P, we investigated the molecular mechanisms leading to different signaling, desensitization and trafficking behavior of S1P1 receptors. In recombinant S1P1 receptor-expressing cells, ponesimod and S1P triggered Gαi protein-mediated signaling and β-arrestin recruitment with comparable potency and efficiency, but only ponesimod efficiently induced intracellular receptor accumulation. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), ponesimod and S1P triggered translocation of the endogenous S1P1 receptor to the Golgi compartment. However, only ponesimod treatment caused efficient surface receptor depletion, receptor accumulation in the Golgi and degradation. Impedance measurements in HUVEC showed that ponesimod induced only short-lived Gαi protein-mediated signaling followed by resistance to further stimulation, whereas S1P induced sustained Gαi protein-mediated signaling without desensitization. Inhibition of S1P lyase activity in HUVEC rendered S1P an efficient S1P1 receptor internalizing compound and abrogated S1P-mediated sustained signaling. This suggests that S1P lyase - by facilitating S1P1 receptor recycling - is essential for S1P-mediated sustained signaling, and that synthetic agonists are functional antagonists because they are not S1P lyase substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Three different up-titration regimens of ponesimod, an S1P1 receptor modulator, in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, Michael W; Brossard, Patrick; D'Ambrosio, Daniele; Ipek, Murat; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2015-06-01

    Ponesimod is a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, and induces dose-dependent reduction of circulating lymphocytes upon oral dosing. Previous studies showed that single doses up to 75 mg or multiple doses up to 40 mg once daily are well tolerated, and heart rate (HR) reduction and atrio-ventricular conduction delays upon treatment initiation are reduced by gradual up-titration to the maintenance dose. This single-center, open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, 3-treatment, 3-way crossover study compared the tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics, cardiodynamics, and effects on lymphocytes of 3 different up-titration regimens of ponesimod in healthy male and female subjects. Up-titration regimens comprised escalating periods of b.i.d. dosing (2.5 or 5 mg) and q.d. dosing (10 or 20 mg or both). After the third up-titration period a variable-duration washout period of 1-3 days was followed by re-challenge with a single 20-mg dose of ponesimod. Adverse events were transient and mild to moderate in intensity, not different between regimens. HR decrease after the first dose was greater than after all subsequent doses, including up-titration doses. Little or no HR change was observed with morning doses of b.i.d. regimens, suggesting that 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. are sufficient to sustain cardiac desensitization for the 12-hours dosing interval. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 functions as an estrogen receptor α signaling modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiyuan [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Byoung Ha [Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Life Science, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Jung; Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Sook [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Minsun, E-mail: minsunchang@sm.ac.kr [Department of Medical and Pharmaceutical Science, College of Science, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • GSTP induces the classical ERα signaling event. • The functional GSTP is a prerequisite for GSTP-induced ERα transcription activity. • The expression of RIP140, a transcription cofactor, was inhibited by GSTP protein. • We propose the novel non-enzymatic role of GSTP. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor α (ERα) plays a crucial role in estrogen-mediated signaling pathways and exerts its action as a nuclear transcription factor. Binding of the ligand-activated ERα to the estrogen response element (ERE) is a central part of ERα-associated signal transduction pathways and its aberrant modulation is associated with many disease conditions. Human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP) functions as an enzyme in conjugation reactions in drug metabolism and as a regulator of kinase signaling pathways. It is overexpressed in tumors following chemotherapy and has been associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. In this study, a novel regulatory function of GSTP has been proposed in which GSTP modulates ERE-mediated ERα signaling events. Ectopic expression of GSTP was able to induce the ERα and ERE-mediated transcriptional activities in ERα-positive but GSTP-negative MCF7 human breast cancer cells. This inductive effect of GSTP on the ERE-transcription activity was diminished when the cells express a mutated form of the enzyme or are treated with a GSTP-specific chemical inhibitor. It was found that GSTP inhibited the expression of the receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140), a negative regulator of ERα transcription, at both mRNA and protein levels. Our study suggests a novel non-enzymatic role of GSTP which plays a significant role in regulating the classical ERα signaling pathways via modification of transcription cofactors such as RIP140.

  10. Contribution of Arginine 13 to the Catalytic Activity of Human Class Pi Glutathione Transferase P1-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Ji Na; Jo, Dong Hyeon; Do, Hyun Dong; Lee, Jin Ju; Kong, Kwang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Arg13 is a conserved active-site residue in all known Pi class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and in most Alpha class GSTs. To evaluate its contribution to substrate binding and catalysis of this residue, three mutants (R13A, R13K, and R13L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by GSH affinity chromatography. The substitutions of Arg13 significantly affected GSH-conjugation activity, while scarcely affecting glutathione peroxidase or steroid isomerase activities. Mutation of Arg13 into Ala largely reduced the GSH-conjugation activity by approximately 85 - 95%, whereas substitutions by Lys and Leu barely affected activity. These results suggest that, in the GSH-conjugation activity of hGST P1-1, the contribution of Arg13 toward catalytic activity is highly dependent on substrate specificities and the size of the side chain at position 13. From the kinetic parameters, introduction of larger side chains at position 13 results in stronger affinity (Leu > Lys, Arg > Ala) towards GSH. The substitutions of Arg13 with alanine and leucine significantly affected k cat , whereas substitution with Lys was similar to that of the wild type, indicating the significance of a positively charged residue at position 13. From the plots of log (k cat /K m CDNB ) against pH, the pK a values of the thiol group of GSH bound in R13A, R13K, and R13L were estimated to be 1.8, 1.4, and 1.8 pK units higher than the pK a value of the wildtype enzyme, demonstrating the contribution of the Arg13 guanidinium group to the electrostatic field in the active site. From these results, we suggest that contribution of Arg13 in substrate binding is highly dependent on the nature of the electrophilic substrates, while in the catalytic mechanism, it stabilizes the GSH thiolate through hydrogen bonding

  11. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-03-11

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5-11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm(3) g(-1) (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g(-1)) and P7 (1388.8 mg g(-1)) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights.

  12. GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres as potential water adsorption material: Influence of initial silica concentration on adsorptive and physical/topological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Song, Ju-Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Churl-Hee

    2016-01-01

    GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples were synthesized using seven different Si/Al ratios (5–11) of the hydrothermal reaction mixtures having chemical composition Al2O3:xSiO2:14Na2O:840H2O to study the impact of Si/Al molar ratio on the water vapour adsorption potential, phase purity, morphology and crystal size of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) observations reveal that Si/Al ratio does not affect the phase purity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite samples as high purity GIS-NaP1 zeolite crystals were obtained from all Si/Al ratios. Contrary, Si/Al ratios have remarkable effect on the morphology, crystal size and porosity of GIS-NaP1 zeolite microspheres. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evaluations of individual GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere demonstrate the characteristic changes in the packaging/arrangement, shape and size of primary nano crystallites. Textural characterisation using water vapour adsorption/desorption, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption data of as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite predicts the existence of mix-pores i.e., microporous as well as mesoporous character. High water storage capacity 1727.5 cm3 g−1 (138.9 wt.%) has been found for as-synthesized GIS-NaP1 zeolite microsphere samples during water vapour adsorption studies. Further, the total water adsorption capacity values for P6 (1299.4 mg g−1) and P7 (1388.8 mg g−1) samples reveal that these two particular samples can absorb even more water than their own weights. PMID:26964638

  13. On functional bases of the first-order differential invariants for non-conjugate subgroups of the Poincaré group $P(1,4$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Fedorchuk

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is established which functional bases of the first-order differential invariants of the splitting and non-splitting subgroups of the Poincaré group $P(1,4$ are invariant under the subgroups of the extended Galilei group $widetilde G(1,3 subset P(1,4$. The obtained sets of functional bases are classified according to dimensions.

  14. Backup Expression of the PhaP2 Phasin Compensates for phaP1 Deletion in Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Maintaining Fitness and PHB Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luis P S; Teixeira, Cícero S; Tirapelle, Evandro F; Donatti, Lucélia; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Steffens, Maria B R; de Souza, Emanuel M; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fabio; Chubatsu, Leda S; Müller-Santos, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Phasins are important proteins controlling poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules formation, their number into the cell and stability. The genome sequencing of the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed two homologous phasin genes. To verify the role of the phasins on PHB accumulation in the parental strain H. seropedicae SmR1, isogenic strains defective in the expression of phaP1, phaP2 or both genes were obtained by gene deletion and characterized in this work. Despite of the high sequence similarity between PhaP1 and PhaP2, PhaP1 is the major phasin in H. seropedicae, since its deletion reduced PHB accumulation by ≈50% in comparison to the parental and ΔphaP2. Upon deletion of phaP1, the expression of phaP2 was sixfold enhanced in the ΔphaP1 strain. The responsive backup expression of phaP2 partially rescued the ΔphaP1 mutant, maintaining about 50% of the parental PHB level. The double mutant ΔphaP1.2 did not accumulate PHB in any growth stage and showed a severe reduction of growth when glucose was the carbon source, a clear demonstration of negative impact in the fitness. The co-occurrence of phaP1 and phaP2 homologous in bacteria relatives of H. seropedicae, including other endophytes, indicates that the mechanism of phasin compensation by phaP2 expression may be operating in other organisms, showing that PHB metabolism is a key factor to adaptation and efficiency of endophytic bacteria.

  15. Backup expression of the PhaP2 phasin compensates for phaP1 deletion in Herbaspirillum seropedicae, maintaining fitness and PHB accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Silveira Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phasins are important proteins controlling PHB granules formation, their number into the cell and stability. The genome sequencing of the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed two homologous phasin genes. To verify the role of the phasins on PHB accumulation in the parental strain H. seropedicae SmR1, isogenic strains defective in the expression of phaP1, phaP2 or both genes were obtained by gene deletion and characterized in this work. Despite of the high sequence similarity between PhaP1 and PhaP2, PhaP1 is the major phasin in H. seropedicae, since its deletion reduced PHB accumulation by ≈ 50 % in comparison to the parental and ΔphaP2. Upon deletion of phaP1, the expression of phaP2 was 6-fold enhanced in the ΔphaP1 strain. The responsive backup expression of phaP2 partially rescued the ΔphaP1 mutant, maintaining about 50% of the parental PHB level. The double mutant ΔphaP1.2 did not accumulate PHB in any growth stage and showed a severe reduction of growth when glucose was the carbon source, a clear demonstration of negative impact in the fitness. The co-occurrence of phaP1 and phaP2 homologous in bacteria relatives of H. seropedicae, including other endophytes, indicates that the mechanism of phasin compensation by phaP2 expression may be operating in other organisms, showing that PHB metabolism is a key factor to adaptation and efficiency of endophytic bacteria.

  16. Role of PTHrP(1-34) Pulse Frequency Versus Pulse Duration to Enhance Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jennifer; Ortel, Marlen; Hagmann, Sebastien; Hoeflich, Andreas; Richter, Wiltrud

    2016-12-01

    Generation of phenotypically stable, articular chondrocytes from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is still an unaccomplished task, with formation of abundant, hyaline extracellular matrix, and avoidance of hypertrophy being prime challenges. We recently demonstrated that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a promising factor to direct chondrogenesis of MSCs towards an articular phenotype, since intermittent PTHrP application stimulated cartilage matrix production and reduced undesired hypertrophy. We here investigated the role of frequency, pulse duration, total exposure time, and underlying mechanisms in order to unlock the full potential of PTHrP actions. Human MSC subjected to in vitro chondrogenesis for six weeks were exposed to 2.5 nM PTHrP(1-34) pulses from days 7 to 42. Application frequency was increased from three times weekly (3 × 6 h/week) to daily maintaining either the duration of individual pulses (6 h/day) or total exposure time (18 h/week; 2.6 h/day). Daily PTHrP treatment significantly increased extracellular matrix deposition regardless of pulse duration and suppressed alkaline-phosphatase activity by 87%. High total exposure time significantly reduced cell proliferation at day 14. Pulse duration was critically important to significantly reduce IHH expression, but irrelevant for PTHrP-induced suppression of the hypertrophic markers MEF2C and IBSP. COL10A1, RUNX2, and MMP13 expression remained unaltered. Decreased IGFBP-2, -3, and -6 expression suggested modulated IGF-I availability in PTHrP groups, while drop of SOX9 protein levels during the PTHrP-pulse may delay chondroblast formation and hypertrophy. Overall, the significantly optimized timing of PTHrP-pulses demonstrated a vast potential to enhance chondrogenesis of MSC and suppress hypertrophy possibly via superior balancing of IGF- and SOX9-related mechanisms. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2673-2681, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The potential of P1 site alterations in peptidomimetic protease inhibitors as suggested by virtual screening and explored by the use of C-C-coupling reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Steffen; Luksch, Torsten; Evers, Andreas; Böttcher, Jark; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Hasilik, Andrej; Löffler, Hans-Gerhard; Klebe, Gerhard; Rademann, Jörg

    2006-04-01

    A synthetic concept is presented that allows the construction of peptide isostere libraries through polymer-supported C-acylation reactions. A phosphorane linker reagent is used as a carbanion equivalent; by employing MSNT as a coupling reagent, the C-acylation can be conducted without racemization. Diastereoselective reduction was effected with L-selectride. The reagent linker allows the preparation of a norstatine library with full variation of the isosteric positions including the P1 side chain that addresses the protease S1 pocket. Therefore, the concept was employed to investigate the P1 site specificity of peptide isostere inhibitors systematically. The S1 pocket of several aspartic proteases including plasmepsin II and cathepsin D was modeled and docked with approximately 500 amino acid side chains. Inspired by this virtual screen, a P1 site mutation library was designed, synthesized, and screened against three aspartic proteases (plasmepsin II, HIV protease, and cathepsin D). The potency of norstatine inhibitors was found to depend strongly on the P1 substituent. Large, hydrophobic residues such as biphenyl, 4-bromophenyl, and 4-nitrophenyl enhanced the inhibitory activity (IC50) by up to 70-fold against plasmepsin II. In addition, P1 variation introduced significant selectivity, as up to 9-fold greater activity was found against plasmepsin II relative to human cathepsin D. The active P1 site residues did not fit into the crystal structure; however, molecular dynamics simulation suggested a possible alternative binding mode.

  18. Characterizing the structure-function relationship reveals the mode of action of a novel antimicrobial peptide, P1, from jumper ant Myrmecia pilosula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Tien-Sheng; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chen, Chinpan

    2017-06-01

    Microbial infections of antibiotic-resistant strains cause serious diseases and have a significant impact on public health worldwide, so novel antimicrobial drugs are urgently needed. Insect venoms, a rich source of bioactive components containing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are attractive candidates for new therapeutic agents against microbes. Recently, a novel peptide, P1, identified from the venom of the Australian jumper ant Myrmecia pilosula, showed potent antimicrobial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, but its structure-function relationship is unknown. Here, we used biochemical and biophysical techniques coupled with computational simulations to explore the mode of action of P1 interaction with dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles as a model membrane system. Our circular dichroism (CD) and NMR studies revealed an amphipathic α-helical structure for P1 upon interaction with DPC micelles. A paramagnetic relaxation enhancement approach revealed that P1 orients its α-helix segment (F6-G14) into DPC micelles. In addition, the α-helix segment could be essential for membrane permeabilization and antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the arginine residues R8, R11, and R15 significantly contribute to helix formation and membrane-binding affinity. The lysine residue K19 of the C-terminus functionally guides P1 to interact with DPC micelles in the early interaction stage. Our study provides insights into the mode of action of P1, which is valuable in modifying and developing potent AMPs as antibiotic drugs.

  19. Pactamycin binding site on archaebacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor, F.; Amils, R.; Ballesta, J.P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of a photoreactive acetophenone group in the protein synthesis inhibitor pactamycin and the possibility of obtaining active iodinated derivatives that retain full biological activity allow the antibiotic binding site on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus ribosomes to be photoaffinity labeled. Four major labeled proteins have been identified in the yeast ribosomes, i.e., YS10, YS18, YS21/24, and YS30, while proteins AL1a, AS10/L8, AS18/20, and AS21/22 appeared as radioactive spots in S. solfataricus. There seems to be a correlation between some of the proteins labeled in yeast and those previously reported in Escherichia coli indicating that the pactamycin binding sites of both species, which are in the small subunit close to the initiation factors and mRNA binding sites, must have similar characteristics

  20. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Archaeal Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)-associated Complex for Antiviral Defense (CASCADE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lintner, Nathanael G; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K

    2011-01-01

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA....... The Escherichia coli "CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense" (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5......a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2...

  1. Extremophiles survival to simulated space conditions: an astrobiology model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastascusa, V; Romano, I; Di Donato, P; Poli, A; Della Corte, V; Rotundi, A; Bussoletti, E; Quarto, M; Pugliese, M; Nicolaus, B

    2014-09-01

    In this work we investigated the ability of four extremophilic bacteria from Archaea and Bacteria domains to resist to space environment by exposing them to extreme conditions of temperature, UV radiation, desiccation coupled to low pressure generated in a Mars' conditions simulator. All the investigated extremophilic strains (namely Sulfolobus solfataricus, Haloterrigena hispanica, Thermotoga neapolitana and Geobacillus thermantarcticus) showed a good resistance to the simulation of the temperature variation in the space; on the other hand irradiation with UV at 254 nm affected only slightly the growth of H. hispanica, G. thermantarcticus and S. solfataricus; finally exposition to Mars simulated condition showed that H. hispanica and G. thermantarcticus were resistant to desiccation and low pressure.

  2. Quantum state-to-state dynamics for the quenching process of Br(2P1/2) + H2(v(i) = 0, 1, j(i) = 0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changjian; Jiang, Bin; Xie, Daiqian; Sun, Zhigang

    2012-03-21

    Quantum state-to-state dynamics for the quenching process Br((2)P(1/2)) + H(2)(v(i) = 0, 1, j(i) = 0) → Br((2)P(3/2)) + H(2)(v(f), j(f)) has been studied based on two-state model on the recent coupled potential energy surfaces. It was found that the quenching probabilities have some oscillatory structures due to the interference of reflected flux in the Br((2)P(1/2)) + H(2) and Br((2)P(3/2)) + H(2) channels by repulsive potential in the near-resonant electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer process. The final vibrational state resolved integral cross sections were found to be dominated by the quenching process Br((2)P(1/2)) + H(2)(v) → Br((2)P(3/2)) + H(2)(v+1) and the nonadiabatic reaction probabilities for Br((2)P(1/2)) + H(2)(v = 0, 1, j(i) = 0) are quite small, which are consistent with previous theoretical and experimental results. Our calculated total quenching rate constant for Br((2)P(1/2)) + H(2)(v(i) = 0, j(i) = 0) at room temperature is in good agreement with the available experimental data. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  3. Development and application of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant truncated Cap protein for the diagnosis of porcine circovirus-like virus P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li-bin; Wen, Shi-fu; He, Kong-wang

    2016-01-19

    Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is a newly discovered virus. To date, there has been no specific serological assay for use in the diagnosis of P1 infection. Because P1 has high homology to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) at the nucleotide level, the C-terminal portion of the capsid protein (amino acids 73-114), a discriminative antigen, was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant product (rctCap), composed of three identical repeated domains, was shown to be strongly immunoreactive to P1-specific serum. This assay was validated by comparison with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the rctCap enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed in this study are 93.6% and 98.3%, respectively, compared with the results from IFAs on 450 sera samples from pigs. The indirect ELISA that we developed with rctCap, the recombinant capsid fragment containing the 217-342 nt repeat domain, was sensitive, specific, and suitable for the large-scale detection of P1 infections in swine.

  4. Measurement of the isotope shift of the 63 P 1 ↔53 D 1 transition of ytterbium by using a diode oscillator fiber amplified laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L.; Park, H.; Ko, K.-H.; Jeong, D.-Y.

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrated a Diode Oscillator Fiber Amplification (DOFA) system in order to study the 63 P 1 ↔53 D 1 (1539 nm) transition line of a neutral ytterbium atom that is accessed by the stepwise excitation of the ground state. The frequency of the DOFA system was doubled by a MgO:PPLN crystal for the resonant excitation of the 61 S 0 ↔63 P 1 transition. The frequency of the second harmonic beam was stabilized to the 61 S 0 ↔63 P 1 transition of each isotope with the stability of about 2 MHz. We performed absorption spectroscopy on the 63 P 1 ↔53 D 1 (1539 nm) transition after the velocity selective excitation by the frequency-doubled beam. The isotope shifts in the 63 P 1 ↔53 D 1 (1539 nm) transition were directly measured for the first time. The relative isotope shifts from 174Yb were measured as -105.8 MHz and 109.7 MHz for 176Yb and 172Yb, respectively.

  5. New results on the proton spin-dependent structure function $g^{p}_{1}$ at COMPASS with $E = 200$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Zemlyanichkina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    New results of the double spin asymmetry A p 1 and the spin-dependent structure function of the proton g p 1 as a function of x Bj and Q 2 will be presented. New COMPASS data on longitudinal polarized NH 3 target were collected during the year 2011 with a beam of positive muons with energy E = 200 GeV. It allows us to cover low x region down to 0 : 0025 in the range Q 2 > 1 GeV = c 2 for the first time

  6. Hydroxyurea-Mediated Cytotoxicity Without Inhibition of Ribonucleotide Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Li Phing; Lim, Zun Yi; Cohen, Matan; Kong, Ziqing; Marjavaara, Lisette; Chabes, Andrei; Bell, Stephen D

    2016-11-01

    In many organisms, hydroxyurea (HU) inhibits class I ribonucleotide reductase, leading to lowered cellular pools of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The reduced levels for DNA precursors is believed to cause replication fork stalling. Upon treatment of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus with HU, we observe dose-dependent cell cycle arrest, accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks, stalled replication forks, and elevated levels of recombination structures. However, Sulfolobus has a HU-insensitive class II ribonucleotide reductase, and we reveal that HU treatment does not significantly impact cellular DNA precursor pools. Profiling of protein and transcript levels reveals modulation of a specific subset of replication initiation and cell division genes. Notably, the selective loss of the regulatory subunit of the primase correlates with cessation of replication initiation and stalling of replication forks. Furthermore, we find evidence for a detoxification response induced by HU treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA, IncP-1 trfA, and merA genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsgaard, Peter Nikolai; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Hansen, Lars H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of amplicon pyrosequencing makes it possible to produce thousands of sequences of the same gene at relatively low costs. Here we show that it is possible to simultaneously sequence the 16S rRNA gene, IncP-1 trfA gene and mercury reductase gene (merA) as a way for screening the diversity...

  8. Effect of the raw material type and the reaction time on the synthesis of halloysite based Zeolite Na-P1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Meftah

    Full Text Available Zeolites are currently one of the most important classes of inorganic materials because of their multiple applications not only as ions exchangers and molecular sieves, but also as catalysts. This works focus the synthesis and the characterization of Zeolite Na-P1 using halloysite (collected near Ain Khemouda, western Tunisia as the starting material. Two parameters, such as the host materials type (natural or treated and the reaction time, involved in the synthesis process are investigated. The intermediate phases and final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR. Obtained results show that the hydrothermal synthesis from natural and heated-halloysite leads to formation of homogenous Zeolite Na-P1. The difference in the crystallization/transformation time process is explained by the effect of the dissolution rate of the starting materials in sodium hydroxide solution. In the case of heated halloysite, the synthesis reaction with alkali solution occurs very readily and achieved without prior thermal activation at high temperature. The optimal conditions of Zeolite Na-P1 crystallization, from heated-halloysite, are reached at 120 °C. Keywords: Zeolite Na-P1, Halloysite, X-ray, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy

  9. Determination of the effective radiative lifetimes of the 6 3P1 atomic mercury level in low-pressure mercury discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van de Weijer, P.; Cremers, R.M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments are described in which low-pressure mercury, mercury-argon and mercury-krypton discharges were irradiated with a dye laser pulse at 365.5 nm, thus exciting mercury atoms from the metastable 6 3 P 2 level to the 6 3 D 2 level. The 6 3 D 2 level decays radiatively to the 6 P levels. By recording the time dependence of the overpopulation in the 6 3 P 1 and the 6 1 P 1 level at the fluorescence signals at 254 nm and 185 nm, respectively, the effective radiative lifetime of these levels were determined. The effective radiative lifetime of the 6 3 P 1 level was measured in the k 0 R regime 0.1-500. The 6 1 P 1 lifetime was determined for the following discharge conditions: tube diameter 10-36 mm, mercury density 7.10 18 -2.10 21 m -3 , and noble gas pressure 0, 130, 400 Pa

  10. High-level expression and purification of soluble form of human natural killer cell receptor NKR-P1 in HEK293S GnTI(-) cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, J.; Kalousková, B.; Skořepa, O.; Pažický, S.; Novák, Petr; Vaněk, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 140, DEC 2017 (2017), s. 36-43 ISSN 1046-5928 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : NKR-P1 * CD161 * klrb1 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.351, year: 2016

  11. Maxima and minima of the orientation phenomena for direct 1s→2p+-1 electron-ion collisional excitations in weakly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon Jung-Sik; Jung Young-Dae

    1999-01-01

    Orientation phenomena for direct 1s→2p +-1 electron-ion collisional excitations in weakly coupled plasma are investigated using the semiclassical trajectory method including the close-encounter effects. In weakly coupled plasmas, the electron-ion interaction potential is given by the classical nonspherical Debye-Hueckel model. The semiclassical screened hyperbolic-orbit trajectory method is applied to describe the motion of the projectile electron in order to investigate the variation of the orientation parameter as a function of the impact parameter, projectile energy, and Debye length. A comparison is also given for the hyperbolic-orbit and straight-line trajectory methods. The results show that the orientation parameters obtained by the hyperbolic-orbit trajectory method have maxima and minima for small impact parameter regions. In other words, there are complete 1s→2p +1 (maxima) and complete 1s→2p -1 (minima) transitions for certain impact parameters. These maxima cannot be found using the straight-line trajectory method. The variation of the propensity of the 1s→2p -1 transitions due to the plasma screening effects on the atomic wave functions is also discussed

  12. Dormancy in Deinococcus sp. UDEC-P1 as a survival strategy to escape from deleterious effects of carbon starvation and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Matías; González, Karina; González, Carlos; Parra, Boris; Martínez, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    Dormancy is characterized by low metabolism and absence of protein synthesis and cellular division enabling bacterial cells to survive under stress. The aim was to determine if carbon starvation and low temperature are factors that modify the proportion of dormant/active cells in Deinococcus sp. UDEC-P1. By flow cytometry, RedoxSensor Green (RSG) was used to quantify metabolic activity and Propidium Iodide (PI) to evaluate membrane integrity in order to determine the percentage of dormant cells. Cell size and morphology were determined using scanning electronic microscopy. Under carbon starvation at 30°C, Deinococcus sp. UDEC-P1 increased its proportion of dormant cells from 0.1% to 20%, decreased the count of culturable cells and average cell volume decreased 7.1 times. At 4°C, however, the proportion of dormant cells increased only to 6%, without a change in the count of culturable cells and an average cellular volume decrease of 4.1 times and 3% of the dormant cells were able to be awakened. Results indicate a greater proportion of dormant Deinococcus sp. UDEC-P1 cells at 30ºC and it suggests that carbon starvation is more deleterious condition at 30ºC than 4ºC. For this reason Deinococcus sp. UDEC-P1 cells are more likely to enter into dormancy at higher temperature as a strategy to survive. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  13. Re-Evaluation of Binding Properties of Recombinant Lymphocyte Receptors NKR-P1A and CD69 to Chemically Synthesized Glycans and Peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozbeský, Daniel; Krejzová, Jana; Křenek, Karel; Prchal, J.; Hrabal, R.; Kožíšek, Milan; Weignerová, Lenka; Fiore, M.; Dumy, P.; Renaudet, O.; Křen, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2014), s. 1271-1283 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13042 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : CD69 * NKR-P1A * NMR titration Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2014

  14. Evaluation of the Role of IgE Responses to Der p 1 and Der p 2 in Chinese House Dust Mite-Allergic Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Hui-Ying; Gao, Zhong-Shan; Zhou, Xiang; Dai, Yu; Yao, Wo; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Zhao-Wei; Wu, Shan-Dong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Yang, Xu-Yan; van Ree, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The role of specific IgE (sIgE) against Der p 1 and Der p 2 in Chinese patients with house dust mite (HDM) allergy has not yet been well investigated. One hundred patients were enrolled, based on sensitization and doctor-diagnosed allergy to HDM. Questionnaires were administered to document

  15. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  16. The collectins CL-L1, CL-K1 and CL-P1, and their roles in complement and innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Soren W K; Ohtani, Katsuki; Roy, Nitai

    2016-01-01

    as CL-LK) and its activation of the lectin pathway via MASPs, drew new attention in the complement biology, which was further strengthened by the observed interactions between CL-P1 and CRP-C1q-factor H or properdin. Deficiency of either CL-K1 or MASP-3 has been demonstrated in 3MC syndrome patients...

