WorldWideScience

Sample records for sulfate sodium-induced acute

  1. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice.

    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-12-07

    To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired

  2. Protective effect of isoquercitrin against acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced rat colitis depends on the severity of tissue damage

    Cibiček, N.; Roubalová, L.; Vrba, J.; Zatloukalová, M.; Ehrmann, J.; Zapletalová, J.; Večeřa, R.; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2016), s. 1197-1204 ISSN 1734-1140 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Isoquercitrin * Quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside * Dextran sulfate sodium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2016

  3. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in piglets

    Nielsen, Katrine Dalby; Schramm, Andreas; Purup, Stig

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Although a genetic contribution has been proven, dietary factors have also shown to play a role in the development of IBD. This study aims to investigate the effect of adding red meatto t...... the diet of piglets in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model....

  4. Intermittent fasting prompted recovery from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Okada, Toshihiko; Otsubo, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Teruki; Inazuka, Fumika; Kobayashi, Eiko; Fukuda, Shinji; Inoue, Takuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Kawamura, Yuki I; Dohi, Taeko

    2017-09-01

    Fasting-refeeding in mice induces transient hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells, which is dependent on the lactate produced as a metabolite of commensal bacteria. We attempted to manipulate colonic epithelial cell turnover with intermittent fasting to prompt recovery from acute colitis. Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in the drinking water for 5 days. From day 6, mice were fasted for 36 h and refed normal bait, glucose powder, or lactylated high-amylose starch. On day 9, colon tissues were subjected to analysis of histology and cytokine expression. The effect of lactate on the proliferation of colonocytes was assessed by enema in vivo and primary culture in vitro . Intermittent fasting resulted in restored colonic crypts and less expression of interleukin-1β and interleukin-17 in the colon than in mice fed ad libitum . Administration of lactate in the colon at refeeding time by enema or by feeding lactylated high-amylose starch increased the number of regenerating crypts. Addition of lactate but not butyrate or acetate supported colony formation of colonocytes in vitro . In conclusion, intermittent fasting in the resolution phase of acute colitis resulted in better recovery of epithelial cells and reduced inflammation.

  5. Protective Effect of Daikenchuto on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    Matsunaga, Takaharu; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kawasato, Ryo; Shirasawa, Tomohiro; Goto, Atsushi; Fujisawa, Koichi; Takami, Taro; Okamoto, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of daikenchuto (TJ-100; DKT) for ulcerative colitis (UC) model mouse and assess its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Methods. We evaluated the effects of DKT on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced experimental colitis. First, we assessed the short-term effects of DKT using two groups: 5% DSS group and 5% DSS with DKT group. Colon length; histological scores; and interleukin- (IL-) 10, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? mRNA expression profiles were analyzed usin...

  6. Portulaca Extract Attenuates Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Colitis in Mice through Activation of PPARγ

    Kong, Rui; Luo, Hui; Wang, Nan; Li, Jingjing; Xu, Shizan; Chen, Kan; Feng, Jiao; Wu, Liwei; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Lu, Xiya; Xia, Yujing; Shi, Yanhong; Zhou, Yingqun; He, Weigang

    2018-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used as adjuvant therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism of its activity in IBD still remains unclear. Since previous studies have documented the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-γ (PPAR-γ), Portulaca regulation of PPAR-γ in inflammation was examined in current study. Ulcerative colitis (UC) was generated by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice and fou...

  7. Protective Effect of Daikenchuto on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    Matsunaga, Takaharu; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kawasato, Ryo; Shirasawa, Tomohiro; Goto, Atsushi; Fujisawa, Koichi; Takami, Taro; Okamoto, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Aim . To investigate the effect of daikenchuto (TJ-100; DKT) for ulcerative colitis (UC) model mouse and assess its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Methods . We evaluated the effects of DKT on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced experimental colitis. First, we assessed the short-term effects of DKT using two groups: 5% DSS group and 5% DSS with DKT group. Colon length; histological scores; and interleukin- (IL-) 10, IL-1 β , and tumor necrosis factor- α mRNA expression profiles were analyzed using real-time PCR. Second, we assessed the long-term effects of DKT, by comparing survival time between 2% DSS and 2% DSS with DKT groups. Results . After 7 days, the colon lengths of DSS + DKT group were longer than those of the DSS group (mean values: 6.11 versus 5.69 cm, p DKT group maintained significantly higher levels of serum hemoglobin (13.1 versus 10.7 g/dL, p DKT group exhibited significantly longer survival time than the 2% DSS group (70 versus 44 days, p DKT prevented inflammation in the colon, indicating its potential as a new therapeutic agent for UC.

  8. Protective Effect of Daikenchuto on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    Takaharu Matsunaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effect of daikenchuto (TJ-100; DKT for ulcerative colitis (UC model mouse and assess its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Methods. We evaluated the effects of DKT on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced experimental colitis. First, we assessed the short-term effects of DKT using two groups: 5% DSS group and 5% DSS with DKT group. Colon length; histological scores; and interleukin- (IL- 10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression profiles were analyzed using real-time PCR. Second, we assessed the long-term effects of DKT, by comparing survival time between 2% DSS and 2% DSS with DKT groups. Results. After 7 days, the colon lengths of DSS + DKT group were longer than those of the DSS group (mean values: 6.11 versus 5.69 cm, p<0.05. Furthermore, compared to DSS group, the DSS + DKT group maintained significantly higher levels of serum hemoglobin (13.1 versus 10.7 g/dL, p<0.05 and exhibited significantly higher expression levels of IL-10 (p<0.05. The 2% DSS + DKT group exhibited significantly longer survival time than the 2% DSS group (70 versus 44 days, p<0.01. Conclusion. Our results indicate that DKT prevented inflammation in the colon, indicating its potential as a new therapeutic agent for UC.

  9. Effect of processed Scutellaria baicalensis on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Choi, Yeon-A; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Park, Hye-Jung; Tae, Jin; Kim, Dae-Ki; Kang, Chon Sik; Choi, Suck-Chei; Yun, Ki-Jung; Choi, Suck-Jun; Nah, Yong-Ho; Kim, Young-Ho; Bae, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Young-Mi

    2005-10-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae) has been used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Drug processing (Poje) is the process of treating crude drugs by several methods before use. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of processed Scutellaria baicalensis on experimental ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The types of processed Scutellaria baicalensis used in this study were parched Scutellaria baicalensis (PS) and rice wine-baked Scutellaria baicalensis (RWBS). Experimental colitis was induced in mice using a daily treatment of 5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The water extracts of processed Scutellaria baicalensis (1 g/kg) were administered orally once a day for 7 days. The mice were divided in four groups: i) water plus DSS group, ii) crude Scutellaria baicalensis (CS) plus DSS group, iii) PS plus DSS group, and iv) RWBS plus DSS group. RWBS ameliorated all of the inflammatory symptoms, such as body weight loss, rectal bleeding and histological damage, compared to CS. Furthermore, RWBS significantly reduced the mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2), NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappa B) and chymase expression more than CS. But these effects were not shown in the PS plus DSS group. Efficacy of Scutellaria baicalensis was increased after rice wine baking, but not after parching. The findings in this study suggest that RWBS may be a useful therapeutic agent for ulcerative colitis.

  10. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate suppresses the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Ono, Kazuhiko; Nimura, Satoshi; Nishinakagawa, Takuya; Hideshima, Yuko; Enjyoji, Munechika; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Nakashima, Manabu

    2014-03-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. In the present study, the effects of PBA on a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were investigated. The therapeutic efficacy of PBA (150 mg/kg body weight) in DSS-induced colitis was assessed based on the disease activity index (DAI), colon length, the production of inflammatory cytokines and histopathological examination. The results showed an increase in the median survival time in the PBA-treated group compared with that of the untreated DSS control group. DAI scores were lower in the PBA-treated group than in the DSS control group during the 12 days of the experiment. Additionally, PBA treatment inhibited shortening of the colon and the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and IL-6, which were measured in the colonic lavage fluids. Histopathological examination of the DSS control group showed diffused clusters of chronic inflammatory cells infiltrating the lamina propria, partial exfoliation of the surface epithelium and decreased numbers of mature goblet cells. By contrast, in the PBA-treated group the histopathological findings were the same as those of the normal healthy controls. These results suggest that PBA strongly prevents DSS-induced colitis by suppressing the mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis.

  11. Glycyrrhetic Acid Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Vivo

    Yong-Deok Jeon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR is a Korean traditional herb medicine that is widely used in clinical health care. Glycyrrhetic acid (GA is an aglycone saponin extracted from GR that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of GA in colitis have not been reported. This study investigated the role of GA on ulcerative colitis in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced mouse colitis model. DSS-treated mice displayed weight loss and shortened colon length compared with control mice. Mice administered GA showed less weight loss and longer colon length than the DSS-treated group. Interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were decreased by GA treatment. GA treatment also reduced DSS-induced microscopic damage to colon tissue. GA regulates the phosphorylation of transcription factors including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and IκB alpha, and regulates the expression of cycloxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. GA thus showed beneficial effects in a mouse model of colitis, implicating GA might be a useful herb-derived medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  12. Portulaca Extract Attenuates Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Colitis in Mice through Activation of PPARγ.

    Kong, Rui; Luo, Hui; Wang, Nan; Li, Jingjing; Xu, Shizan; Chen, Kan; Feng, Jiao; Wu, Liwei; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Lu, Xiya; Xia, Yujing; Shi, Yanhong; Zhou, Yingqun; He, Weigang; Dai, Qi; Zheng, Yuejuan; Lu, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used as adjuvant therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism of its activity in IBD still remains unclear. Since previous studies have documented the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors- γ (PPAR- γ ), Portulaca regulation of PPAR- γ in inflammation was examined in current study. Ulcerative colitis (UC) was generated by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice and four groups were established as normal control, DSS alone, DSS plus mesalamine, and DSS plus Portulaca . Severity of UC was evaluated by body weight, stool blood form, and length of colorectum. Inflammation was examined by determination of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1a). Portulaca extract was able to attenuate development of UC in DSS model similar to the treatment of mesalazine. Moreover, Portulaca extract inhibited proinflammatory cytokines release and reduced the level of DSS-induced NF- κ B phosphorylation. Furthermore, Portulaca extract restored PPAR- γ level, which was reduced by DSS. In addition, Portulaca extract protected DSS induced apoptosis in mice. In conclusion, Portulaca extract can alleviate colitis in mice through regulation of inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, and PPAR- γ level; therefore, Portulaca extract can be a potential candidate for the treatment of IBD.

  13. The Dynamics of Interleukin-10-Afforded Protection during Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    Ana Cardoso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease encompasses a group of chronic-inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. These conditions are characterized by exacerbated inflammation of the organ that greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Molecular mechanisms counteracting this hyperinflammatory status of the gut offer strategies for therapeutic intervention. Among these regulatory molecules is the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10, as shown in mice and humans. Indeed, IL-10 signaling, particularly in macrophages, is essential for intestinal homeostasis. We sought to investigate the temporal profile of IL-10-mediated protection during chemical colitis and which were the underlying mechanisms. Using a novel mouse model of inducible IL-10 overexpression (pMT-10, described here, we show that mice preconditioned with IL-10 for 8 days before dextran sulfate sodium (DSS administration developed a milder colitic phenotype. In IL-10-induced colitic mice, Ly6C cells isolated from the lamina propria showed a decreased inflammatory profile. Because our mouse model leads to transcription of the IL-10 transgene in the bone marrow and elevated seric IL-10 concentration, we investigated whether IL-10 could imprint immune cells in a long-lasting way, thus conferring sustained protection to colitis. We show that this was not the case, as IL-10-afforded protection was only observed if IL-10 induction immediately preceded DSS-mediated colitis. Thus, despite the protection afforded by IL-10 in colitis, novel strategies are required, specifically to achieve long-lasting protection.

  14. The Dynamics of Interleukin-10-Afforded Protection during Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    Cardoso, Ana; Gil Castro, Antonio; Martins, Ana Catarina; Carriche, Guilhermina M.; Murigneux, Valentine; Castro, Isabel; Cumano, Ana; Vieira, Paulo; Saraiva, Margarida

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease encompasses a group of chronic-inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. These conditions are characterized by exacerbated inflammation of the organ that greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Molecular mechanisms counteracting this hyperinflammatory status of the gut offer strategies for therapeutic intervention. Among these regulatory molecules is the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, as shown in mice and humans. Indeed, IL-10 signaling, particularly in macrophages, is essential for intestinal homeostasis. We sought to investigate the temporal profile of IL-10-mediated protection during chemical colitis and which were the underlying mechanisms. Using a novel mouse model of inducible IL-10 overexpression (pMT-10), described here, we show that mice preconditioned with IL-10 for 8 days before dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration developed a milder colitic phenotype. In IL-10-induced colitic mice, Ly6C cells isolated from the lamina propria showed a decreased inflammatory profile. Because our mouse model leads to transcription of the IL-10 transgene in the bone marrow and elevated seric IL-10 concentration, we investigated whether IL-10 could imprint immune cells in a long-lasting way, thus conferring sustained protection to colitis. We show that this was not the case, as IL-10-afforded protection was only observed if IL-10 induction immediately preceded DSS-mediated colitis. Thus, despite the protection afforded by IL-10 in colitis, novel strategies are required, specifically to achieve long-lasting protection. PMID:29545807

  15. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    Kanbe, Takamasa; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki; Murawaki, Yoshiyuki; Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo; Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Shiota, Goshi

    2006-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SRα promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes

  16. Marine hydroquinone zonarol prevents inflammation and apoptosis in dextran sulfate sodium-induced mice ulcerative colitis.

    Sohsuke Yamada

    Full Text Available We previously identified an anti-inflammatory compound, zonarol, a hydroquinone isolated from the brown algae Dictyopteris undulata as a marine natural product. To ascertain the in vivo functions of zonarol, we examined the pharmacological effects of zonarol administration on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced inflammation in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC. Our goal is to establish a safe and effective cure for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD using zonarol.We subjected Slc:ICR mice to the administration of 2% DSS in drinking water for 14 days. At the same time, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA at a dose of 50 mg/kg (positive control and zonarol at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, were given orally once a day. DSS-treated animals developed symptoms similar to those of human UC, such as severe bloody diarrhea, which were evaluated by the disease activity index (DAI. Treatment with 20 mg/kg of zonarol, as well as 5-ASA, significantly suppressed the DAI score, and also led to a reduced colonic ulcer length and/or mucosal inflammatory infiltration by various immune cells, especially macrophages. Zonarol treatment significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory signaling molecules, and prevented the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, zonarol protected against in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced activation in the RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line.This is the first report that a marine bioproduct protects against experimental UC via the inhibition of both inflammation and apoptosis, very similar to the standard-of-care sulfasalazine, a well-known prodrug that releases 5-ASA. We believe that the oral administration of zonarol might offer a better treatment for human IBDs than 5-ASA, or may be useful as an alternative/additive therapeutic strategy against UC, without any evidence of side effects.

  17. Effect of live Salmonella Ty21a in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis

    Gunnar Nysœter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Intestinal microbiota seems to play an essential role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. We hypothesised that an oral vaccine based on live Salmonella typhi would be well tolerated and could even attenuate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS induced colitis in rats, an animal model of IBD. Methods Nine male Wistar rats was used for an initial tolerance study, in which we used 3 dose-levels of Salmonella Ty21a, 0.5 × 10 9 , 1 × 10 9 , and 2 × 10 9 CFU, each dose being tested in 3 rats. Four treatment groups consisting of 8 male Wistar rats per group: 1 control group given standard food and water, 2 control group given four daily administrations of Salmonella Ty21a 1 × 10 9 CFU, 3 water with 5% DSS the last 7 days, 4 four daily administrations of Salmonella Ty21a before water with 5% DSS the last 7 days. The Salmonella Ty21a was administered by gastric gavage on day 1, 3, 5 and 16, while DSS was given with the drinking water from day 15 to 22. The animals were sacrificed and colonic tissue removed for analysis 22 days after gavage of the first vaccine dose. Results The animals in the tolerance study got no signs of disease. In the treatment study, all animals receiving DSS had histologic indications of colitis, particularly in the distal part of the colon. Administration of Salmonella Ty21a had no significant effect on crypt and inflammation scores (p > 0.05. Conclusion Gastric administration of live vaccine strain Salmonella Ty21a was well tolerated, but did not provide any significant protection against development of DSS induced colitis in rats.

  18. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-12-14

    To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15(th) day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3(rd) and 5(th) days of colitis induction; P < 0.01). The DAI was also significantly higher in the colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6(th) day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P < 0.05). MPO activity in the colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P < 0.05). Kefir treatment

  19. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-05-27

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-β-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis.

  20. Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia) or Wine Phytochemicals Reduce Intestinal Inflammation in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.

    Li, Ruiqi; Kim, Min-Hyun; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gao, Chi; Gu, Liwei

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemical extracts from muscadine grapes or wine on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to investigate cellular mechanisms. Two groups of C57BL/6J mice were gavaged with muscadine grape phytochemicals (MGP) or muscadine wine phytochemicals (MWP), respectively, for 14 days. Acute colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. An additional two groups of mice served as healthy and disease controls. Results indicated that MGP or MWP significantly prevented weight loss, reduced disease activity index, and preserved colonic length compared to the colitis group (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity as well as the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in colon (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP caused down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that phytochemicals from muscadine grape or wine mitigate ulcerative colitis via attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and modulation of the NF-κB pathway.

  1. Lack of adrenomedullin results in microbiota changes and aggravates azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    Sonia Martinez-Herrero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The link between intestinal inflammation, microbiota, and colorectal cancer (CRC is intriguing and the potential underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we evaluate the influence of adrenomedullin (AM in microbiota composition and its impact on colitis with an inducible knockout (KO mouse model for AM. Microbiota composition was analyzed in KO and wild type (WT mice by pyrosequencing. Colitis was induced in mice by administration of azoxymethane (AOM followed by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in the drinking water. Colitis was evaluated using a clinical symptoms index, histopathological analyses, and qRT-PCR. Abrogation of the adm gene in the whole body was confirmed by PCR and qRT-PCR. KO mice exhibit significant changes in colonic microbiota: higher proportion of δ-Proteobacteria class; of Coriobacteriales order; and of other families and genera was observed in KO feces. Meanwhile these mice had a lower proportion of beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium choerinum. TLR4 gene expression was higher (p<0.05 in KO animals. AM deficient mice treated with DSS exhibited a significantly worse colitis with profound weight loss, severe diarrhea, rectal bleeding, colonic inflammation, edema, infiltration, crypt destruction, and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. No changes were observed in the expression levels of adhesion molecules. In conclusion, we have shown that lack of AM leads to changes in gut microbiota population and in a worsening of colitis conditions, suggesting that endogenous AM is a protective mediator in this pathology.

  2. Lightly Cooked Broccoli Is as Effective as Raw Broccoli in Mitigating Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    Yanling Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary broccoli is anti-inflammatory. Past studies have typically investigated raw broccoli, even though most consumers prefer cooked broccoli, where the plant myrosinase is inactivated by heat, resulting in failure of formation of the anti-inflammatory bioactive compound sulforaphane (SF. This study compareed efficacy of lightly cooked broccoli (CB containing greatly diminished myrosinase activity, with raw broccoli (RB, in mitigating colitis in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for two weeks on a 10% RB, 10% CB or control diet, all based on the AIN-93M diet. Half (n = 9 of each group received drinking water, half received 2.5% DSS in water for one week, starting from Day 7 of the diet. Even with far less plant myrosinase activity, CB was essentially as effective as RB in lessening damage by DSS, evidenced by decreased disease activity index, attenuated colon length shrinkage, less endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide leakage into blood, and less severe colon lesions as assessed by histopathology. mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines indicated that broccoli anti-inflammatory action may be through inhibition of the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway, as evidenced by reversal of the DSS-increased expression of IL-6, CCR2 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1.

  3. Chronic ethanol feeding promotes azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing mucosal inflammation

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.; Mir, Hina; Gangwar, Ruchika; Yadav, Nikki; Manda, Bhargavi; Meena, Avtar S.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the major risk factors for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanism involved in this effect of alcohol is unknown. We evaluated the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced carcinogenesis in mouse colon. Inflammation in colonic mucosa was assessed at a precancerous stage by evaluating mucosal infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, and analysis of cytokine and chemokine gene expression. Chronic ethanol feeding significantly increased the number and size of polyps in colon of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopic and immunoblot analyses showed a significant elevation of phospho-Smad, VEGF and HIF1α in the colonic mucosa. RT-PCR analysis at a precancerous stage indicated that ethanol significantly increases the expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and TNFα, and the chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CXCL9/MIG and CXCL10/IP-10 in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopy showed that ethanol feeding induces a dramatic elevation of myeloperoxidase, Gr1 and CD68-positive cells in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS-treated mice. Ethanol feeding enhanced AOM/DSS-induced suppression of tight junction protein expression and elevated cell proliferation marker, Ki-67 in the colonic epithelium. This study demonstrates that chronic ethanol feeding promotes colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing inflammation and elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines

  4. Orally administered sodium 4-phenylbutyrate suppresses the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Ono, Kazuhiko; Nimura, Satoshi; Hideshima, Yuko; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Nakashima, Manabu

    2017-12-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) exerts therapeutic effects in a wide range of pathologies. A previous study by the present authors revealed that intraperitoneal administration of PBA suppresses the onset of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In the present study, the effects of orally administered PBA are investigated, as this route of administration is more clinically relevant. The therapeutic efficacy of PBA (10 mg/12 h) in mice with experimental colitis was assessed based on the disease activity index, production of inflammatory cytokines, colon length and histopathological investigations. The results of the present study demonstrated a significantly higher survival rate in the PBA-treated group compared with the PBA-untreated (DSS control) group (P=0.0156). PBA treatment improved pathological indices of experimental colitis (P<0.05). Furthermore, the oral administration of PBA significantly inhibited the DSS-induced shortening of the colon (P<0.05) and overproduction of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 (both P<0.05) as measured in colonic lavage fluids. A marked attenuation of the DSS-induced overproduction of tumor necrosis factor was also observed. For histopathological analysis, a marked decrease in mature goblet cells and increase in enlarged nuclei of the absorptive cells was observed in colon lesions of DSS control mice as compared with normal untreated mice. However, in the PBA-treated mice, no such lesions were observed and the mucosa resembled that of DSS-untreated mice. The results of the present study, combined with those results of a previous study, suggest that oral and intraperitoneal administration of PBA have similar preventative effects on DSS-induced colitis, achieved by suppressing its pathogenesis.

  5. N-acetylcysteine improves redox status, mitochondrial dysfunction, mucin-depleted crypts and epithelial hyperplasia in dextran sulfate sodium-induced oxidative colitis in mice.

    Amrouche-Mekkioui, Ilhem; Djerdjouri, Bahia

    2012-09-15

    The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a pharmacological antioxidant was investigated in a murine model of chronic colitis. Male NMRI mice were given 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 10 days of water, three times. Compared to control mice given water, DSS-treated mice displayed severe imbalanced redox status with decreased glutathione and catalase, but increased malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase levels, at days 35th (active colitis) and 45th (recovery period). It also resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, mucosal ulcers, mucin-depleted crypts and epithelial cell apoptosis. Crypt abscesses and glandular hyperplasia occurred selectively in distal colon. NAC (150 mg/kg) given in drinking water for 45 days along with 3 DSS cycles improved the hallmarks of DSS-colitis. Interestingly, the moderate impact of NAC on lipids and proteins oxidation correlated with myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide levels.NAC as a mucoregulator and a thiol restoring agent is protective on oxidative crypt alterations, mucin depletion, epithelial cell hyperplasia and apoptosis. Taken together, our results highlight the role of NAC as a scavenger of phagocytes-derived reactive oxygen species in mice DDS-colitis, suggesting that a long term NAC diet might be beneficial in inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-colitic effects of kanjangs (fermented soy sauce and sesame sauce) in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Park, Kun-Young

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effects of different kanjangs (Korean soy sauces), including acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (AHSS), fermented soy sauce (FSS), and fermented sesame sauce (FSeS), on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The fermented sauces, particularly FSeS, significantly suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, increased colon length, and decreased colon weight/length ratios. Histological observations suggested that the fermented sauces prevented edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS compared to the control mice and animals fed AHSS. FSeS and FSS decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17α. mRNA expression of these cytokines as well as that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon mucosa was also inhibited by the two sauces. Our results suggest that fermented sauces, especially FSeS, exert an anticolitic effect partially by reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the mRNA expression of these factors in the colon tissue of mice treated with DSS. However, AHSS did not protect against DSS-induced colitis. In addition, low-dose treatment (4 mL/kg) with the fermented sauces resulted in greater anticolitic effects than consumption of a high quantity (8 mL/kg) of the sauces.

  7. Perilla frutescens Extracts Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Murine Colitis: NF-κB, STAT3, and Nrf2 as Putative Targets

    Deung Dae Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perilla frutescens is a culinary and medicinal herb which has a strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Perilla frutescens extract (PE against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced mouse colitis, an animal model that mimics human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Five-week-old male ICR mice were treated with a daily dose of PE (20 or 100 mg/kg, p.o. for 1 week, followed by administration of 3% DSS in double distilled drinking water and PE by gavage for another week. DSS-induced colitis was characterized by body weight loss, colon length shortening, diarrhea and bloody stool, and these symptoms were significantly ameliorated by PE treatment. PE administration suppressed DSS-induced expression of proinflammatory enzymes, including cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase as well as cyclin D1, in a dose-dependent fashion. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 are major transcriptional regulators of inflammatory signaling. PE administration significantly inhibited the activation of both NF-κB and STAT3 induced by DSS, while it elevated the accumulation of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 in the colon. In another experiment, treatment of CCD841CoN human normal colon epithelial cells with PE (10 mg/ml resulted in the attenuation of the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression/activation of mediators of proinflammatory signaling. The above results indicate that PE has a preventive potential for use in the management of IBD.

  8. Inhibitory effects of meju prepared with mixed starter cultures on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Meju is the main ingredient and the starter culture of traditional Korean fermented soybean foods; these fermented soybean products are well-known for their various health benefits, including anticancer effects. We developed the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures to improve the qualities and functionalities of fermented soybean products, as well as the meju itself. In this study, the inhibitory effects of the grain-type meju were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. Materials and Methods: AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice and meju was orally administered for 4 weeks. The body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically observed. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and the levels of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: The administration of meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer and reduced number of neoplasia, and reduced serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and iNOS and COX-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. It increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in colonic tissues. Conclusion: The meju showed inhibitory effects on the progression of colon cancer induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the number of neoplasias and regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels and the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  9. mTOR Inhibition Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Suppressing T Cell Proliferation and Balancing TH1/TH17/Treg Profile.

    Shurong Hu

    Full Text Available It has been established that mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects in models of experimental colitis. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this research, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AZD8055, a potent mTOR inhibitor, on T cell response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice, a commonly used animal model of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Severity of colitis is evaluated by changing of body weight, bloody stool, fecal consistency, histology evaluation and cytokine expression. We find that AZD8055 treatment attenuates DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and pathological damage of the colon. And AZD8055 treatment decreases colonic expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL-17A, IL-1β,IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-a and increases colonic expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10. We show that AZD8055 treatment decreases the percentages of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in spleen, lymph nodes and peripheral blood of mice. We also find that AZD8055 treatment significantly reduces the number of T helper 1(TH1 cells and TH17 cells and increases regulatory T (Treg cells in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we demonstrates that AZD8055 suppresses the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the differentiation of TH1/TH17 cells and expands Treg cells in vitro. The results suggest that, in experimental colitis, AZD8055 exerts anti-inflammatory effect by regulating T helper cell polarization and proliferation.

  10. Perilla frutescens Extracts Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Murine Colitis: NF-κB, STAT3, and Nrf2 as Putative Targets.

    Dae Park, Deung; Yum, Hye-Won; Zhong, Xiancai; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Do-Hee; Kim, Su-Jung; Na, Hye-Kyung; Sato, Atsuya; Miura, Takehito; Surh, Young-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Perilla frutescens is a culinary and medicinal herb which has a strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Perilla frutescens extract (PE) against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis, an animal model that mimics human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Five-week-old male ICR mice were treated with a daily dose of PE (20 or 100 mg/kg, p.o. ) for 1 week, followed by administration of 3% DSS in double distilled drinking water and PE by gavage for another week. DSS-induced colitis was characterized by body weight loss, colon length shortening, diarrhea and bloody stool, and these symptoms were significantly ameliorated by PE treatment. PE administration suppressed DSS-induced expression of proinflammatory enzymes, including cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase as well as cyclin D1, in a dose-dependent fashion. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) are major transcriptional regulators of inflammatory signaling. PE administration significantly inhibited the activation of both NF-κB and STAT3 induced by DSS, while it elevated the accumulation of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 in the colon. In another experiment, treatment of CCD841CoN human normal colon epithelial cells with PE (10 mg/ml) resulted in the attenuation of the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression/activation of mediators of proinflammatory signaling. The above results indicate that PE has a preventive potential for use in the management of IBD.

  11. Doenjang prepared with mixed starter cultures attenuates azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Doenjang is traditional Korean fermented soybean paste and widely known for its various health benefits including anticancer effect. In this study, we manufactured doenjang with the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures of Aspegillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis-SKm, and Lactococcus lactis-GAm to improve the qualities and beneficial properties of doenjang. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effects of the doenjang prepared with the grain-type meju using mixed starter cultures were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice, and doenjang was orally administered for 4 weeks. Body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically evaluated. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: Administration of the doenjang using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer, and reduced the incidence of neoplasia, and reduced the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloooxygenase-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. In addition, it increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in the colonic tissues. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the doenjang attenuated colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the occurrence of neoplasia, regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels, and controlling the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  12. Copper sulfate acute ecotoxicity and environmental risk for tropical fish

    Adilson Ferreira da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate copper sulfate acute toxicity and to determine death percentage and environmental risk on guppy fish (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio, mato grosso (Hyphessobrycon eques, and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. Fish were exposed to 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.30 mg L-1 (guppy, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.30 mg L-1 (zebrafish, 0.07, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 mg L-1 (mato grosso and 9.5, 10.0, 10.5, 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0 mg L-1 (pacu of copper sulfate, with triplicate control. The estimated 50% average lethal concentrations (LC50; 96 hours were 0.05 (guppy, 0.13 (zebrafish; 0.16 (mato grosso and 10.36 mg L-1 (pacu. Copper sulfate was extremely toxic for guppy, highly toxic for zebrafish and mato grosso and lightly toxic for pacu and presents environmental risk of high adverse effects on the guppy, zebrafish and mato grosso and moderate adverse effect to the pacu. Therefore, the guppy fish, zebrafish, and mato grosso are important alternatives for copper sulfate toxicity evaluation in waterbodies.

  13. Acute Exacerbations of COPD Are Associated With Increased Expression of Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate in BAL.

    Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Klagas, Ioannis; Roth, Michael; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2016-03-01

    Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPDs) are associated with accelerated aggravation of clinical symptoms and deterioration of pulmonary function. The mechanisms by which exacerbations may contribute to airway remodeling and declined lung function are poorly understood. We investigated whether AECOPDs are associated with differential expression of glycosaminoglycans in BAL in a cohort of 97 patients with COPD. Patients with COPD with either stable disease (n = 53) or AECOPD (n = 44) and undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy were matched for demographics and lung function parameters. Levels of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in BAL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly increased in BAL of patients during exacerbations. Levels of heparan sulfate were higher in the BAL of patients with microbial infections. Chondroitin sulfate was negatively correlated with FEV1 % predicted but not with diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % predicted, indicating that chondroitin sulfate is associated with airway remodeling, leading to obstruction rather than to emphysema. Furthermore, heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly correlated with MMP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-12 in BAL, indicating that they were cleaved from their respective proteoglycans by MMPs and subsequently washed out in BAL. During AECOPD, there is increased expression of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in BAL. These molecules are significantly correlated with MMPs in BAL, indicating that they may be associated with airway remodeling and may lead to lung function decline during exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnesium sulfate infusion for acute asthma in the emergency department

    Jose Enrique Irazuzta

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the role of intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 as therapy for acute severe asthma in the pediatric emergency department (ED. Source: Publications were searched in the PubMed and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: magnesium AND asthma AND children AND clinical trial. A total of 53 publications were retrieved using this criteria. References of relevant articles were also screened. The authors included the summary of relevant publications where intravenous magnesium sulfate was studied in children (age <18 years with acute asthma. The NAEPP and Global Initiative for Asthma expert panel guidelines were also reviewed. Summary of the data: There is a large variability in the ED practices on the intravenous administration of MgSO4 for severe asthma. The pharmacokinetics of MgSO4 is often not taken into account with a consequent impact in its pharmacodynamics properties. The cumulative evidence points to the effectiveness of intravenous MgSO4 in preventing hospitalization, if utilized in a timely manner and at an appropriate dosage (50-75 mg/kg. For every five children treated in the ED, one hospital admission could be prevented. Another administration modality is a high-dose continuous magnesium sulfate infusion (HDMI as 50 mg/kg/h/4 h (200 mg/kg/4 h. The early utilization of HDMI for non-infectious mediated asthma may be superior to a MgSO4 bolus in avoiding admissions and expediting discharges from the ED. HDMI appears to be cost-effective if applied early to a selected population. Intravenous MgSO4 has a similar safety profile than other asthma therapies. Conclusions: Treatment with intravenous MgSO4 reduces the odds of hospital admissions. The use of intravenous MgSO4 in the emergency room was not associated with significant side effects or harm. The authors emphasize the role of MgSO4 as an adjunctive therapy, while corticosteroids and beta agonist remain the primary acute therapeutic agents.

  15. Acute Copper Sulfate Poisoning: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Copper sulfate ingestion is a relatively popular method for committing suicide in Indian subcontinent. It causes a high mortality rate, and so a growing concern has been raised to identify the severe alarming signs suggestive of poor prognosis and to improve treatment approaches. Case report: A 22-year-old unmarried man working as a painter was found unconscious at his friend residence. The patient developed hypotension, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with hematemesis and melena, renal and hepatic failure, severe metabolic acidosis and intravascular hemolysis during admission at hospital. His signs were refractory to treatment with fluid replacement therapy, vasoactive drugs, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, furosemide, methylene blue and 2,3 dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate. He died six hours post-admission. In post-mortem examinations, there were multiple sub-pleural and sub-epicardial hemorrhages and the gastrointestinal mucosa was congested, hemorrhagic, and greenish blue in color. The liver, on histological examination, showed sub-massive hepatic necrosis. On toxicological analyses, copper sulfate was detected in preserved viscera and results for other heavy metals were negative. Conclusion: Hypotension, cyanosis, uremia and jaundice can be considered as signs of poor prognosis in copper sulfate poisoning. Copper sulfate ingestion is life-threatening due to its deleterious effects on the upper GI, kidneys, liver and blood. Having no time to waste, aggressive treatments should be immediately instituted and signs of poor prognosis should be kept in mind.

  16. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  17. Effect of Zinc Sulfate Use on Acute Diarrhea in Children (A Clinical Trial

    Z. Movahedi, MD*; , MD*; , MSc**;

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesDiarrhea which leads to zinc wasting from body is one of the major causes of mortality in children around the world. Zinc is one of the elements that facilitate the repair of stomach and intestinal mucosa, stimulation of immune system, control and transfer of water and electrolytes in our body. World Health Organization (WHO recommends use of zinc sulfate in all cases of diarrhea in addition to replacement of fluids and continuation of feeding in treatment of children with diarrhea. The objective of this study is evaluation of the effect of zinc sulfate (ZnSo4 on the recovery duration and appetite in children with diarrhea. This study evaluates the effect of ZnSo4 in prevention of respiratory infection and diarrhea for two months after taking the ZnSo4.MethodsTwo groups of children (total n=153 with non dysenteric acute diarrhea who were hospitalized in Qom’s children hospital in 2007 were used in this clinical trials. Sixty four of these children (n=64 were randomized to the study group and eighty nine (n=89 to the control group. The children in the control group received the standard therapy (fluid & electrolyte therapy &continuation of feeding for treatment of diarrhea and the children in the study group received standard treatment, and 5 mg of zinc sulfate twice daily for two weeks. Neither of these two groups received any anti diarrhea therapy and/or antibiotics. Both groups were monitored for occurrence of new episodes of diarrhea and/or respiratory tract infection for two months after the end of their hospitalization. T-score and Fisher tools were used for statistical analysis of the gathered data.ResultsChildren in two groups had several similarities such as gender, decrease in appetite, nausea and vomiting. There was not a significant difference between two groups with respect to the length of recovery, new incidence of diarrhea, and respiratory tract infection within two months after hospitalization. However

  18. Effects of acute and chronic administration of neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on neuronal excitability in mice

    Svob Strac D

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dubravka Svob Strac,1 Josipa Vlainic,1 Janko Samardzic,2 Julija Erhardt,3 Zeljka Krsnik41Laboratory for Molecular Neuropsychiatry, Division of Molecular Medicine, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Institute of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 4Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, CroatiaBackground: Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS has been associated with important brain functions, including neuronal survival, memory, and behavior, showing therapeutic potential in various neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. However, the antagonistic effects of DHEAS on γ-amino-butyric acidA receptors and its facilitatory action on glutamatergic neurotransmission might lead to enhanced brain excitability and seizures and thus limit DHEAS therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate possible age and sex differences in the neuronal excitability of the mice following acute and chronic DHEAS administration.Methods: DHEAS was administered intraperitoneally in male and female adult and old mice either acutely or repeatedly once daily for 4 weeks in a 10 mg/kg dose. To investigate the potential proconvulsant properties of DHEAS, we studied the effects of acute and chronic DHEAS treatment on picrotoxin-, pentylentetrazole-, and N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced seizures in mice. The effects of acute and chronic DHEAS administration on the locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight of the mice were also studied. We also investigated the effects of DHEAS treatment on [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the mouse brain membranes.Results: DHEAS did not modify the locomotor activity, motor coordination, body weight, and brain [3H]flunitrazepam binding of male and female mice. The results

  19. The efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma

    Sarhan HA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hatem A Sarhan,1 Omar H EL-Garhy,1 Mohamed A Ali,2 Nouran A Youssef1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma.Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted in Chest and Emergency Departments. Thirty patients of acute attack of bronchial asthma were randomized into three groups: MgSO4 nebulization (group A, salbutamol nebulization (group B, and their combination (group C. All patients were monitored before and after nebulization (each 20 minutes for peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR, blood pressure, pulsus paradoxus, oxygen saturation, clinical examination, and Fischl index.Results: A highly significant improvement in PEFR, PEFR percentage, and Fischl index and significant decrease in RR and HR was observed in all groups. A similar improvement in PEFR was observed in group A and group B (P=0.389. The difference in peak expiratory flow (PEF improvement was insignificant between group B and group C (P=0.101, while there was a significant differ­ence between group A and group C (P=0.014 in favor of group C.Conclusion: Nebulized MgSO4 alone or combined with salbutamol has a clinically significant bronchodilator effect in acute asthma and leads to clinical improvement, increase in PEFR, reduction in HR, and reduction in RR. The response to nebulized MgSO4 alone (PEFR improvement 54±35.6 L/min, P=0.001 is comparable (P=0.389 to that of nebulized salbutamol (PEFR improvement 67.0±41.9 L/min, P=0.001 and is significantly less than (P=0.014 that of nebulized combination (PEFR improvement 92.0±26.9 L/min, P=0.000. Keywords: nebulized magnesium sulfate, salbutamol, acute asthma, peak expiratory flow rate, Fischl index

  20. Effect of Zinc Sulfate Use on Acute Diarrhea in Children (A Clinical Trial

    M Movahedi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Diarrhea which leads to zinc wasting from body is one of the major causes of mortality in children around the world. Zinc is one of the elements that facilitate the repair of stomach and intestinal mucosa, stimulation of immune system, control and transfer of water and electrolytes in our body. World Health Organization (WHO recommends use of zinc sulfate in all cases of diarrhea in addition to replacement of fluids and continuation of feeding in treatment of children with diarrhea. The objective of this study is evaluation of the effect of zinc sulfate (ZnSo4 on the recovery duration and appetite in children with diarrhea. This study evaluates the effect of ZnSo4 in prevention of respiratory infection and diarrhea for two months after taking the ZnSo4.

    Methods

    Two groups of children (total n=153 with non dysenteric acute diarrhea who were hospitalized in Qom’s children hospital in 2007 were used in this clinical trials. Sixty four of these children (n=64 were randomized to the study group and eighty nine (n=89 to the control group. The children in the control group received the standard therapy (fluid & electrolyte therapy &continuation of feeding  for treatment of diarrhea and the children in the study group received standard treatment, and 5 mg of zinc sulfate twice daily for two weeks. Neither of these two groups received any anti diarrhea therapy and/or antibiotics. Both groups were monitored for occurrence of new episodes of diarrhea and/or respiratory tract infection for two months after the end of their hospitalization. T-score and Fisher tools were used for statistical analysis of the gathered data.

    Results

    Children in two groups had several similarities such as gender, decrease in appetite, nausea and vomiting. There was not a significant difference between two groups with respect to the length of recovery, new incidence of

  1. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  2. Effect of preliminary administration of dextran sulfate on the development of acute x-ray affection

    Zhukova, N.A.; Maksimenko, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal injection of highly molecular dextran sulfate (60 mg/kg) into the organism of nonbred mice 3,24 and 48 hrs prior to irradiation in lethal and sublethal doses does not produce any radioprotective effect. The stimulating effect of dextran sulfate on blood formation regeneration is found in case of irradiating animals with the dose of 650 rad and is not found with the dose of 750 rad. Dextran sulfate injection 24 hours prior to irradiation makes postradiation leukopenia more vivid, which is supposed to be connected with compensator consume of phagocytic blood cells due to blocade of liver macrophages preparation

  3. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Changgong; Dong, Bo; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Fengqi; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-03-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica. Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified. Three spots were up-expressed and identified: actin, heat shock protein 70, and chaperone subunit 1; three down-regulated proteins were identified: arginine kinase, elongation factor-2, and glycine-rich protein; and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin. The study indicates the involvement of all the differentially expressed proteins in the early responses of protein expression, and in the survival of A. sinica in the presence of copper and other heavy metals; the findings improve understanding of the organism’s adaptive responses and resistance.

  4. Prophylactic vesical instillations with 0.2% chondroitin sulfate may reduce symptoms of acute radiation cystitis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for gynecological malignancies

    Hazewinkel, M.H.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Roovers, J.P.W.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the feasibility and efficacy of intravesical instillations with 40 ml chondroitin sulfate 0.2% solution to prevent or reduce acute radiation cystitis in women undergoing pelvic radiotherapy. In a comparative pilot study in 20 patients, half of the patients received instillations.

  5. Inhibitory effect of magnesium sulfate on reaction of lipid hyperoxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries

    Wang Lili; Zhou Juying; Yu Zhiying; Qin Songbing; Xu Xiaoting; Li Li; Tu Yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protection of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) on radiation-induced acute brain injuries. Methods: 60 maturity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank control group, experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group. The whole brain of SD rats of experimental control group and experimental-therapeutic group was irradiated to a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron. MgSO 4 was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of experimental-therapeutic group before and after irradiation for five times. At different time points ranging from the 1 d, 7 d, 14 d, 30 d after irradiation, the brain tissue were taken. The xanthine oxidase and colorimetric examination were used to measure the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) respectively in the rat brain respectively. Results: Compared with blank control group, the SOD in brain of experimental control group decreased significantly (P 4 used in early stage can inhibit the lipid peroxidation after radiation-induced acute brain injuries and alleviate the damage induced by free radicals to brain tissue. (authors)

  6. Tanshinone IIA ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced inflammatory bowel disease via the pregnane X receptor

    Zhang, Xianxie; Wang, Yuguang; Ma, Zengchun; Liang, Qiande; Tang, Xianglin; Hu, Donghua; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Gao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) (C19H18O3) is one of the major active lipophilic components in a conventional Chinese medicine called danshen, and it has long been used in the People’s Republic of China and other neighboring countries to treat patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous experiments by many teams determined which mechanism of Tan IIA is relevant to the treatment of IBD associated with inflammation and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The current study demonstrated that Tan IIA is an efficacious PXR agonist and its ability to induce CYP3A4 mRNA and protein expression was mediated by the transactivation of PXR, a known target of abrogating inflammation in IBD. Clinical symptoms in mice and histological assessment data suggested that administration of Tan IIA in mice demonstrated significant protection and showed that in DSS-induced IBD it acts in a concentration-dependent manner. PXR-silenced mice treated with Tan IIA demonstrated low protection against DSS-induced mouse IBD and exacerbated the severity of IBD compared with wild-type mice; PXR-silenced mice demonstrated the necessity for PXR in Tan IIA-mediated upregulation of xenobiotic metabolism genes. The IBD treatment effects of Tan IIA are partially due to PXR-mediated upregulation of xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory mediators. The novel findings reported here may contribute to the effective utilization of Tan IIA and its derivatives as a PXR ligand in the treatment of human IBD. This suggests that Tan IIA may have considerable clinical utility. PMID:26674743

  7. Indoxyl Sulfate as a Mediator Involved in Dysregulation of Pulmonary Aquaporin-5 in Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acute Kidney Injury

    Nozomi Yabuuchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High mortality of acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with acute lung injury (ALI, which is a typical complication of AKI. Although it is suggested that dysregulation of lung salt and water channels following AKI plays a pivotal role in ALI, the mechanism of its dysregulation has not been elucidated. Here, we examined the involvement of a typical oxidative stress-inducing uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate (IS, in the dysregulation of the pulmonary predominant water channel, aquaporin 5 (AQP-5, in bilateral nephrectomy (BNx-induced AKI model rats. BNx evoked AKI with the increases in serum creatinine (SCr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum IS levels and exhibited thickening of interstitial tissue in the lung. Administration of AST-120, clinically-used oral spherical adsorptive carbon beads, resulted in a significant decrease in serum IS level and thickening of interstitial tissue, which was accompanied with the decreases in IS accumulation in various tissues, especially lung. Interestingly, a significant decrease in AQP-5 expression of lung was observed in BNx rats. Moreover, the BNx-induced decrease in pulmonary AQP-5 protein expression was markedly restored by oral administration of AST-120. These results suggest that BNx-induced AKI causes dysregulation of pulmonary AQP-5 expression, in which IS could play a toxico-physiological role as a mediator involved in renopulmonary crosstalk.

  8. Acute and subacute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4)5.H(2)O) in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Park, Keehae; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2009-03-01

    Chemicals are used for treatment of aquatic diseases, but there is little data available about copper sulfate in small ornamental fish. The aim of the present study was to determine the TLm(24h) and evaluate the toxicity of copper sulfate in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). The fish were subjected to an acute toxicity test for 24 hr, and the results showed a TLm(24h) value of 1.17 ppm. Severe hyperplasia and exfoliation of the epithelial cells of gill lamellae and obstruction of the internal cavities of renal tubules with necrotized renal epithelial cells sloughed from the basement membrane were observed. However, no significant changes, except for mild curling of gill lamellae, were found in a subacute toxicity test in which fish were exposed to 1/10 of the TLm(24h) value for 1 week. Therefore, use of less than 0.12 ppm of copper sulfate may be recommended as a therapeutic level.

  9. Vaginal Heparan Sulfate Linked to Neutrophil Dysfunction in the Acute Inflammatory Response Associated with Experimental Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Yano, Junko; Noverr, Mairi C; Fidel, Paul L

    2017-03-14

    Despite acute inflammation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) during vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), clearance of Candida fails to occur. The purpose of this study was to uncover the mechanism of vaginal PMN dysfunction. Designs included assessing PMN migration, proinflammatory mediators, and tissue damage (by analysis of the activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) in mice susceptible (C3H/HeN-C57BL/6) or resistant (CD-1) to chronic VVC (CVVC-S or CVVC-R) and testing morphology-specific Candida albicans strains under conditions of preinduced PMN migration (CVVC-S mice) or PMN depletion (CVVC-R mice). In vitro designs included evaluation of C. albicans killing by elicited vaginal or peritoneal PMNs in standard or vaginal conditioned medium (VCM). Results showed that despite significant migration of PMNs and high levels of vaginal beta interleukin-1 (IL-1β) and alarmin S100A8, CVVC-S mice failed to reduce vaginal fungal burden irrespective of morphology or whether PMNs were present pre- or postinoculation, and had high LDH levels. In contrast, CVVC-R mice had reduced fungal burden and low LDH levels following PMN recruitment and IL-1β/S100A8 production, but maintained colonization in the absence of PMNs. Elicited vaginal and peritoneal PMNs showed substantial killing activity in standard media or VCM from CVVC-R mice but not in VCM from CVVC-S mice. The inhibitory effect of VCM from CVVC-S mice was unaffected by endogenous or exogenous estrogen and was ablated following depletion/neutralization of Mac-1 ligands using Mac-1 +/+ PMNs or recombinant Mac-1. Heparan sulfate (HS) was identified as the putative inhibitor as evidenced by the rescue of PMN killing following heparanase treatment of VCM, as well as by inhibition of killing by purified HS. These results suggest that vaginal HS is linked to PMN dysfunction in CVVC-S mice as a competitive ligand for Mac-1. IMPORTANCE Vaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans , affects a significant number of women

  10. [Efficacy and safety of tulobuterol patch versus oral salbutamol sulfate in children with mild or moderate acute attack of bronchial asthma: a comparative study].

    Lin, Qian; Liu, Quan-Hua; Bao, Yi-Xiao

    2013-06-01

    To compare tulobuterol patch and oral salbutamol sulfate in terms of efficacy and safety in children with mild or moderate acute attack of bronchial asthma. A total of 92 children with mild and moderate acute asthmatic attack were randomly divided into salbutamol group (n=46) and tulobuterol group (n=46). Both groups received routine treatment with antihistamine, selective leukotriene receptor antagonist and glucocorticoid. In addition, the salbutamol group was given slow-release capsules of salbutamol sulfate, and the tulobuterol group was treated with tulobuterol patch. The two groups were compared with respect to symptom scores of cough, wheeze, respiratory rate, wheezing sound, three depression sign and peak expiratory flow, as well as adverse events. As the treatment proceeded, symptom scores decreased in both groups; on the third day of treatment, all symptom scores except cough score showed a significant decrease in both groups (Pattack.

  11. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2-deficient mice are protected from dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis.

    Steury, Michael D; Kang, Ho Jun; Lee, Taehyung; Lucas, Peter C; McCabe, Laura R; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2018-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a serine/threonine kinase and plays a key role in different disease processes. Previously, we showed that GRK2 knockdown enhances wound healing in colonic epithelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that ablation of GRK2 would protect mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis. To test this, we administered DSS to wild-type (GRK2 +/+ ) and GRK2 heterozygous (GRK +/- ) mice in their drinking water for 7 days. As predicted, GRK2 +/- mice were protected from colitis as demonstrated by decreased weight loss (20% loss in GRK2 +/+ vs. 11% loss in GRK2 +/- ). lower disease activity index (GRK2 +/+ 9.1 vs GRK2 +/- 4.1), and increased colon lengths (GRK2 +/+ 4.7 cm vs GRK2 +/- 5.3 cm). To examine the mechanisms by which GRK2 +/- mice are protected from colitis, we investigated expression of inflammatory genes in the colon as well as immune cell profiles in colonic lamina propria, mesenteric lymph node, and in bone marrow. Our results did not reveal differences in immune cell profiles between the two genotypes. However, expression of inflammatory genes was significantly decreased in DSS-treated GRK2 +/- mice compared with GRK2 +/+ . To understand the mechanisms, we generated myeloid-specific GRK2 knockout mice and subjected them to DSS-induced colitis. Similar to whole body GRK2 heterozygous knockout mice, myeloid-specific knockout of GRK2 was sufficient for the protection from DSS-induced colitis. Together our results indicate that deficiency of GRK2 protects mice from DSS-induced colitis and further suggests that the mechanism of this effect is likely via GRK2 regulation of inflammatory genes in the myeloid cells.

  12. Acute intraoperative reactions during the injection of calcium sulfate bone cement for the treatment of unicameral bone cysts: a review of four cases.

    Nystrom, Lukas; Raw, Robert; Buckwalter, Joseph; Morcuende, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    Unicameral bone cysts can predispose patients to pathologic fracture and deformities of growth. Treatment options vary from continuous decompression with transcortical placement of a cannulated screw to percutaneous aspiration and injection of medical-grade calcium sulfate. From 2005 to 2007, we treated 22 patients with unicameral bone cysts using aspiration and injection of calcium sulfate. Three patients experienced acute laryngospasm and one patient developed tachyarrhythmia, temporarily, associated with injection of calcium sulfate. All reactions occurred in patients under age 18 without predisposing risk factors and resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Although the mechanism is unclear, we hypothesize that these reactions are either due to the nociceptive stimulus of the calcium sulfate injection or a systemic calcium bolus. Clinicians using this product for this indication should be aware that such reactions may occur. We suggest endotracheal intubation and communication to the anesthesiologist about the time of the injection in preparation for these idiopathic responses. Further research is necessary to determine exactly how this reaction occurs and how it can be avoided.

  13. Acute toxicity of heavy metals to acetate-utilizing mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria: EC100 and EC50.

    Utgikar, V P; Chen, B Y; Chaudhary, N; Tabak, H H; Haines, J R; Govind, R

    2001-12-01

    Acid mine drainage from abandoned mines and acid mine pit lakes is an important environmental concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of acid mine drainage, knowledge of acute metal toxicity levels for SRB is essential for the proper functioning of the treatment system for acid mine drainage. Quantification of heavy metal toxicity to mixed cultures of SRB is complicated by the confounding effects of metal hydroxide and sulfide precipitation, biosorption, and complexation with the constituents of the reaction matrix. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate that measurements of dissolved metal concentrations could be used to determine the toxicity parameters for mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The effective concentration, 100% (EC100), the lowest initial dissolved metal concentrations at which no sulfate reduction is observed, and the effective concentration, 50% (EC50), the initial dissolved metal concentrations resulting in a 50% decrease in sulfate reduction, for copper and zinc were determined in the present study by means of nondestructive, rapid physical and chemical analytical techniques. The reaction medium used in the experiments was designed specifically (in terms of pH and chemical composition) to provide the nutrients necessary for the sulfidogenic activity of the SRB and to preclude chemical precipitation of the metals under investigation. The toxicity-mitigating effects of biosorption of dissolved metals were also quantified. Anaerobic Hungate tubes were set up (at least in triplicate) and monitored for sulfate-reduction activity. The onset of SRB activity was detected by the blackening of the reaction mixture because of formation of insoluble ferrous sulfide. The EC100 values were found to be 12 mg/L for copper and 20 mg/L for zinc. The dissolved metal concentration measurements were effective as the indicators of the effect of the

  14. Metabolomics analysis reveals elevation of 3-indoxyl sulfate in plasma and brain during chemically-induced acute kidney injury in mice: Investigation of nicotinic acid receptor agonists

    Zgoda-Pols, Joanna R.; Chowdhury, Swapan; Wirth, Mark; Milburn, Michael V.; Alexander, Danny C.; Alton, Kevin B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigative renal toxicity study using metabolomics was conducted with a potent nicotinic acid receptor (NAR) agonist, SCH 900424. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify small molecule biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) that could aid in a better mechanistic understanding of SCH 900424-induced AKI in mice. The metabolomics study revealed 3-indoxyl sulfate (3IS) as a more sensitive marker of SCH 900424-induced renal toxicity than creatinine or urea. An LC-MS assay for quantitative determination of 3IS in mouse matrices was also developed. Following treatment with SCH 900424, 3IS levels were markedly increased in murine plasma and brain, thereby potentially contributing to renal- and central nervous system (CNS)-related rapid onset of toxicities. Furthermore, significant decrease in urinary excretion of 3IS in those animals due to compromised renal function may be associated with the elevation of 3IS in plasma and brain. These data suggest that 3IS has a potential to be a marker of renal and CNS toxicities during chemically-induced AKI in mice. In addition, based on the metabolomic analysis other statistically significant plasma markers including p-cresol-sulfate and tryptophan catabolites (kynurenate, kynurenine, 3-indole-lactate) might be of toxicological importance but have not been studied in detail. This comprehensive approach that includes untargeted metabolomic and targeted bioanalytical sample analyses could be used to investigate toxicity of other compounds that pose preclinical or clinical development challenges in a pharmaceutical discovery and development. - Research highlights: → Nicotinic acid receptor agonist, SCH 900424, caused acute kidney injury in mice. → MS-based metabolomics was conducted to identify potential small molecule markers of renal toxicity. → 3-indoxyl-sulfate was found to be as a more sensitive marker of renal toxicity than

  15. Protective effect of exogenous chondroitin 4,6-sulfate in the acute degradation of articular cartilage in the rabbit.

    Uebelhart, D; Thonar, E J; Zhang, J; Williams, J M

    1998-05-01

    The injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain into the adolescent rabbit knee causes severe loss of articular cartilage proteoglycans (PG). Although chondrocytes attempt to restore lost PG, failure to repair ensues. Pure chondroitin 4,6-sulfate (Condrosulf, IBSA Lugano, Switzerland) has been used in clinical studies of human osteoarthritis (OA) as a slow-acting drug for OA (SYSADOA). Using our model of articular cartilage injury, we examined the effects of oral and intramuscular administration of Condrosulf after chymopapain-induced cartilage injury. In this study, animals received an injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain (Chymodiactin, Boots Pharmaceuticals) into the left knee and were sacrificed after 84 days. The contralateral right knee served as a noninjected control. Some animals received oral Condrosulf while others received intramuscular injections of Condrosulf. Serum keratan sulfate (KS) levels were monitored to ensure degradation of the cartilage PG. Those animals not exhibiting at least a 100% increase of serum KS following chymopapain injection were excluded from the study. At sacrifice, cartilage PG contents were markedly reduced in animals receiving an injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain with no further treatment. In contrast, oral administration of Condrosulf beginning 11 days prior to chymopapain injury resulted in significantly higher (P = 0.0036) cartilage PG contents. Intramuscular administration of Condrosulf resulted in higher, but less significantly so (P = 0.0457), cartilage PG contents. These results suggest that daily Condrosulf treatment prior to and continuing after chymopapain injury may have a protective effect on the damaged cartilage, allowing it to continue to re-synthesize matrix PG after the treatment is discontinued.

  16. Dedicated pinhole SPECT of intestinal neutrophil recruitment in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    Bennink, Roelof J.; Hamann, Jörg; de Bruin, Kora; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; te Velde, Anje A.

    2005-01-01

    Evaluating the efficacy of therapy in experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) requires information about inflammatory activity in bowel segments or leukocyte recruitment and about kinetics in the follow-up of treatment. This study evaluated a noninvasive scintigraphic technique able to assess

  17. Genetic deletion of IL-25 (IL-17E) confers resistance to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    IL-25 is emerging as a key regulator of inflammation in the intestinal mucosa because of its ability to promote Th2 while suppressing Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses. We investigated the contribution of endogenous IL-25 to DSS-induced colitis in mice. Mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water ad li...

  18. [The comparison of heparan sulfate and its fragments on the protection against extracellular histones during the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Zhang, Y L; Guan, L; Zheng, Y M; Zhao, Z M; Mao, L J; Li, S Q; Zhao, J Y

    2018-01-20

    Objective: In order to explore the role of heparan sulfate (HS) during the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) , the protective effect of HS and its fragments against extracellular histones was compared. Methods: Calf thymus histones (CTH) were injected via femoral vein to induce ARDS in rats. HS, HS fragments or saline was intraperitoneally injected (10mg/kg, Q6h, 24h) to test the protective effect against CTH. The ratio of wet/dry lung weight, protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) , total leukocyte and neutrophil count in BALF were measured. Results: After CTH injection, the ratio of wet/dry lung weight (5.7±0.95) was much higher than the saline control group (3.1±0.15). The protein content (0.47±0.086mg/ml) , total leukocyte[ (97.4±15.6l) ×10(4)/ml] and neutrophil (18±3.4/LPF) in BALF were obviously increased compared with the saline control group. The intervention of HS evidently decreased ratio of wet/dry lung weight (4.2±0.41) , protein content[ (0.26±0.019) mg/ml], leukocyte[ (61.3±5.74) ×10(4)/ml] and neutrophil (12±1.8/LPF) in BALF. HS fragments also decreased ratio of wet/dry lung weight, protein content, leukocyte and neutrophil count in BALF though the strength was much less than HS. Conclusion: HS and its fragments could provide protection against extracellular histones during the pathogenesis of ARDS. For the protective effect full length HS was much better than HS fragments.

  19. Barium Sulfate

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  20. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    Rietra, R P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  1. An effective assessment of valproate sodium-induced hepatotoxicity with UPLC-MS and (1)HNMR-based metabonomics approach.

    Huo, Taoguang; Chen, Xi; Lu, Xiumei; Qu, Lianyue; Liu, Yang; Cai, Shuang

    2014-10-15

    Valproate sodium is one of the most prescribed antiepileptic drugs. However, valproate sodium has various side effects, especially its toxicity on liver. Current markers for toxicity reflect mostly the late stages of tissue damage; thus, more efficient methods for toxicity evaluation are desired. To evaluate the toxicity of valproate sodium on liver, we performed both UPLC-MS and (1)HNMR-based metabonomics analysis of serum samples from 34 epileptic patients (age: 42.0±18.6, 18 male/16 female) after valproate sodium treatment. Compared to conventional markers, the serum metabolic profiles provided clear distinction of the valproate sodium induced normal liver function and abnormal liver function in epileptic patients. Through multivariate statistical analysis, we identified marker metabolites associated with the hepatotoxicity induced by valproate sodium, such as glucose, lactate, acetoacetate, VLDL/LDL, lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, choline, creatine, amino acids, N-acetyl glycoprotein, pyruvate and uric acid. This metabonomics approach may provide effective way to evaluate the valproate sodium-induced toxicity in a manner that can complement current measures. This approach is expected to find broader application in other drug-induced toxicity assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata = Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata

    Francine Perri Venturini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas denim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado(DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimatethe acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  3. Rare earth sulfates

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  4. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  5. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  6. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    ... are allergic to ferrous sulfate, any other medications tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  7. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  8. DHEA-sulfate test

    ... DHEA sulfate may be due to: Adrenal gland disorders that produce lower than normal amounts of adrenal hormones, including adrenal insufficiency and Addison disease The pituitary gland not producing normal amounts of its hormones ( hypopituitarism ) ...

  9. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  10. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H 2 35 SO 4 ) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  11. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  12. Radioimmunoassay of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

    Vieira, J.G.H.; Furlanetto, R.P.; Russo, E.M.K.; Noguti, K.O.; Chacra, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a radioimmunological method for the measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in serum is described. For the immunization of rabbits, a DHA-3-hemissuccinate-bovine serum albumin conjugate was synthetized and a highly specific anti-serum was produced. The method developed requires only simple dilution prior to assay and the normal values for the different age groups were determined in 146 normal individuals. (Author) [pt

  13. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  14. Uso do sulfato de magnésio por via venosa e nebulização para o tratamento da asma aguda na emergência Use of the intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate for the treatment of the acute asthma in the emergence

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Tem sido mostrado que o sulfato de magnésio apresenta benefícios em adultos e crianças asmáticos, com fraca resposta aos agentes beta-agonistas e corticóides sistêmicos no departamento de emergência. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão não sistemática acerca do tratamento da asma aguda com sulfato de magnésio por via venosa e nebulização na emergência. CONTEÚDO: As primeiras investigações que demonstraram benefício no uso do sulfato de magnésio na asma são de 1938. Os efeitos do sulfato de magnésio podem ser mediados através da ação antagonista do cálcio ou através da função de co-fator em sistemas enzimáticos envolvendo o fluxo iônico através da membrana celular. Foi realizada uma revisão de literatura através da base de dados MedLine nos últimos seis anos (2000 a 2006 e incluídos os artigos publicados na língua inglesa, através do cruzamento dos unitermos asma e sulfato de magnésio. CONCLUSÕES: A administração de rotina do sulfato de magnésio por via venosa e nebulização em pacientes com asma aguda grave que se apresentam no serviço de emergência não é recomendado; entretanto, como um tratamento adjuvante obtém-se algum benefício.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Magnesium sulfate has been shown to benefit asthmatic children and adults with poor responses to initial beta-agonist therapy and systemic corticoids in the emergency department. The aim of this study was to realize a no systematic review about the treatment of the acute asthma with intravenous and nebulized magnesium sulfate in the emergence. CONTENTS: The first investigations that demonstrate the benefit in the use of the magnesium sulfate in asthma date to 1938. The effects of magnesium sulfate may be mediated through its action as a calcium antagonist or through its function as a cofactor in enzyme systems involving ion flux across cell membranes. We realized a literature review using Med

  15. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Wang Aijie; Ren Nanqi; Wang Xu; Lee Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO 4 2- ) ratios. At a critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  16. Syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.

    2016-01-01

    discuss how, in partial catabolic processes, new roles for HSPGs emerge that affect cell behavior. Examples from tumor studies are emphasized, since HSPGs may be altered in composition and distribution and may also represent targets for the development of new therapeutics....... signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we...

  17. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  18. Studies on bile acid and bilirubin in liver diseases Part 2. Clinical significance of serum bilirubin sulfate in various liver diseases

    石川, 泰祐

    1980-01-01

    The clinical significance of serum bilirubin sulfate, one of the direct bilirubin, was evaluated in various liver diseases with over 2 mg/dl of serum bilirubin concentration. The diagnosis included 25 cases of acute hepatitis, 8 cases of chronic hepatitis, 8 cases of liver cirrhosis and 16 cases of liver cirrhosis with hepatoma. Bilirubin sulfate was fractioned by Yonei's solvent partition method. The clinical significance of bilirubin sulfate was assessed by comparison of bilirubin sulfate w...

  19. Morpholine-4-carboxamidinium sulfate

    Ioannis Tiritiris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, 2C5H12N3O+·SO42−, comprises two cations and one sulfate ion. In both cations, the C, N and O atoms of the morpholine rings are disordered over two sets of sites, with refined occupancies of 0.849 (3:0.151 (3 for cation I and 0.684 (4:0.316 (4 for cation II. The C—N bond lengths in both central C3N units of the carboxamidinium ions range between 1.253 (12 and 1.362 (5 Å, indicating a degree of double-bond character. The central C atoms are bonded to the three N atoms in a nearly ideal trigonal–planar geometry and the positive charges are delocalized in both CN3 planes. The crystal structure is stabilized by a three-dimensional network of N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and the sulfate ion. Scheme tiny font, charges and delocalized bonds almost invisible

  20. INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS OF CHONDROITIN SULFATE

    Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1962-01-01

    In autoradiograms of slices of costal cartilage, incubated for 4 hours in a salt solution containing S35-sulfate and then washed extensively and dehydrated, about 85 per cent of the radioactivity was assignable to the chondrocytes. From alkaline extracts of similarly prepared slices of cartilage, 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 in the slices was isolated as chondroitin sulfate by chromatography on an anion-exchange resin. In view of the estimate that only about 15 per cent of the radioactivity was in the matrix, the isolation of 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 as chondroitin sulfate is a strong argument that the chondrocytes are the loci in which chondroitin sulfate(s) is synthesized. PMID:13888910

  1. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  3. Protective effects of ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea L on dextran sulphate sodium-induced mice ulcerative colitis involving anti-inflammatory and antioxidant

    Yang, Xiaohang; Yan, Yongmei; Li, Jiankang; Tang, Zhishu; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Huan; Hao, Siyang; Wen, Aidong; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., (POL) is one of commonly used medicine-food herbs and has a cosmopolitan distribution in many countries. Many studies showed that POL exhibited a wide range of pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory and liver complaints. In the clinical studies, POL was usually used for the treatment of UC disease and the clinical efficacy was well, but the mechanism and scientific intension was still unknown. In the present study, we studied the protective effects of the ethanol extract from POL on dextran sulphate sodium-induced UC in C57BL/6 mice model through oxidative stress and inflammatory pathway. The results demonstrated that the ethanol extract from POL could exhibit the effective protection for the DSS induced UC by increasing the colon length, decreasing body weight loss and the disease activity index score, inhibiting oxidative stress response through the MDA, NO, SOD activities, reducing the mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and the protein expressions of TNF-α and NF-kB p65. These results may prove that POL could be considered as a useful and effective botanical compound from the edible plant to be used in UC through the oxidative stress and inflammatory activities. PMID:27347321

  4. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3615 Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3615

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimate the acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  5. Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate sulfatases from mammals and bacteria.

    Wang, Shumin; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Sulfatases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the sulfate groups on chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) poly- and oligosaccharides belong to the formylglycine-dependent family of sulfatases and have been widely found in various mammalian and bacterial organisms. However, only a few types of CS/DS sulfatase have been identified so far. Recently, several novel CS/DS sulfatases have been cloned and characterized. Advanced studies have provided significant insight into the biological function and mechanism of action of CS/DS sulfatases. Moreover, further studies will provide powerful tools for structural and functional studies of CS/DS as well as related applications. This article reviews the recent progress in CS/DS sulfatase research and is expected to initiate further research in this field.

  6. Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A

    Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAco...

  7. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  8. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Oequist, M.

    1996-12-31

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  9. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  11. Sulfate Transporters in Dissimilatory Sulfate Reducing Microorganisms: A Comparative Genomics Analysis

    Angeliki Marietou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes. We surveyed the complete genomes of 44 sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea across six phyla and identified putative sulfate transporter encoding genes from four out of the five surveyed protein families based on homology. We did not find evidence that ABC-type transporters (SulT are involved in the uptake of sulfate in SRM. We speculate that members of the CysP sulfate transporters could play a key role in the uptake of sulfate in thermophilic SRM. Putative CysZ-type sulfate transporters were present in all genomes examined suggesting that this overlooked group of sulfate transporters might play a role in sulfate transport in dissimilatory sulfate reducers alongside SulP. Our in silico analysis highlights several targets for further molecular studies in order to understand this key step in the metabolism of SRMs.

  12. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  14. Periodate Oxidation for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, with Special Reference to the Position of Extra Sulfate Groups in Chondroitin Polysulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate D and Chondroitin Sulfate K

    Seno, Nobuko; Murakami, Keiko; Shibusawa, Haru

    1981-01-01

    The optimum conditions for periodate oxidation of sulfated disaccharides were investigated to determine the position of extra sulfate groups on the saturated disulfated disaccharides obtained from chondroitin polysulfates, chondroitin sulfates D and K. Under the conditions: 2mM saturated disulfated disaccharide with 20mM sodium periodate at 37°in the dark, the uronic acid residue in the disulfated disaccharide from chondroitin sulfate D was rapidly and completely destroyed, whereas that in th...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  18. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE (A LAXATIVE) ON ...

    use with little success . Magnesium sulfate also known as Epsom salt or bitter salt is a hydrate salt with a chemical name of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . Chemical formula is MgSO. 7HO and trade name is. Andrews liver salt. Dried magnesium sulfate is an osmotic laxative or a saline laxative that acts by increasing the.

  19. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  4. Neurobehavioral toxicity of cadmium sulfate to the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

    Grebe, E.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The authors are developing bioassays which use planarians (free-living platyhelminthes) for the rapid determination of various types of toxicity, including acute mortality, tumorigenicity, and short-term neurobehavioral responses. Their motivation for using these animals is due to their importance as components of the aquatic ecology of unpolluted streams their sensitivity to low concentrations of environmental toxicants and the presence of a sensitive neurological system with a true brain which allows for complex social behavior. A previous paper described the results of a neurobehavioral bioassay using phenol in a crossover study. This paper reports a similar crossover study using cadmium sulfate.

  5. Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

    2013-08-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes.

  6. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  7. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B.; Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P.

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, [ 3 H]glucosamine/[ 35 S]sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain

  8. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  9. Impacts of Four SO2 Oxidation Pathways on Wintertime Sulfate Concentrations

    Sarwar, G.; Fahey, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kang, D.; Mathur, R.; Xing, J.; Wei, C.; Cheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Air quality models tend to under-estimate winter-time sulfate concentrations compared to observed data. Such under-estimations are particularly acute in China where very high concentrations of sulfate have been measured. Sulfate is produced by oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in gas-phase by hydroxyl radical and in aqueous-phase by hydrogen peroxide, ozone, etc. and most air quality models employ such typical reactions. Several additional SO2 oxidation pathways have recently been proposed. Heterogeneous reaction on dust has been suggested to be an important sink for SO2. Oxidation of SO2 on fine particles in presence of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3) at high relative humidity has been implicated for sulfate formation in Chinese haze and London fog. Reactive nitrogen chemistry in aerosol water has also been suggested to produce winter-time sulfate in China. Specifically, high aerosol water can trap SO2 which can be subsequently oxidized by NO2 to form sulfate. Aqueous-phase (in-cloud) oxidation of SO2 by NO2 can also produce sulfate. Here, we use the hemispheric Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the potential impacts of these SO2 oxidation pathways on sulfate formation. We use anthropogenic emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research and biogenic emissions from Global Emissions InitiAtive. We performed simulations without and with these SO2 oxidation pathways for October-December of 2014 using meteorological fields obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The standard CMAQ model contains one gas-phase chemical reaction and five aqueous-phase chemical reactions for SO2 oxidation. We implement four additional SO2 oxidation pathways into the CMAQ model. Our preliminary results suggest that the dust chemistry enhances mean sulfate over parts of China and Middle-East, the in-cloud SO2 oxidation by NO2 enhances sulfate over parts of western Europe, oxidation of SO2 by NO2 and NH3 on

  10. Bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Shklyar, T F; Anoshina, G M; Blokhin, V Ye; Kisarrev, Ye L; Novikovsa, G M

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the invention is to find a bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria of oil fields in Western Siberia in order to suppress the biocorrosive activity on oil industry equipment. This goal is achieved by using M-nitroacetanylide as the bactericide of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This agent suppresses the activity of a stored culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria that comes from industrial waste waters injection wells of the Smotlor oil field.

  11. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  12. Discovery of a Heparan sulfate 3- o -sulfation specific peeling reaction

    Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088245489; Zaia, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation determines the binding specificity of HS/heparin for antithrombin III and plays a key role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, the low natural abundance of HS 3-O-sulfation poses a serious challenge for functional studies other than the two cases

  13. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely... specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2...

  14. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling.

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates.

  15. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  16. Anti-irritants I: Dose-response in acute irritation

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    acute irritation in healthy volunteers. Each AI was used in 3 concentrations. Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate and 20% nonanoic acid in N-propanol. The irritant reactions were treated twice daily with AI-containing formulations from the time of removal...

  17. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  18. Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms

    Garcia-Cruz, Ulises [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico); Celis, Lourdes B. [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a. Seccion, 78216 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Poggi, Hector [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 D.F. (Mexico); Meraz, Monica, E-mail: meraz@xanum.uam.mx [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC{sub 50} values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC{sub 50} values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8).

  19. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with primary amine

    Mrnka, M.; Bizek, V.; Nekovar, P.; Cizevska, S.; Schroetterova, D.

    1984-01-01

    PRIMENE JM-T was used for extraction. Its composition was found to approach the general formula C 21 H 43 NH 2 . It was found that the extraction of uranyl sulfate is lower in case of a higher steady-state concentration of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. Extraction is accompanied with coextraction of water. The results obtained showed that uranyl sulfate passes into the organic phase by two mechanisms: extraction with amine sulfate and extraction with free amine. A mathematical description of the process was made based on the obtained results. (E.S.)

  20. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing [ 3 H]glucosamine, [ 35 S]sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but [ 3 H]glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation

  1. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    NiSO 4 .6H 2 O, M r =262.85; data collections with Mo Kα radiation, λ=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, β=98.38(2) 0 , V=1704.7(6) A 3 , Z=8, D x =2.05 g cm -3 , μ=25.54 cm -1 , F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4 1 2 1 2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A 3 , Z=4, D x =2.07 g cm -3 , μ=25.81 cm -1 , F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO 4 .6D 2 O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO 4 .6H 2 O. Both structures contain isolated [Ni(H 2 O 6 ] octahedra and [SO 4 ] tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding. (orig.)

  2. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  3. Lymphocyte mobilization by dextran sulfate in beagles

    Ragan, H.A.; Debban, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Dogs manifesting 239 Pu-induced lymphopenia responded to the lymphocyte-mobilizing agent, dextran sulfate, to a degree similar to that observed in control dogs. No life-threatening increase in prothrombin times or hemorrhagic tendencies were observed

  4. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  5. COMBINED ALUMINIUM SULFATE/HYDROXIDE PROCESS FOR ...

    sulfate, and used for fluoride removal from water by combining with Nalgonda Technique. ... effects on human health and could result in fluorosis. ... [23], nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH) [24] and natural zeolite [25], were among.

  6. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  7. Effect of metakaolin on external sulfate attack

    Ramlochan, T.; Thomas, M. [Toronto Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of high reactivity metakaolin (HRM) on the sulfate resistance of mortars was studied. Mortar bars with three cements of varying C{sub 3}A content were used for the experiment. After a six month exposure to a 5 per cent solution of sodium sulfate, mortar bars incorporating any level of HRM as a partial replacement for a high-C{sub 3}A was considered 'moderately sulfate resistant'; mortar bars with HRM and a moderate or low C{sub 3}A content as 'high sulfate resistant'. It was also determined that for long term sulfate resistance 15 per cent HRM or more may be required, depending on the C{sub 3}A content. The performance of HRM was found to be significantly influenced by the water-cementitious material ratio, and in turn, by permeability, suggesting that HRM might increase sulfate resistance more by lowering the permeability of the concrete than by any chemical action. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. Polymorphism of nickel sulfate hexahydrate

    Angel, R.J.; Finger, L.W.

    1988-11-15

    NiSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O, M/sub r/=262.85; data collections with Mo K..cap alpha.. radiation, lambda=0.7093 A, room temperature. Monoclinic polymorph: C2/c, a=9.880(3), b=7.228(2), c=24.130(3) A, ..beta..=98.38(2)/sup 0/, V=1704.7(6) A/sup 3/, Z=8, D/sub x/=2.05 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.54 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=1088, R=0.031 (wR=0.038) for 2176 observed reflections. Tetragonal polymorph: P4/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, a=6.780 (1), c=18.285 (2) A, V=840.5 (3) A/sup 3/, Z=4, D/sub x/=2.07 g cm/sup -3/, ..mu..=25.81 cm/sup -1/, F(000)=544, R=0.045 (wR=0.050) for 2102 observed reflections. The structure of the tetragonal polymorph originally determined (without H positions) by Beevers and Lipson and refined by O'Connor and Dale and Stadnicka, Glazer and Koralewski, is confirmed by refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The structure of the monoclinic polymorph is confirmed as being isostructural with NiSO/sub 4/.6D/sub 2/O, and a number of other hexahydrate sulfates, e.g. MgSO/sub 4/.6H/sub 2/O. Both structures contain isolated (Ni(H/sub 2/O/sub 6/) octahedra and (SO/sub 4/) tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding.

  9. The Effect of Magnesium Sulfate on Renal Colic Pain Relief; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Abolfazl Jokar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Renal colic can be managed by preventing the contraction movements of ureter muscles. By reducing acetylcholine in the nerve terminals, magnesium sulfate could be effective in this regard. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate on acute renal colic pain relief. Method: The present study was a double-blind clinical trial in which the patients suffering from acute renal colic were randomly divided into 2 groups of who either received standard protocol (intravenous infusion of 0.1 mg/Kg morphine sulfate, 30 mg of Ketorolac, and 100 ml normal saline as placebo/15 minutes or standard protocol plus 15 mg/Kg of intravenous magnesium sulfate 50%/100 ml normal saline/15 minutes. Severity of patients’ pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS at baseline, and 30 and 60 minutes after infusion. The collected data were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Results: 100 cases were randomly allocated to intervention or control group. The two groups were similar in baseline pain score and demographic characteristics. At 30 and 60 minutes, mean pain score was less in the intervention group compared to the control group. Moreover, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant regarding the additional amount of morphine, suggesting that the intervention group needed less additional morphine than the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that Magnesium sulfate can be used as an adjunct drug in treatment of patients suffering from renal colic. It not only alleviates the pain in the patients, but also diminishes the need for pain medications.