  17. Characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading and biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain as a potential tool for bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna Anna; Poliwoda, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain, isolated from heavily petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was investigated for its capability to degrade hydrocarbons and produce a biosurfactant. The strain degraded crude oil, fractions A5 and P3 of crude oil, and hexadecane (27, 39, 27 and 13% of hydrocarbons added to culture medium were degraded, respectively) but had no ability to degrade phenanthrene. Additionally, the presence of gene-encoding enzymes responsible for the degradation of alkanes and naphthalene in the genome of the P-1 strain was reported. Positive results of blood agar and methylene blue agar tests, as well as the presence of gene rhl, involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipid, confirmed the ability of P-1 for synthesis of glycolipid biosurfactant. 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and mass spectrum analyses indicated that the extracted biosurfactant was affiliated with rhamnolipid. The results of this study indicate that the P-1 and/or biosurfactant produced by this strain have the potential to be used in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  18. HDL activation of endothelial sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) promotes regeneration and suppresses fibrosis in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bi-Sen; Liu, Catherine H; Sun, Yue; Chen, Yutian; Swendeman, Steven L; Jung, Bongnam; Chavez, Deebly; Cao, Zhongwei; Christoffersen, Christina; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Schwab, Susan R; Rafii, Shahin; Hla, Timothy

    2016-12-22

    Regeneration of hepatic sinusoidal vasculature is essential for non-fibrotic liver regrowth and restoration of its metabolic capacity. However, little is known about how this specialized vascular niche is regenerated. Here we show that activation of endothelial sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P 1 ) by its natural ligand bound to HDL (HDL-S1P) induces liver regeneration and curtails fibrosis. In mice lacking HDL-S1P, liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy was impeded and associated with aberrant vascular remodeling, thrombosis and peri-sinusoidal fibrosis. Notably, this "maladaptive repair" phenotype was recapitulated in mice that lack S1P 1 in the endothelium. Reciprocally, enhanced plasma levels of HDL-S1P or administration of SEW2871, a pharmacological agonist specific for S1P 1 enhanced regeneration of metabolically functional vasculature and alleviated fibrosis in mouse chronic injury and cholestasis models. This study shows that natural and pharmacological ligands modulate endothelial S1P 1 to stimulate liver regeneration and inhibit fibrosis, suggesting that activation of this pathway may be a novel therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis.

  19. House dust mite major allergens Der p 1 and Der p 5 activate human airway-derived epithelial cells by protease-dependent and protease-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmerman J André B

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract House dust mite allergens (HDM cause bronchoconstriction in asthma patients and induce an inflammatory response in the lungs due to the release of cytokines, chemokines and additional mediators. The mechanism how HDM components achieve this is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to assess whether HDM components of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus with protease activity (Der p 1 and unknown enzymatic activity (Der p 2, Der p 5 induce biological responses in a human airway-derived epithelial cell line (A549, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s of action. A549 cells were incubated with HDM extract, Der p 1, recombinant Der p 2 and recombinant Der p 5. Cell desquamation was assessed by microscopy. The proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, were measured by ELISA. Intracellular Ca2+ levels were assessed in A549 cells and in mouse fibroblasts expressing the human protease activated receptor (PAR1, PAR2 or PAR4. HDM extract, Der p 1 and Der p 5 dose-dependently increased the production of IL-6 and IL-8. Added simultaneously, Der p 1 and Der p 5 further increased the production of IL-6 and IL-8. The action of Der p 1 was blocked by cysteine-protease inhibitors, while that of Der p 5 couldn't be blocked by either serine- or cysteine protease inhibitors. Der p 5 only induced cell shrinking, whereas HDM extract and Der p1 also induced cell desquamation. Der p 2 had no effect on A549 cells. Der p 1's protease activity causes desquamation and induced the release of IL6 and IL-8 by a mechanism independent of Ca2+ mobilisation and PAR activation. Der p 5 exerts a protease-independent activation of A549 that involves Ca2+ mobilisation and also leads to the production of these cytokines. Together, our data indicate that allergens present in HDM extracts can trigger protease-dependent and protease-independent signalling pathways in A549 cells.

  20. Immuno-modulatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum-derived polysacharide on human monocytoid dendritic cells pulsed with Der p 1 allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Shih-Yen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ganoderma lucidum-derived polysaccharide (PS-G can rapidly and effectively promote the activation and maturation of immature dendritic cells (DCs, suggesting that PS-G possesses the capacity to regulate immune responses. This study aimed to clarify the immunologic effect of PS-G on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs from asthmatic children allergic to house dust mites. The MD-DCs were stimulated for 24 h with the related allergen, Der p 1, in the presence or absence of PS-G. Cell surface markers and phagocytic capacity were assessed by FACS analysis, and key polarizing cytokines (IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, IL-6, IL-23, and IL-10 were quantified. The subsequent regulatory effect of pulsed MD-DCs on naïve T cells was evaluated by determining the T-cell cytokine profile. Results PS-G induced the maturation of MD-DCs and decreased phagocytic capacity, even if pulsed with Der p 1. After incubation with PS-G and Der p 1, MD-DCs produced higher amounts of IL-12 p70, IL-12 p40, IL-6, IL-23, and IL10 than Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Furthermore, type 1 helper T (Th1 cell cytokine (INF-γ production was highly increased when naïve autologous T cells were co-cultured with Der p 1-pulsed MD-DCs. Naïve T cells stimulated by MD-DCs pulsed with Der p 1 failed to produce proliferation of T-cells, whereas the addition of PS-G to Der p 1 induced a significant proliferation of T-cells similar to that observed with PS-G alone. Conclusion The presence of PS-G in an allergen pulse promoted allergic MD-DCs to produce IL-12 p70, IL-12 p40, IL-6, IL-23, and IL-10, and exerted an effect on shifting the immune balance towards Th1 in children with allergic asthma.

  1. Expression analysis of the speech-related genes FoxP1 and FoxP2 and their relation to singing behavior in two songbird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianqian; Heston, Jonathan B.; Burkett, Zachary D.; White, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans and songbirds are among the rare animal groups that exhibit socially learned vocalizations: speech and song, respectively. These vocal-learning capacities share a reliance on audition and cortico-basal ganglia circuitry, as well as neurogenetic mechanisms. Notably, the transcription factors Forkhead box proteins 1 and 2 (FoxP1, FoxP2) exhibit similar expression patterns in the cortex and basal ganglia of humans and the zebra finch species of songbird, among other brain regions. Mutations in either gene are associated with language disorders in humans. Experimental knock-down of FoxP2 in the basal ganglia song control region Area X during song development leads to imprecise copying of tutor songs. Moreover, FoxP2 levels decrease naturally within Area X when zebra finches sing. Here, we examined neural expression patterns of FoxP1 and FoxP2 mRNA in adult Bengalese finches, a songbird species whose songs exhibit greater sequence complexity and increased reliance on audition for maintaining their quality. We found that FoxP1 and FoxP2 expression in Bengalese finches is similar to that in zebra finches, including strong mRNA signals for both factors in multiple song control nuclei and enhancement of FoxP1 in these regions relative to surrounding brain tissue. As with zebra finches, when Bengalese finches sing, FoxP2 is behaviorally downregulated within basal ganglia Area X over a similar time course, and expression negatively correlates with the amount of singing. This study confirms that in multiple songbird species, FoxP1 expression highlights song control regions, and regulation of FoxP2 is associated with motor control of song. PMID:24006346

  2. Organizational requirements of the SaeR binding sites for a functional P1 promoter of the sae operon in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hoonsik; Jeong, Do-Won; Li, Chunling; Bae, Taeok

    2012-06-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS two-component system controls the expression of multiple virulence factors. Of the two promoters in the sae operon, P1 is autoinduced and has two binding sites for the response regulator SaeR. In this study, we examined the organizational requirements of the SaeR binding sites in P1 for transcription activation. Mutational studies showed that both binding sites are essential for binding to phosphorylated SaeR (P-SaeR) and transcription activation. When the 21-bp distance between the centers of the two SaeR binding sites was altered to 26 bp, 31 bp, 36 bp, or 41 bp, only the 31-bp mutant retained approximately 40% of the original promoter activity. When the -1-bp spacing (i.e.,1-bp overlap) between the primary SaeR binding site and the -35 promoter region was altered, all mutant P1 promoters failed to initiate transcription; however, when the first nucleotide of the -35 region was changed from A to T, the mutants with 0-bp or 22-bp spacing showed detectable promoter activity. Although P-SaeR was essential for the binding of RNA polymerase to P1, it was not essential for the binding of the enzyme to the alpha-hemolysin promoter. When the nonoptimal spacing between promoter elements in P1 or the coagulase promoter was altered to the optimal spacing of 17 bp, both promoters failed to initiate transcription. These results suggest that SaeR binding sites are under rather strict organizational restrictions and provide clues for understanding the molecular mechanism of sae-mediated transcription activation.

  3. Structure and electronic properties of Zn-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin single- and multi-layers films grown on Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussetti, Gianlorenzo, E-mail: gianlorenzo.bussetti@polimi.it; Calloni, Alberto; Celeri, Matteo; Yivlialin, Rossella; Finazzi, Marco; Bottegoni, Federico; Duò, Lamberto; Ciccacci, Franco

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • ZnTPP/Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O is a prototypical system to investigate the porphyrin/thin metal oxide film interaction. • Oxygen layer plays a crucial role in decreasing the porphyrin-substrate interaction. • An ordered ZnTPP (5 × 5) reconstruction is found on the nominal 1 ML-thick film. • On Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O the electronic properties of the ZnTPP film are preserved with respect to other substrates. - Abstract: The structure and the electronic properties of thin (1 molecular layer) and thick (20 molecular layers) Zn-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin (ZnTPP) films grown on a single metal oxide (MO) layer, namely Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O, are shown and discussed. During the first stages of deposition, the ultra-thin MO layer reduces the molecule-substrate interaction enhancing the molecular diffusivity with the respect to other investigated substrates [namely, Si(111), Au(001) and oxygen-free Fe(001)]. On Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O, ZnTPP molecules form an ordered and stable square-lattice array. The photoemission analysis of the valence bands reveals that all the characteristic features of the molecule are already visible in the 1 monolayer-thick sample spectrum. Similarly, the core level investigation suggests a weak molecule perturbation. The ZnTPP/Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O interface represents a prototypical system to investigate the organic film adhesion on ultra-thin MO layers and the processes involved during the film growth.

  4. The Proteolytic Fraction from Latex of Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis (P1G10) Enhances Wound Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonaco, Luís A B; Gomes, Flavia L; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Lopes, Miriam T P; Salas, Carlos E

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of the proteolytic fraction from Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, designated as P1G10, on the healing of chronic foot ulcers in neuropathic patients with diabetes 2. Fifty patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, to verify the efficacy and safety of a topical dressing formulated with 0.1% P1G10, intended for wound healing, versus a hydrogel (control) protocol. Upon completion of the intervention, the outcome evaluated the number of patients attaining full epithelization (100%), or at least 80% healing. Statistical analysis compared the data on each group for the significance of the differences. Collection of data was finished in week 16, and the results were analyzed by intention to treat. The results showed that, in the control group, 5 patients attained 100% ulcer healing, 3 patients ≥ 80% healing and 11 experienced ulcer changes ≤ 80%, and the remainder showed no changes or their wounds became worse. Meanwhile, in the P1G10 group, 11 patients experienced full healing, 4 had healing ≥ 80% and 5 had ulcer changes ≤ lower than 80%, and the remainder showed no changes or their wounds became worse. The healing incidence for the first endpoint (100% healing) showed that the P1G10 group was 2.95-fold more efficacious than the control group (CI 95%) and 2.52-fold (CI, 95%) higher than its control for the second endpoint (80% healing). These data support the hypothesis that topical application of the proteolytic fraction identified as P1G10 significantly enhances foot ulcer healing compared to hydrogel treatment.

  5. Comparisons of TRAC-PF-1 calculations with semiscale Mod-3 small-break tests S-SB-P1 and S-SB-P7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahota, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Semiscale Tests S-SB-P1 and S-SB-P7 conducted in the Semiscale Mod-3 facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are analyzed using the latest released version of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1). The results are used to assess TRAC-PF1 predictions of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and the effects of break size and pump operation on system response during slow transients. Tests S-SB-P1 and S-SB-P7 simulated an equivalent pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) 2.5% communicative cold-leg break for early and late pump trips, respectively, with only high-pressure injection (HPI) into the cold legs. The parameters examined include break flow, primary-system pressure response, primary-system mass distribution, and core characteristics

  6. A recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid proteins precursor P1-2A of FMDV and VP2 protein of porcine parvovirus: a trivalent vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi; Qian, Ping; Li, Xiang-Min; Yu, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Huan-Chun

    2007-11-01

    Pseudorabies (PR), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), and porcine parvovirus disease are three important infectious diseases in swine worldwide. The gene-deleted pseudorabies virus (PRV) has been used as a live-viral vector to develop multivalent genetic engineering vaccine. In this study, a recombinant PRV, which could co-express protein precursor P1-2A of FMDV and VP2 protein of PPV, was constructed using PRV TK(-)/gE(-)/LacZ(+) mutant as the vector. After homologous recombination and plaque purification, recombinant virus PRV TK(-)/gE(-)/P1-2A-VP2 was acquired and identified. Immunogenicity, safety of the recombinant PRV and its protection against PRV were confirmed in a mouse model by indirect ELISA and serum neutralization test. The results show that the recombinant PRV is a candidate vaccine strain to develop a novel trivalent vaccine against PRV, FMDV and PPV in swine.

  7. Branching ratio and angular distribution of ejected electrons from Eu 4f76p1/2 n d auto-ionizing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiao-Rui; Shen Li; Zhang Kai; Dai Chang-Jian; Yang Yu-Na

    2016-01-01

    The branching ratios of ions and the angular distributions of electrons ejected from the Eu 4f 7 6p 1/2 n d auto-ionizing states are investigated with the velocity-map-imaging technique. To populate the above auto-ionizing states, the relevant bound Rydberg states have to be detected first. Two new bound Rydberg states are identified in the region between 41150 cm −1 and 44580 cm −1 , from which auto-ionization spectra of the Eu 4f 7 6p 1/2 n d states are observed with isolated core excitation method. With all preparations above, the branching ratios from the above auto-ionizing states to different final ionic states and the angular distributions of electrons ejected from these processes are measured systematically. Energy dependence of branching ratios and anisotropy parameters within the auto-ionization spectra are carefully analyzed, followed by a qualitative interpretation. (paper)

  8. Corrosion of carbon steel in the [P_1_4_6_6_6][Br] ionic liquid: The effects of γ-radiation and cover gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morco, Ryan P.; Musa, Ahmed Y.; Momeni, Mojtaba; Wren, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon steel corrosion in non-aqueous ionic liquid ([P_1_4_6_6_6] [Br]) electrolyte. • Gamma-irradiation results to less corrosion, forming protective oxides. • Substantial corrosion is seen in the absence of gamma-radiation. • A corrosion mechanism is proposed for the observed results. - Abstract: The corrosion of carbon steel in the ionic liquid (IL) [P_1_4_6_6_6] [Br] was studied with the IL in contact with an inert (Ar) or oxidizing (air) cover gas in the presence and absence of γ-radiation. Significant corrosion was observed for the tests performed in the absence of γ-radiation while a protective oxide layer is formed in the presence of γ-radiation. The corrosion is attributed to the presence of impurity H_2O and O_2 dissolved in the IL, and a corrosion mechanism is proposed.

  9. Electronic band structure calculations for GaxIn1−xASyP1−y alloys lattice matched to InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechiri, A; Benmakhlouf, F; Allouache, H; Bacha, S; Bouarissa, N

    2012-01-01

    A pseudopotential formalism coupled with the virtual crystal approximation are applied to study the effect of compositional disorder upon electronic band structure of cubic Ga x In 1−x As y P 1−y quarternary alloys lattice matched to InP. The effects of compositional variations are properly included in the calculations. Very good agreement is obtained between the calculated values and the available experimental data for the lattice–matched alloy to InP. The absorption at the fundamental optical gaps is found to be direct within a whole range of the y composition whatever the lattice-matching to the substrate of interest. The alloy system Ga x In 1−x As y P 1−y lattice matched to InP is suggested to be suitable for an efficient light emitting device (ELED) material.

  10. High-resolution absorption spectrum of the 61S0 → 63P1 transition in mercury with a Cw dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.; Erbert, G.V.; Mostek, S.D.; Kerlin, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a stabilized single-frequency commercial dye laser and an external cavity doubling crystal, we have measured the isotope shifts of mercury for the 6 1 S 0 → 6 3 P 1 transition with an accuracy of 4 MHz. We describe the method for generating single-frequency light at 2537 A and compare the results of our measurements of the isotope shifts with previous work. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Optogalvanic transients in the 1s2,4→2p1,3 excitations of radio frequency neon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, X.; Kumar, D.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The optogalvanic effects (OGE) induced by pulsed laser excitation of Ne 1s 2,4 →2p 1,3 transitions in a low power, ∼30 MHz radio frequency Ne discharge at ∼5 Torr are described. The polarity (sign) of the OGE signal is controlled by perturbations of the 1s j populations. The steady state 1s 4 population is ∼10 1 times larger than the 1s 2 population and the OGE signals for 1s 4 →2p 1,3 excitations are correspondingly stronger than those for 1s 2 →2p 1,3 excitations. The plasma temperature is found to be ∼1000 K. The excitations 1s 2,4 →2p 3 are more efficient at signal production than the 1s 2,4 →2p 1 excitations, which is contrary to prediction. The OGE signals are consequences of: (1) perturbation and reequilibration of the metastable 1s 3 and 1s 5 populations; (2) radiatively trapped 1s 2 → 1 S 0 photons; and (3) collisionally induced 1s 2 , 1s 4 ↔1s 3 , 1s 5 energy transfer. The OGE signal components, both the ionization and photoacoustic constituents, are temporally coincident only when the immediate causative agents are trapped photons. When otherwise produced, the photoacoustic part is delayed relative to the ionization component by the time required for the acoustic wave to travel from the locus of excitation to the sensitive region(s) of the plasma. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  12. PENERAPAN METODE RETAD UNTUK MENGURANGI WAKTU SET UP PADA MESIN MILLING P1 DAN P2 DEPARTEMEN MACHINING PT. KUBOTA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriyanto Sriyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pengurangan waktu produksi dalam suatu proses produksi dapat dilakukan dengan meminimalkan waktu setup pada proses produksi tersebut. Untuk mengurangi waktu setup diperlukan suatu cara untuk membantu operator dalam melaksanakan proses milling sehingga dapat meminimalkan waktu setup serta dapat menghilangkan elemen kerja yang tidak produktif tersebut. Metode RETAD (Rapid Exchange of Tooling and Dies merupakan pengembangan dari metode SMED (Single Minuite Exchange of Dies yang bertujuan mengurangi waktu setup, menghapus scrap dan rework. Dari hasil pengolahan data dan analisis untuk proses milling pada mesin Milling Vertikal P1, waktu elemen kerja membersihkan jig dari geram dapat dikurangi dari 5.53 detik sebelum perbaikan menjadi 1.54 detik setelah perbaikan dan untuk mesin Milling Vertikal P2, waktu elemen kerja membersihkan jig dari geram dapat  dikurangi dari 5.15 detik menjadi 1.54 detik. Dari hasil di atas maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa terjadi perbaikan waktu setup pada proses milling pada Mesin Milling Vertikal P1 dan P2 di Cylinder Head Line, perbandingan waktu standar proses milling dari 258.505 detik sebelum perbaikan menjadi 254.518 detik setelah perbaikan pada mesin Milling Vertikal P1 dan 256.002 detik sebelum perbaikan menjadi 252.392 detik setelah perbaikan pada mesin Milling Vertikal P2 Untuk penelitian ini hasil tersebut merupakan hasil maksimal yang dapat dicapai, namun dapat dikembangkan lebih lanjut pada mesin-mesin produksi lainnya. Kata kunci           : RETAD, waktu setup, elemen kerja

  13. Effect of the raw material type and the reaction time on the synthesis of halloysite based Zeolite Na-P1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, Mahdi; Oueslati, Walid; Chorfi, Nejmeddine; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem

    Zeolites are currently one of the most important classes of inorganic materials because of their multiple applications not only as ions exchangers and molecular sieves, but also as catalysts. This works focus the synthesis and the characterization of Zeolite Na-P1 using halloysite (collected near Ain Khemouda, western Tunisia) as the starting material. Two parameters, such as the host materials type (natural or treated) and the reaction time, involved in the synthesis process are investigated. The intermediate phases and final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR. Obtained results show that the hydrothermal synthesis from natural and heated-halloysite leads to formation of homogenous Zeolite Na-P1. The difference in the crystallization/transformation time process is explained by the effect of the dissolution rate of the starting materials in sodium hydroxide solution. In the case of heated halloysite, the synthesis reaction with alkali solution occurs very readily and achieved without prior thermal activation at high temperature. The optimal conditions of Zeolite Na-P1 crystallization, from heated-halloysite, are reached at 120 °C.

  14. Exceptional disfavor for proline at the P + 1 position among AGC and CAMK kinases establishes reciprocal specificity between them and the proline-directed kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guozhi; Fujii, Koichi; Belkina, Natalya; Liu, Yin; James, Michael; Herrero, Juan; Shaw, Stephen

    2005-03-18

    To precisely regulate critical signaling pathways, two kinases that phosphorylate distinct sites on the same protein substrate must have mutually exclusive specificity. Evolution could assure this by designing families of kinase such as basophilic kinases and proline-directed kinase with distinct peptide specificity; their reciprocal peptide specificity would have to be very complete, since recruitment of substrate allows phosphorylation of even rather poor phosphorylation sites in a protein. Here we report a powerful evolutionary strategy that assures distinct substrates for basophilic kinases (PKA, PKG and PKC (AGC) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK)) and proline-directed kinase, namely by the presence or absence of proline at the P + 1 position in substrates. Analysis of degenerate and non-degenerate peptides by in vitro kinase assays reveals that proline at the P + 1 position in substrates functions as a "veto" residue in substrate recognition by AGC and CAMK kinases. Furthermore, analysis of reported substrates of two typical basophilic kinases, protein kinase C and protein kinase A, shows the lowest occurrence of proline at the P + 1 position. Analysis of crystal structures and sequence conservation provides a molecular basis for this disfavor and illustrate its generality.

  15. Clinical Significance of POU5F1P1 rs10505477 Polymorphism in Chinese Gastric Cancer Patients Receving Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy after Surgical Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Shen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association between POU class5 homeobox 1 pseudogene 1 gene (POU5F1P1 rs10505477 polymorphism and the prognosis of Chinese gastric cancer patients, who received cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgical resection. POU5F1P1 rs10505477 was genotyped using the SNaPshot method in 944 gastric cancer patients who received gastrectomy. The association of rs10505477 G > A polymorphism with the progression and prognosis in gastric cancer patients was statistically analyzed using the SPSS version 18.0 for Windows. The results reveal that rs10505477 polymorphism has a negatively effect on the overall survival of gastric cancer patients in cisplatin-based chemotherapy subgroup (HR = 1.764, 95% CI = 1.069–2.911, p = 0.023. Our preliminary study indicates for the first time that POU5F1P1 rs10505477 is correlated with survival of gastric cancer patients who receving cisplatin-based chemotherapy after gastrectomy. Further studies are warranted to investigate the mechanism and to verify our results in different populations.

  16. Identification of paramagnetic nitrogen centers (P1) in diamond crystallites synthesized via the sintering of detonation nanodiamonds at high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, V. Yu.; Shakhov, F. M.; Efimov, N. N.; Minin, V. V.; Kidalov, S. V.; Vul', A. Ya.

    2017-06-01

    Diamond single crystals synthesized from powder detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) by means of treatment at high pressures ( P 7 GPa) and temperatures ( T > 1300°C) have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A key feature of treatment (high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) sintering) is the use of low molecular weight alcohols in the process. The appearance of a hyperfine EPR signal structure due to "paramagnetic nitrogen" (P1 centers) is explained by the growth of submicron and micron diamond single crystals from DND nanocrystals by the oriented attachment and coalescence mechanism. Such growth and coarsening of crystals appreciably decreases the concentration of paramagnetic centers, the presence of which hinders the detection of a hyperfine structure in the EPR signal from P1 centers, in the near-surface areas of coalesced and grown together DND particles. It has been shown that the concentration of paramagnetic defects of all types decreases to 3.1 × 1018 g-1 ( 60 ppm) during HPHT treatment at T = 1650°C. This causes the successful identification of P1 centers, whose fraction is no less than 40% of the total amount of paramagnetic centers in microcrystals synthesized by HPHT sintering.