  10. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  11. Sulfation of corrosive alkali chlorides by ammonium sulfate in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    Brostroem, Markus; Backman, Rainer; Nordin, Anders [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Kassman, Haakan [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, SE-611 29 Nykoeping (Sweden); Helgesson, Anna; Berg, Magnus; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    Biomass and waste derived fuels contain relatively high amounts of alkali and chlorine, but contain very little sulfur. Combustion of such fuels can result in increased deposit formation and superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced by using a sulfur containing additive, such as ammonium sulfate, which reacts with the alkali chlorides and forms less corrosive sulfates. Ammonium sulfate injection together with a so-called in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) is patented and known as ''ChlorOut''. IACM measures the concentrations of alkali chlorides (mainly KCl in biomass combustion) at superheater temperatures. Tests with and without spraying ammonium sulfate into the flue gases have been performed in a 96MW{sub th}/25MW{sub e} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The boiler was fired mainly with bark and a chlorine containing waste. KCl concentration was reduced from more than 15 ppm to approximately 2 ppm during injection of ammonium sulfate. Corrosion probe measurements indicated that both deposit formation and material loss due to corrosion were decreased using the additive. Analysis of the deposits showed significantly higher concentration of sulfur and almost no chlorine in the case with ammonium sulfate. Results from impactor measurements supported that KCl was sulfated to potassium sulfate by the additive. (author)

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  13. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  14. The electrical and thermal properties of sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide was prepared. The thermal and electrical properties of its phases were investigated. The Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 SiO 2 samples are similar to the Na 2 SO 4 -I phase (a high temperature phase), which is appreciably effective for Na + ionic conduction. Phase transformation was considerably suppressed by mixing. Electromotive force (EMF) was measured, using Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 -SiO 2 as a solid electrolyte, by constructing an SO 2 gas concentration cell. The measured EMF's at 823 and 773 K were in fairly good accordance with the calculated EMF's for inlet SO 2 gas concentration between 30 ppm and 1%, and 500 ppm and 0.5% respectively

  15. Heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycan of the cell surface and basement membrane of mouse mammary epithelial cells

    David, G.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate represents approximately 15% of the 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycans carried by the proteoglycans of the cell surface and of the basolateral secretions of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture. Evidence is provided that these chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans are hybrid proteoglycans, carrying both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. Complete N-desulfation but limited O-desulfation, by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide, of the proteoglycans decreased the anionic charge of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans to a greater extent than it decreased the charge of their constituent chondroitin sulfate chains. Partial depolymerization of the heparan sulfate residues of the proteoglycans with nitrous acid or with heparin lyase also reduced the effective molecular radius of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans. The effect of heparin lyase on the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans was prevented by treating the proteoglycan fractions with dimethyl sulfoxide, while the effect of nitrous acid on the dimethyl sulfoxide-treated proteoglycans was prevented by acetylation. This occurrence of heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycans suggests that the substitution of core proteins by heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains may not solely be determined by the specific routing of these proteins through distinct chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate synthesizing mechanisms. Moreover, regional and temporal changes in pericellular glycosaminoglycan compositions might be due to variable postsynthetic modification of a single gene product

  16. Co-existence of Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction with Common Substrates in Sulfate-Rich Estuarine Sediments

    Michal Sela-Adler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition between sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens over common substrates has been proposed as a critical control for methane production. In this study, we examined the co-existence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction with shared substrates over a large range of sulfate concentrations and rates of sulfate reduction in estuarine systems, where these processes are the key terminal sink for organic carbon. Incubation experiments were carried out with sediment samples from the sulfate-methane transition zone of the Yarqon (Israel estuary with different substrates and inhibitors along a sulfate concentrations gradient from 1 to 10 mM. The results show that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction can co-exist while the microbes share substrates over the tested range of sulfate concentrations and at sulfate reduction rates up to 680 μmol L-1 day-1. Rates of methanogenesis were two orders of magnitude lower than rates of sulfate reduction in incubations with acetate and lactate, suggesting a higher affinity of sulfate reducing bacteria for the available substrates. The co-existence of both processes was also confirmed by the isotopic signatures of δ34S in the residual sulfate and that of δ13C of methane and dissolved inorganic carbon. Copy numbers of dsrA and mcrA genes supported the dominance of sulfate reduction over methanogenesis, while showing also the ability of methanogens to grow under high sulfate concentration and in the presence of active sulfate reduction.

  17. Sulfation in lead-acid batteries

    Catherino, Henry A.; Feres, Fred F.; Trinidad, Francisco

    Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead-acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead-acid batteries is the word, sulfation. Sulfation is a residual term that came into existence during the early days of lead-acid battery development. The usage is part of the legend that persists as a means for interpreting and justifying the eventual performance deterioration and failure of lead-acid batteries. The usage of this term is confined to the greater user community and, over time, has encouraged a myriad of remedies for solving sulfation problems. One can avoid the connotations associated with the all-inclusive word, sulfation by visualizing the general "sulfation" effect in terms of specific mechanistic models. Also, the mechanistic models are essential for properly understanding the operation and making proper use this battery system. It is evident that the better the model, the better the level of understanding.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  19. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis

    Hye Sun Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We enrolled 20 pediatric patients undergoing chronic dialysis; 16 patients completed the study. The patients underwent a 12-week regimen of VSL#3, a high-concentration probiotic preparation, and the serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate were measured before treatment and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the regimen by using fluorescence liquid chromatography. To assess the normal range of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate we enrolled the 16 children with normal glomerular filtration rate who had visited an outpatient clinic for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria that had been detected by a school screening in August 2011. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The baseline serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate in the patients on chronic dialysis were significantly higher than those in the children with microscopic hematuria. The baseline serum levels of p- cresyl sulfate in the peritoneal dialysis group were significantly higher than those in the hemodialysis group. There were no significant changes in the levels of these uremic solutes after 12-week VSL#3 treatment in the patients on chronic dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The levels of the uremic toxins p- cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are highly elevated in pediatric patients on dialysis, but there was no significant effect by

  20. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)

    2017-06-19

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  1. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  2. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Kerminen, V M; Hillamo, R; Maekinen, M; Virkkula, A; Maekelae, T; Pakkanen, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  3. Inhibition of sulfate reduction in paddy soils

    Vamos, R

    1958-12-13

    The hydrogen sulfide formed in waterlogged soils is a serious problem in rice cultivation. It inhibits the uptake of water and nutrients and may even cause root-rot. Results can best be obtained by preventing the formation of hydrogen sulfide. It is formed mainly by reduction of sulfate for which the cellulose-butyric acid fermentation provides the hydrogen source. Addition of ammonium or potassium nitrate prevents the formation of H/sub 2/S. The hydrogen produced by butyric acid fermentation is used to reduce nitrate and consequently cannot be utilized by the sulfate-reducing bacteria as a source of energy. 6 references.

  4. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  7. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960); Activation biologique du sulfate et son transfert (1960)

    Chapeville, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author) [French] On examine dans cette etude les stades successifs de la mise en evidence du sulfate actif, son role dans la formation des esters sulfuriques de natures diverses, ainsi que sa participation eventuelle comme intermediaire au cours de la reduction du sulfate. On decrit aussi un procede de preparation du systeme biologique, generateur du sulfate actif et une methode de synthese chimique. (auteur)

  8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    Four strains of eri, Samia cynthia ricini Lepidoptera: Saturniidae that can be identified morphologically and maintained at North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat were characterized based on their protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA by random ...

  9. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    Federgrun, L.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF - 4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF - 4 -MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF 4 . To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th 4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed [pt

  10. Sulfate reducing potential in an estuarine beach

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and their activity (SRA) together with total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial flora were estimated during July 1982-April 1983 and July-August 1984 from 1, 3 and 5 cm depths using core samples. The average number (no...

  11. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  12. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ...

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  13. Controlling sulfate attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation structures.

    2010-08-01

    At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with specif...

  14. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    LI, LIANG; Zhang, Jianqin; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property

  15. Controlling sulfate attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation structures

    2010-08-01

    At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with sp...

  16. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I

  17. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-β-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-β-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-[1- 3 H]galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides. (Auth.)

  18. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-..beta..-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-..beta..-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-(1-/sup 3/H)galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides.

  19. Investigation of in vivo toxicity of hydroxylamine sulfate and the efficiency of intoxication treatment by α-tocopherol acetate and methylene blue.

    Prodanchuk, Mykola G; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Prodanchuk, Georgiy M; Tsakalof, Andreas K

    2013-11-01

    Investigation of hydroxylamine sulfate toxicity mechanism in vivo and estimation of α-tocopherol acetate and methylene blue efficiency in poisoning treatments. In vivo experiments were conducted on 102 Wistar Han rats. The experiments investigated the hematotoxic and oxidative stress effects of hydroxylamine sulfate in acute and subacute toxicity treatment of animals. Electron Spin Resonance was used for quantitative determination of blood and liver tissue parameters alterations after intoxication. The osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, lipid peroxidation intensity and level of SH-groups in liver of rats were determined by established biochemical assays. Hydroxylamine sulfate cause an acute hematotoxicity and oxidative stress in vivo as demonstrated by the appearance of free oxidized iron in blood, reduced glutathione content and increased lipid peroxidation in liver. The experimental studies showed the formation of Hb-NO, MetHb in erythrocytes and as well of stable complex of reduced iron (Fe(2+)) with hydroxylamine sulfate. Methylene blue treatment does not reduce the Hb-NO or MetHb levels in intoxicated animals while administration of α-tocopherol acetate reduces substantially lipid peroxidation. Oxidative stress is a key mechanism of acute hematotoxicity caused by hydroxylamine sulfate. Methylene blue is not suitable antidote in case of hydroxylamine intoxication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation of a sulfate reducing bacterium and its application in sulfate ...

    The results show that the effect of C. freundii in removing sulfate was best when the temperature was 32°C, pH was 7.0, COD/SO42- was 5.0 and the initial SO42- concentration was 1500 mg/L. Also, the SRB was inoculated onto an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) to remove sulfate in actual tannery wastewater.

  1. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate for removal of water from pesticide extracts of foods.

    Schenck, Frank J; Callery, Patrick; Gannett, Peter M; Daft, Jonathan R; Lehotay, Steven J

    2002-01-01

    Water-miscible solvents, such as acetone and acetonitrile, effectively extract both polar and nonpolar pesticide residues from nonfatty foods. The addition of sodium chloride to the resulting acetonitrile-water or acetone-water extract (salting out) results in the separation of the water from the organic solvent. However, the organic solvent layer (pesticide extract) still contains some residual water, which can adversely affect separation procedures that follow, such as solid-phase extraction and/or gas chromatography. Drying agents, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, are used to remove the water from the organic extracts. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the composition of the phases resulting from salting out and to compare the effectiveness of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate as drying agents. The study showed that considerable amounts of water remained in the organic phase after phase separation. Sodium sulfate was a relatively ineffective drying agent, removing little or no residual water from the organic solvent. Magnesium sulfate proved to be a much more effective drying agent.

  2. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  3. Constraining Δ33S signatures of Archean seawater sulfate with carbonate-associated sulfate

    Peng, Y.; Bao, H.; Bekker, A.; Hofmann, A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-mass dependent sulfur isotope deviation of S-bearing phases in Archean sedimentary strata, and expressed as Δ33S, has a consistent pattern, i.e., sulfide (pyrite) predominantly bear positive Δ33S values, while Paleoarchean sulfate (barite) has negative Δ33S values. This pattern was later corroborated by observations of negative Δ33S values in Archean volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and negative Δ33S values in early diagenetic nodular pyrite with a wide range of δ34S values, which is thought to be due to microbial sulfate reduction. These signatures have provided a set of initial conditions for a mechanistic interpretation at physical chemistry level. Unlike the younger geological times when large bodies of seawater evaporite deposits are common, to expand seawater sulfate records, carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) was utilized as a proxy for ancient seawater sulfate. CAS extracted from the Archean carbonates carries positive Δ33S values. However, CAS could be derived from pyrite oxidation following exposure to modern oxidizing conditions and/or during laboratory extraction procedures. It is, therefore, important for us understanding context of the overall early earth atmospheric condition to empirically confirm whether Archean seawater sulfate was generally characterized by negative Δ33S signatures. Combined δ18O, Δ17O, δ34S, and Δ33S analyses of sequentially extracted water-leachable sulfate (WLS) and acid-leachable sulfate (ALS = CAS) and δ34S and Δ33S analyses of pyrite can help to identify the source of extracted sulfate. We studied drill-core samples of Archean carbonates from the 2.55 Ga Malmani and Campell Rand supgroups, South Africa. Our preliminary results show that 1) neither WLS nor ALS were extracted from samples with extremely low pyrite contents (less than 0.05 wt.%); 2) extractable WLS and ALS is present in samples with relatively high pyrite contents (more than 1 wt.%), and that δ34S and Δ33S values of WLS, ALS, and

  4. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...... was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close to the surface of the mat late in the day when photosynthetic oxygen production ceased and were associated with a Thermodesulfovibrio-like population. Reduced activity at greater depths...... was correlated with novel populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, unrelated to characterized species, and most likely due to both sulfate and carbon limitation....

  5. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  6. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects

  7. Acute nephritic syndrome

    Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes in children ...

  8. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  9. DEPENDENCY OF SULFATE SOLUBILITY ON MELT COMPOSITION AND MELT POLYMERIZATION

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.

    2004-01-01

    Sulfate and sulfate salts are not very soluble in borosilicate waste glass. When sulfate is present in excess it can form water soluble secondary phases and/or a molten salt layer (gall) on the melt pool surface which is purported to cause steam explosions in slurry fed melters. Therefore, sulfate can impact glass durability while formation of a molten salt layer on the melt pool can impact processing. Sulfate solubility has been shown to be compositionally dependent in various studies, (e.g. , B2O3, Li2O, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Fe2O3 were shown to increase sulfate solubility while Al2O3 and SiO2 decreased sulfate solubility). This compositional dependency is shown to be related to the calculated melt viscosity at various temperatures and hence the melt polymerization

  10. Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth

    Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. PMID:18768934

  11. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  12. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  13. Biosynthesis and function of chondroitin sulfate.

    Mikami, Tadahisa; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are principal pericellular and extracellular components that form regulatory milieu involving numerous biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Diverse functions of CSPGs can be mainly attributed to structural variability of their polysaccharide moieties, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG). Comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for CS biosynthesis and its catabolic processes is required in order to understand those functions. Here, we focus on recent advances in the study of enzymatic regulatory pathways for CS biosynthesis including successive modification/degradation, distinct CS functions, and disease phenotypes that have been revealed by perturbation of the respective enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Fine-tuned machineries for CS production/degradation are crucial for the functional expression of CS chains in developmental and pathophysiological processes. Control of enzymes responsible for CS biosynthesis/catabolism is a potential target for therapeutic intervention for the CS-associated disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates

    Rao, K.S.; Thomson, I.; Egan, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) Design Project, a regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates has been developed. This quasi-Lagrangian three-dimensional grid numerical model uses a detailed SO 2 emission inventory of major anthropogenic sources in the Eastern U.S. region, and observed meteorological data during an episode as inputs. The model accounts for advective transport and turbulent diffusion of the pollutants. The chemical transformation of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ and the deposition of the species at the earth's surface are assumed to be linear processes at specified constant rates. The numerical model can predict the daily average concentrations of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ at all receptor locations in the grid region during the episode. Because of the spatial resolution of the grid, this model is particularly suited to investigate the effect of tall stacks in reducing the ambient concentration levels of sulfur pollutants. This paper presents the formulations and assumptions of the regional sulfate transport model. The model inputs and results are discussed. Isopleths of predicted SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are compared with the observed ground level values. The bulk of the information in this paper is directed to air pollution meteorologists and environmental engineers interested in the atmospheric transport modeling studies of sulfur oxide pollutants

  15. Sulfation and cation effects on the conformational properties of the glycan backbone of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides.

    Faller, Christina E; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-05-21

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic "backbone" has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high-resolution, high-precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All 10 disaccharides (β1-3 vs β1-4 linkage × five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum, whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA -COO(-) moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to -COO(-) can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to -COO(-) results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing information

  16. Purification and sequence characterization of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate from fishes.

    Lin, Na; Mo, Xiaoli; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) were extracted and purified from skins or bones of salmon (Salmo salar), snakehead (Channa argus), monkfish (Lophius litulon) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Size, structural sequences and sulfate groups of oligosaccharides in the purified CS and DS could be characterized and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. CS and DS chain structure varies depending on origin, but motif structure appears consistent. Structures of CS and DS oligosaccharides with different size and sulfate groups were compared between fishes and other animals, and results showed that some minor differences of special structures could be identified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-liquid chromatography-fourier transform-mass/mass spectrometry (HILIC-LC-FT-MS/MS). For example, data showed that salmon and skipjack CS had a higher percentage content of high-level sulfated oligosaccharides than that porcine CS. In addition, structural information of different origins of CS and DS was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and results showed that CS and DS samples could be differentiated according to their molecular conformation and oligosaccharide fragments information. Understanding CS and DS structure derived from different origins may lead to the production of CS or DS with unique disaccharides or oligosaccharides sequence composition and biological functions.

  17. Dextran Sulfate Sodium Inhibits Alanine Synthesis in Caco-2 Cells

    Carolyn M. Slupsky

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand and characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS has been used to induce acute and chronic colitis in animal models by causing intestinal epithelium damage. The mechanism of action of DSS in producing this outcome is not well understood. In an effort to understand how DSS might impact epithelial cell metabolism, we studied the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 incubated with 1% DSS over 56 hours using 1H NMR spectroscopy. We observed no difference in cell viability as compared to control cultures, and an approximately 1.5-fold increase in IL-6 production upon incubation with 1% DSS. The effect on Caco-2 cell metabolism as measured through changes in the concentration of metabolites in the cell supernatant included a three-fold decrease in the concentration of alanine. Given that the concentrations of other amino acids in the cell culture supernatant were not different between treated and control cultures over 56 hours suggest that DSS inhibits alanine synthesis, specifically alanine aminotransferase, without affecting other key metabolic pathways. The importance of alanine aminotransferase in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed.

  18. Heritability and clinical determinants of serum indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, candidate biomarkers of the human microbiome enterotype.

    Liesbeth Viaene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study. RESULTS: Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4-4.3 and 13.0 (7.4-21.5 μM, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2 = 0.17 and p-cresyl sulfate (h2 = 0.18 concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. LIMITATIONS: Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites.

  19. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis.

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Dupont, Sam T; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2017-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A. filiformis arm regeneration. Analysis of CS/DS chains during the regeneration process revealed an increase in the proportion of the tri-O-sulfated disaccharides. Conversely, treatment of A. filiformis with sodium chlorate, a potent inhibitor of sulfation reactions in GAG biosynthesis, resulted in a significant reduction in arm growth rates with total inhibition at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Differentiation was less impacted by sodium chlorate exposure or even slightly increased at 1-2 mM. Based on the structural changes observed during arm regeneration we identified chondroitin synthase, chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 and dermatan-4-O-sulfotransferase as candidate genes and sought to correlate their expression with the expression of the A. filiformis orthologue of bone morphogenetic factors, AfBMP2/4. Quantitative amplification by real-time PCR indicated increased expression of chondroitin synthase and chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2, with a corresponding increase in AfBMP2/4 during regeneration relative to nonregenerating controls. Our findings suggest that proper sulfation of GAGs is important for A. filiformis arm regeneration and that these molecules may participate in mechanisms controlling cell proliferation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. On the roles and regulation of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage morphogenesis

    Holmborn, Katarina; Habicher, Judith; Kasza, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the roles of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in the development of zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage structures. uxs1 and b3gat3 mutants, predicted to have impaired biosynthesis of both HS and CS because of defective formation...... levels of CS than control larvae, whereas morpholino-mediated suppression of csgalnact1/csgalnact2 resulted in increased HS biosynthesis. Thus, the balance of the Extl3 and Csgalnact1/Csgalnact2 proteins influences the HS/CS ratio. A characterization of the pharyngeal cartilage element morphologies...

  2. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with [3H]glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of [3H]chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics

  3. Global source attribution of sulfate aerosol and its radiative forcing

    Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Smith, S.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. L.; Qian, Y.; Li, C.; Yu, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is an important aerosol that poses health risks and influences climate. Due to long-range atmospheric transport, local sulfate pollution could result from intercontinental influences, making domestic efforts of improving air quality inefficient. Accurate understanding of source attribution of sulfate and its radiative forcing is important for both regional air quality improvement and global climate mitigation. In this study, for the first time, a sulfur source-tagging capability is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to quantify the global source-receptor relationships of sulfate and its direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF). Near-surface sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate is primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. The export of SO2 and sulfate from Europe contributes 20% of sulfate concentrations over North Africa, Russia and Central Asia. Sources from the Middle East account for 20% of sulfate over North Africa, Southern Africa and Central Asia in winter and autumn, and 20% over South Asia in spring. East Asia accounts for about 50% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in winter and autumn, 15% over Russia in summer, and 10% over North America in spring. South Asia contributes to 25% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in spring. Lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is found to determine regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with 75% contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and 25% contributed by natural sulfate. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes the most to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30% over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes. A 20% perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the

  4. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  5. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation

    GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid

  6. Metabolic interactions in methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bioreactors.

    Stams, A J M; Plugge, C M; de Bok, F A M; van Houten, B H G W; Lens, P; Dijkman, H; Weijma, J

    2005-01-01

    In environments where the amount of electron acceptors is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic consortia of acetogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Hydrogen consumption by methanogens is essential for acetogenic bacteria to convert organic acids to acetate and hydrogen. Several syntrophic cocultures growing on propionate and butyrate have been described. These syntrophic fatty acid-degrading consortia are affected by the presence of sulfate. When sulfate is present sulfate-reducing bacteria compete with methanogenic archaea for hydrogen and acetate, and with acetogenic bacteria for propionate and butyrate. Sulfate-reducing bacteria easily outcompete methanogens for hydrogen, but the presence of acetate as carbon source may influence the outcome of the competition. By contrast, acetoclastic methanogens can compete reasonably well with acetate-degrading sulfate reducers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria grow much faster on propionate and butyrate than syntrophic consortia.

  7. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  8. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    Ambroise, J.; Pera, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  9. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroxine sulfate

    Chopra, I.J.; Santini, F.; Hurd, R.E.; Chua Teco, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    A highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible RIA has been developed to measure T 4 sulfate (T 4 S) in ethanol extracts of serum. rT 3 sulfate (rT 3 S) cross-reacted 7.1%, and T 3 S cross-reacted 0.59% in the RIA; T 4 , T 3 , rT 3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine cross-reacted 0.004% or less. The recovery of nonradioactive T 4 S added to serum averaged 95%. The detection threshold of the RIA was 18 pmol/L. The coefficient of variation averaged 6.9% within an assay and 12% between assays. T 4 S was bound by T 4 -binding globulin and albumin in serum. The free fraction of T 4 S in four normal sera averaged 0.06% compared to a value of 0.03% for T 4 (P 4 S was (mean ± SE) 19 ± 1.2 pmol/L in normal subjects, 33 ± 10 in hyperthyroid patients with Graves disease, 42 ± 15 in hypothyroid patients, 34 ± 6.9 in patients with systematic nonthyroidal illnesses, 21 ± 4.3 in pregnant women at 15-40 weeks gestation, and 245 ± 26 in cord blood sera of newborns; the value in the newborn was significantly different from normal (P 4 S. The T 4 S content of the thyroid gland was less than 1/4000th that of T 4 . We conclude that (1) T 4 S is a normal component of human serum, and its levels are markedly increased in newborn serum and amniotic fluid; and (2) the sulfation pathway plays an important role in the metabolism of T 4 in man. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Sequence determination of synthesized chondroitin sulfate dodecasaccharides.

    Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Watanabe, Hideto; Sugiura, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear acidic polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The polysaccharide is modified with sulfate groups at different positions by a variety of sulfotransferases. CS chains exhibit various biological and pathological functions by interacting with cytokines and growth factors and regulating their signal transduction. The fine structure of the CS chain defines its specific biological roles. However, structural analysis of CS has been restricted to disaccharide analysis, hampering the understanding of the structure-function relationship of CS chains. Here, we chemo-enzymatically synthesized CS dodecasaccharides having various sulfate modifications using a bioreactor system of bacterial chondroitin polymerase mutants and various CS sulfotransferases. We developed a sequencing method for CS chains using the CS dodecasaccharides. The method consists of (i) labeling a reducing end with 2-aminopyridine (PA), (ii) partial digestion of CS with testicular hyaluronidase, followed by separation of PA-conjugated oligosaccharides with different chain lengths, (iii) limited digestion of these oligosaccharides with chondroitin lyase AC II into disaccharides, followed by labeling with 2-aminobenzamide, (iv) CS disaccharide analysis using a dual-fluorescence HPLC system (reversed-phase ion-pair and ion-exchange chromatography), and (v) estimation of the composition by calculating individual disaccharide ratios. This CS chain sequencing allows characterization of CS-modifying enzymes and provides a useful tool toward understanding the structure-function relationship of CS chains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Cerezo, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a λ-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author)

  12. TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF ATRIAL TACHYARRHYTHMIAS IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT: THE ROLEOF MAGNESIUM SULFATE

    M. MOJTAHEDZADEH

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective, randomized study, in the general intensive care unit at Shanatee teaching hospital, we evaluated twenty patients, mean age 52+18 years and mean acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score of 20±8, who were experiencing atrial tachyarrhythmias for more than 1 hour. After correction of their plasma potassium concentration to more than 4.0 mmof/1, patients were randomized to receive either 40 mg/kg magnesium sulfate bolus followed by 30 mg/kg/hr or 5mg/kg amiodarone bolus and 10 mg/kg/24hr infusion. Therapeutic end point was conversion to sinus rhythm over 24 hours. By logistic regression, the probability of conversion to sinus rhythm was significantly better for magnesium than for amiodarone at time 0-4 (0.6 vs.0.4, 12 (0.72 vs 0.45, and 24 (0.72vs.0.45 hours. In patients not converting to sinus rhythm, a significant decrease in ventricular response rate occurred at time zero to 0.5 hour (mean decrease 22 beats/min, P=0.0001, but there was no specific treatment effect between the magnesium and the amiodarone groups. Magnesium sulfate is superior to amiodarone in the conversion of acute atrial tachyarrhythmias, while initial slowing of ventricular response rate in non-converters appears equally efficacious with both agents.

  13. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  14. Purification, structural characterization and antiproliferative properties of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate from tunisian fish skins.

    Krichen, Fatma; Volpi, Nicola; Sila, Assaâd; Maccari, Francesca; Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs were extracted and purified from the skins of grey triggerfish (GTSG) and smooth hound (SHSG). The disaccharide composition produced by chondroitinase ABC treatment showed the presence of nonsulfated disaccharide, monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S, and disulfated disaccharides in different percentages. In particular, the nonsulfated disaccharide ΔDi0S of GTSG and SHSG were 3.5% and 5.5%, respectively, while monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S were evaluated to be 18.2%, 59% and 14.6%, 47.0%, respectively. Capillary elecrophoresis analysis of GTSG and SHSG contained 99.2% and 95.4% of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, respectively. PAGE analysis showed a GTSG and SHSG having molecular masses with average values of 41.72KDa and 23.8KDa, respectively. HCT116 cell proliferation was inhibited (p<0.05) by 70.6% and 72.65% at 200μg/mL of GTSG and SHSG respectively. Both GTSG and SHSG demonstrated promising antiproliferative potential, which may be used as a novel, effective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inter vs. intraglycosidic acetal linkages control sulfation pattern in semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate.

    Laezza, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

    2014-11-04

    Microbial-sourced unsulfated chondroitin could be converted into chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharide by a multi-step strategy relying upon benzylidenation and acetylation reactions as key-steps for its regioselective protection. By conducting the two reactions one- or two-pots, CSs with different sulfation patterns could be obtained at the end of the semi-synthesis. In particular, a CS polysaccharide possessing sulfate groups randomly distributed between positions 4 and 6 of N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) units could be obtained through the two-pots route, whereas the one-pot pathway allowed an additional sulfation at position 3 of some glucuronic acid (GlcA) units. This difference was ascribed to the stabilization of a labile interglycosidic benzylidene acetal involving positions O-3 and O-6 of some GlcA and GalNAc, respectively, when the benzylidene-acetylation reactions were conducted in a one-pot fashion. Isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide intermediate showing interglycosidic acetal moieties was accomplished. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sulfate Formation on Mars by Volcanic Aerosols: A New Look

    Blaney, D. L.

    1996-03-01

    Sulfur was measured at both Viking Lander sites in abundances of 5-9 wt % SO3. Because the sulfur was more concentrated in clumps which disintegrated and the general oxidized nature of the Martian soil, these measurements led to the assumption that a sulfate duricrust existed. Two types of models for sulfate formation have been proposed. One is a formation by upwardly migrating ground water. The other is the formation of sulfates by the precipitation of volcanic aerosols. Most investigators have tended to favor the ground water origin of sulfates on Mars. However, evidence assemble since Viking may point to a volcanic aerosol origin.

  17. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven [ 35 S]-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (IC 50 , ∼40 μM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation

  18. Mencegah Pembentukan Kalsium Sulfat pada Desalinasi Air Laut

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resin penukar-anion, Relite MG 1/P, dapat digunakan untuk memisahkan sulfat dalam air laut guna mencegah pembentukan kerak kalsium sulfat pada heat exchanger. Resin tersebut menunjukkan selektivitas sulfat yang tinggi dalam air laut sintetis. Resin yang telah dipakai dapat diregenerasi menggunakan air asin yang dipekatkan dengan asam hingga mencapai pH 4. Untuk waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi yang sama, faktor konsentrasi desalinasi (misalnya 2 hingga 4 menaikkan konsentrasi klorida dalam air asin yang diblowdown. Dengan faktor konsentrasi yang tetap, kenaikan laju alir (pengurangan waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi memperendah efisiensi regenerasi dan menaikkan pemisahan sulfat. Akibat kelarutan kalsium sulfat yang bersifat terbalik tersebut, temperatur air asin yang tinggi memerlukan pemisahan sulfat yang lebih banyak, yang dapat dicapai dengan mengurangi laju alir air laut. Pengurangan laju alir tersebut membutuhkan peralatan yang lebih besar dan resin yang lebih banyak, sehingga biaya modal bertambah. Untuk pabrik desalinasi dengan kapasitas produksi 1 juta gallon per hari dan faktor konsentrasi sebesar 2, biaya pemisahan sulfat meliputi biaya resin dan biaya peralatan. Biaya tersebut bervariasi dari $0.246 hingga $0.356/kgalon (per ribu galon air yang diproduksi karena temperatur maksimum air asin berubah dari 140°C menjadi 180°C. Keywords: desalinasi air laut, ion exchange, kalsium sulfat, kerak; mechanical vapor compression (MVC, pemisahan sulfat, resin penukar-anion basa lemah

  19. Acute pancreatitis.

    Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Vege, Santhi S

    2015-09-01

    To summarize recent data on classification systems, cause, risk factors, severity prediction, nutrition, and drug treatment of acute pancreatitis. Comparison of the Revised Atlanta Classification and Determinant Based Classification has shown heterogeneous results. Simvastatin has a protective effect against acute pancreatitis. Young black male, alcohol, smoldering symptoms, and subsequent diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis are risk factors associated with readmissions after acute pancreatitis. A reliable clinical or laboratory marker or a scoring system to predict severity is lacking. The PYTHON trial has shown that oral feeding with on demand nasoenteric tube feeding after 72 h is as good as nasoenteric tube feeding within 24 h in preventing infections in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Male sex, multiple organ failure, extent of pancreatic necrosis, and heterogeneous collection are factors associated with failure of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic collections. The newly proposed classification systems of acute pancreatitis need to be evaluated more critically. New biomarkers are needed for severity prediction. Further well designed studies are required to assess the type of enteral nutritional formulations for acute pancreatitis. The optimal minimally invasive method or combination to debride the necrotic collections is evolving. There is a great need for a drug to treat the disease early on to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  20. Divergent Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides and Identification of Sulfate Motifs that Inhibit Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Wei Poh, Zhong; Heng Gan, Chin; Lee, Eric J.; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W.; Lam, Yulin

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the “sulfation code” is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

  1. Medical Gains of Chondroitin Sulfate Upon Fucosylation.

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of alternating N-acetyl galactosamine and glucuronic acid units within disaccharide building blocks. CS is a key functional component in proteoglycans of cartilaginous tissues. Owing to its numerous biological roles, CS is widely explored in the pharmaceutical market as nutraceutical ingredient commonly utilized against arthritis, osteoarthrosis, and sometimes osteoporosis. Tissues like shark cartilage and bovine trachea are common sources of CS. Nonetheless, a new CS type has been introduced and investigated in the last few decades in what regards its medical potentials. It is named fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS). This less common CS type is isolated exclusively from the body wall of sea cucumbers. The presence of fucosyl branching units in the holothurian FucCS gives to this unique GAG, therapeutic properties in various pathophysiological systems which are inexistent in the common CS explored in the market. Examples of these systems are coagulation, thrombosis, hemodialysis, atherosclerosis, cellular growth, angiogenesis, fibrosis, tumor growth, inflammation, viral and protozoan infections, hyperglycemia, diabetes-related pathological events and tissue damage. This report aims at describing the medical benefits gained upon fucosylation of CS. Clinical prospects of these medical benefits are also discussed herein.

  2. Optimizing substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Chang, L.K.; Updegraff, D.M.; Wildeman, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction followed by sulfide precipitation effectively removes heavy metals from wastewaters. The substrate in the anaerobic zone in a constructed wetland can be designed to emphasize this removal process. This group of bacteria requires CH 2 O, P, N, and SO 4 =, reducing conditions, and pH range of 5-9 (pH=7 is optimum). The objective of this study was to find an inexpensive source of nutrients that would give the best initial production of sulfide and make a good wetland substrate. All tested materials contain sufficient P and N; mine drainage provides sulfate. Thus, tests focused on finding organic material that provides the proper nutrients and does not cause the culture to fall below pH of 5. Among chemical nutrients, sodium lactate combined with (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 were the only compounds that produced sulfide after 11 days. Among complex nutrients, only cow manure produced sulfide after 26 days. Among complex carbohydrates, cracked corn and raw rice produced sulfide after 10 days. Most substrates failed to produce sulfide because anaerobic fermentation reduced the pH below 5. Presently, cracked corn is the best candidate for a substrate. Five grams of cow manure produced 0.14 millimole of sulfide whereas 0.1 g of cracked corn produced 0.22 millimole

  3. Growth and sedimentation of fine particles produced in aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation

    Hatada, Motoyoshi; Jonah, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    It is known that palladium and palladium-silver fine particles were formed from deaerated aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Changes in particle size and with amount of particles in the solution with time during and after irradiation were studied using dynamic light scattering technique and UV spectrophotometer. The particles formed from palladium sulfate solution are found to be water-filled bulky particles of diameter of 200 nm, which grow by mutual coagulation even after irradiation was terminated. Average density depends on concentration of palladium ion in the solution and dose, and the lowest density was about 2 g/cm 3 for particles of 200 nm obtained from 0.06 mM solution by 2.4 kGy irradiation. The average density of the particles obtained from palladium sulfate-silver sulfate solutions was smaller than those obtained for the corresponding palladium sulfate solutions. Supersonic agitation destroyed coagulated precipitates to form fine particles, but did not form clusters of a few atoms. (author)

  4. The confused world of sulfate attack on concrete

    Neville, Adam

    2004-01-01

    External sulfate attack is not completely understood. Part I identifies the issues involved, pointing out disagreements, and distinguishes between the mere occurrence of chemical reactions of sulfates with hydrated cement paste and the damage or deterioration of concrete; only the latter are taken to represent sulfate attack. Furthermore, sulfate attack is defined as deleterious action involving sulfate ions; if the reaction is physical, then, it is physical sulfate attack that takes place. The discussion of the two forms of sulfate attack leads to a recommendation for distinct nomenclature. Sulfate attack on concrete structures in service is not widespread, and the amount of laboratory-based research seems to be disproportionately large. The mechanisms of attack by different sulfates--sodium, calcium, and magnesium--are discussed, including the issue of topochemical and through-solution reactions. The specific aspects of the action of magnesium sulfate are discussed, and the differences between laboratory conditions and field exposure are pointed out. Part II discusses the progress of sulfate attack and its manifestations. This is followed by a discussion of making sulfate-resisting concrete. One of the measures is to use Type V cement, and this topic is extensively discussed. Likewise, the influence of w/c on sulfate resistance is considered. The two parameters are not independent of one another. Moreover, the cation in the sulfate salt has a strong bearing on the efficiency of the Type V cement. Recent interpretations of the Bureau of Reclamation tests, both long term and accelerated, are evaluated, and it appears that they need reworking. Part III reviews the standards and guides for the classification of the severity of exposure of structures to sulfates and points out the lack of calibration of the various classes of exposure. A particular problem is the classification of soils because much depends on the extraction ratio of sulfate in the soil: there is a

  5. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroxine sulfate

    Chopra, I.J.; Santini, F.; Hurd, R.E.; Chua Teco, G.N. (Univ. of California Center for the Health Sciences, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible RIA has been developed to measure T[sub 4] sulfate (T[sub 4]S) in ethanol extracts of serum. rT[sub 3] sulfate (rT[sub 3]S) cross-reacted 7.1%, and T[sub 3]S cross-reacted 0.59% in the RIA; T[sub 4], T[sub 3], rT[sub 3] and 3,3[prime]-diiodothyronine cross-reacted 0.004% or less. The recovery of nonradioactive T[sub 4]S added to serum averaged 95%. The detection threshold of the RIA was 18 pmol/L. The coefficient of variation averaged 6.9% within an assay and 12% between assays. T[sub 4]S was bound by T[sub 4]-binding globulin and albumin in serum. The free fraction of T[sub 4]S in four normal sera averaged 0.06% compared to a value of 0.03% for T[sub 4] (P < 0.001). The serum concentration of T[sub 4]S was (mean [+-] SE) 19 [+-] 1.2 pmol/L in normal subjects, 33 [+-] 10 in hyperthyroid patients with Graves disease, 42 [+-] 15 in hypothyroid patients, 34 [+-] 6.9 in patients with systematic nonthyroidal illnesses, 21 [+-] 4.3 in pregnant women at 15-40 weeks gestation, and 245 [+-] 26 in cord blood sera of newborns; the value in the newborn was significantly different from normal (P < 0.001). Administration of sodium ipodate (Oragrafin; 3 g, orally) to hyperthyroid patients was associated with a transient increase in serum T[sub 4]S. The T[sub 4]S content of the thyroid gland was less than 1/4000th that of T[sub 4]. We conclude that (1) T[sub 4]S is a normal component of human serum, and its levels are markedly increased in newborn serum and amniotic fluid; and (2) the sulfation pathway plays an important role in the metabolism of T[sub 4] in man. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  7. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    ... intake to the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension as well as other diseases and the amounts of water from beverages and foods needed to maintain hydration. In addition, since requirements for sulfur can be met by inorganic sulfate in the diets of animals, a review of the role in inorganic sulfur in the form of sulfate is included. The gro...

  8. Effects of magnesium sulfate on the acquisition and reinstatement of ...

    In the current study, the effects of magnesium sulfate on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in an animal model were investigated. The acquisition and extinction and reinstatement phases induced using morphine 40 and 10mg/kg. Magnesium sulfate 300 and 600 ...

  9. Sulfur accumulation and atmospherically deposited sulfate in the Lake States.

    Mark B. David; George Z. Gernter; David F. Grigal; Lewis F. Ohmann

    1989-01-01

    Characterizes the mass of soil sulfur (adjusted for nitrogen), and atmospherically deposited sulfate along an acid precipitation gradient from Minnesota to Michigan. The relationship of these variables, presented graphically through contour mapping, suggests that patterns of atmospheric wet sulfate deposition are reflected in soil sulfur pools.

  10. Sulfated zirconia modified SBA-15 catalysts for cellobiose hydrolysis

    Degirmenci, V.; Uner, D.; Cinlar, B.; Shanks, B.H.; Yilmaz, A.; Santen, van R.A.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Zirconia modified SBA-15 becomes a very active catalyst for the selective hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose after sulfation. Spectroscopic investigations indicate the presence of Brønsted acid sites with similar properties to those present in conventional sulfated zirconia. Indications are found

  11. Reductive and sorptive properties of sulfate green rust (GRSO4)

    Nedel, Sorin

    The Fe(II), Fe(III) hydroxide containing sulfate in its structure, called sulfate green rust (GRSO4), can effectively reduce and convert contaminants to less mobile and less toxic forms. However, the ability of GRSO4 to remove positively charged species from solution, via sorption, is very limited...

  12. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

    Crowe, Sean Andrew; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column...

  13. Extraction and determination of chondroitin sulfate from fish processing byproducts

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) refers to a group of sulfated glycosaminoglycan containing a chain of alternating N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid sugars. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix of cartilage and attached to proteins. CS is usually an over the counter dietary supplement...

  14. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; Geest, van der Harm G.; Klein, de Jeroen J.M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J.P.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species.

  15. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    LI, LIANG

    2013-04-18

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property in the ultraviolet region which confirms and agrees well with former results. © 2013 Astro Ltd.

  16. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  17. Sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Janka, K. [Tampella Power, Tampere (Finland); Frederick, W.J.; Littau, M.; Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Jivakanun, N.; Waag, K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Sulfate reduction and carbon conversion during pyrolysis and gasification of black liquor particles were experimentally studied in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. A model was also developed to simulate an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. Experimental results were then compared to model calculations. Results indicated that carbon must be present to get a high degree of sulfate reduction during gasification. It is therefore important to balance the rates of carbon conversion and sulfate reduction. High local temperatures in the reactor should be avoided so that carbon does not convert too rapidly, but temperatures of nearly 1000 degrees C are required to achieve good sulfate reduction. It was suggested that a new equation was needed to adequately predict sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  19. Acute Pancreatitis

    Bertilsson, Sara; Håkansson, Anders; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aimed to evaluate the potential relation between the incidence of (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) acute pancreatitis (AP) and alcohol consumption in the general population, and whether the occurrence of AP shows any seasonal variation, particularly in relation to periods with expected...... consumption in the general population do not appear to be related to changes in the incidence of AP and there are no significant seasonal differences in the occurrence of AP in Sweden. Short summary: The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing, and alcohol is still recognized as one of the most...

  20. Dendritic Polyglycerol Sulfate for Therapy and Diagnostics

    Nadine Rades

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS has originally been investigated as an anticoagulant to potentially substitute for the natural glycosaminoglycan heparin. Compared to unfractionated heparin, dPGS possesses lower anticoagulant activity but a much higher anticomplementary effect. Since coagulation, complement activation, and inflammation are often present in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, dPGS polymers with both anticoagulant and anticomplementary activities represent promising candidates for the development of polymeric drugs of nanosized architecture. In this review, we describe the nanomedical applications of dPGS based on its anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the application of dPGS as a carrier molecule for diagnostic molecules and therapeutic drugs is reviewed, based on the ability to target tumors and localize in tumor cells. Finally, the application of dPGS for inhibition of virus infections is described.

  1. Moessbauer study of hydrated iron sulfates

    Araujo, S.I.; Danon, J.; Iannarella, L.

    1991-01-01

    The hydrated iron sulfates amarantite Fe(SO sub(4))(OH).3H sub(2)O, copiapite (Mg,Al)Fe sup(3+) sub(4)(SO sub(4)) sub(6)(OH) sub(2).20H sub(2)O and ungemachite K sub(3)Na sub(9)Fe(SO sub(4)) sub(6)(OH) sub(3).9H sub(2)O were studied by Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in connection with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The effect of the dehydration on the hyperfine parameters at the Fe sites was investigated. For amarantite, the Moessbauer spectrum remained practically unchanged, while the Fe sup(3+) quadrupole splittings for copiapite and ungemachite increased. The Fe sup(2+) quadrupole splitting of ungemachite was also unchanged. We have found out the anisotropy of the recoiless absorption probability for the sup(57)Fe Moessbauer gamma ray in amarantite. The three minerals were found to be highly hygroscopic after the dehydration consequent of the DSC measurements. (author)

  2. Biological sulfate removal from gypsum contaminated construction and demolition debris.

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-12-15

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) contains high levels of sulfate that can cause detrimental environmental impacts when disposed without adequate treatment. In landfills, sulfate can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under anaerobic conditions. CDD can thus cause health impacts or odor problems to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Reduction of the sulfate content of CDD is an option to overcome these problems. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate removal system to reduce the sulfate content of gypsum contaminated CDD in order to decrease the amount of solid waste, to improve the quality of CDD waste for recycling purposes and to recover sulfur from CDD. The treatment leached out the gypsum contained in CDD by water in a leaching column. The sulfate loaded leachate was then treated in a biological sulfate reducing Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor to convert the sulfate to sulfide. The UASB reactor was operated at 23 ± 3 °C with a hydraulic retention time and upflow velocity of 15.5 h and 0.1 m h(-1), respectively while ethanol was added as electron donor at a final organic loading rate of 3.46 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1). The CDD leachate had a pH of 8-9 and sulfate dissolution rates of 526.4 and 609.8 mg L(-1) d(-1) were achieved in CDD gypsum and CDD sand, respectively. Besides, it was observed that the gypsum dissolution was the rate limiting step for the biological treatment of CDD. The sulfate removal efficiency of the system stabilized at around 85%, enabling the reuse of the UASB effluent for the leaching step, proving the versatility of the bioreactor for practical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chondroitin / dermatan sulfate modification enzymes in zebrafish development.

    Judith Habicher

    Full Text Available Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS proteoglycans consist of unbranched sulfated polysaccharide chains of repeating GalNAc-GlcA/IdoA disaccharide units, attached to serine residues on specific proteins. The CS/DS proteoglycans are abundant in the extracellular matrix where they have essential functions in tissue development and homeostasis. In this report a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate genes coding for the enzymes that modify CS/DS is presented. We identify single orthologous genes in the zebrafish genome for the sulfotransferases chst7, chst11, chst13, chst14, chst15 and ust and the epimerase dse. In contrast, two copies were found for mammalian sulfotransferases CHST3 and CHST12 and the epimerase DSEL, named chst3a and chst3b, chst12a and chst12b, dsela and dselb, respectively. Expression of CS/DS modification enzymes is spatially and temporally regulated with a large variation between different genes. We found that CS/DS 4-O-sulfotransferases and 6-O-sulfotransferases as well as CS/DS epimerases show a strong and partly overlapping expression, whereas the expression is restricted for enzymes with ability to synthesize di-sulfated disaccharides. A structural analysis further showed that CS/DS sulfation increases during embryonic development mainly due to synthesis of 4-O-sulfated GalNAc while the proportion of 6-O-sulfated GalNAc increases in later developmental stages. Di-sulfated GalNAc synthesized by Chst15 and 2-O-sulfated GlcA/IdoA synthesized by Ust are rare, in accordance with the restricted expression of these enzymes. We also compared CS/DS composition with that of heparan sulfate (HS. Notably, CS/DS biosynthesis in early zebrafish development is more dynamic than HS biosynthesis. Furthermore, HS contains disaccharides with more than one sulfate group, which are virtually absent in CS/DS.

  4. Role of protein sulfation in vasodilation induced by minoxidil sulfate, a K+ channel opener

    Meisheri, K.D.; Oleynek, J.J.; Puddington, L.

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from contractile, radioisotope ion flux and electrophysiological studies suggest that minoxidil sulfate (MNXS) acts as a K+ channel opener in vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to examine possible biochemical mechanisms by which MNXS exerts such an effect. Experiments performed in the isolated rabbit mesenteric artery (RMA) showed that MNXS, 5 microM, but not the parent compound minoxidil, was a potent vasodilator. Whereas the relaxant effects of an another K+ channel opener vasodilator, BRL-34915 (cromakalim), were removed by washing with physiological saline solution, the effects of MNXS persisted after repeated washout attempts. Furthermore, after an initial exposure of segments of intact RMA to [35S] MNXS, greater than 30% of the radiolabel was retained 2 hr after removal of the drug. In contrast, retention of radiolabel was not detected with either [3H]MNXS (label on the piperidine ring of MNXS) or [3H]minoxidil (each less than 3% after a 2-hr washout). These data suggested that the sulfate moiety from MNXS was closely associated with the vascular tissue. To determine if proteins were the acceptors of sulfate from MNXS, intact RMAs were incubated with [35S]MNXS, and then 35S-labeled proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed by fluorography. Preferential labeling of a 116 kD protein was detected by 2 and 5 min of treatment. A 43 kD protein (resembling actin) also showed significant labeling. A similar profile of 35S-labeled proteins was observed in [35S] MNXS-treated A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, suggesting that the majority of proteins labeled by [35S]MNXS in intact RMA were components of smooth muscle cells

  5. Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans Are Targeted by Bleomycin in Cancer Cells.

    Li, Xiulian; Lan, Ying; He, Yanli; Liu, Yong; Luo, Heng; Yu, Haibo; Song, Ni; Ren, Sumei; Liu, Tianwei; Hao, Cui; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Bleomycin is a clinically used anti-cancer drug that produces DNA breaks once inside of cells. However, bleomycin is a positively charged molecule and cannot get inside of cells by free diffusion. We previously reported that the cell surface negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may be involved in the cellular uptake of bleomycin. We also observed that a class of positively charged small molecules has Golgi localization once inside of the cells. We therefore hypothesized that bleomycin might perturb Golgi-operated GAG biosynthesis. We used stable isotope labeling coupled with LC/MS analysis of GAG disaccharides simultaneously from bleomycin-treated and non-treated cancer cells. To further understand the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and its relationship to GAGs, we used sodium chlorate to inhibit GAG sulfation and commercially available GAGs to compete for cell surface GAG/bleomycin interactions in seven cell lines including CHO745 defective in both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. we discovered that heparan sulfate GAG was significantly undersulfated and the quantity and disaccharide compositions of GAGs were changed in bleomycin-treated cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We revealed that bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity was directly related to cell surface GAGs. GAGs were targeted by bleomycin both at cell surface and at Golgi. Thus, GAGs might be the biological relevant molecules that might be related to the bleomycin-induced fibrosis in certain cancer patients, a severe side effect with largely unknown molecular mechanism. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. N-sulfation of heparan sulfate is critical for syndecan-4-mediated podocyte cell-matrix interactions

    Sugar, T.; Wassenhove-McCarthy, D.J.; Orr, A.W.; Green, J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; McCarthy, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that podocytes unable to assemble heparan sulfate on cell surface proteoglycan core proteins have compromised cell-matrix interactions. This report further explores the role of N-sulfation of intact heparan chains in podocyte-matrix interactions. For the purposes of this

  7. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently

  8. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies identified PCB sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific...

  9. Development of affinity-based delivery of NGF from a chondroitin sulfate biomaterial

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron W.; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Chondroitin sulfate is upregulated at injury, thus methods to promote neurite extension through chondroitin sulfate-rich matrices and synthetic scaffolds are needed. We describe the use of both chondroitin sulfate and a novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide to control the release of nerve growth factor. Interestingly, the novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide enhanc...

  10. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  11. Acidity-Reactivity Relationships in Catalytic Esterification over Ammonium Sulfate-Derived Sulfated Zirconia

    Abdallah I. M. Rabee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New insight was gained into the acidity-reactivity relationships of sulfated zirconia (SZ catalysts prepared via (NH42SO4 impregnation of Zr(OH4 for propanoic acid esterification with methanol. A family of systematically related SZs was characterized by bulk and surface analyses including XRD, XPS, TGA-MS, N2 porosimetry, temperature-programmed propylamine decomposition, and FTIR of adsorbed pyridine, as well as methylbutynol (MBOH as a reactive probe molecule. Increasing surface sulfation induces a transition from amphoteric character for the parent zirconia and low S loadings <1.7 wt %, evidenced by MBOH conversion to 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone, methylbutyne and acetone, with higher S loadings resulting in strong Brønsted-Lewis acid pairs upon completion of the sulfate monolayer, which favored MBOH conversion to prenal. Catalytic activity for propanoic acid esterification directly correlated with acid strength determined from propylamine decomposition, coincident with the formation of Brønsted-Lewis acid pairs identified by MBOH reactive titration. Monodispersed bisulfate species are likely responsible for superacidity at intermediate sulfur loadings.

  12. Opiate-like excitatory effects of steroid sulfates and calcium-complexing agents given cerebroventricularly.

    LaBella, F S; Havlicek, V; Pinsky, C

    1979-01-12

    Intracerebroventricular administration of 10--20 microgram of steroid-O-sulfates induced hypermotility, agitation, salivation, EEG abnormalities, stereotypies, wet dog shakes and seizures. Equivalent effects resulted from 30--200 microgram morphine sulfate (H2SO4 salt), 50 microgram EGTA or 300--400 microgram of sodium sulfate or phosphate, but not chloride, nitrate or acetate. Non-steroid sulfates, steroid glucuronides and steroid phosphates were inactive. Naloxone, previously found to antagonize the excitatory effects of androsterone sulfate, failed to antagonize those of cortisol sulfate, sodium sulfate or EGTA. These findings suggest a role for extracellular calcium ions and for sulfate derived from circulating steroids in central responses to opiates.

  13. Sulfates on Mars: TES Observations and Thermal Inertia Data

    Cooper, C. D.; Mustard, J. F.

    2001-05-01

    The high resolution thermal emission spectra returned by the TES spectrometer on the MGS spacecraft have allowed the mapping of a variety of minerals and rock types by different sets of researchers. Recently, we have used a linear deconvolution approach to compare sulfate-palagonite soil mixtures created in the laboratory with Martian surface spectra. This approach showed that a number of areas on Mars have spectral properties that match those of sulfate-cemented soils (but neither loose powder mixtures of sulfates and soils nor sand-sized grains of disaggregated crusted soils). These features do not appear to be caused by atmospheric or instrumental effects and are thus believed to be related to surface composition and texture. The distribution and physical state of sulfate are important pieces of information for interpreting surface processes on Mars. A number of different mechanisms could have deposited sulfate in surface layers. Some of these include evaporation of standing bodies of water, aerosol deposition of volcanic gases, hydrothermal alteration from groundwater, and in situ interaction between the atmosphere and soil. The areas on Mars with cemented sulfate signatures are spread across a wide range of elevations and are generally large in spatial scale. Some of the areas are associated with volcanic regions, but many are in dark red plains that have previously been interpreted as duricrust deposits. Our current work compares the distribution of sulfate-cemented soils as mapped by the spectral deconvolution approach with thermal inertia maps produced from both Viking and MGS-TES. Duricrust regions, interpreted from intermediate thermal inertia values, are large regions thought to be sulfate-cemented soils similar to coherent, sulfate-rich materials seen at the Viking lander sites. Our observations of apparent regions of cemented sulfate are also large in spatial extent. This scale information is important for evaluating formation mechanisms for the

  14. Ferric sulfates on Mars: Surface Explorations and Laboratory Experiments

    Wang, A.; Ling, Z.; Freeman, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent results from missions to Mars have reinforced the importance of sulfates for Mars science. They are the hosts of water, the sinks of acidity, and maybe the most active species in the past and current surface/near-surface processes on Mars. Fe-sulfate was found frequently by Spirit and Opportunity rovers: jarosite in Meridiani Planum outcrops and a less specific "ferric sulfate" in the salty soils excavated by Spirit at Gusev Crater. Pancam spectral analysis suggests a variety of ferric sulfates in these soils, i.e. ferricopiapite, jarosite, fibroferrite, and rhomboclase. A change in the Pancam spectral features occurred in Tyrone soils after ~ 190 sols of exposure to surface conditions. Dehydration of ferric sulfate is a possible cause. We synthesized eight ferric sulfates and conducted a series of hydration/dehydration experiments. Our goal was to establish the stability fields and phase transition pathways of these ferric sulfates. In our experiments, water activity, temperature, and starting structure are the variables. No redox state change was observed. Acidic, neutral, and basic salts were used. Ferric sulfate sample containers were placed into relative humidity buffer solutions that maintain static relative humidity levels at three temperatures. The five starting phases were ferricopiapite (Fe4.67(SO4)6(OH)2.20H2O), kornelite (Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O), rhomboclase (FeH(SO4)2.4H2O), pentahydrite (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O), and an amorphous phase (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O). A total of one hundred fifty experiments have been running for nearly ten months. Thousands of coupled Raman and gravimetric measurements were made at intermediate steps to monitor the phase transitions. The first order discovery from these experiments is the extremely large stability field of ferricopiapite. Ferricopiapite is the major ferric sulfate to precipitate from a Fe3+-S-rich aqueous solution at mid-low temperature, and it has the highest H2O/Fe ratio (~ 4.3). However, unlike the Mg-sulfate with highest

  15. Setting constraints on the nature and origin of the two major hydrous sulfates on Mars: Monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates

    Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Liu, Yang; Connor, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    Monohydrated Mg sulfate (MgSO4·H2O) and polyhydrated sulfate are the most common and abundant hydrous sulfates observed thus far on Mars. They are widely distributed and coexist in many locations. On the basis of results from two new sets of experiments, in combination with past experimental studies and the subsurface salt mineralogy observed at a saline playa (Dalangtan, DLT) in a terrestrial analogue hyperarid region on the Tibet Plateau, we can now set new constraints on the nature and origin of these two major Martian sulfates. Starkeyite (MgSO4·4H2O) is the best candidate for polyhydrated sulfate. MgSO4·H2O in the form of "LH-1w," generated from dehydration of Mg sulfates with high degrees of hydration, is the most likely mineral form for the majority of Martian monohydrated Mg sulfate. Two critical properties of Mg sulfates are responsible for the coexistence of these two phases that have very different degrees of hydration: (1) the metastability of a substructural unit in starkeyite at relatively low temperatures, and (2) catalytic effects attributed to coprecipitated species (sulfates, chlorides, oxides, and hydroxides) from chemically complex brines that help overcome the metastability of starkeyite. The combination of these two properties controls the coexistence of the LH-1w layer and starkeyite layers at many locations on Mars, which sometimes occur in an interbedded stratigraphy. The structural H2O held by these two broadly distributed sulfates represents a large H2O reservoir at the surface and in the shallow subsurface on current Mars.

  16. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate.

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler-Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  17. Interpreting isotopic analyses of microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs

    Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Li, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Coates, J. D.; Conrad, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs is often associated with secondary production of oil where seawater (28 mM sulfate) is commonly injected to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. The hydrogen sulfide produced can cause a suite of operating problems including corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks and additional processing costs. We propose that monitoring of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate can be used as early indicators that microbial sulfate reduction is occurring, as this process is well known to cause substantial isotopic fractionation. This approach relies on the idea that reactions with reservoir (iron) minerals can remove dissolved sulfide, thereby delaying the transport of the sulfide through the reservoir relative to the sulfate in the injected water. Changes in the sulfate isotopes due to microbial sulfate reduction may therefore be measurable in the produced water before sulfide is detected. However, turning this approach into a predictive tool requires (i) an understanding of appropriate fractionation factors for oil reservoirs, (ii) incorporation of isotopic data into reservoir flow and reactive transport models. We present here the results of preliminary batch experiments aimed at determining fractionation factors using relevant electron donors (e.g. crude oil and volatile fatty acids), reservoir microbial communities and reservoir environmental conditions (pressure, temperature). We further explore modeling options for integrating isotope data and discuss whether single fractionation factors are appropriate to model complex environments with dynamic hydrology, geochemistry, temperature and microbiology gradients.

  18. Sulfate Reduction Remediation of a Metals Plume Through Organic Injection

    Phifer, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory testing and a field-scale demonstration for the sulfate reduction remediation of an acidic/metals/sulfate groundwater plume at the Savannah River Site has been conducted. The laboratory testing consisted of the use of anaerobic microcosms to test the viability of three organic substrates to promote microbially mediated sulfate reduction. Based upon the laboratory testing, soybean oil and sodium lactate were selected for injection during the subsequent field-scale demonstration. The field-scale demonstration is currently ongoing. Approximately 825 gallons (3,123 L) of soybean oil and 225 gallons (852 L) of 60 percent sodium lactate have been injected into an existing well system within the plume. Since the injections, sulfate concentrations in the injection zone have significantly decreased, sulfate-reducing bacteria concentrations have significantly increased, the pH has increased, the Eh has decreased, and the concentrations of many metals have decreased. Microbially mediated sulfate reduction has been successfully promoted for the remediation of the acidic/metals/sulfate plume by the injection of soybean oil and sodium lactate within the plume

  19. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Steven J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park MD USA; Easter, Richard C. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2018-02-08

    Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.

  20. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  1. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters

    Hideki eTakahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal sulfate transporters (SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26. The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1 to SULTR4 in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologues from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4, and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13 and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT. The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1 and SAC1-like transporters (SLT of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is completely absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  2. Analysis and interpretation of specific ethanol metabolites, ethyl sulfate, and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent for the quantitative measurement of regional alcohol consumption.

    Reid, Malcolm J; Langford, Katherine H; Mørland, Jørg; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of urinary metabolites in sewage streams and the subsequent estimation of consumption rates of the parent compounds have previously been demonstrated for pharmaceuticals and narcotics. Ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide are excreted in urine following the ingestion of alcohol, and are useful biomarkers for the identification of acute alcohol consumption. This study reports a novel ion-exchange-mediated chromatographic method for the quantitative measurement of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent, and presents a novel calculation method for the purposes of relating the resulting sewage concentrations with rates of alcohol consumption in the region. A total of 100 sewage samples covering a 25-day period were collected from a treatment plant servicing approximately 500,000 people, and analyzed for levels of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide. The resulting data were then used to estimate combined alcohol consumption rates for the region, and the results were compared with alcohol related sales statistics for the same region. Ethyl glucuronide was found to be unstable in sewage effluent. Ethyl sulfate was stable and measurable in all samples at concentrations ranging from 16 to 246 nM. The highest concentrations of the alcohol biomarker were observed during weekend periods. Sixty one percent of the total mass of ethyl sulfate in sewage effluent corresponds to alcohol consumption on Friday and Saturday. Sales statistics for alcohol show that consumption in the region is approximately 6,750 kg/d. The quantity of ethyl sulfate passing through the sewage system is consistent with consumption of 4,900 to 7,800 kg/d.   Sewage epidemiology assessments of ethyl sulfate can provide accurate estimates of community alcohol consumption, and detailed examination of the kinetics of this biomarker in sewage streams can also identify time-dependent trends in alcohol consumption patterns. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Development of affinity-based delivery of NGF from a chondroitin sulfate biomaterial.

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron W; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Chondroitin sulfate is upregulated at injury, thus methods to promote neurite extension through chondroitin sulfate-rich matrices and synthetic scaffolds are needed. We describe the use of both chondroitin sulfate and a novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide to control the release of nerve growth factor. Interestingly, the novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide enhances the controlled release properties of the chondroitin sulfate gels. While introduction of chondroitin sulfate into a scaffold inhibits primary cortical outgrowth, the combination of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide and nerve growth factor promotes primary cortical neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels.

  4. Incorporation of Monovalent Cations in Sulfate Green Rust

    Christiansen, B. C.; Dideriksen, K.; Katz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Green rust is a naturally occurring layered mixed-valent ferrous-ferric hydroxide, which can react with a range of redox-active compounds. Sulfate-bearing green rust is generally thought to have interlayers composed of sulfate and water. Here, we provide evidence that the interlayers also contain...... with water showed that Na+ and K+ were structurally fixed in the interlayer, whereas Rb+ and Cs+ could be removed, resulting in a decrease in the basal layer spacing. The incorporation of cations in the interlayer opens up new possibilities for the use of sulfate green rust for exchange reactions with both...

  5. Improved biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    2017-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using recombinant host cells. More particularly, the present invention pertains to recombinant host cells comprising (e.g., expressing) a polypeptide having aryl sulfotransferase...... activity, wherein said recombinant host cells have been modified to have an increased uptake of sulfate compared to identical host cells that does not carry said modification. Further provided are processes for the production of aryl sulfates, such as zosteric acid, employing such recombinant host cells....

  6. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  7. Damage modelling in concrete subject to sulfate attack

    N. Cefis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the mechanical effect of the sulfate attack on concrete. The durability analysis of concrete structures in contact to external sulfate solutions requires the definition of a proper diffusion-reaction model, for the computation of the varying sulfate concentration and of the consequent ettringite formation, coupled to a mechanical model for the prediction of swelling and material degradation. In this work, we make use of a two-ions formulation of the reactive-diffusion problem and we propose a bi-phase chemo-elastic damage model aimed to simulate the mechanical response of concrete and apt to be used in structural analyses.

  8. Micro-SHINE Uranyl Sulfate Irradiations at the Linac

    Youker, Amanda J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kalensky, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schneider, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Byrnes, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Peroxide formation due to water radiolysis in a uranyl sulfate solution is a concern for the SHINE Medical Technologies process in which Mo-99 is generated from the fission of dissolved low enriched uranium. To investigate the effects of power density and fission on peroxide formation and uranyl-peroxide precipitation, uranyl sulfate solutions were irradiated using a 50-MeV electron linac as part of the micro-SHINE experimental setup. Results are given for uranyl sulfate solutions with both high and low enriched uranium irradiated at different linac powers.

  9. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. De Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a {lambda}-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  10. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    H. Stephen Ewart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans, ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.

  11. Acute abdomen

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  12. Acute Blindness.

    Meekins, Jessica M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden loss of vision is an ophthalmic emergency with numerous possible causes. Abnormalities may occur at any point within the complex vision pathway, from retina to optic nerve to the visual center in the occipital lobe. This article reviews specific prechiasm (retina and optic nerve) and cerebral cortical diseases that lead to acute blindness. Information regarding specific etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for vision is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulfate, nitrate and blood pressure - An EPIC interaction between sulfur and nitrogen.

    Kuhnle, Gunter G; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Feelisch, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Nitrate (NO 3 - )-rich foods such as green leafy vegetables are not only part of a healthy diet, but increasingly marketed for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and used as ergogenic aids by competitive athletes. While there is abundant evidence for mild hypotensive effects of nitrate on acute application there is limited data on chronic intake in humans, and results from animal studies suggest no long-term benefit. This is important as nitrate can also promote the formation of nitrosamines. It is therefore classified as 'probably carcinogenic to humans', although a beneficial effect on CVD risk might compensate for an increased cancer risk. Dietary nitrate requires reduction to nitrite (NO 2 - ) by oral commensal bacteria to contribute to the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The extensive crosstalk between NO and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) related metabolites may further affect nitrate's bioactivity. Using nitrate and nitrite concentrations of drinking water - the only dietary source continuously monitored for which detailed data exist - in conjunction with data of >14,000 participants of the EPIC-Norfolk study, we found no inverse associations with blood pressure or CVD risk. Instead, we found a strong interaction with sulfate (SO 4 2- ). At low sulfate concentrations, nitrate was inversely associated with BP (-4mmHg in top quintile) whereas this was reversed at higher concentrations (+3mmHg in top quintile). Our findings have a potentially significant impact for pharmacology, physiology and public health, redirecting our attention from the oral microbiome and mouthwash use to interaction with sulfur-containing dietary constituents. These results also indicate that nitrate bioactivation is more complex than hitherto assumed. The modulation of nitrate bioactivity by sulfate may render dietary lifestyle interventions aimed at increasing nitrate intake ineffective and even reverse potential antihypertensive effects, warranting further investigation

  14. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Etaix, E S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  15. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  16. Correction: Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity

    Sugahara Kazuyuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the publication of the work entitled "Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity", by Kozlowski et al., BMC Biochemistry 2011, 12:29, we found that the legends to Figures 2 to 5 contain serious mistakes that compromise the comprehension of the work. This correction article contains the correct text of the legends to Figures 2 to 5.

  17. Effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate of polyphenoloxidase

    Moore, B.M.; Flurkey, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the enzymatic and physical characteristics of purified broad bean polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were examined. A sigmoidal increase in PPO activation was observed with increasing SDS concentrations. Half maximal activation occurred at .9 mM SDS well below the CMC of 3.5 mM. No apparent changes in the Km for catechol, pH optimum, of I 50 for tropolone were observed in the presence vs absence of SDS. Thermal inactivation and binding of 14 C dopa increased in the presence of SDS. Analytical ultracentrifugation and HPLC-SEC indicated that SDS did not change the apparent size of the PPO under nondenaturing conditions. Scanning fluorescence spectroscopy showed an increase in intrinsic trp/tyr fluorescence at approximately the same concentration in which SDS activation began. Further addition of SDS caused a large increase in intrinsic fluorescence. These results suggest the SDS causes an apparent conformational change induced by SDS binding which leads to enzyme activation

  18. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Tanner, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteine in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.

  19. Quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and keratan sulfate by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Osago, Harumi; Shibata, Tomoko; Hara, Nobumasa; Kuwata, Suguru; Kono, Michihaya; Uchio, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Mikako

    2014-12-15

    We developed a method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using one-shot analysis with our MS/MS method, we demonstrated the simultaneous quantification of a total of 23 variously sulfated disaccharides of four GAG classes (8 chondroitin/dermatan sulfates, 1 hyaluronic acid, 12 heparan sulfates, and 2 keratan sulfates) with a sensitivity of less than 0.5 pmol within 20 min. We showed the differences in the composition of GAG classes and the sulfation patterns between porcine articular cartilage and yellow ligament. In addition to the internal disaccharides described above, some saccharides derived from the nonreducing terminal were detected simultaneously. The simultaneous quantification of both internal and nonreducing terminal saccharides could be useful to estimate the chain length of GAGs. This method would help to establish comprehensive "GAGomic" analysis of biological tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expanding the role of 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus type-1 entry

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Kovacs, Maria; Akhtar, Jihan; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are commonly exploited by multiple viruses for initial attachment to host cells. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is unique because it can use HS for both attachment and penetration, provided specific binding sites for HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein gD are present. The interaction with gD is mediated by specific HS moieties or 3-O sulfated HS (3-OS HS), which are generated by all but one of the seven isoforms of 3-O sulfotransferases (3-OSTs). Here we demonstrate that several common experimental cell lines express unique sets of 3-OST isoforms. While the isoforms 3-OST-3, -5 and -6 were most commonly expressed, isoforms 3-OST-2 and -4 were undetectable in the cell lines examined. Since most cell lines expressed multiple 3-OST isoforms, we addressed the significance of 3-OS HS in HSV-1 entry by down-regulating 2-O-sulfation, a prerequisite for 3-OS HS formation, by knocking down 2-OST expression by RNA interference (RNAi). 2-OST knockdown was verified by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot analysis, while 3-OS HS knockdown was verified by immunofluorescence. Cells showed a significant decrease in viral entry, suggesting an important role for 3-OS HS. Implicating 3-OS HS further, cells knocked down for 2-OST expression also demonstrated decreased cell-cell fusion when cocultivated with effector cells transfected with HSV-1 glycoproteins. Our findings suggest that 3-OS HS may play an important role in HSV-1 entry into many different cell lines.

  1. Wound healing and antibacterial activities of chondroitin sulfate- and acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2013-01-01

    For topical applications in wound healing, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention as antibacterial agents. Herein, we describe a green-synthetic route for the production of biocompatible and crystalline AgNPs using two glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and acharan sulfate (AS), as reducing agents. The synthetic approach avoids the use of toxic chemicals, and the yield of AgNPs formation is found to be 98.1% and 91.1% for the chondroitin sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and the acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (AS-AgNPs), respectively. Nanoparticles with mostly spherical and amorphous shapes were observed, with an average diameter of 6.16 ± 2.26 nm for CS-AgNPs and 5.79 ± 3.10 nm for AS-AgNPs. Images of the CS-AgNPs obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed the self-assembled structure of CS was similar to a densely packed woven mat with AgNPs sprinkled on the CS. These nanoparticles were stable under cell culture conditions without any noticeable aggregation. An approximately 128-fold enhancement of the antibacterial activities of the AgNPs was observed against Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli when compared to CS and AS alone. In addition, an in vivo animal model of wound healing activity was tested using mice that were subjected to deep incision wounds. In comparison to the controls, the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs stimulated wound closure under histological examination and accelerated the deposition of granulation tissue and collagen in the wound area. The wound healing activity of the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs are comparable to that of a commercial formulation of silver sulfadiazine even though the newly prepared ointments contain a lower silver concentration. Therefore, the newly prepared AgNPs demonstrate potential for use as an attractive biocompatible nanocomposite for topical applications in the treatment of wounds. (paper)

  2. Wound healing and antibacterial activities of chondroitin sulfate- and acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles

    Im, A.-Rang; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-10-01

    For topical applications in wound healing, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention as antibacterial agents. Herein, we describe a green-synthetic route for the production of biocompatible and crystalline AgNPs using two glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and acharan sulfate (AS), as reducing agents. The synthetic approach avoids the use of toxic chemicals, and the yield of AgNPs formation is found to be 98.1% and 91.1% for the chondroitin sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and the acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (AS-AgNPs), respectively. Nanoparticles with mostly spherical and amorphous shapes were observed, with an average diameter of 6.16 ± 2.26 nm for CS-AgNPs and 5.79 ± 3.10 nm for AS-AgNPs. Images of the CS-AgNPs obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed the self-assembled structure of CS was similar to a densely packed woven mat with AgNPs sprinkled on the CS. These nanoparticles were stable under cell culture conditions without any noticeable aggregation. An approximately 128-fold enhancement of the antibacterial activities of the AgNPs was observed against Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli when compared to CS and AS alone. In addition, an in vivo animal model of wound healing activity was tested using mice that were subjected to deep incision wounds. In comparison to the controls, the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs stimulated wound closure under histological examination and accelerated the deposition of granulation tissue and collagen in the wound area. The wound healing activity of the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs are comparable to that of a commercial formulation of silver sulfadiazine even though the newly prepared ointments contain a lower silver concentration. Therefore, the newly prepared AgNPs demonstrate potential for use as an attractive biocompatible nanocomposite for topical applications in the treatment of wounds.

  3. Predictive mapping of the acidifying potential for acid sulfate soils

    Boman, A; Beucher, Amélie; Mattbäck, S

    Developing methods for the predictive mapping of the potential environmental impact from acid sulfate soils is important because recent studies (e.g. Mattbäck et al., under revision) have shown that the environmental hazards (e.g. leaching of acidity) related to acid sulfate soils vary depending...... on their texture (clay, silt, sand etc.). Moreover, acidity correlates, not only with the sulfur content, but also with the electrical conductivity (EC) measured after incubation. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) data collected from an EM38 proximal sensor also enabled the detailed mapping of acid sulfate soils...... over a field (Huang et al., 2014).This study aims at assessing the use of EMI data for the predictive mapping of the acidifying potential in an acid sulfate soil area in western Finland. Different supervised classification modelling techniques, such as Artificial Neural Networks (Beucher et al., 2015...

  4. Diversity of sulfur isotope fractionations by sulfate-reducing prokaryotes

    Detmers, Jan; Brüchert, Volker; Habicht, K S

    2001-01-01

    Batch culture experiments were performed with 32 different sulfate-reducing prokaryotes to explore the diversity in sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by pure cultures. The selected strains reflect the phylogenetic and physiologic diversity of presently known...... sulfate reducers and cover a broad range of natural marine and freshwater habitats. Experimental conditions were designed to achieve optimum growth conditions with respect to electron donors, salinity, temperature, and pH. Under these optimized conditions, experimental fractionation factors ranged from 2.......0 to 42.0 per thousand. Salinity, incubation temperature, pH, and phylogeny had no systematic effect on the sulfur isotope fractionation. There was no correlation between isotope fractionation and sulfate reduction rate. The type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase also had no effect on fractionation...

  5. Initial kinetics of the direct sulfation of limestone

    Hu, Guilin; Shang, Lei; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The initial kinetics of direct sulfation of Faxe Bryozo, a porous bryozoan limestone was studied in the temperature interval from 873 to 973 K in a pilot entrained flow reactor with very short reaction times (between 0.1 and 0.6 s). The initial conversion rate of the limestone - for conversions...... less than 0.3% - was observed to be significantly promoted by higher SO2 concentrations and lower CO2 concentrations, whereas 02 showed negligible influence. A mathematical model for the sulfation of limestone involving chemical reaction at calcite grain surfaces and solid-state diffusion of carbonate...... ions in calcite grains is established. The validity of the model is limited to the initial sulfation period, in which nucleation of the solid product calcium sulphate is not started. This theoretical reaction-diffusion model gives a good simulation of the initial kinetics of the direct sulfation...

  6. SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES- ACS MEETING

    This paper will present an overview of sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies for the destruction of environmentally toxic chemicals in wastewater, industrial water, groundwater and sources of water supply. The paper will include fundamental aspects of the generati...

  7. Antenatal Magnesium Sulfate and Neurologic Outcome in Preterm Infants

    Doyle, Lex W.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Middleton, Philippa; Marret, Stephane

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review rates of neurologic outcomes reported in childhood for the preterm fetus exposed to antenatal magnesium sulfate. DATA SOURCES: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), relevant

  8. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  9. Chondroitin sulfate effects on neural stem cell differentiation.

    Canning, David R; Brelsford, Natalie R; Lovett, Neil W

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the role chondroitin sulfate has on cell interactions during neural plate formation in the early chick embryo. Using tissue culture isolates from the prospective neural plate, we have measured neural gene expression profiles associated with neural stem cell differentiation. Removal of chondroitin sulfate from stage 4 neural plate tissue leads to altered associations of N-cadherin-positive neural progenitors and causes changes in the normal sequence of neural marker gene expression. Absence of chondroitin sulfate in the neural plate leads to reduced Sox2 expression and is accompanied by an increase in the expression of anterior markers of neural regionalization. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of chondroitin sulfate in the anterior chick embryo is instrumental in maintaining cells in the neural precursor state.

  10. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-05

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acidity characterization of a titanium and sulfate modified vermiculite

    Hernandez, W.Y.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A.; Moreno, S.; Molina, R.

    2008-01-01

    A natural vermiculite has been modified with titanium and sulfated by the intercalation and impregnation method in order to optimize the acidity of the clay mineral, and characterization of samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature programmed desorption with ammonia (TPD-NH 3 ). All the modified solids have a significantly higher number of acidic sites with respect to the parent material and in all of these, Broensted as well as Lewis acidity are identified. The presence of sulfate appears not to increase the number of acidic centers in the modified clay. For the materials sulfated with the intercalation method, it is observed that the strength of the acidic sites found in the material increases with the nominal sulfate/metal ratio. Nevertheless, when elevated quantities of sulfur are deposited, diffusion problems in the heptane reaction appear

  12. Relationship between microbial sulfate reduction rates and sulfur isotopic fractionation

    Matsu'Ura, F.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfate reduction is one of the common processes to obtain energy for certain types of microorganisms.They use hydrogen gas or organic substrates as electron donor and sulfates as electron acceptor, and reduce sulfates to sulfides. Sulfate reducing microbes extend across domains Archea and Bacteria, and are believed to be one of the earliest forms of terrestrial life (Shen 2004). The origin of 34S-depleted (light) sulfide sulfur, especially δ34S vials, which contain 40ml of liquid culture media slightly modified from DSMZ #63 medium.Excess amount of Fe (II) is added to the DSMZ#63 medium to precipitate sulfide as iron sulfide. The vials were incubated at 25°C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. 21 vials were used for one temperature and sulfide and sulfate was collected from each three glass vials at every 12 hours from 72 hours to 144 hours after start of incubation. The sulfide was precipitated as iron sulfide and the sulfate was precipitated as barite. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate and sulfide were measured by standard method using Delta Plus mass-spectrometer. [Results and Discussion] The fractionation between sulfide and sulfate ranged from 2.7 to 11.0. The fractionation values varied among the different incubation temperature and growth phase of D. desulfuricans. The maximum fractionation values of three incubation temperatures were 9.9, 11.0, and 9.7, for 25 °C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. These results were different from standard model and Canfield et al. (2006). I could not find the clear correlation between ∂34S values and incubation temperatures in this experiment. The measured fractionation values during the incubation varied with incubation stage. The fractionation values clearly increased with incubation time at every temperature, and at 25°C ∂34S value was 3.6 at the 72h and it increased to 7.9 at 144 hours. This indicated the difference of sulfate reduction rate due to the growth phase of SRB. In the early logarithmic growth phase

  13. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, ?ke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse...

  14. Reduction of sulfate to sulfite by the tobacco leaf

    Fromageot, P.; Perez-Milan, H.

    1959-01-01

    It is shown that whole tobacco leaf reduces [ 35 SI] sulfate to [ 35 SI] sulfite. The amount and the specific radioactivity of the labelled sulfite recovered indicate that daylight plays an essential part in this process, which is a rapid one. Its quantitative analysis is, however, rendered difficult by oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, which is catalysed by the tissues utilised. Reprint of a paper published in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 32, 1959, p. 457-464 [fr

  15. A New Ursane type Sulfated Saponin from Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    Saleha Suleman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One new sulfated saponin 3β,23,30-trihydroxyurs-20-en-28-al-23-sulfate 3-O-β- D -xylopyranoside (Zygofaboside C; 1 was purified from the water soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated through spectral studies, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-FAB mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data.

  16. Alkylation of isobutane by butenes on zirconium sulfate catalysts

    Lavrenov, A.V.; Perelevskij, E.V.; Finevich, V.P.; Zajkovskij, V.I.; Paukshtis, E.A.; Duplyakiv, V.K.; Bal'zhinimaev, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Preparation of applied zirconium sulfate catalysts obtained by the method of impregnation is investigated. Results of comparative study of structural, acid-base and catalytic properties of sulfated zirconium dioxide applied on silica gel and aluminium oxide are represented. Intervals of values of synthesis basic parameters and characteristics of catalysts properties providing achievement of high activity and selectivity in isobutane alkylation by butenes in liquid phase are determined [ru

  17. A novel chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve repair

    Conovaloff, Aaron William

    Brachial plexus injuries affect numerous patients every year, with very debilitating results. The majority of these cases are very severe, and involve damage to the nerve roots. To date, repair strategies for these injuries address only gross tissue damage, but do not supply cells with adequate regeneration signals. As a result, functional recovery is often severely lacking. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel that delivers neurotrophic signals to damaged neurons is proposed as a scaffold to support nerve root regeneration. Capillary electrophoresis studies revealed that chondroitin sulfate can physically bind with a variety of neurotrophic factors, and cultures of chick dorsal root ganglia demonstrated robust neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate hydrogels. Outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels was greater than that observed in control gels of hyaluronic acid. Furthermore, the chondroitin sulfate hydrogel's binding activity with nerve growth factor could be enhanced by incorporation of a synthetic bioactive peptide, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. This enhanced binding was observed only in chondroitin sulfate gels, and not in hyaluronic acid control gels. This enhanced binding activity resulted in enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels. Finally, the growth of regenerating dorsal root ganglia in these gels was imaged using label-free coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy. This technique generated detailed, high-quality images of live dorsal root ganglion neurites, which were comparable to fixed, F-actin-stained samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the viability of this chondroitin sulfate hydrogel to serve as an effective implantable scaffold to aid in nerve root regeneration.