  17. Desensitization by progressive up-titration prevents first-dose effects on the heart: guinea pig study with ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rey

    Full Text Available Ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, reduces the blood lymphocyte count in all tested species by preventing egress of T and B cells from thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs. In addition, ponesimod transiently affects heart rate and atrioventricular (AV conduction in humans, effects not observed in mice, rats, and dogs with selective S1P1 receptor modulators, suggesting that the regulation of heart rate and rhythm is species dependent. In the present study, we used conscious guinea pigs implanted with a telemetry device to investigate the effects of single and multiple oral doses of ponesimod on ECG variables, heart rate, and blood pressure. Oral administration of ponesimod did not affect the sinus rate (P rate but dose-dependently induced AV block type I to III. A single oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg had no effect on ECG variables, while a dose of 3 mg/kg induced AV block type III in all treated guinea pigs. Repeated oral dosing of 1 or 3 mg/kg ponesimod resulted in rapid desensitization, so that the second dose had no or a clearly reduced effect on ECG variables as compared with the first dose. Resensitization of the S1P1 receptor in the heart was concentration dependent. After desensitization had been induced by the first dose of ponesimod, the cardiac system remained desensitized as long as the plasma concentration was ≥75 ng/ml. By using a progressive up-titration regimen, the first-dose effect of ponesimod on heart rate and AV conduction was significantly reduced due to desensitization of the S1P1 receptor. In summary, conscious guinea pigs implanted with a telemetry device represent a useful model to study first-dose effects of S1P1 receptor modulators on heart rate and rhythm. This knowledge was translated to a dosing regimen of ponesimod to be tested in humans to avoid or significantly reduce the first-dose effects.

  18. Randomized Phase I: Safety, Immunogenicity and Mucosal Antiviral Activity in Young Healthy Women Vaccinated with HIV-1 Gp41 P1 Peptide on Virosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Leroux-Roels

    Full Text Available Mucosal antibodies harboring various antiviral activities may best protect mucosal surfaces against early HIV-1 entry at mucosal sites and they should be ideally induced by prophylactic HIV-1 vaccines for optimal prevention of sexually transmitted HIV-1. A phase I, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in twenty-four healthy HIV-uninfected young women. The study objectives were to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of virosomes harboring surface HIV-1 gp41-derived P1 lipidated peptides (MYM-V101. Participants received placebo or MYM-V101 vaccine at 10 μg/dose or 50 μg/dose intramuscularly at week 0 and 8, and intranasally at week 16 and 24. MYM-V101 was safe and well-tolerated at both doses administered by the intramuscular and intranasal routes, with the majority of subjects remaining free of local and general symptoms. P1-specific serum IgGs and IgAs were induced in all high dose recipients after the first injection. After the last vaccination, vaginal and rectal P1-specific IgGs could be detected in all high dose recipients. Approximately 63% and 43% of the low and high dose recipients were respectively tested positive for vaginal P1-IgAs, while 29% of the subjects from the high dose group tested positive for rectal IgAs. Serum samples had total specific IgG and IgA antibody concentrations ≥ 0.4 μg/mL, while mucosal samples were usually below 0.01 μg/mL. Vaginal secretions from MYM-V101 vaccinated subjects were inhibiting HIV-1 transcytosis but had no detectable neutralizing activity. P1-specific Th1 responses could not be detected on PBMC. This study demonstrates the excellent safety and tolerability of MYM-V101, eliciting systemic and mucosal antibodies in the majority of subjects. Vaccine-induced mucosal anti-gp41 antibodies toward conserved gp41 motifs were harboring HIV-1 transcytosis inhibition activity and may contribute to reduce sexually-transmitted HIV-1.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01084343.

  19. Whole-gene positive selection, elevated synonymous substitution rates, duplication, and indel evolution of the chloroplast clpP1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Erixon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synonymous DNA substitution rates in the plant chloroplast genome are generally relatively slow and lineage dependent. Non-synonymous rates are usually even slower due to purifying selection acting on the genes. Positive selection is expected to speed up non-synonymous substitution rates, whereas synonymous rates are expected to be unaffected. Until recently, positive selection has seldom been observed in chloroplast genes, and large-scale structural rearrangements leading to gene duplications are hitherto supposed to be rare. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We found high substitution rates in the exons of the plastid clpP1 gene in Oenothera (the Evening Primrose family and three separate lineages in the tribe Sileneae (Caryophyllaceae, the Carnation family. Introns have been lost in some of the lineages, but where present, the intron sequences have substitution rates similar to those found in other introns of their genomes. The elevated substitution rates of clpP1 are associated with statistically significant whole-gene positive selection in three branches of the phylogeny. In two of the lineages we found multiple copies of the gene. Neighboring genes present in the duplicated fragments do not show signs of elevated substitution rates or positive selection. Although non-synonymous substitutions account for most of the increase in substitution rates, synonymous rates are also markedly elevated in some lineages. Whereas plant clpP1 genes experiencing negative (purifying selection are characterized by having very conserved lengths, genes under positive selection often have large insertions of more or less repetitive amino acid sequence motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found positive selection of the clpP1 gene in various plant lineages to correlated with repeated duplication of the clpP1 gene and surrounding regions, repetitive amino acid sequences, and increase in synonymous substitution rates. The present study sheds light on the

  20. Association of glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1, T1 and P1 gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bid H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and a reduction in antioxidant defense. The oxidative stress becomes evident as a result of accumulation of ROS in conditions of inflammation and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The genes involved in redox balance, which determines the susceptibility to T2DM remain unclear. In humans, the glutathione S-transferase (GST family comprises several classes of GST isozymes, the polymorphic variants of GSTM1, T1 and P1 genes result in decreased or loss of enzyme activity. Aims: The present study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphisms of the GST gene family on the risk of developing T2DM in the North Indian population. Settings and Design: GSTM1, T1 and P1 polymorphisms were genotyped in 100 T2DM patients and 200 healthy controls from North India to analyze their association with T2DM susceptibility. Materials and Methods: Analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR and GSTP1 by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP. Statistical Analysis: Fisher′s exact test and χ2 statistics using SPSS software (Version-15.0. Results: We observed significant association of GSTM1 null (P=0.004, OR= 2.042, 95%CI= 1.254-3.325 and GSTP1 (I/V (P=0.001, OR= 0.397, 95%CI=0.225-0.701 with T2DM and no significant association with GSTT1 (P=0.493. The combined analysis of the three genotypes GSTM1 null, T1 present and P1 (I/I demonstrated an increase in T2DM risk (P= 0.005, OR= 2.431 95% CI=1.315-4.496. Conclusions: This is the first study showing the association of a combined effect of GSTM1, T1 and P1 genotypes in a representative cohort of Indian patients with T2DM. Since significant association was seen in GSTM1 null and GSTP1 (I/V and multiple association in GSTM1 null, T1 present and P1 (I/I, these polymorphisms can be screened in the population to determine the diabetic risk.

  1. Calculations of resonances parameters for the ((2s2) 1Se, (2s2p) 1,3P0) and ((3s2) 1Se, (3s3p) 1,3P0) doubly excited states of helium-like ions with Z≤10 using a complex rotation method implemented in Scilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gning, Youssou; Sow, Malick; Traoré, Alassane; Dieng, Matabara; Diakhate, Babacar; Biaye, Mamadi; Wagué, Ahmadou

    2015-01-01

    In the present work a special computational program Scilab (Scientific Laboratory) in the complex rotation method has been used to calculate resonance parameters of ((2s2) 1Se, (2s2p) 1,3P0) and ((3s2) 1Se, (3s3p) 1,3P0) states of helium-like ions with Z≤10. The purpose of this study required a mathematical development of the Hamiltonian applied to Hylleraas wave function for intrashell states, leading to analytical expressions which are carried out under Scilab computational program. Results are in compliance with recent theoretical calculations.

  2. Trivial topological phase of CaAgP and the topological nodal-line transition in CaAg (P1 -xA sx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N.; Qian, Y. T.; Wu, Q. S.; Autès, G.; Matt, C. E.; Lv, B. Q.; Yao, M. Y.; Strocov, V. N.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Plumb, N. C.; Radovic, M.; Yazyev, O. V.; Qian, T.; Ding, H.; Mesot, J.; Shi, M.

    2018-04-01

    By performing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations, we address the topological phase of CaAgP and investigate the topological phase transition in CaAg (P1 -xA sx) . We reveal that in CaAgP, the bulk band gap and surface states with a large bandwidth are topologically trivial, in agreement with hybrid density functional theory calculations. The calculations also indicate that application of "negative" hydrostatic pressure can transform trivial semiconducting CaAgP into an ideal topological nodal-line semimetal phase. The topological transition can be realized by partial isovalent P/As substitution at x =0.38 .

  3. High-level expression of soluble form of mouse natural killer cell receptor NKR-P1C(B6) in Escherichia coli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozbeský, Daniel; Kavan, Daniel; Chmelík, Josef; Novák, Petr; Vaněk, Ondřej; Bezouška, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2011), s. 178-184 ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0477; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA ČR GAP207/10/1040; GA AV ČR IAA500200620; GA MŠk LC07017; GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Natural killer cell * NKR-P1C receptor * NK1.1 antigen Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2011

  4. Potent, selective, orally bioavailable inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE): discovery of indole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine and pyrazolopyridine P1' substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhonghui; Ott, Gregory R; Anand, Rajan; Liu, Rui-Qin; Covington, Maryanne B; Vaddi, Krishna; Qian, Mingxin; Newton, Robert C; Christ, David D; Trzaskos, James; Duan, James J-W

    2008-03-15

    Potent and selective inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) were discovered with several new heterocyclic P1' groups in conjunction with cyclic beta-amino hydroxamic acid scaffolds. Among them, the pyrazolopyridine provided the best overall profile when combined with tetrahydropyran beta-amino hydroxamic acid scaffold. Specifically, inhibitor 49 showed IC(50) value of 1 nM against porcine TACE and 170 nM in the suppression of LPS-induced TNF-alpha of human whole blood. Compound 49 also displayed excellent selectivity over a wide panel of MMPs as well as excellent oral bioavailability (F%>90%) in rat n-in-1 PK studies.

  5. [Role and related mechanism of S1P/S1P1 signal pathway during post conditioning of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X H; Li, H X; Tao, J; Li, X M; Yang, Y N; Ma, Y T; Chen, B D

    2016-05-24

    To study the role and mechanism of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/ sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1(S1P1) signal pathway during post conditioning of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured, then stimulated by norepinephrine (NE) to induce cardiomyocytes hypertrophy. Using tri-gas incubator to create hypoxia and reoxygenation enviroment to mimic ischemia-reperfusion and postconditioning. Hypertrophic cardiomyoctyes were divided into five groups according to the presence or absence of various drugs and postconditiong and relevant signal pathways changes were detected: (1) IPost group (hypoxia+ postconditioning); (2) IPost+ S1P group (cells were pretreated with S1P (1 μmol/L) for 2 h before IPost); (3) IPost+ W-146+ S1P group (cells in IPost+ W-146+ S1P group were pretreated with S1P1 inhibitor W-146 (0.4 μmol/L) for 20 min); (4) IPost+ PD98059+ S1P group (cells in IPost+ S1P group were pretreated with MAPK antagonist PD98059 (125 μmol/L) for 20 min); (5) IPost+ LY-294002+ S1P group (cells in IPost+ S1P group were pretreated with PI3K antagonist LY294002 (0.1 μmol/L) for 20 min). Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and protein expression of relevant signal pathways were detected by Western blot. (1)Apoptosis rate was significantly increased in hypoxia/reoxygenation (27.90±4.49)% group compared with normal control group (7.97±2.18)%, which could be significantly reduced in IPost group (15.90±1.77)% (all PS1P and IPost+ S1P+ LY-294002 groups than in IPost and IPost+ S1P+ W-146 and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 group (all PS1P and IPost+ S1P+ LY-294002 group than in IPost and IPost+ S1P+ W-146 group and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 group (all PS1P+ W-146 and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 groups. p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt levels in IPost+ S1P+ W-146 group and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 were similar as in IPost group. S1P can play protective role on NE induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy during post conditioning through downregulating caspase-3 expression and

  6. The use of radiation trapping in the measurement of the electron excitation cross section for the production of the 1s4 (3P1) level of Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miers, R.E.; Gastineau, J.E.; Phillps, M.H.; Anderson, L.W.; Lin, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    The authors report the use of laser induced fluorescence for the first measurement of the electron excitation cross section for the production of the 1s 4 ( 3 P 1 ) level of Ne. Radiation trapping is used to lengthen the effective lifetime of the 1s 4 level allowing for the electron excitation cross section of the 1s 4 level to be measured in a manner similar to the measurement of electron excitation cross sections of the metastable 1s 3 and 1s 5 levels. (Auth.)

  7. Spectroscopy of the {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction for E{sub p}=1.00{endash}1.75 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrina, G.A.; Bybee, C.R.; Mitchell, G.E.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Bilpuch, E.G.; Wallace, P.M.; Westerfeldt, C.R. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Shriner, J.F. , Jr. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction has been studied in the range E{sub p}=1.00{endash}1.75 MeV. Three previously unknown states in {sup 30}P were identified, and one state previously assigned to {sup 30}P was identified as a state in {sup 14}N. Gamma-ray strengths were determined for the three new levels, and branching ratios were measured for 17 resonances. Revised J{sup {pi}};T assignments were made for nine of these states. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. A genetic study of SSV1, the prototypical fusellovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eIverson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of thermophilic Archaea are unique in both their structures and genomic sequences. The most widespread and arguably best studied are the lemon-shaped fuselloviruses. The spindle-shaped virus morphology is unique to Archaea but widespread therein. The best studied fusellovirus is SSV1 from Beppu Japan, which infects Sulfolobus solfataricus. Very little is known about the function of the genes in the SSV1 genome. Recently we have developed genetic tools to analyze these genes. In this study, we have deleted three SSV1 open reading frames ranging from completely conserved to poorly conserved: VP2, d244, and b129. Deletion of the universally conserved ORF b129, which encodes a predicted transcriptional regulator, results in loss of infectivity. Deletion of the poorly-conserved predicted DNA binding protein gene VP2 yields viable virus that is indistinguishable from wild-type Deletion of the well-conserved ORF d244 that encodes a predicted nuclease yields viable virus. However infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus with virus lacking ORF d244 dramatically retards host growth, compared to the wild-type virus.

  9. A hierarchical coarse-grained (all-atom to all residue) approach to peptides (P1, P2) binding with a graphene sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ras; Kuang, Zhifeng; Farmer, Barry; Kim, Sang; Naik, Rajesh

    2012-02-01

    Recently, Kim et al. [1] have found that peptides P1: HSSYWYAFNNKT and P2: EPLQLKM bind selectively to graphene surfaces and edges respectively which are critical in modulating both the mechanical as well as electronic transport properties of graphene. Such distinctions in binding sites (edge versus surface) observed in electron micrographs were verified by computer simulation by an all-atomic model that captures the pi-pi bonding. We propose a hierarchical approach that involves input from the all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) study (with atomistic detail) into a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation to extend this study further to a larger scale. The binding energy of a free amino acid with the graphene sheet from all-atom simulation is used in the interaction parameter for the coarse-grained approach. Peptide chain executes its stochastic motion with the Metropolis algorithm. We investigate a number of local and global physical quantities and find that peptide P1 is likely to bind more strongly to graphene sheet than P2 and that it is anchored by three residues ^4Y^5W^6Y. [1] S.N. Kim et al J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 14480 (2011).

  10. Studies on the O-specific polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide from the Pseudomonas mediterranea strain C5P1rad1, a bacterium pathogenic of tomato and chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Cimmino, Alessio; Marchi, Guido; Shashkov, Alexander S; Fiori, Mario; Knirel, Yuriy A; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-08-07

    An O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas mediterranea strain C5P1rad1, the causal agents of tomato pith necrosis and Chrysanthemum stem rot, and studied by one- and two-dimensional 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the trisaccharide repeating unit of the OPS was established, which, to our knowledge, is unique among the known bacterial polysaccharide structures: →4)-β-d-ManpNAc3NAcA-(1 → 4)-β-d-ManpNAc3NAcA-(1 → 3)-α-d-QuipNAc4NAc-(1→ where QuiNAc4NAc and ManNAc3NAcA indicate 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxyglucose and 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxymannuronic acid, respectively. Pre-treatment of leaves with LPS or OPS preparations at 250 and 50 μg mL -1 did not inhibit development of a hypersensitivity reaction induced by P. mediterranea C5P1rad1 on tobacco, tomato and chrysanthemum plants. The same preparations at 250 μg mL -1 partially prevented elicitation of the hypersensitivity reaction by Pseudomonas syringae KVPT7RC on chrysanthemum but not tobacco and tomato. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Expression of plasmid-based shRNA against the E1 and nsP1 genes effectively silenced Chikungunya virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Lam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and persistent arthralgia in humans. Currently, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral against CHIKV infection. Therefore, this study evaluates whether RNA interference which targets at viral genomic level may be a novel antiviral strategy to inhibit the medically important CHIKV infection. METHODS: Plasmid-based small hairpin RNA (shRNA was investigated for its efficacy in inhibiting CHIKV replication. Three shRNAs designed against CHIKV Capsid, E1 and nsP1 genes were transfected to establish stable shRNA-expressing cell clones. Following infection of stable shRNA cells clones with CHIKV at M.O.I. 1, viral plaque assay, Western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were performed. The in vivo efficacy of shRNA against CHIKV replication was also evaluated in a suckling murine model of CHIKV infection. RESULTS: Cell clones expressing shRNAs against CHIKV E1 and nsP1 genes displayed significant inhibition of infectious CHIKV production, while shRNA Capsid demonstrated a modest inhibitory effect as compared to scrambled shRNA cell clones and non-transfected cell controls. Western blot analysis of CHIKV E2 protein expression and transmission electron microscopy of shRNA E1 and nsP1 cell clones collectively demonstrated similar inhibitory trends against CHIKV replication. shRNA E1 showed non cell-type specific anti-CHIKV effects and broad-spectrum silencing against different geographical strains of CHIKV. Furthermore, shRNA E1 clones did not exert any inhibition against Dengue virus and Sindbis virus replication, thus indicating the high specificity of shRNA against CHIKV replication. Moreover, no shRNA-resistant CHIKV mutant was generated after 50 passages of CHIKV in the stable cell clones. More importantly, strong and sustained anti-CHIKV protection was conferred in suckling mice pre-treated with shRNA E1. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these

  12. IgE profiles of Bermuda grass pollen sensitised patients evaluated by Phleum pratense allergens Phl P 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 , 7, 11, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Renato E; Monasterolo, Giorgio; Prina, Paolo; Coco, Giuseppe; Operti, Daniela; Rossi, Lucilla

    2008-06-01

    Despite the difference in geographical dominance of certain grasses, a high degree of allergenic similarity or cross-reactivity between Bermuda grass pollen (BGP) and timothy grass pollen (TGP) has been previously demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the sensitisation to TGP in 411 patients known for their reactivity to BGP extracts by analysing their reactivity to crude timothy pollen extract and timothy pollen purified allergens, establishing their specific IgE-profiles. Using the immunoenzymatic CAP method we evaluated IgE-specific antibodies for BGP- and TGP- extracts and the timothy recombinant (r) and natural (n) allergens rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6, rPhl p 7, rPhl p 11, and rPhl p 12. BGP-IgE positive patients (median = 8.0 kUA/l, 2.8-22.2 kUA/l 25th-75th percentile) simultaneously had IgE positive results for TGP (100% of subjects)(median = 48.9 kUA/l, 19.8- > 100 kUA/l 25th-75th percentile) and high prevalence of sensitization to 6/8 Phleum pratense allergens (Phl p 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, markers of genuine sensitisation to TGP) other than profilin and calcium binding protein. More than 72% of BGP allergic patients were co-sensitised to rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6. A decrease of total and specific IgE with patients' age was observed. Our data show that all BGP-allergic patients simultaneously exhibit higher IgE antibody levels to recombinant and natural P. pratense allergens as well as to crude TGP extract. This suggests that when choosing an immunotherapeutic regimen for BGP-sensitised patients (after establishing their IgE profile via purified TGP-allergens), subcutaneous or sublingual TGP-extract vaccines in appropriate doses, in order to influence T epitope specificity, might be beneficial. Though extremely uncommon, in cases where a patient is exclusively BGP allergen-sensitised, BGP-extract therapy is the appropriate therapeutic response.

  13. Design, synthesis, X-ray studies, and biological evaluation of novel macrocyclic HIV-1 protease inhibitors involving the P1'-P2' ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Sean Fyvie, W.; Brindisi, Margherita; Steffey, Melinda; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Aoki, Manabu; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitors containing diverse flexible macrocyclic P1'-P2' tethers are reported. Inhibitor 5a with a pyrrolidinone-derived macrocycle exhibited favorable enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity (Ki = 13.2 nM, IC50 = 22 nM). Further incorporation of heteroatoms in the macrocyclic skeleton provided macrocyclic inhibitors 5m and 5o. These compounds showed excellent HIV-1 protease inhibitory (Ki = 62 pM and 14 pM, respectively) and antiviral activity (IC50 = 5.3 nM and 2.0 nM, respectively). Inhibitor 5o also remained highly potent against a DRV-resistant HIV-1 variant.

  14. Calculation of M1-excitations in the 42Ca, 44Ca and 54Fe with allowance for the 1p 1h * phonon configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.; Tkachev, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The microscopic model of account of 1p1hx phonon configurations is used to describe M1-excitations in 42 Ca, 44 Ca and 54 Fe 1f 7/2 -shell. The most low-lying and more collectivized electrical phonons are taken into account. The Boron-Mottelson collective model with parameters obtained in the experiment is used to describe them. The calculation results are compared with calculations on other models. A set of all data allows to make the supposition that the deficient part of M1-resonance force in nuclei of 1f 7/2 -shell should be distributed on low-intensive 1 + -levels in the wide range of the nucleon binding energy

  15. Experimental investigation of the effect of thermal hysteresis in MnFeP1-x Asx materials applied in an AMR device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    The magnetocaloric material series MnFeP1-xAsx, exhibiting a 1st order phase transition are possibly good candidates for magnetic refrigeration devices operating at room temperature (Brück et al., 2005). These materials have intrinsic hysteresis (thermal and magnetic) and the impact...... (AMR) test device (Bahl et al., 2008) with a flat plate regenerator of a single Curie temperature (TC) material. We find that the maximum adiabatic entropy change does not depend on the thermal history of the material, but the peak temperature is shifted 1.5 K for fields up to 1.5 T when measured...... of this on magnetic refrigeration devices has not yet been thoroughly investigated in the literature. Here, the thermal hysteretic magnetocaloric properties are studied using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and how this influences actual refrigeration performance, using an established active magnetic regenerator...

  16. Physical mapping of the Bloom syndrome region by the identification of YAC and P1 clones from human chromosome 15 band q26.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straughen, J.; Groden, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (United States); Ciocci, S. [New York Blood Center, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The gene for Bloom syndrome (BLM) has been mapped to human chromosome 15 band q26.1 by homozygosity mapping. Further refinement of the location of BLM has relied upon linkage-disequilibrium mapping and somatic intragenic recombination. In combination with these mapping approaches and to identify novel DNA markers and probes for the BLM candidate region, a contiguous representation of the 2-Mb region that contains the BLM gene was generated and is presented here. YAC and P1 clones from the region have been identified and ordered by using previously available genetic markers in the region along with newly developed sequence-tagged sites from radiation-restriction map of the 2-Mb region that allowed estimation of the distance between polymorphic microsatellite loci is also reported. This map and the DNA markers derived from it were instrumental in the recent identification of the BLM gene. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Lassomycin, a ribosomally synthesized cyclic peptide, kills mycobacterium tuberculosis by targeting the ATP-dependent protease ClpC1P1P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrish, Ekaterina; Sit, Clarissa S; Cao, Shugeng; Kandror, Olga; Spoering, Amy; Peoples, Aaron; Ling, Losee; Fetterman, Ashley; Hughes, Dallas; Bissell, Anthony; Torrey, Heather; Akopian, Tatos; Mueller, Andreas; Epstein, Slava; Goldberg, Alfred; Clardy, Jon; Lewis, Kim

    2014-04-24

    Languishing antibiotic discovery and flourishing antibiotic resistance have prompted the development of alternative untapped sources for antibiotic discovery, including previously uncultured bacteria. Here, we screen extracts from uncultured species against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and identify lassomycin, an antibiotic that exhibits potent bactericidal activity against both growing and dormant mycobacteria, including drug-resistant forms of M. tuberculosis, but little activity against other bacteria or mammalian cells. Lassomycin is a highly basic, ribosomally encoded cyclic peptide with an unusual structural fold that only partially resembles that of other lasso peptides. We show that lassomycin binds to a highly acidic region of the ClpC1 ATPase complex and markedly stimulates its ATPase activity without stimulating ClpP1P2-catalyzed protein breakdown, which is essential for viability of mycobacteria. This mechanism, uncoupling ATPase from proteolytic activity, accounts for the bactericidal activity of lassomycin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Crenarchaeal biofilm formation under extreme conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Koerdt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed biofilm formation in three closely related hyperthermophilic crenarchaeotes: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus and S. tokodaii. We established a microtitre plate assay adapted to high temperatures to determine how pH and temperature influence biofilm formation in these organisms. Biofilm analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the three strains form very different communities ranging from simple carpet-like structures in S. solfataricus to high density tower-like structures in S. acidocaldarius in static systems. Lectin staining indicated that all three strains produced extracellular polysaccharides containing glucose, galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine once biofilm formation was initiated. While flagella mutants had no phenotype in two days old static biofilms of S. solfataricus, a UV-induced pili deletion mutant showed decreased attachment of cells. CONCLUSION: The study gives first insights into formation and development of crenarchaeal biofilms in extreme environments.

  19. Virus variants with differences in the P1 protein coexist in a Plum pox virus population and display particular host-dependent pathogenicity features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Salvador, Beatriz; Carbonell, Alberto; Sáenz, Pilar; León, David San; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Delgadillo, Ma Otilia; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Subisolates segregated from an M-type Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate, PPV-PS, differ widely in pathogenicity despite their high degree of sequence similarity. A single amino acid substitution, K109E, in the helper component proteinase (HCPro) protein of PPV caused a significant enhancement of symptom severity in herbaceous hosts, and notably modified virus infectivity in peach seedlings. The presence of this substitution in certain subisolates that induced mild symptoms in herbaceous hosts and did not infect peach seedlings suggested the existence of uncharacterized attenuating factors in these subisolates. In this study, we show that two amino acid changes in the P1 protein are specifically associated with the mild pathogenicity exhibited by some PS subisolates. Site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that both substitutions, W29R and V139E, but especially W29R, resulted in lower levels of virus accumulation and symptom severity in a woody host, Prunus persica. Furthermore, when W29R and V139E mutations were expressed concomitantly, PPV infectivity was completely abolished in this host. In contrast, the V139E substitution, but not W29R, was found to be responsible for symptom attenuation in herbaceous hosts. Deep sequencing analysis demonstrated that the W29R and V139E heterogeneities already existed in the original PPV-PS isolate before its segregation in different subisolates by local lesion cloning. These results highlight the potential complexity of potyviral populations and the relevance of the P1 protein of potyviruses in pathogenesis and viral adaptation to the host. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  20. Methods of NMR structure refinement: molecular dynamics simulations improve the agreement with measured NMR data of a C-terminal peptide of GCN4-p1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolenc, Jozica; Missimer, John H.; Steinmetz, Michel O.; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van

    2010-01-01

    The C-terminal trigger sequence is essential in the coiled-coil formation of GCN4-p1; its conformational properties are thus of importance for understanding this process at the atomic level. A solution NMR model structure of a peptide, GCN4p16-31, encompassing the GCN4-p1 trigger sequence was proposed a few years ago. Derived using a standard single-structure refinement protocol based on 172 nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) distance restraints, 14 hydrogen-bond and 11 φ torsional-angle restraints, the resulting set of 20 NMR model structures exhibits regular α-helical structure. However, the set slightly violates some measured NOE bounds and does not reproduce all 15 measured 3 J(H N -H Cα )-coupling constants, indicating that different conformers of GCN4p16-31 might be present in solution. With the aim to resolve structures compatible with all NOE upper distance bounds and 3 J-coupling constants, we executed several structure refinement protocols employing unrestrained and restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with two force fields. We find that only configurational ensembles obtained by applying simultaneously time-averaged NOE distance and 3 J-coupling constant restraining with either force field reproduce all the experimental data. Additionally, analyses of the simulated ensembles show that the conformational variability of GCN4p16-31 in solution admitted by the available set of 187 measured NMR data is larger than represented by the set of the NMR model structures. The conformations of GCN4p16-31 in solution differ in the orientation not only of the side-chains but also of the backbone. The inconsistencies between the NMR model structures and the measured NMR data are due to the neglect of averaging effects and the inclusion of hydrogen-bond and torsional-angle restraints that have little basis in the primary, i.e. measured NMR data.

  1. Methods of NMR structure refinement: molecular dynamics simulations improve the agreement with measured NMR data of a C-terminal peptide of GCN4-p1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jozica; Missimer, John H; Steinmetz, Michel O; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2010-07-01

    The C-terminal trigger sequence is essential in the coiled-coil formation of GCN4-p1; its conformational properties are thus of importance for understanding this process at the atomic level. A solution NMR model structure of a peptide, GCN4p16-31, encompassing the GCN4-p1 trigger sequence was proposed a few years ago. Derived using a standard single-structure refinement protocol based on 172 nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) distance restraints, 14 hydrogen-bond and 11 phi torsional-angle restraints, the resulting set of 20 NMR model structures exhibits regular alpha-helical structure. However, the set slightly violates some measured NOE bounds and does not reproduce all 15 measured (3)J(H(N)-H(Calpha))-coupling constants, indicating that different conformers of GCN4p16-31 might be present in solution. With the aim to resolve structures compatible with all NOE upper distance bounds and (3)J-coupling constants, we executed several structure refinement protocols employing unrestrained and restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with two force fields. We find that only configurational ensembles obtained by applying simultaneously time-averaged NOE distance and (3)J-coupling constant restraining with either force field reproduce all the experimental data. Additionally, analyses of the simulated ensembles show that the conformational variability of GCN4p16-31 in solution admitted by the available set of 187 measured NMR data is larger than represented by the set of the NMR model structures. The conformations of GCN4p16-31 in solution differ in the orientation not only of the side-chains but also of the backbone. The inconsistencies between the NMR model structures and the measured NMR data are due to the neglect of averaging effects and the inclusion of hydrogen-bond and torsional-angle restraints that have little basis in the primary, i.e. measured NMR data.

  2. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of a P1.7b,4 strain-specific serogroup B meningococcal vaccine given to preteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jamie; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Mow, Florina Chan; Jackson, Catherine; Martin, Diana; O'Hallahan, Jane; Oster, Philipp; Ypma, Ellen; Reid, Stewart; Aaberge, Ingeborg; Crengle, Sue; Stewart, Joanna; Lennon, Diana

    2007-11-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has experienced a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic since 1991. MeNZB, a strain-specific outer membrane vesicle vaccine made using an NZ epidemic strain isolate, NZ98/254 (B:4:P1.7b,4), from two manufacturing sites, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) and Chiron Vaccines (CV; now Novartis), was evaluated for safety, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity in this observer-blind trial with 8- to 12-year-old children. In year 1, cohort A (n = 302) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of NIPH-MeNZB or MenBvac (Norwegian parent vaccine strain 44/76; B:15:P1.7,16). In year 2, cohort B (n = 313) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of CV-MeNZB or NIPH-MeNZB. Participants all received three vaccinations 6 weeks apart. Local and systemic reactions were monitored for 7 days. Seroresponse was defined as a fourfold or greater rise in the serum bactericidal antibody titer from the baseline titer as measured by a serum bactericidal assay. Those with baseline titers of /=1:8 to serorespond. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses are presented. In cohort A, 74% (ITT) and 73% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients demonstrated seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses, versus 32% (ITT and PP) of MenBvac recipients. In cohort B, seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses occurred in 79% (ITT and PP) of CV-MeNZB versus 75% (ITT) and 76% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients. Vaccines were tolerable, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, the NZ strain meningococcal B vaccine (MeNZB) from either manufacturing site was immunogenic against New Zealand epidemic vaccine strain meningococci with no safety concerns when given in three doses to these 8- to 12-year-old children.

  3. Expression of FlHMA3, a P1B2-ATPase from Festulolium loliaceum, correlates with response to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Meng, Lin; Humphreys, Mike W; Scullion, John; Mur, Luis A J

    2017-03-01

    Heavy metal ATPase 3 (HMA3), a P 1B2 -ATPase, is a key tonoplast transporter involved in mediating the vacuolar sequestration of cadmium (Cd) to detoxify the intake of this element by plants. HMA3 expression in response to Cd stress has not been previously examined in the grass hybrid species Festulolium loliaceum (Huds.) P. Fourn. In this study, FlHMA3 isolated from F. loliaceum was found to comprise 833 amino acid residues with 77% homology to the rice OsHMA3. Transient expression of FlHMA3 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts suggested its localization to vacuolar membranes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of F. loliaceum revealed that FlHMA3 is expressed predominantly within roots and up-regulated by excess Cd. Over the 168 h treatment, Cd content of F. loliaceum roots was significantly higher than that of shoots, regardless of external CdCl 2 concentrations. A significant positive correlation was found between FlHMA3 expression and Cd accumulation in roots of F. loliaceum seedlings subjected to 10-100 mg L -1 CdCl 2 for 168 h or, in a separate experiment, to 25 or 100 mg L -1 CdCl 2 for the same duration. These findings provide evidence that FlHMA3 encodes a vacuolar P 1B2 -ATPase that may play an important role in Cd 2+ sequestration into root cell vacuoles, thereby limiting the entry of Cd 2+ into the cytoplasm and reducing Cd 2+ toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The detection and sequencing of a broad-host-range conjugative IncP-1β plasmid in an epidemic strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Cardoso Leão

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An extended outbreak of mycobacterial surgical infections occurred in Brazil during 2004-2008. Most infections were caused by a single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, which was characterized by a specific rpoB sequevar and two highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE patterns differentiated by the presence of a ∼50 kb band. The nature of this band was investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genomic sequencing of the prototype outbreak isolate INCQS 00594 using the SOLiD platform demonstrated the presence of a 56,267-bp [corrected] circular plasmid, designated pMAB01. Identity matrices, genetic distances and phylogeny analyses indicated that pMAB01 belongs to the broad-host-range plasmid subgroup IncP-1β and is highly related to BRA100, pJP4, pAKD33 and pB10. The presence of pMAB01-derived sequences in 41 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates was evaluated using PCR, PFGE and Southern blot hybridization. Sixteen of the 41 isolates showed the presence of the plasmid. The plasmid was visualized as a ∼50-kb band using PFGE and Southern blot hybridization in 12 isolates. The remaining 25 isolates did not exhibit any evidence of this plasmid. The plasmid was successfully transferred to Escherichia coli by conjugation and transformation. Lateral transfer of pMAB01 to the high efficient plasmid transformation strain Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2155 could not be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The occurrence of a broad-host-range IncP-1β plasmid in mycobacteria is reported for the first time. Thus, genetic exchange could result in the emergence of specific strains that might be better adapted to cause human disease.

  5. A novel-type phosphatidylinositol phosphate-interactive, Ca-binding protein PCaP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana: stable association with plasma membrane and partial involvement in stomata closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisako; Miwa, Chika; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kato, Mariko; Suito, Momoe; Tsuchihira, Ayako; Sato, Yori; Segami, Shoji; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2016-05-01

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein-1 (PCaP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana is a new type protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol phosphates and Ca(2+)-calmodulin complex as well as free Ca(2+). Although biochemical properties, such as binding to ligands and N-myristoylation, have been revealed, the intracellular localization, tissue and cell specificity, integrity of membrane association and physiological roles of PCaP1 are unknown. We investigated the tissue and intracellular distribution of PCaP1 by using transgenic lines expressing PCaP1 linked with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) at the carboxyl terminus of PCaP1. GFP fluorescence was obviously detected in most tissues including root, stem, leaf and flower. In these tissues, PCaP1-GFP signal was observed predominantly in the plasma membrane even under physiological stress conditions but not in other organelles. The fluorescence was detected in the cytosol when the 25-residue N-terminal sequence was deleted from PCaP1 indicating essential contribution of N-myristoylation to the plasma membrane anchoring. Fluorescence intensity of PCaP1-GFP in roots was slightly decreased in seedlings grown in medium supplemented with high concentrations of iron for 1 week and increased in those grown with copper. In stomatal guard cells, PCaP1-GFP was strictly, specifically localized to the plasma membrane at the epidermal-cell side but not at the pore side. A T-DNA insertion mutant line of PCaP1 did not show marked phenotype in a life cycle except for well growth under high CO2 conditions. However, stomata of the mutant line did not close entirely even in high osmolarity, which usually induces stomata closure. These results suggest that PCaP1 is involved in the stomatal movement, especially closure process, in leaves and response to excessive copper in root and leaf as a mineral nutrient as a physiological role.

  6. Calculations of resonances parameters for the ((2s2) 1Se, (2s2p) 1,3P0) and ((3s2) 1Se, (3s3p) 1,3P0) doubly excited states of helium-like ions with Z≤10 using a complex rotation method implemented in Scilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gning, Youssou; Sow, Malick; Traoré, Alassane; Dieng, Matabara; Diakhate, Babacar; Biaye, Mamadi; Wagué, Ahmadou

    2015-01-01

    In the present work a special computational program Scilab (Scientific Laboratory) in the complex rotation method has been used to calculate resonance parameters of ((2s 2 ) 1 S e , (2s2p) 1,3 P 0 ) and ((3s 2 ) 1 S e , (3s3p) 1,3 P 0 ) states of helium-like ions with Z≤10. The purpose of this study required a mathematical development of the Hamiltonian applied to Hylleraas wave function for intrashell states, leading to analytical expressions which are carried out under Scilab computational program. Results are in compliance with recent theoretical calculations. - Highlights: • Resonance energy and widths computed for doubly excited states of helium-like ions. • Well-comparable results to the theoretical literature values up to Z=10. • Satisfactory agreements with theoretical calculations for widths

  7. Quasimolecular emission near the Xe(5p 56s 1,3 P 1 - 5p 6 1 S 0) and Kr (4p 55s 1,3 P 1 - 4p 6 1 S 0) resonance lines induced by collisions with He atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, O. S.; Devdariani, A. Z.; Grigorian, G. M.; Lednev, M. G.; Zagrebin, A. L.

    2017-02-01

    This study is devoted to the theoretical investigation of the quasimolecular emission of Xe*-He and Kr*-He collision pairs near the Xe (5p 56s 1,3 P 1 - 5p 6 1 S 0) and Kr (4p 55s 1,3 P 1 - 4p 6 1 S 0) resonance atomic lines. The potential curves of the quasimolecules Xe(5p 56s) + He and Kr(4p 55s) + He have been obtained with the use of the effective Hamiltonian and pseudopotential methods. Based on these potential curves the processes of quasimolecular emission of Xe*+He and Kr*+He mixtures have been considered and the spectral distributions I(ħΔω) of photons emitted have been obtained in the framework of quasistatic approximation.

  8. Evolution of ordered one-dimensional and two-dimensional InAs/InP quantum dot arrays on patterned InP (1 0 0) and (3 1 1)B substrates by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sritirawisarn, N.; Wera, J.L.E.; Otten, van F.W.M.; Nötzel, R.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of ordered InAs/InP quantum dot (QD) arrays is demonstrated on patterned InP (1 0 0) and (3 1 1)B substrates by the concept of self-organized anisotropic strain engineering in chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). On shallow- and deep stripe-patterned InP (1 0 0) substrates, depending on the

  9. Methods of NMR structure refinement: molecular dynamics simulations improve the agreement with measured NMR data of a C-terminal peptide of GCN4-p1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolenc, Jozica [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH (Switzerland); Missimer, John H.; Steinmetz, Michel O. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Biomolecular Research (Switzerland); Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van, E-mail: wfvgn@igc.phys.chem.ethz.c [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    The C-terminal trigger sequence is essential in the coiled-coil formation of GCN4-p1; its conformational properties are thus of importance for understanding this process at the atomic level. A solution NMR model structure of a peptide, GCN4p16-31, encompassing the GCN4-p1 trigger sequence was proposed a few years ago. Derived using a standard single-structure refinement protocol based on 172 nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) distance restraints, 14 hydrogen-bond and 11 {phi} torsional-angle restraints, the resulting set of 20 NMR model structures exhibits regular {alpha}-helical structure. However, the set slightly violates some measured NOE bounds and does not reproduce all 15 measured {sup 3}J(H{sub N}-H{sub C{alpha}})-coupling constants, indicating that different conformers of GCN4p16-31 might be present in solution. With the aim to resolve structures compatible with all NOE upper distance bounds and {sup 3}J-coupling constants, we executed several structure refinement protocols employing unrestrained and restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with two force fields. We find that only configurational ensembles obtained by applying simultaneously time-averaged NOE distance and {sup 3}J-coupling constant restraining with either force field reproduce all the experimental data. Additionally, analyses of the simulated ensembles show that the conformational variability of GCN4p16-31 in solution admitted by the available set of 187 measured NMR data is larger than represented by the set of the NMR model structures. The conformations of GCN4p16-31 in solution differ in the orientation not only of the side-chains but also of the backbone. The inconsistencies between the NMR model structures and the measured NMR data are due to the neglect of averaging effects and the inclusion of hydrogen-bond and torsional-angle restraints that have little basis in the primary, i.e. measured NMR data.

  10. The influence of cis-acting P1 protein and translational elements on the expression of Potato virus Y helper-component proteinase (HCPro) in heterologous systems and its suppression of silencing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena Fernández, Fátima; González, Inmaculada; Doblas, Paula; Rodríguez, César; Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Tenllado, Francisco; Praveen, Shelly; Canto, Tomas

    2013-06-01

    In the Potyvirus genus, the P1 protein is the first N-terminal product processed from the viral polyprotein, followed by the helper-component proteinase (HCPro). In silencing suppression patch assays, we found that Potato virus Y (PVY) HCPro expressed from a P1-HCPro sequence increased the accumulation of a reporter gene, whereas protein expressed from an HCPro sequence did not, even with P1 supplied in trans. This enhancing effect of P1 has been noted in other potyviruses, but has remained unexplained. We analysed the accumulation of PVY HCPro in infiltrated tissues and found that it was higher when expressed from P1-HCPro than from HCPro sequences. Co-expression of heterologous suppressors increased the steady-state level of mRNA expressed from the HCPro sequence, but not that of protein. This suggests that, in the absence of P1 upstream, either HCPro acquires a conformation that affects negatively its activity or stability, or that its translation is reduced. To test these options, we purified HCPro expressed in the presence or absence of upstream P1, and found no difference in purification pattern and final soluble state. By contrast, alteration of the Kozak context in the HCPro mRNA sequence to favour translation increased partially suppressor accumulation and activity. Furthermore, protein activity was not lower than in protein expressed from P1-HCPro sequences. Thus, a direct role for P1 on HCPro suppressor activity or stability, by influencing its conformation during translation, can be excluded. However, P1 could still have an indirect effect favouring HCPro accumulation. Our data highlight the relevance of cis-acting translational elements in the heterologous expression of HCPro. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Electron-photon angular correlation measurements of He (1 1S0-2 1P1) excitation by electron impact at 80 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steph, N.C.; Golden, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The electron-photon angular correlation function was measured between 80-eV electrons which excited the 2 1 P 1 state of helium and 58.4-nm photons from the decay of that state for electron scattering angles ranging from 5 0 to 100 0 . The data have been analyzed to yield values of the ratio lambda of the differential cross section for exciting the M/sub j/=0 sublevel to the total differential cross section and the magnitude vertical-barchivertical-bar of the phase difference between the M/sub j/=0 and M/sub j/=1 excitation amplitudes. The data agree with all previous measurements within one standard deviation, with the exception of the large-angle values of lambda obtained by Hollywood, Crowe, and Williams. Possible causes of these discrepancies are discussed. The values of lambda and vertical-barchivertical-bar obtained in this work agree quite well with those given by the distorted-wave calculations of Madison over the entire angular range

  12. Analysis of mechanism of PM2.5 and house dust mite antigen Der p1 in attack stage of child asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q; Yang, C-Y; Guo, B-Y; Wei, X; Liu, M

    2017-05-01

    We analyzed the influence of PM2.5 and house dust mite antigen Der p1 on the treatment of child asthma attack. A total of 96 children with asthma attack were included into the study. The patients were randomly divided into the PM2.5 group, the house dust mite antigen group, the synergistic group and the control group (n= 24 in each group). The PM2.5 concentration in the PM2.5 group was twice higher than standard level (≤ the average value of PM2.5 in local air). All cases were given with same treatment, and the treatment effects were compared and analyzed. It was found that the asthma control rate in the control group was significantly higher than that in the PM2.5 group and the house dust mite antigen group, and the synergistic group was the lowest. The control time in the synergistic group was significantly longest, followed by the PM2.5 group and the house dust mite antigen group, and the control group was significantly short (pasthma attack by an inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress.

  13. Vapour liquid equilibria of monocaprylin plus palmitic acid or methyl stearate at P = (1.20 and 2.50) kPa by using DSC technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunico, Larissa P.; Damaceno, Daniela S.; Matricarde Falleiro, Rafael M.; Sarup, Bent; Abildskov, Jens; Ceriani, Roberta; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel VLE data for binary mixtures involving a partial acylglycerol (monocaprylin). • Use of a promising technique for measuring VLE/vapour pressure data (DSC technique). • The consistency of experimental data is analysed by a proposed methodology. • Regressed parameters are given for excess Gibbs thermodynamic models. • New regressed parameters are presented for UNIFAC to account for nonidealities. - Abstract: The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) technique is used for measuring isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria for two binary mixtures: {monocaprylin + palmitic acid (system 1) or methyl stearate (system 2)} at two different pressures P = (1.20 and 2.50) kPa. The obtained PTx data are correlated by Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The original UNIFAC group contribution method is also considered and new binary interaction parameters for the main groups CH 2 , CCOO, OH and COOH are regressed, to account for the non-idealities found in these lipid systems. Established thermodynamic consistency tests are applied and attest the quality of the measured data. In terms of relevance of the selected components, system 1 can be found in the purification and deodorization steps during the production of edible oils, while, system 2 can be found in the purification steps of biodiesel. It should be noted that no such data could be found in the open literature, not only for the specific components selected but also for the combination of the classes of components considered; that is, acylglycerol plus fatty acid or fatty ester.

  14. Elastic Properties and the Band Gap of AlNxP1-x Semiconductor Alloy: A Comparative Study of Various Ab Initio Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Polak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural and elastic properties of AlNxP1-x, a novel semiconductor alloy, are studied from the first principles in both zinc-blende and wurtzite structures. Performances of the finite difference (FD method and the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT are tested and compared. Both of these methods are applied to two different approaches of alloy simulation, a supercell of 16 and 32 atoms (for zinc-blende and wurtzite structures, resp. and the alchemical mixing (AM method, where the pseudopotentials are mixed in an appropriate way to form an alloy. All elastic properties, including the elastic tensors, elastic moduli, Poisson’s ratio, B/G, and relaxation coefficient, as well as lattice parameters are calculated using all said methods. Conclusions about the use of the approaches investigated in this paper and about their performance are drawn. In addition, in both crystal structures, the band gap is studied in the whole composition range using the MBJLDA functional. The band gap bowings are unusually high, which confirms earlier reports.

  15. Frequency metrology on the Mg 3s21S→3s4p 1P line for comparison with quasar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannemann, S.; Salumbides, E. J.; Witte, S.; Zinkstok, R. Th.; Duijn, E.-J. van; Eikema, K. S. E.; Ubachs, W.

    2006-01-01

    We report a frequency metrology study on the Mg 3s 2 1 S→3s4p 1 P transition near 202.5 nm. For this purpose, the fourth harmonic of the output from an injection-seeded Ti:sapphire pulsed laser is employed in a Mg atomic beam experiment with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Absolute frequency calibration with a frequency comb laser is performed on the cw seeding radiation, while the chirp-induced frequency shift between the pulsed output and the seed light is monitored on line. The resulting transition frequency for the main isotope 24 Mg is determined at 49 346.756 809(35) m -1 . This value is three orders of magnitude more precise than the best value in the literature. The line positions of the other isotopes 25 Mg and 26 Mg are also measured at comparable accuracy, giving rise to very exact values for the isotopic shifts. The achieved precision for the transition frequency at the 7x10 -10 level makes this second resonance line of Mg I an additional candidate for inclusion in many-multiplet methods, aimed at detecting a possible temporal variation of the fine-structure constant α from comparison with quasar spectra. The isotopic shifts obtained are also important to correct for possible systematic shifts due to evolution of isotopic abundances, which may mimic α-variation effects

  16. Evolution of H2O, CO, and CO2 production in Comet C/2009 P1 Garradd during the 2011-2012 apparition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Adam J.; Cochran, Anita L.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Villanueva, Geronimo; Russo, Neil Dello; Vervack, Ronald J.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Harris, Walter M.; Chanover, Nancy J.

    2015-04-01

    We present analysis of high spectral resolution NIR spectra of CO and H2O in Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) taken during its 2011-2012 apparition with the CSHELL instrument on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also present analysis of observations of atomic oxygen in Comet Garradd obtained with the ARCES echelle spectrometer mounted on the ARC 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory and the Tull Coude spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith 2.7-m telescope at McDonald Observatory. The observations of atomic oxygen serve as a proxy for H2O and CO2. We confirm the high CO abundance in Comet Garradd and the asymmetry in the CO/H2O ratio with respect to perihelion reported by previous studies. From the oxygen observations, we infer that the CO2/H2O ratio decreased as the comet moved towards the Sun, which is expected based on current sublimation models. We also infer that the CO2/H2O ratio was higher pre-perihelion than post-perihelion. We observe evidence for the icy grain source of H2O reported by several studies pre-perihelion, and argue that this source is significantly less abundant post-perihelion. Since H2O, CO2, and CO are the primary ices in comets, they drive the activity. We use our measurements of these important volatiles in an attempt to explain the evolution of Garradd's activity over the apparition.

  17. Unexpectedly large difference of the electron density at the nucleus in the 4p ^2{P}_{{1}/{2},{3}/{2}} fine-structure doublet of Ca^+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C.; Gebert, F.; Gorges, C.; Kaufmann, S.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Sahoo, B. K.; Surzhykov, A.; Yerokhin, V. A.; Berengut, J. C.; Wolf, F.; Heip, J. C.; Schmidt, P. O.

    2017-01-01

    We measured the isotope shift in the ^2{S}_{{1}/{2}} → ^2{P}_{{3}/{2}} (D2) transition in singly ionized calcium ions using photon recoil spectroscopy. The high accuracy of the technique enables us to compare the difference between the isotope shifts of this transition to the previously measured isotopic shifts of the ^2{S}_{{1}/{2}} → ^2{P}_{{1}/{2}} (D1) line. This so-called splitting isotope shift is extracted and exhibits a clear signature of field shift contributions. From the data, we were able to extract the small difference of the field shift coefficient and mass shifts between the two transitions with high accuracy. This J-dependence is of relativistic origin and can be used to benchmark atomic structure calculations. As a first step, we use several ab initio atomic structure calculation methods to provide more accurate values for the field shift constants and their ratio. Remarkably, the high-accuracy value for the ratio of the field shift constants extracted from the experimental data is larger than all available theoretical predictions.

  18. A structural, magnetic and Moessbauer spectral study of the magnetocaloric Mn1.1Fe0.9P1-xGex compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sougrati, Moulay T; Hermann, Raphael P; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Brueck, E; Tegus, O; Trung, N T; Buschow, K H J

    2008-01-01

    The structural, magnetic and Moessbauer spectral properties of the magnetocaloric Mn 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 1-x Ge x compounds, with 0.19 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.74 Ge 0.26 . The temperature dependence of the magnetization reveals a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition with a Curie temperature between approximately 250 and 330 K and hysteresis width of 10 to 4 K, for 0.19 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.78 Ge 0.22 shows the largest isothermal entropy change of approximately 10 J/(kgKT) at 290 K. The Moessbauer spectra have been analysed with a binomial distribution of hyperfine fields correlated with a change in isomer shift and quadrupole shift, a distribution that results from the distribution of phosphorus and germanium among the near neighbours of the iron. The coexistence of paramagnetic and magnetically ordered phases in ranges of temperature of up to 50 K around the Curie temperature is observed in the Moessbauer spectra and is associated with the first-order character of the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition. The temperature dependence of the weighted average hyperfine field is well fitted within the magnetostrictive model of Bean and Rodbell. Good fits of the Moessbauer spectra could only be achieved by introducing a difference between the isomer shifts in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, a difference that is related to the magnetostriction and electronic structure change.

  19. Excitation of the (2p2)1D and (2s2p)1P autoionizing states of helium by 200 eV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, A.L.; McGuire, J.H.; Schipakov, V.S.; Crowe, A.

    2002-01-01

    We report full second Born calculations with inclusion of post-collision interactions for excitation of the (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P autoionizing states of helium by 200 eV electron impact. The calculations are compared to (e, 2e) measurements of McDonald and Crowe (McDonald D G and Crowe A 1993 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26 2887-97) and Lower and Weigold (Lower J and Weigold E 1990 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 23 2819-45). It is shown that post-collision interactions or Coulomb interactions in the final state between the scattered particle, the ejected electron and the recoil ion have a strong influence on both the direct ionization and resonance profiles around the binary lobe. The second-order terms in the amplitude of double electron excitation also play an observable role under these kinematic conditions. Reasonable agreement is found between the full-scale calculations and the experimental data. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  20. Optical properties of lattice matched InxGa1-xP1-yNy heteroepitaxial layers on GaP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, T.; Wakahara, A.; Kim, S.M.; Yonezu, H.; Furukawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Optical constants and band structure of In x Ga 1-x P 1-y N y lattice matched to GaP (100) substrate are investigated. Nitrogen concentration in the film estimated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, was 1.4%, 1.8% and 3.5%. Refractive index and transition critical points E 0 (Γ v to Γ c ), E 1 (L v to L c ) and E 2 (X v to X c ) are evaluated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. When N composition increases from 1.4% to 3.5%, both photoluminescence (PL) peak energy, E PL , and E 0 shift to lower energy, and the energy difference ΔE=E 0 -E PL decrease from 380 meV to 110 meV. The large red-sift of E PL from the E 0 suggest that the luminescence is of defect-related luminescence, and crossover point of indirect band structure estimated by the extrapolation of N-composition dependence of ΔE is estimated to be around in In 0.1 Ga 0.9 P 0.96 N 0.04 . (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Creating Directed Double-strand Breaks with the Ref Protein: A Novel Rec A-Dependent Nuclease from Bacteriophage P1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenig, Marielle C.; Lu, Duo; Won, Sang Joon; Dulberger, Charles L.; Manlick, Angela J.; Keck, James L.; Cox, Michael M. (UW)

    2012-03-16

    The bacteriophage P1-encoded Ref protein enhances RecA-dependent recombination in vivo by an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that Ref is a new type of enzyme; that is, a RecA-dependent nuclease. Ref binds to ss- and dsDNA but does not cleave any DNA substrate until RecA protein and ATP are added to form RecA nucleoprotein filaments. Ref cleaves only where RecA protein is bound. RecA functions as a co-nuclease in the Ref/RecA system. Ref nuclease activity can be limited to the targeted strands of short RecA-containing D-loops. The result is a uniquely programmable endonuclease activity, producing targeted double-strand breaks at any chosen DNA sequence in an oligonucleotide-directed fashion. We present evidence indicating that cleavage occurs in the RecA filament groove. The structure of the Ref protein has been determined to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. The core structure, consisting of residues 77-186, consists of a central 2-stranded {beta}-hairpin that is sandwiched between several {alpha}-helical and extended loop elements. The N-terminal 76 amino acid residues are disordered; this flexible region is required for optimal activity. The overall structure of Ref, including several putative active site histidine residues, defines a new subclass of HNH-family nucleases. We propose that enhancement of recombination by Ref reflects the introduction of directed, recombinogenic double-strand breaks.