  18. Controlling Sulfate Attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation Structures

    2010-08-01

    such as calcium aluminates and calcium hydroxide , can influence the degree of damage observed. In all cases, the deterioration observed appears to be...high levels of sulfate showed mineralogical evidence that calcium alumino-sulfate minerals such as ettringite were present in significant quantities...investigation, the Caltrans test was modified to adapt it to the available equipment. A description of the modified test procedure is given in Appendix B. A

  19. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters.

    Takahashi, Hideki; Buchner, Peter; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR, and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26). The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1-SULTR4) in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologs from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4), and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR, and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13) and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT). The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1) and SAC1-like transporters (SLT) of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte, and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  20. 75 FR 37790 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts; Antimicrobial Registration Review Final Work Plan and Proposed Registration...

    2010-06-30

    ..., and opens a 60-day public comment period on the proposed decision. Sodium lauryl sulfate (PC Code...% sodium lauryl sulfate and is registered by Kimberly-Clark Global Sales, LLC (EPA Reg. No. 9402-10). The... sulfate as an active ingredient were first registered in 1948 and sodium lauryl sulfate is widely used as...

  1. Euglena mitochondria and chloroplasts form tyrosine-O-sulfate

    Saidha, T.; Hanfstingl, U.; Schiff, J.A. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Mitochondria from light-grown wild-type Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris Cori or dark-grown mutant W{sub 10}BSmL incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, or with {sup 14}C-tyrosine, non-radioactive sulfate and ATP accumulate a labeled compound in the medium. Since this compound shows exact coelectrophoresis with tyrosine-O-sulfate (TOS) at pH 2.0, 5.8 or 8.0., yields sulfate and tyrosine on acid hydrolysis, and treatment with aryl sulfatase from Aerobacter aerogenes yields sulfate and tyrosine but no tyrosine methyl ester, it is identified as TOS. No TOS is found outside purified developing chloroplasts incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, but both chloroplasts and mitochondria form to {sup 35}S externally when incubated with adenosine 3{prime} phosphate 5{prime}phospho({sup 35}S) sulfate (PAP{sup 35}S). Since no tyrosine need be added, tyrosine is provided from endogenous sources. Although TOS is found in the free pool of Euglena cells it cannot be detected in proteins of cells or mucus ruling our sulfation of tyrosine of protein or incorporation of TOS into proteins. The system forming TOS is membrane-bound and may be involved in tyrosine transport.

  2. Human platelet as an independent unit for sulfate conjugation

    Khoo, B.Y.; Sit, K.H.; Wong, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    The human platelets possess a full complement of enzymes capable of synthesizing N-acetyldopamine (NADA) 35 sulfate from ATP, Mg ++ and sodium 35 sulfate. The pH optimum for this three-step overall sulfate conjugation (comprising of the ATP sulfurylase, APS kinase and phenolsulfotransferase reactions) is 8.6 and the reactions proceeded progressively for several hours. Both ATP and Mg ++ ions, above their respective optimal concentrations of 5 and 7 mM, inhibited the sulfate conjugation of NADA. The apparent Km values for NADA as determined by the phenolsulfotransferase (PST) and overall reactions were similar in magnitude being 2.6 and 4.8 μM, respectively, while that for sodium 35 sulfate was 202 μM. A comparison of these two activities in 62 platelet preparations of normal subjects showed that the rate of the PST reaction was generally higher than the overall reaction even though the PST assay was carried out at suboptimal concentration of PAPS. There was a positive correlation (r=0.82) between the two sets of data, suggesting that the PST reaction probably has some control over the rate of overall sulfate conjugation

  3. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human vocal fold lamina propria

    Sung Woo Park

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The distribution, concentration and function of glycosaminoglycans in the various vocal fold tissues are still unclear. Objective: To evaluate the distribution and concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different layers of the human vocal fold according to gender and age. Methods: We used 11 vocal folds obtained from cadavers (7 men and 4 women with no laryngeal lesion, less than 12 h after death, and aged between 35 and 98 years. The folds underwent glycosaminoglycans extraction from the cover and ligament, and post-electrophoresis analysis. Data were compared according to the layer, age and gender. Results: The concentration of dermatan sulfate was significantly higher in all layers. No differences were observed in the total concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in layers studied according to gender. It is significantly lower in the cover of individuals aged below 60 years. Conclusion: Dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate were observed in the human vocal folds cover and ligament of both genders, with the concentration of dermatan sulfate being significantly higher in all layers. Glycosaminoglycans concentration on the cover is significantly lower in individuals below 60 years compared with elderly.

  4. Tyrosine sulfation modulates activity of tick-derived thrombin inhibitors

    Thompson, Robert E.; Liu, Xuyu; Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Alonso-García, Noelia; Parker, Benjamin L.; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    Madanin-1 and chimadanin are two small cysteine-free thrombin inhibitors that facilitate blood feeding in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Here, we report a post-translational modification—tyrosine sulfation—of these two proteins that is critical for potent anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activity. Inhibitors produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells displayed heterogeneous sulfation of two tyrosine residues within each of the proteins. One-pot ligation-desulfurization chemistry enabled access to homogeneous samples of all possible sulfated variants of the proteins. Tyrosine sulfation of madanin-1 and chimadanin proved crucial for thrombin inhibitory activity, with the doubly sulfated variants three orders of magnitude more potent than the unmodified inhibitors. The three-dimensional structure of madanin-1 in complex with thrombin revealed a unique mode of inhibition, with the sulfated tyrosine residues binding to the basic exosite II of the protease. The importance of tyrosine sulfation within this family of thrombin inhibitors, together with their unique binding mode, paves the way for the development of anti-thrombotic drug leads based on these privileged scaffolds.

  5. Profile of irritant patch testing with detergents: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate and alkyl polyglucoside.

    Löffler, H; Happle, R

    2003-01-01

    The cutaneous reaction to detergents follows distinct kinetic rules: the duration of application and the irritant concentration are of major importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in kinetics of skin reaction between the standard irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and 2 modern detergents: sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) and alkyl polyglucoside (APG). We performed patch testing with SLS and SLES (or APG) at different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) and with different exposure times (6, 12 and 24 h). Evaluation was conducted by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LD) 24 h, 7 and 10 days after patch removal. We found a pronounced reaction to SLS, and a far milder one to SLES. Even at the highest concentration the skin reaction to APG was hard to detect. During the regeneration period (day 3-10) SLS showed even at day 10 an increased TEWL at all concentrations tested. The irritation due to SLES was convincingly detectable only up to day 7, whereas the APG-tested skin areas showed no significant reaction even at day 3. These results demonstrate the improvement in reduction of skin irritation achieved by development of novel detergents.

  6. Development and validation of an alternative titration method for the determination of sulfate ion in indinavir sulfate

    Breno de Carvalho e Silva

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid precipitation titration method was developed and validated to determine sulfate ion content in indinavir sulfate raw material. 0.1 mol L-1 lead nitrate volumetric solution was used as titrant employing potentiometric endpoint determination using a lead-specific electrode. The United States Pharmacopoeia Forum indicates a potentiometric method for sulfate ion quantitation using 0.1 mol L-1 lead perchlorate as titrant. Both methods were validated concerning linearity, precision and accuracy, yielding good results. The sulfate ion content found by the two validated methods was compared by the statistical t-student test, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference between the methods.

  7. Sulfate resistance of nanosilica contained Portland cement mortars

    Batilov, Iani B.

    Soils, sea water and ground water high in sulfates are commonly encountered hostile environments that can attack the structure of concrete via chemical and physical mechanisms which can lead to costly repairs or replacement. Sulfate attack is a slow acting deteriorative phenomenon that can result in cracking, spalling, expansion, increased permeability, paste-to-aggregate bond loss, paste softening, strength loss, and ultimately, progressive failure of concrete. In the presented research study, Portland cement (PC) mortars containing 1.5% to 6.0% nanosilica (nS) cement replacement by weight were tested for sulfate resistance through full submersion in sodium sulfate to simulate external sulfate attack. Mortars with comparable levels of cement replacement were also prepared with microsilica (mS). Three cement types were chosen to explore nS' effectiveness to reduce sulfate expansion, when paired with cements of varying tricalcium aluminate (C3A) content and Blaine fineness, and compare it to that of mS. Mortars were also made with combined cement replacement of equal parts nS and mS to identify if they were mutually compatible and beneficial towards sulfate resistance. Besides sulfate attack expansion of mortar bars, the testing program included investigations into transport and microstructure properties via water absorption, sulfate ion permeability, porosimetry, SEM with EDS, laser diffraction, compressive strength, and heat of hydration. Expansion measurements indicated that mS replacement mortars outperformed both powder form nS, and nS/mS combined replacement mixtures. A negative effect of the dry nS powder replacement attributed to agglomeration of its nanoparticles during mixing negated the expected superior filler, paste densification, and pozzolanic activity of the nanomaterial. Agglomerated nS was identified as the root cause behind poor performance of nS in comparison to mS for all cement types, and the control when paired with a low C3A sulfate resistant

  8. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate...... of ammonium sulfate addition and ferric sulfation addition compared favorably with the experimental results. However, the model for aluminum sulfate addition under-predicted significantly the high sulfation degree of KCl observed in the experiments, possibly because of an under-estimation of the decomposition...... rate of aluminum. Under the boiler conditions of the present work, the simulation results suggested that the desirable temperature for the ferric sulfate injection was around 950-900oC, whereas for ammonium sulfate the preferable injection temperature was below 800oC....

  9. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum...... sulfate were obtained from experiments in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were investigated in a tube reactor at 600–900 °C, revealing a constant distribution of about 15% SO2 and 85% SO3 from aluminum sulfate decomposition and a temperature...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  10. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering impacts on global agriculture

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Lawrence, P.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering has been proposed to reduce the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. If it is ever used, it would change agricultural production, and so is one of the future climate scenarios for the third phase of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison. As an example of those impacts, we use the Community Land Model (CLM-crop 4.5) to simulate how climate changes from the G4 geoengineering scenario from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project. The G4 geoengineering scenario specifies, in combination with RCP4.5 forcing, starting in 2020 daily injections of a constant amount of SO2 at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year at one point on the Equator into the lower stratosphere. Eight climate modeling groups have completed G4 simulations. We use the crop model to simulate the impacts of climate change (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on the global agriculture system for five crops - rice, maize, soybeans, cotton, and sugarcane. In general, without irrigation, compared with the reference run (RCP4.5), global production of cotton, rice and sugarcane would increase significantly due to the cooling effect. Maize and soybeans show different regional responses. In tropical regions, maize and soybean have a higher yield in G4 compared with RCP4.5, while in the temperate regions they have a lower yield under a geoengineered climate. Impacts on specific countries in terms of different crop production depend on their locations. For example, the United States and Argentina show soybean production reduction of about 15% under G4 compared to RCP4.5, while Brazil increases soybean production by about 10%.

  11. Acute Appendicitis

    Tind, Sofie; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    and treatment of AA it is important that the classifications are consistent. Furthermore, in the clinical settings, incorrect classification might lead to over diagnosing and a prolonged antibiotic treatment. The aim of our study was to investigate the concordance between perioperative diagnosis made......BACKGROUND: The classification of acute appendicitis (AA) into various grades is not consistent, partly because it is not clear whether the perioperative or the histological findings should be the foundation of the classification. When comparing results from the literature on the frequency...

  12. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    Restaino, Odile Francesca, E-mail: odilefrancesca.restaino@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Finamore, Rosario, E-mail: rosario.finamore@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Diana, Paola, E-mail: paola.diana@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Marseglia, Mariacarmela, E-mail: marimars84@hotmail.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Vitiello, Mario, E-mail: mariovitiello.ita@gmail.com [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Casillo, Angela, E-mail: angela.casillo@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Bedini, Emiliano, E-mail: emiliano.bedini@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Parrilli, Michelangelo, E-mail: michelangelo.parrilli@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); and others

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  13. Highly sulfated hexasaccharide sequences isolated from chondroitin sulfate of shark fin cartilage: insights into the sugar sequences with bioactivities.

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Murakoshi, Saori; Kalayanamitra, Kittiwan; Deepa, Sarama Sathyaseelan; Fukui, Shigeyuki; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains regulate the development of the central nervous system in vertebrates and are linear polysaccharides consisting of variously sulfated repeating disaccharides, [-4GlcUAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-](n), where GlcUA and GalNAc represent D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. CS chains containing D-disaccharide units [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)] are involved in the development of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity through interaction with a neurotrophic factor, pleiotrophin, resulting in the regulation of signaling. In this study, to obtain further structural information on the CS chains containing d-disaccharide units involved in brain development, oligosaccharides containing D-units were isolated from a shark fin cartilage. Seven novel hexasaccharide sequences, ΔO-D-D, ΔA-D-D, ΔC-D-D, ΔE-A-D, ΔD-D-C, ΔE-D-D and ΔA-B-D, in addition to three previously reported sequences, ΔC-A-D, ΔC-D-C and ΔA-D-A, were isolated from a CS preparation of shark fin cartilage after exhaustive digestion with chondroitinase AC-I, which cannot act on the galactosaminidic linkages bound to D-units. The symbol Δ stands for a 4,5-unsaturated bond of uronic acids, whereas A, B, C, D, E and O represent [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-, 6-O-sulfate)] and [GlcUA-GalNAc], respectively. In binding studies using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody, MO-225, the epitopes of which are involved in cerebellar development in mammals, novel epitope structures, ΔA-D-A, ΔA-D-D and ΔA-B-D, were revealed. Hexasaccharides containing two consecutive D-units or a B-unit will be useful for the structural and functional analyses of CS chains particularly in the neuroglycobiological fields.

  14. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    Restaino, Odile Francesca; Finamore, Rosario; Diana, Paola; Marseglia, Mariacarmela; Vitiello, Mario; Casillo, Angela; Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2017-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  15. Different mechanisms for lead acetate, aluminum and cadmium sulfate in rat corpus cavernosum

    Senbel, Amira M.; Saad, Evan I.; Taha, Safaa S.; Mohamed, Hosny F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some heavy metals show adverse vascular and neurological effects, however, their effect on erection is underestimated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Pb, Cd and Al on erectile function and their potential mechanism of action in rats. Methods: Measurement of intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) changes elicited by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve in anesthetized rats treated with Pb-acetate, Al-sulfate, or Cd-sulfate acutely, and subacutely for 7 days. Serum creatinine, testosterone, TBARs, GSH levels and metal accumulation in corpus cavernosum were measured. Results: Pb, Al and Cd significantly reduced ICP/MAP in rats after acute (2,10–2,10 and 1,3 mg/kg respectively) and sub-acute (3, 3, and 1 mg/kg/day respectively) treatments. They selectively accumulated in the corpus cavernosum reaching 25.107 ± 2.081 μg/g wet weight for Pb, 1.029 ± 0.193 for Cd, 31.343 ± 1.991 for Al, compared to 7.084 ± 1.517, 0.296 ± 0.067, and 8.86 ± 1.115 as controls respectively. Serum creatinine levels were not altered. Cd and Al significantly reduced testosterone level to 0.483 ± 0.059 and 0.419 ± 0.037 ng/ml respectively compared to 0.927 ± 0.105 ng/ml as control. Aluminum elevated TBARs significantly by 27.843%. The acute anti-erectile action of Pb was blocked by non-selective NOS and GC inhibitors and potassium channel blocker. Lead also masked the potentiatory effect of L-arginine and diazoxide on ICP/MAP. No interaction with muscarinic or nicotinic modulators was observed. Conclusions: Pb, Cd and Al show anti-erectile effect independent on renal injury. They don not modulate cholinergic nor ganglionic transmission in corpus cavernosum. Pb may inhibit NO/cGMP/K + channel pathway. The effect of Cd and Al but not Pb seems to be hormonal dependent.

  16. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI PEREDUKSI SULFAT PADA AREA PERTAMBANGAN BATU BARA MUARA ENIM, SUMATERA SELATAN

    Muchamad Yusron; Bibiana W Lay; Anas M Fauzi; Dwi Andreas Santosa

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria utilize sulfate as their terminal electron acceptor and reduce it to sulphide. Acid mine drainage, by-products of mining activities, is an acidic sulfate-rich wastewater suitable habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria collected from Muara Enim coal mining, South Sumatra was carried out at Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Indonesian Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology (ICBB), Bogor, and Laborato...

  17. Determination of sulfate in thorium salts using gravimetric technique with previous thorium separation

    Silva, C.M. da; Pires, M.A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. A simple analytical method to analyze sulfates in thorium salt, is presented. The method is based on the thorium separation as hydroxide. The gravimetric technique is used to analyze the sulfate in the filtered as barium sulfate. Using this method, the sulfate separation from thorium has been reach 99,9% yield, and 0,1% precision. This method is applied to thorium salts specifically thorium sulfate, carbonate and nitrate. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  18. sup(113m)indium-iron chondroitin sulfate colloid for quantitative assessment of the marrow RE function

    Okuyama, S; Ito, Y; Takahashi, K; Sato, T; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1975-07-01

    sup(113m)In-iron chondroitin sulfate colloid shows a large accumulation in the bone marrow and is suitable for bone marrow imaging. Quantitative assessment of the marrow reticuloendotherial function was performed using this compound. When an appropriate amount of iron carrier was added for adjustment, the rate of accumulation of hyperfunction in the marrow reticuloendotherial system (RES) induced by acute loss of blood increased. Marrow RES hypofunction was efficiently exhibited regardless of the presence or absence of iron carrier. Deposition of sup(113m)In-iron chondroitin sulfate in the spleen increased remarkably in the presence of carrier In. sup(113m)In-iron chondroitin sulfate colloid appears to be suitable for the measurement of the conditions of marrow RES functions. If short half-life nuclide radio-colloids of the present type are clinically applied, it is possible not only to elaborately observe the bone marrow by scintigraphy but also to gradually decrease the absorbed dose of irradiation.

  19. sup(113m)indium-iron chondroitin sulfate colloid for quantitative assessment of the marrow RE function

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Kunibumi; Sato, Tachio; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1975-01-01

    sup(113m)In-iron chondroitin sulfate colloid shows a large accumulation in the bone marrow and is suitable for bone marrow imaging. Quantitative assessment of the marrow reticuloendotherial function was performed using this compound. When an appropriate amount of iron carrier was added for adjustment, the rate of accumulation of hyperfunction in the marrow reticuloendotherial system (RES) induced by acute loss of blood increased. Marrow RES hypofunction was efficiently exhibited regardless of the presence or absence of iron carrier. Deposition of sup(113m)In-iron chondroitin sulfate in the spleen increased remarkably in the presence of carrier In. sup(113m)In-iron chondroitin sulfate colloid appears to be suitable for the measurement of the conditions of marrow RES functions. If short half-life nuclide radio-colloids of the present type are clinically applied, it is possible not only to elaborately observe the bone marrow by scintigraphy but also to gradually decrease the absorbed dose of irradiation. (Mukohata, S.)

  20. Analysis of Saprolegnia parasitica Transcriptome following Treatment with Copper Sulfate.

    Kun Hu

    Full Text Available Massive infection caused by oomycete fungus Saprolegnia parasitica is detrimental to freshwater fish. Recently, we showed that copper sulfate demonstrated good efficacy for controlling S. parasitica infection in grass carp. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition of S. parasitica growth by copper sulfate by analyzing the transcriptome of copper sulfate-treated S. parasitica. To examine the mechanism of copper sulfate inhibiting S. parasitica, we utilized RNA-seq technology to compare differential gene expression in S. parasitica treated with or without copper sulfate.The total mapped rates of the reads with the reference genome were 90.50% in the control group and 73.50% in the experimental group. In the control group, annotated splice junctions, partial novel splice junctions and complete novel splice junctions were about 83%, 3% and 14%, respectively. In the treatment group, the corresponding values were about 75%, 6% and 19%. Following copper sulfate treatment, a total 310 genes were markedly upregulated and 556 genes were markedly downregulated in S. parasitica. Material metabolism related GO terms including cofactor binding (33 genes, 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase complex (4 genes, carboxylic acid metabolic process (40 genes were the most significantly enriched. KEGG pathway analysis also determined that the metabolism-related biological pathways were significantly enriched, including the metabolic pathways (98 genes, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites pathways (42 genes, fatty acid metabolism (13 genes, phenylalanine metabolism (7 genes, starch and sucrose metabolism pathway (12 genes. The qRT-PCR results were largely consistent with the RNA-Seq results.Our results indicate that copper sulfate inhibits S. parasitica growth by affecting multiple biological functions, including protein synthesis, energy biogenesis, and metabolism.

  1. Expression and activity of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in curly kale in response to sulfate deprivation and re-supply

    Koralewska, Aleksandra; Buchner, Peter; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Posthumus, Freek S.; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2009-01-01

    Both activity and expression of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in plants are modulated by the sulfur status of the plant. To examine the regulatory mechanisms in curly kale (Brossica olerracea L.), the sulfate supply was manipulated by the transfer of seedlings to sulfate-deprived

  2. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    Acute lower extremity ischaemia. Acute lower limb ischaemia is a surgical emergency. ... is ~1.5 cases per 10 000 persons per year. Acute ischaemia ... Table 2. Clinical features discriminating embolic from thrombotic ALEXI. Clinical features.

  3. Acute kidney failure

    ... Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Devarajan P. Biomarkers for assessment of renal function during acute kidney injury. In: Alpern RJ, Moe OW, Caplan M, ...

  4. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    K. C. Kwong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4− has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ⋅ − upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19  ×  10−13 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27  ×  1012 molecule cm−3 s, only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we

  5. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Chung Kwong, Kai; Chim, Man Mei; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Nin Chan, Man

    2018-02-01

    Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na) droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH) of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4-) has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O) and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ṡ -) upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27 × 1012 molecule cm-3 s), only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we firstly demonstrate that the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an

  6. Esterification of fatty acids using sulfated zirconia and composites activated carbon/sulfated zirconia catalysts

    Brum, Sarah S.; Santos, Valeria C. dos; Destro, Priscila; Guerreiro, Mario Cesar

    2011-01-01

    In this work sulfated zirconia (SZr) and activated carbon/SZr composites produced by impregnation method with or without heating treatment step (CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-I SC) and by the method of synthesis of SZr on the carbon (CABC/SZr-S) was used as catalysts in the esterification reactions of fatty acids. The SZr presented very active, conversions higher than 90% were obtained after 2 h of reaction. The activity of the composite CABC/SZr-I20%SC was up to 92%, however, this was directly related to time and temperature reactions. CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-S were less active in esterification reactions, what could be attributed to its low acidity. (author)

  7. Behaviour of cementitious materials: sulfates and temperature actions

    Barbarulo, Remi

    2002-09-01

    The research work presented in this Ph.D. thesis is related to the nuclear waste underground repository concept. Concrete could be used in such a repository, and would be subjected to variations of temperature in presence of sulfate, a situation that could induce expansion of concrete. The research was lead in three parts: an experimental study of the possibility of an internal sulfate attack on mortars; an experimental study and modeling of the chemical equilibriums of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system; and a modeling of the mechanisms of internal and external sulfate attacks, and the effect of temperature. The results show that mortars can develop expansions after a steam-cure during hydration, but also when a long steam-cure is applied to one-year-old mortars, which is a new point. Ettringite precipitation can be considered as responsible for these expansions. The experimental study of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system clarified the role of Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C-S-H) on chemical equilibriums of cementitious materials. Sulfate sorption on C-S-H has been studied in detail. The quantity of sulfate bound to the C-S-H mainly depends on the sulfate concentration in solution, on the Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H and is not significantly influenced by temperature. Aluminium inclusion in the C-S-H seems to be a significant phenomenon. Temperature increases the calcium sulfo-aluminate solubilities and thus increases sulfates concentration in solution. A modeling of the chemical system is proposed. Simulations of external sulfate attack (15 mmol/L of Na 2 SO 4 ) predict ettringite precipitation at 20 and 85±C. Simulation of internal sulfate attack was performed at a local scale (a hydrated cement grain). An initial inhomogeneity can lead, after a thermal curing at 85±C, to ettringite precipitation in zones originally free from ettringite. This new-formed ettringite could be the origin of the expansions. (author) [fr

  8. Russian experience with injectable chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate: a review of clinical trials

    A. E. Karateev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of parenteral chondroprotectors is a feature of Russian medical practice. There are many drugs of this series in a Russian physician's arsenal, including chondroitin sulfate (CS,  glucosamine sulfate (GS, glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex, and  bioactive concentrate from small sea fish for intramuscular  injections. The paper analyzes Russian trials of the efficacy and  safety of two injectable formulations of CS and GS (ICS and IGS.  ICS was tested in 17 articles containing a total of 1639 patients with  osteoarthritis (OA, non-specific back pain (NBP, or shoulder  fractures and pain after stroke. Standard therapy (NSAIDs +  physiotherapy served as a control in the majority of the paper. In  these trials, the reductions in visual analog scale (VAS and WOMAC pain in OA treated with ICS averaged 58.2±22.3% and those were 26.1±14.7% in the control groups; the reductions in VAS NBP  reached an average of 87.1±16.8 and 62.2±21.7%, respectively.  ICS also showed a good effect in shoulder fractures and pain after a  stroke. The number of local adverse reactions after injections was  insignificant (4.4%; they did not threaten the health of patients and they caused ICS to be discontinued only in 3 cases. IGS was  investigated in two trials (n=154, which confirmed its efficacy (total pain relief >50% and relative safety. Thus, the data of Russian trials suggest that ICS and IGS have good therapeutic potential and favorable tolerance.

  9. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea......The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K...... and with reactant concentrations of 500–3000 ppm SO2, 1–20% O2, and 4–15% H2O. The degree of sulfation was monitored by measuring the formation of HCl. Analysis of the solid residue confirmed that the reaction proceeds according to a shrinking core model and showed the formation of an eutectic at higher...... temperatures. On the basis of the experimental results, a rate expression for the sulfation reaction was derived. The model compared well with literature data for sulfation of KCl and NaCl, and the results indicate that it may be applied at even higher SO2 concentrations and temperatures than those...

  10. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina ( 1000 μg.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

  11. Tyrosine Sulfation as a Protein Post-Translational Modification

    Yuh-Shyong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of inorganic sulfate into biological molecules plays an important role in biological systems and is directly involved in the instigation of diseases. Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS is a common post-translational modification that was first reported in the literature fifty years ago. However, the significance of PTS under physiological conditions and its link to diseases have just begun to be appreciated in recent years. PTS is catalyzed by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST through transfer of an activated sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to tyrosine in a variety of proteins and peptides. Currently, only a small fraction of sulfated proteins is known and the understanding of the biological sulfation mechanisms is still in progress. In this review, we give an introductory and selective brief review of PTS and then summarize the basic biochemical information including the activity and the preparation of TPST, methods for the determination of PTS, and kinetics and reaction mechanism of TPST. This information is fundamental for the further exploration of the function of PTS that induces protein-protein interactions and the subsequent biochemical and physiological reactions.

  12. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  13. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Marquardt, Allison B.

    2009-01-01

    We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  14. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  15. Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration

    Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-10-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

  16. Is Encephalopathy a Mechanism to Renew Sulfate in Autism?

    Laurie Lentz-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two claims: (1 autism can be characterized as a chronic low-grade encephalopathy, associated with excess exposure to nitric oxide, ammonia and glutamate in the central nervous system, which leads to hippocampal pathologies and resulting cognitive impairment, and (2, encephalitis is provoked by a systemic deficiency in sulfate, but associated seizures and fever support sulfate restoration. We argue that impaired synthesis of cholesterol sulfate in the skin and red blood cells, catalyzed by sunlight and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, creates a state of colloidal instability in the blood manifested as a low zeta potential and increased interfacial stress. Encephalitis, while life-threatening, can result in partial renewal of sulfate supply, promoting neuronal survival. Research is cited showing how taurine may not only help protect neurons from hypochlorite exposure, but also provide a source for sulfate renewal. Several environmental factors can synergistically promote the encephalopathy of autism, including the herbicide, glyphosate, aluminum, mercury, lead, nutritional deficiencies in thiamine and zinc, and yeast overgrowth due to excess dietary sugar. Given these facts, dietary and lifestyle changes, including increased sulfur ingestion, organic whole foods, increased sun exposure, and avoidance of toxins such as aluminum, mercury, and lead, may help to alleviate symptoms or, in some instances, to prevent autism altogether.

  17. Evaluation of toxicity reduction of sodium dodecyl sulfate submitted to electron beam radiation

    Romanelli, M. F.; Moraes, M. C. F.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Surfactants, as detergent active substances, are an important source of pollution causing biological adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Several data have been showing ecological disturbance due to the high concentration of surfactants on receiving waters and on wastewater treatment plants. Ionizing radiation has been proved as an effective technology to decompose organic substances and few papers have included ecotoxicological aspects. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity of a specific surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), when diluted in distilled water and submitted to electron beam radiation. The study included two test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. Radiation processing resulted in an important acute toxicity removal for both assays, which can be summarized between 70% and 96%, using 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.0 kGy as radiation doses. Nevertheless, lower doses demonstrated better effect than 9.0 and 12.0 kGy and the bacterium assay was more sensitive to SDS than crustacean assay.

  18. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    He, Pengzhen; Alexander, Becky; Geng, Lei; Chi, Xiyuan; Fan, Shidong; Zhan, Haicong; Kang, Hui; Zheng, Guangjie; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing

    2018-04-01

    Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter) in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m-3 with a mean of (141 ± 88 (1σ)) µg m-3, with SO42- representing 8-25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42-) varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9 ± 0.3) ‰. Δ17O(SO42-) increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5 ≥ 75 µg m-3) of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III-V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet) was estimated to contribute 41-54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48 ± 5) %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV) ( = SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3- + SO32-) oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5-13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42-). Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV) oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21-22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42-), such as S(IV) oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a radical chain mechanism, contributed the remaining 66-73 % of Phet. The assumption about the thermodynamic state of aerosols

  19. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    P. He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42− collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m−3 with a mean of (141  ±  88 (1σ µg m−3, with SO42− representing 8–25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42− varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9  ±  0.3 ‰. Δ17O(SO42− increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5  ≥  75 µg m−3 of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III–V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet was estimated to contribute 41–54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48  ±  5 %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV ( =  SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3−  +  SO32− oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5–13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42−. Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21–22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42−, such as S(IV oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a

  20. Artificial electron acceptors decouple archaeal methane oxidation from sulfate reduction.

    Scheller, Silvan; Yu, Hang; Chadwick, Grayson L; McGlynn, Shawn E; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-02-12

    The oxidation of methane with sulfate is an important microbial metabolism in the global carbon cycle. In marine methane seeps, this process is mediated by consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) that live in syntrophy with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The underlying interdependencies within this uncultured symbiotic partnership are poorly understood. We used a combination of rate measurements and single-cell stable isotope probing to demonstrate that ANME in deep-sea sediments can be catabolically and anabolically decoupled from their syntrophic SRB partners using soluble artificial oxidants. The ANME still sustain high rates of methane oxidation in the absence of sulfate as the terminal oxidant, lending support to the hypothesis that interspecies extracellular electron transfer is the syntrophic mechanism for the anaerobic oxidation of methane. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

    2011-03-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

  2. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section

    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  3. Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section.

    Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

    2014-10-01

    Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

  4. Uranyl Sulfate Nanotubules Templated by N-phenylglycine

    Oleg I. Siidra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, structure, and infrared spectroscopy properties of the new organically templated uranyl sulfate Na(phgH+7[(UO26(SO410](H2O3.5 (1, obtained at room temperature by evaporation from aqueous solution, are reported. Its structure contains unique uranyl sulfate [(UO26(SO410]8− nanotubules templated by protonated N-phenylglycine (C6H5NH2CH2COOH+. Their internal diameter is 1.4 nm. Each of the nanotubules is built from uranyl sulfate rings sharing common SO4 tetrahedra. The template plays an important role in the formation of the complex structure of 1. The aromatic rings are stacked parallel to each other due to the effect of π–π interaction with their side chains extending into the gaps between the nanotubules.

  5. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production...... and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... of epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  6. Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater from distilleries

    Stadlbauer, E.A.; Oey, L.N.; Weber, B.

    1994-01-01

    Bioprocess evaluation of a staged arrangement of a Pulse Driven Loop Reaktor (PDLR) and a Pulsed Anaerobic Filter (PAF) using highly polluted cherry slops as industrial wastewater shows a COD removal efficiency of 80-90% at loading rates of 8-4 kg COD/(M 3 .d). Contamination of cherry slops by sulfate (2 g/l) and copper (150-200 mg/l) reduces COD degradation to 40-50 percent. A pulsed anaerobic baffled reactor was envisaged as a corrective tool to improve mineralisation in the presence of sulfate-rich substrates by confining sulfate reducing bacteria to the first 4 chambers of the reactor. Phasing slightly improves COD degradation yield, but is not sufficient for stable process performance. Consequently, the use of lactic acid in stead of sulfuric acid in cherry-fermentation was suggested as a preventive method to avoid sulphide-induced digester failure. (orig.) [de

  7. Chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 is necessary for chain extension of chondroitin sulfate but not critical for skeletal development.

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Hatano, Sonoko; Sugiura, Nobuo; Nagai, Naoko; Sato, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Kimata, Koji; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Hideto

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-glucuronic acid residues, modified with sulfated residues at various positions. Based on its structural diversity in chain length and sulfation patterns, CS provides specific biological functions in cell adhesion, morphogenesis, neural network formation, and cell division. To date, six glycosyltransferases are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin saccharide chains, and a hetero-oligomer complex of chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1)/chondroitin synthase-1 and chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 (CSS2)/chondroitin polymerizing factor is known to have the strongest polymerizing activity. Here, we generated and analyzed CSS2(-/-) mice. Although they were viable and fertile, exhibiting no overt morphological abnormalities or osteoarthritis, their cartilage contained CS chains with a shorter length and at a similar number to wild type. Further analysis using CSS2(-/-) chondrocyte culture systems, together with siRNA of CSS1, revealed the presence of two CS chain species in length, suggesting two steps of CS chain polymerization; i.e., elongation from the linkage region up to Mr ∼10,000, and further extension. There, CSS2 mainly participated in the extension, whereas CSS1 participated in both the extension and the initiation. Our study demonstrates the distinct function of CSS1 and CSS2, providing a clue in the elucidation of the mechanism of CS biosynthesis.

  8. Synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan from methyl oleate with O-sulfate chitosan as edible film material

    Daniel; Sihaloho, O.; Saleh, C.; Magdaleni, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The research on the synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan through sulfonation reaction on chitosan with ammonium sulfate and followed by amidation reaction using methyl oleate has been done. In this study, chitosan was chemically modified into N-oleyl O-sulfatechitosan as an edible film making material. N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was synthesized by reaction between methyl oleate and O-sulfate chitosan. Wherein the depleted chitosan of O-sulfate chitosan into O-sulfate chitosan was obtained by reaction of sulfonation between ammonium sulfate and chitosan aldimine. While chitosan aldimine was obtained through reaction between chitosan with acetaldehyde. The structure of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was characterized by FT-IR analysis which showed vibration uptake of C-H sp3 group, S=O group, and carbonyl group C=O of the ester. The resulting of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan yielded a percentage of 93.52%. Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) test results gave a value of 6.68. In the toxicity test results of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan obtained LC50 value of 3738.4732 ppm. In WVTR (Water Vapor Transmission Rate) test results for chitosan film was 407.625 gram/m2/24 hours and N-oleylO-sulfate chitosan film was 201.125 gram/m2/24 hours.

  9. Bacterial PerO Permeases Transport Sulfate and Related Oxyanions.

    Hoffmann, Marie-Christine; Pfänder, Yvonne; Tintel, Marc; Masepohl, Bernd

    2017-07-15

    Rhodobacter capsulatus synthesizes the high-affinity ABC transporters CysTWA and ModABC to specifically import the chemically related oxyanions sulfate and molybdate, respectively. In addition, R. capsulatus has the low-affinity permease PerO acting as a general oxyanion transporter, whose elimination increases tolerance to molybdate and tungstate. Although PerO-like permeases are widespread in bacteria, their function has not been examined in any other species to date. Here, we present evidence that PerO permeases from the alphaproteobacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Dinoroseobacter shibae , Rhodobacter sphaeroides , and Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri functionally substitute for R. capsulatus PerO in sulfate uptake and sulfate-dependent growth, as shown by assimilation of radioactively labeled sulfate and heterologous complementation. Disruption of perO genes in A. tumefaciens , R. sphaeroides , and S. meliloti increased tolerance to tungstate and, in the case of R. sphaeroides , to molybdate, suggesting that heterometal oxyanions are common substrates of PerO permeases. This study supports the view that bacterial PerO permeases typically transport sulfate and related oxyanions and, hence, form a functionally conserved permease family. IMPORTANCE Despite the widespread distribution of PerO-like permeases in bacteria, our knowledge about PerO function until now was limited to one species, Rhodobacter capsulatus In this study, we showed that PerO proteins from diverse bacteria are functionally similar to the R. capsulatus prototype, suggesting that PerO permeases form a conserved family whose members transport sulfate and related oxyanions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Sulfate cooling effects on climate through in-cloud oxidation of anthropogenic SO2

    Lelieveld, J.; Heintzenberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    Anthropogenic SO 2 emissions may exert a significant cooling effect on climate in the Northern Hemisphere through backscattering of solar radiation by sulfate particles. Earlier estimates of the sulfate climate forcing were based on a limited number of sulfate-scattering correlation measurements from which a high sulfate-scattering efficiency was derived. Model results suggest that cloud processing of air is the underlying mechanism. aqueous phase oxidation of SO 2 into sulfate and the subsequent release of the dry aerosol by cloud evaporation render sulfate a much more efficient scatterer than through gas-phase SO 2 oxidation

  11. Chickpea supplementation prior to colitis onset reduces inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate-treated C57Bl/6 male mice.

    Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; McGillis, Laurel H; Wellings, Hannah R; Hutchinson, Amber L; Liddle, Danyelle M; Graf, Daniela; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2018-03-09

    The potential for a chickpea supplemented diet (rich in fermentable non-digestible carbohydrates and phenolic compounds) to modify the colonic microenvironment and attenuate the severity of acute colonic inflammation was investigated. C57Bl/6 male mice were fed a control basal diet (BD) or BD supplemented with 20% cooked chickpea flour for 3 weeks prior to acute colitis onset induced by 7-day exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 2% w/v in drinking water) and colon and serum levels of inflammatory mediators were assessed. Despite an equal degree of DSS-induced epithelial barrier histological damage and clinical symptoms between dietary groups, biomarkers of the ensuing inflammatory response were attenuated by CK pre-feeding including reduced colon tissue activation of NFκB and inflammatory cytokine production (TNFα and IL-18). Additionally, colon protein expression of anti-inflammatory (IL-10) and epithelial repair (IL-22 and IL-27) cytokines were increased by CK pre-feeding. Furthermore, during acute colitis CK pre-feeding increased markers of enhanced colonic function including mRNA expression of Relmβ and IgA. Collectively, CK pre-feeding modulated the baseline function of the colonic microenvironment, whereby upon induction of acute colitis, the severity of the inflammatory response was attenuated.

  12. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  13. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  14. Removal of Sulfate from Waste Water by Activated Carbon

    Mohammed Sadeq Salman

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon was Produced from coconut shell and was used for removing sulfate from industrial waste water in batch Processes. The influence of various parameter were studied such as pH (4.5 9.) , agitation time (0 120)min and adsorbent dose (2 10) gm.The Langmuir and frandlich adsorption capacity models were been investigated where showed there are fitting with langmmuir model with squre regression value ( 0.76). The percent of removal of sulfate (22% - 38%) at (PH=7) in the isotherm ...

  15. Post-flame gas-phase sulfation of potassium chloride

    Li, Bo; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan

    2013-01-01

    The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously homogene......The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously...

  16. Recombinant heparan sulfate for use in tissue engineering applications

    Whitelock, J.; Ma, J.L.; Davies, N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Heparan sulfate (HS) is an important component of many extracellular matrices that interacts with mitogens and morphogens to guide and control tissue and organ development. These interactions are controlled by its structure, which varies when produced by different cell types and diffe......Background: Heparan sulfate (HS) is an important component of many extracellular matrices that interacts with mitogens and morphogens to guide and control tissue and organ development. These interactions are controlled by its structure, which varies when produced by different cell types...

  17. Anti-tumor Study of Chondroitin Sulfate-Methotrexate Nanogels

    Wang, Jinyu; Zhao, Weibo; Chen, Haixiao; Qin, An; Zhu, Peizhi

    2017-10-01

    Self-assembly nanogels (NGs) were formed by bioconjugating methotrexate (MTX) with chondroitin sulfate (CS). MTX-CS NGs can greatly enhance the solubility and improve the delivery efficacy of MTX due to the CD44 binding property of CS. Vivo experiments revealed that MTX-CS NGs showed less toxicity than MTX. MTX-CS NGs can improve the anti-tumor effect while reducing the side effects of MTX. Due to their CD44 binding property, chondroitin sulfate-drug conjugates could be a promising and efficient platform for improving the solubility of sparingly soluble drug molecules as well as targeted delivery to cancer cells and tumor tissues.

  18. Acute abdomen

    Beger, H.G.; Kern, E.

    1987-01-01

    The book first presents the anatomy and physiology of the abdomen and continues with chapters discussing clinical and laboratory aspects and a suitable order of diagnostic examinations with reference to the acute processes, explaining the diagnostic tools: ultrasonography, radiography including angiography and CT, tapping techniques and endoscopy together with their basic principles, examination techniques, and diagnosis. One chapter presents a complete survey of the processes involving the entire abdomen - as e.g. peritonitis, ileus, abdominal trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrage. This chapter profoundly discusses the diagnostics and therapies including emergency measures and surgery. Problems requiring consultation among varous specialists, in internal medicine, gynecology, urology, or pediatrics, are discussed in great detail. Information for the anesthetist is given for cases of emergency. More than one third of the book is devoted to organ-specific information, dicussing the pathogenesis, diagnostics, and therapy of the oesophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, bile ducts, pankreas, liver, spleen, and the abdominal vessels and the abdominal wall. (orig.) With 153 figs., 90 tabs [de

  19. Facile analysis of contents and compositions of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate hybrid chain in shark and ray tissues.

    Takeda, Naoko; Horai, Sawako; Tamura, Jun-ichi

    2016-04-07

    The chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) hybrid chain was extracted from specific tissues of several kinds of sharks and rays. The contents and sulfation patterns of the CS/DS hybrid chain were precisely analyzed by digestion with chondroitinases ABC and AC. All samples predominantly contained the A- and C-units. Furthermore, all samples characteristically contained the D-unit. Species-specific differences were observed in the contents of the CS/DS hybrid chain, which were the highest in Mako and Blue sharks and Sharpspine skates, but were lower in Hammerhead sharks. Marked differences were observed in the ratio of the C-unit/A-unit between sharks and rays. The contents of the CS/DS hybrid chain and the ratio of the C-unit/A-unit may be related to an oxidative stress-decreasing ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic significance of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates in ovarian cancer defined by the single chain antibody GD3A11.

    van der Steen, Sophieke C H A; van Tilborg, Angela A G; Vallen, Myrtille J E; Bulten, Johan; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2016-03-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of ovarian cancer may provide a number of potential biomarkers. Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a class of sulfated polysaccharides, is abundantly present in the ECM of ovarian cancer. Structural alterations of CS chains (i.e. sulfation pattern) have been demonstrated to play a role in cancer development and progression. In this study we investigate the potential of highly sulfated CS as a biomarker in ovarian cancer using the single chain antibody GD3A11 selected by the phage display technology. The specificity of the antibody was determined by an indirect ELISA. GD3A11 epitope expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in healthy organs, benign and malignant ovarian tumors (N=359) and correlated to clinical parameters. The CHST15 gene, responsible for the biosynthesis of highly sulfated CS was evaluated for mutation and methylation status. The GD3A11 epitope was minimally expressed in normal organs. Intense expression was observed in the ECM of different ovarian cancer subtypes, in contrast to benign ovarian tumors. Expression was independent of tumor grade, FIGO stage, and the use chemotherapy. For the aggressive ovarian cancer phenotype, intense expression was identified as an independent predictor for poor prognosis. CHST15 gene analysis showed no mutations nor an altered methylation status. Specific highly sulfated CS motifs expressed in the tumoral ECM hold biomarker potential in ovarian cancer patients. These matrix motifs constitute a novel class of biomarkers with prognostic significance and may be instrumental for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic applications (e.g. targeted therapy) in management of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Weak bases and formation of a less soluble lauryl sulfate salt/complex in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) containing media.

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Risley, Donald S; Werawatganone, Pornpen; Aburub, Aktham

    2011-06-30

    This work reports on the solubility of two weakly basic model compounds in media containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results clearly show that the presence of SLS in the media (e.g. simulated gastric fluid or dissolution media) can result in an underestimation of solubility of some weak bases. We systematically study this phenomenon and provide evidence (chromatography and pXRD) for the first time that the decrease in solubility is likely due to formation of a less soluble salt/complex between the protonated form of the weak base and lauryl sulfate anion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined elimination of organic C, sulfate and heavy metals. Final report; Kombinierte organische C-, Sulfat- und Schwermetalleliminierung. Schlussbericht

    Raebiger, N.

    2002-01-11

    A new biological process for purification of highly burdened industrial effluents was developed in which aerobic, oxygen-limiting reaction conditions ensure simultaneous elimination of organic C, sulfate and heavy metals in a single process step in a compact system. The design data are presented here for the purpose of practical implementation of the process. [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens ist die Entwicklung eines neuen biologischen Verfahrens zur Reinigung hochbelasteter Industrieabwaesser, bei dem durch die Einstellung aerober, sauerstofflimitierender Reaktionsbedingungen eine kombinierte organisch C-, Sulfat- und Schwermetalleliminierung gleichzeitig in einem Verfahrensschritt und kompakter Anlagentechnik realisiert wird. Hierbei werden die Auslegungsunterlagen fuer die praxisrelevante Umsetzung dieses Verfahrens zur Verfuegung gestellt. (orig.)

  3. Acute otitis externa

    Hui, Charles PS

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  4. Study of dosimetric systems-ferrous sulfate-ferric sulfate, glass slides and dyed aqueous solutions

    Fernandes, L.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of some variables which can effect the preparation of the ferrous sulfate used as dosimetric solution has been studied. Among these variables the purity of the water used for the preparation of the solution and the presence (or absence) of oxygen in the dosimetric solution were considered. The dose rate distribution according to the transverse and longitudinal sections of the Co 60 irradiator was studied experimentally, using the dosimetric solution, and theoretically, using a computer program (KIFE). The results obtained with the ferrous sulface dosimetric solution were used as reference for the study of the application of EM and MSG glass slide as a dosimetric system. For this purpose the effects of the weakening of the coloration induced in the glass by gamma rays (Co 60 ) and the relationship between the absorbed dose of radiation and the ratio between the variation in absorbation value and the thickness of the glass irradiated, were studied. A study was also made of the use of the dye indicators bromothymol-blue, methyl-orange, Congo-red, neutral-red and p-nitrophenol, in aqueous solution, for radiation dose measurements. The bleaching of each indicator solution, under gamma-radiation (Co 60 ) was studied in oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres.(Author) [pt

  5. Role of cellular heparan sulfate proteoglycans in infection of human adenovirus serotype 3 and 35.

    Sebastian Tuve

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Species B human adenoviruses (Ads are increasingly associated with outbreaks of acute respiratory disease in U.S. military personnel and civil population. The initial interaction of Ads with cellular attachment receptors on host cells is via Ad fiber knob protein. Our previous studies showed that one species B Ad receptor is the complement receptor CD46 that is used by serotypes 11, 16, 21, 35, and 50 but not by serotypes 3, 7, and 14. In this study, we attempted to identify yet-unknown species B cellular receptors. For this purpose we used recombinant Ad3 and Ad35 fiber knobs in high-throughput receptor screening methods including mass spectrometry analysis and glycan arrays. Surprisingly, we found that the main interacting surface molecules of Ad3 fiber knob are cellular heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs. We subsequently found that HSPGs acted as low-affinity co-receptors for Ad3 but did not represent the main receptor of this serotype. Our study also revealed a new CD46-independent infection pathway of Ad35. This Ad35 infection mechanism is mediated by cellular HSPGs. The interaction of Ad35 with HSPGs is not via fiber knob, whereas Ad3 interacts with HSPGs via fiber knob. Both Ad3 and Ad35 interacted specifically with the sulfated regions within HSPGs that have also been implicated in binding physiologic ligands. In conclusion, our findings show that Ad3 and Ad35 directly utilize HSPGs as co-receptors for infection. Our data suggest that adenoviruses evolved to simulate the presence of physiologic HSPG ligands in order to increase infection.

  6. Lung heparan sulfates modulate Kfc during increased vascular pressure: evidence for glycocalyx-mediated mechanotransduction

    Cluff, Mark; Kingston, Joseph; Hill, Denzil; Chen, Haiyan; Hoehne, Soeren; Malleske, Daniel T.; Kaur, Rajwinederjit

    2012-01-01

    Lung endothelial cells respond to changes in vascular pressure through mechanotransduction pathways that alter barrier function via non-Starling mechanism(s). Components of the endothelial glycocalyx have been shown to participate in mechanotransduction in vitro and in systemic vessels, but the glycocalyx's role in mechanosensing and pulmonary barrier function has not been characterized. Mechanotransduction pathways may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention during states of elevated pulmonary pressure such as acute heart failure, fluid overload, and mechanical ventilation. Our objective was to assess the effects of increasing vascular pressure on whole lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) and characterize the role of endothelial heparan sulfates in mediating mechanotransduction and associated increases in Kfc. Isolated perfused rat lung preparation was used to measure Kfc in response to changes in vascular pressure in combination with superimposed changes in airway pressure. The roles of heparan sulfates, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species were investigated. Increases in capillary pressure altered Kfc in a nonlinear relationship, suggesting non-Starling mechanism(s). nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and heparanase III attenuated the effects of increased capillary pressure on Kfc, demonstrating active mechanotransduction leading to barrier dysfunction. The nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitrosoglutathione exacerbated pressure-mediated increase in Kfc. Ventilation strategies altered lung NO concentration and the Kfc response to increases in vascular pressure. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for the glycocalyx in whole lung mechanotransduction and has important implications in understanding the regulation of vascular permeability in the context of vascular pressure, fluid status, and ventilation strategies. PMID:22160307

  7. Effects of Cheap Antidotes; Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Sulfate in Organophosphorous Poisoning

    Balali-Mood, M.; Afshari, R.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) compounds have been used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Despite administration of well known antidotes (atropine and oximes), morbidity and mortality of OP poisoning were still high. Besides, oximes are very expensive and not available in most developing countries. It was thus aimed to study the effects of cheap available antidotes; sodium bicarbonate and magnesium sulfate in OP poisoning. In addition to the standard antidotal treatment, out of 117 patients (63M, 47F) aged 25.2 ± 9.5 years with moderate to severe acute OP pesticide poisoning 59 were given sodium bicarbonate 5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55. Arterial blood pH increased significantly (p less than 0.01) to 7.48 ± 0.05 compared to the controls (7.32 ± 0.06). Morbidity based on hospitalization days reduced significantly (p less than 0.05) from 5.62 ± 3.4 in the controls to 3.1 ± 2.6 days in the sodium bicarbonate group. Total atropine dose was also significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in the test group. Mortality was lower, but not significantly due to the low numbers (5 and 2 of the controls and test group, respectively). Sodium bicarbonate appeared to be effective and could be added to the treatment regime of OP poisoning. Magnesium sulfate was administered four gram intravenously only for the first 24 hr of hospitalization day for the patients with moderate to severe OP poisoning in a pilot study. The results were promising and thus further investigations are continued.(author)

  8. Eutrophication, microbial-sulfate reduction and mass extinctions

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    to the Earth system, notably, the biogeochemical sulfur and carbon cycle. This climate warming feedback produces large-scale eutrophication on the continental shelf, which, in turn, expands oxygen minimum zones by increased respiration, which can turn to a sulfidic state by increased microbial-sulfate...

  9. Selective discrimination of cyclodextrin diols using cyclic sulfates

    Petrillo, Marta; Marinescu, Lavinia; Rousseau, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    A method for selective monofunctionalition of readily available cyclodextrin diols (2(A-F),3(A-F),6(B,C,E,F)-hexadeca-O-benzyl-alpha-cyclodextrin and 2(A-G),3(A-G),6(B,C,E-G)-nonadeca-O-benzyl-beta-cyclodextrin) by regioselective nucleophilic opening of their cyclic sulfates is presented. Although...

  10. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum ...

  11. Artemin Crystal Structure Reveals Insights into Heparan Sulfate Binding

    Silvian,L.; Jin, P.; Carmillo, P.; Boriack-Sjodin, P.; Pelletier, C.; Rushe, M.; Gong, B.; Sah, D.; Pepinsky, B.; Rossomando, A.

    2006-01-01

    Artemin (ART) promotes the growth of developing peripheral neurons by signaling through a multicomponent receptor complex comprised of a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (cRET) and a specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked co-receptor (GFR{alpha}3). Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a similar ternary complex but requires heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) for full activity. HSPG has not been demonstrated as a requirement for ART signaling. We crystallized ART in the presence of sulfate and solved its structure by isomorphous replacement. The structure reveals ordered sulfate anions bound to arginine residues in the pre-helix and amino-terminal regions that were organized in a triad arrangement characteristic of heparan sulfate. Three residues in the pre-helix were singly or triply substituted with glutamic acid, and the resulting proteins were shown to have reduced heparin-binding affinity that is partly reflected in their ability to activate cRET. This study suggests that ART binds HSPGs and identifies residues that may be involved in HSPG binding.

  12. Pre-harvest calcium sulfate application improves postharvest quality ...

    The quality of cut rose flowers at the postharvest stage is affected by pre-harvest conditions. The present study was conducted to examine the possible involvement of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in regulation of rose flower senescence. Roses (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivars 'Cool Water' and 'Pretty Blinda', were treated with either ...

  13. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions

    Best, Jappe H. de; Salminen, E.; Doddema, Hans J.; Janssen, Dick B.; Harder, Wim

    1998-01-01

    The removal of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions was studied in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor. Carbon tetrachloride, up to a concentration of 30 µM, was completely converted. Chloroform and dichloromethane were the main transformation products, but part of the carbon

  14. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions

    de Best, JH; Salminen, E; Doddema, HJ; Janssen, DB; Harder, W

    1997-01-01

    The removal of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions was studied in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor. Carbon tetrachloride, up to a concentration of 30 mu M, was completely converted. Chloroform and dichloromethane were the main transformation products, but part of the carbon

  15. Two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from the sea cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix.

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2017-05-15

    Two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates EF1 and EF2 were isolated from the sea cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix. Separation of the polysaccharides was performed using anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel by elution of 0.75M and 1.0M NaCl solutions. The structures of biopolymers were determined by chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The backbone of EF1 was found to be composed of chondroitin sulfate A and E units in a ratio of about 1:1. The core of EF2 along with chondroitin sulfate A and E fragments contained unusual disaccharide repeating units →4)-β-d-GlcpA2S3S-(1→3)-β-d-GalpNAc6S-(1→. The main type of branches in both polysaccharides was α-l-Fucp3S4S unit attached to O-3 of GlcA residues. Another type of branches was found to be the disaccharide fragment α-l-Fucp-(1→2)-α-l-Fucp3S4S-(1→ linked to O-3 of GlcA. The presence of structurally different fucosylated chondroitin sulfates in one species of sea cucumber is rather unusual and has not been described previously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  17. Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate

    Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate .... C in mixed solvents of 50 mL ethanol and 30 mL water for different reaction times was characterized by .... Duan X, Huang Y, Cui Y, Wang J and Lieber C M 2001 Nature 409 66.

  18. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... edible vegetable oil using 1-butanol. Following sulfation, the reaction mixture is washed with water and...

  19. Biotechnological aspects of sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor

    Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction can be used for the removal and recovery of oxidized sulfur compounds and metals from waste streams. However, the costs of conventional electron donors, like hydrogen and ethanol, limit the application possibilities. Methane from natural gas or biogas would be a more

  20. Role of sulfates on highway heave in Lake County, Ohio.

    2014-01-01

    Samples from borings in areas of heave on Route 2, Lake County, OH were analyzed for the amount, mineral form, : and distribution of sulfates. In addition, samples of non-stabilized (NSS) and cement-stabilized (CSS) soils from : three stations along ...

  1. Sulfate Reduction at Low Ph To Remediate Acid Mine Drainage

    Sánchez-Andrea, I.; Sanz, J.L.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities,

  2. Mercury and lead tolerance in hypersaline sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Harithsa, S.; Kerkar, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -sporulating, non-motile rods lacking in desulfoviridin and cytochromes. Examination of these isolates for heavy metal tolerance and response studies in terms of growth and sulfate-reducing activity (SRA) were carried out using HgCl sub(2) and Pb(NO sub(3)) sub(2...

  3. Brain ageing changes proteoglycan sulfation, rendering perineuronal nets more inhibitory.

    Foscarin, Simona; Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Fawcett, James W; Kwok, Jessica C F

    2017-06-28

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in perineuronal nets (PNNs) from the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in the control of plasticity and memory. Removing PNNs reactivates plasticity and restores memory in models of Alzheimer's disease and ageing. Their actions depend on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CS proteoglycans, which are mainly sulfated in the 4 (C4S) or 6 (C6S) positions. While C4S is inhibitory, C6S is more permissive to axon growth, regeneration and plasticity. C6S decreases during critical period closure. We asked whether there is a late change in CS-GAG sulfation associated with memory loss in aged rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed a progressive increase in C4S and decrease in C6S from 3 to 18 months. GAGs extracted from brain PNNs showed a large reduction in C6S at 12 and 18 months, increasing the C4S/C6S ratio. There was no significant change in mRNA levels of the chondroitin sulfotransferases. PNN GAGs were more inhibitory to axon growth than those from the diffuse extracellular matrix. The 18-month PNN GAGs were more inhibitory than 3-month PNN GAGs. We suggest that the change in PNN GAG sulfation in aged brains renders the PNNs more inhibitory, which lead to a decrease in plasticity and adversely affect memory.

  4. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine...

  5. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  6. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Aranghel, D., E-mail: daranghe@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Reactorului 30,RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Badita, C. R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomiştilor 405, CP MG - 11, RO – 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Radulescu, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, 85747 Garching (Germany); Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O. [National Institute R& D for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independenţei 296, sector 6, cod 060031, C.P. 17-16, Bucharest (Romania); Balasoiu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-25

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca{sup 2+} by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl{sub 2}) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  7. Anaerobic BTEX biodegradation linked to nitrate and sulfate reduction

    Dou Junfeng; Liu Xiang; Hu Zhifeng; Deng Dong

    2008-01-01

    Effective anaerobic BTEX biodegradation was obtained under nitrate and sulfate reducing conditions by the mixed bacterial consortium that were enriched from gasoline contaminated soil. Under the conditions of using nitrate or sulfate as reducing acceptor, the degradation rates of the six tested substrates decreased with toluene > ethylbenzene > m-xylene > o-xylene > benzene > p-xylene. The higher concentrations of BTEX were toxic to the mixed cultures and led to reduce the degradation rates of BTEX. Benzene and p-xylene were more toxic than toluene and ethylbenzene. Nitrate was a more favorable electron acceptor compared to sulfate. The measured ratios between the amount of nitrate consumed and the amount of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene degraded were 9.47, 9.26, 11.14, 12.46, 13.36 and 13.02, respectively. The measured ratios between sulfate reduction and BTEX degradation were 3.51, 4.33, 4.89, 4.81, 4.86 and 4.76, respectively, which were nearly the same to theoretical ones, and the relative error between the measured and calculated ratios was less than 10%

  8. Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate

    Calcium sulfate nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and sheets had been synthesized via a facile solution reaction of CaCl2 and H2SO4 in mixed solvents of ethanol/, -dimethylformamide and deionized water at 35°C. The results indicated that well-crystallized CaSO4 nanomaterials with different morphology were obtained ...

  9. Distribution of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA

    Kerryn Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate (HS catabolism begins with endo-degradation of the polysaccharide to smaller HS oligosaccharides, followed by the sequential action of exo-enzymes to reduce these oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and inorganic sulfate. In mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA the exo-enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, is deficient resulting in an inability to hydrolyze non-reducing end glucosamine N-sulfate esters. Consequently, partially degraded HS oligosaccharides with non-reducing end glucosamine sulfate esters accumulate. We investigated the distribution of these HS oligosaccharides in tissues of a mouse model of MPS IIIA using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide levels were compared to total uronic acid (UA, which was used as a measure of total glycosaminoglycan. Ten oligosaccharides, ranging in size from di- to hexasaccharides, were present in all the tissues examined including brain, spleen, lung, heart, liver, kidney and urine. However, the relative levels varied up to 10-fold, suggesting different levels of HS turnover and storage. The relationship between the di- and tetrasaccharides and total UA was tissue specific with spleen and kidney showing a different disaccharide:total UA ratio than the other tissues. The hexasaccharides showed a stronger correlation with total UA in all tissue types suggesting that hexasaccharides may more accurately reflect the storage burden in these tissues.

  10. Microbial fuel cell based on electroactive sulfate-reducing biofilm

    Angelov, Anatoliy; Bratkova, Svetlana; Loukanov, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Regulation and management of electricity generation by variation of residence time. ► Design of microbial fuel cell based on electroactive biofilm on zeolite. ► Engineering solution for removing of the obtained elemental sulfur. - abstract: A two chambered laboratory scale microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been developed, based on natural sulfate-reducing bacterium consortium in electroactive biofilm on zeolite. The MFC utilizes potassium ferricyanide in the cathode chamber as an electron acceptor that derives electrons from the obtained in anode chamber H 2 S. The molecular oxygen is finally used as a terminal electron acceptor at cathode compartment. The generated power density was 0.68 W m −2 with current density of 3.2 A m −2 at 150 Ω electrode resistivity. The hydrogen sulfide itself is produced by microbial dissimilative sulfate reduction process by utilizing various organic substrates. Finally, elemental sulfur was identified as the predominant final oxidation product in the anode chamber. It was removed from MFC through medium circulation and gathering in an external tank. This report reveals dependence relationship between the progress of general electrochemical parameters and bacterial sulfate-reduction rate. The presented MFC design can be used for simultaneous sulfate purification of mining drainage wastewater and generation of renewable electricity

  11. Case study of elevated layers of high sulfate concentration

    McNaughton, D.J.; Orgill, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    During studies in August 1976 that were part of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollutant Study (MAP3S), Alkezweeny et al., (1977) noted that in the Milwaukee urban plume, layers of relatively high sulfate concentrations occurred at high altitudes with respect to the boundary layer. This paper represents a progress report on studies undertaken to investigate possible causes for a bimodel vertical profile of sulfate concentrations. Data presented by Alkezweeny et al., (1977) serve as a basis for this study. Data from August 23, 1976, and August 24, 1978, indicate concentrations relatively high in sulfate, at 1000 and 6000 ft, respectively, with lower concentrations at lower altitudes. Concentrations of trace metals also indicate no peaks in the vertical concentration profiles above the surface. Initial studies of the high, elevated sulfate concentrations have centered on the August 23 measurements taken over southeast Wisconsin using synoptic data from the national weather service, emissions data from the national emissions data bank system (EPA), air quality data from the national air surveillance network (EPA), and satellite photographs from the EROS Data Center

  12. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    Zhang Ming; Zhang Bao; Li Xinhai; Yin Zhoulan; Guo Xueyi

    2011-01-01

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO 4 particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO 4 particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO 4 were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO 4 was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO 4 absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  13. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    Zhang Ming, E-mail: csu.light@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing 526061 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhang Bao; Li Xinhai [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yin Zhoulan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guo Xueyi [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO{sub 4} particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO{sub 4} particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO{sub 4} were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO{sub 4} was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO{sub 4} absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  14. Alginate Sulfate-Nanocellulose Bioinks for Cartilage Bioprinting Applications.

    Müller, Michael; Öztürk, Ece; Arlov, Øystein; Gatenholm, Paul; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges of bioprinting is to identify bioinks which support cell growth, tissue maturation, and ultimately the formation of functional grafts for use in regenerative medicine. The influence of this new biofabrication technology on biology of living cells, however, is still being evaluated. Recently we have identified a mitogenic hydrogel system based on alginate sulfate which potently supports chondrocyte phenotype, but is not printable due to its rheological properties (no yield point). To convert alginate sulfate to a printable bioink, it was combined with nanocellulose, which has been shown to possess very good printability. The alginate sulfate/nanocellulose ink showed good printing properties and the non-printed bioink material promoted cell spreading, proliferation, and collagen II synthesis by the encapsulated cells. When the bioink was printed, the biological performance of the cells was highly dependent on the nozzle geometry. Cell spreading properties were maintained with the lowest extrusion pressure and shear stress. However, extruding the alginate sulfate/nanocellulose bioink and chondrocytes significantly compromised cell proliferation, particularly when using small diameter nozzles and valves.

  15. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-03-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca2+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca2+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  16. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca"2"+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca"2"+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl_2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  17. Sulfated mucopolysaccharides from different types of mastocytes kept in culture

    Nader, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two different types of mice mastocitomas - solid and/or ascitic - are analysed in detail using a methodology based mainly in azarose gel microelectrophoresis and degradation by specific mucopolysaccharidases. Sulfated mucopolysaccharides are assayed in both types of tumors in cells cultivated in vitro. Radioactive precursors and autoradiographic techniques are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  18. Evaluating performance-based test and specifications for sulfate resistance in concrete

    2000-12-01

    This research project involved an experimental evaluation of the sulfate resistance of various concretes and mortars for the purpose of establishing performance-based specifications for the durability of concrete against sulfate attack. The research ...

  19. Calcium-based stabilizer induced heave in Oklahoma sulfate-bearing soils.

    2011-06-01

    The addition of lime stabilizers can create problems in soils containing sulfates. In most cases, lime is mixed with expansive soils rendering them non-expansive; however, when a certain amount of sulfate is present naturally in expansive soils, the ...

  20. Potential for Sulfate Reduction in Mangrove Forest Soils: Comparison between Two Dominant Species of the Americas

    Balk, Melike; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2016-01-01

    . To test this hypothesis, we measured sulfate reduction traits in soil samples collected from neighboring Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle stands at three different locations in southern Florida. The traits measured were sulfate reduction rates

  1. Nitrate and sulfate reducers-retrievable number of bacteria and their activities in Indian waters

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    Culturable heterotrophic, nitrate reducing and sulfate reducing bacteria (HB, NRB and SRB) were enumerated from 25, 50, 100 and 200 m depths at 15 stations and their potential activities viz. Nitrate reducing (NRA) and Sulfate reducing (SRA) were...

  2. Parameterization and evaluation of sulfate adsorption in a dynamic soil chemistry model

    Martinson, Liisa; Alveteg, Mattias; Warfvinge, Per

    2003-01-01

    Including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the SAFE model. - Sulfate adsorption was implemented in the dynamic, multi-layer soil chemistry model SAFE. The process is modeled by an isotherm in which sulfate adsorption is considered to be fully reversible and dependent on sulfate concentration as well as pH in soil solution. The isotherm was parameterized by a site-specific series of simple batch experiments at different pH (3.8-5.0) and sulfate concentration (10-260 μmol l -1 ) levels. Application of the model to the Lake Gaardsjoen roof covered site shows that including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the model and sulfate adsorption and desorption delay acidification and recovery of the soil. The modeled adsorbed pool of sulfate at the site reached a maximum level of 700 mmol/m 2 in the late 1980s, well in line with experimental data

  3. Presence of sulfate does not inhibit low-temperature dolomite precipitation

    Sánchez-Román, Mónica; McKenzie, Judith A.; de Luca Rebello Wagener, Angela; Rivadeneyra, Maria A.; Vasconcelos, Crisógono

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that sulfate inhibits dolomite formation evolved from geochemical studies of porewaters from deep-sea sedimentary sequences and has been tested with hydrothermal experiments. We examined the sulfate inhibition factor using aerobic culture experiments with Virgibacillus marismortui and

  4. Accelerated test for measuring sulfate resistance of hydraulic cements for Caltrans LLPRS program

    2000-04-01

    Many California soils are rich in sulfates, which can have deleterious effects on the cements used in rigid pavements. Field experience has demonstrated that sulfate attack usually manifests itself in the form of loss of adhesion and strength. In ord...

  5. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Lee, Chin-Yu; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. ► Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. ► The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. ► The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  6. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: cedean@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chin-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Center for Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  7. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine into heparan and chondroitin sulfates during the cell cycle of B16-F10 cells

    Blair, O.C.; Sartorelli, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in glycosaminoglycan composition occurring during the cell cycle were determined in B16-F10 cells sorted flow cytometrically with respect to DNA content. Incorporation of 35 S-sulfate into heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate of unsorted and G1,S, and G2 +M sorted cells was determined following chondroitinase ABC or nitrous acid treatment; the incorporation into surface material was measured as the difference between the radioactivity of control and trypsin-treated cells. Incorporation of 35 S-sulfate and 3 H-glucosamine into cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC)-precipitable material was characterized before and after chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment by Sephadex G50 chromatography. Long-term (48 h) and short-term (1 h) labeling studies demonstrate that (a) the amount of total cellular chondroitin sulfate is greater than that of heparan sulfate, with larger amounts of unsulfated heparan than chondroitin being present; (b) the rate of turnover of heparan sulfate is greater than that of chondroitin sulfate; (c) greatest short-term incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into CPC-precipitable material occurs during S phase; and (d) the rate of turnover of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate is decreased in S phase relative to G1 and G2 + M

  8. Modeling of Sulfate Double-Salt in Nuclear Wastes

    Toghiani, B.; Lindner, J.S.; Weber, C.F.; Hunt, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) continues to adequately predict the solubility of most key chemical systems in the Hanford tank waste. For example, the ESP predictions were in fair agreement with the solubility experiments for the fluoride-phosphate system, although ESP probably underestimates the aqueous amounts. Due to the importance of this system in the formation of pipeline plugs, additional experiments have been made at elevated temperatures, and improvements to the ESP database will be made. ESP encountered problems with sulfate systems because the Public database for ESP does not include anhydrous sodium sulfate in mixed solutions below 32.4 C. This limitation leads to convergence problems and to spurious predictions of solubility near the transition point with sodium sulfate decahydrate when other salts such as sodium nitrate are present. However, ESP was able to make reasonable solubility predictions with a corrected database, demonstrating the need to validate and document the various databases that can be used by ESP. Even though ESP does not include the sulfate-nitrate double salt, this omission does not appear to be a major problem. The solubility predictions with and without the sulfate-nitrate double salt are comparable. In sharp contrast, the sulfate-fluoride double salt is included, but ESP still underestimates solubility in some cases. This problem can misrepresent the ionic strength of the solution, which is an important factor in the formation of pipeline plugs. Solubility tests on the sulfate-fluoride system are planned to provide additional data at higher temperatures and in caustic solutions. These results will be used to improve the range and accuracy of ESP predictions. ESP will continue to provide important predictions for waste processing operations while being evaluated and improved. For example, ESP will be used to determine the amount of water for the saltcake dissolution efforts at Hanford. When ESP underestimates the

  9. Sulfation of ceria-zirconia model automotive emissions control catalysts

    Nelson, Alan Edwin

    Cerium-zirconium mixed metal oxides are used in automotive emissions control catalysts to regulate the partial pressure of oxygen near the catalyst surface. The near surface oxygen partial pressure is regulated through transfer of atomic oxygen from the ceria-zirconia solid matrix to the platinum group metals to form metal oxides capable of oxidizing carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Although the addition of zirconium in the cubic lattice of ceria increases the oxygen storage capacity and thermal stability of the ceria matrix, the cerium-zirconium oxide system remains particularly susceptible to deactivation from sulfur compounds. While the overall effect of sulfur on these systems is understood (partially irreversible deactivation), the fundamental and molecular interaction of sulfur with ceria-zirconia remains a challenging problem. Ceria-zirconia metal oxide solid solutions have been prepared through co-precipitation with nitrate precursors. The prepared powders were calcined and subsequently formed into planer wafers and characterized for chemical and physical attributes. The prepared samples were subsequently exposed to a sulfur dioxide based environment and characterized with spectroscopic techniques to characterize the extent of sulfation and the nature of surface sulfur species. The extent of sulfation of the model ceria-zirconia systems was characterized with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prior to and after treatment in a microreactor. Strong dependencies were observed between the atomic ratio of ceria to zirconia and the extent of sulfation. In addition, the partial pressure of sulfur dioxide during treatments also correlated to the extent of sulfation, while temperature only slightly effected the extent of sulfation. The AES data suggests the gas phase sulfur dioxide preferentially chemisorbs on surface ceria atoms and the extent of sulfation is heavily dependent on sulfur dioxide concentrations and only slightly dependent on catalyst

  10. The reduction of sulfate ions in Musashino woody lignite and in acetone-furfural resin

    Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    By adding a barium chloride solution to sulfur-containing woody lignite kept in water for two years, it has been confirmed that large quantities of sulfate ions are adsorbed by the lignite. Furthermore, spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the reduction of sulfate ions in an acetone-furfural resin prepared with residual sulfuric acid. These experimental results suggest the possibility of reducing sulfate ions in coal in the absence of sulfate bacteria. 2 refs.

  11. Quantification and isotopic analysis of intracellular sulfur metabolites in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway

    Sim, Min Sub; Paris, Guillaume; Adkins, Jess F.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Sessions, Alex L.

    2017-06-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction exhibits a normal isotope effect, leaving unreacted sulfate enriched in 34S and producing sulfide that is depleted in 34S. However, the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation is quite variable. The resulting changes in sulfur isotope abundance have been used to trace microbial sulfate reduction in modern and ancient ecosystems, but the intracellular mechanism(s) underlying the wide range of fractionations remains unclear. Here we report the concentrations and isotopic ratios of sulfur metabolites in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway of Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Intracellular sulfate and APS levels change depending on the growth phase, peaking at the end of exponential phase, while sulfite accumulates in the cell during stationary phase. During exponential growth, intracellular sulfate and APS are strongly enriched in 34S. The fractionation between internal and external sulfate is up to 49‰, while at the same time that between external sulfate and sulfide is just a few permil. We interpret this pattern to indicate that enzymatic fractionations remain large but the net fractionation between sulfate and sulfide is muted by the closed-system limitation of intracellular sulfate. This 'reservoir effect' diminishes upon cessation of exponential phase growth, allowing the expression of larger net sulfur isotope fractionations. Thus, the relative rates of sulfate exchange across the membrane versus intracellular sulfate reduction should govern the overall (net) fractionation that is expressed. A strong reservoir effect due to vigorous sulfate reduction might be responsible for the well-established inverse correlation between sulfur isotope fractionation and the cell-specific rate of sulfate reduction, while at the same time intraspecies differences in sulfate uptake and/or exchange rates could account for the significant scatter in this relationship. Our approach, together with ongoing investigations of the kinetic isotope

  12. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth

    Roland El Ghazal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4–deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.

  13. Oriented nucleation and growth of anhydrite during direct sulfation of limestone

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2008-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone (Iceland Spar) was studied at 973 K in a fixed-bed reactor. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of the sulfated limestone particles show that the sulfation process involves oriented nucleation and growth of the solid product, anhydrite. The reason...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9320 - Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9320 Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations. (a) Identification. A copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations is a device...

  15. 75 FR 56101 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    2010-09-15

    ... decision for the pesticide, lauryl sulfate salts (also known as sodium lauryl salts), case 4061... announces the availability of EPA's final registration review decision for the lauryl sulfate salts. Sodium... product that contains sodium lauryl sulfate as an active ingredient. The product, Kleenex[reg] Brand...

  16. Use of sulfate reducing cell suspension bioreactors for the treatment of SO2 rich flue gases

    Lens, P.N.L.; Gastesi, R.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel bioscrubber concept for biological flue gas desulfurization, based on the recycling of a cell suspension of sulfite/sulfate reducing bacteria between a scrubber and a sulfite/sulfate reducing hydrogen fed bioreactor. Hydrogen metabolism in sulfite/sulfate reducing cell

  17. Sulfate Reduction at pH 4.0 for Treatment of Process and Wastewaters

    Bijmans, M.F.M.; Vries, de E.; Yang, C.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lens, P.N.L.; Dopson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic industrial process and wastewaters often contain high sulfate and metal concentrations and their direct biological treatment is thus far not possible as biological processes at pH <5 have been neglected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria convert sulfate to sulfide that can subsequently be used to

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of a Novel Desulfobacteraceae Member from a Sulfate-Reducing Bioreactor Metagenome

    Almstrand, Robert; Pinto, Ameet J.; Figueroa, Linda A.; Sharp, Jonathan O.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulfur cycle and of considerable commercial interest. The draft genome sequence of a sulfate-reducing bacterium of the family Desulfobacteraceae, assembled from a sulfate-reducing bioreactor metagenome, indicates that heavy-metal? and acid-resistance traits of this organism may be of importance for its application in acid mine drainage mitigation.

  19. X-ray diffraction study of lithium hydrazinium sulfate and lithium ammonium sulfate crystals under a static electric field

    Sebastian, M.T.; Becker, R.A.; Klapper, H.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies are made on proton-conducting polar lithium hydrazinium sulfate and ferroelectric lithium ammonium sulfate. The X-ray rocking curves recorded with in situ electric field along the polar b axis of lithium hydrazinium sulfate (direction of proton conductivity) show a strong enhancement of the 0k0 diffraction intensity. The corresponding 0k0 X-ray topographs reveal extinction contrast consisting of striations parallel to the polar axis. They disappear when the electric field is switched off. The effect is very strong in 0k0 but invisible in h0l reflections. It is present only if the electric field is parallel to the polar axis b. This unusual X-ray topographic contrast is correlated with the proton conduction. It is supposed that, under electric field, an inhomogeneous charge distribution develops, distorting the crystal lattice. Similar experiments on lithium ammonium sulfate also show contrast variations, but of quite different behaviour than before. In this case they result from changes of the ferroelectric domain configuration under electric field. (orig.)

  20. Twinned low-temperature structures of tris(ethylenediamine)zinc(II) sulfate and tris(ethylenediamine)copper(II) sulfate

    Lutz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Tris(ethylenediamine)zinc(II) sulfate, [Zn(C2H8N2)3]SO4, (I), undergoes a reversible solid–solid phase transition during cooling, accompanied by a lowering of the symmetry from high-trigonal P31c to low-trigonal P3 and by merohedral twinning. The molecular symmetries of the cation and anion change

  1. Effects of enteral and intravenous fluid therapy, magnesium sulfate, and sodium sulfate on colonic contents and feces in horses.

    Lopes, Marco A F; White, Nathaniel A; Donaldson, Lydia; Crisman, Mark V; Ward, Daniel L

    2004-05-01

    To assess changes in systemic hydration, concentrations of electrolytes in plasma, hydration of colonic contents and feces, and gastrointestinal transit in horses treated with IV fluid therapy or enteral administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), sodium sulfate (NaSO4), water, or a balanced electrolyte solution. 7 horses with fistulas in the right dorsal colon (RDC). In a crossover design, horses alternately received 1 of 6 treatments: no treatment (control); IV fluid therapy with lactated Ringer's solution; or enteral administration of MgSO4, Na2SO4, water, or a balanced electrolyte solution via nasogastric intubation. Physical examinations were performed and samples of blood, RDC contents, and feces were collected every 6 hours during the 48 hour-observation period. Horses were muzzled for the initial 24 hours but had access to water ad libitum. Horses had access to hay, salt, and water ad libitum for the last 24 hours. Enteral administration of a balanced electrolyte solution and Na2SO4 were the best treatments for promoting hydration of RDC contents, followed by water. Sodium sulfate was the best treatment for promoting fecal hydration, followed by MgSO4 and the balanced electrolyte solution. Sodium sulfate caused hypocalcemia and hypernatremia, and water caused hyponatremia. Enteral administration of a balanced electrolyte solution promoted hydration of RDC contents and may be useful in horses with large colon impactions. Enteral administration of either Na2SO4 or water may promote hydration of RDC contents but can cause severe electrolyte imbalances.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate 4-O-endosulfatase from a marine bacterium.