  2. Factor requirements for transcription in the Archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae.

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, S A; Bell, S D; Jackson, S P

    1997-01-01

    Archaea (archaebacteria) constitute a domain of life that is distinct from Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes). Although archaeal cells share many morphological features with eubacteria, their transcriptional apparatus is more akin to eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II and III than it is to eubacterial transcription systems. Thus, in addition to possessing a 10 subunit RNA polymerase and a homologue of the TATA-binding protein (TBP), Archaea possess a polypeptide termed TFB that is h...

  3. Genetic polymorphism of glutathion S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 Ile105Val and susceptibility to atherogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubiša Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the state of persistent oxidative stress (OS that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases such is atherosclerosis mainly through chronic hyperglycemia that stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and increases OS. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 is a member of the cytosolic GST superfamily. It plays an important role in neutralizing OS as an enzyme. Also, it participates in regulation of stress signaling and protects cells against apoptosis via its noncatalytic ligand-binding activity. GSTP1 Ile105Val functional polymorphism influences protein catalytic activity and stability and the aim of this study was to determine whether this gene variation influences susceptibility to atherogenesis in T2DM patients. A total of 240 individuals (140 patients with T2DM, accompanied with clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, and 100 healthy controls were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells and genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. We obtained no statistically significant differences in the distribution of alleles and genotypes between cases and controls (P>0.05 but association between Ile/Val (OR=0.6, 95%CI=0.35-1.05, P=0.08 and Val/Val (OR=0.45, 95%CI=0.18-1.11, P=0.08 genotypes and disease approached significance (P=0.08. Our results indicated that a larger study group is needed to establish the true relationship between potentialiy protective allele Val and the disease, and to determine the influence of other GSTP1 polymorphisms on atherogenesis in T2DM patients. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  4. Preliminary Results of the Determination of Inlet-Pressure Distortion Effects on Compressor Stall and Altitude Operating Limits of the J57-P-1 Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, L. E.; Lubick, R. J.; Chelko, L. J.

    1955-01-01

    During an investigation of the J57-P-1 turbojet engine in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel, effects of inlet-flow distortion on engine stall characteristics and operating limits were determined. In addition to a uniform inlet-flow profile, the inlet-pressure distortions imposed included two radial, two circumferential, and one combined radial-circumferential profile. Data were obtained over a range of compressor speeds at an altitude of 50,000 and a flight Mach number of 0.8; in addition, the high- and low-speed engine operating limits were investigated up to the maximum operable altitude. The effect of changing the compressor bleed position on the stall and operating limits was determined for one of the inlet distortions. The circumferential distortions lowered the compressor stall pressure ratios; this resulted in less fuel-flow margin between steady-state operation and compressor stall. Consequently, the altitude operating Limits with circumferential distortions were reduced compared with the uniform inlet profile. Radial inlet-pressure distortions increased the pressure ratio required for compressor stall over that obtained with uniform inlet flow; this resulted in higher altitude operating limits. Likewise, the stall-limit fuel flows required with the radial inlet-pressure distortions were considerably higher than those obtained with the uniform inlet-pressure profile. A combined radial-circumferential inlet distortion had effects on the engine similar to the circumferential distortion. Bleeding air between the two compressors eliminated the low-speed stall limit and thus permitted higher altitude operation than was possible without compressor bleed.

  5. 25-Hydroxy vitamin-D, obesity, and associated variables as predictors of breast cancer risk and tamoxifen benefit in NSABP-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Eitan; Cecchini, Reena S; Ganz, Patricia A; Costantino, Joseph P; Beddows, Samantha; Hood, Nicola; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2012-06-01

    Observational studies suggest that host factors are associated with breast cancer risk. The influence of obesity, vitamin-D status, insulin resistance, inflammation, and elevated adipocytokines in women at high risk of breast cancer is unknown. The NSABP-P1 trial population was used for a nested case-control study. Cases were drawn from those who developed invasive breast cancer and controls selected from unaffected participants (≤4 per case) matched for age, race, 5 year Gail score, and geographic location of clinical center as a surrogate for latitude. Fasting serum banked at trial enrolment was assayed for 25-hydroxy vitamin-D (25OHD), insulin, leptin (adipocytokine), and C-reactive protein (CRP, marker of inflammation). Logistic regression was used to test for associations between study variables and the risk of invasive breast cancer. Two hundred and thirty-one cases were matched with 856 controls. Mean age was 54, and 49% were premenopausal. There were negative correlations for 25OHD with body mass index (BMI), insulin, CRP, and leptin. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) was associated with higher breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.45, p = 0.02) and tamoxifen treatment was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.44, p continuous variables, 25OHD, insulin, CRP, and leptin levels were not associated with breast cancer risk (all p > 0.34). In this high risk population, higher BMI was associated with a greater breast cancer risk. Serum levels of 25OHD, insulin, CRP, and leptin were not independent predictors of either breast cancer risk or tamoxifen benefit.

  6. Evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid coding (P1) region on a timescale of three decades in an endemic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswajit; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Pande, Veena; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Sanyal, Aniket

    2016-07-01

    Three decades-long (1977-2013) evolutionary trend of the capsid coding (P1) region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A isolated in India was analysed. The exclusive presence of genotype 18 since 2001 and the dominance of the VP3(59)-deletion group of genotype 18 was evident in the recent years. Clade 18c was found to be currently the only active one among the three clades (18a, 18b and 18c) identified in the deletion group. The rate of evolution of the Indian isolates at the capsid region was found to be 4.96×10(-3)substitutions/site/year. The timescale analysis predicted the most recent common ancestor to have existed during 1962 for Indian FMDV serotype A and around 1998 for the deletion group. The evolutionary pattern of serotype A in India appears to be homogeneous as no spatial or temporal structure was observed. Bayesian skyline plots indicate a sharp decline in the effective number of infections after 2008, which might be a result of mass vaccination or inherent loss of virus fitness. Analyses of variability at 38 known antigenically critical positions in a countrywide longitudinal data set suggested that the substitutions neither followed any specific trend nor remained fixed for a long period since frequent reversions and convergence was noticed. A maximum of 6 different amino acid residues was seen in the gene pool at any antigenically critical site over the decades, suggesting a limited combination of residues being responsible for the observed antigenic variation. Evidence of positive selection at some of the antigenically critical residues and the structurally proximal positions suggest a possible role of pre-existing immunity in the host population in driving evolution. The VP1 C-terminus neither revealed variability nor positive selection, suggesting the possibility that this stretch does not contribute to the antigenic variation and adaptation under immune selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wavelength tunable InAs/InP(1 0 0) quantum dots in 1.55-{mu}m telecom devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantathanasarn, S. [eiTT/COBRA Inter-University Research Institute on Communication Technology, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: S.Anantathanasarn@tue.nl; Barbarin, Y. [eiTT/COBRA Inter-University Research Institute on Communication Technology, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Cade, N.I. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi 243-0198 (Japan); Veldhoven, P.J. van; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Oei, Y.S. [eiTT/COBRA Inter-University Research Institute on Communication Technology, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamada, H. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi 243-0198 (Japan); Smit, M.K.; Noetzel, R. [eiTT/COBRA Inter-University Research Institute on Communication Technology, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    This paper reviews the growth, characterization and device applications of self-assembled InAs/InP(1 0 0) quantum dots (QDs) formed by MOVPE. The problematic As/P exchange reaction during QD growth is suppressed by the insertion of a GaAs interlayer together with optimum growth conditions. This produces QDs with continuously tunable emission over the 1.55-{mu}m wavelength region for fiber-based telecom applications. Device quality of these QDs is proven by continuous wave lasing at room temperature from the as-cleaved facets of Fabry-Perot narrow ridge-waveguide lasers implementing widely stacked QDs as gain medium. The low transparency current density of 6 A/cm{sup 2} per QD layer and low loss of 4.2 cm{sup -1} are accompanied by a 80-nm wide gain spectrum. The deeply etched QD lasers possess similar threshold current densities as the shallowly etched ones and do not deteriorate with time, revealing that device performance does not suffer from sidewall recombination. This allows the fabrication of mono-mode and more compact devices with small bending radii, as demonstrated by the operation of a QD ring laser with 40-GHz free spectral range. Unpolarized emission from the cleaved side, important for the realization of polarization insensitive semiconductor optical amplifiers, is obtained by close stacking of QDs due to vertical electronic coupling. Sharp exciton-biexciton emission from a single QD around 1.55 {mu}m is observed with clearly resolvable peaks above 70 K, which is required for single photon sources working at liquid nitrogen temperature for fiber-based quantum cryptography systems.

  8. S1P1 receptor modulation preserves vascular function in mesenteric and coronary arteries after CPB in the rat independent of depletion of lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna V Samarska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB may induce systemic inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P modulates various vascular and immune responses. Here we explored whether agonists of the S1P receptors, FTY720 and SEW2871 improve vascular reactivity after CPB in the rat. METHODS: Experiments were done in male Wistar rats (total n = 127. Anesthesia was induced by isoflurane (2.5-3% and maintained by fentanyl and midazolam during CPB. After catheterization of the left femoral artery, carotid artery and the right atrium, normothermic extracorporeal circulation was instituted for 60 minutes. In the first part of the study animals were euthanized after either 1 hour, 1 day, 2 or 5 days of the recovery period. In second part of the study animals were euthanized after 1 day of postoperative period. We evaluated the contractile response to phenylephrine (mesenteric arteries or to serotonin (coronary artery and vasodilatory response to acethylcholine (both arteries. RESULTS: Contractile responses to phenylephrine were reduced at 1 day recovery after CPB and Sham as compared to healthy control animals (Emax, mN: 7.9 ± 1.9, 6.5 ± 1.5, and 11.3 ± 1.3, respectively. Mainly FTY720, but not SEW2871, caused lymphopenia in both Sham and CPB groups. In coronary and mesenteric arteries, both FTY720 and SEW2871 normalized serotonin and phenylephrine-mediated vascular reactivity after CPB (p<0.05 and FTY720 increased relaxation to acetylcholine as compared with untreated rats that underwent CPB. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with FTY720 or SEW2871 preserves vascular function in mesenteric and coronary artery after CPB. Therefore, pharmacological activation of S1P1 receptors may provide a promising therapeutic intervention to prevent CPB-related vascular dysfunction in patients.

  9. Glutathione S-transferase P1, gene-gene interaction, and lung cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population: An updated meta-analysis and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ming Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: To assess the impact of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism on the risk of lung cancer in the Chinese population, an updated meta-analysis and review was performed. Materials and Methods: Relevant studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biology Medicine published through January 22, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of the associations. Results: A total of 13 case-control studies, including 2026 lung cancer cases and 2451 controls, were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, significantly increased lung cancer risk was associated with the variant genotypes of GSTP1 polymorphism in the Chinese population (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.01-1.84. In subgroup analyses stratified by geographic area and source of controls, the significant results were found in population-based studies (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.13-2.31; GG vs. AG: OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03-2.16; GG vs. AA + AG: OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.12-2.26. A gene-gene interaction analysis showed that there was an interaction for individuals with combination of GSTM1 (or GSTT1 null genotype and GSTP1 (AG + GG mutant genotype for lung cancer risk in Chinese. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism may increase the risk of lung cancer in the Chinese population.

  10. A pathway to optimize the properties of magnetocaloric Mn_2_-_xFe_xP_1_-_yGe_y for magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.M.; Zhang, Z.L.; Zhou, S.L.; Huang, Q.Z.; Deng, X.J.; Yue, M.; Liu, C.X.; Zhang, J.X.; Lynn, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetocaloric materials can be useful in magnetic refrigeration applications, but to be practical the magneto-refrigerant needs to have a very large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) near room temperature for modest applied fields (<2 T) with small hysteresis and magnetostriction, and should have a complete magnetic transition, and environmentally friendly. One system that may fulfill these requirements is Mn_2_-_xFe_xP_1_-_yGe_y, where a combined first-order structural and magnetic transition occurs between the high temperature paramagnetic and low temperature ferromagnetic phase. We have used neutron diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and magnetization measurements to study the effects of Mn and Ge location in the structure on the ordered magnetic moment, MCE, and hysteresis for a series of compositions of the system near optimal doping. The diffraction results indicate that the Mn ions located on the 3f site enhance the desirable properties, while those located on the 3 g sites are detrimental. The phase fraction that transforms, hysteresis of the transition, and entropy change can be affected greatly by both the compositional homogeneity and the particle size, and an annealing procedure has been developed that substantially improves the performance of all three properties of the material. We also establish a correlation between applied magnetic field to complete the transition and the temperature range of coexistence of the PM and FM phase. On the basis of these results we have identified a pathway to understand the nature and to optimize the MCE properties of this system for magnetic refrigeration applications. - Highlights: • Compositional homogeneity and particle size affect the MCE properties. • Mn ions located on the 3f site enhance the desirable MCE properties. • A pathway to understand the nature and to optimize the MCE properties was identified.

  11. Association between Glutathione S-Transferase GSTM1-T1 and P1 Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome in Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    AFRAND, Mohammadhosain; BASHARDOOST, Nasrollah; SHEIKHHA, Mohammad Hasan; AFKHAMI-ARDEKANI, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between genetic polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family and the risk of the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Zoroastrian females in Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, GSTM1, T1, and P1 polymorphisms were genotyped in 51 randomly selected MS patients and 50 randomly selected healthy controls on February 2014 among Zoroastrian females whose ages ranged from 40 to 70 yr. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Results: We observed a significant association of GSTP1-I/V (Isoleucine/Valine) allele and GSTP1-V/V (Valine / Valine) allele with MS (P = 0.047 and P = 0.044, respectively). The combined analysis of the two genotypes, the present genotype of GSTT1, I/V and V/V alleles of GSTP1 genotype demonstrated a decrease in the risk of acquiring MS (OR = 0.246, P = 0.031). The null genotype of GSTM1, I/V, and V/V alleles of the GSTP1 genotype showed a lower risk in double combinations (OR = 0.15, P = 0.028 and OR = 0.13, P = 0.013, respectively). The combinations of the GSTM1 null genotypes and GSTT1 present genotypes and the GSTP1 I/V and V/V alleles together were associated with decreased risk of having MS in triple combinations (OR = 0.071, P = 0.039 and OR = 0.065, P = 0.022, respectively). Conclusion: GSTP1-I/V and V/V alleles, alone or in association with GSTM1 null and GSTT1 present genotypes, are related with decreased susceptibility to the development of MS in Zoroastrian females. PMID:26284209

  12. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption as predictors of cancer incidence among women at high risk of breast cancer in the NSABP P-1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Stephanie R; Liu, Qing; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Costantino, Joseph P; Ganz, Patricia A

    2014-05-01

    NSABP P-1 provides an opportunity to examine the association of behavioral factors with prospectively monitored cancer incidence and interactions with tamoxifen. From 1992 to 1997, 13,388 women with estimated 5-year breast cancer risk greater than 1.66% or a history of lobular carcinoma in situ (87% younger than age 65; 67% postmenopausal) were randomly assigned to tamoxifen versus placebo. Invasive breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, and endometrial cancer were analyzed with Cox regression. Predictors were baseline cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol consumption, and established risk factors. At median 7 years follow-up, we observed 395, 66, 35, and 74 breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, and endometrial cancer, respectively. Women who had smoked were at increased risk of breast cancer (P = 0.007; HR = 1.3 for 15-35 years smoking, HR = 1.6 for ≥ 35 years), lung cancer (P cancer (P breast cancer risk only among women assigned to placebo (P = 0.021 activity main effect, P = 0.013 activity-treatment interaction; HR = 1.4 for the placebo group) and endometrial cancer among all women (P = 0.026, HR = 1.7). Moderate alcohol (>0-1 drink/day) was associated with decreased risk of colon cancer (P = 0.019; HR = 0.35) versus no alcohol. There were no other significant associations between these behaviors and cancer risk. Among women with elevated risk of breast cancer, smoking has an even greater impact on breast cancer risk than observed in past studies in the general population. Women who smoke or are inactive should be informed of the increased risk of multiple types of cancer. ©2014 AACR.

  13. The 2P1/2 → 2P3/2 laser transition in atomic iodine and the problem of search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K; Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P

    2007-01-01

    It is proposed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) at a wavelength of 1.315 μm of the laser 2 P 1/2 → 2 P 3/2 transition in the atomic iodine, which can be used for this purpose as the natural frequency reference. The search at this wavelength is promising because active quantum filters (AQFs) with the quantum sensitivity limit have been developed for this wavelength, which are capable of receiving laser signals, consisting of only a few photons, against the background of emission from a star under study. In addition, high-power iodine lasers emitting diffraction-limited radiation at 1.315 μm have been created, which highly developed ETI also can have. If a ETI sends in our direction a diffraction-limited 10-ns, 1-kJ laser pulse with the beam diameter of 10 m, a receiver with an AQF mounted on a ten-meter extra-atmospheric optical telescope can detect this signal at a distance of up to 300 light years, irrespective of the ETI position on the celestial sphere. The realisation of the projects for manufacturing optical telescopes of diameter 30 m will increase the research range up to 2700 light years. A weak absorption of the 1.315-μm radiation in the Earth atmosphere (the signal is attenuated by less than 20%) allows the search for ETI signals by using ground telescopes equipped with adaptive optical systems. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. The three youngest Plinian eruptions of Mt Pelée, Martinique (P1, P2 and P3): Constraining the eruptive conditions from field and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Ulrich; Uhlig, Joan; Carazzo, Guillaume; Kaminski, Edouard; Perugini, Diego; Tait, Steve; Clouard, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Mt Pelée on Martinique, French Lesser Indies, is infamous for the last big Pelean (i.e., dome forming) eruption in 1902 AD that destroyed agricultural land and the city of Saint Pierre by pyroclastic density currents. Beside such mostly valley-confined deposits, the geological record shows thick fall deposits of at least three Plinian eruptions during the past 2000 years. In an attempt to describe and understand systematic eruptive behaviours as well as the associated variability of eruptive scenarios of Plinian eruptions in Martinique, we have investigated approx. 50 outcrops belonging to the P1 (1315 AD), P2 (345 AD) and P3 (4 AD) eruptions (Traineau et al., JVGR 1989) and collected bulk samples as well as >100 mm pumiceous clasts. All samples are andesitic, contain plagioclase and pyroxene in a glassy matrix and range in porosity between 55 and 69 vol.% with individual bubbles rarely larger than 1 mm. Our approach was two-fold: 1) Loose bulk samples have been subject to dry mechanical sieving in order to quantively describe the grain-size distribution and the fractal dimension. 2) From large clasts, 60*25 mm cylinders have been drilled for fragmentation experiments following the sudden decompression of gas in the sample's pore space. The used experimental set-up allowed for precisely controllable and repeatable conditions (5, 10 and 15 MPa, 25 °C) and the complete sampling of the generated pyroclasts. These experimentally generated clasts were analysed for their grain-size distribution and fractal dimension. For both natural samples and experimental populations, we find we find that the grain-size distribution follows a power-law, with an exponent between 2,5 and 3,7. Deciphering eruption conditions from deposits alone is challenging because of the complex interplay of dynamic volcanic processes and transport-related sorting. We use the quantified values of fractal dimension for a comparison of the power law exponents among the three eruptions and the

  15. Investigations into the corrosion resistance of copper aluminium alloys. Effect of phosphorus as corrosion resistant third alloying element in the ternary system CuAl20P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwardt, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of phosphorus on the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes is studied in detail in this work. A literature review showed that there are a lot of things known about the microstructure and the mechanical properties of Al-bronzes. In spite of their corrosion resistance the corrosion properties and the structure of the protective oxide films of Al-bronzes were seldom a matter of interest. Systematic studies of the influence of different alloying elements on the oxide film and the corrosion properties are rare. Therefore, it is not possible to predict the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes, made by alloying particular elements. The high corrosion resistance of the new alloy CuAl 20 P 1 was the reason to investigate the influence of phosphorus on the corrosion properties of Al-bronzes in more detail. A systematic study of the microstructure and the corrosion properties of Cu, CuP x , CuAl 20 and CuAl 20 P x offers an insight into the effect of aluminium and phosphorus on the formation of the oxide film on Al-bronzes. It was found that there exists a critical amount of 1 at.-% of phosphorus. Above and below this amount the corrosion resistance becomes worse. This behaviour could be explained by XPS-and electrochemical measurements. Although there are still some questions about the influence of phosphorus on the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes, this work has produced some important results, which in the future may be helpful to develop new high corrosion resistant Al-bronzes more efficiently: - on clean surface Al-bronze, the oxidation of Al and Cu takes place simultaneously, - Al promotes the formation of Cu 2 O but impedes the formation of Cu(II)-oxide/-hydride in neutral solutions, - P impedes the formation of Cu 2 O and as a consequence promotes the formation of aluminium oxide. This results in a higher amount of Al in the oxide film on the surface of the alloy, which leads to a better corrosion resistance. (author) figs., tabs., 106 refs

  16. Engraftment and bone mass are enhanced by PTHrP 1-34 in ectopically transplanted vertebrae (vossicle model) and can be non-invasively monitored with bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Blake Eason; Williams, Michelle M; Dembek, Katarzyna A; Hernon, Krista M; Rosol, Thomas J; Toribio, Ramiro E

    2015-12-01

    Evidence exists that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) 1-34 may be more anabolic in bone than parathyroid hormone 1-34. While optical imaging is growing in popularity, scant information exists on the relationships between traditional bone imaging and histology and bioluminescence (BLI) and fluorescence (FLI) imaging. We aimed to evaluate the effects of PTHrP 1-34 on bone mass and determine if relationships existed between radiographic and histologic findings in bone and BLI and FLI indices. Vertebrae (vossicles) from mice coexpressing luciferase and green fluorescent protein were implanted subcutaneously into allogenic nude mice. Transplant recipients were treated daily with saline or PTHrP 1-34 for 4 weeks. BLI, FLI, radiography, histology, and µCT of the vossicles were performed over time. PTHrP 1-34 increased bioluminescence the most after 2 weeks, fluorescence at all time points, and decreased the time to peak bioluminescence at 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.027), the latter of which suggesting enhanced engraftment. PTHrP 1-34 maximized vertebral body volume at 4 weeks (P bone observed histologically increased in both groups at 2 and 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.002); however, PTHrP 1-34 exceeded time-matched controls (P ≤ 0.044). A positive linear relationship existed between the percentage of trabecular bone and (1) total bioluminescence (r = 0.595; P = 0.019); (2) total fluorescence (r = 0.474; P = 0.074); and (3) max fluorescence (r = 0.587; P = 0.021). In conclusion, PTHrP 1-34 enhances engraftment and bone mass, which can be monitored non-invasively by BLI and FLI.

  17. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S. Campolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  18. Quantitative control of Lettuce mosaic virus fitness and host defence inhibition by P1-HCPro P1-HC Pro do Lettuce mosaic virus atua de forma quantitativa na inibição da resposta de defesa do hospedeiro e adaptação viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Krause-Sakate

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two Lettuce mosaic virus isolates capable of overcoming the resistance afforded by the resistance gene mo1² in lettuce, LMV-AF199 from Brazil, and LMV-E, an European isolate, were evaluated for the rapidity and severity of symptoms induced on the lettuce variety Salinas 88 (mo1². The mosaic symptoms on Salinas 88 plants inoculated with LMV-AF199 appeared 7 days post-inoculation (dpi and 15 dpi for LMV-E. The symptoms induced by LMV-AF199 in this cultivar were also more severe than those induced by LMV-E. In order to identify the region of the viral genome responsible for this phenotype, recombinant viruses were constructed between these isolates and the phenotype of each recombinant was analysed. The region encoding proteins P1 and HcPro from LMV-AF199 was associated with the increased virulence in Salinas 88.Dois isolados de Lettuce mosaic virus capazes de contornar a resistência conferida pelo gene mo1² em alface, LMV-AF199 proveniente do Brasil e LMV-E um isolado europeu, foram avaliados quanto à rapidez e à severidade dos sintomas induzidos em alface variedade Salinas 88 (mo1². Os sintomas de mosaico induzidos pelo isolado LMV-AF-199 em Salinas 88 são mais severos e aparecem aos 7 dias após a inoculação (dpi, enquanto que para o isolado LMV-E os sintomas são visíveis somente a partir dos 15 dpi. Com o intuito de identificar a região do genoma viral responsável por este fenótipo, vírus recombinantes foram construídos entre estes dois isolados, e o fenótipo avaliado quanto a rapidez e severidade dos sintomas em Salinas-88. A região codificadora para as proteínas P1 e Hc-Pro do LMV-AF199 foi associada com o aumento da virulência deste isolado em Salinas-88.

  19. The Lys-Asp-Tyr Triad within the Mite Allergen Der p 1 Propeptide Is a Critical Structural Element for the pH-Dependent Initiation of the Protease Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevigné, Andy; Campizi, Vincenzo; Szpakowska, Martyna; Bourry, David; Dumez, Marie-Eve; Martins, José C; Matagne, André; Galleni, Moreno; Jacquet, Alain

    2017-05-20

    The major house dust mite allergen, Der p 1, is a papain-like cysteine protease expressed as an inactive precursor, proDer p 1, carrying an N-terminal propeptide with a unique structure. The maturation of the zymogen into an enzymatically-active form of Der p 1 is a multistep autocatalytic process initiated under acidic conditions through conformational changes of the propeptide, leading to the loss of its inhibitory ability and its subsequent gradual cleavage. The aims of this study were to characterize the residues present in the Der p 1 propeptide involved in the initiation of the zymogen maturation process, but also to assess the impact of acidic pH on the propeptide structure, the activity of Der p 1 and the fate of the propeptide. Using various complementary enzymatic and structural approaches, we demonstrated that a structural triad K17p-D51p-Y19p within the N-terminal domain of the propeptide is essential for its stabilization and the sensing of pH changes. Particularly, the protonation of D51p under acidic conditions unfolds the propeptide through disruption of the K17p-D51p salt bridge, reduces its inhibition capacity and unmasks the buried residues K17p and Y19p constituting the first maturation cleavage site of the zymogen. Our results also evidenced that this triad acts in a cooperative manner with other propeptide pH-responsive elements, including residues E56p and E80p, to promote the propeptide unfolding and/or to facilitate its proteolysis. Furthermore, we showed that acidic conditions modify Der p 1 proteolytic specificity and confirmed that the formation of the first intermediate represents the limiting step of the in vitro Der p 1 maturation process. Altogether, our results provide new insights into the early events of the mechanism of proDer p 1 maturation and identify a unique structural triad acting as a stabilizing and a pH-sensing regulatory element.

  20. The Lys-Asp-Tyr Triad within the Mite Allergen Der p 1 Propeptide Is a Critical Structural Element for the pH-Dependent Initiation of the Protease Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Chevigné

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The major house dust mite allergen, Der p 1, is a papain-like cysteine protease expressed as an inactive precursor, proDer p 1, carrying an N-terminal propeptide with a unique structure. The maturation of the zymogen into an enzymatically-active form of Der p 1 is a multistep autocatalytic process initiated under acidic conditions through conformational changes of the propeptide, leading to the loss of its inhibitory ability and its subsequent gradual cleavage. The aims of this study were to characterize the residues present in the Der p 1 propeptide involved in the initiation of the zymogen maturation process, but also to assess the impact of acidic pH on the propeptide structure, the activity of Der p 1 and the fate of the propeptide. Using various complementary enzymatic and structural approaches, we demonstrated that a structural triad K17p-D51p-Y19p within the N-terminal domain of the propeptide is essential for its stabilization and the sensing of pH changes. Particularly, the protonation of D51p under acidic conditions unfolds the propeptide through disruption of the K17p-D51p salt bridge, reduces its inhibition capacity and unmasks the buried residues K17p and Y19p constituting the first maturation cleavage site of the zymogen. Our results also evidenced that this triad acts in a cooperative manner with other propeptide pH-responsive elements, including residues E56p and E80p, to promote the propeptide unfolding and/or to facilitate its proteolysis. Furthermore, we showed that acidic conditions modify Der p 1 proteolytic specificity and confirmed that the formation of the first intermediate represents the limiting step of the in vitro Der p 1 maturation process. Altogether, our results provide new insights into the early events of the mechanism of proDer p 1 maturation and identify a unique structural triad acting as a stabilizing and a pH-sensing regulatory element.

  1. Synthesis of P1-(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P2-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-α-D-rhamnopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate and P1-(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P2-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate for the investigation of biosynthesis of O-antigenic polysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli O104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgov, Vladimir; Danilov, Leonid; Utkina, Natalia; Veselovsky, Vladimir; Brockhausen, Inka

    2017-12-01

    Two new phenoxyundecyl diphosphate sugars were synthesized for the first time: P 1 -(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P 2 - (2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-α-D-rhamnopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate and P 1 -(11-phenoxyundecyl)-P 2 -(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate to study the third step of biosynthesis of the repeating units of O-antigenic polysaccharides in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E.coli O104 respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A protein that binds to the P1 origin core and the oriC 13mer region in a methylation-specific fashion is the product of the host seqA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendler, T; Abeles, A; Austin, S

    1995-08-15

    The P1 plasmid replication origin P1oriR is controlled by methylation of four GATC adenine methylation sites within heptamer repeats. A comparable (13mer) region is present in the host origin, oriC. The two origins show comparable responses to methylation; negative control by recognition of hemimethylated DNA (sequestration) and a positive requirement for methylation for efficient function. We have isolated a host protein that recognizes the P1 origin region only when it is isolated from a strain proficient for adenine methylation. The substantially purified 22 kDa protein also binds to the 13mer region of oriC in a methylation-specific fashion. It proved to be the product of the seqA gene that acts in the negative control of oriC by sequestration. We conclude that the role of the SeqA protein in sequestration is to recognize the methylation state of P1oriR and oriC by direct DNA binding. Using synthetic substrates we show that SeqA binds exclusively to the hemimethylated forms of these origins forms that are the immediate products of replication in a methylation-proficient strain. We also show that the protein can recognize sequences with multiple GATC sites, irrespective of the surrounding sequence. The basis for origin specificity is primarily the persistence of hemimethylated forms that are over-represented in the natural. DNA preparations relative to controls.

  3. GESTÃO HÍDRICA A PARTIR DE CISTERNAS DE PLACAS: AVALIAÇÃO SOCIOAMBIENTAL DA EFICIÊNCIA DO P1MC NO MUNICÍPIO DE PEDRA LAVRADA-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adailton Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, muitas populações rurais do Semiárido brasileiro têm convivido com árduas realidades em virtude da carência de água. Diante disto, as cisternas de placas surgem como mecanismo para prover o acesso e disponibilidade de água. Neste sentido, a Articulação do Semiárido (ASA elaborou o “Programa Um Milhão de Cisternas Rurais – P1MC”, o qual busca prover o gerenciamento e a valorização da água para a “convivência sustentável” com a escassez de água no Semiárido brasileiro. Conhecendo-se as premissas do P1MC, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a eficiência das cisternas de placas e o desempenho do P1MC para com a disponibilidade de água, e a melhoria da qualidade de vida das famílias que convivem com a escassez hídrica. Para tanto, foram realizados: i estudos sobre a pluviometria (série de 61 anos de precipitação pluvial; ii estimativa do Volume Potencial de Captação (VPC dos telhados residenciais e das cisternas; e iii aplicação de questionários semiestruturados a 40 famílias beneficiadas pelo P1MC, no município de Pedra Lavrada – PB. Como resultados, concluiu-se que: 1 as cisternas de placa é uma tecnologia eficiente e capaz de suprir as necessidades hídricas durante o período de estiagem (8 meses; 2 o P1MC apresentou pontos negativos: ausência de fiscalização das cisternas com problemas (rachaduras e vazamentos, e a impossibilidade de atender aos anseios familiares (dessedentação animal ou cultivo de pequenas lavouras; e 3 o P1MC promoveu o acesso/disponibilidade de água, e “independência hídrica”, promovendo assim a sustentabilidade das famílias rurais em meio às adversidades edafoclimáticas do Semiárido brasileiro.

  4. Monitoring Acidophilic Microbes with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank F. Roberto

    2008-08-01

    Many techniques that are used to characterize and monitor microbial populations associated with sulfide mineral bioleaching require the cultivation of the organisms on solid or liquid media. Chemolithotrophic species, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, or thermophilic chemolithotrophs, such as Acidianus brierleyi and Sulfolobus solfataricus can grow quite slowly, requiring weeks to complete efforts to identify and quantify these microbes associated with bioleach samples. Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays in which DNA targets are amplified in the presence of fluorescent oligonucleotide primers, allowing the monitoring and quantification of the amplification reactions as they progress, provide a means of rapidly detecting the presence of microbial species of interest, and their relative abundance in a sample. This presentation will describe the design and use of such assays to monitor acidophilic microbes in the environment and in bioleaching operations. These assays provide results within 2-3 hours, and can detect less than 100 individual microbial cells.

  5. Proteolysis in hyperthermophilic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Ward

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are found in every cell, where they recognize and break down unneeded or abnormal polypeptides or peptide-based nutrients within or outside the cell. Genome sequence data can be used to compare proteolytic enzyme inventories of different organisms as they relate to physiological needs for protein modification and hydrolysis. In this review, we exploit genome sequence data to compare hyperthermophilic microorganisms from the euryarchaeotal genus Pyrococcus, the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima. An overview of the proteases in these organisms is given based on those proteases that have been characterized and on putative proteases that have been identified from genomic sequences, but have yet to be characterized. The analysis revealed both similarities and differences in the mechanisms utilized for proteolysis by each of these hyperthermophiles and indicated how these mechanisms relate to proteolysis in less thermophilic cells and organisms.

  6. Extensive Lysine Methylation in Hyperthermophilic Crenarchaea: Potential Implications for Protein Stability and Recombinant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Botting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In eukarya and bacteria, lysine methylation is relatively rare and is catalysed by sequence-specific lysine methyltransferases that typically have only a single-protein target. Using RNA polymerase purified from the thermophilic crenarchaeum Sulfolobus solfataricus, we identified 21 methyllysines distributed across 9 subunits of the enzyme. The modified lysines were predominantly in α-helices and showed no conserved sequence context. A limited survey of the Thermoproteus tenax proteome revealed widespread modification with 52 methyllysines in 30 different proteins. These observations suggest the presence of an unusual lysine methyltransferase with relaxed specificity in the crenarchaea. Since lysine methylation is known to enhance protein thermostability, this may be an adaptation to a thermophilic lifestyle. The implications of this modification for studies and applications of recombinant crenarchaeal enzymes are discussed.

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04013-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pid:none) Flavobacterium psychrophilum JIP... 98 3e-19 EU678894_1( EU678894 |pid:none) Bacillus intermedius ...46 3e-04 2 ( EH672780 ) CCIL10412.b1_G11.ab1 CCI(LMS) chicory Cichorium i... 46 3e-04 2 ( EJ368820 ) 1092963715450 Global-Ocean-Sampl...41 |pid:none) Sulfolobus solfataricus P2, com... 89 2e-16 AH1770( AH1770 ) conserved hypothetical protein lin2710 [imported...AY653733 ) Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, complete genome. 62 3e-05 1 ( EH678404 ) CCIL3410.b1_D14.ab1 CC...ngs S... 44 6.8 1 >( AC116963 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 4657875-4914984 strain AX4, compl

  8. [Decontamination of organophosphorus compounds: Towards new alternatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, L; Jacquet, P; Elias, M; Daudé, D; Chabrière, E

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus coumpounds (OP) are toxic chemicals mainly used for agricultural purpose such as insecticides and were also developed and used as warfare nerve agents. OP are inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme involved in the regulation of the central nervous system. Chemical, physical and biological approaches have been considered to decontaminate OP. This review summarizes the current and emerging strategies that are investigated to tackle this issue with a special emphasis on enzymatic remediation methods. During the last decade, many studies have been dedicated to the development of biocatalysts for OP removal. Among these, recent reports have pointed out the promising enzyme SsoPox isolated from the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus. Considering both its intrinsic stability and activity, this hyperthermostable enzyme is highly appealing for the decontamination of OP. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. All rights reserved.

  9. Current and emerging strategies for organophosphate decontamination: special focus on hyperstable enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Pauline; Daudé, David; Bzdrenga, Janek; Masson, Patrick; Elias, Mikael; Chabrière, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphorus chemicals are highly toxic molecules mainly used as pesticides. Some of them are banned warfare nerve agents. These compounds are covalent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in central and peripheral nervous systems. Numerous approaches, including chemical, physical, and biological decontamination, have been considered for developing decontamination methods against organophosphates (OPs). This work is an overview of both validated and emerging strategies for the protection against OP pollution with special attention to the use of decontaminating enzymes. Considerable efforts have been dedicated during the past decades to the development of efficient OP degrading biocatalysts. Among these, the promising biocatalyst SsoPox isolated from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is emphasized in the light of recently published results. This hyperthermostable enzyme appears to be particularly attractive for external decontamination purposes with regard to both its catalytic and stability properties.

  10. O1, P1, N2 models of the global ocean tide on an elastic earth plus surface potential and spherical harmonic decompositions for M2, S2, and K1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The models of M2, S2, and K1 presented in Parke and Hendershott (1980) are supplemented with models of O1, P1, and N2. The models satisfy specified elevation boundary conditions and are generated by fighting a small number of test functions to island data. Maps are presented of the geocentric tide, the induced free space potential, the induced vertical component of the solid earth tide, and the induced vertical component of the gravitational field for each new component. Maps of the tidal potential seen by an observer fixed to the surface of the solid earth are also presented for all six constituents. Spherical harmonic coefficients up to order four and the rms magnitude of the coefficients to order fifteen are presented for each constituent. The rms magnitudes of the P1 and K1 coefficients normalized by their respective equilibrium amplitudes are compared to determine the effect of the diurnal core resonance.

  11. HYPERDIRE. HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction. MATHEMATICA based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions {sub p}F{sub p-1}, F{sub 1}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 3}, F{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytev, Vladimir V.; Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-05-15

    HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: one, pfq, is relevant for manipulations of hypergeometric functions {sub p+1}F{sub p}, and the second one, AppellF1F4, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions F{sub 1}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 3}, F{sub 4} of two variables.

  12. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Campos, J.

    1979-01-01

    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 3 2 P1/2 and 3 2 P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs

  13. Study of Stark Effect in n-doped 1.55 μm InN0.92yP1-1.92yBiy/InP MQWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilel, C.; Chakir, K.; Rebey, A.; Alrowaili, Z. A.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of an applied electric field on electronic band structure and optical absorption properties of n-doped InN0.92y P1-1.92y Bi y /InP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) was theoretically studied using a self-consistent calculation combined with the 16-band anti-crossing model. The incorporation of N and Bi atoms into an InP host matrix leads to rapid reduction of the band gap energy covering a large infrared range. The optimization of the well parameters, such as the well/barrier widths, N/Bi compositions and doping density, allowed us to obtain InN0.92y P1-1.92y Bi y /InP MQWs operating at the wavelength 1.55 μm. Application of the electric field causes a red-shift of the fundamental transition energy T 1 accompanied by a significant change in the spatial distribution of confined electron density. The Stark effect on the absorption coefficient of n-doped InN0.92y P1-1.92y Bi y /InP MQWs was investigated. The Bi composition of these MQWs was adjusted for each electric field value in order to maintain the wavelength emission at 1.55 μm.

  14. Comet C/2004 P1 (NEAT)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.; Kušnirák, Peter

    -, č. 8383 (2004), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : new comet * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 3{sup 2}P1/2 and 3{sup 2}P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser; Sistema de muestreo para senales pulsadas. Estudio de vidas medias de niveles 3{sup 2} P1/2 y 3{sup 2}P3/2 excitados por un laser de colorantes pulsado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P; Campos, J

    1979-07-01

    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 3{sup 2}P1/2 and 3{sup 2}P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs.

  16. Identification and functional verification of archaeal-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, a missing link in archaeal central carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Thijs J G; Makarova, Kira S; Jellema, Gera L; Gierman, Hinco J; Koonin, Eugene V; Huynen, Martijn A; de Vos, Willem M; van der Oost, John

    2004-11-01

    Despite the fact that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity has been measured and in some cases even purified from some Archaea, the gene responsible for this activity has not been elucidated. Using sensitive sequence comparison methods, we detected a highly conserved, uncharacterized archaeal gene family that is distantly related to the catalytic core of the canonical PEPC. To verify the predicted function of this archaeal gene family, we cloned a representative from the hyperthermophilic acidophile Sulfolobus solfataricus and functionally produced the corresponding enzyme as a fusion with the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein. The purified fusion protein indeed displayed highly thermostable PEPC activity. The structural and biochemical properties of the characterized archaeal-type PEPC (atPEPC) from S. solfataricus are in good agreement with previously reported biochemical analyses of other archaeal PEPC enzymes. The newly identified atPEPC, with its distinct properties, constitutes yet another example of the versatility of the enzymes of the central carbon metabolic pathways in the archaeal domain.

  17. Structural and functional characterization of an archaeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated complex for antiviral defense (CASCADE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintner, Nathanael G; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K; Graham, Shirley; Liu, Huanting; Naismith, James H; Sdano, Matthew; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Copié, Valérie; Young, Mark J; White, Malcolm F; Lawrence, C Martin

    2011-06-17

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA. The Escherichia coli "CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense" (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2-Cas5a complex is sufficient to bind crRNA and complementary ssDNA. The structure of Csa2 reveals a crescent-shaped structure unexpectedly composed of a modified RNA-recognition motif and two additional domains present as insertions in the RNA-recognition motif. Conserved residues indicate potential crRNA- and target DNA-binding sites, and the H160A variant shows significantly reduced affinity for crRNA. We propose a general subunit architecture for CASCADE in other bacteria and Archaea.

  18. Hyperoxia-induced p47phox activation and ROS generation is mediated through S1P transporter Spns2, and S1P/S1P1&2 signaling axis in lung endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijith, Anantha; Pendyala, Srikanth; Ebenezer, David L; Ha, Alison W; Fu, Panfeng; Wang, Yue-Ting; Ma, Ke; Toth, Peter T; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; Kanteti, Prasad; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2016-08-01

    Hyperoxia-induced lung injury adversely affects ICU patients and neonates on ventilator assisted breathing. The underlying culprit appears to be reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lung damage. The major contributor of hyperoxia-induced ROS is activation of the multiprotein enzyme complex NADPH oxidase. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling is known to be involved in hyperoxia-mediated ROS generation; however, the mechanism(s) of S1P-induced NADPH oxidase activation is unclear. Here, we investigated various steps in the S1P signaling pathway mediating ROS production in response to hyperoxia in lung endothelium. Of the two closely related sphingosine kinases (SphKs)1 and 2, which synthesize S1P from sphingosine, only Sphk1(-/-) mice conferred protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury. S1P is metabolized predominantly by S1P lyase and partial deletion of Sgpl1 (Sgpl1(+/-)) in mice accentuated lung injury. Hyperoxia stimulated S1P accumulation in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs), and downregulation of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) or S1P receptors S1P1&2, but not S1P3, using specific siRNA attenuated hyperoxia-induced p47(phox) translocation to cell periphery and ROS generation in HLMVECs. These results suggest a role for Spns2 and S1P1&2 in hyperoxia-mediated ROS generation. In addition, p47(phox) (phox:phagocyte oxidase) activation and ROS generation was also reduced by PF543, a specific SphK1 inhibitor in HLMVECs. Our data indicate a novel role for Spns2 and S1P1&2 in the activation of p47(phox) and production of ROS involved in hyperoxia-mediated lung injury in neonatal and adult mice. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Electron Excitation Rate Coefficients for Transitions from the IS21S Ground State to the 1S2S1,3S and 1S2P1,3P0 Excited States of Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Kingston, A. E.; McDowell, M. R. C.

    1984-03-01

    The available experimental and theoretical electron impact excitation cross section data for the transitions from the 1s2 1S ground state to the 1s2s 1,3S and 1s2p 1,3P0 excited states of helium are assessed. Based on this assessed data, excitation rate coefficients are calculated over a wide electron temperature range below 3.0×106K. A comparison with other published results suggests that the rates used should be lower by a factor of 2 or more.

  20. Scalable synthesis and isolation of the four stereoisomers of methyl 1-amino-3-(4-bromophenyl)cyclopentanecarboxylate, useful intermediates for the synthesis of S1P1 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Grier A; Gordon, Thomas D; Hayes, Martin E; Konopacki, Donald B; Fix-Stenzel, Shannon R; Zhang, Xiaolei; Grongsaard, Pintipa; Cusack, Kevin P; Schaffter, Lisa M; Henry, Rodger F; Stoffel, Robert H

    2009-07-03

    The individual isomers of methyl 1-amino-3-(4-bromophenyl)cyclopentanecarboxylate are useful intermediates for the synthesis of S1P1 receptor agonists. Herein we describe a scalable synthesis and isolation of each of the four stereoisomers of this compound in gram quantities with >98% ee and de. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by the synthesis of ((1R,3R)-1-amino-3-(4-octylphenyl)cyclopentyl)methanol in 7 steps, 11% overall yield, and >98% ee and de.

  1. Does occupational exposure to solvents and pesticides in association with glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1, and T1 polymorphisms increase the risk of bladder cancer? The Belgrade case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija G Matic

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of the glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1 and T1 gene polymorphisms and potential effect modification by occupational exposure to different chemicals in Serbian bladder cancer male patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study of bladder cancer in men comprised 143 histologically confirmed cases and 114 age-matched male controls. Deletion polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 was identified by polymerase chain reaction method. Single nucleotide polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase A1 and P1 was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. As a measure of effect size, odds ratio (OR with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI was calculated. RESULTS: The glutathione S-transferase A1, T1 and P1 genotypes did not contribute independently toward the risk of bladder cancer, while the glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype was overrepresented among cases (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1-4.2, p = 0.032. The most pronounced effect regarding occupational exposure to solvents and glutathione S-transferase genotype on bladder cancer risk was observed for the low activity glutathione S-transferase A1 genotype (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.4-34.7, p = 0.001. The glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype also enhanced the risk of bladder cancer among subjects exposed to solvents (OR = 6,5, 95% CI = 2.1-19.7, p = 0.001. The risk of bladder cancer development was 5.3-fold elevated among glutathione S-transferase T1-active patients exposed to solvents in comparison with glutathione S-transferase T1-active unexposed patients (95% CI = 1.9-15.1, p = 0.002. Moreover, men with glutathione S-transferase T1-active genotype exposed to pesticides exhibited 4.5 times higher risk in comparison with unexposed glutathione S-transferase T1-active subjects (95% CI = 0.9-22.5, p = 0.067. CONCLUSION: Null or low-activity genotypes of the

  2. Crossed molecular beam-tunable laser determination of velocity dependence of intramultiplet mixing: K(4p2P1/2)+He →K(4p2P3/2)+He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.; Goddard, T.P.; Parravano, C.; Warner, J.

    1976-01-01

    The velocity dependence of intramultiplet mixing, K(4p 2 P 1 / 2 ) +He→K(4p 2 P 3 / 2 )+He, has been measured over the relative velocity range v=1.3--3.4 km/sec. The cross section appears to fit a linear function Q (v) =A (v-v 0 ), where a=6.3 x 10 -4 A 2 and v 0 = 7.9 x 10 4 cm/sec. The value of A is obtained by normalization to the literature thermal average cross section. The intramultiplet mixing theory of Nikitin is modified to yield Q (v) for the process. The modified theory correctly exhibits detailed balancing, and it is normalized to provide a very good fit to the observed Q (v). The magnitude of the normalization factor, however, is larger than that predicted from recent pseudopotential calculations of the excited state potentials. The temperature dependence of intramultiplet mixing is predicted. The use of laser polarization to determine the m/subj/ dependence of the process K(4p 2 P 3 / 2 +He→K(4p 2 P 1 / 2 )+He and other collision processes of excited 2 P 3 / 2 states is examined

  3. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E; O'Carroll, Simon J; Graham, E Scott

    2016-01-27

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

  4. Experimental verification of a GPC-LPV method with RLS and P1-TS fuzzy-based estimation for limiting the transient and residual vibration of a crane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoczek, Jaroslaw

    2015-10-01

    The paper deals with the problem of reducing the residual vibration and limiting the transient oscillations of a flexible and underactuated system with respect to the variation of operating conditions. The comparative study of generalized predictive control (GPC) and fuzzy scheduling scheme developed based on the P1-TS fuzzy theory, local pole placement method and interval analysis of closed-loop system polynomial coefficients is addressed to the problem of flexible crane control. The two alternatives of a GPC-based method are proposed that enable to realize this technique either with or without a sensor of payload deflection. The first control technique is based on the recursive least squares (RLS) method applied to on-line estimate the parameters of a linear parameter varying (LPV) model of a crane dynamic system. The second GPC-based approach is based on a payload deflection feedback estimated using a pendulum model with the parameters interpolated using the P1-TS fuzzy system. Feasibility and applicability of the developed methods were confirmed through experimental verification performed on a laboratory scaled overhead crane.

  5. Thermophilic archaeal enzymes and applications in biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlechild, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Thermophilic enzymes have advantages for their use in commercial applications and particularly for the production of chiral compounds to produce optically pure pharmaceuticals. They can be used as biocatalysts in the application of 'green chemistry'. The thermophilic archaea contain enzymes that have already been used in commercial applications such as the L-aminoacylase from Thermococcus litoralis for the resolution of amino acids and amino acid analogues. This enzyme differs from bacterial L-aminoacylases and has similarities to carboxypeptidases from other archaeal species. An amidase/γ-lactamase from Sulfolobus solfataricus has been used for the production of optically pure γ-lactam, the building block for antiviral carbocyclic nucleotides. This enzyme has similarities to the bacterial signature amidase family. An alcohol dehydrogenase from Aeropyrum pernix has been used for the production of optically pure alcohols and is related to the zinc-containing eukaryotic alcohol dehydrogenases. A transaminase and a dehalogenase from Sulfolobus species have also been studied. The archaeal transaminase is found in a pathway for serine synthesis which is found only in eukaryotes and not in bacteria. It can be used for the asymmetric synthesis of homochiral amines of high enantioselective purity. The L-2-haloacid dehalogenase has applications both in biocatalysis and in bioremediation. All of these enzymes have increased thermostability over their mesophilic counterparts.

  6. Elucidating the transcription cycle of the UV-inducible hyperthermophilic archaeal virus SSV1 by DNA microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froels, Sabrina; Gordon, Paul M.K.; Panlilio, Mayi Arcellana; Schleper, Christa; Sensen, Christoph W.

    2007-01-01

    The spindle-shaped Sulfolobus virus SSV1 was the first of a series of unusual and uniquely shaped viruses isolated from hyperthermophilic Archaea. Using whole-genome microarrays we show here that the circular 15.5 kb DNA genome of SSV1 exhibits a chronological regulation of its transcription upon UV irradiation, reminiscent to the life cycles of bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses. The transcriptional cycle starts with a small UV-specific transcript and continues with early transcripts on both its flanks. The late transcripts appear after the onset of viral replication and are extended to their full lengths towards the end of the approximately 8.5 h cycle. While we detected only small differences in genome-wide analysis of the host Sulfolobus solfataricus comparing infected versus uninfected strains, we found a marked difference with respect to the strength and speed of the general UV response of the host. Models for the regulation of the virus cycle, and putative functions of genes in SSV1 are presented

  7. Excitation mechanisms of 2s1/2-2p3/2 and 2p1/2-2p3/2 transitions in U82+ through U89+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaux, V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Osterheld, A.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on detailed calculations of the electron-impact excitation of n = 2 electrons in the Li- to Ne-like uranium ions was developed to interpret and explain measurements on EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap). While only considering the direct excitation process provided a good model for the electric dipole (El) transitions, it was necessary for the magnetic dipole (Ml) spectrum to include various additional excitation processes in the model. In particular, the model was expanded to include electron-impact excitation of n = 3 levels followed by radiative cascades. Moreover, excitation by the ionization of 2s 1/2 , 2p 1/2 , and 2p 3/2 electrons and by radiative capture of beam electrons into excited levels was added. The new model demonstrates that the dipole-forbidden lines are almost exclusively produced by indirect excitation processes

  8. Heavy particle excitation of the 2s22p52P3/2-2s22p52P1/2 transition in fluorine-like Fe XVIII and Ni XX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keenan, F.P.; Reid, R.H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections and rate coefficients for excitation of the 2s 2 2p 52 P 3/2 -2s 2 2p 52 P 1/2 transition in fluorine-like Fe XVIII and Ni XX by proton (p), deuteron (d), triton (t) and α-particle (α) impact have been calculated using the close-coupled impact parameter method. At temperatures close to or below those of maximum Fe XVIII and Ni XX fractional abundance in ionisation equilibrium, the p,d and t rates are found to be comparable and are much greater than the rates due to α collisions. However, at high temperatures the situation is reversed, with the α rates being about a factor of two larger than those due to the other particles. The effects of adopting the present atomic data in calculations of the electron density or ion temperature sensitive emission line ratios are briefly discussed. (author)

  9. Electron-impact excitation of multiply-charged ions using energy loss in merged beams: e + Si3+(3s2S1/2) → e + Si3+(3p2P1/2,3/2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlin, E.K.; Thompson, J.S.; Dunn, G.H.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Gregory, D.C.; Smith, A.C.H.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time absolute total cross sections for electron-impact excitation of a multiply-charged ion have been measured using an electron-energy-loss technique. Measurements were made near threshold for the process e + Si 3+ (3s 2 S 1/2 ) → e + Si 3+ (3p 2 P 1/2 , 3/2 ) -- 8.88 eV. The 10 -15 cm 2 measured cross section agrees with results of 7-state close coupling calculations to better than the ±20% (90% CL) total uncertainty of the measurements. Convoluting the theoretical curve with a Gaussian energy distribution indicates an energy width of 0.15 approx-lt ΔE approx-lt 0.20 eV. 12 refs., 2 figs

  10. Simple description of the Jsup(P)=1/sup +/K/sup + -/. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/ system in the reactions K/sup + -/p. -->. K/sup + -/. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie, R K; Cashmore, R J; Davier, M; Dunwoodie, W M; Lasinski, T A; Leith, D W.G.S.; Williams, S H [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Calif. (USA)

    1977-09-12

    A model in which Q/sub 1/ and Q/sub 2/ resonance contributions add coherently to a Gaussian background is shown to reproduce the mass dependence of the Jsup(P)=1/sup +/K*..pi.. and rhoK partial waves in K/sup + -/p..-->..K/sup + -/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/p at 13 GeV/c. Through a fit to the data, the mass and total width for Q/sub 1/ are found to be m=1289+-3+-(25) MeV, GAMMA=150+-9(+-70) MeV and for Q/sub 2/, m=1404+-3(+-10) MeV, GAMMA=142+-4(+-15) MeV, where estimated systematic errors are given in parentheses. While a significant background is required for the 1/sup +/K*..pi.. system, none is needed for the 1/sup +/rhoK system.