    Wang, Wenshuang; Han, Wenjun; Cai, Xingya; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2015-03-20

    Sulfatases are potentially useful tools for structure-function studies of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To date, various GAG exosulfatases have been identified in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, endosulfatases that act on GAGs have rarely been reported. Recently, a novel HA and CS lyase (HCLase) was identified for the first time from a marine bacterium (Han, W., Wang, W., Zhao, M., Sugahara, K., and Li, F. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 27886-27898). In this study, a putative sulfatase gene, closely linked to the hclase gene in the genome, was recombinantly expressed and characterized in detail. The recombinant protein showed a specific N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O-sulfatase activity that removes 4-O-sulfate from both disaccharides and polysaccharides of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS), suggesting that this sulfatase represents a novel endosulfatase. The novel endosulfatase exhibited maximal reaction rate in a phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) at 30 °C and effectively removed 17-65% of 4-O-sulfates from various CS and DS and thus significantly inhibited the interactions of CS and DS with a positively supercharged fluorescent protein. Moreover, this endosulfatase significantly promoted the digestion of CS by HCLase, suggesting that it enhances the digestion of CS/DS by the bacterium. Therefore, this endosulfatase is a potential tool for use in CS/DS-related studies and applications. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks...... of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in versican......-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found...

  5. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate.

    Restaino, Odile Francesca; Finamore, Rosario; Diana, Paola; Marseglia, Mariacarmela; Vitiello, Mario; Casillo, Angela; Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Corsaro, Maria Michela; Trifuoggi, Marco; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute and chronic lead poisoning in cattle

    Iosif, C

    1966-02-01

    Three cases of acute plumbism in cows are detailed: one of a six-year-old cow who accidentally ate about 100 gm. of lead (in 1956); the second of a 12-year-old cow who accidentally ate a packet containing about 100 gm. of lead used in painting; and the third of a three-week-old heifer who licked a freshly painted bucket. Route of exposure to lead can be gastrointestinal following deposition of lead fumes (lead oxide, sulfide, and sulfate) on pasturage and in exposed drinking water, or respiratory following the inhalation of such fumes. The presence of CO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract is thought to provide a favorable situation for the dissolution of lead and the formation of soluble lead complexes. One author has calculated that 12% of respired lead is absorbed into the organism, while only 1-2% of ingested lead is absorbed.

  7. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  8. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: structure, protein interactions and cell signaling

    Juliana L. Dreyfuss

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitously found at the cell surface and extracellular matrix in all the animal species. This review will focus on the structural characteristics of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans related to protein interactions leading to cell signaling. The heparan sulfate chains due to their vast structural diversity are able to bind and interact with a wide variety of proteins, such as growth factors, chemokines, morphogens, extracellular matrix components, enzymes, among others. There is a specificity directing the interactions of heparan sulfates and target proteins, regarding both the fine structure of the polysaccharide chain as well precise protein motifs. Heparan sulfates play a role in cellular signaling either as receptor or co-receptor for different ligands, and the activation of downstream pathways is related to phosphorylation of different cytosolic proteins either directly or involving cytoskeleton interactions leading to gene regulation. The role of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans in cellular signaling and endocytic uptake pathways is also discussed.Proteoglicanos de heparam sulfato são encontrados tanto superfície celular quanto na matriz extracelular em todas as espécies animais. Esta revisão tem enfoque nas características estruturais dos proteoglicanos de heparam sulfato e nas interações destes proteoglicanos com proteínas que levam à sinalização celular. As cadeias de heparam sulfato, devido a sua variedade estrutural, são capazes de se ligar e interagir com ampla gama de proteínas, como fatores de crescimento, quimiocinas, morfógenos, componentes da matriz extracelular, enzimas, entreoutros. Existe uma especificidade estrutural que direciona as interações dos heparam sulfatos e proteínas alvo. Esta especificidade está relacionada com a estrutura da cadeia do polissacarídeo e os motivos conservados da cadeia polipeptídica das proteínas envolvidas nesta interação. Os heparam

  9. Effects of magnesium sulfate on the foliar absorption of phosphates at the pumpkin; Effets du sulfate de magnesium sur l'absorption foliaire de phosphates chez le potiron

    Chamel, A

    1962-07-01

    The foliar absorption of phosphates labelled with {sup 32}P and applied with or without magnesium sulfate on the first leaf of pumpkin seedlings have been studied. The magnesium sulfate applied with the phosphate reduces plainly the absorption rate of {sup 32}P. (O.M.) [French] Nous avons etudie l'absorption foliaire de phosphates marques au {sup 32}P appliques, avec et sans sulfate de magnesium, sur la premiere feuille de jeunes plants de potirons. Le sulfate de magnesium applique avec le phosphate diminue nettement le taux d'absorption du {sup 32}P. (auteur)

  10. Sequencing of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides using a novel exolyase from a marine bacterium that degrades hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate.

    Wang, Wenshuang; Cai, Xiaojuan; Han, Naihan; Han, Wenjun; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2017-11-09

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a family of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides that play important roles in physiological and pathological processes. Owing to the structural complexity of GAGs, their sophisticated chemical structures and biological functions have not been extensively studied. Lyases that cleave GAGs are important tools for structural analysis. Although various GAG lyases have been identified, exolytic lyases with unique enzymatic property are urgently needed for GAG sequencing. In the present study, a putative exolytic GAG lyase from a marine bacterium was recombinantly expressed and characterized in detail. Since it showed exolytic lyase activity toward hyaluronan (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and dermatan sulfate (DS), it was designated as HCDLase. This novel exolyase exhibited the highest activity in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0) at 30°C. Especially, it showed a specific activity that released 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB)-labeled disaccharides from the reducing end of 2-AB-labeled CS oligosaccharides, which suggest that HCDLase is not only a novel exolytic lyase that can split disaccharide residues from the reducing termini of sugar chains but also a useful tool for the sequencing of CS chains. Notably, HCDLase could not digest 2-AB-labeled oligosaccharides from HA, DS, or unsulfated chondroitin, which indicated that sulfates and bond types affect the catalytic activity of HCDLase. Finally, this enzyme combined with CSase ABC was successfully applied for the sequencing of several CS hexa- and octasaccharides with complex structures. The identification of HCDLase provides a useful tool for CS-related research and applications. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Tyrosine sulfation, a post-translational modification of microvillar enzymes in the small intestinal enterocyte

    Danielsen, E M

    1987-01-01

    Protein sulfation in small intestinal epithelial cells was studied by labelling of organ cultured mucosal explants with [35S]-sulfate. Six bands in SDS-PAGE became selectively labelled; four, of 250, 200, 166 and 130 kd, were membrane-bound and two, of 75 and 60 kd, were soluble. The sulfated mem...... sulfated. Most if not all the sulfate was bound to tyrosine residues rather than to the carbohydrate of the microvillar enzymes, showing that this type of modification can occur on plasma membrane proteins as well as on secretory proteins....

  12. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the sulfate deficiency response in the marine microalga Emiliania huxleyi.

    Bochenek, Michal; Etherington, Graham J; Koprivova, Anna; Mugford, Sam T; Bell, Thomas G; Malin, Gill; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2013-08-01

    The response to sulfate deficiency of plants and freshwater green algae has been extensively analysed by system biology approaches. By contrast, seawater sulfate concentration is high and very little is known about the sulfur metabolism of marine organisms. Here, we used a combination of metabolite analysis and transcriptomics to analyse the response of the marine microalga Emiliania huxleyi as it acclimated to sulfate limitation. Lowering sulfate availability in artificial seawater from 25 to 5 mM resulted in significant reduction in growth and intracellular concentrations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and glutathione. Sulfate-limited E. huxleyi cells showed increased sulfate uptake but sulfate reduction to sulfite did not seem to be regulated. Sulfate limitation in E. huxleyi affected expression of 1718 genes. The vast majority of these genes were upregulated, including genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and genes involved in the general stress response. The acclimation response of E. huxleyi to sulfate deficiency shows several similarities to the well-described responses of Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, but also has many unique features. This dataset shows that even though E. huxleyi is adapted to constitutively high sulfate concentration, it retains the ability to re-program its gene expression in response to reduced sulfate availability. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Control of sulfate concentration by miR395-targeted APS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Qin Ai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur nutrition is crucial for plant growth and development, as well as crop yield and quality. Inorganic sulfate in the soil is the major sulfur source for plants. After uptake, sulfate is activated by ATP sulfurylase, and then gets assimilated into sulfur-containing metabolites. However, the mechanism of regulation of sulfate levels by ATP sulfurylase is unclear. Here, we investigated the control of sulfate levels by miR395-mediated regulation of APS1/3/4. Sulfate was over-accumulated in the shoots of miR395 over-expression plants in which the expression of the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes was suppressed. Accordingly, reduced expression of miR395 caused a decline of sulfate concentration. In agreement with these results, over-expression of the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes led to the reduction of sulfate levels. Differential expression of these three APS genes in response to sulfate starvation implied that they have different functions. Further investigation revealed that the regulation of sulfate levels mediated by miR395 depends on the repression of its APS targets. Unlike the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes, which encode plastid-localized ATP sulfurylases, the APS2 gene encodes a cytosolic version of ATP sulfurylase. Genetic analysis indicated that APS2 has no significant effect on sulfate levels. Our data suggest that miR395-targeted APS genes are key regulators of sulfate concentration in leaves.

  15. Influence of Internal Sulfate Attack on Some Properties of High Strength Concrete

    Nada Mahdi Fawzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems that faces the concrete industry in Iraq is the deterioration due to internal sulfate attack , since it reduces the compressive strength and increases the expansion of concrete. Consequently, the concrete structure may be damage .The effects of total and total effective sulfate contents on high strength concrete (HSC have been studied in the present study. The research studied the effect of sulfate content in cement , sand and gravel , as well as comparing the total sulfate content with the total effective SO3 content. Materials used were divided into two groups of SO3 in cement ,three groups of SO3 in sand ,and two groups of SO3 in gravel. The results show that considering the total effective sulfate content is better than the total content of sulfates since the effect of sulfate in each constituent of concrete, depends on it's granular size .The smaller the particle size of the material the more effective is the sulfate in it. Therefore, it is recommended to follow the Iraqi specification for total effective sulfate content, because it gives more flexibility to the use of sand and gravel with higher sulfate content. The results of compressive strength at 90-days show that the effect of total effective SO3 content of ( 2.647% , 2.992% , 3.424% that correspond to total sulfate of ( 3.778%, 3.294%, 4.528% decrease the compressive strength by (7.53%, 11.44%, 14.59% respectively.

  16. Transcriptome profiling of sulfate deprivation responses in two agarophytes Gracilaria changii and Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta).

    Lee, Wei-Kang; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2017-04-24

    Seaweeds survive in marine waters with high sulfate concentration compared to those living at freshwater habitats. The cell wall polymer of Gracilaria spp. which supplies more than 50% of the world agar is heavily sulfated. Since sulfation reduces the agar quality, it is interesting to investigate the effects of sulfate deprivation on the sulfate contents of seaweed and agar, as well as the metabolic pathways of these seaweeds. In this study, two agarophytes G. changii and G. salicornia were treated under sulfate deprivation for 5 days. The sulfate contents in the seaweed/agar were generally lower in sulfate-deprivated samples compared to those in the controls, but the differences were only statistically significant for seaweed sample of G. changii and agar sample of G. salicornia. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of sulfate-deprivated and untreated seaweed samples revealed 1,292 and 3,439 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; ≥1.5-fold) in sulfate-deprivated G. changii and G. salicornia, respectively, compared to their respective controls. Among the annotated DEGs were genes involved in putative agar biosynthesis, sulfur metabolism, metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, carbon metabolism and oxidative stress. These findings shed light on the sulfate deprivation responses in agarophytes and help to identify candidate genes involved in agar biosynthesis.

  17. AcuTable

    Dibbern, Simon; Rasmussen, Kasper Vestergaard; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe AcuTable, a new tangible user interface. AcuTable is a shapeable surface that employs capacitive touch sensors. The goal of AcuTable was to enable the exploration of the capabilities of such haptic interface and its applications. We describe its design and implementation...

  18. Acute mastoiditis in children

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...

  19. Production of Anti-triiodothyronine sulfate antibody for radioimmunoassay applications

    Elbanna, I.M.; Ragab, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Triiodothyronine sulfate (T3S) may be an obligatory intermediate metabolic of the metabolism of thyroid gland hormones invertebrates in peripheral during the process of deiodination of the inactive form of the thyroid gland hormones, thyroxine(T4), into the active form triiodothyronine (1,2). Construction of a reliable procedure for the estimation of T3S accurately in blood serum will be of great importance for medical, biochemical and physiological investigations. In this work we developed a robust method for the production of anti-triiodothyronine sulfate polyclonal antiserum with good specifications using a derivatized immuno gen and a modified immunization process and a sensitive radioimmunoassay system was designed and developed

  20. Electrogenic sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic basolateral membrane vesicles

    Cattey, M.A.; Gerencser, G.A.; Aheam, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) were isolated from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas and purified by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. BLMV prepared in this fashion were osmotically reactive exhibiting linear dependence of vesicular 35 SO 4 -2 uptake to increasing external osmotic pressure with negligible non-specific isotope binding. Under short circuited conditions (valinomycin/K + ) BLMV responded to either a HCO 3 - gradient directed out or equilibrated HCO 3 - (10 mM) by displaying short term accumulation of sulfate above that of equilibrium. Uptake of divalent anion was unaffected by an inwardly directed transmembrane Na + or tetramethylammonium + gradient. 35 SO 4 -2 /HCO 3 - exchange in the presence of valinomycin was stimulated by transient inside positive K + diffusion potentials and inhibited by transient inside negative K + diffusion potentials. The role of electrogenic anion exchange by hepatopancreas BLMV in transcellular sulfate transport is discussed

  1. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A. Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-01-01

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO 3 solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO 4 - complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO 4 - ] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation

  2. 24-hour secretory pattern of dehydroisoandrosterone and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate

    Rosenfeld, R.S.; Rosenberg, B.J.; Fukushima, D.K.; Hellman, L.

    1975-01-01

    Dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA) and cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay and protein binding techniques respectively in plasma from blood taken at 20-min intervals over 24-h periods in 3 normal men, 2 women with Stein-Leventhal syndrome, and a man with a benign adrenocortical adenoma. In all subjects but the latter, DHA and cortisol were episodic and synchronous throughout the entire day; in this patient, continuous secretion of cortisol by the tumor apparently abolished stimulation of the contralateral adrenal, and DHA production was negligible. Dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate analyses in plasma displayed a pattern which, probably because of its origin both by secretion and sulfation and its long half-life, showed less synchronicity with DHA and cortisol and less fluctuation than did the free hormones. (U.S.)

  3. Production of ferrous sulfate from residue from the iron mining

    Cardoso, K.A; Riella, H.G.; Abreu, E.F.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper was developed from a residue obtained by processing iron ore exploited by the mining company Samarco S/A. The residue was characterized and the analyses showed that it contains about 70% of the mineral hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and also that some economically important products could be produced. One is the ferrous sulfate that can be used in pharmaceuticals and also that can be used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The iron, in addition to is importance for the industrial production of steel and parts in general, also has great biological importance in all living beings. In order to produce ferrous sulfate from the byproduct in question, it was developed a obtaining route using metallic iron as hematite reductor and sulfuric acid to form the salt. (author)

  4. Thermoluminescence of sulfated zircon exposed to gamma radiation

    Rubio, E.; Castano, V.M.; Mendoza A, E.; Gonzalez, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the thermoluminescent (Tl) signal induced by gamma radiation in zirconia and sulfated zirconia samples embedded in Ptfe pellets is reported and discussed. In this case, samples were obtained through sol-gel method using zirconium n-propoxide and H 2 SO 4 as precursors, and later were subjected to thermal treatment at 600 C to obtain, the tetragonal phase accordingly to X-ray diffraction analysis. Experimental results show that the thermoluminescent glow peak depends on both, the crystalline structure and sulfate concentration. Two maximum peaks were observed located at 147 C and 274 C arising from the electronic transitions. Tl response as a function of the absorbed dose shows a linear increase for a wide of range exposure as well as good stability in time. The high sensitivity, dose linearity and signal stability of this material open the potential possibility to be used for the dosimetry applications. (Author)

  5. Electrochemical Deposition and Dissolution of Thallium from Sulfate Solutions

    Ye. Zh. Ussipbekova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of thallium was studied on glassy carbon electrodes in sulfate solutions. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the kinetics of the electrode processes and to determine the nature of the limiting step of the cathodic reduction of thallium ions. According to the dependence of current on stirring rate and scan rate, this process is diffusion limited. Chronocoulometry showed that the electrodeposition can be performed with a current efficiency of up to 96% in the absence of oxygen.

  6. Polyaniline–lead sulfate based cell with supercapattery behavior

    Alsadek A. Alguail

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemically synthesized polyaniline and lead sulfate are investigated as a possible active material of the aqueous based hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of polyaniline (doping-dedoping reactions, as well as electrical characteristics (specific capacitance, capacity, energy, and power of the PbSO4|PANI cell, are determined. Based on the estimated specific energy and power, it is suggested that investigated cell could be classified as “supercapattery” type of electrochemical power sources.

  7. Sulfate Storage and Stability on Common Lean NOx Trap Components

    Ottinger, Nathan A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Roop, Justin T [ORNL; Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Components found in a commercial lean NO{sub x} trap have been studied in order to determine their impact on sulfate storage and release. A micro-reactor and a diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (DRIFTS) were used to compare components MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/Ba/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, as well as physical mixtures of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Desulfation temperature profiles as well as DRIFTS NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} storage spectra are presented for all components. This systematic approach highlighted the ability of the underlying support to impact sulfate stability, in particular when Ba was supported on ceria-zirconia rather than alumina the desulfation temperature decreased by 60-120 C. A conceptual model of sulfation progression on the ceria-zirconia support is proposed that explains the high uptake of sulfur and low temperature release when it is employed. It was also determined that the close proximity of platinum is not necessary for much of the sulfation and desulfation chemistry that occurs, as physical mixtures with platinum dispersed on only one phase displayed similar behavior to samples with platinum dispersed on both phases.

  8. Pulsed Thermography for Depth Profiling in Marble Sulfation

    Bison, P.; Clarelli, F.; Vannozzi, A.

    2015-06-01

    Deterioration of stones is a complex problem and one of the main concern for people working in the field of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. One important point in cultural heritage is to obtain information about the damage in a non-invasive way. By this paper, we propose a new non-invasive tool that permits evaluation of the thickness of (gypsum) grown (sulfation) on marble stones, using a mathematical model on data detected by pulsed infrared thermography.

  9. An intertwined evolutionary history of methanogenic archaea and sulfate reduction.

    Dwi Susanti

    Full Text Available Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. However, certain methanogenic archaea metabolize sulfite employing a deazaflavin cofactor (F(420-dependent sulfite reductase (Fsr where N- and C-terminal halves (Fsr-N and Fsr-C are homologs of F(420H(2 dehydrogenase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr, respectively. From genome analysis we found that Fsr was likely assembled from freestanding Fsr-N homologs and Dsr-like proteins (Dsr-LP, both being abundant in methanogens. Dsr-LPs fell into two groups defined by following sequence features: Group I (simplest, carrying a coupled siroheme-[Fe(4-S(4] cluster and sulfite-binding Arg/Lys residues; Group III (most complex, with group I features, a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe(4-S(4] cluster and an additional [Fe(4-S(4] cluster. Group II Dsr-LPs with group I features and a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe(4-S(4] cluster were proposed as evolutionary intermediates. Group III is the precursor of Fsr-C. The freestanding Fsr-N homologs serve as F(420H(2 dehydrogenase unit of a putative novel glutamate synthase, previously described membrane-bound electron transport system in methanogens and of assimilatory type sulfite reductases in certain haloarchaea. Among archaea, only methanogens carried Dsr-LPs. They also possessed homologs of sulfate activation and reduction enzymes. This suggested a shared evolutionary history for methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, and Dsr-LPs could have been the source of the oldest (3.47-Gyr ago biologically produced sulfide deposit.

  10. Chondroitin 6-O-sulfate ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Miyamoto, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Noriko; Moriguchi, Kota; Ueno, Rino; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2014-05-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main component of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system (CNS) and influence neuroplasticity. Although CSPG is considered an inhibitory factor for nerve repair in spinal cord injury, it is unclear whether CSPG influences the pathogenetic mechanisms of neuroimmunological diseases. We induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in chondroitin 6-O-sulfate transferase 1-deficient (C6st1(-/-)) mice. C6ST1 is the enzyme that transfers sulfate residues to position 6 of N-acetylgalactosamine in the sugar chain of CSPG. The phenotypes of EAE in C6st1(-/-) mice were more severe than those in wild-type (WT) mice were. In adoptive-transfer EAE, in which antigen-reactive T cells from WT mice were transferred to C6st1(-/-) and WT mice, phenotypes were significantly more severe in C6st1(-/-) than in WT mice. The recall response of antigen-reactive T cells was not significantly different among the groups. Furthermore, the number of pathogenic T cells within the CNS was also not considerably different. When EAE was induced in C6ST1 transgenic mice with C6ST1 overexpression, the mice showed considerably milder symptoms compared with those in WT mice. In conclusion, the presence of sulfate at position 6 of N-acetylgalactosamine of CSPG may influence the effecter phase of EAE to prevent the progression of pathogenesis. Thus, modification of the carbohydrate residue of CSPG may be a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroimmunological diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  11. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K. [Mahatma Gandhi University Regional Research Center in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam-686666, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  12. Adsorption of water, sulfates and chloride on arsenopyrite surface

    Silva, Juliana C. M.; dos Santos, Egon C.; de Oliveira, Aline; Heine, Thomas; De Abreu, Heitor A.; Duarte, Hélio A.

    2018-03-01

    Arsenopyrite is one of the sulfide minerals responsible for acid rock drainage (ARD) and is one of the most hazardous in regions affected by mining activities. This phenomenon involves complex reaction mechanism. Although it is intensely investigated, there is a lack of consensus concerning the reaction mechanisms and more information is still necessary. In this work, the adsorption of water, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid on arsenopyrite (001) surface was investigated by means of Density Functional calculations and the results compared to other sulfides aiming to understand the mineral/water interface. The interaction of the chemical species with the (001) FeAsS surface is the first step to understand the intricate oxidation mechanism of arsenopyrite. Molecular water adsorption on (001) FeAsS is more favored than the adsorption of sulfate favoring the dissolution of sulfates and enhancing its oxidation. The estimated adsorption energies of water, sulfates and chloride on other sulfide minerals are compared with the estimated values for arsenopyrite and the chemical reactivity differences discussed in detail.

  13. Interfacial properties of chitosan/sodium dodecyl sulfate complexes

    Milinković Jelena R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary formulations of cosmetic and pharmaceutical emulsions may be achieved by using combined polymer/surfactant system, which can form complexes with different structure and physicochemical properties. Such complexation can lead to additional stabilization of the emulsion products. For these reasons, the main goal of this study was to investigate the interfacial properties of chitosan/sodium dodecyl sulfate complexes. In order to understand the stabilization mechanism, the interface of the oil/water systems that contained mixtures of chitosan and sodium dodecyl sulfate, was studied by measuring the interfacial tension. Considering the fact that the properties of the oil phase has influence on the adsorption process, three different types of oil were investigated: medium-chain triglycerides (semi-synthetic oil, paraffin oil (mineral oil and natural oil obtained from the grape seed. The surface tension measurements at the oil/water interface, for chitosan water solutions, indicate a poor surface activity of this biopolymer. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate to chitosan solution causes a significant decrease in the interfacial tension for all investigated oils. The results of this study are important for understanding the influence of polymer-surfactant interactions on the properties of the solution and stability of dispersed systems. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III46010

  14. Sulfate reduction and carbon removal during kraft char burning

    Waag, K.J.; Frederick, W.J.; Sricharoenchaikul, V [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Grace, T.M. [T.M. Grace Company, Appleton, WI (United States); Kymalainen, M. [Tampella Power, Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    An improved mathematical model of char burning during black liquor combustion was described. Enhancements include a proper treatment of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O gasification, reactions between oxygen and combustibles in the boundary layer, and integration of sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation into the char burning process. Gasification of char carbon by reaction with H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} proved to be the most important means of carbon release under typical recovery furnace conditions. Sulfate reduction was shown to be responsible for only a minor part of the carbon release. Simulations showed that for typical recovery boiler conditions, char burning behavior is independent of oxygen concentration up to the point of carbon depletion. After carbon depletion, sulfide reoxidation occurs at a rate determined by oxygen mass transfer. Process variables that had the biggest effect on char burning behavior were initial black liquor drop diameter and temperature; also there was a direct link between char burnout times and the amount of sulfate reduction. At a given temperature, any variable that shortened the char burnout time resulted in proportionately less reduction. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Sulfates as chromophores for multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging phantoms

    Fonseca, Martina; An, Lu; Beard, Paul; Cox, Ben

    2017-12-01

    As multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging becomes increasingly widely used to obtain quantitative estimates, the need for validation studies conducted on well-characterized experimental phantoms becomes ever more pressing. One challenge that such studies face is the design of stable, well-characterized phantoms and absorbers with properties in a physiologically realistic range. This paper performs a full experimental characterization of aqueous solutions of copper and nickel sulfate, whose properties make them close to ideal as chromophores in multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging phantoms. Their absorption varies linearly with concentration, and they mix linearly. The concentrations needed to yield absorption values within the physiological range are below the saturation limit. The shape of their absorption spectra makes them useful analogs for oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. They display long-term photostability (no indication of bleaching) as well as resistance to transient effects (no saturable absorption phenomena), and are therefore suitable for exposure to typical pulsed photoacoustic light sources, even when exposed to the high number of pulses required in scanning photoacoustic imaging systems. In addition, solutions with tissue-realistic, predictable, and stable scattering can be prepared by mixing sulfates and Intralipid, as long as an appropriate emulsifier is used. Finally, the Grüneisen parameter of the sulfates was found to be larger than that of water and increased linearly with concentration.

  16. Uncovering the Terahertz Spectrum of Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate.

    Ruggiero, Michael T; Korter, Timothy M

    2016-01-21

    Terahertz vibrational spectroscopy has evolved into a powerful tool for the detection and characterization of transition metal sulfate compounds, specifically for its ability to differentiate between various hydrated forms with high specificity. Copper(II) sulfate is one such system where multiple crystalline hydrates have had their terahertz spectra fully assigned, and the unique spectral fingerprints of the forms allows for characterization of multicomponent systems with relative ease. Yet the most commonly occurring form, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), has proven elusive due to the presence of a broad absorption across much of the terahertz region, making the unambiguous identification of its spectral signature difficult. Here, it is shown that the sub-100 cm(-1) spectrum of CuSO4·5H2O is obscured by absorption from adsorbed water and that controlled drying reveals sharp underlying features. The crystalline composition of the samples was monitored in parallel by X-ray diffraction as a function of drying time, supporting the spectroscopic results. Finally, the terahertz spectrum of CuSO4·5H2O was fully assigned using solid-state density functional theory simulations, helping attribute the additional absorptions that appear after excessive drying to formation of CuSO4·3H2O.

  17. Intercalation and Exfoliation of Kaolinite with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Xiaochao Zuo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaolinite (Kaol was intercalated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and subsequently methanol (MeOH to prepare intercalation compounds Kaol-DMSO and Kaol-MeOH. Kaol-MeOH was used as an intermediate to synthesize Kaol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS intercalation compound (Kaol-SDS via displacement reaction. The ultrasonic exfoliation of Kaol-SDS produced a resultant Kaol-SDS-U. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and particle size analysis. The results revealed that the intercalation of sodium dodecyl sulfate into kaolinite layers caused an obvious increase of the basal spacing from 0.72–4.21 nm. The dehydroxylation temperature of Kaol-SDS was obviously lower than that of original kaolinite. During the intercalation process of sodium dodecyl sulfate, a few kaolinite layers were exfoliated and curled up from the edges of the kaolinite sheets. After sonication treatment, the kaolinite layers were further transformed into nanoscrolls, and the exfoliated resultant Kaol-SDS-U possessed a smaller particle size close to nanoscale.

  18. Effects of polyacrylic acid additive on barium sulfate particle morphology

    Li, Jie; Liu, Dandan; Jiang, Hongkun; Wang, Jun; Jing, Xiaoyan; Chen, Rongrong [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhu, Wenting [Department of Gastroenterology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin 150081 (China); Han, Shihui [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Wanyou [College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Hao, E-mail: weihao7512@126.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, polyacrylic acid (PAA) was used as a growth modifier to control micron-sized barium sulfate particles via a simple precipitation reaction between sodium sulfate and barium chloride at ambient temperature. The barium sulfate particles were exhibited various morphologies, such as monodisperse spheres, ellipsoids, rose-like aggregates, etc. To better understand the formation mechanisms of the various morphologies of these particles, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed. It was found that the PAA concentration, pH, and Ba{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions concentrations were the most important parameters controlling the morphology of the BaSO{sub 4} particles. These parameters affected the BaSO{sub 4} morphology by influencing the interactions between the PAA carboxyl groups and inorganic ions and the conformation change of the PAA molecular chains. Moreover, this work attempts to provide a preliminary understanding of the formation of the spherical BaSO{sub 4} particles with the randomly coiled conformation of the polymer. - Highlights: • Polyacrylic acid (PAA) was used as a growth modifier to control micron-sized BaSO{sub 4} particles. • The PAA/BaSO{sub 4} particles were exhibited various morphologies. • Provide a preliminary understanding of the formation mechanism of BaSO{sub 4} particles.

  19. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  20. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope.

    Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; O'Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S

    2016-02-01

    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  1. Neutral sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate hot waters in geothermal systems

    Mahon, W.A.J. (Dept. of Industrial and Scientific Research, Wairakei, New Zealand); Klyen, L.E.; Rhode, M.

    1980-03-01

    The least understood thermal water is a near neutral water which contains varying amounts of bicarbonate and sulfate as the major anions, low concentrations of chloride (< 30 ppM) and sodium as the major cation. In the past this water has been referred to as a sodium bicarbonate water but present studies suggest that the quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate in this water type are frequently of the same order. Of particular interest is the distribution and position of the sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate water in the same and different systems. Many hot springs in Indonesia, for example, discharge water of this composition. Present studies indicate that this water type can originate from high temperature reservoirs which form the secondary steam heated part of a normal high temperature geothermal system. The hydrological conditions producing these waters in geothermal systems are investigated and the relationship between the water type and vapor dominated systems is discussed. It is suggested that the major water type occurring in the so called vapor dominated parts of geothermal systems is this water. The water does not simply represent steam condensate, rather it consists essentially of meteoric water which has been steam heated. The water composition results from the interaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with meteoric water and the rocks confining this water in the aquifer.

  2. Nucleolin is a nuclear target of heparan sulfate derived from glypican-1

    Cheng, Fang; Belting, Mattias; Fransson, Lars-Åke; Mani, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The recycling, S-nitrosylated heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan glypican-1 releases anhydromannose (anMan)-containing HS chains by a nitrosothiol-catalyzed cleavage in endosomes that can be constitutive or induced by ascorbate. The HS-anMan chains are then transported to the nucleus. A specific nuclear target for HS-anMan has not been identified. We have monitored endosome-to-nucleus trafficking of HS-anMan by deconvolution and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy using an anMan-specific monoclonal antibody in non-growing, ascorbate-treated, and growing, untreated, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts and hypoxia-exposed Alzheimer mouse Tg2576 fibroblasts and human U87 glioblastoma cells. In all cells, nuclear HS-anMan targeted a limited number of sites of variable size where it colocalized with DNA and nucleolin, an established marker for nucleoli. HS-anMan also colocalized with ethynyl uridine-tagged nascent RNA and two acetylated forms of histone H3. Acute hypoxia increased the formation of HS-anMan in both Tg2576 and U87 cells. A portion of HS-anMan colocalized with nucleolin at small discrete sites, while most of the nucleolin and nascent RNA was dispersed. In U87 cells, HS-anMan, nucleolin and nascent RNA reassembled after prolonged hypoxia. Nucleolar HS may modulate synthesis and/or release of rRNA.

  3. Combined treatment with progesterone and magnesium sulfate positively affects traumatic brain injury in immature rats.

    Uysal, Nazan; Baykara, Basak; Kiray, Muge; Cetin, Ferihan; Aksu, Ilkay; Dayi, Ayfer; Gurpinar, Tugba; Ozdemir, Durgul; Arda, M Nuri

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that head trauma results in damage in hippocampal and cortical areas of the brain and impairs cognitive functions. The aim of this study is to explore the neuroprotective effect of combination therapy with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and progesterone in the 7-days-old rat pups subjected to contusion injury. Progesterone (8 mg/kg) and MgSO4 (150 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally immediately after induction of traumatic brain injury. Half of groups were evaluated 24 hours later, the remaining animals 3 weeks after trauma or sham surgery. Anxiety levels were assessed with open field activity and elevated plus maze; learning and memory performance were evaluated with Morris Water maze in postnatal 27 days. Combined therapy with progesterone and magnesium sulfate significantly attenuated trauma-induced neuronal death, increased brain VEGF levels and improved spatial memory deficits that appear later in life. Brain VEGF levels were higher in rats that received combined therapy compared to rats that received either medication alone. Moreover, rats that received combined therapy had reduced hipocampus and prefrontal cortex apoptosis in the acute period. These results demonstrate that combination of drugs with different mechanisms of action may be preferred in the treatment of head trauma.

  4. Detection of indoxyl sulfate levels in dogs and cats suffering from naturally occurring kidney diseases.

    Cheng, F P; Hsieh, M J; Chou, C C; Hsu, W L; Lee, Y J

    2015-09-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uraemic toxin, has been found to accumulate in the serum of people with renal diseases and is associated with free radical induction, nephrotoxicity cardiovascular toxicity, and osteoblast cytotoxicity. Although IS has been studied in humans and in experimental models, the role of IS in dogs and cats with kidney disease has not been investigated. A high performance liquid chromatography system was applied to detect plasma IS concentrations in non-azotaemic animals (63 dogs, 16 cats) and in animals with renal azotaemia (66 dogs, 69 cats). The IS levels of azotaemic animals were significantly higher (P dogs; median [IQR] 21 (18.9) mg/L vs. 14.8 (12.3) mg/L for cats). The IS level was significantly correlated with blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations. Dogs with acute kidney injury had significantly higher IS levels (P dogs and cats. The IS concentration is directly related to loss of renal function. Further studies are necessary to determine whether measurement of IS provides any additional diagnostic or prognostic information in dogs and cats with kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nucleolin is a nuclear target of heparan sulfate derived from glypican-1

    Cheng, Fang [Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division of Neuroscience, Glycobiology Group, Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Belting, Mattias [Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Oncology and Pathology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Fransson, Lars-Åke [Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division of Neuroscience, Glycobiology Group, Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden); Mani, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.mani@med.lu.se [Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division of Neuroscience, Glycobiology Group, Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, SE-221 84 Lund (Sweden)

    2017-05-01

    The recycling, S-nitrosylated heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan glypican-1 releases anhydromannose (anMan)-containing HS chains by a nitrosothiol-catalyzed cleavage in endosomes that can be constitutive or induced by ascorbate. The HS-anMan chains are then transported to the nucleus. A specific nuclear target for HS-anMan has not been identified. We have monitored endosome-to-nucleus trafficking of HS-anMan by deconvolution and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy using an anMan-specific monoclonal antibody in non-growing, ascorbate-treated, and growing, untreated, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts and hypoxia-exposed Alzheimer mouse Tg2576 fibroblasts and human U87 glioblastoma cells. In all cells, nuclear HS-anMan targeted a limited number of sites of variable size where it colocalized with DNA and nucleolin, an established marker for nucleoli. HS-anMan also colocalized with ethynyl uridine-tagged nascent RNA and two acetylated forms of histone H3. Acute hypoxia increased the formation of HS-anMan in both Tg2576 and U87 cells. A portion of HS-anMan colocalized with nucleolin at small discrete sites, while most of the nucleolin and nascent RNA was dispersed. In U87 cells, HS-anMan, nucleolin and nascent RNA reassembled after prolonged hypoxia. Nucleolar HS may modulate synthesis and/or release of rRNA.

  6. Cloud albedo changes in response to anthropogenic sulfate and non-sulfate aerosol forcings in CMIP5 models

    L. Frey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aerosol types on cloud albedo are analysed using the linear relation between total albedo and cloud fraction found on a monthly mean scale in regions of subtropical marine stratocumulus clouds and the influence of simulated aerosol variations on this relation. Model experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 are used to separately study the responses to increases in sulfate, non-sulfate and all anthropogenic aerosols. A cloud brightening on the month-to-month scale due to variability in the background aerosol is found to dominate even in the cases where anthropogenic aerosols are added. The aerosol composition is of importance for this cloud brightening, that is thereby region dependent. There is indication that absorbing aerosols to some extent counteract the cloud brightening but scene darkening with increasing aerosol burden is generally not supported, even in regions where absorbing aerosols dominate. Month-to-month cloud albedo variability also confirms the importance of liquid water content for cloud albedo. Regional, monthly mean cloud albedo is found to increase with the addition of anthropogenic aerosols and more so with sulfate than non-sulfate. Changes in cloud albedo between experiments are related to changes in cloud water content as well as droplet size distribution changes, so that models with large increases in liquid water path and/or cloud droplet number show large cloud albedo increases with increasing aerosol. However, no clear relation between model sensitivities to aerosol variations on the month-to-month scale and changes in cloud albedo due to changed aerosol burden is found.

  7. Sulfate and dissolved sulfide variation under low COD/Sulfate ratio in Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB treating domestic wastewater

    Sérvio Túlio Alves Cassini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamics of sulfate reduction and dissolved sulfide generation (S2-, HS-, H2Saq in liquid phase was evaluated in an UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater with low COD/Sulfate content. The evaluation in the UASB reactor was performed at three sludge heights (0.25, 1.25, 2.25 taps and effluent of the reactor. Sulfate reduction was verified in the reactor, with an average reduction of 24 % throughout the experiment period. However, the dissolved sulfide concentration in the reactor was not higher than 5.0 mg Sdiss/L. The kinetic model of first order showed good fit to describe the sulfate reduction under different COD/sulfate ratio, with K1app between 2.94x10-5 s-1 and 1.17x10-5 s-1 with correlation coefficients for data over 91%. The maximum rate to sulfate reduction was 18.0 mg SO42-/L.h-1 and small variation in COD/sulfate ratio promotes a significant change both in sulfate and sulfide concentrations.

  8. Desulfonatronovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in Central Asia

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Abbas, B.; Suhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Four strains of lithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been enriched and isolated from anoxic sediments of hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) at 2 M NaCl and pH 7.5. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related

  9. Desulfonatronovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from hypersaline chloride–sulfate lakes in Central Asia

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Abbas, B.; Suhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Four strains of lithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been enriched and isolated from anoxic sediments of hypersaline chloride–sulfate lakes in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) at 2 M NaCl and pH 7.5. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related

  10. Diversity and abundance of sulfate-reducing microorganisms in the sulfate and methane zones of a marine sediment, Black Sea RID A-8182-2008

    Leloup, Julie; Loy, Alexander; Knab, Nina J.

    2007-01-01

    branching sequences which might represent Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate- and/or sulfite-reducing microorganisms. We thus hypothesize that terminal carbon mineralization in surface sediments of the Black Sea is largely due to the sulfate reduction activity of previously hidden SRM. Although these novel...

  11. Podocyte-specific deletion of NDST1, a key enzyme in the sulfation of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans, leads to abnormalities in podocyte organization in vivo

    Sugar, T.; Wassenhove-McCarthy, D.J.; Esko, J.D.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Holzman, L.; McCarthy, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been shown to modulate podocyte adhesion to--and pedicel organization on--the glomerular basement membrane. Recent studies showed that foot process effacement developed in a mutant mouse model whose podocytes were unable to assemble heparan sulfate

  12. Thermochemical sulfate reduction in deep petroleum reservoirs: a molecular approach; Thermoreduction des sulfates dans les reservoirs petroliers: approche moleculaire

    Hanin, S.

    2002-11-01

    The thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) is a set of chemical reactions leading to hydrocarbon oxidation and production of carbon dioxide and sour gas (H{sub 2}S) which is observed in deep petroleum reservoirs enriched in anhydrites (calcium sulfate). Molecular and isotopic studies have been conducted on several crude oil samples to determine which types of compounds could have been produced during TSR. Actually, we have shown that the main molecules formed by TSR were organo-sulfur compounds. Indeed, sulfur isotopic measurements. of alkyl-di-benzothiophenes, di-aryl-disulfides and thia-diamondoids (identified by NMR or synthesis of standards) shows that they are formed during TSR as their value approach that of the sulfur of the anhydrite. Moreover, thia-diamondoids are apparently exclusively formed during this phenomenon and can thus be considered as true molecular markers of TSR. In a second part, we have investigated with laboratory experiments the formation mechanism of the molecules produced during TSR. A first model has shown that sulfur incorporation into the organic matter occurred with mineral sulfur species of low oxidation degree. The use of {sup 34}S allowed to show that the sulfates reduction occurred during these simulations. At least, some experiments on polycyclic hydrocarbons, sulfurized or not, allowed to establish that thia-diamondoids could be formed by acid-catalysed rearrangements at high temperatures in a similar way as the diamondoids. (author)

  13. Preparation of chondroitin sulfate libraries containing disulfated disaccharide units and inhibition of thrombin by these chondroitin sulfates.

    Numakura, Mario; Kusakabe, Noriko; Ishige, Kazuya; Ohtake-Niimi, Shiori; Habuchi, Hiroko; Habuchi, Osami

    2010-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) containing GlcA-GalNAc(4,6-SO(4)) (E unit) and CS containing GlcA(2SO(4))-GalNAc(6SO(4)) (D unit) have been implicated in various physiological functions. However, it has been poorly understood how the structure and contents of disulfated disaccharide units in CS contribute to these functions. We prepared CS libraries containing E unit or D unit in various proportions by in vitro enzymatic reactions using recombinant GalNAc 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase and uronosyl 2-O-sulfotransferase, and examined their inhibitory activity toward thrombin. The in vitro sulfated CSs containing disulfated disaccharide units showed concentration-dependent direct inhibition of thrombin when the proportion of E unit or D unit in the CSs was above 15-17%. The CSs containing both E unit and D unit exhibited higher inhibitory activity toward thrombin than the CSs containing either E unit or D unit alone, if the proportion of the total disulfated disaccharide units of these CSs was comparable. The thrombin-catalyzed degradation of fibrinogen, a physiological substrate for thrombin, was also inhibited by the CS containing both E unit and D unit. These observations indicate that the enzymatically prepared CS libraries containing various amounts of disulfated disaccharide units appear to be useful for elucidating the physiological function of disulfated disaccharide units in CS.

  14. Preparation of Highly Pure Vanadyl Sulfate from Sulfate Solutions Containing Impurities of Iron and Aluminum by Solvent Extraction Using EHEHPA

    Dan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of highly pure vanadyl sulfate from sulfate solutions containing impurities of iron and aluminumwas investigated by solvent extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP as the phase modifier. The extraction and stripping conditions of vanadium (IV and its separation from iron and aluminum were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction of vanadium (IV and iron were 68% and 53%, respectively, while only 2% aluminum was extracted in a single contact, suggesting good separation of vanadium (IV from aluminum. Sulfuric acid solution was used for the stripping. Nearly 100% vanadium (IV and 95% aluminum were stripped, while only 10% iron was stripped under the optimal stripping conditions in a single contact, suggesting good separation of vanadium (IV from iron. After five stages of extraction and stripping, highly pure vanadyl sulfate containing 76.5 g/L V (IV with the impurities of 12 mg/L Fe and 10 mg/L Al was obtained, which is suitable for the electrolyte of a vanadium redox flow battery. Organic solution was well regenerated after stripping by oxalic acid solution to remove the remaining iron. The mechanism of vanadium (IV extraction using EHEHPA was also discussed based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis.

  15. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment

    Santos, Dymes Rafael Alves dos

    2011-01-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-4 8h found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE50 48h 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE50 96h found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE50 15min of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

  16. Efflorescence of ammonium sulfate and coated ammonium sulfate particles: evidence for surface nucleation.

    Ciobanu, V Gabriela; Marcolli, Claudia; Krieger, Ulrich K; Zuend, Andreas; Peter, Thomas

    2010-09-09

    Using optical microscopy, we investigated the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate (AS) in aqueous AS and in aqueous 1:1 and 8:1 (by dry weight) poly(ethylene glycol)-400 (PEG-400)/AS particles deposited on a hydrophobically coated slide. Aqueous PEG-400/AS particles exposed to decreasing relative humidity (RH) exhibit a liquid-liquid phase separation below approximately 90% RH with the PEG-400-rich phase surrounding the aqueous AS inner phase. Pure aqueous AS particles effloresced in the RH range from 36.3% to 43.7%, in agreement with literature data (31-48% RH). In contrast, aqueous 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles with diameters of the AS phase from 7.2 to 19.2 mum effloresced between 26.8% and 33.9% RH and aqueous 8:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles with diameters of the AS phase from 1.8 to 7.3 mum between 24.3% and 29.3% RH. Such low efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) values have never been reached before for AS particles of this size range. We show that these unprecedented low ERHs of AS in PEG-400/AS particles could not possibly be explained by the presence of low amounts of PEG-400 in the aqueous AS phase, by a potential inhibition of water evaporation via anomalously slow diffusion through the PEG coating, or by different time scales between various experimental techniques. High-speed photography of the efflorescence process allowed the development of the AS crystallization fronts within the particles to be monitored with millisecond time resolution. The nucleation sites were inferred from the initial crystal growth sites. Analysis of the probability distribution of initial sites of 31 and 19 efflorescence events for pure AS and 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles, respectively, showed that the particle volume can be excluded as the preferred nucleation site in the case of pure AS particles. For aqueous 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles preferential AS nucleation in the PEG phase and at the PEG/AS/substrate contact line can be

  17. Leukomogenic factors downregulate heparanase expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    Eshel, Rinat; Ben-Zaken, Olga; Vainas, Oded; Nadir, Yona; Minucci, Saverio; Polliack, Aaron; Naparstek, Ella; Vlodavsky, Israel; Katz, Ben-Zion

    2005-01-01

    Heparanase is a heparan sulfate-degrading endoglycosidase expressed by mature monocytes and myeloid cells, but not by immature hematopoietic progenitors. Heparanase gene expression is upregulated during differentiation of immature myeloid cells. PML-RARα and PLZF-RARα fusion gene products associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia abrogate myeloid differentiation and heparanase expression. AML-Eto, a translocation product associated with AML FAB M2, also downregulates heparanase gene expression. The common mechanism that underlines the activity of these three fusion gene products involves the recruitment of histone deacetylase complexes to specific locations within the DNA. We found that retinoic acid that dissociates PML-RARα from the DNA, and which is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia patients, restores heparanase expression to normal levels in an acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line. The retinoic acid effects were also observed in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and in a retinoic acid-treated acute promyelocytic leukemia patient. Histone deacetylase inhibitor reverses the downregulation of heparanase expression induced by the AML-Eto fusion gene product in M2 type AML. In summary, we have characterized a link between leukomogenic factors and the downregulation of heparanase in myeloid leukemic cells

  18. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    Hughes, Ashley J.; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A.; Rudd, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zinc–heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. ► Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. ► Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn–heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled β-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased β-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 °C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn–heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  19. ROLE OF TYROSINE-SULFATED PROTEINS IN RETINAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    Kanan, Y.; Al-Ubaidi, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a significant role in cellular and retinal health. The study of retinal tyrosine-sulfated proteins is an important first step toward understanding the role of ECM in retinal health and diseases. These secreted proteins are members of the retinal ECM. Tyrosine sulfation was shown to be necessary for the development of proper retinal structure and function. The importance of tyrosine sulfation is further demonstrated by the evolutionary presence of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases, enzymes that catalyze proteins’ tyrosine sulfation, and the compensatory abilities of these enzymes. Research has identified four tyrosine-sulfated retinal proteins: fibulin 2, vitronectin, complement factor H (CFH), and opticin. Vitronectin and CFH regulate the activation of the complement system and are involved in the etiology of some cases of age-related macular degeneration. Analysis of the role of tyrosine sulfation in fibulin function showed that sulfation influences the protein's ability to regulate growth and migration. Although opticin was recently shown to exhibit anti-angiogenic properties, it is not yet determined what role sulfation plays in that function. Future studies focusing on identifying all of the tyrosine-sulfated retinal proteins would be instrumental in determining the impact of sulfation on retinal protein function in retinal homeostasis and diseases. PMID:25819460

  20. Effects of oversulfated and fucosylated chondroitin sulfates on coagulation. Challenges for the study of anticoagulant polysaccharides.

    Fonseca, Roberto J C; Oliveira, Stephan-Nicollas M C G; Pomin, Vitor H; Mecawi, André S; Araujo, Iracema G; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2010-05-01

    We report the effects of a chemically oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and a naturally fucosylated chondroitin sulfate on the coagulation system. The former has been recently identified as a contaminant of heparin preparations and the latter has been proposed as an alternative anticoagulant. The mechanism of action of these polymers on coagulation is complex and target different components of the coagulation system. They have serpin-independent anticoagulant activity, which preponderates in plasma. They also have serpin-dependent anticoagulant activity but differ significantly in the target coagulation protease and preferential serpin. Their anticoagulant effects differ even more markedly when tested as inhibitors of coagulation proteases using plasma as a source of serpins. It is possible that the difference is due to the high availability of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate whereas oversulfated chondroitin sulfate has strong unspecific binding to plasma protein and low availability for the binding to serpins. When tested using a venous thrombosis experimental model, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate is less potent as an antithrombotic agent than fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. These highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates activate factor XII in in vitro assays, based on kallikrein release. However, only fucosylated chondroitin sulfate induces hypotension when intravenously injected into rats. In conclusion, the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the action of highly sulfated polysaccharides in coagulation requires their analysis by a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. Our results are relevant due to the urgent need for new anticoagulant drugs or alternative sources of heparin.

  1. [Analysis of chondroitin sulfate content of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum with different processing methods and different parts].

    Gong, Rui-Ze; Wang, Yan-Hua; Sun, Yin-Shi

    2018-02-01

    The differences and the variations of chondroitin sulfate content in different parts of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum(CCP) with different processing methods were investigated. The chondroitin sulfate from velvet was extracted by dilute alkali-concentrated salt method. Next, the chondroitin sulfate was digested by chondroitinase ABC.The contents of total chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate A, B and C in the samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with freeze-drying processing is 14.13,11.99,1.74,0.32 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with boiling processing is 10.71,8.97,2.21,1.40 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP without blood is 12.47,9.47,2.64,0.07 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. And the content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with blood is 8.22,4.39,0.87,0.28 g·kg⁻¹ respectively. The results indicated that the chondroitin sulfate content in different processing methods was significantly different.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP with freeze-drying is higher than that in CCP with boiling processing.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP without blood is higher than that in CCP with blood. The chondroitin sulfate content in differerent paris of the velvet with the same processing methods was arranged from high to low as: wax slices, powder, gauze slices, bone slices. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Utility of morphine-augmented hepatobiliary scanning in evaluation of acute cholecystitis

    Kistler, A.M.; Ziessman, H.A.; Gooch, D.; Bitterman, P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review experience with morphine sulfate-augmented cholescintigraphy in suspected acute cholecystitis. MS has been recommended to reduce study time while maintaining accuracy of hepatobiliary scans. Patients received 5-mCi injections of Tc-99m mebrofenin and imaged on a low-field-view gamma camera. In 32 patients with nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 30-40 minutes after injection, 2 mg MS was given intravenously, and imaging continued for an additional 30 minutes

  3. Endosulfan and its metabolite, endosulfan sulfate, in freshwater ecosystems of South Florida: a probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment.

    Rand, Gary M; Carriger, John F; Gardinali, Piero R; Castro, Joffre

    2010-06-01

    Endosulfan is an insecticide-acaricide used in South Florida and is one of the remaining organochlorine insecticides registered under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act by the U.S.EPA. The technical grade material consists of two isomers (alpha-, beta-) and the main environmental metabolite in water, sediment and tissue is endosulfan sulfate through oxidation. A comprehensive probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment was conducted to determine the potential risks of existing exposures to endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in freshwaters of South Florida based on historical data (1992-2007). The assessment included hazard assessment (Tier 1) followed by probabilistic risk assessment (Tier 2). Tier 1 compared actual measured concentrations in surface freshwaters of 47 sites in South Florida from historical data to U.S.EPA numerical water quality criteria. Based on results of Tier 1, Tier 2 focused on the acute and chronic risks of endosulfan at nine sites by comparing distributions of surface water exposure concentrations of endosulfan [i.e., for total endosulfan (summation of concentrations of alpha- and beta-isomers plus the sulfate), alpha- plus beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate (alone)] with distributions of species effects from laboratory toxicity data. In Tier 2 the distribution of total endosulfan in fish tissue (whole body) from South Florida freshwaters was also used to determine the probability of exceeding a distribution of whole body residues of endosulfan producing mortality (critical lethal residues). Tier 1 showed the majority of endosulfan water quality violations in South Florida were at locations S-178 followed by S-177 in the C-111 system (southeastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP)). Nine surface water sampling sites were chosen for Tier 2. Tier 2 showed the highest potentially affected fraction of toxicity values (>10%) by the estimated 90th centile exposure concentration (total endosulfan) was at S-178

  4. Computational study of the effect of glyoxal-sulfate clustering on the Henry's Law coefficient of glyoxal

    Kurtén, Theo; Elm, Jonas; Prisle, Nønne L.

    2015-01-01

    . Although the glyoxal molecule interacts only weakly with sulfate, its hydrated forms (C2O3H4 and C2O4H6) form strong complexes with sulfate, displacing water molecules from the solvation shell and increasing the uptake of glyoxal into sulfate-containing aqueous solutions, including sulfate...... coefficient enhancement and found it to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results. This indicates that the complexation of glyoxal hydrates with sulfate can explain the observed uptake enhancement....

  5. Sources et marché du sulfate d'ammonium Sources of and Market for Ammonium Sulfate

    Loussouarn C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Engrais azoté le plus utilisé dans le monde jusqu'en 1970, le sulfate d'ammonium ne représente plus aujourd'hui que 4 % de la fertilisation azotée. Avec une teneur en azote de 21 % seulement, il a été peu à peu remplacé comme engrais universel par des produits plus concentrés, notamment l'urée et le nitrate d'ammonium. Obtenu pour plus de 40 % comme sous-produit dans la synthèse de monomères comme le caprolactame, l'acrylonitrile ou le méthacrylate de méthyle, et pour près de 10 % dans le traitement des gaz de cokerie, sa production dépend largement des développements du marché des fibres synthétiques, et, dans une moindre mesure, de la sidérurgie et de la métallurgie. Dans les pays développés, où la production est essentiellement fatale, le volume du marché est et sera plus fonction de la disponibilité du sulfate d'ammonium que de la demande ou de facteurs de marché; sa consommation ne résidera plus que dans des applications spécifiques pour lesquelles il sera bien adapté. Par contre, l'intérêt croissant pour compenser le déficit en soufre de certains sols, et les qualités agronomiques propres du sulfate d'ammonium laissent entrevoir la possibilité d'un essor de son utilisation dans certaines régions en voie de développernent. Ammonium sulfate was the most worldwide nitrogenous fertilizer used up to 1970. Today, it makes up only 4% of nitrogenous fertilization. With a nitrogen content of only 21%, it has gradually been replaced as a universal fertilizer by more concentrated products, particularly urea and ammonium nitrate. More than 40% of the ammonium sulfate is obtained as a by-product from the synthesis of monomers such as caprolactam, acrylonitrile or methyl methacrylate, and nearly 10% from coking gas processing. Its production depends extensively on the development of the market for synthetic fibers and, to a lesser extent, on the steel and metallurgical industries. In the industrialized countries

  6. Sulfated modification and anticoagulant activity of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady Godiva) polysaccharide.

    Liang, Li; Ao, Le; Ma, Tao; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Hu, Xiaosong; Song, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Sulfated modification of pumpkin polysaccharide using CAS with pyridines as catalysts under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of sulfation on a laboratory scale. Anticoagulant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide and its sulfated derivatives were also investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of high ratio of CAS/pyridine under constant conditions could increase the degree of substitution. Sulfate substitution was further confirmed by the FT-IR and 13 C NMR analysis. The d f values between 2.11-2.73 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the sulfated derivatives. The sulfated polysaccharides showed higher anticoagulant activities through activated partial thrombosis time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and anti-Xa activity assay, which revealed that better anticoagulant activities could be obtained when DS remained higher and M w maintained in a moderate range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure-Activity Relationships of Bioengineered Heparin/Heparan Sulfates Produced in Different Bioreactors

    Ha Na Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Heparin and heparan sulfate are structurally-related carbohydrates with therapeutic applications in anticoagulation, drug delivery, and regenerative medicine. This study explored the effect of different bioreactor conditions on the production of heparin/heparan sulfate chains via the recombinant expression of serglycin in mammalian cells. Tissue culture flasks and continuously-stirred tank reactors promoted the production of serglycin decorated with heparin/heparan sulfate, as well as chondroitin sulfate, while the serglycin secreted by cells in the tissue culture flasks produced more highly-sulfated heparin/heparan sulfate chains. The serglycin produced in tissue culture flasks was effective in binding and signaling fibroblast growth factor 2, indicating the utility of this molecule in drug delivery and regenerative medicine applications in addition to its well-known anticoagulant activity.

  8. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema

    Micheál Breen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE in a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute scrotal pain and erythema. The clinical features, ultrasound appearance, and natural history of this rare diagnosis are reviewed. In this report, we highlight the importance of good ultrasound technique in differentiating the etiology of the acute scrotum and demonstrate the color Doppler “Fountain Sign” that is highly suggestive of AISE.

  9. Sodium-Induced Reordering of Atomic Stacks in Black Phosphorus

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2017-01-12

    While theoretical simulations predict contradictory results about how the intercalation of foreign metal atoms affects the order of atomic layers in black phosphorus (BP), no direct experimental visualization work has yet clarified this ambiguity. By in situ electrochemical sodiation of BP inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and first-principles calculations, we found that sodium intercalation induces a relative glide of/ ⟨010⟩ {001}, resulting in reordering of atomic stacks from AB to AC in BP. The observed local amorphization in our experiments is triggered by lattice constraints. We predict that intercalation of sodium or other metal atoms introduces n-type carriers in BP. This potentially opens a new field for two-dimensional electronics based on BP.

  10. Sodium-Induced Reordering of Atomic Stacks in Black Phosphorus

    Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Liu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Bingchao; Nie, Anmin; Huang, Wei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Mashayek, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    While theoretical simulations predict contradictory results about how the intercalation of foreign metal atoms affects the order of atomic layers in black phosphorus (BP), no direct experimental visualization work has yet clarified this ambiguity. By in situ electrochemical sodiation of BP inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and first-principles calculations, we found that sodium intercalation induces a relative glide of/ ⟨010⟩ {001}, resulting in reordering of atomic stacks from AB to AC in BP. The observed local amorphization in our experiments is triggered by lattice constraints. We predict that intercalation of sodium or other metal atoms introduces n-type carriers in BP. This potentially opens a new field for two-dimensional electronics based on BP.

  11. On composition and thermal degradation of basic zirconium sulfates

    Grizik, A A; Nekhamkin, L G; Kondrashova, I A; Serebrennikov, E L; Kerina, V P

    1988-02-01

    Methods of potentiometric titration, conductometry and thermal gravimetric analysis are used to study composition and properties of basic zirconium sulfates (BZS) obtained under different conditions of precipitation from aqueous solutions. Three X-ray amorphous phases of BZR with mole ratio SO/sub 4//sup 2-/:Zr, being 0.60+-0.03; 0.37+-0.04 and 0.176+-0.005, are identified. Different character of thermal decomposition of these phases in the process of zirconium dioxide preparation from BZS is confirmed.

  12. On composition and thermal degradation of basic zirconium sulfates

    Grizik, A.A.; Nekhamkin, L.G.; Kondrashova, I.A.; Serebrennikov, E.L.; Kerina, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Methods of potentiometric titration, conductometry and thermal gravimetric analysis are used to study composition and properties of basic zirconium sulfates (BZS) obtained under different conditions of precipitation from aqueous solutions. Three X-ray amorphous phases of BZR with mole ratio SO 4 2- :Zr, being 0.60±0.03; 0.37±0.04 and 0.176±0.005, are identified. Different character of thermal decomposition of these phases in the process of zirconium dioxide preparation from BZS is confirmed

  13. A Repeating Sulfated Galactan Motif Resuscitates Dormant Micrococcus luteus Bacteria.

    Böttcher, Thomas; Szamosvári, Dávid; Clardy, Jon

    2018-07-01

    Only a small fraction of bacteria can autonomously initiate growth on agar plates. Nongrowing bacteria typically enter a metabolically inactive dormant state and require specific chemical trigger factors or signals to exit this state and to resume growth. Micrococcus luteus has become a model organism for this important yet poorly understood phenomenon. Only a few resuscitation signals have been described to date, and all of them are produced endogenously by bacterial species. We report the discovery of a novel type of resuscitation signal that allows M. luteus to grow on agar but not agarose plates. Fractionation of the agar polysaccharide complex and sulfation of agarose allowed us to identify the signal as highly sulfated saccharides found in agar or carrageenans. Purification of hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan ultimately led to the identification of the signal as a small fragment of a large linear polysaccharide, i.e., an oligosaccharide of five or more sugars with a repeating disaccharide motif containing d-galactose-4-sulfate (G4S) 1,4-linked to 3,6-anhydro-α-d-galactose (DA), G4S-(DA-G4S) n ≥2 IMPORTANCE Most environmental bacteria cannot initiate growth on agar plates, but they can flourish on the same plates once growth is initiated. While there are a number of names for and manifestations of this phenomenon, the underlying cause appears to be the requirement for a molecular signal indicating safe growing conditions. Micrococcus luteus has become a model organism for studying this growth initiation process, often called resuscitation, because of its apparent connection with the persistent or dormant form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , an important human pathogen. In this report, we identify a highly sulfated saccharide from agar or carrageenans that robustly resuscitates dormant M. luteus on agarose plates. We identified and characterized the signal as a small repeating disaccharide motif. Our results indicate that signals inherent in or absent from the

  14. External sulfate attack in dam concretes with thaumasite formation

    Chinchón-Payá, S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete core samples extracted from different areas of the Mequinenza Dam (Spain have been studied and expansive reactions affecting the structure were not found. However, expansive reactions in the concrete of certain parts located near the abutments of two galleries have been observed as a consequence of an external sulfate attack due to the sulfur compounds contained in the lignites that are present on the surrounding terrain. Secondary gypsum, ettringite, and thaumasite, as well as several sulfate efflorescence have been detected. The thaumasite formed in the degraded concrete is related to a Thaumasite Sulfate Attack (TSA. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Rietveld analyses of the TSA samples would show that thaumasite could have been formed thanks to ettringite acting as nuclei or by a direct precipitation from solutions within the pores of the cement matrix.Se han estudiado testigos de hormigón extraídos de diferentes zonas de la presa de Mequinenza (España descartando la existencia de una reacción expansiva que pudiera afectar a la estructura. Sin embargo, se han observado reacciones expansivas en el hormigón de ciertas zonas próximas a los estribos de dos galerías, como consecuencia de un ataque sulfático externo debido a los compuestos de azufre contenidos en los lignitos que están presentes en los terrenos circundantes. Se ha identificado un conjunto de productos relacionados con el ataque sulfático: yeso secundario, ettringita y thaumasita, además de sales sulfatadas solubles. Las zonas más degradadas del hormigón coinciden con una cristalización abundante de thaumasita (Thaumasite Sulfate Attack–TSA-. El estudio de las muestras de TSA, mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM y el método de Rietveld, indicaría que la thaumasita podría haberse formado a partir de la ettringita como medio de nucleación o por precipitación directa a partir de sus componentes en disolución dentro de los poros de la

  15. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    Xia, Lili; Nowack, Peer J.; Tilmes, Simone; Robock, Alan

    2017-10-01

    A range of solar radiation management (SRM) techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air pollution. In conclusion

  16. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    L. Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of solar radiation management (SRM techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air

  17. Redetermination of dicerium(III tris(sulfate tetrahydrate

    Xin Xu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce2(SO43(H2O4 was obtained hydrothermally from an aqueous solution of cerium(III oxide, trimethylamine and sulfuric acid. The precision of the structure determination has been significantly improved compared with the previous result [Dereigne (1972. Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr. 95, 269–280]. The coordination about the two Ce atoms is achieved by seven and six bridging O atoms from sulfate anions. Each S atom makes four S—O—Ce linkages through bridging O atoms. The coordination sphere of each Ce is completed by two water molecules, which act as terminal ligands.

  18. Biochemistry, physiology and biotechnology of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Barton, Larry L; Fauque, Guy D

    2009-01-01

    Chemolithotrophic bacteria that use sulfate as terminal electron acceptor (sulfate-reducing bacteria) constitute a unique physiological group of microorganisms that couple anaerobic electron transport to ATP synthesis. These bacteria (220 species of 60 genera) can use a large variety of compounds as electron donors and to mediate electron flow they have a vast array of proteins with redox active metal groups. This chapter deals with the distribution in the environment and the major physiological and metabolic characteristics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). This chapter presents our current knowledge of soluble electron transfer proteins and transmembrane redox complexes that are playing an essential role in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway of SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio. Environmentally important activities displayed by SRB are a consequence of the unique electron transport components or the production of high levels of H(2)S. The capability of SRB to utilize hydrocarbons in pure cultures and consortia has resulted in using these bacteria for bioremediation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) compounds in contaminated soils. Specific strains of SRB are capable of reducing 3-chlorobenzoate, chloroethenes, or nitroaromatic compounds and this has resulted in proposals to use SRB for bioremediation of environments containing trinitrotoluene and polychloroethenes. Since SRB have displayed dissimilatory reduction of U(VI) and Cr(VI), several biotechnology procedures have been proposed for using SRB in bioremediation of toxic metals. Additional non-specific metal reductase activity has resulted in using SRB for recovery of precious metals (e.g. platinum, palladium and gold) from waste streams. Since bacterially produced sulfide contributes to the souring of oil fields, corrosion of concrete, and discoloration of stonework is a serious problem, there is considerable interest in controlling the sulfidogenic activity of the SRB. The

  19. Sulfate Metabolites of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl in Whole Poplar Plants

    Zhai, Guangshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2012-01-01

    4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) has been proven to be transformed into hydroxylated metabolites of PCB3 (OH-PCB3s) in whole poplar plants in our previous work. However, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs, including OH-PCB3s, as the substrates of sulfotransferases have not been studied in many organisms including plants in vivo. Poplar (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) was used to investigate the further metabolism from OH-PCB3s to PCB3 sulfates because it is a model plant and one that is frequently...

  20. Regularities of radium coprecipitation with barium sulfate from salt solutions

    Kudryavskij, Yu.P.; Rakhimova, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    Coprecipitation of radium with barium sulfate from highly concentrated NaCl solutions is studied, including the effects of the initial solution composition, alkaline reagent (CaO, NaOH), supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration, and pH. The process is promoted by high NaCl concentration in the initial solution, which is due to structural transformation and change in the sorption activity of the BaSO 4 precipitate in salt solutions. The results obtained were applied to recovery of radium from process solutions during the development and introduction of improved procedure for disinfection and decontamination of waste yielded by chlorination of loparite concentrates [ru

  1. Shotgun lipidomic analysis of chemically sulfated sterols compromises analytical sensitivity

    Casanovas, Albert; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun lipidomics affords comprehensive and quantitative analysis of lipid species in cells and tissues at high-throughput [1 5]. The methodology is based on direct infusion of lipid extracts by electrospray ionization (ESI) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and/or high resolution F...... low ionization efficiency in ESI [7]. For this reason, chemical derivatization procedures including acetylation [8] or sulfation [9] are commonly implemented to facilitate ionization, detection and quantification of sterols for global lipidome analysis [1-3, 10]....

  2. Acidity enhancement of niobia by sulfation: An experimental and DFT study

    Rocha, Angela S., E-mail: angela.sanches.rocha@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Costa, Gustavo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tamiasso-Martinhon, Priscila; Sousa, Célia; Rocha, Alexandre B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Acidic solids are used as catalyst at several industrial processes and studies to improve their activities have been developed by different groups. One method well known is sulfating oxide to create new acid sites, but investigations about sulfated niobia are still scarce. This work studied the influence of sulfation on the niobia acidity by using a very simple reaction model, the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol, performed at 60 °C and 1 atm. Niobia and sulfated niobia samples were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray diffraction, FTIR and titration with n-butylamine. To investigate the nature of sulfate groups formed on the surface of niobia, calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed for two models: pure niobia with hydroxylated surface and sulfated niobia where one OH{sup −} surface group was replaced by a HSO{sub 4}{sup −}. The experimental results indicated that the sulfation treatment leads to an increase in the specific surface area, acidity and, consequently, in the activity of niobia, with small changes in the crystal structure of the solid. The presence of sulfate groups was evidenced by FTIR spectra and calculations have indicated HSO{sub 4}{sup −} species bounded to the surface. Density Functional Perturbation Theory (DFPT) was also employed to obtain infrared intensities in the region of sulfate vibration bands. - Highlights: • Sulfation treatment has improved the acidity of niobium oxide. • A sulfate group on niobia (T-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was proposed using DFT method. • Niobia and sulfated niobia are used for esterification of acetic acid with ethanol.

  3. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Do, Anh Tien; Annachhatre, Ajit P.; Esposito, Giovanni; Yeh, Daniel H.; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L −1 ) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L −1 did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems

  4. Acidity enhancement of niobia by sulfation: An experimental and DFT study

    Rocha, Angela S.; Costa, Gustavo C.; Tamiasso-Martinhon, Priscila; Sousa, Célia; Rocha, Alexandre B.

    2017-01-01

    Acidic solids are used as catalyst at several industrial processes and studies to improve their activities have been developed by different groups. One method well known is sulfating oxide to create new acid sites, but investigations about sulfated niobia are still scarce. This work studied the influence of sulfation on the niobia acidity by using a very simple reaction model, the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol, performed at 60 °C and 1 atm. Niobia and sulfated niobia samples were characterized by N 2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, FTIR and titration with n-butylamine. To investigate the nature of sulfate groups formed on the surface of niobia, calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed for two models: pure niobia with hydroxylated surface and sulfated niobia where one OH − surface group was replaced by a HSO 4 − . The experimental results indicated that the sulfation treatment leads to an increase in the specific surface area, acidity and, consequently, in the activity of niobia, with small changes in the crystal structure of the solid. The presence of sulfate groups was evidenced by FTIR spectra and calculations have indicated HSO 4 − species bounded to the surface. Density Functional Perturbation Theory (DFPT) was also employed to obtain infrared intensities in the region of sulfate vibration bands. - Highlights: • Sulfation treatment has improved the acidity of niobium oxide. • A sulfate group on niobia (T-Nb 2 O 5 ) was proposed using DFT method. • Niobia and sulfated niobia are used for esterification of acetic acid with ethanol.

  5. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck, E-mail: som_cheng00@hotmail.com [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Do, Anh Tien [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Annachhatre, Ajit P. [Environmental Engineering and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Esposito, Giovanni [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Yeh, Daniel H. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Lens, Piet N.L. [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L{sup −1}) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L{sup −1} did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems.

  6. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  7. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  8. Comparison of proteins involved in chondroitin sulfate utilization by three colonic Bacteroides species.

    Lipeski, L; Guthrie, E P; O'Brien, M; Kotarski, S F; Salyers, A A

    1986-01-01

    Three species of colonic bacteria can ferment the mucopolysaccharide chondroitin sulfate: Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides sp. strain 3452A (an unnamed DNA homology group), and B. thetaiotaomicron. Proteins associated with the utilization of chondroitin sulfate by B. thetaiotaomicron have been characterized previously. In this report we compare chondroitin lyases and chondroitin sulfate-associated outer membrane polypeptides of B. ovatus and Bacteroides sp. strain 3452A with those of B. thetai...

  9. Effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine in adult patients with Kaschin-Beck disease

    Zhang, Ya-xu; Dong, Wei; Liu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine on adult patients with Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD). A total of 80 patients, aged over 40 years, were randomized into two groups receiving either 1,600 mg oral mixture of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine or placebo......). But the overall mean change in joint space was significant between the two groups (P chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine might play a protective role in preserving articular cartilage and provide...

  10. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  11. Direct sulfation of limestone based on oxy-fuel combustion technology

    Chen, C.M.; Zhao, C.S.; Liu, S.T.; Wang, C.B. [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China)

    2009-10-15

    With limestone as the sorbent, the sulfation reaction can proceed via two different routes depending on whether calcination of the limestone takes place under the given reaction conditions. The direct sulfation reaction is defined as the sulfation reaction between sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and limestone in an uncalcined state. This reaction, based on oxyfuel combustion technology, was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Surface morphologies of the limestone particles after sulfation were examined by a scanning electron microscope. Results show that there are more pores or gaps in the product layer formed by direct sulfation of limestone than by indirect sulfation, which can be attributed to the generation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at a reaction interface. Compared with indirect sulfation, direct sulfation of limestone can yield much higher conversion and has a much higher reaction rate. For direct sulfation, the greater porosity in the product layer greatly reduces the solid-state ion diffusion distance, resulting in a higher reaction rate and higher conversion.

  12. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    J. Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2. We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%–20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate, EA sources account for approximately 30%–50% (over the Western US and 10%–20% (over the Eastern US. The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3, and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m−3 of sulfate originates from EA over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase. We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be

  13. Community size and metabolic rates of psychrophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in Arctic marine sediments

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB; Harder, J.

    1999-01-01

    The numbers of sulfate reducers in two Arctic sediments within situ temperatures of 2.6 and -1.7 degrees C were determined. Most-probable-number counts were higher at 10 degrees C than at 20 degrees C, indicating the predominance of a psychrophilic community. Mean specific sulfate reduction rates...... of 19 isolated psychrophiles were compared to corresponding rates of 9 marine, mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. The results indicate that, as a physiological adaptation to the permanently cold Arctic environment, psychrophilic sulfate reducers have considerably higher specific metabolic rates than...... their mesophilic counterparts at similarly low temperatures....

  14. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: effect of bioreactor configuration.

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Do, Anh Tien; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Yeh, Daniel H; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-03-30

    Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75-85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5h. A high calcium concentration up to 1,000 mg L(-1) did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Substantial Seasonal Contribution of Observed Biogenic Sulfate Particles to Cloud Condensation Nuclei.

    Sanchez, Kevin J; Chen, Chia-Li; Russell, Lynn M; Betha, Raghu; Liu, Jun; Price, Derek J; Massoli, Paola; Ziemba, Luke D; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Müller, Markus; Schiller, Sven A; Wisthaler, Armin; Lee, Alex K Y; Quinn, Patricia K; Bates, Timothy S; Porter, Jack; Bell, Thomas G; Saltzman, Eric S; Vaillancourt, Robert D; Behrenfeld, Mike J

    2018-02-19

    Biogenic sources contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere, but few measurements exist to constrain climate model simulations of their importance. The chemical composition of individual atmospheric aerosol particles showed two types of sulfate-containing particles in clean marine air masses in addition to mass-based Estimated Salt particles. Both types of sulfate particles lack combustion tracers and correlate, for some conditions, to atmospheric or seawater dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations, which means their source was largely biogenic. The first type is identified as New Sulfate because their large sulfate mass fraction (63% sulfate) and association with entrainment conditions means they could have formed by nucleation in the free troposphere. The second type is Added Sulfate particles (38% sulfate), because they are preexisting particles onto which additional sulfate condensed. New Sulfate particles accounted for 31% (7 cm -3 ) and 33% (36 cm -3 ) CCN at 0.1% supersaturation in late-autumn and late-spring, respectively, whereas sea spray provided 55% (13 cm -3 ) in late-autumn but only 4% (4 cm -3 ) in late-spring. Our results show a clear seasonal difference in the marine CCN budget, which illustrates how important phytoplankton-produced DMS emissions are for CCN in the North Atlantic.

  16. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of two sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumber Holothuria coluber.

    Yang, Wenjiao; Cai, Ying; Yin, Ronghua; Lin, Lisha; Li, Zhongkun; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides such as fucosylated glycosaminoglycan and fucan sulfate from echinoderm possess complex chemical structure and various biological activities. The two sulfated polysaccharides were purified from the low-value sea cucumber Holothuria coluber. Their physicochemical properties and chemical structures were analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods. Structural analysis clarified that the sea cucumber fucosylated glycosaminoglycan contains a chondroitin sulfate-like backbone and fucosyl branches with four various sulfation patterns. The fucan sulfate with molecular weight of 64.6 kDa comprises a central core of regular α(1 → 4)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units, each of which is linked by a 4-O-sulfated fucose residue. Anticoagulant assays indicated that these sulfated polysaccharides possessed strong APTT prolonging activities and intrinsic factor Xase inhibitory activities, both of which decreased with the reduction of their molecular weights. Our results expand knowledge on the structural types of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumbers and further illustrate their functionality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Application of Biostimulation for Remediation of Sulfate-Contaminated Groundwater at a Mining Site

    Miao, Z.; Carroll, K. C.; Carreon, C.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing concern regarding sulfate contamination of groundwater. One innovative in-situ remediation option under investigation is biostimulation through addition of electron-donor amendments to enhance sulfate reduction. Two pilot-scale ethanol-injection tests were conducted at a former uranium mining site that is contaminated with sulfate and nitrate (with a lack of heavy metals), and for which there appears to be minimal natural attenuation of sulfate. The first test was a push-pull test that had a limited zone of influence, while the second test was a single-well injection test in which additional downgradient wells were monitored. For both tests, sulfate concentrations began to decline within a few weeks of injection, after nitrate concentrations were significantly reduced. Concomitantly, aqueous concentrations of manganese, iron, and hydrogen sulfide increased from background. Monitoring over many months revealed that the declines in sulfate concentration conformed to exponential decay, with first-order decay rates of approximately 0.01 /d. Analysis of sulfur stable isotope data indicated that the decrease in sulfate concentrations was microbially mediated. The results also indicated that sulfides formed during sulfate reduction may have undergone partial re-oxidation. This study illustrates the feasibility of using ethanol injection for remediation of sulfate-contaminated groundwater. However, re-oxidation of sulfides (both metal sulfide precipitates and hydrogen sulfide gas) is a potential issue of significance that would need to be addressed.

  18. COMPARISON OF UASB AND FLUIDIZED-BED REACTORS FOR SULFATE REDUCTION

    S. M. Bertolino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reactor hydrodynamics is important for sulfidogenesis because sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB do not granulate easily. In this work, the sulfate reduction performance of two continuous anaerobic bioreactors was investigated: (i an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and (ii a fluidized bed reactor (FBR. Organic loading, sulfate reduction, and COD removal were the main parameters monitored during lactate and glycerol degradation. The UASB reactor with biomass recirculation showed a specific sulfate reduction rate of 0.089±0.014 g.gSSV-1.d-1 (89% reduction, whereas values twice as high were achieved in the FBR treating either lactate (0.200±0.017 g.gSSV-1.d-1 or glycerol (0.178±0.010 g.gSSV-1.d-1. Sulfate reduction with pure glycerol produced a smaller residual COD (1700 mg.L-1 than that produced with lactate (2500 mg.L-1 at the same COD.sulfate-1 mass ratio. It was estimated that 50% of glycerol degradation was due to sulfate reduction and 50% to fermentation, which was supported by the presence of butyrate in the FBR effluent. The UASB reactor was unable to produce effluents with sulfate concentrations below 250 mg.L-1 due to poor mixing conditions, whereas the FBR consistently ensured residual sulfate concentrations below such a value.

  19. Synthesis of [2,4-3H] 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate

    Bhavnani, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    [2,4- 3 H] 17β-dihydroequilin-3-sulfate ammonium salt suitable for in vivo pharmacokinetic studies was synthesized from [2,4- 3 H] equilin. Sulfation of [2,4- 3 H] equilin with pyridine-chlorosulfonic acid mixture gave in high yields [2,4- 3 H] equilin sulfate, which was then reduced with sodium borohydride to yield [2,4- 3 H] 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate. The reduction was sterospecific and no 17α-reduced products were formed. (author)

  20. DETECTION AND PURIFICATION OF TYROSINE-SULFATED PROTEINS USING A NOVEL ANTI-SULFOTYROSINE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY*

    Hoffhines, Adam J.; Damoc, Eugen; Bridges, Kristie G.; Leary, Julie A.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2006-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine O-sulfation is a post-translational modification mediated by one of two Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 & TPST-2) that catalyze the transfer of sulfate to tyrosine residues in secreted and transmembrane proteins. Tyrosine sulfation plays a role in protein-protein interactions in several well-defined systems. Although dozens of tyrosine-sulfated proteins are known, many more are likely to exist and await description. Advancing our understanding of the importance of tyrosine sulfation in biological systems requires the development of new tools for the detection and study of tyrosine-sulfated proteins. We have developed a novel anti-sulfotyrosine monoclonal antibody, called PSG2, that binds with high affinity and exquisite specificity to sulfotyrosine residues in peptides and proteins independent of sequence context. We show that it can detect tyrosinesulfated proteins in complex biological samples and can be used as a probe to assess the role of tyrosine sulfation in protein function. We also demonstrate the utility of PSG2 in the purification of tyrosine-sulfated proteins from crude tissue samples. Finally, Western blot analysis using PSG2 indicates that certain sperm/epididymal proteins are undersulfated in Tpst2−/− mice. This indicates that TPST-1 and TPST-2 have distinct macromolecular substrate specificities and provides clues as to the molecular mechanism of the infertility of Tpst2−/− males. PSG2 should be widely applicable for identification of tyrosine-sulfated proteins in other systems and organisms. PMID:17046811