  11. Femtosecond induced transparency and absorption in the extreme ultraviolet by coherent coupling of the He 2s2p (1Po) and 2p2 (1Se) double excitation states with 800 nm light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Z.-H.; Greene, C.H.; Leone, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy is used to observe electromagnetically induced transparency-like behavior as well as induced absorption in the extreme ultraviolet by laser dressing of the He 2s2p ( 1 P 0 ) and 2p 2 ( 1 S e ) double excitation states with an intense 800 nm field. Probing in the vicinity of the 1s 2 → 2s2p transition at 60.15 eV reveals the formation of an Autler-Townes doublet due to coherent coupling of the double excitation states. Qualitative agreement with the experimental spectra is obtained only when optical field ionization of both double excitation states into the N = 2 continuum is included in the theoretical model. Because the Fano q-parameter of the unperturbed probe transition is finite, the laser-dressed He atom exhibits both enhanced transparency and absorption at negative and positive probe energy detunings, respectively

  12. Electron impact excitation-autoionisation of the (2s2)1S, (2p2)1D and (2s2p)1P autoionising states of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardzic, O.; Hurn, J.A.; Weigold, E.; Brunger, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The electron impact excitation of the (2s 2 ) 1 S, (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P autoionising states of helium and their subsequent radiationless decay was studied by observation of the ejected electrons. The present work was carried out at an incident energy of 94.6 eV and for ejected electron scattering angles in the range 25-135 deg C. The lineshapes observed in the present ejected electron spectra are analysed using the Shore-Balashov parametrisation. As part of the analysis procedure, numerically rigorous confidence limits were determined for the derived parameters. No previous experimental or theoretical work has been undertaken at the incident energy of the present investigation but, where possible, the resulting parameters are qualitatively compared against the 80 eV results of other experiments and theory. 37 refs., 4 figs

  13. Spectroscopy of the {sup 29}Si({ital p},{gamma}) reaction for {ital E}{sub {ital p}}=1.75{endash}2.51 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, P.M.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Bybee, C.R.; Mitchell, G.E.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.; Vavrina, G.A.; Westerfeldt, C.R. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The {sup 29}Si({ital p},{gamma}) reaction has been studied for 30 resonances in the range {ital E}{sub {ital p}}=1.75{endash}2.51 MeV. Branching ratios have been measured for 28 of these resonances. The separation energy {ital S}{sub {ital p}} for {sup 30}P has been determined to be 5594.5{plus_minus}0.5 keV. Improved spin, parity, and isospin assignments have been made to a number of the resonant states. A new level has been identified in {sup 30}P at {ital E}{sub {ital x}}=6006 keV, and its {gamma}-ray branching ratios have been measured. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Fabrication of Zr2WP2O12/ZrV0.6P1.4O7 composite with a nearly zero-thermal-expansion property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanase, Ikuo; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hidehiko

    2017-11-15

    Sintered bodies of Zr 2 WP 2 O 12 (ZWP) and ZrV 0.6 P 1.4 O 7 (ZVP) were fabricated, and their linear thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) were found to be -2.92 × 10 -6 and 3.27 × 10 -6  °C -1 , respectively, in the range 25-500 °C. In an attempt to fabricate composites with a zero-thermal-expansion property, sintered ZWP/ZVP composites with ZVP/ZWP volume ratios of 0.5/0.5, 0.53/0.47, 0.55/0.45, and 0.6/0.4 were fabricated. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that sintering of ZVP/ZWP composites progressed well compared with that of ZWP. A porous ZVP/ZWP composite with a relative density of ca. 83% was fabricated at a ZVP/ZWP volume ratio of 0.53/0.47. X-ray diffractometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry clarified that the ZVP/ZWP composite mainly consisted of ZWP and ZVP grains. Thermomechanical analysis confirmed that the ZVP/ZWP composite exhibited very low thermal expansion with a slight hysteresis with a TEC of -0.29 × 10 -7  °C -1 in the range 25-500 °C.

  15. Analysis of the THAI Iod-11 and Iod-12 tests: Advancements and limitations of ASTEC V2.0R3p1 and MELCOR V2.1.4803

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonfiotti, Bruno; Paci, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The I 2 transport in a multi-compartment vessel was analysed. • ASTEC and MELCOR codes were employed. • Same nodalisation for the code-to-code comparison. • The I 2 concentrations were quite well simulated in ASTEC. • Numerical issues on MELCOR. - Abstract: This work is related to the application of the ASTEC V2.0R3p1 and MELCOR V2.1.4803 codes to the analysis of the THAI Iod-11 and Iod-12 containment tests characterised by an iodine release. The main scope of these two tests was to investigate the steel interaction on dry and wet surfaces, with an interaction supposed to be a two-steps process: an initial faster and reversible physisorption followed by a slower, and irreversible, chemisorption of the physisorbed I 2 . The aim of the present work is to highlight advancements and limitations of the current ASTEC and MELCOR code versions respect to the older code versions employed during the European SARNET projects. The investigation was carried out as a code-to-code comparison vs. the experimental THAI data, focusing on the evaluation of the code models treating the iodine behaviour. A similar spatial nodalisation was employed for both codes. As main result, ASTEC had shown an overall good agreement compared to the iodine related experimental data while, on contrary, MELCOR had shown poor results, probably due to unsolved numerical issues and unsatisfactory iodine modellisation

  16. Semiclassical three-valley Monte Carlo simulation analysis of steady-state and transient electron transport within bulk InAsxP1-x, InAs and InP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Arabshahi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We have studied how electrons, initially in thermal equilibrium, drift under the action of an applied electric field within bulk zincblende InAsxP1-x, InAs and InP. Calculations are made using a non-parabolic effective-mass energy band model. Monte Carlo simulation includes all of the major scattering mechanisms. The band parameters used in the simulation are extracted from optimised pseudo-potential band calculations to ensure excellent agreement with experimental information and ab-initio band models. The effects of alloy scattering on the electron transport physics are examined. For all materials, it is found that electron velocity overshoot only occurs when the electric field is increased to a value above a certain critical field, unique to each material. This critical field is strongly dependent on the material parameters. Transient velocity overshoot has also been simulated, with the sudden application of fields up to 1600 kVm-1, appropriate to the gate-drain fields expected within an operational field-effect transistor. The electron drift velocity relaxes to the saturation value of about 1.5105 ms-1 within 4 pico-seconds for all crystal structures. The steady-state and transient velocity overshoot characteristics are in fair agreement with other recent calculations.

  17. A Novel GH7 Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase from Neosartorya fischeri P1 with Good Thermostability, Broad Substrate Specificity and Potential Application in the Brewing Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liu

    Full Text Available An endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene, cel7A, was cloned from the thermophilic cellulase-producing fungus Neosartorya fischeri P1 and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The 1,410-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 469 amino acids consisting of a putative signal peptide at residues 1-20, a catalytic domain of glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7, a short Thr/Ser-rich linker and a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM 1. The purified recombinant Cel7A had pH and temperature optima of pH 5.0 and 60°C, respectively, and showed broad pH adaptability (pH 3.0-6.0 and excellent stability at pH3.0-8.0 and 60°C. Belonging to the group of nonspecific endoglucanases, Cel7A exhibited the highest activity on barley β-glucan (2020 ± 9 U mg-1, moderate on lichenan and CMC-Na, and weak on laminarin, locust bean galactomannan, Avicel, and filter paper. Under simulated mashing conditions, addition of Cel7A (99 μg reduced the mash viscosity by 9.1% and filtration time by 24.6%. These favorable enzymatic properties make Cel7A as a good candidate for applications in the brewing industry.

  18. Performance analysis of K-based KEP-CO2P1 solid sorbents in a bench-scale continuous dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Cheol; Jo, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Yong; Moon, Jong-Ho; Yi, Chang-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chong Kul; Lee, Joong Beom [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute (KEPCORI) have been developing a CO{sub 2} capture technology using dry sorbents. In this study, KEP-CO2P1, a potassium-based dry sorbent manufactured by a spray-drying method, was used. We employed a bench-scale dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture fluidized-bed process capable of capturing 0.5 ton CO{sub 2}/day at most. We investigated the sorbent performance in continuous operation mode with solid circulation between a fast fluidized-bed-type carbonator and a bubbling fluidizedbed- type regenerator. We used a slip stream of a real flue gas from 2MWe coal-fired circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) power facilities installed at KIER. Throughout more than 50 hours of continuous operation, the temperature of the carbonator was maintained around 70-80 .deg. C using a jacket-type heat exchanger, while that of the regenerator was kept above 180 .deg. C using an electric furnace. The differential pressure of both the carbonator and regenerator was maintained at a stable level. The maximum CO{sub 2} removal was greater than 90%, and the average CO{sub 2} removal was about 83% during 50 hours of continuous operation.

  19. Measurements of the ground-state ionization energy and wavelengths for the 1snp 1P1*-1s21S0 (n=4-9) lines of Mg XI and F VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal'chikov, V.G.; Ya Faenov, A.; Yu Skobelev, I.

    2002-01-01

    The wavelengths of the 1snp 1 P 1 0 -1s 2 1 S 0 transitions in the He-like Mg XI (n = 4-9) and F VIII (n=4-8) have been measured in laser-produced plasmas. The accuracy of the present measurements (0.4-1.6 mA) is a large improvement over previous results. The Rydberg series is used to determine the ground-state ionization energy of F VIII and Mg XI: E i on (F VIII) 953.96±0.11 eV, E i on (Mg XI)=1761.88±0.15 eV. These experimental results are compared with theoretical data calculated by the 1/Z-expansion method and the HFR and MCDF approaches. Fairly good agreement between theory and experiment is observed with a precision up to 5x10 -5 . Radiative corrections to the 1s 2 1 S 0 state are analysed and compared with experiments. It is found that QED corrections to the ground-state ionization energy are significant at the present level of experimental accuracy. (author)

  20. Impact of the Ile105Val Polymorphism of the Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) Gene on Obesity and Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk in Young Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielle, E O; Trott, A; da Silva Rosa, B; Casarin, J N; Fortuna, P C; da Cruz, I B M; Moretto, M B; Moresco, R N

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene polymorphism with obesity and markers of cardiometabolic risk. A cross-sectional study was carried out in individuals aged≥18 and ≤30 years. The study included 54 normal weight, 27 overweight and 68 obese volunteers. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated, the DNA was extracted from blood samples and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to measure GSTP1 Ile 105 Val gene polymorphism of the study participants. Also, biochemical analysis and hormone assays were carried out. A positive association between GSTP1 polymorphism and obesity was observed on subjects carrying at least one G allele (AG and GG). GG genotype was found only in the obese group. The G allele carriers presented 2.4 times higher chance of obesity when compared to those with the AA genotype. These results were independent of sex and age. We suggest that despite a study in population regional (south of Brazil), the GSTP1 gene polymorphism may play a significant role in the increase of susceptibility of obesity and contribute to identify the cardiovascular risk in young adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Thermo-physical characterization of the Fe_6_7Mo_6Ni_3_._5Cr_3_._5P_1_2C_5_._5B_2_._5 bulk metallic glass forming alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochtler, Benedikt; Gross, Oliver; Gallino, Isabella; Busch, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The iron-phosphorus based bulk metallic glass forming alloy Fe_6_7Mo_6Ni_3_._5Cr_3_._5P_1_2C_5_._5B_2_._5 is characterized with respect to its thermophysical properties, crystallization and relaxation behavior, as well as its viscosity. The alloy provides a high critical casting thickness of 13 mm, thus allowing for the casting of amorphous parts with a considerable size. Calorimetric measurements reveal the characteristic transformation temperatures, transformation enthalpies, and the specific heat capacity. The analyses show that no stable supercooled liquid region exists upon heating. The specific heat capacity data are used to calculate the enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy differences between the crystalline and the supercooled liquid state. The crystallization behavior of amorphous samples upon heating is analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction, and a time-temperature-transformation diagram is constructed. Dilatometry is used to determine the thermal expansion behavior. The equilibrium viscosity below the glass transition as well as volume relaxation behavior are measured by three-point beam bending and dilatometry, respectively, to assess the kinetic fragility. With a kinetic fragility parameter of D* = 21.3, the alloy displays a rather strong liquid behavior. Viscosity above the melting point is determined using electromagnetic levitation in microgravity on a reduced gravity aircraft in cooperation with the German Aerospace Center (DLR). These high-temperature viscosity data are compared with the low-temperature three-point beam bending measurements. The alloy displays a strong liquid behavior at low temperatures and a fragile behavior at high temperatures. These results are analogous to the ones observed in several Zr-based bulk metallic glass forming liquids, indicating a strong to fragile liquid-liquid transition in the undercooled liquid, which is obscured by crystallization.

  2. Pregnane X receptor-dependent induction of the CYP3A4 gene by o,p'-1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Díaz, Irma M; Arteaga-Illán, Georgina; de León, Mario Bermudez; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Vega, Libia; Gonzalez, Frank J; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    CYP3A4, the predominant cytochrome P450 (P450) expressed in human liver and intestine, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. CYP3A4 catalyzes the 6beta-hydroxylation of a number of steroid hormones and is involved in the bioactivation of environmental procarcinogens. The expression of CYP3A4 is affected by several stimuli, including environmental factors such as insecticides and pesticides. The o,p'-1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) isomer of DDT comprises approximately 20% of technical grade DDT, which is an organochloride pesticide. We have recently shown that o,p'-DDT exposure increases CYP3A4 mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. To determine the mechanism by which o,p'-DDT induces CYP3A4 expression, transactivation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were carried out, revealing that o,p'-DDT activates the CYP3A4 gene promoter through the pregnane X receptor (PXR). CYP3A4 gene promoter activation resulted in both an increase in CYP3A4 mRNA levels and an increase in the total CYP3A4 activity in HepG2 cells. We also observed induction of CYP3A4 and mouse Cyp3a11 mRNA in the intestine of CYP3A4-transgenic mice after exposure to 1 mg/kg o,p'-DDT. At higher doses, a decrease of CYP3A4 inducibility was observed together with an increase in levels of interleukin 6 mRNA, a proinflammatory cytokine that strongly represses CYP3A4 transcription. The present study indicates that regulation of other genes under PXR control may be altered by o,p'-DDT exposure.

  3. Three-Body Protonium Formation in a Collision Between a Slow Antiproton ({barp}) and Muonic Hydrogen: {H_{μ}}—Low Energy {barp + (p μ^-)_{1s} → (barp p)_{1s} + μ^-} Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, Renat A.; Guster, D.; Adhikari, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    A bound state of a proton, p, and its counterpart antiproton, {barp}, is a protonium atom {Pn = (barp p)}. The following three-charge-particle reaction: {barp +(p μ^-)_{1s} → (barp {p})_{1s} + μ^-} is considered in this work, where {μ^-} is a muon. At low-energies muonic reaction {Pn} can be formed in the short range state with α = 1 s or in the first excited state: α = 2 s/2 p, where {barp} and p are placed close enough to each other and the effect of the {barp}-p nuclear interaction becomes significantly stronger. The cross sections and rates of the Pn formation reaction are computed in the framework of a few-body approach based on the two-coupled Faddeev-Hahn-type (FH-type) equations. Unlike the original three-body Faddeev method the FH-type equation approach is formulated in terms of only two but relevant components: {{Ψ}_1} and {Ψ_2}, of the system's three-body wave function {Ψ}, where {{Ψ}={Ψ}_1+{Ψ}_2}. In order to solve the FH-type equations {Ψ_1} is expanded in terms of the input channel target eigenfunctions, i.e. in this work in terms of the {({p} μ^-)} eigenfunctions. At the same time {Ψ_2} is expanded in terms of the output channel two-body wave function, that is in terms of the protonium {(bar{{p}} {p})} eigenfunctions. A total angular momentum projection procedure is performed, which leads to an infinite set of one-dimensional coupled integral-differential equations for unknown expansion coefficients.

  4. KENO, Multigroup P1 Scattering Monte-Carlo Transport Calculation for Criticality, Keff, Flux in 3-D. KENO-5, SCALE-1 Module with Pn Scattering, Super-grouping, Diffusion Albedo Reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: KENO is a multigroup, Monte Carlo criticality code containing a special geometry package which allows easy description of systems composed of cylinders, spheres, and cuboids (rectangular parallelepipeds) arranged in any order with only one restriction. They cannot be rotated or translated. Each geometrical region must be described as completely enclosing all regions interior to it. For systems not describable using this special geometry package, the program can use the generalized geometry package (GEOM) developed for the O5R Monte Carlo code. It allows any system that can be described by a collection of planes and/or quadratic surfaces, arbitrarily oriented and intersecting in arbitrary fashion. The entire problem can be mocked up in generalized geometry, or one generalized geometry unit or box type can be used alone or in combination with standard KENO units or box types. Rectangular arrays of fissile units are allowed with or without external reflector regions. Output from KENO consists of k eff for the system plus an estimate of its standard deviation and the leakage, absorption, and fissions for each energy group plus the totals for all groups. Flux as a function of energy group and region and fission densities as a function of region are optional output. KENO-4: Added features include a neutron balance edit, PICTURE routines to check the input geometry, and a random number sequencing subroutine written in FORTRAN-4. 2 - Method of solution: The scattering treatment used in KENO assumes that the differential neutron scattering cross section can be represented by a P1 Legendre polynomial. Absorption of neutrons in KENO is not allowed. Instead, at each collision point of a neutron tracking history the weight of the neutron is reduced by the absorption probability. When the neutron weight has been reduced below a specified point for the region in which the collision occurs, Russian roulette is played to determine if the

  5. Search for the p1/2- resonance in 7He with the 7Li(d,2He) reaction and measurement of the deuteron electrodisintegration under 180 deg at the S-DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryezayeva, N.

    2006-07-01

    The present work contains two parts, both devoted to the investigation of light nuclei. In the first part of the thesis the structure of the exotic 7 He nucleus is studied. The disappearance of the usual magic numbers in extremely neutron-rich nuclei implies a considerable modification in the spin-orbit interaction. Recent experiments yield contradictory results about a possible existence of the p 1/2 - spin-orbit partner of the 7 He ground state with a dominant p 3/2 - single-particle character. In order to clarify this question a study of the 7 Li(d, 2 He) 7 He reaction has been performed using a 171 MeV deuteron beam provided by the cyclotron at Kernfysisch Versneller Insituut (KVI) in Groningen. The experiment was carried out in April 2003. The setup at KVI offers a resolution ΔE ∼ 150 keV (FWHM) in the measured spectra, better than the line width of the ground state of 7 He. The unbound 2 He system was identified by detecting coincidences between two protons with small relative energy. The data were taken over the angular range Θ cm =0 -11.3 . A possible resonance at an excitation energy E x =(1.45 -0.5 +0.7 ) MeV with a width Γ=(2.0 -1.1 +1.0 ) MeV is suggested by a decomposition of the spectrum using known resonances, the breakup behaviour of 7 He and quasifree charge-exchange contributions, taking into account the cluster structure of 7 Li. Gamow-Teller strengths for transitions to the lowest states in 7 He are in remarkable agreement with results from ab initio Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The neutron spectroscopic factor S n =0.64±0.09 of the 7 He ground state ( 7 He= 6 He x n) is extracted by an R-matrix analysis. In the second part of the thesis the deuteron breakup has been studied in the 2 H(e,e ' ) reaction at Θ=180 . The present measurements were performed in March and April 2006 at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC at an incident electron energy E 0 =27.8 MeV and 74 MeV. At low momentum transfer (q=0

  6. ESCRT-III mediated cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius –A reconstitution perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHärtel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Synthetic Biology, it has become an intriguing question what would be the minimal representation of cell division machinery. Thus, it seems appropriate to compare how cell division is realized in different microorganisms. In particular, the cell division system of Crenarchaeota lacks certain proteins found in most bacteria and Euryarchaeota, such as FtsZ, MreB or the Min system. The Sulfolobaceae family encodes functional homologs of the eukaryotic proteins Vps4 and ESCRT-III. ESCRT-III is essential for several eukaryotic pathways, e.g. budding of intralumenal vesicles (ILVs, or cytokinesis, whereas Vps4 dissociates the ESCRT-III complex from the membrane. CdvA (Cell Division A is required for the recruitment of crenarchaeal ESCRT-III proteins to the membrane at mid-cell. The proteins polymerize and form a smaller structure during constriction. Thus, ESCRT-III mediated cell division in S. acidocaldarius shows functional analogies to the Z ring observed in prokaryotes like E. coli, which has recently begun to be reconstituted in vitro. In this short perspective, we discuss the possibility of building such an in vitro cell division system on basis of archaeal ESCRT-III.

  7. Studies on DNA Damage Response in Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Wenyuan

    ) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and hydroxyurea (HU) that may not introduce DNA lesions directly. Comparison of the effects of the three drugs on S. islandicus cells showed that NQO and MMS led to DNA-less cell formation, while HU did not. In addition, the DNA-less cells were featured with increased side...

  8. Structural characterization of ether lipids from the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus by high-resolution shotgun lipidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sara Munk; Brandl, Martin; Treusch, Alexander H

    2015-01-01

    The molecular structures, biosynthetic pathways and physiological functions of membrane lipids produced by organisms in the domain Archaea are poorly characterized as compared with that of counterparts in Bacteria and Eukaryota. Here we report on the use of high-resolution shotgun lipidomics......-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry using an ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer. This analysis identified five clusters of molecular ions that matched ether lipids in the database with sub-ppm mass accuracy. To structurally characterize and validate the identities of the potential lipid species, we...... performed structural analysis using multistage activation on the ion trap-orbitrap instrument as well as tandem mass analysis using a quadrupole time-of-flight machine. Our analysis identified four ether lipid species previously reported in Archaea, and one ether lipid species that had not been described...

  9. Identification of an Unfolding Intermediate for a DNA Lesion Bypass Polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrer, Shanen M.; Maxwell, Brian A.; Pack, Lindsey R.; Fiala, Kevin A.; Fowler, Jason D.; Zhang, Jun; Suo, Zucai

    2012-01-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricusDNA Polymerase IV (Dpo4), a prototype Y-family DNA polymerase, has been well characterized biochemically and biophysically at 37 °C or lower temperatures. However, the physiological temperature of the hyperthermophile S. solfataricus is approximately 80 °C. With such a large discrepancy in temperature, the in vivo relevance of these in vitro studies of Dpo4 has been questioned. Here, we employed circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence-based thermal scanning to investigate the secondary structural changes of Dpo4 over a temperature range from 26 to 119 °C. Dpo4 was shown to display a high melting temperature characteristic of hyperthermophiles. Unexpectedly, the Little Finger domain of Dpo4, which is only found in the Y-family DNA polymerases, was shown to be more thermostable than the polymerase core. More interestingly, Dpo4 exhibited a three-state cooperative unfolding profile with an unfolding intermediate. The linker region between the Little Finger and Thumb domains of Dpo4 was found to be a source of structural instability. Through site-directed mutagenesis, the interactions between the residues in the linker region and the Palm domain were identified to play a critical role in the formation of the unfolding intermediate. Notably, the secondary structure of Dpo4 was not altered when the temperature was increased from 26 to 87.5 °C. Thus, in addition to providing structural insights into the thermal stability and an unfolding intermediate of Dpo4, our work also validated the relevance of the in vitro studies of Dpo4 performed at temperatures significantly lower than 80 °C. PMID:22667759

  10. In vivo and in vitro protein imaging in thermophilic archaea by exploiting a novel protein tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visone, Valeria; Han, Wenyuan; Perugino, Giuseppe; Del Monaco, Giovanni; She, Qunxin; Rossi, Mosè; Valenti, Anna; Ciaramella, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Protein imaging, allowing a wide variety of biological studies both in vitro and in vivo, is of great importance in modern biology. Protein and peptide tags fused to proteins of interest provide the opportunity to elucidate protein location and functions, detect protein-protein interactions, and measure protein activity and kinetics in living cells. Whereas several tags are suitable for protein imaging in mesophilic organisms, the application of this approach to microorganisms living at high temperature has lagged behind. Archaea provide an excellent and unique model for understanding basic cell biology mechanisms. Here, we present the development of a toolkit for protein imaging in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus. The system relies on a thermostable protein tag (H5) constructed by engineering the alkylguanine-DNA-alkyl-transferase protein of Sulfolobus solfataricus, which can be covalently labeled using a wide range of small molecules. As a suitable host, we constructed, by CRISPR-based genome-editing technology, a S. islandicus mutant strain deleted for the alkylguanine-DNA-alkyl-transferase gene (Δogt). Introduction of a plasmid-borne H5 gene in this strain led to production of a functional H5 protein, which was successfully labeled with appropriate fluorescent molecules and visualized in cell extracts as well as in Δogt live cells. H5 was fused to reverse gyrase, a peculiar thermophile-specific DNA topoisomerase endowed with positive supercoiling activity, and allowed visualization of the enzyme in living cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of in vivo imaging of any protein of a thermophilic archaeon, filling an important gap in available tools for cell biology studies in these organisms.

  11. A Modified P1 Moiety Enhances in vitro Antiviral Activity against Various Multi-Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants and in vitro CNS Penetration Properties of a Novel Nonpeptidic Protease Inhibitor, GRL-10413

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Masayuki; Salcedo-Gómez, Pedro Miguel; Zhao, Rui; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Das, Debananda; Bulut, Haydar; Delino, Nicole S.; Sheri, Venkata Reddy; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki (Kumamoto); (NIH); (Purdue)

    2016-09-12

    We here report that GRL-10413, a novel non-peptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) containing a modified P1 moiety and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (EC50: 0.00035 - 0.0018 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity (CC50: 35.7 μM). GRL-10413 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3variants selected by up to 5 μM concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, or amprenavir (EC50: 0.0021 - 0.0023 μM). GRL-10413 also maintained its strong antiviral activity against multi-drug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients, who no longer responded to various antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy. The development of resistance against GRL-10413 was significantly delayed compared to that of APV. In addition, GRL-10413 showed a favorable central nervous system (CNS) penetration property as assessed with anin vitroblood brain barrier (BBB) reconstruction system. Analysis of the crystal structure of HIV-1 protease in complex with GRL-10413 demonstrated that the modified P1 moiety of GRL-10413 has a greater hydrophobic surface area and makes greater van der Waals contacts with active-site amino acids of protease than in the case of darunavir. Moreover, the chlorine substituent in the P1 moiety interacts with protease in two distinct configurations. The present data demonstrate that GRL-10413 has desirable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-drug-resistant HIV-1 variants with favorable CNS-penetration capability and that the newly modified P1-moiety may confer desirable features in designing novel anti-HIV-1 PIs.

  12. Tables of Shore and Fano parameters for the helium resonances 2s21S, 2p21D, and 2s 2p 1P excited in p-He collisions E/sub p/ = 33 to 150 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.; Merchez, H.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute values of Shore and Fano parameters are tabulated for the helium atom 2s 2 1 S, 2p 2 1 D, and 2s 2p 1 P resonances produced by a proton beam. Observations were made on the spectra of ejected electrons. The important variation of the shape of the resonances with ejection angle is illustrated for E/sub p/ = 100 keV; the variation with proton energy is shown at 30 0

  13. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to an extract from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis latex and recombinant pollen allergens (Phl P 1, Phl P 2, Phl P 5, Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 in the sera of Italian atopic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato E. Rossi

    2001-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study may support the concept that a high proportion of sera containing IgE to rBet v 2, rPhl p 1 and rPhl p 5 simultaneously contain antilatex IgE. Therefore, patients with specific IgE to these recombinant allergens with no history of current latex exposure may need additional evaluation.

  14. Improved Preparation of Beta-D-ManNAc-(1-4)-D-Glc and Beta-d-TalNAc-(1-4)-D-Glc Disaccharides and Evaluation of Their Activating Properties on the Natural Killer Cells NKR-P1 and CD69 Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Attolino, E.; Bonaccorsi, F.; Catelani, G.; D'Andrea, F.; Křenek, Karel; Bezouška, Karel; Křen, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2008), s. 156-171 ISSN 0732-8303 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400200503; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA MŠk OC 136 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) COST D34 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : reductions * nkr-p1 receptor * nk cells Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2008

  15. P1-10: The Association between Colors and Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Yu Chen; Chih-Hao Lien; Cho-Han Yang; Yi-Jae Jhong; Tsun-Yu Chen; Shiau-Hua Liu

    2012-01-01

    Wexner (1954 Journal of Applied Psychology 38 432–435) demonstrated colors were associated with specific emotions. Colors have many meanings, such as that red can lead to induce positive or negative emotions (Kaya & Epps, 2011 College Student Journal 38 396–406). This study extends previous findings and aims to investigate two questions, (1) whether colors are associated with the emotions of pictures in IAPS (International Affective Picture System) and (2) whether perceiving IAPS consciously ...

  16. P1-10: The Association between Colors and Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Yu Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wexner (1954 Journal of Applied Psychology 38 432–435 demonstrated colors were associated with specific emotions. Colors have many meanings, such as that red can lead to induce positive or negative emotions (Kaya & Epps, 2011 College Student Journal 38 396–406. This study extends previous findings and aims to investigate two questions, (1 whether colors are associated with the emotions of pictures in IAPS (International Affective Picture System and (2 whether perceiving IAPS consciously and unconsciously has different emotion associations. We replaced facial expressions with pictures of IAPS as stimuli. Five colors (black, red, yellow, blue, and white and 3 categories of IAPS (fear, awe, and amusement were manipulated in this study. Pictures were displayed in different durations to manipulate conscious (250 ms and unconscious (33 ms visual stimuli (Manuel & Pedro, 2009 Behavior Research Method 41 184–191 in two experiments. Participants were required to select the most suitable color at their first glance when the pictures of IAPS were presented, and vice versa. Results showed that overall association between colors and pictures of IAPS was weak but the association pattern was meaningful. It concluded (1 black and red colors are associated with the fearful emotion, and blue color is associated with the happy emotion; (2 white colors do not associate with the fear emotion, which is incongruent with the previous study (Osvaldo & Paul, 2007 Colour: Design & Creativity 1 1–20; (3 participants did not perform differently between conscious and unconscious stimulus conditions.

  17. The association between glutathione S-transferase P1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma is an inflammatory airways disease caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and a diverse group of environmental factors. The GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism has been associated with asthma in several studies. Objective: To examine the hypothesis that polymorphism in the GSTP1 ...

  18. Glutathione S-transferase P1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. A. Bhat

    2017-11-28

    Nov 28, 2017 ... Binary logistic regression analysis showed significant association of A/G (odds ratio (OR): 1.6, 95% CI: 1.08–2.49, ... diet, advanced age, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mel- ..... risk of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis.

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE Glutathione S-Transferase P1 Gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... logistic regression analysis showed significant association of A/G (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: ... hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia are associated with ..... polymorphisms with the risk of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis.

  20. Metabolic regulation in the facultative methylotroph arthrobacter P1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1985-01-01

    Many microorganisms are able to utilize C1 compounds, i.e. compounds which do not contain carbon-carbon bonds, as carbon- and energy sources for growth. In order to synthesize cell constituents from these C1 compounds special metabolic pathways are employed by such organisms. Although a great deal

  1. Zhao et al. (2017) Chem. Geol. v. 474 p.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset provides information on chromium concentrations extracted from rock samples collected at the Garfield SF site in New Jersey (USA). The data are discussed...

  2. Status report of the KAERI/NDEL. P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jonghwa

    2001-01-01

    KAERI/NDEL has successfully finished a 4 year national nuclear Research and Development project, Establishment of Nuclear Data System, and started a new 4 year project, Evaluation of Nuclear Data for Nuclear Research and development Projects. KAERI/NDEL is providing nuclear data on-line service targeting non-nuclear data experts. Three new facilities have been added for nuclear data measurement capability of Korea, namely, E-Linac based TOF; Tandem VDG based n-source; and Cyclotron based Vacuum chamber. Main directions of nuclear data development on next 4 years are the Fission Products data for Transmutation, the data for Thorium cycle, the Photon-production data for in-core detector, and the Intermediate energy data for ADS

  3. The association between glutathione S-transferase P1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahmoud I. Mahmoud

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... B-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and response to salmeterol. Am J Respir Crit Care ... transferase Pi locus and association with susceptibility to bladder, testicular and prostate cancer. Carcinogenesis 1997;18(4):641–4.

  4. P1-19: Horizontal Vertical Illusion by Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinari Kinoshita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Revesz (1934 Zeitschrift fur PsychologieBd. 1, Kap 20 and Bean (1938 Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 283–289. reported almost all the geometrical optical illusions existed in a tactual mode. Such a study can examine theories of visual illusions with modality-free theories. A number of articles have been devoted to the theory that repeated judgments decline the magnitude of visual illusion. In the current study, we examine whether repeated judgments decline the magnitude of geometrical haptic illusion. The Fick illusion (i.e., a horizontal vertical illusion was investigated. A graphics Braille display with 32×48 dots was used to present an inverted T haptically without vision. The horizontal line was consistently 49.2 mm long, and the vertical line was varied in each trial. Three subjects with normal sight participated. They judged which line was longer than the other. The point of subjective equality at which the subject perceives the two lines to be the same was measured using the method of constant stimuli. In the first session the mean PSE was about 13%; to compensate for the illusion, the vertical line must be set physically shorter than the horizontal line. We found that repeated judgments produced a reduction in illusion magnitude and dissolved the illusion entirely.

  5. PODAAC-AQR50-3P1CS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aquarius Level 3 sea surface spiciness standard mapped image data contains gridded 1 degree spatial resolution spice data averaged over daily, 7 day, monthly, and...

  6. Antiviral T cell competence and restriction specificity of mixed allogeneic (P1 + P2----P1) irradiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueedi, E.S.; Sykes, M.; Ildstad, S.T.; Chester, C.H.; Althage, A.; Hengartner, H.; Sachs, D.H.; Zinkernagel, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed irradiation bone marrow chimeras were prepared by reconstituting lethally irradiated C57BL/10 (B10) or B10.D2 mice with T cell-depleted bone marrow cells of B10 plus B10.D2 origin. These chimeras were healthy and survived well under conventional housing conditions and after experimental laboratory infections. Of a total of 17 chimeras tested, 2 died spontaneously or from the injected virus. Twelve of fifteen chimeras mounted a measurable cytotoxic T cell response to virus. Despite approximately equal percentages of B10 and B10.D2 lymphocytes in chimeras, cytotoxic T cell responses to vaccinia virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus were mediated variably by either syngeneic or allogeneic donor lymphocytes; thus the H-2 type of effector T cells frequently did not correspond to the 50:50 distribution of spleen or peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cytotoxic responses were restricted exclusively to recipient H-2 type. All mixed chimeras examined were able to mount a good IgG response to vesicular stomatitis virus. These results confirm previous data suggesting that such mixed chimeras are healthy and immunocompetent and demonstrate strict recipient-determined restriction specificity of effector T cells; they also suggest that if T help is necessary for induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells, it does not require host-restricted interactions between helper T cells and precursor cytotoxic T cells

  7. Continuous and intermittent exposure of neonatal rat calvarial cells to PTHrP (1-36 inhibits bone nodule mineralization in vitro by downregulating bone sialoprotein expression via the cAMP signaling pathway [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/18x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan A Kamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and growth of the skeleton in the absence of parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP is abnormal.  The shortening of appendicular bones in PTHrP gene null mice is explained by an effect of PTHrP on endochondral bone growth.  Whether or not PTHrP influences intramembranous ossification is less clear.  The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous PTHrP on intramembranous ossification in vitro.  Neonatal rat calvarial cells maintained in primary cell culture conditions that permit spontaneous formation of woven bone nodules by intramembranous ossification were studied. The expression of PTHrP, parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R, and alkaline phosphatase (AP by osteogenic cells in developing nodules and the effects of PTHrP (1-36 on nodule development was determined over 3-18 days. PTHrP and PTH1R were detected colonies of osteogenic cells on culture day three, and AP was detected on day six. PTHrP and its receptor were localized in pre-osteoblasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, and AP activity was detected in pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts but not osteocytes. Continuous and intermittent exposure to PTHrP (1-36 decreased the number of mineralized bone nodules and bone sialoprotein (BSP mRNA and protein, but had no effect on the number of AP-positive osteogenic cell colonies, cell proliferation, apoptosis, or osteopontin (OPN mRNA. These results demonstrate that osteogenic cells that participate in the formation of woven bone nodules in vitro exhibit PTHrP and PTH1R before they demonstrate AP activity. Exogenous PTHrP (1-36 inhibits the mineralization of woven bone deposited during bone nodule formation in vitro, possibly by reducing the expression of BSP.

  8. Un nuevo yacimiento de grandes mamíferos villafranquienses en la Cuenca de Guadix-Baza (Granada): Fonelas P-1, primer registro de una fauna próxima al límite Plio-Pleistoceno en la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Arribas Herrera, Alfonso; Riquelme Cantal, José Antonio; Palmqvist, Paul; Garrido Álvarez-Coto, Guiomar; Hernández Manchado, Román; Laplana Conesa, César; Soria Mingorance, Jesús Miguel; Viseras Alarcón, César; Durán Valsero, Juan José; Gumiel Martínez, Pablo; Robles Cuenca, Fernando; López Martínez, Jerónimo; Carrión García, José

    2001-01-01

    Se da a conocer el nuevo yacimiento villafranquiense de Fonelas P-1 (Cuenca de Guadix-Baza, Granada). La excavación paleontológica sistemática desarrollada durante el mes de julio de 2001 ha proporcionado cerca de 500 restos fósiles cartografiados, en un excelente estado de conservación, pertenecientes a 20 géneros de grandes mamíferos y fósiles de 7 géneros de micromamíferos. El yacimiento se ubica en sedimentos finos fluviales depositados en un sistema de baja energía y alta sinuosidad. La ...

  9. Every OGT Is Illuminated … by Fluorescent and Synchrotron Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Miggiano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O6-DNA-alkyl-guanine-DNA-alkyl-transferases (OGTs are evolutionarily conserved, unique proteins that repair alkylation lesions in DNA in a single step reaction. Alkylating agents are environmental pollutants as well as by-products of cellular reactions, but are also very effective chemotherapeutic drugs. OGTs are major players in counteracting the effects of such agents, thus their action in turn affects genome integrity, survival of organisms under challenging conditions and response to chemotherapy. Numerous studies on OGTs from eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea have been reported, highlighting amazing features that make OGTs unique proteins in their reaction mechanism as well as post-reaction fate. This review reports recent functional and structural data on two prokaryotic OGTs, from the pathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, respectively. These studies provided insight in the role of OGTs in the biology of these microorganisms, but also important hints useful to understand the general properties of this class of proteins.

  10. A novel family of sequence-specific endoribonucleases associated with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazova, Natalia; Brown, Greg; Zimmerman, Matthew D; Proudfoot, Michael; Makarova, Kira S; Kudritska, Marina; Kochinyan, Samvel; Wang, Shuren; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Minor, Wladek; Koonin, Eugene V; Edwards, Aled M; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2008-07-18

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) together with the associated CAS proteins protect microbial cells from invasion by foreign genetic elements using presently unknown molecular mechanisms. All CRISPR systems contain proteins of the CAS2 family, suggesting that these uncharacterized proteins play a central role in this process. Here we show that the CAS2 proteins represent a novel family of endoribonucleases. Six purified CAS2 proteins from diverse organisms cleaved single-stranded RNAs preferentially within U-rich regions. A representative CAS2 enzyme, SSO1404 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, cleaved the phosphodiester linkage on the 3'-side and generated 5'-phosphate- and 3'-hydroxyl-terminated oligonucleotides. The crystal structure of SSO1404 was solved at 1.6A resolution revealing the first ribonuclease with a ferredoxin-like fold. Mutagenesis of SSO1404 identified six residues (Tyr-9, Asp-10, Arg-17, Arg-19, Arg-31, and Phe-37) that are important for enzymatic activity and suggested that Asp-10 might be the principal catalytic residue. Thus, CAS2 proteins are sequence-specific endoribonucleases, and we propose that their role in the CRISPR-mediated anti-phage defense might involve degradation of phage or cellular mRNAs.

  11. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cren7, a novel chromatin protein conserved among Crenarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Feng, Yingang; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Yao, Hongwei; Luo, Yuanming; Wang, Jinfeng; Huang, Li

    2008-03-01

    Archaea contain a variety of chromatin proteins consistent with the evolution of different genome packaging mechanisms. Among the two main kingdoms in the Archaea, Euryarchaeota synthesize histone homologs, whereas Crenarchaeota have not been shown to possess a chromatin protein conserved at the kingdom level. We report the identification of Cren7, a novel family of chromatin proteins highly conserved in the Crenarchaeota. A small, basic, methylated and abundant protein, Cren7 displays a higher affinity for double-stranded DNA than for single-stranded DNA, constrains negative DNA supercoils and is associated with genomic DNA in vivo. The solution structure and DNA-binding surface of Cren7 from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus were determined by NMR. The protein adopts an SH3-like fold. It interacts with duplex DNA through a beta-sheet and a long flexible loop, presumably resulting in DNA distortions through intercalation of conserved hydrophobic residues into the DNA structure. These data suggest that the crenarchaeal kingdom in the Archaea shares a common strategy in chromatin organization.

  12. Identification of the missing links in prokaryotic pentose oxidation pathways: evidence for enzyme recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Stan J J; Walther, Jasper; Snijders, Ambrosius P L; van de Werken, Harmen J G; Willemen, Hanneke L D M; Worm, Petra; de Vos, Marjon G J; Andersson, Anders; Lundgren, Magnus; Mazon, Hortense F M; van den Heuvel, Robert H H; Nilsson, Peter; Salmon, Laurent; de Vos, Willem M; Wright, Phillip C; Bernander, Rolf; van der Oost, John

    2006-09-15

    The pentose metabolism of Archaea is largely unknown. Here, we have employed an integrated genomics approach including DNA microarray and proteomics analyses to elucidate the catabolic pathway for D-arabinose in Sulfolobus solfataricus. During growth on this sugar, a small set of genes appeared to be differentially expressed compared with growth on D-glucose. These genes were heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified and biochemically studied. This showed that D-arabinose is oxidized to 2-oxoglutarate by the consecutive action of a number of previously uncharacterized enzymes, including a D-arabinose dehydrogenase, a D-arabinonate dehydratase, a novel 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinonate dehydratase, and a 2,5-dioxopentanoate dehydrogenase. Promoter analysis of these genes revealed a palindromic sequence upstream of the TATA box, which is likely to be involved in their concerted transcriptional control. Integration of the obtained biochemical data with genomic context analysis strongly suggests the occurrence of pentose oxidation pathways in both Archaea and Bacteria, and predicts the involvement of additional enzyme components. Moreover, it revealed striking genetic similarities between the catabolic pathways for pentoses, hexaric acids, and hydroxyproline degradation, which support the theory of metabolic pathway genesis by enzyme recruitment.

  13. Novel Bioengineered Cassava Expressing an Archaeal Starch Degradation System and a Bacterial ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase for Starch Self-Digestibility and Yield Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalew Ligaba-Osena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava (Manihot esculenta, which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC from Escherichia coli, were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar. A total of 13 multigene expressing transgenic lines were generated and characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that the microbial genes are expressed in the transgenic roots. Multigene-expressing transgenic lines produced up to 60% more storage root yield than the non-transgenic control, likely due to glgC expression. Total protein extracted from the transgenic roots showed up to 10-fold higher starch-degrading activity in vitro than the protein extracted from the non-transgenic control. Interestingly, transgenic tubers released threefold more glucose than the non-transgenic control when incubated at 85°C for 21-h without exogenous application of thermostable enzymes, suggesting that the archaeal enzymes produced in planta maintain their activity and thermostability.

  14. Stability of the 'L12 stalk' in ribosomes from mesophilic and (hyper)thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, D; Dontsova, M; Tribus, M; Garber, M; Piendl, W

    2006-01-01

    The ribosomal stalk complex, consisting of one molecule of L10 and four or six molecules of L12, is attached to 23S rRNA via protein L10. This complex forms the so-called 'L12 stalk' on the 50S ribosomal subunit. Ribosomal protein L11 binds to the same region of 23S rRNA and is located at the base of the 'L12 stalk'. The 'L12 stalk' plays a key role in the interaction of the ribosome with translation factors. In this study stalk complexes from mesophilic and (hyper)thermophilic species of the archaeal genus Methanococcus and from the Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, as well as from the Bacteria Escherichia coli, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Thermus thermophilus, were overproduced in E.coli and purified under non-denaturing conditions. Using filter-binding assays the affinities of the archaeal and bacterial complexes to their specific 23S rRNA target site were analyzed at different pH, ionic strength and temperature. Affinities of both archaeal and bacterial complexes for 23S rRNA vary by more than two orders of magnitude, correlating very well with the growth temperatures of the organisms. A cooperative effect of binding to 23S rRNA of protein L11 and the L10/L12(4) complex from mesophilic and thermophilic Archaea was shown to be temperature-dependent.

  15. Analysis of the crystal structure of an active MCM hexamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Justin M; Arachea, Buenafe T; Epling, Leslie B; Enemark, Eric J

    2014-09-29

    In a previous Research article (Froelich et al., 2014), we suggested an MCM helicase activation mechanism, but were limited in discussing the ATPase domain because it was absent from the crystal structure. Here we present the crystal structure of a nearly full-length MCM hexamer that is helicase-active and thus has all features essential for unwinding DNA. The structure is a chimera of Sulfolobus solfataricus N-terminal domain and Pyrococcus furiosus ATPase domain. We discuss three major findings: 1) a novel conformation for the A-subdomain that could play a role in MCM regulation; 2) interaction of a universally conserved glutamine in the N-terminal Allosteric Communication Loop with the AAA+ domain helix-2-insert (h2i); and 3) a recessed binding pocket for the MCM ssDNA-binding motif influenced by the h2i. We suggest that during helicase activation, the h2i clamps down on the leading strand to facilitate strand retention and regulate ATP hydrolysis.

  16. Differential active site loop conformations mediate promiscuous activities in the lactonase SsoPox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Hiblot

    Full Text Available Enzymes are proficient catalysts that enable fast rates of Michaelis-complex formation, the chemical step and products release. These different steps may require different conformational states of the active site that have distinct binding properties. Moreover, the conformational flexibility of the active site mediates alternative, promiscuous functions. Here we focused on the lactonase SsoPox from Sulfolobus solfataricus. SsoPox is a native lactonase endowed with promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity. We identified a position in the active site loop (W263 that governs its flexibility, and thereby affects the substrate specificity of the enzyme. We isolated two different sets of substitutions at position 263 that induce two distinct conformational sampling of the active loop and characterized the structural and kinetic effects of these substitutions. These sets of mutations selectively and distinctly mediate the improvement of the promiscuous phosphotriesterase and oxo-lactonase activities of SsoPox by increasing active-site loop flexibility. These observations corroborate the idea that conformational diversity governs enzymatic promiscuity and is a key feature of protein evolvability.

  17. Hyperthermophilic endoglucanase for in planta lignocellulose conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klose Holger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic plant biomass into fermentable sugars is a crucial step in the sustainable and environmentally friendly production of biofuels. However, a major drawback of enzymes from mesophilic sources is their suboptimal activity under established pretreatment conditions, e.g. high temperatures, extreme pH values and high salt concentrations. Enzymes from extremophiles are better adapted to these conditions and could be produced by heterologous expression in microbes, or even directly in the plant biomass. Results Here we show that a cellulase gene (sso1354 isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can be expressed in plants, and that the recombinant enzyme is biologically active and exhibits the same properties as the wild type form. Since the enzyme is inactive under normal plant growth conditions, this potentially allows its expression in plants without negative effects on growth and development, and subsequent heat-inducible activation. Furthermore we demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme acts in high concentrations of ionic liquids and can therefore degrade α-cellulose or even complex cell wall preparations under those pretreatment conditions. Conclusion The hyperthermophilic endoglucanase SSO1354 with its unique features is an excellent tool for advanced biomass conversion. Here we demonstrate its expression in planta and the possibility for post harvest activation. Moreover the enzyme is suitable for combined pretreatment and hydrolysis applications.

  18. Structural insight into dynamic bypass of the major cisplatin-DNA adduct by Y-family polymerase Dpo4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jimson H.Y.; Brown, Jessica A.; Suo, Zucai; Blum, Paul; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ling, Hong (OSU); (NINA-Japan); (UNL); (UWO)

    2010-08-23

    Y-family DNA polymerases bypass Pt-GG, the cisplatin-DNA double-base lesion, contributing to the cisplatin resistance in tumour cells. To reveal the mechanism, we determined three structures of the Y-family DNA polymerase, Dpo4, in complex with Pt-GG DNA. The crystallographic snapshots show three stages of lesion bypass: the nucleotide insertions opposite the 3{prime}G (first insertion) and 5{prime}G (second insertion) of Pt-GG, and the primer extension beyond the lesion site. We observed a dynamic process, in which the lesion was converted from an open and angular conformation at the first insertion to a depressed and nearly parallel conformation at the subsequent reaction stages to fit into the active site of Dpo4. The DNA translocation-coupled conformational change may account for additional inhibition on the second insertion reaction. The structures illustrate that Pt-GG disturbs the replicating base pair in the active site, which reduces the catalytic efficiency and fidelity. The in vivo relevance of Dpo4-mediated Pt-GG bypass was addressed by a dpo-4 knockout strain of Sulfolobus solfataricus, which exhibits enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and proteomic alterations consistent with genomic stress.

  19. Mechanisms of mutagenesis: DNA replication in the presence of DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Binyan; Xue, Qizhen; Tang, Yong; Cao, Jia; Guengerich, F Peter; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-01-01

    Environmental mutagens cause DNA damage that disturbs replication and produces mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. We discuss mechanisms of mutagenesis resulting from DNA damage, from the level of DNA replication by a single polymerase to the complex DNA replisome of some typical model organisms (including bacteriophage T7, T4, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Escherichia coli, yeast and human). For a single DNA polymerase, DNA damage can affect replication in three major ways: reducing replication fidelity, causing frameshift mutations, and blocking replication. For the DNA replisome, protein interactions and the functions of accessory proteins can yield rather different results even with a single DNA polymerase. The mechanism of mutation during replication performed by the DNA replisome is a long-standing question. Using new methods and techniques, the replisomes of certain organisms and human cell extracts can now be investigated with regard to the bypass of DNA damage. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanism of mutagenesis resulting from DNA damage in replication at the levels of single DNA polymerases and complex DNA replisomes, including translesion DNA synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solution Structure of Archaeoglobus fulgidis Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase(Pth2) Provides Evidence for an Extensive Conserved Family of Pth2 Enzymes in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Robert; Mirkovic, Nebojsa; Goldsmith-Fischman, Sharon; Acton, Thomas; Chiang, Yiwen; Huang, Yuanpeng; Ma, LiChung; Rajan, Paranji K.; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard; Honig, Barry; Murray, Diana; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    The solution structure of protein AF2095 from the thermophilic archaea Archaeglobus fulgidis, a 123-residue (13.6 kDa) protein, has been determined by NMR methods. The structure of AF2095 is comprised of four a-helices and a mixed b-sheet consisting of four parallel and anti-parallel b-strands, where the a-helices sandwich the b-sheet. Sequence and structural comparison of AF2095 with proteins from Homo sapiens, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Sulfolobus solfataricus, reveals that AF2095 is a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth2). This structural comparison also identifies putative catalytic residues and a tRNA interaction region for AF2095. The structure of AF2095 is also similar to the structure of protein TA0108 from archaea Thermoplasma acidophilum, which is deposited in the Protein Database but not functionally annotated. The NMR structure of AF2095 has been further leveraged to obtain good quality structural models for 55 other proteins. Although earlier studies have proposed that the Pth2 protein family is restricted to archeal and eukaryotic organisms, the similarity of the AF2095 structure to human Pth2, the conservation of key active-site residues, and the good quality of the resulting homology models demonstrate a large family of homologous Pth2 proteins that are conserved in eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial organisms, providing novel insights in the evolution of the Pth and Pth2 enzyme families.